WorldWideScience

Sample records for lands maximizing effectiveness

  1. Effect of Age and Other Factors on Maximal Heart Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londeree, Ben R.; Moeschberger, Melvin L.

    1982-01-01

    To reduce confusion regarding reported effects of age on maximal exercise heart rate, a comprehensive review of the relevant English literature was conducted. Data on maximal heart rate after exercising with a bicycle, a treadmill, and after swimming were analyzed with regard to physical fitness and to age, sex, and racial differences. (Authors/PP)

  2. THE EFFECTS MAXIMAL AND SUB MAXIMAL AEROBIC EXERCISE ON THE BRONCHOSPASM INDICES IN NON ATHLETIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir GANJİ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB is a transient airway obstruction that occurs during and after the exercise. Exercise-induced bronchospasm is observed in healthy individuals as well as the asthmatic and allergic rhinitis patients. Research question: The study compared the effects of one session of submaximal aerobic exercise and a maximal one on the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchospasm in non-athletic students. Type of study: An experimental study, using human subjects, was designed. Methods: 20 non-athletic male students participated in two sessions of aerobic exercise. The prevalence of EIB was investigated among them. The criteria for assessing exercise-induced bronchospasm were ≥10% fall in FEV1, ≥15% fall in FEF25-75%, or ≥25% fall in PEFR. Results: The results revealed that the maximal exercise did not affect FEF25-75% and PEF, but it led to a meaningful reduction in FEV1. Contrarily, the submaximal exercise affected none of these indices. That is, in both protocols the same result was obtained for PEF and FEF25-75. Moreover, the prevalence of EIB was 15% in the submaximal exercise and 20% in the maximal one. Actually, this difference was significant. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that in contrast to the subjects who performed submaximal exercise, those who participated in the maximal protocol showed more changes in the pulmonary function indices and the prevalence of EIB was greater among them.

  3. Maximizing Strategy with an Effective Balanced Scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Endrianto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted by studying the literature on the topic discussed. Presented descriptively in a systematic way to address each of the key discussion on this research, then connecting factors correlated with each other were finally seeking a conclusion the most effective method in meeting the company's goals. Then, through this study it can be concluded that in order to synergize between vision, mission and strategy of the company in regard to improving the company's performance is by communicating the balanced scorecard from top management down to the lower level of management so that all elements of the company know their respective roles in order to achieve company’s goal.

  4. Emotional Control and Instructional Effectiveness: Maximizing a Timeout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Staci R.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides recommendations for best practices for basketball coaches to maximize the instructional effectiveness of a timeout during competition. Practical applications are derived from research findings linking emotional intelligence to effective coaching behaviors. Additionally, recommendations are based on the implications of the…

  5. THE EFFECT OF LANDING SURFACE ON THE PLANTAR KINETICS OF CHINESE PARATROOPERS USING HALF-SQUAT LANDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the effect of landing surface on plantar kinetics during a half-squat landing. Twenty male elite paratroopers with formal parachute landing training and over 2 years of parachute jumping experience were recruited. The subjects wore parachuting boots in which pressure sensing insoles were placed. Each subject was instructed to jump off a platform with a height of 60 cm, and land on either a hard or soft surface in a half-squat posture. Outcome measures were maximal plantar pressure, time to maximal plantar pressure (T-MPP, and pressure-time integral (PTI upon landing on 10 plantar regions. Compared to a soft surface, hard surface produced higher maximal plantar pressure in the 1st to 4th metatarsal and mid-foot regions, but lower maximal plantar pressure in the 5th metatarsal region. Shorter T- MPP was found during hard surface landing in the 1st and 2nd metatarsal and medial rear foot. Landing on a hard surface landing resulted in a lower PTI than a soft surface in the 1stphalangeal region. For Chinese paratroopers, specific foot prosthesis should be designed to protect the1st to 4thmetatarsal region for hard surface landing, and the 1stphalangeal and 5thmetatarsal region for soft surface landing

  6. The effect of landing surface on the plantar kinetics of chinese paratroopers using half-squat landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Wu, Ji; Zheng, Chao; Huang, Rong Rong; Na, Yuhong; Yang, Fan; Wang, Zengshun; Wu, Di

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of landing surface on plantar kinetics during a half-squat landing. Twenty male elite paratroopers with formal parachute landing training and over 2 years of parachute jumping experience were recruited. The subjects wore parachuting boots in which pressure sensing insoles were placed. Each subject was instructed to jump off a platform with a height of 60 cm, and land on either a hard or soft surface in a half-squat posture. Outcome measures were maximal plantar pressure, time to maximal plantar pressure (T-MPP), and pressure-time integral (PTI) upon landing on 10 plantar regions. Compared to a soft surface, hard surface produced higher maximal plantar pressure in the 1(st) to 4(th) metatarsal and mid-foot regions, but lower maximal plantar pressure in the 5(th) metatarsal region. Shorter T- MPP was found during hard surface landing in the 1(st) and 2(nd) metatarsal and medial rear foot. Landing on a hard surface landing resulted in a lower PTI than a soft surface in the 1(st)phalangeal region. For Chinese paratroopers, specific foot prosthesis should be designed to protect the1(st) to 4(th)metatarsal region for hard surface landing, and the 1(st)phalangeal and 5(th)metatarsal region for soft surface landing. Key PointsUnderstanding plantar kinetics during the half-squat landing used by Chinese paratroopers can assist in the design of protective footwear.Compared to landing on a soft surface, a hard surface produced higher maximal plantar pressure in the 1(st) to 4(th) metatarsal and mid-foot regions, but lower maximal plantar pressure in the 5(th) metatarsal region.A shorter time to maximal plantar pressure was found during a hard surface landing in the 1(st) and 2(nd) metatarsals and medial rear foot.Landing on a hard surface resulted in a lower pressure-time integral than landing on a soft surface in the 1(st) phalangeal region.For Chinese paratroopers, specific foot prosthesis should be designed to protect

  7. Effects of Core-Musculature Fatigue on Maximal Shoulder Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemeyer, James R; Hayes, Bradley T; Switzler, Craig L; Hicks-Little, Charlie A

    2015-11-01

    Core stability has been shown to affect lower-extremity motion, but activation of the core has also been observed just before movements of the upper extremity. However, there is limited evidence regarding the effects that core musculature has on upper-extremity strength. To determine the effects of core fatigue on maximal shoulder strength. Crossover study. Sports-medicine research laboratory. 23 participants (15 male and 8 female, age 21.3 ± 2.5 y, height 174.5 ± 10.3 cm, weight 71.3 ± 12.0 kg). All participants performed maximal voluntary isometric contractions in 3 different planes (sagittal, frontal, transverse) of shoulder-joint motion. A core-fatiguing protocol was conducted, and the same 3 shoulder-strength tests were repeated and compared with the initial measurements. Strength measures were recorded in kilograms with a dynamometer. Results showed a significant decrease in strength in the frontal (-0.56 ± 1.06 kg, P = .020) and transverse (-0.89 ± 1.49 kg, P = .012) planes but not in the sagittal plane (-0.20 ± 0.98 kg, P > .05). Furthermore, regardless of the specific strength test measured, results revealed that the 1st (-7.05% ± 11.65%, P = .012) and 2nd (-5.71% ± 12.03%, P = .042) strength-test measurements after the fatiguing protocol were significantly decreased, while the 3rd strength-test measurement (-4.19% ± 12.48%, P = .140) did not show statistical significance. These results indicate that decrease in core stability may have an influence on shoulder strength. The literature suggests that the core is designed for endurance, and this study helps validate its recovery properties. Further research is needed to determine the significance of this effect and how injury rates coincide.

  8. Maximizing the Use of Satellite Thermal Infrared Data for Advancing Land Surface Temperature Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Q.; Fu, P.; Gao, F.

    2014-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a crucial parameter in investigating environmental, ecological processes and climate change at various scales, and is also valuable in the studies of evapotranspiration, soil moisture conditions, surface energy balance, and urban heat islands. These studies require thermal infrared (TIR) images at both high temporal and spatial resolution to retrieve LST. However, currently, no single satellite sensors can deliver TIR data at both high temporal and spatial resolution. Thus, various algorithms/models have been developed to enhance the spatial or the temporal resolution of TIR data, but rare of those can enhance both spatial and temporal details. This paper presents a new data fusion algorithm for producing Landsat-like LST data by blending daily MODIS and periodic Landsat TM datasets. The original Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM) was improved and modified for predicting thermal radiance and LST data by considering annual temperature cycle (ATC) and urban thermal landscape heterogeneity. The technique of linear spectral mixture analysis was employed to relate the Landsat radiance with the MODIS one, so that the temporal changes in radiance can be incorporated in the fusion model. This paper details the theoretical basis and the implementation procedures of the proposed data fusion algorithm, Spatio-temporal Adaptive Data Fusion Algorithm for Temperature mapping (SADFAT). A case study was conducted that predicted LSTs of five dates in 2005 from July to October in Los Angeles County, California. The results indicate that the prediction accuracy for the whole study area ranged from 1.3 K to 2 K. Like existing spatio-temporal data fusion models, the SADFAT method has a limitation in predicting LST changes that were not recorded in the MODIS and/or Landsat pixels due to the model assumption.

  9. Building hospital TQM teams: effective polarity analysis and maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, J B

    1996-09-01

    Building and maintaining teams require careful attention to and maximization of such polar opposites (¿polarities¿) as individual and team, directive and participatory leadership, task and process, and stability and change. Analyzing systematic elements of any polarity and listing blocks, supports, and flexible ways to maximize it will prevent the negative consequences that occur when treating a polarity like a solvable problem. Flexible, well-timed shifts from pole to pole result in the maximization of upside and minimization of downside consequences.

  10. Protective effect by maximal isometric contractions against maximal eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage of the knee extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kuo-Wei; Tseng, Wei-Chin; Lin, Ming-Ju; Chen, Hsin-Lian; Nosaka, Kazunori; Chen, Trevor C

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) performed before maximal eccentric contractions (MaxEC) would attenuate muscle damage of the knee extensors. Untrained men were placed to an experimental group that performed 6 sets of 10 MVIC at 90° knee flexion 2 weeks before 6 sets of 10 MaxEC or a control group that performed MaxEC only (n = 13/group). Changes in muscle damage markers were assessed before to 5 days after each exercise. Small but significant changes in maximal voluntary concentric contraction torque, range of motion (ROM) and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity were evident at immediately to 2 days post-MVIC (p < 0.05), but other variables (e.g. thigh girth, myoglobin concentration, B-mode echo intensity) did not change significantly. Changes in all variables after MaxEC were smaller (p < 0.05) by 45% (soreness)-67% (CK) for the experimental than the control group. These results suggest that MVIC conferred potent protective effect against MaxEC-induced muscle damage.

  11. Cardiovascular consequences of bed rest: effect on maximal oxygen uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.

    1997-01-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is reduced in healthy individuals confined to bed rest, suggesting it is independent of any disease state. The magnitude of reduction in VO2max is dependent on duration of bed rest and the initial level of aerobic fitness (VO2max), but it appears to be independent of age or gender. Bed rest induces an elevated maximal heart rate which, in turn, is associated with decreased cardiac vagal tone, increased sympathetic catecholamine secretion, and greater cardiac beta-receptor sensitivity. Despite the elevation in heart rate, VO2max is reduced primarily from decreased maximal stroke volume and cardiac output. An elevated ejection fraction during exercise following bed rest suggests that the lower stroke volume is not caused by ventricular dysfunction but is primarily the result of decreased venous return associated with lower circulating blood volume, reduced central venous pressure, and higher venous compliance in the lower extremities. VO2max, stroke volume, and cardiac output are further compromised by exercise in the upright posture. The contribution of hypovolemia to reduced cardiac output during exercise following bed rest is supported by the close relationship between the relative magnitude (% delta) and time course of change in blood volume and VO2max during bed rest, and also by the fact that retention of plasma volume is associated with maintenance of VO2max after bed rest. Arteriovenous oxygen difference during maximal exercise is not altered by bed rest, suggesting that peripheral mechanisms may not contribute significantly to the decreased VO2max. However reduction in baseline and maximal muscle blood flow, red blood cell volume, and capillarization in working muscles represent peripheral mechanisms that may contribute to limited oxygen delivery and, subsequently, lowered VO2max. Thus, alterations in cardiac and vascular functions induced by prolonged confinement to bed rest contribute to diminution of maximal oxygen uptake

  12. The Effects of Leniency on Maximal Cartel Pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houba, H.E.D.; Motchenkova, E.; Wen, Q.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze maximal cartel prices in infnitely-repeated oligopoly models under leniency where fines are linked to illegal gains, as often outlined in existing antitrust regulation, and detection probabilities depend on the degree of collusion. We introduce cartel culture that describes how likely car

  13. The Effects of Leniency on Maximal Cartel Pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houba, H.E.D.; Motchenkova, E.; Wen, Q.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze maximal cartel prices in infnitely-repeated oligopoly models under leniency where fines are linked to illegal gains, as often outlined in existing antitrust regulation, and detection probabilities depend on the degree of collusion. We introduce cartel culture that describes how likely

  14. Time of day has no effect on maximal aerobic and peak power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesboüé B

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available N Bessot1,3, S Moussay1,2, B Dufour1,2, D Davenne1,2, B Sesboüé1,3, A Gauthier1,21Inserm, ERI27, Caen, France; 2University Caen, Caen, France; 3CHRU Caen, Explorations Fonctionnelles, Caen, FranceBackground: The aim of this study was to explore the effect of time of day on peak power reached during an exercise test and maximal aerobic power achieved when the subject reached maximal oxygen uptake.Methods: Fifteen male competitive endurance cyclists performed a standardized maximal incremental exercise test at 06:00 hours and 18:00 hours. The test began with a 5-minute warmup period at a workload of 150 W. The work rate was then increased by incremental steps of 30 W per minute until the respiratory exchange ratio reached 1.00. Thereafter, workload was increased in steps of 15 W per minute until exhaustion was reached.Results: No significant diurnal variation was detected in physiological parameters (maximal oxygen uptake and maximal heart rate or biomechanical parameters (maximal aerobic power, peak power.Conclusion: Circadian variations classically reported in competitive aerobic performances could be due to fluctuations in maximal aerobic endurance and/or improvement in gestural efficiency (pattern of muscle activity, effective force production, and kinematics.Keywords: chronobiology, maximal aerobic power, peak power, maximal oxygen uptake, maximal incremental test

  15. Effects of Epinephrine, Phenoxybenzamine and Propranolol on Maximal Exercise in Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    EXERCISE IN SHEEP D TIC 6. AUTHOR(5 EELECTF ’ Thomas G. Mundie, Adolph J. Januszkiewicz , and FEB 2 31993, Gary R. Ripple 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...1 k mg , i.v..) on maximal exercise in normal sheep, was investigated. Maximal exercise in control sheep showed a mean maximum oxygen consumption...Science 31 ’. t 1492 Effects of Epinephrine, Phenoxybenzamine, and Propranolol on Maximal Exercise in Sheep Thomas G. Mundie, Adolph J. Januszkiewicz , and

  16. Effects of Movement Velocity and Maximal Concentric and Eccentric Actions on the Bilateral Deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickin, D. Clark; Too, Danny

    2006-01-01

    This study was performed to examine the effects of movement velocity and maximal concentric and eccentric actions on the bilateral deficit. Eighteen female participants performed maximal unilateral and bilateral knee extensions concentrically and eccentrically across six movement velocities (30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180[degrees]/s). Repeated…

  17. Effect of Semirecumbent and Upright Body Position on Maximal and Submaximal Exercise Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Alexander; Antonishen, Kevin; Johnston, Chris; Pearce, Terri; Ryan, Michael; Sheel, A. William; McKenzie, Don C.

    2006-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the effect of upright-posture (UP) versus semirecumbent (SR) cycling on commonly used measures of maximal and submaximal exercise capacity. Nine healthy, untrained men (M age = 27 years, SD = 4.8 years) underwent steady-state submaximal aerobic testing followed by a ramped test to determine maximal oxygen…

  18. Effects of institutional changes on land use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prishchepov, Alexander; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Radeloff, Volker C.;

    2012-01-01

    abandonment rates for countries where the institutions that regulate land use changed and where the institutions took more time to establish (e.g.,Latvia, Lithuania and Russia). Better knowledge regarding the effects of such broad-scale change is essential for understanding land-use change and for designing...

  19. The effects of strenuous exercises on resting heart rate, blood pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Deuk-Ja; Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of strenuous exercises on resting heart rate, blood pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake. To achieve the purpose of the study, a total of 30 subjects were selected, including 15 people who performed continued regular exercises and 15 people as the control group. With regard to data processing, the IBM SPSS Statistics ver. 21.0 was used to calculate the mean and standard deviation. The difference of mean change between groups was verified through an independent t-test. As a result, there were significant differences in resting heart rate, maximal heart rate, maximal systolic blood pressure, and maximal oxygen uptake. However, the maximal systolic blood pressure was found to be an exercise-induced high blood pressure. Thus, it is thought that a risk diagnosis for it through a regular exercise stress test is necessary.

  20. Maximizing the Effectiveness of Leadership Inservice Education: An Operational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerville, Joseph C.

    This paper includes a functional model for upgrading the effectiveness of inservice training for school administrators. It is based on the writer's contention that most inservice programs for administrators do not relate to the leadership concerns of each participant, skills developed in those programs often are not applied to the participant's…

  1. Understanding Relationship: Maximizing the Effects of Science Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ruth; Feldman, Sue; Minstrell, Jim

    2014-01-01

    There is growing empirical evidence that instructional coaching can help teachers transfer their learning from professional trainings (e.g., new strategies) to classroom practice and that coaching promotes greater collaboration and reflection among teachers. At the same time, however, research on the effectiveness of particular coaching models and…

  2. Maximizing the Effective Lifetime of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M. Julius; Dewan, M. Ali Akber; Chae, Oksam

    This paper presents a new routing approach to extend the effective lifetime of mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) considering both residual battery energy of the participating nodes and routing cost. As the nodes in ad hoc networks are limited in power, a power failure occurs if a node has insufficient remaining energy to send, receive or forward a message. So, it is important to minimize the energy expenditure as well as to balance the remaining battery power among the nodes. Cost effective routing algorithms attempt to minimize the total power needed to transmit a packet which causes a large number of nodes to loose energy quickly and die. On the other hand, lifetime prediction based routing algorithms try to balance the remaining energies among the nodes in the networks and ignore the transmission cost. These approaches extend the lifetime of first few individual nodes. But as nodes spend more energy for packet transfer, power failures occurs, within short interval resulting more number of total dead node earlier. This reduces the effective lifetime of the network, as at this stage successful communication is not possible due to the lack of forwarding node. The proposed method keeps the transmission power in modest range and at the same time tries to reduce the variance of the residual energy of the nodes more effectively to obtain the highest useful lifetime of the networks in the long run. Nonetheless, movement of nodes frequently creates network topology changes via link breaks and link creation and thus effects on the stability of the network. So, the pattern of the node movement is also incorporated in our route selection procedure.

  3. Canaloplasty: A Minimally Invasive and Maximally Effective Glaucoma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. Khaimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Canaloplasty is a highly effective, minimally invasive, surgical technique indicated for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma that works by restoring the function of the eye’s natural outflow system. The procedure’s excellent safety profile and long-term efficacy make it a viable option for the majority of glaucoma patient types. It can be used in conjunction with existing drug based glaucoma treatments, after laser or other types of incisional surgery, and does not preclude or affect the outcome of future surgery. Numerous scientific studies have shown Canaloplasty to be safe and effective in lowering IOP whilst reducing medication dependence. A recent refinement of Canaloplasty, known as ab-interno Canaloplasty (ABiC, maintains the IOP-lowering and safety benefits of traditional (ab-externo Canaloplasty using a more efficient, simplified surgical approach. This paper presents a review of Canaloplasty indications, clinical data, and complications, as well as comparisons with traditional incisional glaucoma techniques. It also addresses the early clinical evidence for ABiC.

  4. Effect of blood donation on maximal oxygen consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, L; Dahl, T; Boone, T

    2006-12-01

    This study determined the effect of donating one unit of blood on various physiological parameters associated with a VO2(max) test. Ten healthy, male subjects (23+/-4 years, 178+/-7.6 cm, 74.4+/-12.3 kg) completed a VO2(max) test 24 h before donating one unit of blood (~500 mL) and 24 h after donating blood. The Bruce protocol was used to determine the subjects' VO2(max). Physiological responses were measured at the end of the VO2(max) test. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine if there were significant (Pblood donation. Significant differences were found in VO2(max) (mean+/-SD, 3.18+/-0.74 vs 2.87+/-0.53 L.min(-1)), cardiac output (Q, 25+/-5 vs 22.5+/-3.3 L.min(-1)), stroke volume (SV, 134+/-37 vs 121+/-22 mL.beat(-1)), delivery of oxygen (DO(2), 5+/-.87 vs 3.97+/-.68 L.min(-1)), and hemoglobin concentration (Hb, 153+/-12 vs 135+/-16 gm.L(-1)). No significant changes were observed for heart rate (HR); arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-vO(2) diff), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). These findings indicate that donating one unit of blood decreased VO2(max) due to the decrease in Q, which resulted from the decrease in SV since HR was unchanged. The lower VO2(max) along with the decrease in DO(2) would be expected to have a negative effect on athletic performance.

  5. Measuring the neighbourhood effect to calibrate land use models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van J.; Naus, N.; Lammeren, van R.J.A.; Bregt, A.K.; Hurkens, J.; Delden, van H.

    2013-01-01

    Many spatially explicit land use models include the neighbourhood effect as a driver of land use changes. The neighbourhood effect includes the inertia of land uses over time, the conversion from one land use to another, and the attraction or repulsion of surrounding land uses. The neighbourhood eff

  6. Optimization of total body irradiation: the match between (maximal) leukemic cell kill and (minimal) late effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harteveld, M.L. van

    2007-01-01

    Optimization of total body irradiation: the match between (maximal) leukemic cell kill and (minimal) late effects: In this thesis, cataract formation and renal dysfunction as late effects of high-dose total body irradiation (TBI) as part of the conditioning before hematological stem cell transplanta

  7. The Effects of Rear-Wheel Camber on Maximal Effort Mobility Performance in Wheelchair Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, B.; van der Woude, L.; Tolfrey, K.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V.

    This study examined the effect of rear-wheel camber on maximal effort wheelchair mobility performance. 14 highly trained wheelchair court sport athletes performed a battery of field tests in 4 standardised camber settings (15°, 18°, 20°, 24°) with performance analysed using a velocometer. 20 m

  8. The Effects of Rear-Wheel Camber on Maximal Effort Mobility Performance in Wheelchair Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, B.; van der Woude, L.; Tolfrey, K.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of rear-wheel camber on maximal effort wheelchair mobility performance. 14 highly trained wheelchair court sport athletes performed a battery of field tests in 4 standardised camber settings (15°, 18°, 20°, 24°) with performance analysed using a velocometer. 20 m sprin

  9. The Effects of Rear-Wheel Camber on Maximal Effort Mobility Performance in Wheelchair Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, B.; van der Woude, L.; Tolfrey, K.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of rear-wheel camber on maximal effort wheelchair mobility performance. 14 highly trained wheelchair court sport athletes performed a battery of field tests in 4 standardised camber settings (15°, 18°, 20°, 24°) with performance analysed using a velocometer. 20 m sprin

  10. Effect of Maximal Versus Supra-Maximal Exhausting Race on Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Activity and Muscle-Damage Biomarkers in Long-Distance and Middle-Distance Runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Exhausting physical exercise increases lipid peroxidation and causes important muscle damages. The human body tries to mitigate these adverse effects by mobilizing its antioxidant defenses. Objectives This study aims to investigate the effect of a maximal versus supra-maximal race sustained until exhaustion on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity and muscle-damage biomarkers in trained (i.e. long-distance and middle-distance runners and sedentary subjects. Materials and Methods The study has been carried out on 8 middle-distance runners (MDR, 9 long-distance runners (LDR, and 8 sedentary subjects (SS. Each subject has undergone two exhaustive running tests, the first one is an incremental event (VAMEVAL test, the second one is a constant supra-maximal intensity test (limited-time test. Blood samples were collected at rest and immediately after each test. Results A significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA concentrations was observed in SS and MDR after the VAMEVAL test and in LDR after the Limited-Time test. A significant difference was also observed between LDR and the other two groups after the VAMEVAL test, and between LDR and MDR after the Limited-Time test. Significant modifications, notably, in myoglobin, CK, LDH, IL-6, TNF-α, and TAS were likewise noted but depending on the race-type and the sportive specialty. Conclusions Maximal and supra-maximal races induce a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and cause non-negligible inflammation and muscle damage. These effects were relatively related to the physical exercise type and the sportive specialty.

  11. Effects of aging on maximal and rapid velocity capacities of the leg extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brennan J; Conchola, Eric C; Palmer, Ty B; Stock, Matt S

    2014-10-01

    Declines in muscle strength and power are commonly reported as a consequence of aging; however, few studies have investigated the influence of aging on maximal and rapid velocity characteristics. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of aging on maximal and rapid velocity characteristics of the leg extensor muscles. Twenty-three young (age=25±3yrs) and twenty-one old (72±4yrs) men performed three leg extension maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) at 240°·s(-1) and at maximum unloaded velocity (Vmax). Vmax was calculated as the highest velocity attained during the unloaded MVC and RVD was the linear slope of the velocity-time curve for the 240deg·s(-1) (RVD240) and maximum unloaded velocity (RVD-Vmax) contractions. The old men exhibited lower (Pmuscle to generate velocity rapidly versus the ability to generate maximal velocity. Such findings highlight the importance of time-dependent velocity measures when assessing the effects of aging on rapid velocity capacities.

  12. Slice stretching effects for maximal slicing of a Schwarzschild black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Reimann, B.

    2005-01-01

    Slice stretching effects such as slice sucking and slice wrapping arise when foliating the extended Schwarzschild spacetime with maximal slices. For arbitrary spatial coordinates these effects are quantified here in the context of boundary conditions where the lapse arises as a linear combination of odd and even lapse. Favourable boundary conditions are then derived which make the overall slice stretching occur late in numerical simulations. Allowing the lapse to become negative, this require...

  13. Effects of vibratory stimulations on maximal voluntary isometric contraction from delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hyung-Woo; Cho, Sung-Hyoun; Kim, Cheol-Yong; Cho, Byung-Jun; Kim, Jin-Woo; Bo, Kak Hwang

    2013-09-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vibratory stimulation on maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) from delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). [Subjects] Sixty healthy adults participated in this study. The exclusion criteria were orthopedic or neurologic disease. [Methods] The researchers induced DOMS in the musculus extensor carpi radialis longus of each participant. Subjects in the control group received no treatment. The ultrasound group received ultrasound treatment (intensity, 1.0 W/cm(2;) frequency 1 MHz; time, 10 minutes). The vibration group received vibration stimulation (frequency, 20 MHz; time, 10 minutes). Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was recorded at baseline, immediately after exercise, and 24, 48, and 72 hours after exercise. [Results] MVIC measurements showed statistically significant differences in the vibration group compared with the control group. [Conclusion] Vibratory stimulation had a positive effect on recovery of muscle function from DOMS.

  14. Effect of iron supplementation on maximal oxygen uptake in female athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Rađen Slavica; Rađen Goran; Životić-Vanović Mirjana; Radaković Sonja; Vasiljević Nađa; Stojanović Dušica

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aim. Iron is a vital constituent of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and some mitochondrial enzymes; therefore, body iron deficiency may result in reduced aerobic capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of daily oral iron supplementation on body iron status, and the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in female athletes with latent iron deficiency, as well as with irondeficiency anemia. Methods. A total of 37 female volleyball players were included in the study. Seventeen fema...

  15. The Effects of Maximal Intensity Exercise on Cognitive Performance in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Roy David

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High intensity physical exercise has previously been found to lead to a decline in cognitive performance of adults. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of maximal intensity exercise on cognitive performance of children. Using a repeated-measures design, 20 children and adolescents aged 8-17 years completed a battery of tests measuring memory and attention. Forward and Backward Digit Span tests, the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST were performed at baseline, immediately after, and one hour after a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test. Forward and Backward Digit Span scores significantly improved post-recovery compared with baseline measurements. There was a significant decrease in RAVLT scores post-exercise, which returned to baseline values after recovery. The DSST test scores were mildly elevated from post-exercise to after recovery. Maximal intensity exercise in children and adolescents may result in both beneficial and detrimental cognitive effects, including transient impairment in verbal learning. Cognitive functions applying short term memory improve following a recovery period. Parents, educators and coaches should consider these changes in memory and attention following high-intensity exercise activities in children.

  16. Effect of red bull energy drink on auditory reaction time and maximal voluntary contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Vartika; Manjunatha, S; Pai, Kirtana M

    2014-01-01

    The use of "Energy Drinks" (ED) is increasing in India. Students specially use these drinks to rejuvenate after strenuous exercises or as a stimulant during exam times. The most common ingredient in EDs is caffeine and a popular ED available and commonly used is Red Bull, containing 80 mg of caffeine in 250 ml bottle. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Red Bull energy drink on Auditory reaction time and Maximal voluntary contraction. A homogeneous group containing twenty medical students (10 males, 10 females) participated in a crossover study in which they were randomized to supplement with Red Bull (2 mg/kg body weight of caffeine) or isoenergetic isovolumetric noncaffeinated control drink (a combination of Appy Fizz, Cranberry juice and soda) separated by 7 days. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was recorded as the highest of the 3 values of maximal isometric force generated from the dominant hand using hand grip dynamometer (Biopac systems). Auditory reaction time (ART) was the average of 10 values of the time interval between the click sound and response by pressing the push button using hand held switch (Biopac systems). The energy and control drinks after one hour of consumption significantly reduced the Auditory reaction time in males (ED 232 ± 59 Vs 204 ± 34 s and Control 223 ± 57 Vs 210 ± 51 s; p caffeine in the beneficial effect seen after the drinks.

  17. Fallow land effects on land-atmosphere interactions in California drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; Melton, F. S.; Kueppers, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    The recent drought in California increased the area of fallow land, which is cropland not planted or irrigated per normal agricultural practice. The effects of fallow land on land-atmosphere interactions in drought years are not well studied, but theoretically should alter local energy balance and surface climate relative to normal years, which in turn could affect neighboring cropland. We examined these effects using a regional climate model (Weather Research and Forecasting model) coupled with a dynamic crop growth model (Community Land Model) that has an irrigation scheme to study the effects of fallow land in 2014, an extreme drought year in California. In our study, we used satellite-derived maps of cultivated and fallowed acreage, and defined summer fallow land in 2014 as the reduced percentage of cultivated land for each grid cell relative to the 2011 cultivated area (2011 was the most recent year following a winter with average or above average precipitation). Using a sensitivity experiment that kept large-scale climate boundary conditions constant, we found that fallow land resulted in even dryer and warmer weather that worsened the drought impact. Fallow land increased 2-meter air temperature by 0.1- 4 °C with 0-80% fallow land, mainly due to an increase in nighttime temperature. Fallow land warmed the atmosphere up to 850hpa during the day, and after sunset, the warmed atmosphere emitted downward longwave radiation that prevented the surface from rapidly cooling, and therefore resulted in warmer nights. Fallow land reduced near surface relative humidity by 5-30% and increased vapor pressure deficit by 0.5-2 kPa. These drier conditions increased the irrigation water demand in the nearby cropland: crops required 1-25% more irrigation with 10-80% fallow land within the same 10km grid cell. Our study suggests that fallow land has large impacts on land-atmosphere interactions and increases irrigation requirements in nearby cropland.

  18. EFFECTS OF MAXIMAL SQUAT EXERCISE TESTING ON VERTICAL JUMP PERFORMANCE IN AMERICAN COLLEGE FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Hoffman

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Maximal strength and power testing are common assessments that are used to evaluate strength/power athletes. The validity and reliability of these tests have been well established (Hoffman, 2006, however the order of testing may have a profound effect on test performance outcome. It is generally recommended that the least fatiguing and highly-skilled tests are performed first, while highly fatiguing tests are performed last (Hoffman, 2006. Recent research has demonstrated that maximal isometric contractions and maximal or near- maximal dynamic exercise can augment the rate of force development, increase jump height and enhance sprint cycle performance (Chiu et al., 2003; French et al., 2003. The use of a maximal or near-maximal activity to enhance strength and power performance has been termed "muscle postactivation potentiation", and appears to be more common in the experienced resistance-trained athletes than in the recreationally-trained population (Chiu et al., 2003. It is believed that postactivation potentiation can enhance muscle performance by increasing the neural signal that activates the muscle (Hamada et al., 2000. Since heavy loading in a similar movement pattern of exercise appears to enhance maximal strength and power performance in the experienced resistance-trained athlete, it may be hypothesized that the postactivation potentiation associated with heavy loading has the potential to augment subsequent performance of tests utilizing similar motion. Therefore, consideration of an appropriate sequence of athletic performance testing in strength and power athletes is warranted. We would like to share our experience on the effect of performing a maximal lower body strength test on vertical jump performance in experienced resistance-trained strength/power athletes.We examined 64 NCAA Division III American collegiate football players (age = 20.1 ± 1.9 yr; body mass = 97.5 ± 17.8 kg; height = 1.80 ± 0.12 m. All testing was performed

  19. Effects of tongue position and lung volume on voluntary maximal tongue protrusion force in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboisky, Julian P; Luu, Billy L; Butler, Jane E; Gandevia, Simon C

    2015-01-15

    Maximal voluntary protrusion force of the human tongue has not been examined in positions beyond the incisors or at different lung volumes. Tongue force was recorded with the tongue tip at eight positions relative to the incisors (12 and 4mm protrusion, neutral and 4, 12, 16, 24 and 32mm retraction) at functional residual capacity (FRC), total lung capacity (TLC) and residual volume (RV) in 15 healthy subjects. Maximal force occurred between 12mm and 32mm retraction (median 16mm). Maximum force at FRC was reproducible at the optimal tongue position across sessions (P=0.68). Across all positions at FRC the average force was highest at 24mm retraction (28.3±5.3N, mean±95% CI) and lowest at 12mm protrusion (49.1±4.6% maximum; Ptongue positions, maximal force was on average 9.3% lower at FRC than TLC and RV (range: 4.5-12.7% maximum, P<0.05). Retracted positions produce higher-force protrusions with a small effect of lung volume.

  20. RESISTANCE TRAINING FOR EXPLOSIVE AND MAXIMAL STRENGTH: EFFECTS ON EARLY AND LATE RATE OF FORCE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe B.D. Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to verify whether strength training designed to improve explosive and maximal strength would influence rate of force development (RFD. Nine men participated in a 6-week knee extensors resistance training program and 9 matched subjects participated as controls. Throughout the training sessions, subjects were instructed to perform isometric knee extension as fast and forcefully as possible, achieving at least 90% maximal voluntary contraction as quickly as possible, hold it for 5 s, and relax. Fifteen seconds separated each repetition (6-10, and 2 min separated each set (3. Pre- and post-training measurements were maximal isometric knee extensor (MVC, RFD, and RFD relative to MVC (i.e., %MVC·s-1 in different time-epochs varying from 10 to 250 ms from the contraction onset. The MVC (Nm increased by 19% (275.8 ± 64.9 vs. 329.8 ± 60.4, p < 0.001 after training. In addition, RFD (Nm·s-1 increased by 22-28% at time epochs up to 20 ms from the contraction onset (0-10 ms = 1679. 1 ± 597.1 vs. 2159.2 ± 475.2, p < 0.001; 0-20 ms = 1958.79 ± 640.3 vs. 2398.4 ± 479.6, p < 0. 01, with no changes verified in later time epochs. However, no training effects on RFD were found for the training group when RFD was normalized to MVC. No changes were found in the control group. In conclusion, very early and late RFD responded differently to a short period of resistance training for explosive and maximal strength. This time-specific RFD adaptation highlight that resistance training programs should consider the specific neuromuscular demands of each sport

  1. Are acute effects of maximal dynamic contractions on upper-body ballistic performance load specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Goran; Simek, Sanja; Bradic, Asim

    2008-11-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of upper-body maximal dynamic contractions on maximal throwing speed with 0.55- and 4-kg medicine balls. It was hypothesized that heavy preloading would transiently improve throwing performance only when overcoming the heavier of the two loads. Twenty-three male volunteers were randomly allocated into experimental (n = 11) and control (n = 12) groups. Both groups performed initial and final seated medicine ball throws from the chest, and the maximal medicine ball speed was measured by means of a radar gun. Between the two measurements, the control group rested passively for 15 minutes, and the experimental group performed three sets of three-repetition maximum bench presses. For the 0.55-kg load, a 2 x 2 repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed no significant effect of time x group interaction (p = 0.22), as well as no significant time (p = 0.22) or group (p = 0.72) effects. In contrast, for the 4-kg load, a significant time x group interaction (p = 0.004) and a significant time (p = 0.035) but not group (p = 0.77) effect were observed. Analysis of simple main effects revealed that the experimental group significantly (8.3%; p ballistic performance might be load specific. In a practical sense, our findings suggest that the use of upper-body heavy resistance exercise before ballistic throwing movements against moderate external loads might be an efficient training strategy for improving an athlete's upper-body explosive performance.

  2. Effects of Variable Resistance Training on Maximal Strength: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria-Gila, Miguel A; Chirosa, Ignacio J; Bautista, Iker J; Baena, Salvador; Chirosa, Luis J

    2015-11-01

    Variable resistance training (VRT) methods improve the rate of force development, coordination between antagonist and synergist muscles, the recruitment of motor units, and reduce the drop in force produced in the sticking region. However, the beneficial effects of long-term VRT on maximal strength both in athletes and untrained individuals have been much disputed. The purpose of this study was to compare in a meta-analysis the effects of a long-term (≥7 weeks) VRT program using chains or elastic bands and a similar constant resistance program in both trained adults practicing different sports and untrained individuals. Intervention effect sizes were compared among investigations meeting our selection and inclusion criteria using a random-effects model. The published studies considered were those addressing VRT effects on the 1 repetition maximum. Seven studies involving 235 subjects fulfilled the selection and inclusion criteria. Variable resistance training led to a significantly greater mean strength gain (weighted mean difference: 5.03 kg; 95% confidence interval: 2.26-7.80 kg; Z = 3.55; p < 0.001) than the gain recorded in response to conventional weight training. Long-term VRT training using chains or elastic bands attached to the barbell emerged as an effective evidence-based method of improving maximal strength both in athletes with different sports backgrounds and untrained subjects.

  3. Effects land surface type, land use, and land use change on aquatic-atmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide from tropical forests and peat lands of Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oechel, W. C.; Abelleira Martínez, O.; Anshari, G.; Ikawa, H.; Lawrence, W. T.; Metz, M.; Neteler, M.; Nuriman, M.; Rocchini, D.; Zona, D.

    2011-12-01

    Tropical peat lands appear to be loosing huge amounts of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere due to patterns of land use and land use change including conversion of tropical forest peat lands to palm oil production and other agricultural endeavors and forest exploitation. Here, we look at the effect of land use patterns on the export of carbon to tropical river systems and the efflux from tropical rivers to the atmosphere. Levels of pcarbon dioxide, DOC and POC were measured in the Kapuas River, the longest river in Borneo. Patterns of land use and land use change were correlated with export rates of organic matter to the river as well as the vertical fluxes of carbon dioxide from the river and delta to the atmosphere. Land conversion of tropical forests on peat land soils to agriculture, including palm oil production, had some of the highest rates of lateral fluxes of organic carbon to the river system, and among the highest fluxes of carbon dioxide from the river to the atmosphere. This approach illustrates the utility of using a combination of methods: pcarbon dioxide measurement, water chemistry, temporal remote sensing, and modeling to understand and quantify the impact of land use change on GHG emissions from tropical peat lands. Boat based eddy covariance, developed and tested in the coastal zones of the Pacific Ocean, promises to provide a powerful addition to these approaches.

  4. Effectiveness of accommodation and constant resistance training on maximal strength and power in trained athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ataee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Accommodation resistance is a training technique that may improve strength and power gains beyond those achieved by traditional free weights. In this method, chains are either added on a free-weight bar and combined with traditional plates or added to the bar as the entire load. Purpose. The aim of the current study was to compare the effectiveness of accommodation and constant resistance training methods during a four-week period on maximal strength and power in trained athletes. Methods. This study was comprised of 24 trained athletes, including 16 trained males [8 Wushu athletes (Kung-Fu and 8 wrestlers, age: 20.5 ± 2.00 yrs. old]. Participants were initially tested on weight, body circumference, fat percent, upper and lower body maximal strength, determined by the 1-repetition maximum (1RM test, which determines the greatest amount of weight a person can successfully lift, and upper and lower body power. Participants were equally randomized to either accommodation or constant resistance training groups. Both groups underwent resistance training for a four-week period that consisted of three sessions per week. Multivariate repeated-measures analyses of variance of the data were used to verify significant differences in strength and power between groups. The modified Bonferroni post hoc test was used to compare the obtained results in pre-, mid-, and post test. Results. In the accommodation resistance group, there was a significant difference in lower body maximal strength compared to the constant group (163.12 ± 18.82 kg in the accommodation group vs. 142.25 ± 20.04 kg in the constant group, P = 0.04. No significant differences were found in upper body power, lower body power, and upper body maximal strength between the two groups (P > 0.05. Conclusion. Although there was only a significant difference in lower body maximal strength between groups, accommodation resistance training may induce a physiological training response by improving

  5. Traffic Flow by Cellular Automata: the Effect of Maximal Car Velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Makowiecki, D S; Makowiec, Danuta; Miklaszewski, Wieslaw

    2005-01-01

    Effects of large value assigned to the maximal car velocity on the fundamental diagrams in the Nagel-Schreckenberg model are studied by extended simulations. The function relating the flow in the congested traffic phase with the car density and deceleration probability is found numerically. Properties of the region of critical changes, so-called jamming transition parameters, are described in details. The basic model, modified by the assumption that for each car an individual velocity limit is assigned, is investigated in the aim to find the best supplementary rule allowing the jammed traffic to move with velocity larger than the slowest driving vehicle.

  6. Twelve tips for maximizing the effectiveness of game-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Michael B; Borman-Shoap, Emily C; Eppich, Walter J

    2015-01-01

    Game-based learning (GBL) in medical education is emerging as a valid alternative to traditional teaching methods. Well-designed GBL sessions use non-threatening competition to capitalize on heightened learner arousal, allowing for high-level engagement and dynamic group discussion. While many templates for specific educational games have been published, little has been written on strategies for educators to create their own or how to use them with maximal effectiveness. These 12 tips provide specific recommendations for the successful design and implementation of GBL sessions in medical education based on a review of the literature and insight from experienced designers.

  7. Discovering Maximal Frequent Itemset using Association Array and Depth First Search Procedure with Effective Pruning Mechanisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    K Sumathi; S Kannan; K Nagarajan

    2013-01-01

    .... In this paper, an efficient method for discovering the maximal frequent itemsets is proposed. This method employs Association array technique and depth first search technique to mine Maximal Frequent Itemset...

  8. Perfect Single Qubit Mirroring Effects on Two and Three Maximally Entangled Qubits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.(A)vila

    2013-01-01

    Perfect quantum state mirroring in a chain of N spins is defined as the condition in which the state |i〉 of the chain is swapped into the state |N-i〉 within a time evolution interval τ.Such a phenomenon is an interesting way of transfering entanglement.An expressions for the perfect mirroring of a single qubit contained in a spin chain were proposed in the past.We exploit such an expressions for calculating the evolution times in chains of both two and three spins.In the case of a chain of two qubits,we derive conditions under which the associated four Bell states diagonalize the Hamiltonian.It is found that for the two Bell states |Φ+〉 and |Φ-〉,perfect mirroring does not occur (i.e.entanglement is not preserved under swapping).On the other hand,perfect single qubit mirror effect (entanglement preservation) indeed occurs for the other two Bell states |Ψ+〉 and |Ψ-〉 which are mapped into |Φ+〉 and |Φ-〉 respectively.For the case of a chain of three qubits,the effects of a perfect single qubit mirroring on a set of four maximally entangled three qubit states Ψ1,Ψ2,x1,and x2 are studied.Due to the fact that quantum mirroring preserves maximal entanglement,the states Ψ1and Ψ2 are not altered.However,quantum mirroring changes the states x1 and x2 only if we apply perfect quantum state mirroring in the site a =1 of the three qubits spin chain.The above constrains the preservation of maximal entanglement under qubit mirroring of such a state.Due to the fact that swapping has already been experimentally tested,a posible.experimental implementations of single qubit mirroring is possible.

  9. Effective mass density based topology optimization of locally resonant acoustic metamaterials for bandgap maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiong Wei; Lee, Joong Seok; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-11-01

    Because effective material properties are essential concepts in the analyses of wave phenomena in metamaterials, they may also be utilized in the optimal design of metamaterials. In this work, we propose a topology optimization method directly using the Effective Mass Density (EMD) concept to maximize the first bandgaps of two-dimensional solid Locally Resonant Acoustic Metamaterials (LRAMs). When the first bandgap is characterized by the negative EMD, the bandgap maximization can be formulated efficiently as a topology optimization problem to broaden the frequency zone of the negative EMD values. In this work, EMD is calculated by considering the macroscopic isotropy of LRAMs in the long wavelength limit. To facilitate the analytical sensitivity analysis, we propose an elaborate calculation scheme of EMD. A sensitivity averaging technique is also suggested to guarantee the macroscopically isotropic behavior of the LRAMs. In the present study, the coating layer interfacing the core and the matrix of a ternary LRAM is chosen as the design region because it significantly influences the bandgap. By considering several numerical examples, the validity of this method is verified, and the effects of the mass constraint ratios on the optimized results are also investigated.

  10. Maximal trees

    OpenAIRE

    Brendle, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    We show that, consistently, there can be maximal subtrees of P (omega) and P (omega) / fin of arbitrary regular uncountable size below the size of the continuum. We also show that there are no maximal subtrees of P (omega) / fin with countable levels. Our results answer several questions of Campero, Cancino, Hrusak, and Miranda.

  11. Effect of soccer footwear on landing mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, R J; Russell, M E; Queen, R

    2014-02-01

    Lower-extremity injury is common in soccer. A number of studies have begun to assess why specific lower-extremity injuries occur. However, currently few studies have examined how footwear affects lower-extremity mechanics. In order to address this question, 14 male (age: 22.1 ± 3.9 years, height: 1.77 ± 0.06 m, and mass: 73.3 ± 11.5 kg) and 14 female (age: 22.8 ± 3.1 years, height: 1.68 ± 0.07 m and mass: 64.4 ± 9.2 kg) competitive soccer players underwent a motion analysis assessment while performing a jump heading task. Each subject performed the task in three different footwear conditions (running shoe, bladed cleat, and turf shoe). Two-way analyses of variance were used to examine statistical differences in landing mechanics between the footwear conditions while controlling for gender differences. These comparisons were made during two different parts (prior to and following) of a soccer-specific jump heading task. A statistically significant interaction for the peak dorsiflexion angle (P = 0.02) and peak knee flexion angle (P = 0.05) was observed. Male soccer players exhibited a degree increase in dorsiflexion in the bladed cleat while female soccer players exhibited a three-degree reduction in peak knee flexion in the bladed cleat condition. Other main effects for gender and footwear were also observed. The results suggest that landing mechanics differ based upon gender, footwear, and the type of landing. Therefore, training interventions aimed at reducing lower-extremity injury should consider utilizing sport-specific footwear when assessing movement patterns. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. EFFECTS OF SELF-SELECTED MUSIC ON MAXIMAL BENCH PRESS STRENGTH AND STRENGTH ENDURANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomei, Sandro; Di Michele, Rocco; Merni, Franco

    2015-06-01

    Listening to music during strength workouts has become a very common practice. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of listening to self-selected music on strength performances. Thirty-one resistance-trained men (M age = 24.7 yr., SD = 5.9; M height = 178.7 cm, SD = 4.7; M body mass = 83.54 kg, SD = 12.0) were randomly assigned to either a Music group (n = 19) or to a Control group (n = 12). Both groups took part in two separate sessions; each session consisted in a maximal strength test (1-RM) and a strength-endurance test (repetitions to failure at 60% 1-RM) using the bench press exercise. The music group listened to music in the second assessment session, while the control group performed both tests without music. Listening to music induced a significant increase of strength endurance performance and no effects on maximal strength. These findings have implications for the use of music during strength workouts.

  13. The Effect of Acute Sub-Maximal Endurance Exercise on Serum Angiogenic Indices in Sedentary Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Ranjbar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endurance training increases capillary density of skeletal muscle, but the molecular mechanism of this process is not yet clear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute sub maximal endurance exercise on serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and matrix metaloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9 in sedentary men. Materials and Methods: Twelve healthy men (22.37±2.30 years, BMI=23.16 ±2.61 kg/mP 2 P participated in this study. Subjects exercised for 1h at 70% of VOR2R max, 3 days after the VOR2R max determination. Antecubital vein blood was collected at rest, immediately and 2h after the exercise. Serum VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 were measured by ELISA methods5T. Results: Serum levels of VEGF and MMP-2 decreased immediately after the exercise. 2 hours after the exercise, serum levels of VEGF remained at a lower level but serum MMP-2 returned to its basal level. Also, serum levels of MMP-9 did not change significantly in response to exercise5T. Conclusion: Acute sub-maximal endurance exercise decreased the main factors involved in development of capillary density in sedentary men. This might to due to the fact that, sub maximal exercise could not provide the two main stimulating factors of angiogenesis, i.e. Shear stress and hypoxia. It could also be explained by the fact that the mechanism of development of capillary network following regular endurance training is different from that following an acute exercise5T.5T

  14. Effect of two doses of interval training on maximal fat oxidation in sedentary women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Schubert, Matthew M; Palumbo, Elyse; Stirling, Douglas; McMillan, David W

    2013-10-01

    The primary aim of the current study was to determine the effect of two doses of chronic high-intensity interval training (HIT) on changes in maximal fat oxidation (MFO) and body composition. Sedentary women (N = 23, age and V˙O2max = 24.2 ± 6.2 yr and 30.3 ± 5.2 mL·kg-1·min-1, respectively) completed either high (HI) (80%-90% maximal workload) or moderate (MOD) intensity (60%-80% maximal workload) HIT on a cycle ergometer 3 d·wk-1 for 12 wk consisting of 6-10 sixty-second bouts interspersed with active recovery. Seven women of similar age and fitness level served as controls. Every 3 wk, substrate oxidation was assessed during progressive exercise via indirect calorimetry to determine MFO and minimum fat oxidation, and body composition was assessed every 6 wk. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to examine changes in substrate oxidation in response to training, with training group used as a between-subjects variable. Results revealed improved MFO (P = 0.04, 19%-25%) and minimum fat oxidation (P = 0.001, 22-24 W) in response to HIT, yet the magnitude of improvement was similar (P > 0.05) between training paradigms. No change (P > 0.05) in body weight, percent body fat, or waist-hip circumference was revealed with training. These data suggest that 12 wk of either moderate or more strenuous interval training similarly enhance fat oxidation in sedentary women but do not alter body weight or body composition.

  15. Squat jump training at maximal power loads vs. heavy loads: effect on sprint ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Nigel K; Cronin, John B; Hopkins, Will G; Hansen, Keir T

    2008-11-01

    Training at a load maximizing power output (Pmax) is an intuitively appealing strategy for enhancement of performance that has received little research attention. In this study we identified each subject's Pmax for an isoinertial resistance training exercise used for testing and training, and then we related the changes in strength to changes in sprint performance. The subjects were 18 well-trained rugby league players randomized to two equal-volume training groups for a 7-week period of squat jump training with heavy loads (80% 1RM) or with individually determined Pmax loads (20.0-43.5% 1RM). Performance measures were 1RM strength, maximal power at 55% of pretraining 1RM, and sprint times for 10 and 30 m. Percent changes were standardized to make magnitude-based inferences. Relationships between changes in these variables were expressed as correlations. Sprint times for 10 m showed improvements in the 80% 1RM group (-2.9 +/- 3.2%) and Pmax group (-1.3 +/- 2.2%), and there were similar improvements in 30-m sprint time (-1.9 +/- 2.8 and -1.2 +/- 2.0%, respectively). Differences in the improvements in sprint time between groups were unclear, but improvement in 1RM strength in the 80% 1RM group (15 +/- 9%) was possibly substantially greater than in the Pmax group (11 +/- 8%). Small-moderate negative correlations between change in 1RM and change in sprint time (r approximately -0.30) in the combined groups provided the only evidence of adaptive associations between strength and power outputs, and sprint performance. In conclusion, it seems that training at the load that maximizes individual peak power output for this exercise with a sample of professional team sport athletes was no more effective for improving sprint ability than training at heavy loads, and the changes in power output were not usefully related to changes in sprint ability.

  16. [Effect of psychotropic drugs on activity of anticonvulsants in maximal electroshock test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikina, N A; Tregubov, A L; Kotegov, V P

    2010-08-01

    The effect ofpsychotropic drugs on the pharmacological properties of anticonvulsants was studied on white mice under maximal electroshock (ME) test conditions. Changes in the anticonvulsant effect of phenobarbital, diphenin, carbamazepine, hexamidine were traced upon their joint administration with psychotropic drugs, including piracetam, aminalon, amitriptyline, imizine, levomepromazine, and lithium oxybutyrate. An important result of research is the fact, that in no one of combinations the basic pharmacological effect of anticonvulsants was decreased. Based on the results of experiments, the most rational combinations of anticonvulsants with psychotropic preparations were revealed as manifested in the ME test. As criterion of rational combination was the increase in the activity of anticonvulsants and reduction of their toxicity in combination or at least invariance of this parameter. Rational combinations include (i) phenobarbital with piracetam, amitriptyline, levomepromazine, and lithium oxybutyrate; (ii) carbamazepine with piracetam; and (iii) hexamidine with amitriptyline, levomepromazine and imizine.

  17. Effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching and static stretching on maximal voluntary contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Yutetsu; Naito, Hisashi; Ogura, Yuji; Katamoto, Shizuo; Aoki, Junichiro

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate and compare the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching and static stretching on maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Thirteen male university students (age, 20 ± 1 years; height, 172.2 ± 4.6 cm; weight, 68.4 ± 6.7 kg; mean ± SD) completed 3 different conditions on 3 nonconsecutive days in randomized order: static stretching (SS), PNF stretching (PNF), and no stretching (control, CON). Each condition consisted of a 5-minute rest accompanied by one of the following activities: (a) control, (b) SS, or (c) PNF stretching. The hip flexion range of motion (ROM) was evaluated immediately before and after the activity. The MVC of knee flexion was then measured. Surface electromyography was recorded from the biceps femoris and vastus lateralis muscles during MVC tests and stretching. Although increases in ROM were significantly greater after PNF than after SS (p stretching increases ROM more than SS, PNF stretching and SS is detrimental to isometric maximal strength.

  18. Dynamic stability of running: The effects of speed and leg amputations on the maximal Lyapunov exponent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Look, Nicole [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Arellano, Christopher J.; Grabowski, Alena M.; Kram, Rodger [Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); McDermott, William J. [The Orthopedic Specialty Hospital, Murray, Utah 84107 (United States); Bradley, Elizabeth [Department of Computer Science, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA and Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    In this paper, we study dynamic stability during running, focusing on the effects of speed, and the use of a leg prosthesis. We compute and compare the maximal Lyapunov exponents of kinematic time-series data from subjects with and without unilateral transtibial amputations running at a wide range of speeds. We find that the dynamics of the affected leg with the running-specific prosthesis are less stable than the dynamics of the unaffected leg and also less stable than the biological legs of the non-amputee runners. Surprisingly, we find that the center-of-mass dynamics of runners with two intact biological legs are slightly less stable than those of runners with amputations. Our results suggest that while leg asymmetries may be associated with instability, runners may compensate for this effect by increased control of their center-of-mass dynamics.

  19. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL EFFECTS OF LAND FRAGMENTATION ON BULGARIAN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Atanasova Todorova

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Historically proven fact is that land fragmentation is a logical consequence of each land reform. The ownership restitution of land on small noncontiguous and spatially dispersed parcels prevents establishing of viable and profi table farms and hence becomes a holdback to an effi cient agriculture. This negative effect becomes increasingly stronger. The small land parcels impede applying of new technologies and production models, as well as the labor and machines’ efficient use. The scattered parcels make diffi cult the planned operation of land. Notwithstanding the land reform in Bulgaria is already completed, the resulting fragmentation continues to exist and exerts negative impact on the rural regions’ sustainable development. Improvement of these areas’ means of living is connected with the effi ciency of resource use, which may be achieved through land consolidation and territorial planning. The purpose of this study is to analyze the economic and social effects of fragmentation on agriculture in Bulgaria.

  20. The Effectiveness of a Pre-Exercise Performance Drink (PRX) on Indices of Maximal Cardiorespiratory Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byars, Allyn; Greenwood, Mike; Greenwood, Lori; Simpson, Warren K

    2006-06-12

    This study examined the effectiveness of a pre-exercise drink (PRX) called EM.PACT on indices of maximal cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty-four males (n = 12) and females (n = 12) ages 18-24 years (20.25 + 1.42), volunteered as subjects. Each subject performed two randomized trials of a VO2max treadmill test within a week of each other. Subjects in this randomized, placebo controlled, counter balanced, crossover design, ingested either a placebo (water) or PRX 20 minutes before each exercise bout. VO2max and time to exhaustion (Time) during graded exercise testing were evaluated. Using paired samples t-tests, significantly greater mean values were found in VO2max and Time for the PRX trial compared to the placebo trial (p PRX prior to exercise testing. The combined results of this investigation may provide meaningful practical applications for coaches and athletes alike regarding ergogenic hydration options.

  1. Subacute effects of a maximal exercise bout on endothelium-mediated vasodilation in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bousquet-Santos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated vascular reactivity after a maximal exercise test in order to determine whether the effect of exercise on the circulation persists even after interruption of the exercise. Eleven healthy sedentary volunteers (six women, age 28 ± 5 years were evaluated before and after (10, 60, and 120 min a maximal exercise test on a treadmill. Forearm blood flow (FBF was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography before and during reactive hyperemia (RH. Baseline FBF, analyzed by the area under the curve, increased only at 10 min after exercise (P = 0.01. FBF in response to RH increased both at 10 and 60 min vs baseline (P = 0.004. Total excess flow for RH above baseline showed that vascular reactivity was increased up to 60 min after exercise (mean ± SEM, before: 526.4 ± 48.8; 10 min: 1053.0 ± 168.2; 60 min: 659.4 ± 44.1 ml 100 ml-1 min-1 . s; P = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively, vs before exercise. The changes in FBF were due to increased vascular conductance since mean arterial blood pressure did not change. In a time control group (N = 5, 34 ± 3 years, three women that did not exercise, FBF and RH did not change significantly (P = 0.07 and 0.7, respectively. These results suggest that the increased vascular reactivity caused by chronic exercise may result, at least in part, from a summation of the subacute effects of successive exercise bouts.

  2. The effects of breathing a helium-oxygen gas mixture on maximal pulmonary ventilation and maximal oxygen consumption during exercise in acute moderate hypobaric hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Takeshi; Calbet, Jose A L; Honda, Yasushi; Fujii, Naoto; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2010-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that maximal exercise pulmonary ventilation (VE max) is a limiting factor affecting maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) in moderate hypobaric hypoxia (H), we examined the effect of breathing a helium-oxygen gas mixture (He-O(2); 20.9% O(2)), which would reduce air density and would be expected to increase VE max. Fourteen healthy young male subjects performed incremental treadmill running tests to exhaustion in normobaric normoxia (N; sea level) and in H (atmospheric pressure equivalent to 2,500 m above sea level). These exercise tests were carried out under three conditions [H with He-O(2), H with normal air and N] in random order. VO2 max and arterial oxy-hemoglobin saturation (SaO(2)) were, respectively, 15.2, 7.5 and 4.0% higher (all p max, 171.9 ± 16.1 vs. 150.1 ± 16.9 L/min; VO2 max, 52.50 ± 9.13 vs. 48.72 ± 5.35 mL/kg/min; arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO(2)), 79 ± 3 vs. 76 ± 3%). There was a linear relationship between the increment in VE max and the increment in VO2 max in H (r = 0.77; p VO2 max, both groups showed increased VE max and SaO(2) in H with He-O(2), but VO2 max was increased only in the high VO2 max group. These findings suggest that in acute moderate hypobaric hypoxia, air-flow resistance can be a limiting factor affecting VE max; consequently, VO2 max is limited in part by VE max especially in subjects with high VO2 max.

  3. Effect of landing height on frontal plane kinematics, kinetics and energy dissipation at lower extremity joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow, C H; Lee, P V S; Goh, J C H

    2009-08-25

    Lack of the necessary magnitude of energy dissipation by lower extremity joint muscles may be implicated in elevated impact stresses present during landing from greater heights. These increased stresses are experienced by supporting tissues like cartilage, ligaments and bones, thus aggravating injury risk. This study sought to investigate frontal plane kinematics, kinetics and energetics of lower extremity joints during landing from different heights. Eighteen male recreational athletes were instructed to perform drop-landing tasks from 0.3- to 0.6-m heights. Force plates and motion-capture system were used to capture ground reaction force and kinematics data, respectively. Joint moment was calculated using inverse dynamics. Joint power was computed as a product of joint moment and angular velocity. Work was defined as joint power integrated over time. Hip and knee joints delivered significantly greater joint power and eccentric work (pheights. Substantial increase (pwork was noted at the hip joint in response to increasing landing height. Knee and hip joints acted as key contributors to total energy dissipation in the frontal plane with increase in peak ground reaction force (GRF). The hip joint was the top contributor to energy absorption, which indicated a hip-dominant strategy in the frontal plane in response to peak GRF during landing. Future studies should investigate joint motions that can maximize energy dissipation or reduce the need for energy dissipation in the frontal plane at the various joints, and to evaluate their effects on the attenuation of lower extremity injury risk during landing.

  4. Effect of isokinetic cycling versus weight training on maximal power output and endurance performance in cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koninckx, Erwin; Van Leemputte, Marc; Hespel, Peter

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a weight training program for the leg extensors with isokinetic cycling training (80 rpm) on maximal power output and endurance performance. Both strength training interventions were incorporated twice a week in a similar endurance training program of 12 weeks. Eighteen trained male cyclists (VO(2peak) 60 +/- 1 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) were grouped into the weight training (WT n = 9) or the isokinetic training group (IT n = 9) matched for training background and sprint power (P (max)), assessed from five maximal sprints (5 s) on an isokinetic bicycle ergometer at cadences between 40 and 120 rpm. Crank torque was measured (1 kHz) to determine the torque distribution during pedaling. Endurance performance was evaluated by measuring power, heart rate and lactate during a graded exercise test to exhaustion and a 30-min performance test. All tests were performed on subjects' individual race bicycle. Knee extension torque was evaluated isometrically at 115 degrees knee angle and dynamically at 200 degrees s(-1) using an isokinetic dynamometer. P (max) at 40 rpm increased in both the groups (~15%; P < 0.05). At 120 rpm, no improvement of P (max) was found in the IT training group, which was possibly related to an observed change in crank torque at high cadences (P < 0.05). Both groups improved their power output in the 30-min performance test (P < 0.05). Isometric knee extension torque increased only in WT (P < 0.05). In conclusion, at low cadences, P (max) improved in both training groups. However, in the IT training group, a disturbed pedaling technique compromises an improvement of P (max) at high cadences.

  5. THE EFFECT OF CAFFEINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON TRAINED INDIVIDUALS SUBJECTED TO MAXIMAL TREADMILL TEST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salicio, Viviane Martins Mana; Fett, Carlos Alexandre; Salicio, Marcos Adriano; Brandäo, Camila Fernanda Costa Cunha Moraes; Stoppiglia, Luiz Fabrizio; Fett, Waléria Christiane Rezende; Botelho, And Clovis

    2017-01-01

    Intense physical training increases oxidative stress and inflammation, resulting into muscle and cellular damage. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of caffeine supplementation on trained young individuals subjected to two treadmill maximal tests. It was a double-blind and crossover study comprising 24 active individuals within the age group 18-30 years. The comparisons were conducted: the effect of exercise (week 1 x 2) and caffeine intake (GC x GP) on thiobarbituric acid (TBARS), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) variables during pre-exercise time (30 min. after caffeine or placebo intake) and post-exercise (5 min after treadmill test). The comparison between weeks 1 and 2 showed increase in the first week, in the following items: TBARS, IL-6 and IL-10 in the GC and GP groups. The comparison within the same week showed that GC individuals presented lower post-exercise TBARS values in the first and second weeks; IL- 6 presented higher post-exercise values in the GC group in both weeks. The paired analysis comparing pre- and post-exercise, with and without caffeine showed that IL-6 presented higher post-exercise values in the GC group. Caffeine used by athletes can decrease oxidative stress. The increased IL-6 suggest that this ergogenic supplement may stimulate muscle hypertrophy, since IL-6 has myokine effect. However, the caffeine effect on IL-6 level and muscle hypertrophy increase should be better investigated in future studies.

  6. Entropy Maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K B Athreya

    2009-09-01

    It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf that satisfy $\\int fh_id_=_i$ for $i=1,2,\\ldots,\\ldots k$ the maximizer of entropy is an $f_0$ that is proportional to $\\exp(\\sum c_i h_i)$ for some choice of $c_i$. An extension of this to a continuum of constraints and many examples are presented.

  7. Slice stretching effects for maximal slicing of a Schwarzschild black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Bernd

    2005-11-01

    Slice stretching effects such as slice sucking and slice wrapping arise when foliating the extended Schwarzschild spacetime with maximal slices. For arbitrary spatial coordinates these effects are quantified here in the context of boundary conditions where the lapse arises as a linear combination of odd and even lapse. Favourable boundary conditions are then derived which make the overall slice stretching occur late in numerical simulations. Allowing the lapse to become negative, this requirement leads to lapse functions which approach at late times the odd lapse corresponding to the static Schwarzschild metric. Demanding, however, that a numerically favourable lapse remains non-negative, as a result the average of odd and even lapse is obtained. At late times the lapse with zero gradient at the puncture arising for the puncture evolution is precisely of this form. Finally, analytic arguments are given on how slice stretching effects can be avoided. Here the excision technique and the working mechanism of the shift function are studied in detail.

  8. Fluoxetine enhances the anticonvulsant effects of conventional antiepileptic drugs in maximal electroshock seizures in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowicz, Kinga K; Stepień, Karolina; Czuczwar, Stanisław J

    2006-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of fluoxetine (FXT), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on the effect of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) model in mice. FXT at the doses of 25, 20 and 15 mg/kg significantly increased the electroconvulsive threshold. The antidepressant applied at the lower doses (10, 5 and 2.5 mg/kg) did not influence the threshold. Moreover, FXT (at the highest subprotective dose of 10 mg/kg) increased the anticonvulsive potential of carbamazepine (CBZ), diphenylhydantoin (DPH), valproate (VPA) and phenobarbital (PB), producing a dose-related decrease in their ED50 values against MES. Nevertheless, pharmacokinetic events may be involved in the interaction between FXT and PB or CBZ, since the antidepressant raised the total brain concentration of the two antiepileptics. FXT in combination with AEDs did not influence the motor performance in the chimney test and long-term memory. In conclusion, the data suggest that FXT modulates seizure processes in the brain and may be advantageous in the treatment of epilepsy in depressed patients, improving the seizure control in epilepsy.

  9. Effects of linear vs. daily undulatory periodized resistance training on maximal and submaximal strength gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Fabrício; Simão, Roberto; Rhea, Matthew; Bunker, Derek; Prestes, Jonato; Leite, Richard Diego; Miranda, Humberto; de Salles, Belmiro Freitas; Novaes, Jefferson

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the effect of 2 periodized resistance training (RT) methods on the evolution of 1-repetition maximum (1RM) and 8RM loads. Twenty resistance trained men were randomly assigned to 2 training groups: linear periodization (LP) group and daily undulating periodization (DUP) group. The subjects were tested at baseline and after 12 weeks for 1RM and 8RM loads in leg press (LEG) and bench press (BP) exercises. The training program was performed in alternated sessions for upper (session A: chest, shoulder and triceps) and lower body (session B: leg, back and biceps). The 12-week periodized training was applied only in the tested exercises, and in the other exercises, 3 sets of 6-8RM were performed. Both groups exhibited significant increases in 1RM loads on LEG and BP, but no statistically significant difference between groups was observed. The same occurred in 8RM loads on LEG and BP. However, DUP group presented superior effect size (ES) in 1RM and 8RM loads for LEG and BP exercises when compared to the LP group. In conclusion, periodized RT can be an efficient method for increasing the strength and muscular endurance in trained individuals. Although there was no statistically significant difference between periodization models, DUP promoted superior ES gains in muscular maximal and submaximal strength.

  10. The effects of rear-wheel camber on maximal effort mobility performance in wheelchair athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, B; van der Woude, L; Tolfrey, K; Goosey-Tolfrey, V

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the effect of rear-wheel camber on maximal effort wheelchair mobility performance. 14 highly trained wheelchair court sport athletes performed a battery of field tests in 4 standardised camber settings (15°, 18°, 20°, 24°) with performance analysed using a velocometer. 20 m sprint times reduced in 18° (5.89±0.47 s, P=0.011) and 20° camber (5.93±0.47 s, P=0.030) compared with 24° (6.05±0.45 s). Large effect sizes revealed that 18° camber enabled greater acceleration over the first 2 (r=0.53, 95% CI=0.004 to 0.239) and 3 (r=0.59, 95% CI=0.017 to 0.170) pushes compared with 24°. Linear mobility times significantly improved (P≤0.05) in 15° (16.08±0.84 s), 18° (16.06±0.97 s) and 20° (16.22±0.84 s) camber compared with 24° (16.62±1.10 s). Although no statistically significant main effect of camber was revealed, large effect sizes (r=0.72, 95% CI=0.066 to 0.250) demonstrated that 18° camber reduced times taken to perform the manoeuvrability drill compared with 15°. It was concluded that 18° camber was the best performing setting investigated given its superior performance for both linear and non-linear aspects of mobility, whereas 24° camber impaired linear performance. This was likely to be due to the greater drag forces experienced. Subsequently, athletes would be recommended to avoid 24° camber and young or inexperienced athletes in particular may benefit from selecting 18° as a starting point due to its favourable performance for all aspects of mobility performance in the current study.

  11. The rate of lactate removal after maximal exercise: the effect of intensity during active recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riganas, C S; Papadopoulou, Z; Psichas, N; Skoufas, D; Gissis, I; Sampanis, M; Paschalis, V; Vrabas, I S

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to determine the greater rate of lactate removal after a maximal rowing test using different intensities during active recovery. Thirty elite male rowers performed a simulated incremental exercise protocol on rowing ergometer to determine their maximal oxygen uptake and they divided into three equal sized group according to the type of the recovery that followed the assessment. The first group (N.=10) subjected to 20 min of passive recovery, while the second (N.=10) and the third (N.=10) groups performed 20 min of active recovery using the 25% and the 50% of each individual’s maximal power output, respectively. During the recovery period, every two min were performed measurements for the assessment of blood lactate, oxygen consumption and heart rate (HR). It was found that after 10 min of active recovery at 50% and 25% of maximal power output lactate concentration reduced by 43% and 15%, respectively, while during passive recovery lactate concentration found to be slightly elevated by 1%. It was also found that during recovery period, HR, oxygen consumption and pulmonary ventilation was significant elevated at higher exercise intensity compared to lower exercise intensity and passive recovery. It is concluded that in elite male rowers the active recovery provided higher rate of lactate removal compared to passive recovery. Moreover, active recovery at 50% of maximal power output had better results in lactate clearance compared to the active recovery of lower intensity (25% of maximal power output).

  12. Effects of maximal doses of atorvastatin versus rosuvastatin on small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximal doses of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin are highly effective in lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels; however, rosuvastatin has been shown to be significantly more effective than atorvastatin in lowering LDL cholesterol and in increasing high-density lipo...

  13. The effect of ephedra and caffeine on maximal strength and power in resistance-trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew D; Cribb, Paul J; Cooke, Matthew B; Hayes, Alan

    2008-03-01

    Caffeine and ephedrine-related alkaloids recently have been removed from International Olympic Committee banned substances lists, whereas ephedrine itself is now permissible at urinary concentrations less than 10 mug.mL. The changes to the list may contribute to an increased use of caffeine and ephedra as ergogenic aids by athletes. Consequently, we sought to investigate the effects of ingesting caffeine (C) or a combination of ephedra and caffeine (C + E) on muscular strength and anaerobic power using a double-blind, crossover design. Forty-five minutes after ingesting a glucose placebo (P: 300 mg), C (300 mg) or C + E (300 mg + 60 mg), 9 resistance-trained male participants were tested for maximal strength by bench press [BP; 1 repetition maximum (1RM)] and latissimus dorsi pull down (LP; 1RM). Subjects also performed repeated repetitions at 80% of 1RM on both BP and LP until exhaustion. After this test, subjects underwent a 30-second Wingate test to determine peak anaerobic cycling power, mean power, and fatigue index. Although subjects reported increased alertness and enhanced mood after supplementation with caffeine and ephedra, there were no significant differences between any of the treatments in muscle strength, muscle endurance, or peak anaerobic power. Our results do not support the contention that supplementation with ephedra or caffeine will enhance either muscle strength or anaerobic exercise performance.

  14. The Effectiveness of a Pre-Exercise Performance Drink (PRX on Indices of Maximal Cardiorespiratory Fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenwood Lori

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examined the effectiveness of a pre-exercise drink (PRX called EM·PACT on indices of maximal cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty-four males (n = 12 and females (n = 12 ages 18–24 years (20.25 + 1.42, volunteered as subjects. Each subject performed two randomized trials of a VO2max treadmill test within a week of each other. Subjects in this randomized, placebo controlled, counter balanced, crossover design, ingested either a placebo (water or PRX 20 minutes before each exercise bout. VO2max and time to exhaustion (Time during graded exercise testing were evaluated. Using paired samples t-tests, significantly greater mean values were found in VO2max and Time for the PRX trial compared to the placebo trial (p 2max and Time are enhanced by ingestion of PRX prior to exercise testing. The combined results of this investigation may provide meaningful practical applications for coaches and athletes alike regarding ergogenic hydration options.

  15. Effects of acute inhalation of albuterol on submaximal and maximal VO2 and blood lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, S J; Lucia, A; Storms, W W; Wallach, J M; Vint, P F; Zimmerman, S D

    1993-07-01

    The acute effects of inhaled albuterol, a selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist, on measures of endurance cycling performance and pulmonary function were assessed in 21 competitive road cyclists. A 5 step methacholine challenge revealed all cyclists to be non-asthmatic. Albuterol (A) total dose 360 micrograms or a saline placebo (P) was administered by inhaler, in 4 metered doses of 90 micrograms each, 15 minutes before cycle ergometry exercise. Heart rate, whole blood lactate, perceived exertion and VO2 were determined at the submaximal workloads of 150, 200, 225, 250, 275, 300 watts and at max. Pulmonary function tests determining forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume during the first second of expiration, forced mid-expiratory flow and maximal voluntary ventilation were performed prior to and 10 minutes after inhalation; and 5, 10 and 15 minutes after termination of the exercise protocol. Heart rate was significantly greater during the A compared to the P treatment at 200 (150.8 +/- 2.5 vs 146.7 +/- 2.8 beats per minute), 225 (159.7 +/- 2.4 vs 154.6 +/- 2.7 beats per minute) and 250 watts (166.9 +/- 2.4 vs 164.4 +/- 2.6 beats per minute). Whole blood lactate was significantly greater during the A compared to the P treatment at 275 watts (4.7 +/- 0.3 vs 4.2 +/- 0.4 mmol.l-1). No other significant differences were found between the 2 treatments at any time point. These data indicate that the acute effect of albuterol inhalation at twice the recommended dosage has no positive effect on endurance performance measures or pulmonary function in athletes who are not asthmatic.

  16. Effects of body composition and menopause characteristics on maximal oxygen uptake of postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, Florbela da Rocha; Abrantes, Catarina Gavião; Gabriel, Ronaldo Eugénio; Sousa, Mário Fernando; Castelo-Branco, Camil; Moreira, Maria Helena

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the effects of body composition and menopause characteristics on maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) variation in postmenopausal women. The study was conducted on 208 healthy women aged 49 to 79 years. Data related to menopause were obtained through medical history. Measurements of fat mass, visceral fat area, skeletal muscle mass (SM), fat-free mass, and basal metabolic rate were assessed by octopolar bioimpedance. SM index was calculated using the formula SM index = SM/weight, and V˙O2max was assessed through a modified Bruce protocol. Cardiorespiratory fitness was negatively associated with age, percent fat mass, visceral fat area, body fat-muscular condition, and central adiposity-muscular condition. Only time elapsed since menopause revealed a statistically significant correlation with V˙O2max. Age and time of menopause aside, body fat-muscular condition was related to the V˙O2max variation, presenting an interactive effect with basal metabolic rate. Central adiposity-muscular condition also affects V˙O2max; however, the association of all interactions, age, basal metabolic rate, and time elapsed since menopause was not significant. Our data suggest an impairment of cardiorespiratory fitness with increasing age and time elapsed since menopause, but especially in the presence of increased total and central adiposity or reduced SM index. Body fat-muscular condition was significantly related to the V˙O2max variation, regardless of age and time elapsed since menopause, but not of basal metabolic rate. Central adiposity-muscular condition was a significant and independent factor of the V˙O2max exercise-related variations.

  17. Effect of land tenure and stakeholders attitudes on optimization of conservation practices in agricultural watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piemonti, A. D.; Babbar-Sebens, M.; Luzar, E. J.

    2012-12-01

    Modeled watershed management plans have become valuable tools for evaluating the effectiveness and impacts of conservation practices on hydrologic processes in watersheds. In multi-objective optimization approaches, several studies have focused on maximizing physical, ecological, or economic benefits of practices in a specific location, without considering the relationship between social systems and social attitudes on the overall optimality of the practice at that location. For example, objectives that have been commonly used in spatial optimization of practices are economic costs, sediment loads, nutrient loads and pesticide loads. Though the benefits derived from these objectives are generally oriented towards community preferences, they do not represent attitudes of landowners who might operate their land differently than their neighbors (e.g. farm their own land or rent the land to someone else) and might have different social/personal drivers that motivate them to adopt the practices. In addition, a distribution of such landowners could exist in the watershed, leading to spatially varying preferences to practices. In this study we evaluated the effect of three different land tenure types on the spatial-optimization of conservation practices. To perform the optimization, we used a uniform distribution of land tenure type and a spatially varying distribution of land tenure type. Our results show that for a typical Midwestern agricultural watershed, the most optimal solutions (i.e. highest benefits for minimum economic costs) found were for a uniform distribution of landowners who operate their own land. When a different land-tenure was used for the watershed, the optimized alternatives did not change significantly for nitrates reduction benefits and sediment reduction benefits, but were attained at economic costs much higher than the costs of the landowner who farms her/his own land. For example, landowners who rent to cash-renters would have to spend ~120

  18. Land

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Audouin, M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsustainable agricultural practices have had a role to play in the degradation of land on which agriculture depends. South Africa has an international obligation to develop a National Action Programme (NAP), the purpose of which is to identify...

  19. Effects of Eccentric Strength Training on Different Maximal Strength and Speed-Strength Parameters of the Lower Extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Klaus; Keiner, Michael; Szilvas, Elena; Hartmann, Hagen; Sander, Andre

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this investigation was to analyze the effects of an eccentric strength training protocol using supramaximal loads (>1 repetition maximum [1RM]) on different maximal and explosive strength parameters of the lower extremity. The eccentric maximal strength (EX max), maximal isometric strength ("maximal voluntary contraction" [MVC]), 1RM, explosive strength ("rate of force development" [RFD]), countermovement jump, and squat jump height were tested before and after a training period of 6 weeks. The training group was composed of 15 individuals with low-weight training experience and a control group of 13 subjects, also with a low-weight training experience. The lower extremities were trained 3 days per week using a 45° leg press. Each training session comprised 5 sets of 3 repetitions with a 6-minute rest between each set. The training weights were adjusted continuously during each training session and between training sessions. In each case, a load was chosen that could be lowered unilaterally in a controlled manner by the subjects. For the concentric part of the exercise, 2 investigators lifted the weight to the starting position. After 6 weeks, strength training with supramaximal loads showed a significant increase in EX max (28.2%, p strength training in the leg press generates equal and significant improvements in unilateral eccentric and bilateral eccentric-concentric maximal strength, with a nonsignificant transfer to vertical jump performances and unilateral isometric force production.

  20. Effects of Rate of Movement on Effective Maximal Force Generated by Elbow Extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updyke, Wynn F.; And Others

    This study investigated the effects of the velocity of muscular contraction on the effective force (torque) exerted by forty 18- to 21-year-old males. The dynomemeter lever arm, the fulcrum of which was aligned with the axis of elbow rotation, allowed extension and flexion for the subjects. All subjects were tested at three velocities (.10, .20,…

  1. Effects of ethnicity on the relationship between vertical jump and maximal power on a cycle ergometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouis Majdi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the impact of ethnicity on the maximal power-vertical jump relationship. Thirty-one healthy males, sixteen Caucasian (age: 26.3 ± 3.5 years; body height: 179.1 ± 5.5 cm; body mass: 78.1 ± 9.8 kg and fifteen Afro-Caribbean (age: 24.4 ±2.6 years; body height: 178.9 ± 5.5 cm; body mass: 77.1 ± 10.3 kg completed three sessions during which vertical jump height and maximal power of lower limbs were measured. The results showed that the values of vertical jump height and maximal power were higher for Afro-Caribbean participants (62.92 ± 6.7 cm and 14.70 ± 1.75 W∙kg-1 than for Caucasian ones (52.92 ± 4.4 cm and 12.75 ± 1.36 W∙kg-1. Moreover, very high reliability indices were obtained on vertical jump (e.g. 0.95 < ICC < 0.98 and maximal power performance (e.g. 0.75 < ICC < 0.97. However, multiple linear regression analysis showed that, for a given value of maximal power, the Afro-Caribbean participants jumped 8 cm higher than the Caucasians. Together, these results confirmed that ethnicity impacted the maximal power-vertical jump relationship over three sessions. In the current context of cultural diversity, the use of vertical jump performance as a predictor of muscular power should be considered with caution when dealing with populations of different ethnic origins.

  2. Effect of 29 days of simulated microgravity on maximal oxygen consumption and fat-free mass of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Christopher R.; Stump, Craig S.; Stump, Jane A.; Rahman, Zia; Tipton, Charles M.

    1991-01-01

    Effects of a 29-days exposure to simulated microgravity on the values of maximal oxygen consumption and fat-free mass (FFM) and on the mechanical efficiency of running were investigated in rats randomly assigned to one of three regimens: head-down suspension (HDS) at 45 deg, horizontal suspension (HS), or cage control (CC). Before suspension and on days 7, 14, 21, and 28, five exercise performance tests were carried out, with measurements related to maximal oxygen consumption, treadmill run time, and mechanical efficiency. It was found that maximal oxygen consumption of both HDS and HS groups decreased significantly at day 7, after which the HDS rats remained decreased while the HS rats returned to presuspension values. Apparent mechanical efficiency in the HDS and HS groups decreased by 22-35 percent during the experimental period, and FFM decreased significantly.

  3. Effect of 29 days of simulated microgravity on maximal oxygen consumption and fat-free mass of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Christopher R.; Stump, Craig S.; Stump, Jane A.; Rahman, Zia; Tipton, Charles M.

    1991-01-01

    Effects of a 29-days exposure to simulated microgravity on the values of maximal oxygen consumption and fat-free mass (FFM) and on the mechanical efficiency of running were investigated in rats randomly assigned to one of three regimens: head-down suspension (HDS) at 45 deg, horizontal suspension (HS), or cage control (CC). Before suspension and on days 7, 14, 21, and 28, five exercise performance tests were carried out, with measurements related to maximal oxygen consumption, treadmill run time, and mechanical efficiency. It was found that maximal oxygen consumption of both HDS and HS groups decreased significantly at day 7, after which the HDS rats remained decreased while the HS rats returned to presuspension values. Apparent mechanical efficiency in the HDS and HS groups decreased by 22-35 percent during the experimental period, and FFM decreased significantly.

  4. The acute effects of flotation restricted environmental stimulation technique on recovery from maximal eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul M; Salacinski, Amanda J; Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A

    2013-12-01

    Flotation restricted environmental stimulation technique (REST) involves compromising senses of sound, sight, and touch by creating a quiet dark environment. The individual lies supine in a tank of Epsom salt and water heated to roughly skin temperature (34-35° C). This study was performed to determine if a 1-hour flotation REST session would aid in the recovery process after maximal eccentric knee extensions and flexions. Twenty-four untrained male students (23.29 ± 2.1 years, 184.17 ± 6.85 cm, 85.16 ± 11.54 kg) participated in a randomized, repeated measures crossover study. The participants completed 2 exercise and recovery protocols: a 1-hour flotation REST session and a 1-hour seated control (passive recovery). After isometric muscle strength testing, participants were fatigued with eccentric isokinetic muscle contractions (50 repetitions at 60°·s) of the nondominant knee extensors and flexors. Blood lactate, blood glucose, heart rate, OMNI-rating of perceived exertion for resistance exercise (OMNI-RPE), perceived pain, muscle soreness, and isometric strength were collected before exercise, after treatment, and 24 and 48 hours later. A multivariate analysis of covariance found that treatment had a significant main effect on blood lactate, whereas subsequent univariate analyses of variance found statistical significance with the immediate posttreatment blood lactate measures. The results indicate that flotation REST appears to have a significant impact on blood lactate and perceived pain compared with a 1-hour passive recovery session in untrained healthy men. No difference was found between conditions for muscle strength, blood glucose, muscle soreness, heart rate, or OMNI-RPE. Flotation REST may be used for recreational and professional athletes to help reduce blood lactate levels after eccentric exercise.

  5. The acute effect of maximal exercise on plasma beta-endorphin levels in fibromyalgia patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavidel-Parsa, Banafsheh; Rajabi, Sahar; Sanaei, Omid; Toutounchi, Mehrangiz

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the effect of strenuous exercise on β-endorphine (β-END) level in fibromyalgia (FM) patients compared to healthy subjects. Methods We enrolled 30 FM patients and 15 healthy individuals. All study participants underwent a treadmill exercise test using modified Bruce protocol (M.Bruce). The goal of the test was achieving at least 70% of the predicted maximal heart rate (HRMax). The serum levels of β-END were measured before and after the exercise program. Measurements were done while heart rate was at least 70% of its predicted maximum. Results The mean ± the standard deviation (SD) of exercise duration in the FM and control groups were 24.26 ± 5.29 and 29.06 ± 3.26 minutes, respectively, indicating a shorter time to achieve the goal heart rate in FM patients (P < 0.003). Most FM patients attained 70% HRMax at lower stages (stage 2 and 3) of M.Bruce compared to the control group (70% versus 6.6%, respectively; P < 0.0001). Compared to healthy subjects, FM patients had lower serum β-END levels both in baseline and post-exercise status (Mean ± SD: 122.07 ± 28.56 µg/ml and 246.55 ± 29.57 µg/ml in the control group versus 90.12 ± 20.91 µg/ml and 179.80 ± 28.57 µg/ml in FM patients, respectively; P < 0.001). Conclusions We found that FM patients had lower levels of β-END in both basal and post-exercise status. Exercise increased serum the β-END level in both groups but the average increase in β-END in FM patients was significantly lower than in the control group. PMID:27738503

  6. Maximal exercise performance-impairing effects of simulated blast overpressure in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszkiewicz, A J; Mundie, T G; Dodd, K T

    1997-07-25

    Lung contusion has been identified as a primary blast injury. These experiments addressed a fundamental and overt endpoint of primary blast injury, incapacitation (performance decrement). Respiration, hemodynamics, and blood gases were measured in sheep undergoing incremental exercise challenge before and 1 h after simulated blast exposure of the thorax. Pathologic examination of lung tissue was performed after exposure and exercise testing. Blast overpressure was simulated in the laboratory using a compressed air-driven shock tube. Three levels of lung injury (Levels 1-3, 'Trivial', 'Slight', and 'Moderate' injury, respectively) were examined for effects on maximal oxygen consumption (VO[2max]), an index of cardiorespiratory fitness. Resting hemodynamics and blood gases were relatively normal an hour after exposure, immediately before exercise. However, Levels 1-3 lung injury were associated with average 4.8, 29.9 and 49.3% VO(2max). decreases, respectively. These performance decrements for Levels 2 and 3 were significantly different from respective controls (non-exposed). Exercise caused significant hemoconcentration in sheep under control conditions, before exposure (resting 9.5 +/- 0.9, end-exercise 11.8 +/- 0.9 g/100 ml). Blast exposure resulted in average decreases of 4.9 +/- 3.4, 12.8 +/- 4.0, and 12.6 +/- 3.3% in exercise-induced hemoconcentration for Levels 1-3 injury, respectively. Normal exercise-induced hemodynamic increases were also attenuated after exposure. Levels 2 and 3 injury resulted in average 22.6 +/- 2.9 and 18.5 +/- 11.2% stroke volume decreases, and also 22.3 +/- 8.4 and 29.0 +/- 14.2% cardiac output decreases, respectively, during exercise. While blast lung pathology and pulmonary function changes could account for post-blast performance decrements, these experiments suggest that in sheep, early after exposure, diminished hemoconcentration and cardiac disfunction may also contribute to decreased exercise performance.

  7. Spatially complex land change: The Indirect effect of Brazil's agricultural sector on land use in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Peter D; Walker, Robert T; Arima, Eugenio Y

    2014-11-01

    Soybean farming has brought economic development to parts of South America, as well as environmental hopes and concerns. A substantial hope resides in the decoupling of Brazil's agricultural sector from deforestation in the Amazon region, in which case expansive agriculture need not imply forest degradation. However, concerns have also been voiced about the potential indirect effects of agriculture. This article addresses these indirect effects forthe case of the Brazilian Amazon since 2002. Our work finds that as much as thirty-two percent of deforestation, or the loss of more than 30,000 km(2) of Amazon forest, is attributable, indirectly, to Brazil's soybean sector. However, we also observe that the magnitude of the indirect impact of the agriculture sector on forest loss in the Amazon has declined markedly since 2006. We also find a shift in the underlying causes of indirect land use change in the Amazon, and suggest that land appreciation in agricultural regions has supplanted farm expansions as a source of indirect land use change. Our results are broadly congruent with recent work recognizing the success of policy changes in mitigating the impact of soybean expansion on forest loss in the Amazon. However, they also caution that the soybean sector may continue to incentivize land clearings through its impact on regional land markets.

  8. Effects of land use on taxonomic and functional diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hevia, Violeta; Carmona, Carlos P.; Azcárate, Francisco M.

    2016-01-01

    Land-use change is the major driver of biodiversity loss. However, taxonomic diversity (TD) and functional diversity (FD) might respond differently to land-use change, and this response might also vary depending on the biotic group being analysed. In this study, we compare the TD and FD of four...... biotic groups (ants, birds, herbaceous, woody vegetation) among four land-use types that represent a gradient of land-use intensity in a Mediterranean landscape (Mediterranean shrublands, dehesas, mixed-pine forests, olive groves). Analyses were performed separately at two different spatial scales......: the sampling unit scale and the site scale. Land-use intensity effects on TD and FD were quite different and highly varied among the four biotic groups, with no single clear pattern emerging that could be considered general for all organisms. Additive partitioning of species diversity revealed clear...

  9. An Optimization Problem for Predicting the Maximal Effect of Degradation of Mechanical Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achtziger, W.; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Taylor, J. E.

    2000-01-01

    matrices, b is a vector, and x, y are the vectors of unknowns. The linear objective function to be maximized is (x, y) bar right arrow b(T)x. In a first step we investigate the problem properties such as existence of solutions and the differentiability of related marginal functions. As a by-product...

  10. Resistance training for explosive and maximal strength: effects on early and late rate of force development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Felipe B D; Oliveira, Anderson S C; Rizatto, Guilherme F; Denadai, Benedito S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify whether strength training designed to improve explosive and maximal strength would influence rate of force development (RFD). Nine men participated in a 6-week knee extensors resistance training program and 9 matched subjects participated as controls. Throughout the training sessions, subjects were instructed to perform isometric knee extension as fast and forcefully as possible, achieving at least 90% maximal voluntary contraction as quickly as possible, hold it for 5 s, and relax. Fifteen seconds separated each repetition (6-10), and 2 min separated each set (3). Pre- and post-training measurements were maximal isometric knee extensor (MVC), RFD, and RFD relative to MVC (i.e., %MVC·s(-1)) in different time-epochs varying from 10 to 250 ms from the contraction onset. The MVC (Nm) increased by 19% (275.8 ± 64.9 vs. 329.8 ± 60.4, p force can be differently influenced by resistance training. Thus, the resistance training programs should consider the specific neuromuscular demands of each sport.In active non-strength trained individuals, a short-term resistance training program designed to increase both explosive and maximal strength seems to reduce the adaptive response (i.e. increased RFDMAX) evoked by training with an intended ballistic effort (i.e. high-RFD contraction).

  11. land-use and land-use change effects on nitrous oxide emissions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    This review is aimed at exploring the effects of land-use changes and ... emissions from savanna ecosystems in Zimbabwe were 17.1 Gg N2O, while ... with a considerable atmospheric warming ... impacts of climate change have been felt in.

  12. [Effects of land use and management on soil quality of Heerqin sandy land].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yongzhong; Zhao, Halin

    2003-10-01

    The changes of soil physical, chemical and biological properties under different land use and management lasted for 14 years were investigated on the Heerqin sandy land. The results showed that among various land use systems marked differences exhibited in soil quality indicators, including soil particle composition, porosity distribution, bulk density, water-holding capacity, organic matter and nutrient contents, pH, and enzyme activities. Most of these soil quality indicators were the highest in the orchard intercropped with crops and perennial grass (agroforestry systems), intermediate in the well-management irrigated farmland, and the lowest in the less-management dry farmland. Compared to the primary grassland soil, although some soil properties, including porosity distribution, water-holding capacity, phosphorus content, and enzyme activities, were improved in the well-management systems, soil organic matter and nitrogen contents were significantly lower. It suggested that a long-term input of organic matter was needed for the restoration and reestablishment of soil carbon and nitrogen pools in the seriously degraded ecosystem. Inappropriate land use and management could rapidly worsen soil quality, and hence, from a perspective of soil resource conservation, a preferable way for preventing soil degradation and achieving sustainable land use should be to give up the cultivation of degraded dry farmlands, and to adopt more effective and appropriate soil management and cultivation practices.

  13. Effects of Single Vs. Multiple Sets Water-Based Resistance Training on Maximal Dynamic Strength in Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buttelli Adriana Cristine Koch

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of single vs. multiple sets water-based resistance training on maximal dynamic strength in young men. Twenty-one physically active young men were randomly allocated into 2 groups: a single set group (SS, n=10 and a multiple sets group (MS, n=11. The single set program consisted of only 1 set of 30 s, whereas the multiple sets comprised 3 sets of 30 s (rest interval between sets equaled 1 min 30 s. All the water-based resistance exercises were performed at maximal effort and both groups trained twice a week for 10 weeks. Upper (bilateral elbow flexors and bilateral elbow extensors, peck deck and inverse peck deck as well as lower-body (bilateral knee flexors and unilateral knee extensors one-repetition maximal tests (1RM were used to assess changes in muscle strength. The training-related effects were assessed using repeated measures two-way ANOVA (α=5%. Both SS and MS groups increased the upper and lower-body 1RM, with no differences between groups. Therefore, these data show that the maximal dynamic strength significantly increases in young men after 10 weeks of training in an aquatic environment, although the improvement in the strength levels is independent of the number of sets performed.

  14. Effect of 50% and maximal inspired oxygen concentrations on respiratory variables in isoflurane-anesthetized horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerche Phillip

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 0.5 fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 and >0.95 FiO2 on pulmonary gas exchange, shunt fraction and oxygen delivery (DO2 in dorsally recumbent horses during inhalant anesthesia. The use of 0.5 FiO2 has the potential to reduce absorption atelectasis (compared to maximal FiO2 and augment alveolar oxygen (O2 tensions (compared to ambient air thereby improving gas exchange and DO2. Our hypothesis was that 0.5 FiO2 would reduce ventilation-perfusion mismatching and increase the fraction of pulmonary blood flow that is oxygenated, thus improving arterial oxygen content and DO2. Results Arterial partial pressures of O2 were significantly higher than preanesthetic levels at all times during anesthesia in the >0.95 FiO2 group. Arterial partial pressures of O2 did not change from preanesthetic levels in the 0.5 FiO2 group but were significantly lower than in the >0.95 FiO2 group from 15 to 90 min of anesthesia. Alveolar to arterial O2 tension difference was increased significantly in both groups during anesthesia compared to preanesthetic values. The alveolar to arterial O2 tension difference was significantly higher at all times in the >0.95 FiO2 group compared to the 0.5 FiO2 group. Oxygen delivery did not change from preanesthetic values in either group during anesthesia but was significantly lower than preanesthetic values 10 min after anesthesia in the 0.5 FiO2 group. Shunt fraction increased in both groups during anesthesia attaining statistical significance at varying times. Shunt fraction was significantly increased in both groups 10 min after anesthesia but was not different between groups. Alveolar dead space ventilation increased after 3 hr of anesthesia in both groups. Conclusions Reducing FiO2 did not change alveolar dead space ventilation or shunt fraction in dorsally recumbent, mechanically ventilated horses during 3 hr of isoflurane anesthesia. Reducing FiO2 in

  15. Effect of iron supplementation on maximal oxygen uptake in female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađen Slavica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Iron is a vital constituent of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and some mitochondrial enzymes; therefore, body iron deficiency may result in reduced aerobic capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of daily oral iron supplementation on body iron status, and the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max in female athletes with latent iron deficiency, as well as with irondeficiency anemia. Methods. A total of 37 female volleyball players were included in the study. Seventeen female athletes had latent iron deficiency, and 20 ones iron deficiency anemia. Both groups were divided into the experimental and the control group. The experimental groups received a daily oral iron supplement (200 mg ferrous sulfate, for a two-month training course. Iron status was determined by serum parameters as follows: red blood cells count, hemoglobin concentration, serum iron and ferritin levels, an unsaturated iron binding capacity, total iron binding capacity and transferrin saturation. VO2max was determined by an indirect test. Results. Statistical difference between the latent iron deficient group versus the iron deficient anemic group was found regarding VO2max (p < 0.001. There were correlations between hemoglobin concentration and VO2max in the latent iron deficient group, as well as in the iron deficient anaemic group (p < 0.05. After two months, there was a significant increase in VO2max in all groups (from 7.0% to 18.2%. Values of VO2max at the end of training period were significantly different (45.98 ± 1.76 vs 42.40 ± 1.22 mL/kg/min; p <0.001 between the experimental and the control group only in female athletes with iron deficiency anemia. After the supplementation, markers of iron status were significantly higher in supplemented groups than in the controls. Conclusion. VO2max was significantly lower in the iron deficient anemic group versus the latent iron deficient group. Iron supplementation during a two-month training period

  16. Effects of rocket engines on laser during lunar landing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Xiong, E-mail: wanxiong1@126.com [Key Laboratory of Space Active Opto-Electronics Technology, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 200083 (China); Key Laboratory of Nondestructive Test (Ministry of Education), Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Shu, Rong; Huang, Genghua [Key Laboratory of Space Active Opto-Electronics Technology, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 200083 (China)

    2013-11-15

    In the Chinese moon exploration project “ChangE-3”, the laser telemeter and lidar are important equipments on the lunar landing vehicle. A low-thrust vernier rocket engine works during the soft landing, whose plume may influence on the laser equipments. An experiment has first been accomplished to evaluate the influence of the plume on the propagation characteristics of infrared laser under the vacuum condition. Combination with our theoretical analysis has given an appropriate assessment of the plume's effects on the infrared laser hence providing a valuable basis for the design of lunar landing systems.

  17. Effects of exercise training on maximal oxygen uptake in heart failure : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kaski, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Aims. Low cardiorespiratory fitness is a common physical status among patients with heart failure. Several studies have examined the effects of exercise training on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in heart failure. Though, these studies had relatively small sample sizes and highly variable results. Therefore the aim of this study was to systemically review the effects of exercise training on VO2max in heart failure patients. Methods. Database search of randomized controlled t...

  18. Using return on investment to maximize conservation effectiveness in Argentine grasslands

    OpenAIRE

    Murdoch, William; Ranganathan, Jai; Polasky, Stephen; Regetz, James

    2010-01-01

    The rapid global loss of natural habitats and biodiversity, and limited resources, place a premium on maximizing the expected benefits of conservation actions. The scarcity of information on the fine-grained distribution of species of conservation concern, on risks of loss, and on costs of conservation actions, especially in developing countries, makes efficient conservation difficult. The distribution of ecosystem types (unique ecological communities) is typically better known than species a...

  19. Watershed land use effects on lake water quality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders; Trolle, Dennis; Søndergaard, Martin

    2012-01-01

    in the watershed. When examining the effect of different near-freshwater land zones in contrast to the entire watershed, relationships generally improved with size of zone (25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 m from the edge of lake and streams) but were by far strongest using the entire watershed. The proportion......Mitigating nutrient losses from anthropogenic nonpoint sources is today of particular importance for improving the water quality of numerous freshwater lakes worldwide. Several empirical relationships between land use and in-lake water quality variables have been developed, but they are often weak......, which can in part be attributed to lack of detailed information about land use activities or point sources. We examined a comprehensive data set comprising land use data, point-source information, and in-lake water quality for 414 Danish lakes. By excluding point-source-influenced lakes (n = 210...

  20. Effect of concurrent training, flexible nonlinear periodization, and maximal-effort cycling on strength and power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, John M; Stearne, David J

    2013-06-01

    Although there is considerable research on concurrent training, none has integrated flexible nonlinear periodization and maximal-effort cycling in the same design. The purpose of this investigation was to test outcome measures of strength and power using a pretest-posttest randomized groups design. A strength and endurance (SE) group was compared with a strength, endurance, and maximal-effort cycling (SEC) group. Both groups used a flexible nonlinear periodization design. Thirteen male and 7 female students (mean ± SD: age, 22.5 ± 4.1 years; height, 173.5 ± 12.4 cm; weight, 79.4 ± 20.2 kg; strength training experience, 2.4 ± 2.2 years) participated in this study. Groups were not matched for age, height, weight, strength training experience, or sex, but were randomly assigned to an SE (n = 10) or SEC (n = 10) group. All training was completed within 45 minutes, twice per week (Monday and Wednesday), over 12 consecutive weeks. Both groups were assigned 6.75 total hours of aerobic conditioning, and 13.5 hours of free weight and machine exercises totaling 3,188 repetitions ranging from 5 to 20 repetition maximums. The SEC group performed 2 cycling intervals per workout ranging from 10 to 45 seconds. Pretest and posttest measures included chest press and standing broad jump. Analysis of variance showed that there were no significant differences between the SE and SEC groups on measures of chest press or standing broad jump performance (p, not significant). Paired sample t-tests (p = 0.05) showed significant improvement in strength and power in all groups (pretest to posttest), except for SE jump performance (p, not significant). In conclusion, adding maximal-effort cycling does not provide additional strength or power benefits to a concurrent flexible nonlinear training program. However, an exercise professional can take confidence that a concurrent flexible nonlinear training program can increase strength and power in healthy individuals.

  1. Effect of land use land cover change on soil erosion potential in an agricultural watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arabinda; Tiwari, Kamlesh N; Bhadoria, P B S

    2011-02-01

    Universal soil loss equation (USLE) was used in conjunction with a geographic information system to determine the influence of land use and land cover change (LUCC) on soil erosion potential of a reservoir catchment during the period 1989 to 2004. Results showed that the mean soil erosion potential of the watershed was increased slightly from 12.11 t ha(-1) year(-1) in the year 1989 to 13.21 t ha(-1) year(-1) in the year 2004. Spatial analysis revealed that the disappearance of forest patches from relatively flat areas, increased in wasteland in steep slope, and intensification of cultivation practice in relatively more erosion-prone soil were the main factors contributing toward the increased soil erosion potential of the watershed during the study period. Results indicated that transition of other land use land cover (LUC) categories to cropland was the most detrimental to watershed in terms of soil loss while forest acted as the most effective barrier to soil loss. A p value of 0.5503 obtained for two-tailed paired t test between the mean erosion potential of microwatersheds in 1989 and 2004 also indicated towards a moderate change in soil erosion potential of the watershed over the studied period. This study revealed that the spatial location of LUC parcels with respect to terrain and associated soil properties should be an important consideration in soil erosion assessment process.

  2. Effects of Crop Growth and Development on Land Surface Fluxes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Feng; XIE Zhenghui

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the Crop Estimation through Resource and Environment Synthesis model (CERES3.0) was coupled into the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS), which is called BATS_CERES, to represent interactions between the land surface and crop growth processes. The effects of crop growth and development on land surface processes were then studied based on numerical simulations using the land surface models. Six sensitivity experiments by BATS show that the land surface fluxes underwent substantial changes when the leaf area index was changed from 0 to 6 n2 m-2. Numerical experiments for Yucheng and Taoyuan stations reveal that the coupled model could capture not only the responses of crop growth and development to environmental conditions, but also the feedbacks to land surface processes.For quantitative evaluation of the effects of crop growth and development on surface fluxes in China, two numerical experiments were conducted over continental China: one by BATS_CERES and one by the original BATS. Comparison of the two runs shows decreases of leaf area index and fractional vegetation cover when incorporating dynamic crops in land surface simulation, which lead to less canopy interception, vegetation transpiration, total evapotranspiration, top soil moisture, and more soil evaporation, surface runoff, and root zone soil moisture. These changes are accompanied by decreasing latent heat flux and increasing sensible heat flux in the cropland region. In addition, the comparison between the simulations and observations proved that incorporating the crop growth and development process into the land surface model could reduce the systematic biases of the simulated leaf area index and top soil moisture, hence improve the simulation of land surface fluxes.

  3. Effective radiative forcing from historical land use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Timothy; Betts, Richard A.; Booth, Ben B. B.; Jones, Chris D.; Jones, Gareth S.

    2017-06-01

    The effective radiative forcing (ERF) from the biogeophysical effects of historical land use change is quantified using the atmospheric component of the Met Office Hadley Centre Earth System model HadGEM2-ES. The global ERF at 2005 relative to 1860 (1700) is -0.4 (-0.5) Wm-2, making it the fourth most important anthropogenic driver of climate change over the historical period (1860-2005) in this model and larger than most other published values. The land use ERF is found to be dominated by increases in the land surface albedo, particularly in North America and Eurasia, and occurs most strongly in the northern hemisphere winter and spring when the effect of unmasking underlying snow, as well as increasing the amount of snow, is at its largest. Increased bare soil fraction enhances the seasonal cycle of atmospheric dust and further enhances the ERF. Clouds are shown to substantially mask the radiative effect of changes in the underlying surface albedo. Coupled atmosphere-ocean simulations forced only with time-varying historical land use change shows substantial global cooling (d T = -0.35 K by 2005) and the climate resistance (ERF/d T = 1.2 Wm-2 K-1) is consistent with the response of the model to increases in CO2 alone. The regional variation in land surface temperature change, in both fixed-SST and coupled atmosphere-ocean simulations, is found to be well correlated with the spatial pattern of the forced change in surface albedo. The forcing-response concept is found to work well for historical land use forcing—at least in our model and when the forcing is quantified by ERF. Our results suggest that land-use changes over the past century may represent a more important driver of historical climate change then previously recognised and an underappreciated source of uncertainty in global forcings and temperature trends over the historical period.

  4. The global land Cryosphere Radiative Effect during the MODIS era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D.; Flanner, M. G.; Perket, J.

    2015-07-01

    Cryosphere Radiative Effect (CrRE) is the instantaneous influence of snow- and ice-cover on Earth's top of atmosphere (TOA) solar energy budget. Here, we apply measurements from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), combined with microwave retrievals of snow presence and radiative kernels produced from 4 different models, to derive CrRE over global land during 2001-2013. We estimate global annual mean land CrRE during this period of -2.6 W m-2, with variations from -2.2 to -3.0 W m-2 resulting from use of different kernels, and variations of -2.4 to -2.6 W m-2 resulting from different algorithmic determinations of snow presence and surface albedo. Slightly more than half of the global land CrRE originates from perennial snow on Antarctica, whereas the majority of the Northern Hemisphere effect originates from seasonal snow. Consequently, the Northern Hemisphere land CrRE peaks at -6.0 W m-2 in April, whereas the Southern Hemisphere effect more closely follows the austral insolation cycle, peaking in December. Mountain glaciers resolved in 0.05° MODIS data contribute about -0.037 W m-2 (1.4 %) of the global effect, with the majority (94 %) of this contribution originating from the Himalayas. Inter-annual trends in the global annual mean land CrRE are not statistically significant during the MODIS era, but trends are positive (less negative) over large areas of Northern Asia, especially during spring, and slightly negative over Antarctica, possibly due to increased snowfall. During a common overlap period of 2001-2008, our MODIS estimates of the Northern Hemisphere land CrRE are about 18 % smaller (less negative) than previous estimates derived from coarse-resolution AVHRR data, though inter-annual variations are well correlated (r = 0.78), indicating that these data are useful in determining longer term trends in land CrRE.

  5. Effects of temperature on the maximal instantaneous muscle power of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, G; Ishii, M; Moia, C; Cerretelli, P

    1992-01-01

    The maximal instantaneous muscle power (wi,max) probably reflects the maximal rate of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis (ATPmax), a temperature-dependent variable, which gives rise to the hypothesis that temperature, by affecting ATPmax, may also influence wi,max. This hypothesis was tested on six subjects, whose vastus lateralis muscle temperature (Tmuscle) was monitored by a thermocouple inserted approximately 3 cm below the skin surface. The Wi,max was determined during a series of high jumps off both feet on a force platform before and after immersion up to the abdomen for 90 min in a temperature controlled (T = 20 +/- 0.1 degrees C) water bath. Control Tmuscle was 35.8 +/- 0.7 degrees C, with control Wi,max being 51.6 (SD 8.7) W.kg-1. After cold exposure, Tmuscle decreased by about 8 degrees C, whereas wi,max 27% lower. The temperature dependence of Wi,max was found to be less (Q10 less than 1.5, where Q10 is the temperature coefficient as calculated in other studies) than reported in the literature for ATPmax. Such a low Q10 may reflect an increase in the mechanical equivalent of ATP splitting, as a consequence of the reduced velocity of muscle contraction occurring at low Tmuscle.

  6. The effect of a physiological concentration of caffeine on the endurance of maximally and submaximally stimulated mouse soleus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallis, Jason; James, Rob S; Cox, Val M; Duncan, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    The use of caffeine as an ergogenic aid to promote endurance has been widely studied, with human literature showing the greatest benefit during submaximal muscle activities. Recent evidence suggests that the acute treatment of skeletal muscle with physiological concentrations of caffeine (70 μM maximum) will directly potentiate force production. The aims of the present study are: firstly, to assess the effects of a physiological concentration (70 μM) of caffeine on endurance in maximally activated mouse soleus (relatively slow) muscle; and secondly, to examine whether endurance changes when muscle is activated submaximally during caffeine treatment. Maximally stimulated soleus muscle treated with 70 μM caffeine resulted in a significant (17.6 %) decrease in endurance. In contrast, at a submaximal stimulation frequency, caffeine treatment significantly prolonged endurance (by 19.2 %). Findings are activation-dependent such that, during high frequency stimulation, caffeine accelerates fatigue, whereas, during low frequency stimulation, caffeine delays fatigue.

  7. Effect of energy expenditure and training status on leptin response to sub-maximal cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouassida, Anissa; Chatard, Jean-Claude; Chamari, Karim; Zaouali, Monia; Feki, Youssef; Gharbi, Najoua; Zbidi, Abdelkarim; Tabka, Zouhaïr

    2009-01-01

    We examined the leptin response and related hormones during and after two sub-maximal exercise protocols in trained and untrained subjects. During this study, plasma concentrations of leptin [Lep], insulin [I], cortisol [C], growth hormone [GH], glucose [G] and lactate [La] were measured. 7 elite volleyball trained players (TR) and 7 untrained (UTR) subjects (percent body fat: 13.2 ± 1.8 versus 15.7 ± 1.0, p < 0.01, respectively) were examined after short and prolonged sub-maximal cycling exercise protocols (SP and PP). Venous blood samples were collected before each protocol, during, at the end, and after 2 and 24 h of recovery. SP and PP energy expenditures ranged from 470 ± 60 to 740 ± 90 kcal for TR and from 450 ± 60 to 710 ± 90 kcal for UTR, respectively. [Lep] was related to body fat percentage and body fat mass in TR (r = 0. 84, p < 0.05 and r = 0.93, p < 0.01) and in UTR (r = 0.89, p < 0.01 and r = 0.92, p < 0. 01, respectively). [Lep] did not change significantly during both protocols for both groups but was lower (p < 0.05) in all sampling in TR when compared to UTR. Plasma [I] decreased (p < 0.01) and [GH] increased (p < 0.01) significantly during both SP and PP and these hormones remained lower (I: p < 0.01) and higher (GH: p < 0.01) than pre-exercise levels after a 2-h recovery period, returning to base-line at 24-h recovery. Plasma [La] increased (p < 0.01) during both protocols for TR and UTR. There was no significant change in [C] and [G] during and after both protocols for all subjects. It is concluded that 1) leptin is not sensitive to acute short or prolonged sub-maximal exercises (with energy expenditure under 800 kcal) in volleyball/ anaerobically trained athletes as in untrained subjects, 2) volleyball athletes showed significantly lower resting and exercise leptin response with respect to untrained subjects and 3) it appears that in these anaerobically trained athletes leptin response to exercise is more sensitive to the level of energy

  8. EFFECT OF ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND TRAINING STATUS ON LEPTIN RESPONSE TO SUB-MAXIMAL CYCLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anissa Bouassida

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the leptin response and related hormones during and after two sub-maximal exercise protocols in trained and untrained subjects. During this study, plasma concentrations of leptin [Lep], insulin [I], cortisol [C], growth hormone [GH], glucose [G] and lactate [La] were measured. 7 elite volleyball trained players (TR and 7 untrained (UTR subjects (percent body fat: 13.2 ± 1.8 versus 15.7 ± 1.0, p < 0.01, respectively were examined after short and prolonged sub-maximal cycling exercise protocols (SP and PP. Venous blood samples were collected before each protocol, during, at the end, and after 2 and 24 h of recovery. SP and PP energy expenditures ranged from 470 ± 60 to 740 ± 90 kcal for TR and from 450 ± 60 to 710 ± 90 kcal for UTR, respectively. [Lep] was related to body fat percentage and body fat mass in TR (r = 0. 84, p < 0.05 and r = 0.93, p < 0.01 and in UTR (r = 0.89, p < 0.01 and r = 0.92, p < 0. 01, respectively. [Lep] did not change significantly during both protocols for both groups but was lower (p < 0.05 in all sampling in TR when compared to UTR. Plasma [I] decreased (p < 0.01 and [GH] increased (p < 0.01 significantly during both SP and PP and these hormones remained lower (I: p < 0.01 and higher (GH: p < 0.01 than pre-exercise levels after a 2-h recovery period, returning to base-line at 24-h recovery. Plasma [La] increased (p < 0.01 during both protocols for TR and UTR. There was no significant change in [C] and [G] during and after both protocols for all subjects. It is concluded that 1 leptin is not sensitive to acute short or prolonged sub-maximal exercises (with energy expenditure under 800 kcal in volleyball/ anaerobically trained athletes as in untrained subjects, 2 volleyball athletes showed significantly lower resting and exercise leptin response with respect to untrained subjects and 3 it appears that in these anaerobically trained athletes leptin response to exercise is more sensitive to the level of

  9. Biofuels and Land use in Sweden - An overview of land-use change effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, J. [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Ahlgren, S. [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden); Grahn, M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Sundberg, C. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)] [and others

    2013-09-01

    Supported by policies, biofuel production has been continuously increasing worldwide during recent years owing to a scientific consensus that human-induced global warming is a reality and the need to reduce import dependency of fossil fuels. However, concerns have been raised that bio-fuels, often advocated as the future substitute for greenhouse gas (GHG) intensive fossil fuels, may cause negative effects on the climate and the environment. When assessing GHG emissions from biofuels, the production phase of the biofuel crop is essential since this is the phase in which most of the GHG emissions occur during the life cycle of the fuel (not accounting for biogenic CO{sub 2} from the tailpipe). Much research has been focusing on the GHG performance of biofuels, but there are also a range of other possible environmental effects of biofuel production, often linked to land use and land management. Changes in land use can result from a wide range of anthropogenic activities including agriculture and forestry management, livestock and biofuel production. Direct effects of land-use change (LUC) range from changes of carbon stock in standing biomass to biodiversity impacts and nutrient leakage. Beside the direct effects, indirect effects can influence other uses of land through market forces across countries and continents. These indirect effects are complex to measure and observe. This report provides an overview of a much debated issue: the connection between LUC and bio-fuel production and associated potential impacts on a wide range of aspects (i.e., soil chemistry, biodiversity, socio economics, climate change, and policy). The main purpose of the report is to give a broad overview of the literature on LUC impacts from biofuel production, not only taking into account the link between LUC and GHG, which has been addressed in many other studies. The report first presents a review of the literature in the different scientific areas related to LUC and biofuel production

  10. The Effects of Minimal Length, Maximal Momentum, and Minimal Momentum in Entropic Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Wen Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modified entropic force law is studied by using a new kind of generalized uncertainty principle which contains a minimal length, a minimal momentum, and a maximal momentum. Firstly, the quantum corrections to the thermodynamics of a black hole are investigated. Then, according to Verlinde’s theory, the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP corrected entropic force is obtained. The result shows that the GUP corrected entropic force is related not only to the properties of the black holes but also to the Planck length and the dimensionless constants α0 and β0. Moreover, based on the GUP corrected entropic force, we also derive the modified Einstein’s field equation (EFE and the modified Friedmann equation.

  11. Lifting speed preferences and their effects on the maximal lifting capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe; Cheng, Chih-Feng

    2017-02-07

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate how lifting capacity and subjective preferences are affected by different lifting speeds. The maximum lifting capacity of lift was determined with three independent variables, lifting speed, lifting technique, and lifting height. Questionnaires were evaluated after the experiment by the participants for the lifting speed preferences. This study found that the lifting speed was a significant factor in the lifting capacity (plifting height (plifting speed and lifting height (p=0.005) affected the lifting capacity significantly. The maximal lifting capacity was achieved around the optimal speed that was neither too fast nor too slow. Moreover, the participants' preferred lifting speeds were consistently close to the optimal lifting speed. The results showed that the common lifting practice guideline to lift slowly might make the worker unable to generate a large lifting capacity.

  12. An effective control strategy to maximize power extraction from wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouhadjer, Samir; Benmedjahed, Miloud; Neçaïbia, Ammar

    2016-07-01

    Among the various identifiable renewable energies sources, one holds the attention in this study for its important potential in the world; it's about wind energy. Our objective in this present work is to contribute a share to the research solution to the problems of coupling between this energy source and the load; it's about the transfer of the maximum power to the latter which often suffers from a bad matching. In order to maximize the wind power extraction, this work describes design of a PWM rectifier controller for wind turbines. Generic PWM rectifier is used and PICl6F876 Microcontroller is proposed. The goal of the controller is to keep operating point as close to the maximum efficiency as possible.

  13. The Effects of Minimal Length, Maximal Momentum and Minimal Momentum in Entropic Force

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Zhongwen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize the entropic force law via a phenomenological interpretation of a most general kind of generalized uncertainty principle, which contains a minimal length, a minimal momentum and a maximal momentum. We first study the quantum corrections to the thermodynamics of black hole. Then, inspired by Verlinde's theory, the modified thermodynamics leads to the GUP corrected entropic force. The result shows that the GUP corrected entropic force do not only related to the properties of the black holes, but also affected by the Planck length, the dimensionless constants \\(alpha_0\\) and \\(beta_0\\). Based on the GUP corrected entropic force, we also derive the modified Einstein's field equations and the modified Friedmann equations.

  14. The Effects of Minimal Length, Maximal Momentum and Minimal Momentum in Entropic Force

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Zhong-Wen; Li, Hui-Ling; Zu, Xiao-Tao

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the modified entropic force law is studied by using a new kind of generalized uncertainty principle which contains a minimal length, a minimal momentum and a maximal momentum. Firstly, the quantum corrections to the thermodynamics of a black hole is investigated. Then, according to Verlinde's theory, the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) corrected entropic force is obtained. The result shows that the GUP corrected entropic force is related not only to the properties of the black holes, but also to the Planck length and the dimensionless constants \\alpha_0\\ and \\beta_0\\. Moreover, based on the GUP corrected entropic force, we also derive the modified Einstein's field equation (EFE) and the modified Friedmann equation.

  15. Maximal CP violation in the Higgs sector and its effect on the $\\varrho$ parameter

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, G C; Tanimoto, M; Grish C Joshi; Masahisa Matsuda; Morimitsu Tanimoto

    1994-01-01

    Abstract:We study the conditions of maximal CP violation in the neutral Higgs mass matrix of the two Higgs doublet model. We get fixed values of \\tan\\b and constraints on the Higgs potential parameters. Two neutral Higgs scalars are constrained to be lighter than the charged Higgs scalar and these two Higgs scalars are expected to be almost degenerate due to the smallness of the h parameter, where h is the CP violating coupling constant of the Higgs interaction. The radiative correction of the \\rho parameter from the Higgs scalar exchange is rather small and its sign negative for a wide range of Higgs masses. It follows that maximum CP violation in the two Higgs doublet model is safely allowed for the \\rho parameter without the custodial symmetry.

  16. Planting Jatropha curcas on Constrained Land: Emission and Effects from Land Use Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Firdaus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to assess carbon emission and carbon loss caused from land use change (LUC of converting a wasteland into a Jatropha curcas plantation. The study was conducted for 12 months at a newly established Jatropha curcas plantation in Port Dickson, Malaysia. Assessments of soil carbon dioxide (CO2 flux, changes of soil total carbon and plant biomass loss and growth were made on the wasteland and on the established plantation to determine the effects of land preparation (i.e., tilling and removal of the wasteland's native vegetation. Overall soil CO2 flux showed no significant difference (<0.05 between the two plots while no significant changes (<0.05 on soil total carbon at both plots were detected. It took 1.5 years for the growth of Jatropha curcas to recover the biomass carbon stock lost during land conversion. As far as the present study is concerned, converting wasteland to Jatropha curcas showed no adverse effects on the loss of carbon from soil and biomass and did not exacerbate soil respiration.

  17. The effect of aircraft control forces on pilot performance during instrument landings in a flight simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, D J; McNair, P J; Marshall, R N

    2001-07-01

    Pilots may have difficulty controlling aircraft at both high and low force levels due to larger variability in force production at these force levels. The aim of this study was to measure the force variability and landing performance of pilots during an instrument landing in a flight simulator. There were 12 pilots who were tested while performing 5 instrument landings in a flight simulator, each of which required different control force inputs. Pilots can produce the least force when pushing the control column to the right, therefore the force levels for the landings were set relative to each pilot's maximum aileron-right force. The force levels for the landings were 90%, 60%, and 30% of maximal aileron-right force, normal force, and 25% of normal force. Variables recorded included electromyographic activity (EMG), aircraft control forces, aircraft attitude, perceived exertion and deviation from glide slope and heading. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to test for differences between landings. Pilots were least accurate in landing performance during the landing at 90% of maximal force (p < 0.05). There was also a trend toward decreased landing performance during the landing at 25% of normal force. Pilots were more variable in force production during the landings at 60% and 90% of maximal force (p < 0.05). Pilots are less accurate at performing instrument landings when control forces are high due to the increased variability of force production. The increase in variability at high force levels is most likely associated with motor unit recruitment, rather than rate coding. Aircraft designers need to consider the reduction in pilot performance at high force levels, as well as pilot strength limits when specifying new standards.

  18. Effects of historical land cover changes on climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI ZhengGuo; YAN XiaoDong; YIN ChongHua; WANG ZhaoMin

    2007-01-01

    In order to explore the influence of anthropogenic land use on the climate system during the last millennium, a set of experiments is performed with an Earth system model of intermediate complexity--the McGill Paleoclimate Model (MPM-2). The present paper mainly focuses on biogeophysical effects of historical land cover changes. A dynamic scenario of deforestation is described based on changes in cropland fraction (RF99). The model simulates a decrease in global mean annual temperature in the range of 0.09-0.16℃, especially 0.14-0.22℃ in Northern Hemisphere during the last 300 years. The responses of climate system to GHGs concentration changes are also calculated for comparisons. Now, afforestation is becoming an important choice for the enhancement of terrestrial carbon sequestration and adjustment of regional climate. The results indicate that biogeophysical effects of land cover changes cannot be neglected in the assessments of climate change.

  19. Interaction effects of climate and land use/land cover change on soil organic carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiong; Grunwald, Sabine; Myers, D Brenton; Ross, C Wade; Harris, Willie G; Comerford, Nicolas B

    2014-09-15

    Historically, Florida soils stored the largest amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) among the conterminous U.S. states (2.26 Pg). This region experienced rapid land use/land cover (LULC) shifts and climate change in the past decades. The effects of these changes on SOC sequestration are unknown. The objectives of this study were to 1) investigate the change in SOC stocks in Florida to determine if soils have acted as a net sink or net source for carbon (C) over the past four decades and 2) identify the concomitant effects of LULC, LULC change, and climate on the SOC change. A total of 1080 sites were sampled in the topsoil (0-20 cm) between 2008 and 2009 representing the current SOC stocks, 194 of which were selected to collocate with historical sites (n = 1251) from the Florida Soil Characterization Database (1965-1996) for direct comparison. Results show that SOC stocks significantly differed among LULC classes--sugarcane and wetland contained the highest SOC, followed by improved pasture, urban, mesic upland forest, rangeland, and pineland while crop, citrus and xeric upland forest remained the lowest. The surface 20 cm soils acted as a net sink for C with the median SOC significantly increasing from 2.69 to 3.40 kg m(-2) over the past decades. The SOC sequestration rate was LULC dependent and controlled by climate factors interacting with LULC. Higher temperature tended to accelerate SOC accumulation, while higher precipitation reduced the SOC sequestration rate. Land use/land cover change observed over the past four decades also favored the C sequestration in soils due to the increase in the C-rich wetland area by ~140% and decrease in the C-poor agricultural area by ~20%. Soils are likely to provide a substantial soil C sink considering the climate and LULC projections for this region.

  20. Effective UV surface albedo of seasonally snow-covered lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanskanen, A.; Manninen, T.

    2007-05-01

    At ultraviolet wavelengths the albedo of most natural surfaces is small with the striking exception of snow and ice. Therefore, snow cover is a major challenge for various applications based on radiative transfer modelling. The aim of this work was to determine the characteristic effective UV range surface albedo of various land cover types when covered by snow. First we selected 1 by 1 degree sample regions that met three criteria: the sample region contained dominantly subpixels of only one land cover type according to the 8 km global land cover classification product from the University of Maryland; the average slope of the sample region was less than 2 degrees according to the USGS's HYDRO1K slope data; the sample region had snow cover in March according to the NSIDC Northern Hemisphere weekly snow cover data. Next we generated 1 by 1 degree gridded 360 nm surface albedo data from the Nimbus-7 TOMS Lambertian equivalent reflectivity data, and used them to construct characteristic effective surface albedo distributions for each land cover type. The resulting distributions showed that each land cover type experiences a characteristic range of surface albedo values when covered by snow. The result is explained by the vegetation that extends upward beyond the snow cover and masks the bright snow covered surface.

  1. EFFECTS OF BETWEEN-SET INTERVENTIONS ON NEUROMUSCULAR FUNCTION DURING ISOKINETIC MAXIMAL CONCENTRIC CONTRACTIONS OF THE KNEE EXTENSORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Cometti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The presents study investigated the effects of between-set interventions on neuromuscular function of the knee extensors during six sets of 10 isokinetic (120°·s-1 maximal concentric contractions separated by three minutes. Twelve healthy men (age: 23.9 ± 2.4 yrs were tested for four different between-set recovery conditions applied during two minutes: passive recovery, active recovery (cycling, electromyostimulation and stretching, in a randomized, crossover design. Before, during and at the end of the isokinetic session, torque and thigh muscles electromyographic activity were measured during maximal voluntary contractions and electrically-evoked doublets. Activation level was calculated using the twitch interpolation technique. While quadriceps electromyographic activity and activation level were significantly decreased at the end of the isokinetic session (-5.5 ± 14.2 % and -2.7 ± 4.8 %; p < 0.05, significant decreases in maximal voluntary contractions and doublets were observed after the third set (respectively -0.8 ± 12.1% and -5.9 ± 9.9%; p < 0.05. Whatever the recovery modality applied, torque was back to initial values after each recovery period. The present results showed that fatigue appeared progressively during the isokinetic session with peripheral alterations occurring first followed by central ones. Recovery interventions between sets did not modify fatigue time course as compared with passive recovery. It appears that the interval between sets (3 min was long enough to provide recovery regardless of the interventions

  2. A Preliminary Study of the Carbon Emissions Reduction Effects of Land Use Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuai, Xiaowei; Huang, Xianjin; Qi, Xinxian; Li, Jiasheng; Zuo, Tianhui; Lu, Qinli; Li, Jianbao; Wu, Changyan; Zhao, Rongqin

    2016-11-01

    Land use change not only directly influences carbon storage in terrestrial ecosystems but can also cause energy-related carbon emissions. This study examined spatiotemporal land use change across Jiangsu Province, China; calculated vegetation carbon storage loss caused by land use change and energy-related carbon emissions; analysed the relationship among land use change, carbon emissions and social-economic development; and optimized land use structure to maximize carbon storage. Our study found that 13.61% of the province’s land area underwent a change in type of land use between 1995 and 2010, mainly presented as built-up land expansion and cropland shrinkage, especially in southern Jiangsu. Land use change caused a 353.99 × 104 t loss of vegetation carbon storage loss. Energy-related carbon emissions increased 2.5 times from 1995 to 2013; the energy consumption structure has been improved to some extent while still relying on coal. The selected social-economic driving forces have strong relationships with carbon emissions and land use changes, while there are also other determinants driving land use change, such as land use policy. The optimized land use structure will slow the rate of decline in vegetation carbon storage compared with the period between 1995 and 2010 and will also reduce energy-related carbon emissions by 12%.

  3. [Maximal exercise in spinal cord injured subjects: effects of an antigravity suit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi-Grossin, C; Bonnin, P; Bailliart, O; Bazzi, H; Kedra, A W; Martineaud, J P

    1996-01-01

    Paraplegics have low aerobic capacity because of the spinal cord injury. Their functional muscle mass is reduced and usually untrained. They have to use upperbody muscles for displacements and daily activities. Sympathic nervous system injury is responsible of vasomotricity disturbances in leg vessels and possible abdominal vessels, proportionally to level injury. If cord injury level is higher than T5, then sympathic cardiac efferences may be damaged. Underbody muscles atrophy and vasomotricity disturbances contribute to phlebostasis. This stasis may decrease venous return, preload and stroke volume (Starling). To maintain appropriate cardiac output, tachycardia is necessary, especially during exercise. Low stroke volume, all the more since it is associated with cardio-acceleration disturbances, may reduce cardiac output reserve, and so constitutes a limiting factor for adaptation to exercise. The aim of this study was to verify if use of an underlesional pressure suit may increase cardiac output reserve because of lower venous stasis, and increase performance. We studied 10 able-bodied and 14 traumatic paraplegic subjects. Able-bodied subjects were 37 +/- 6 years old, wellbeing, not especially trained with upperbody muscles: there were 2 women and 8 men. Paraplegics were 27 +/- 7 years old, wellbeing except paraplegia, five of them practiced sport regularly (athletism or basket for disabled), and the others just daily propelled their wheelchair; there were 5 women and 9 men. For 8 of them, cord injury levels were located below T7, between T1 and T6 for the others. The age disability varied from 6 months to 2 years for 9 of them, it was approximately five years for 4 of them, and 20 years for one. We used a maximal triangular arm crank exercise with an electro-magnetic ergocycle Gauthier frame. After five minutes warm up, it was proceeded in one minute successive stages until maximal oxygen consumption is raised. VO2, VCO2, RER were measured by direct method with

  4. Sex-based effects on immune changes induced by a maximal incremental exercise test in well-trained swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, José P; Monteiro, Cristina P; Matias, Catarina N; Alves, Francisco; Pessoa, Pedro; Reis, Joana; Martins, Fátima; Seixas, Teresa; Laires, Maria J

    2014-09-01

    Studies examining the immune response to acute intensive swimming have shown increased leukocytosis and lymphocyte populations. However, studies concerning mucosal immunity and sex differences remain controversial. The objective of the study was to examine sex differences on the immune response to maximal incremental swimming exercise in well trained swimmers. Participants (11 females, controlled for menstrual cycle phase effects; 10 males) performed a maximal incremental 7x200 m front crawl set. Fingertip capillary blood samples were obtained after each 200 m swim for lactate assessment. Venous blood and saliva samples were collected before and 5 minutes after the swimming test to determine total numbers of leukocytes, lymphocytes and subpopulations, and serum and salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels. IgA secretion rate was calculated. Menstrual cycle phase did not influence the immune response to exercise. As for sex differences, exercise induced an increase in leukocytes, total lymphocytes, CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), and CD16(+)/56(+) in males. In females, only leukocytosis, of a lower magnitude than was observed in males, occurred. CD19(+) increased and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio decreased in both groups following exercise whilst IgA, SIgA concentrations, and srIgA did not change. Both males and females finished the incremental exercise very close to the targeted race velocity, attaining peak blood lactate concentrations of 14.6±2.25 and 10.4±1.99 mmol.L(-1), respectively. The effect of a maximal incremental swimming task on immunity is sex dependent and more noticeable in men. Males, as a consequence of higher levels of immunosurveillance may therefore be at a lower risk of infection than females. Key PointsMaximal exercise induces an immune response.This study investigated the influence of sex over the leukocytes subpopulations and mucosal immune responses to maximal swimming.Male swimmers showed a stronger increase of T helper, T cytotoxic and NK lymphocytes than

  5. Living high-training low: effect on erythropoiesis and maximal aerobic performance in elite Nordic skiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robach, P.; Schmitt, L.; Brugniaux, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    at simulated altitudes of 2,500, 3,000 and finally 3,500 m, 11 h day(-1)). Measurements were done before, during (blood samples only) and 2 weeks after the intervention (POST). Maximal aerobic performance was examined from VO(2max) and time to exhaustion (T(exh)) at vVO(2max) (minimum speed associated with VO......) in Hi-Lo and 2.62+/-0.57 l (vs. 2.87 +/- 0.59 l) in controls. At that time, neither VO(2max) nor T(exh) were improved by Hi-Lo, VO(2max) being non-significantly decreased by 2.0% (controls) and 3.7% (Hi-Lo). The present results suggest that increasing the altitude up to 3,500 m during Hi-Lo stimulates......(2max)), respectively. Erythropoietin and soluble transferrin receptor responses were higher during Hi-Lo, whereas reticulocytes did not change. In POST (vs. before): hematological parameters were similar to basal levels, as well as red blood cell volume, being 2.68 +/- 0.83 l (vs. 2.64+/-0.54 l...

  6. Effect of artesunate on maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sanjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin-based combination therapies are highly efficacious, and they are now listed as first-line therapies for uncomplicated malaria in most countries where malaria is endemic. Neurotoxicity of artemisinins is a growing concern. However, no studies have reported its antiepileptic or epileptogenesis potential, hence the present study was undertaken to explore the activity of artesunate in experimentally induced seizures in rodent models. Artesunate at doses 36.4 and 72.8 mg/kg respectively significantly reduced the duration of the hind limb extensions (3.033±1.493 and 2.033±1.383, respectively when compared to the control (P<0.0001 in the maximal electroshock-induced seizure model. However, no significant decrease was noted in the duration of clonic convulsions in a pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure model indicating lack of activity in petit mal epilepsy. The results of the present study indicate that artesunate at both the doses employed showed a significant anticonvulsant activity in the maximum electroshock-induced seizure model suggesting its potential utility in the management of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and partial seizures. Further studies regarding its mechanism of action are warranted.

  7. [Effects of land use change on landscape pattern vulnerability in Yinchuan Basin, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhi-yuan; Zhang, Han

    2016-01-01

    Landscape pattern vulnerability reflects the instability and sensitivity of ecological system to external disturbances and helps to understand the status and trend of ecological environment. This paper used landscape sensitivity index and landscape adaptability index to construct the landscape pattern vulnerability index of Yinchuan Basin, and got the distribution of the landscape pattern vulnerability in 2001 and 2013. Our study explored the effect of the land use degree composite index, the integrated land use dynamic degree, the importance index of land use change and various types of land transfer on landscape pattern vulnerability. Results showed that the land use degree composite index was mainly caused by the increase of the arable land, forest and the construction land. The higher proportion of the arable land or forest, the lower the vulnerability was, and the construction land had the opposite effect. With the increase of integrated land use dynamic degree, the construction land significantly increased the vulnerability, followed by grassland, and the forest significantly decreased the vulnerability, followed by the arable land. As the importance index of land use change increasing, the arable land could significantly decrease the vulnerability, followed by the forest, the grassland had a weaker trend with no obvious pattern, and the construction land significantly increased the vulnerability. When the arable land, forest and the grassland were the maintypes of land use transfer, the increasing proportion of the construction land increased the vulnerability. When the construction land was the main type of land use transfer, the grassland and forest improved the vulnerability and the arable land had the opposite effect. Changes in the number of land use types influenced the spatial structure of land use to a certain extent, which could offer a reference on using and developing the land resources scientifically. The ternary diagram could reflect the impact

  8. Effects of Weight Loss Induced By Eight-Week Orlistat Therapy on Maximal Work Production Capacity in Obese Females

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZÇELİK, Oğuz; Doğan, Halil; KELEŞTİMUR, Haluk

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of weight loss induced by pharmacotherapy combined with a hypocaloric diet for a period of 8-weeks on maximal work (Wmax) production capacity and aerobic fitness in obese patients. Twelve obese females were put on an integrated energy restricted diet with orlistat supplement 3 x 120 mg/day. Each patient performed 3 incremental ramp exercise tests using an electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer: one at onset, one at the end of 4-weeks and o...

  9. Effects on muscle strength, maximal jump height, flexibility and postural sway after soccer and Zumba exercise among female hospital employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barene, Svein; Holtermann, Andreas; Oseland, Harald

    2016-01-01

    lean mass (0.4 kg; P vertical jump height or sit-and-reach flexibility. The present study indicates that workplace-initiated soccer and Zumba exercise may be beneficial for improvement of the neck and trunk strength, which may......This 9-month randomised controlled workplace physical activity trial investigated the effects of soccer and Zumba exercise, respectively, on muscle strength, maximal jump height, sit-and-reach flexibility and postural sway among female workers. A total of 107 female hospital employees aged 25...

  10. Effects of River Discharge and Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) on Water Quality Dynamics in Migina Catchment, Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uwimana, Brigitte; Dam, van Anne; Gettel, Gretchen; Bigirimana, Bonfils; Irvine, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural intensification may accelerate the loss of wetlands, increasing the concentrations of nutrients and sediments in downstream water bodies. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of land use and land cover and river discharge on water quality in the Migina catchment,

  11. The Effects of Multiple-Joint Isokinetic Resistance Training on Maximal Isokinetic and Dynamic Muscle Strength and Local Muscular Endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratamess, Nicholas A; Beller, Noah A; Gonzalez, Adam M; Spatz, Gregory E; Hoffman, Jay R; Ross, Ryan E; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Kang, Jie

    2016-03-01

    The transfer of training effects of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training to dynamic exercise performance remain poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the magnitude of isokinetic and dynamic one repetition-maximum (1RM) strength and local muscular endurance increases after 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training. Seventeen women were randomly assigned to either an isokinetic resistance training group (IRT) or a non-exercising control group (CTL). The IRT group underwent 6 weeks of training (2 days per week) consisting of 5 sets of 6-10 repetitions at 75-85% of subjects' peak strength for the isokinetic chest press and seated row exercises at an average linear velocity of 0.15 m s(-1) [3-sec concentric (CON) and 3-sec eccentric (ECC) phases]. Peak CON and ECC force during the chest press and row, 1RM bench press and bent-over row, and maximum number of modified push-ups were assessed pre and post training. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance with repeated measures and Tukey's post hoc tests were used for data analysis. The results showed that 1RM bench press (from 38.6 ± 6.7 to 43.0 ± 5.9 kg), 1RM bent-over row (from 40.4 ± 7.7 to 45.5 ± 7.5 kg), and the maximal number of modified push-ups (from 39.5 ± 13.6 to 55.3 ± 13.1 repetitions) increased significantly only in the IRT group. Peak isokinetic CON and ECC force in the chest press and row significantly increased in the IRT group. No differences were shown in the CTL group for any measure. These data indicate 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic muscle strength and local muscular endurance performance in addition to specific isokinetic strength gains in women. Key pointsMultiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic maximal muscular strength, local muscular endurance, and maximal isokinetic strength in women.Multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increased 1RM strength in the bench press (by

  12. Effects of different scale land cover maps in watershed modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Antonio; Araújo, Antonio; Alexandridis, Thomas; Chambel, Pedro

    2013-04-01

    Water management is a rather complex process that usually involves multiple stakeholder, multiple data and sources, and complex mathematical modelling. One of the key data sets to understand a particular water system is the characterization of the land cover. Land cover maps are essential for the estimation of environmental variables (e.g. LAI, ETa) related to water quantity. Also, land cover maps are used for modelling the water quality. For instance, watersheds that have intensive agriculture can have poor water quality due to increase of nutrients loading; forest fires have a significant negative impact over the water quality by increasing the sediment loads; forest fires can increase flood risks. The land cover dynamics can as well severely affect the water quantity and quality in watersheds. In the MyWater project we are conducting a study to supply water quantity and quality information services for five study areas in five different countries (Brazil, Greece, Mozambique, Netherlands, and Portugal). In this project several land cover maps were produced both at regional and local scales, based on the exploitation of medium and high resolution satellite images (MERIS and SPOT 4). These maps were produced through semi-automatic supervised classification procedures, using an LCCS based nomenclature of 15 classes. Validation results pointed to global accuracy values greater than 80% for all maps. In this paper we focus on studying the effect of using different scale land cover maps in the watershed modelling and its impact in results. The work presented is part of the FP7-EU project "Merging hydrological models and Earth observation data for reliable information on water - MyWater".

  13. Monitoring of livestock grazing effects on Bureau of Land Management land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veblen, Kari E.; Pyke, David A.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Casazza, Michael L.; Assal, Timothy J.; Farinha, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Public land management agencies, such as the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), are charged with managing rangelands throughout the western United States for multiple uses, such as livestock grazing and conservation of sensitive species and their habitats. Monitoring of condition and trends of these rangelands, particularly with respect to effects of livestock grazing, provides critical information for effective management of these multiuse landscapes. We therefore investigated the availability of livestock grazing-related quantitative monitoring data and qualitative region-specific Land Health Standards (LHS) data across BLM grazing allotments in the western United States. We then queried university and federal rangeland science experts about how best to prioritize rangeland monitoring activities. We found that the most commonly available monitoring data were permittee-reported livestock numbers and season-of-use data (71% of allotments) followed by repeat photo points (58%), estimates of forage utilization (52%), and, finally, quantitative vegetation measurements (37%). Of the 57% of allotments in which LHS had been evaluated as of 2007, the BLM indicated 15% had failed to meet LHS due to livestock grazing. A full complement of all types of monitoring data, however, existed for only 27% of those 15%. Our data inspections, as well as conversations with rangeland experts, indicated a need for greater emphasis on collection of grazing-related monitoring data, particularly ground cover. Prioritization of where monitoring activities should be focused, along with creation of regional monitoring teams, may help improve monitoring. Overall, increased emphasis on monitoring of BLM rangelands will require commitment at multiple institutional levels.

  14. The global land Cryosphere Radiative Effect during the MODIS era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Singh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cryosphere Radiative Effect (CrRE is the instantaneous influence of snow- and ice-cover on Earth's top of atmosphere (TOA solar energy budget. Here, we apply measurements from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS, combined with microwave retrievals of snow presence and radiative kernels produced from 4 different models, to derive CrRE over global land during 2001–2013. We estimate global annual mean land CrRE during this period of −2.6 W m-2, with variations from −2.2 to −3.0 W m-2 resulting from use of different kernels, and variations of −2.4 to −2.6 W m-2 resulting from different algorithmic determinations of snow presence and surface albedo. Slightly more than half of the global land CrRE originates from perennial snow on Antarctica, whereas the majority of the Northern Hemisphere effect originates from seasonal snow. Consequently, the Northern Hemisphere land CrRE peaks at −6.0 W m-2 in April, whereas the Southern Hemisphere effect more closely follows the austral insolation cycle, peaking in December. Mountain glaciers resolved in 0.05° MODIS data contribute about −0.037 W m-2 (1.4 % of the global effect, with the majority (94 % of this contribution originating from the Himalayas. Inter-annual trends in the global annual mean land CrRE are not statistically significant during the MODIS era, but trends are positive (less negative over large areas of Northern Asia, especially during spring, and slightly negative over Antarctica, possibly due to increased snowfall. During a common overlap period of 2001–2008, our MODIS estimates of the Northern Hemisphere land CrRE are about 18 % smaller (less negative than previous estimates derived from coarse-resolution AVHRR data, though inter-annual variations are well correlated (r = 0.78, indicating that these data are useful in determining longer term trends in land CrRE.

  15. The effects of chest expansion resistance exercise on chest expansion and maximal respiratory pressure in elderly with inspiratory muscle weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Beom; Yang, Jin-Mo; Choi, Jong-Duk

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effect of chest expansion resistance exercises (CERE) on chest expansion, maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) in elderly people with inspiratory muscle weakness. [Subjects] Thirty elderly people with inspiratory muscle weakness (MIP < 80% of the predicted value) were randomly and equally assigned to a chest expansion resistance exercise (CERE) group, core conditioning exercise (CCE) group, and control group. [Methods] The intervention was applied to the CERE group and CCE group five times per week, 30 minutes each time, for six weeks. A tapeline was used to measure upper and lower chest expansion. MIP and MEP before and after the intervention were measured and compared. [Results] There was significant improvement in upper and lower chest expansion and MIP after the intervention in both the CERE group and the CCE group, whereas the control group did not show any significant difference. MEP did not significantly change in any of the three groups after the intervention. [Conclusion] The CERE group underwent greater changes than the CCE group, which proves that the CERE is more effective for improving elderly people’s chest expansion capacity and MIP in elderly people. Therefore, application of the CERE by therapists is recommended if the environment and conditions are appropriate for enhancement of chest expansion capacity and MIP in elderly people. PMID:25995570

  16. The effectiveness of two energy drinks on selected indices of maximal cardiorespiratory fitness and blood lactate levels in male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama, Nader; Gaeini, Abbas Ali; Kazemi, Fahimeh

    2010-05-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has become widespread among athletes. The effectiveness of Red Bull and Hype energy drinks on selected indices of maximal cardiorespiratory fitness and blood lactate levels in male athletes was examined in this study. TEN MALE STUDENT ATHLETES (AGE: 22.4 ± 2.1 years, height: 180.8 ± 7.7 cm, weight: 74.2 ± 8.5 kg) performed three randomized maximal oxygen consumption tests on a treadmill. Each test was separated by four days and participants were asked to ingest Red Bull, Hype or placebo drinks 40 minutes before the exercise bout. The VO (2max), time to exhaustion, heart rate and lactate were measured to determine if the caffeine-based beverages influence performance. ANOVA test was used for analyzing data. A greater value was observed in VO (2max)and time to exhaustion for the Red Bull and Hype trial compared to the placebo trial (p drinks (p > 0.05). For blood lactate levels no significant changes were observed before and two minute after the test (p > 0.05). Ingestion of Red Bull and Hype prior to exercise testing is effective on some indices of cardiorespiratory fitness but not on the blood lactate levels.

  17. The effectiveness of two energy drinks on selected indices of maximal cardiorespiratory fitness and blood lactate levels in male athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Rahnama

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of energy drinks has become widespread among athletes. The effectiveness of Red Bull and Hype energy drinks on selected indices of maximal cardiorespiratory fitness and blood lactate levels in male athletes was examined in this study. Methods: Ten male student athletes (age: 22.4 ± 2.1 years, height: 180.8 ± 7.7 cm, weight: 74.2 ± 8.5 kg performed three randomized maximal oxygen consumption tests on a treadmill. Each test was separated by four days and participants were asked to ingest Red Bull, Hype or placebo drinks 40 minutes before the exercise bout. The VO 2max , time to exhaustion, heart rate and lactate were measured to determine if the caffeine-based beverages influence performance. ANOVA test was used for analyzing data. Results: A greater value was observed in VO 2max and time to exhaustion for the Red Bull and Hype trial compared to the placebo trial (p 0.05. For blood lactate levels no significant changes were observed before and two minute after the test (p > 0.05. Conclusions: Ingestion of Red Bull and Hype prior to exercise testing is effective on some indices of cardiorespira-tory fitness but not on the blood lactate levels.

  18. Potential reciprocal effect between land use / land cover change and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daham, Afrah; Han, Dawei; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) activity influences climate change and one way to explore climate change is to analyse the change in LULC patterns. Modelling the Spatio-temporal pattern of LULC change requires the use of satellite remote sensing data and aerial photographs with different pre-processing steps. The aim of this research is to analyse the reciprocal effects of LUCC (Land Use and Cover Change) and the climate change on each other in the study area which covers part of Bristol, South Gloucestershire, Bath and Somerset in England for the period (1975-2015). LUCC is assessed using remote sensing data. Three sets of remotely sensed data, LanSAT-1 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data obtained in (1975 and 1976), LanSAT-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data obtained in (1984 and 1997), and LandSAT-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) acquired in (2003 and 2015), with a time span of forty years were used in the study. One of the most common problems in the satellite images is the presence of cloud covers. In this study, the cloud cover problem is handled using a novel algorithm, which is capable of reducing the cloud coverage in the classified images significantly. This study also examines a suite of possible photogrammetry techniques applicable to detect the change in LULC. At the moment photogrammertic techniques are used to derive the ground truth for supervised classification from the high resolution aerial photos which were provided by Ordnance Survey (contract number: 240215) and global mapper for the years in (2001 and 2014). After obtaining the classified images almost free of clouds, accuracy assessment is implemented with the derived classified images using confusion matrix at some ground truth points. Eight classes (Improved grassland, Built up areas and gardens, Arable and horticulture, Broad-leaved / mixed woodland, Coniferous woodland, Oceanic seas, Standing open water and reservoir, and Mountain; heath; bog) have been classified in the chosen study area. Also

  19. Effect of hydrochlorothiazide on the anticonvulsant action of antiepileptic drugs against maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukawski, Krzysztof; Swiderska, Grażyna; Czuczwar, Stanisław J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), a thiazide-type diuretic and an antihypertensive drug, on the anticonvulsant activity of numerous antiepileptic drugs (AEDs: carbamazepine--CBZ, phenytoin--PHT, valproate--VPA, phenobarbital--PB, oxcarbazepine--OXC, lamotrigine--LTG and topiramate--TPM). The effects of HCTZ and AEDs on convulsions were examined in the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) test in mice. Additionally, adverse effects of combined treatment with HCTZ and the AEDs in the passive avoidance task and chimney test were assessed. All drugs were injected intraperitoneally (ip) at single doses. The data obtained indicate that HCTZ (100 mg ip) enhanced the anticonvulsant action of CBZ, decreasing its ED(50) value from 11.9 to 7.7 mg/kg (p anticonvulsant potency. Acute HCTZ may positively influence the anticonvulsant action of CBZ in epileptic patients.

  20. Effects of agroecological land use succession on soil properties in Chemoga watershed, Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bewket, W.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2003-01-01

    This study appraises the effects of land use on soil properties in a typical watershed in the northwestern highland of Ethiopia. Soil samples were collected from major land use types in the watershed: natural forests, cultivated lands, grazing lands and Eucalyptus plantations. The natural forests se

  1. Strong Stability Preserving Explicit Runge--Kutta Methods of Maximal Effective Order

    KAUST Repository

    Hadjimichael, Yiannis

    2013-07-23

    We apply the concept of effective order to strong stability preserving (SSP) explicit Runge--Kutta methods. Relative to classical Runge--Kutta methods, methods with an effective order of accuracy are designed to satisfy a relaxed set of order conditions but yield higher order accuracy when composed with special starting and stopping methods. We show that this allows the construction of four-stage SSP methods with effective order four (such methods cannot have classical order four). However, we also prove that effective order five methods---like classical order five methods---require the use of nonpositive weights and so cannot be SSP. By numerical optimization, we construct explicit SSP Runge--Kutta methods up to effective order four and establish the optimality of many of them. Numerical experiments demonstrate the validity of these methods in practice.

  2. Maximizing cost-effectiveness by adjusting treatment strategy according to glaucoma severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Ricardo Augusto Paletta; Guedes, Vanessa Maria Paletta; Gomes, Carlos Eduardo de Mello; Chaoubah, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this study is to determine the most cost-effective strategy for the treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in Brazil, from the payer's perspective (Brazilian Public Health System) in the setting of the Glaucoma Referral Centers. Methods: Study design was a cost-effectiveness analysis of different treatment strategies for POAG. We developed 3 Markov models (one for each glaucoma stage: early, moderate and advanced), using a hypothetical cohort of POAG patients, from the perspective of the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS) and a horizon of the average life expectancy of the Brazilian population. Different strategies were tested according to disease severity. For early glaucoma, we compared observation, laser and medications. For moderate glaucoma, medications, laser and surgery. For advanced glaucoma, medications and surgery. Main outcome measures were ICER (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio), medical direct costs and QALY (quality-adjusted life year). Results: In early glaucoma, both laser and medical treatment were cost-effective (ICERs of initial laser and initial medical treatment over observation only, were R$ 2,811.39/QALY and R$ 3,450.47/QALY). Compared to observation strategy, the two alternatives have provided significant gains in quality of life. In moderate glaucoma population, medical treatment presented the highest costs among treatment strategies. Both laser and surgery were highly cost-effective in this group. For advanced glaucoma, both tested strategies were cost-effective. Starting age had a great impact on results in all studied groups. Initiating glaucoma therapy using laser or surgery were more cost-effective, the younger the patient. Conclusion: All tested treatment strategies for glaucoma provided real gains in quality of life and were cost-effective. However, according to the disease severity, not all strategies provided the same cost-effectiveness profile. Based on our findings, there should be a

  3. Effect of caffeine on maximal oxygen uptake in wheelchair rugby players: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Klimešová

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The positive effects of caffeine supplementation on strength-power and endurance performance in healthy athletes have been demonstrated in many studies. A possible mechanism for its ergogenic effect relates to its influence on the central nervous system. Post-traumatic complications in cervical spinal cord injury affect almost all body systems including the nervous system. For this reason, we expect that caffeine will have a different effect of performance in the group of athletes with spinal cord injuries. Objective: To examine the effects of caffeine supplementation on maximal aerobic power in elite wheelchair rugby players. Methods: Seven elite male wheelchair rugby players with complete cervical-level SCI (C4-Th1 were recruited (mean age: 28 ± 5.42 years; mean body mass index: 26 ± 2.84 kg/m2. The effect of caffeine was assessed by an incremental arm ergometer test until volitional exhaustion. The maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max/kg, maximum power (W max/kg, peak heart rate (HR peak, and intensity of perceived exertion (RPE were measured. Participants performed the test twice with a two-week washout period. One hour before each exercise test subjects ingested a capsule of placebo or caffeine (3 mg per kg of body weight. The tests were applied in a double-blind, randomized, repeated-measures, and cross-over design. Wheelchair rugby players were chosen because of the expected high homogeneity of participants - in terms of the type and degree of disability, gender, and age of the players. Results: The monitored parameters were not significantly influenced by caffeine intervention as compared to placebo: VO2max/kg (p = .40, W max/kg (p = .34, HR peak (p = .50 and RPE (p = .50. Conclusions: The current findings suggest that a caffeine dose of 3 mg/kg body mass does not improve oxygen uptake and maximal power in elite wheelchair rugby players.

  4. Determinants of filled/empty optical illusion: Search for the locus of maximal effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackermann, Jiri; Kastner, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    A subdivided path in the visual field usually appears longer than an empty path of the same length. This phenomenon, known as the filled/empty or Oppel-Kundt illusion, depends on multiple properties of the visual stimulus, but the functional dependences have not been yet precisely characterized. We studied the illusory effect as a function of its two main determinants, the height of vertical strokes subdividing a spatial interval of a fixed length (visual angle 2.8 degree) and the number of the filling strokes, using the standard-variable distance matching paradigm. Non-monotonic dependence of the effect (over-reproduction of the spatial extension) on the varied parameters was observed in two experimental series. In the first series, the maximum effect was obtained for the fillers height roughly equal to the delimiters height (visual angle 0.25 degree); in the second series, the maximum effect was obtained for 11-13 equispaced fillers, and more accurately estimated to 15-16 as a result of a functional fit. Both data series were successfully modeled by curves generated by a single two-parametric system of form functions. Problems of determination of the maximum effect are discussed, and arguments for a genuinely multivariate approach are presented.

  5. Controlling and maximizing effective thermal properties by manipulating transient behaviors during energy-system cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Z J; Merlitz, H; Pagni, P J; Chen, Z

    2014-01-01

    Transient processes generally constitute part of energy-system cycles. If skillfully manipulated, they actually are capable of assisting systems to behave beneficially to suit designers' needs. In the present study, behaviors related to both thermal conductivities ($\\kappa$) and heat capacities ($c_{v}$) are analyzed. Along with solutions of the temperature and the flow velocity obtained by means of theories and simulations, three findings are reported herein: $(1)$ effective $\\kappa$ and effective $c_{v}$ can be controlled to vary from their intrinsic material-property values to a few orders of magnitude larger; $(2)$ a parameter, tentatively named as "nonlinear thermal bias", is identified and can be used as a criterion in estimating energies transferred into the system during heating processes and effective operating ranges of system temperatures; $(3)$ When a body of water, such as the immense ocean, is subject to the boundary condition of cold bottom and hot top, it may be feasible to manipulate transien...

  6. Effect of Carbohydrate Intake on Maximal Power Output and Cognitive Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pomportes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the beneficial effect of acute carbohydrate (7% CHO intake on muscular and cognitive performances. Seventeen high levels athletes in explosive sports (fencing and squash participated in a randomized, double-blind study consisting in series of 6 sprints (5s with a passive recovery (25s followed by 15 min submaximal cycling after either maltodextrine and fructose (CHO or placebo (Pl intake. Cognitive performances were assessed before and after sprint exercise using a simple reaction time (SRT task at rest, a visual scanning task (VS and a Go/Nogo task (GNG during a submaximal cycling exercise. Results showed a beneficial effect of exercise on VS task on both conditions (Pl: −283 ms; CHO: −423 ms and on SRT only during CHO condition (−26 ms. In the CHO condition, SRT was faster after exercise whereas no effect of exercise was observed in the Pl condition. According to a qualitative statistical method, a most likely and likely positive effect of CHO was respectively observed on peak power (+4% and tiredness (−23% when compared to Pl. Furthermore, a very likely positive effect of CHO was observed on SRT (−8% and a likely positive effect on visual scanning (−6% and Go/Nogo tasks (−4% without any change in accuracy. In conclusion acute ingestion of 250 mL of CHO, 60 min and 30 min before exercise, improve peak power output, decrease muscular tiredness and speed up information processing and visual detection without changing accuracy.

  7. Measuring the Externality Effects of Commercial Land Use on Residential Land Value: A Case Study of Seoul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jin Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Two contrasting theories purport to explain the effects of neighborhood non-residential use on residential property values. In traditional zoning theory, separating land from commercial land use is considered to protect residential environments from negative externalities such as noise, litter, and congestion. By contrast, contemporary planning principles including Smart Growth emphasize positive impacts of mixed land use on residential environment, which lead to more walkable and sustainable communities. This study attempts to empirically investigate how positive and negative externalities of commercial land use, referred to as “proximity effects” and “disamenity effects” respectively, affect residential land values. Using data gathered in Seoul, we pay attention to two particular aspects of commercial land use: spatial concentration and neighborhood scale. Spatial concentration is determined by the number of commercial employees present in the buffer zone around an individual residential parcel. We model four geographically distinct neighborhood scales as we compare spatial concentrations in and across commercial zones. Quadratic regression analyses of our data show the trade-off relationship that a higher spatial concentration of commercial land use in a neighborhood initially results in increased residential land values, but drops off beyond a threshold level by excessive noise or crowding.

  8. 77 FR 10933 - Maximizing the Effectiveness of Federal Programs and Functions Supporting Trade and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... in the United States and ensuring sustainable economic growth are the top priorities of my... efforts to facilitate the creation of jobs in the United States and ensure sustainable economic growth... considering the effectiveness of commercial diplomacy, cross-training, and referrals, as appropriate,...

  9. Group Counseling for Individual Decision-Making: Maximizing the Effectiveness of the College Placement Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Robert H., Jr.; And Others

    This report is the result of a demonstration project the purposes of which were to demonstrate the feasibility of providing career counseling by specially trained graduate assistants as part of the college placement service, and to demonstrate that such counseling can be provided as effectively and more efficiently in a group setting than in the…

  10. SLA-Based User Effectiveness Maximization Modeling%基于SLA的用户效用最大化建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万彩云; 张登银

    2011-01-01

    Service level agreement(SLA) is an agreement about how Internet service providers (ISP) provide service signed by the users and ISP. In this paper,to measure the user's satisfaction to the service provided by ISP,the utility function in the microeconomics is applied, a multiuser single resources utility model is established,and two cost algorithms are designed to maximize the effectiveness of users and the use of resources respectively. The theoretical analysis and the numerical results by MATLAB show that the algorithm based on the user effectiveness maximization is more effective. According to this algorithm,users can achieve greater satisfaction. The research results are valuable in measuring the satisfaction of users,upgrading the monitor of service performance and optimizing resource distribution.%服务等级协议是用户与网络服务提供商签订的关于ISP如何向用户提供服务的协议.为了衡量用户对ISP所提供服务的满意程度,采用微观经济学中的效用函数,建立了一个多用户单资源的效用模型,并设计了基于用户效用最大化和基于资源使用最大化两个计费算法.理论分析和MATLAB数值仿真表明,基于用户效用最大化的算法更优,按此算法用户能获得更大的满意度.研究结果对于量化用户的满意度、提升对服务的性能监测和优化资源分配很有参考价值.

  11. Maximize Your Investment 10 Key Strategies for Effective Packaged Software Implementations

    CERN Document Server

    Beaubouef, Grady Brett

    2009-01-01

    This is a handbook covering ten principles for packaged software implementations that project managers, business owners, and IT developers should pay attention to. The book also has practical real-world coverage including a sample agenda for conducting business solution modeling, customer case studies, and a road map to implement guiding principles. This book is aimed at enterprise architects, development leads, project managers, business systems analysts, business systems owners, and anyone who wants to implement packaged software effectively. If you are a customer looking to implement COTS s

  12. Tailoring biocontrol to maximize top-down effects: on the importance of underlying site fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovick, Stephen M; Carson, Walter P

    2015-01-01

    The degree to which biocontrol agents impact invasive plants varies widely across landscapes, often for unknown reasons. Understanding this variability can help optimize invasive species management while also informing our understanding of trophic linkages. To address these issues, we tested three hypotheses with contrasting predictions regarding the likelihood of biocontrol success. (1) The biocontrol effort hypothesis: invasive populations are regulated primarily by top-down effects, predicting that increased biocontrol efforts alone (e.g., more individuals of a given biocontrol agent or more time since agent release) will enhance biocontrol success. (2) The relative fertility hypothesis: invasive populations are regulated primarily by bottom-up effects, predicting that nutrient enrichment will increase dominance by invasives and thus reduce biocontrol success, regardless of biocontrol efforts. (3) The fertility-dependent biocontrol effort hypothesis: top-down effects will only regulate invasive populations if bottom-up effects are weak. It predicts that greater biocontrol efforts will increase biocontrol success, but only in low-nutrient sites. To test these hypotheses, we surveyed 46 sites across three states with prior releases of Galerucella beetles, the most common biocontrol agents used against invasive purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). We found strong support for the fertility-dependent biocontrol effort hypothesis, as biocontrol success occurred most often with greater biocontrol efforts, but only in low-fertility sites. This result held for early stage metrics of biocontrol success (higher Galerucella abundance) and ultimate biocontrol outcomes (decreased loosestrife plant size and abundance). Presence of the invasive grass Phalaris arundinacea was also inversely related to loosestrife abundance, suggesting that biocontrol-based reductions in loosestrife made secondary invasion by P. arundinacea more likely. Our data suggest that low-nutrient sites

  13. Maximization of surface-enhanced transversal magneto-optic Kerr effect in Au/Co/Au thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Herreño-Fierro, César Aurelio

    2014-01-01

    In order to maximize the transversal magneto-optic Kerr effect (T-MOKE) of a Au/Co/Au structure, we propose a method to obtain the optimum thickness values. A criteria based on preserving good plasmonic properties has been included as part of this method. Using the theoretical prediction, we grew Au/Co/Au trilayers and perform optical andMO characterization using the Kretschmann configuration. The results admit very easy interpretation in terms of the interaction between the magneto-optical and plasmonic properties dictating the optimal thicknesses of the structure. Moreover, we have grown and characterized the optimized structure finding good agreement with theory reaching, for a 532nm green laser, amaximal surface magneto-optic (MO) signal enhancement of close to nine folds with respect to the signal without plasmonic excitation.

  14. The effect of rate of force development on maximal force production: acute and training-related aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Roeleveld, Karin; Vereijken, Beatrix; Ettema, Gertjan

    2007-04-01

    The force generated during a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) is known to increase by resistance training. Although this increase cannot be solely attributed to changes in the muscle itself, many studies examining muscle activation at peak force failed to detect neural adaptations with resistance training. However, the activation prior to peak force can have an impact on maximal force generation. This study aims at investigating the role of rate of force development (RFD) on maximal force during resistance training. Fourteen subjects carried out 5 days of isometric resistance training with dorsiflexion of the ankle with the instruction to generate maximal force. In a second experiment, 18 subjects performed the same task with the verbal instruction to generate maximal force (instruction I) and to generate force as fast and forcefully as possible (instruction II). The main findings were that RFD increased twice as much as the 16% increase in maximal force with training, with a positive association between RFD and force within the last session of training and between training sessions. Instruction II generated a higher RFD than instruction I, with no difference in maximal force. These findings suggest that the positive association between RFD and maximal force is not causal, but is mediated by a third factor. In the discussion, we argue for the third factor to be physiological changes affecting both aspects of a MVC or different processes affecting RFD and maximal force separately, rather than a voluntary strategic change of both aspects of MVC.

  15. Effect of land use/cover change on land surface temperatures - The Nile Delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hereher, Mohamed E.

    2017-02-01

    In this study remote sensing techniques were employed to investigate the impact of land use/cover change on land surface temperatures (LST) for a highly dynamic landscape, i.e. the Nile Delta. Land use change was determined from analyzing a 15 years of bi-monthly normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) dataset acquired from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra satellite along with a synchronized 13 years of bi-monthly LST dataset retrieved from MODIS Aqua satellite. Time series analysis for NDVI and LST data was carried out at selected locations experiencing land use change. Mean LST change was determined for each location before and after the land use change. Results indicate that NDVI composite data for 15 years proved sufficient for delineating land use change. Significant spatial changes include the transformation from agriculture to urban land, which increased the LST by 1.7 °C during the 13 years and the transformation of bare land to agriculture, which decreased the LST by 0.52 °C for the same period. Due to the explosive population growth in the Nile Delta, urban encroachment upon agricultural land could, hence, promote a prolonged regional warming by modifying the micro-climate and other climate-related phenomena.

  16. Effective use of multimedia presentations to maximize learning within high school science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Eric

    This research used an evidenced-based experimental 2 x 2 factorial design General Linear Model with Repeated Measures Analysis of Covariance (RMANCOVA). For this analysis, time served as the within-subjects factor while treatment group (i.e., static and signaling, dynamic and signaling, static without signaling, and dynamic without signaling) served as the between-subject independent variable. Three dependent variables were used to assess learner outcomes: (a) a 14 multiple-choice pre and post-test to measure knowledge retention, (b) a pre and post-test concept map to measure synthesis and structure of knowledge, and (c) four questions based on a Likert scale asking students to rank the cognitive difficulty of understanding four aspects of the animation they engaged in. A mental rotations test was used in the pretest conditions to establish a control and used as a covariate. The treatment contained a four minute and 53 second animation that served as an introductory multimedia presentation explaining the gravitational effects of the moon and sun on the earth. These interactions occur at predictable times and are responsible for creating the tidal effects experienced on Earth. There were 99 volunteer high school participants enrolled in science classes randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions. The research was conducted to determine how motion and the principle of signaling, established in The Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning affected precollege learners. The experiment controlled for modality, segmenting, temporal contiguity, redundancy, and navigational control. Results of the RMANCOVA indicated statistical significance for the within subjects effect: over time for all participants, with time and knowledge retention measured from the multiple-choice results, and in the category quality of concepts represented in the concept map analysis. However, there were no significant differences in the between groups analysis for knowledge retention based

  17. Maximizing the biological effect of proton dose delivered with scanned beams via inhomogeneous daily dose distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Chuan; Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Grassberger, Clemens; Goldberg, Saveli; Niemierko, Andrzej; Paganetti, Harald; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Trofimov, Alexei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: Biological effect of radiation can be enhanced with hypofractionation, localized dose escalation, and, in particle therapy, with optimized distribution of linear energy transfer (LET). The authors describe a method to construct inhomogeneous fractional dose (IFD) distributions, and evaluate the potential gain in the therapeutic effect from their delivery in proton therapy delivered by pencil beam scanning. Methods: For 13 cases of prostate cancer, the authors considered hypofractionated courses of 60 Gy delivered in 20 fractions. (All doses denoted in Gy include the proton's mean relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1.1.) Two types of plans were optimized using two opposed lateral beams to deliver a uniform dose of 3 Gy per fraction to the target by scanning: (1) in conventional full-target plans (FTP), each beam irradiated the entire gland, (2) in split-target plans (STP), beams irradiated only the respective proximal hemispheres (prostate split sagittally). Inverse planning yielded intensity maps, in which discrete position control points of the scanned beam (spots) were assigned optimized intensity values. FTP plans preferentially required a higher intensity of spots in the distal part of the target, while STP, by design, employed proximal spots. To evaluate the utility of IFD delivery, IFD plans were generated by rearranging the spot intensities from FTP or STP intensity maps, separately as well as combined using a variety of mixing weights. IFD courses were designed so that, in alternating fractions, one of the hemispheres of the prostate would receive a dose boost and the other receive a lower dose, while the total physical dose from the IFD course was roughly uniform across the prostate. IFD plans were normalized so that the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) of rectum and bladder did not increase, compared to the baseline FTP plan, which irradiated the prostate uniformly in every fraction. An EUD-based model was then applied to estimate tumor

  18. Beneficial Effects of New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract on Maximal Sprint Speed during the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark ET Willems

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC extract has been shown to enhance high-intensity intermittent treadmill running. We examined the effects of NZBC extract during the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST which involves 5 × 15 min blocks with intermittent 15-m maximal sprints, interspersed by moderate and high-intensity running to simulate team sport activity, and a subsequent run to exhaustion. Thirteen males (age: 22 ± 1 year, V ˙ O 2 max : 50 ± 5 mL·kg−1·min−1 participated in three indoor sessions (T: 24 ± 3 °C, humidity: 52% ± 9%. In the first session, a multistage fitness test was completed to determine peak running speed and estimate V ˙ O 2 max . Participants consumed NZBC extract in capsules (300 mg·day−1 CurraNZ™ or placebo (PL (300 mg·day−1 microcrystalline cellulose M102 for seven days in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design (wash-out at least seven days. NZBC extract did not affect average 15-m sprint times in each block. NZBC reduced slowing of the fastest sprint between block 1 and 5 (PL: 0.12 ± 0.07 s; NZBC: 0.06 ± 0.12 s; p < 0.05. NZBC extract had no effect on heart rate, vertical jump power, lactate and time to exhaustion (PL: 13.44 ± 8.09 min, NZBC: 15.78 ± 9.40 min, p > 0.05. However, eight participants had higher running times to exhaustion when consuming NZBC extract. New Zealand blackcurrant extract may enhance performance in team sports with repeated maximal sprints.

  19. Mandatory policy: Most successful way to maximize fortification’s effect on vitamin and mineral deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zimmerman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Damaging effects of vitamin and mineral deficiencies contribute to health and development problems throughout the world. Food fortification has substantially improved nutrition-related health conditions in many countries, but opportunities for fortification are not fully utilized. Where food fortification is considered, leaders have to determine whether fortification should be mandatory or voluntary. Objective: This article explores experiences with mandatory wheat flour fortification as compared to voluntary fortification to offer insight for policies related to any type of food fortification. Mandatory fortification means the country requires the addition of specific nutrients at predetermined levels to specified foods or food products. Voluntary policies allow food manufacturers to enrich their products but do not require them to do so. Results: Mandatory fortification is more likely than voluntary fortification to reach a high proportion of the population and hence achieve the desired health impact. Mandatory fortification does not require consumers to change food purchasing preferences, it distributes the health benefits more equitably than voluntary fortification across a population, it establishes safe levels of included nutrients, and it is not subject to the food manufacturers’ marketing investments or discretion. Conclusion: The health benefits of mandatory fortification are most likely to be achieved and sustained if national, multi-sector leaders develop a cooperative approach for appropriate food fortification policies that can be feasibly implemented and effectively monitored. Mandatory fortification, however, requires high-level commitment through the political process. Policy makers must contend with possible criticism that it interferes with personal choices or may cause unintended health problems.

  20. Effect of Circadian Rhythm on Peak of Maximal Fat Oxidation on Non-Athletic Men

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Darvakh; Masoud Nikbakht; Saeed Shakerian; Asieh Sadat Mousavian

    2014-01-01

    4TBackground: The aim of this4T7T 4T7Tstudy is to investigate4T7T 4T7Tthe effect of4T7T 4T7Tcircadian rhythm4T7T 4T7Ton the4T7T 4T7Tmaximal4T7T 4T7Tfat oxidation (4T7TMFO4T7T) and4T7T 4T7TFATMAX4T7T in4T7T students4T7T 4T7Twithout practice. 4TMaterials and Methods: The subjects of this study4T 4Twere4T ten 4Tnon4T9T-athletes9T male students (N=10), with 4Tthe4T9T 4T9Tbody mass index4T 4Tand4T 4Tmaximal oxygen consumption4T 4Tbelow 504T%, who were 4Tselected randomly. Run test was performed...

  1. The Effects of Hypobaric Hypoxia on Erythropoiesis, Maximal Oxygen Uptake and Energy Cost of Exercise Under Normoxia in Elite Biathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosz Czuba

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of 3 weeks altitude training according to the HiHiLo (live high-base train high-interval train low procedure as described by Chapman et al. (1998, on erythropoiesis, maximal oxygen uptake and energy cost of exercise under normoxia in elite biathletes. Fifteen male elite biathletes randomly divided into an experimental (H group (n = 7; age 27.1 ± 4.6 years; maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max 66.9 ± 3.3 ml·kg–1·min–1; body height (BH 1.81 ± 0.06 m; body mass (BM 73.1 ± 5.4kg, and a control (C group (n = 8; age 23.2 ± 0.9 years; VO2max 68.2 ± 4.1 ml·kg–1·min–1; BH 1.75 ± 0.03 m; BM 63.1 ± 1.5 kg took part in the study. The H group stayed for 3 weeks at an altitude of 2015 m and performed endurance training on skis four times per week at 3000 m. Additionally, the training protocol included three high-intensity interval sessions at an altitude of 1000 m. The C group followed the same training protocol with skirollers in normoxia at an altitude of 600 m. The HiHiLo protocol applied in our study did not change VO2max or maximal workload (WRmax significantly during the incremental treadmill test in group H. However, the energy cost for selected submaximal workloads in group H was significantly (p < 0.01 reduced compared to group C (-5.7%, -4.4%, -6% vs. -3.5%, -2.1%, -2.4%. Also a significant (p < 0.001 increase in serum EPO levels during the first two weeks of HiHiLo training at 2015 m was observed, associated with a significant (p < 0.05 increase in hemoglobin mass, number of erythrocytes, hematocrit value and percent of reticulocytes compared with initial values (by 6.4%, 5%, 4.6% and 16,6%, respectively. In group C, changes in these variables were not observed. These positive changes observed in our study led to a conclusion that the HiHiLo training method could improve endurance in normoxia, since most of the biathlon competitions are performed at submaximal intensities.

  2. Profit maximization mitigates competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    We consider oligopolistic markets in which the notion of shareholders' utility is well-defined and compare the Bertrand-Nash equilibria in case of utility maximization with those under the usual profit maximization hypothesis. Our main result states that profit maximization leads to less price...... competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...... of profits among consumers fully into account and partial equilibrium analysis suffices...

  3. Effects of stand and inter-specific stocking on maximizing standing tree carbon stocks in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; Anthony W. D' Amato; John B. Bradford; Andrew O. Finley

    2011-01-01

    There is expanding interest in management strategies that maximize forest carbon (C) storage to mitigate increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. The tremendous tree species diversity and range of stand stocking found across the eastern United States presents a challenge for determining optimal combinations for the maximization of standing tree C storage. Using a...

  4. Effect of stage duration on maximal heart rate and post-exercise blood lactate concentration during incremental treadmill tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Fabiana A; Kravchychyn, Ana Claudia P; Peserico, Cecilia S; da Silva, Danilo F; Mezzaroba, Paulo V

    2013-05-01

    This study compared the responses during maximal incremental treadmill tests of 1-min, 2-min, and 3-min stage durations mainly in terms of maximal heart rate (HRmax) and peak blood lactate concentration (LApeak). Repeated-measures. Thirty-four male, recreational, endurance-trained runners (40±13 years) performed three tests on a motorized treadmill. The tests started at 8kmh(-1) with increments of 1kmh(-1) every 1min for the short-stage protocol, every 2min for the intermediate-stage protocol, and every 3min for the long-stage protocol. LApeak was defined for each subject as the highest value among the lactate concentrations determined at the end of each test and at the third, fifth and seventh minutes after test, during passive recovery. Analysis of variance revealed a significant effect of the stage duration on the HRmax (p=0.003) and LApeak (p=0.001). The HRmax was higher in the intermediate-stage compared to the short-stage protocol (184.8±12.7 vs. 181.8±12.1beatsmin(-1), p0.05). The LApeak was lower in the long-stage compared to the short-stage and intermediate-stage protocols (7.9±2.2 vs. 9.4±2.2 and 9.2±1.9mmolL(-1), respectively, pblood lactate reached peak concentration at the fifth minute after test for all the protocols. Thus, HRmax and LApeak depend on the stage duration of the incremental test, but the moment at which blood lactate reaches peak concentration is independent of the duration. Further, we suggest 2-min stage duration protocols to determine HRmax. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of acute magnesium loading on the maximal exercise performance of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Florípedes do Amaral

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The potential influence of magnesium on exercise performance is a subject of increasing interest. Magnesium has been shown to have bronchodilatatory properties in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute magnesium IV loading on the aerobic exercise performance of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. METHODS: Twenty male chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients (66.2 + 8.3 years old, FEV1: 49.3+19.8% received an IV infusion of 2 g of either magnesium sulfate or saline on two randomly assigned occasions approximately two days apart. Spirometry was performed both before and 45 minutes after the infusions. A symptom-limited incremental maximal cardiopulmonary test was performed on a cycle ergometer at approximately 100 minutes after the end of the infusion. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00500864 RESULTS: Magnesium infusion was associated with significant reductions in the functional residual capacity (-0.41 l and residual volume (-0.47 l, the mean arterial blood pressure (-5.6 mmHg and the cardiac double product (734.8 mmHg.bpm at rest. Magnesium treatment led to significant increases in the maximal load reached (+8 w and the respiratory exchange ratio (0.06 at peak exercise. The subgroup of patients who showed increases in the work load equal to or greater than 5 w also exhibited significantly greater improvements in inspiratory capacity (0.29 l. CONCLUSIONS: The acute IV loading of magnesium promotes a reduction in static lung hyperinflation and improves the exercise performance in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Improvements in respiratory mechanics appear to be responsible for the latter finding.

  6. Conversion of Forests to Arable Land and its Effect on Soil Physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Physical Properties in Enugu State South Eastern Nigeria ... location specific. ..... of change in soil properties due to cultivation of forest lands was site specific. ... Land use effect an organic matter and physical properties of soil in a southern.

  7. Land use and land use change effects on nitrous oxide emissions in the seasonally dry ecosystems of Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyamadzawo, G; Chirinda, Ngoni; Mapanda, F

    2012-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas (GHG) with a considerable warming potential and involvement in the destruction of stratospheric ozone. The conversion of savannas to agricultural land has the potential of changing the characteristics and gas exchange of the ecosystems dramatically....... The savanna woodlands cover over 95% of Zimbabwe’s forest area, and are divided into five woodland types: Acacia, miombo, mopane, teak (Baikiaea Plurijuga) and Terminalia-Combretaceae. This review is aimed at exploring the effects of land-use changes and land management practices on N2O emissions in Zimbabwe...... emissions were mainly concentrated in the wet season as N2O production is strongly enhanced by high soil moisture. During the dry season pyrogenic emissions were also important sources of N2O, contributing, an estimated 6.7 Gg N2O annually. Land use change in the form of biomass burning and conversion...

  8. Land use and land use change effects on nitrous oxide emissions in the seasonally dry ecosystems of Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyamadzawo, G; Chirinda, Ngoni; Mapanda, F

    2012-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas (GHG) with a considerable warming potential and involvement in the destruction of stratospheric ozone. The conversion of savannas to agricultural land has the potential of changing the characteristics and gas exchange of the ecosystems dramatically. The sav......Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas (GHG) with a considerable warming potential and involvement in the destruction of stratospheric ozone. The conversion of savannas to agricultural land has the potential of changing the characteristics and gas exchange of the ecosystems dramatically....... The savanna woodlands cover over 95% of Zimbabwe’s forest area, and are divided into five woodland types: Acacia, miombo, mopane, teak (Baikiaea Plurijuga) and Terminalia-Combretaceae. This review is aimed at exploring the effects of land-use changes and land management practices on N2O emissions in Zimbabwe...... of emissions of N2O. Land-use change from savanna to agricultural production results in an immediate increase in N2O emissions. However, the emissions will decrease with time. The current estimates are associated with large uncertainties, thus, there is need for more detailed studies on the effects of land...

  9. The effects of verbal encouragement and conscientiousness on maximal voluntary contraction of the triceps surae muscle in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binboğa, Erdal; Tok, Serdar; Catikkas, Fatih; Guven, Senol; Dane, Senol

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of verbal encouragement on maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) level of the triceps surae muscle group. Our secondary focus was to examine whether the effect of verbal encouragement on MVC level varies as a result of conscientiousness. While the participants performed plantar flexion, MVCs of the triceps surae muscle group were measured using rectified and smoothed surface electromyography (rsEMG) during the absence and presence of verbal encouragement. Participants completed questions from the Five Factor Personality Inventory concerning conscientiousness and were divided into high- and low-conscientiousness groups according to a median split. The sample included 30 female and 53 male elite athletes. In the entire cohort, there was no significant difference in MVCs with and without verbal encouragement. When the sample was partitioned by conscientiousness scores, verbal encouragement led to a significant increase in MVC in the low-conscientiousness group, whereas verbal encouragement led to a non-significant decrease in MVC in the high-conscientiousness group. Percentage change in MVC across experimental conditions was significantly different between the groups, with a 9.72% increase during verbal encouragement of the low-conscientiousness group, and a 2.47% decrease during verbal encouragement of the high-conscientiousness group.

  10. Acute effect of static stretching on rate of force development and maximal voluntary contraction in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjão, André L D; Gonçalves, Raquel; de Moura, Rodrigo F; Gobbi, Sebastião

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, in older women, the acute effect of static stretching (SS) on both muscle activation and force output. Twenty-three older women (64.6 +/- 7.1 yr) participated in the study. The maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), rate of force development (RFD) (50, 100, 150, and 200 ms relative to onset of muscular contraction), and peak RFD (PRFD) (the steepest slope of the curve during the first 200 ms) were tested under 2 randomly separate conditions: SS and control (C). Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles also was assessed. The MVC was significantly lower (p force decreased after their performance of SS exercises. The mechanisms responsible for this effect do not appear to be related to muscle activation. Thus, if flexibility is to be trained, it is recommended that SS does not occur just before the performance of activities that require high levels of muscular force.

  11. Analysis of the Effects of Different Land Use and Land Cover Classification on Surface Meteorological Variables using WRF Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sati, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    The continuous population growth and the subsequent economic expansion over centuries have been the primary drivers of land use /land cover (LULC) changes resulting in the environmental changes across the globe. Most of the urban areas being developed today are on the expense of agricultural or barren lands and the changes result from various practices such as deforestation, changing agriculture practices, rapid expansion of urban centers etc.For modeling applications, classification of land use is important and periodic updates of land cover are necessary to capture change due to LULC changes.Updated land cover and land use data derived from satellites offer the possibility of consistent and regularly collected information on LULC. In this study we explore the application of Landsat based LULC classification inWeather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in predicting the meteorology over Delhi, India. The supervised classification of Landsat 8 imagery over Delhi region is performed which update the urban extent as well as other Land use for the region. WRF model simulations are performed using LULC classification from Landsat data, United States Geological Survey (USGS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for various meteorological parameters. Modifications in LULC showed a significant effect on various surface meteorological parameters such as temperature, humidity, wind circulations and other underlying surface parameters. There is a considerable improvement in the spatial distribution of the surface meteorological parameters with correction in input LULC. The study demonstrates the improved LULC classification from Landsat data than currently in vogue and their potential to improve numerical weather simulations especially for expanding urban areas.The continuous population growth and the subsequent economic expansion over centuries have been the primary drivers of land use /land cover (LULC) changes resulting in the environmental changes

  12. Consumption patterns and their effects on land required for food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Nonhebel, S.

    Vast amounts of land are required for the production of food, but the area suitable for growing crops is limited. In this paper, attention is paid to the relationship between food consumption patterns and agricultural land requirements. Land requirements per food item that were determined in a

  13. Consumption patterns and their effects on land required for food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Nonhebel, S.

    2002-01-01

    Vast amounts of land are required for the production of food, but the area suitable for growing crops is limited. In this paper, attention is paid to the relationship between food consumption patterns and agricultural land requirements. Land requirements per food item that were determined in a previ

  14. Estimating the effect of protected lands on the development and conservation of their surroundings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Robert I; Yuan-Farrell, Chris; Fievet, Charles; Moeller, Matthias; Kareiva, Peter; Foster, David; Gragson, Ted; Kinzig, Ann; Kuby, Lauren; Redman, Charles

    2007-12-01

    The fate of private lands is widely seen as key to the fate of biodiversity in much of the world. Organizations that work to protect biodiversity on private lands often hope that conservation actions on one piece of land will leverage the actions of surrounding landowners. Few researchers have, however, examined whether protected lands do in fact encourage land conservation nearby or how protected lands affect development in the surrounding landscape. Using spatiotemporal data sets on land cover and land protection for three sites (western North Carolina, central Massachusetts, and central Arizona), we examined whether the existence of a protected area correlates with an increased rate of nearby land conservation or a decreased rate of nearby land development. At all sites, newly protected conservation areas tended to cluster close to preexisting protected areas. This may imply that the geography of contemporary conservation actions is influenced by past decisions on land protection, often made for reasons far removed from concerns about biodiversity. On the other hand, we found no evidence that proximity to protected areas correlates with a reduced rate of nearby land development. Indeed, on two of our three sites the development rate was significantly greater in regions with more protected land. This suggests that each conservation action should be justified and valued largely for what is protected on the targeted land, without much hope of broader conservation leverage effects.

  15. The Effect of Maximal Strength Training on Strength, Walking, and Balance in People with Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herb I. Karpatkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little literature examining the use of maximal strength training (MST in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS. This pretest-posttest study examined the effects of a MST program on strength, walking, balance, and fatigue in a sample of pwMS. Seven pwMS (median EDSS 3.0, IQR 1.5 participated in a MST program twice weekly for eight weeks. Strength was assessed with 1-repetition maximum (1RM on each leg. Walking and balance were measured with the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT and Berg Balance Scale (BBS, respectively. Fatigue was measured during each week of the program with the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS. The program was well tolerated, with an attendance rate of 96.4%. Participants had significant improvements in right leg 1RM (t6=-6.032, P=0.001, left leg 1RM (t(6=-5.388, P=0.002, 6MWT distance (t(6=-2.572,P=0.042, and BBS score (Z=-2.371, P=0.018 after the MST intervention. There was no significant change in FSS scores (F(1,3.312=2.411, P=0.092. Participants in the MST program experienced improved balance and walking without an increase in fatigue. This MST program may be utilized by rehabilitation clinicians to improve lower extremity strength, balance, and mobility in pwMS.

  16. The Effect of Maximal Strength Training on Strength, Walking, and Balance in People with Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sarah; Park, David; Wright, Charles; Zervas, Michael

    2016-01-01

    There is little literature examining the use of maximal strength training (MST) in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). This pretest-posttest study examined the effects of a MST program on strength, walking, balance, and fatigue in a sample of pwMS. Seven pwMS (median EDSS 3.0, IQR 1.5) participated in a MST program twice weekly for eight weeks. Strength was assessed with 1-repetition maximum (1RM) on each leg. Walking and balance were measured with the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS), respectively. Fatigue was measured during each week of the program with the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). The program was well tolerated, with an attendance rate of 96.4%. Participants had significant improvements in right leg 1RM (t(6) = −6.032, P = 0.001), left leg 1RM (t(6) = −5.388, P = 0.002), 6MWT distance (t(6) = −2.572, P = 0.042), and BBS score (Z = −2.371, P = 0.018) after the MST intervention. There was no significant change in FSS scores (F(1, 3.312) = 2.411, P = 0.092). Participants in the MST program experienced improved balance and walking without an increase in fatigue. This MST program may be utilized by rehabilitation clinicians to improve lower extremity strength, balance, and mobility in pwMS. PMID:28116161

  17. Effects of acute creatine loading with or without carbohydrate on repeated bouts of maximal swimming in high-performance swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, Apostolos S; Havenetidis, Konstantinos; Zanker, Cathy L; O'Hara, John P; King, Roderick F G J; Hood, Colin; Paradisis, Giorgios; Cooke, Carlton B

    2005-05-01

    The addition of carbohydrate (CHO) to an acute creatine (Cr) loading regimen has been shown to increase muscle total creatine content significantly beyond that achieved through creatine loading alone. However, the potential ergogenic effects of combined Cr and CHO loading have not been assessed. The purpose of this study was to compare swimming performance, assessed as mean swimming velocity over repeated maximal intervals, in high-performance swimmers before and after an acute loading regimen of either creatine alone (Cr) or combined creatine and carbohydrate (Cr + CHO). Ten swimmers (mean +/- SD of age and body mass: 17.8 +/- 1.8 years and 72.3 +/- 6.8 kg, respectively) of international caliber were recruited and were randomized to 1 of 2 groups. Each swimmer ingested five 5 g doses of creatine for 4 days, with the Cr + CHO group also ingesting approximately 100 g of simple CHO 30 minutes after each dose of creatine. Performance was measured on 5 separate occasions: twice at "baseline" (prior to intervention, to assess the repeatability of the performance test), within 48 hours after intervention, and then 2 and 4 weeks later. All subjects swam faster after either dietary loading regimen (p swimmers continued to produce faster swim times for up to 4 weeks after intervention. Our findings suggest that no performance advantage was gained from the addition of carbohydrate to a creatine-loading regimen in these high-caliber swimmers.

  18. Effects of Continuous and Interval Training on Running Economy, Maximal Aerobic Speed and Gait Kinematics in Recreational Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mohíno, Fernando; González-Ravé, José M; Juárez, Daniel; Fernández, Francisco A; Barragán Castellanos, Rubén; Newton, Robert U

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on running economy (RE), V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, maximal aerobic speed (MAS), and gait kinematics (step length [SL] and frequency, flight and contact time [CT]) in recreational athletes, with 2 different training methods, Interval and Continuous (CON). Eleven participants were randomly distributed in an interval training group (INT; n = 6) or CON training group (CON; n = 5). Interval training and CON performed 2 different training programs (95-110% and 70-75% of MAS, respectively), which consisted of 3 sessions per week during 6 weeks with the same external workload (%MAS × duration). An incremental test to exhaustion was performed to obtain V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, MAS, RE, and gait variables (high speed camera) before and after the training intervention. There was a significant improvement (p ≤ 0.05) in RE at 60 and 90% of MAS by the CON group; without changes in gait. The INT group significantly increased MAS and higher stride length at 80, 90, and 100% of MAS and lower CT at 100% of MAS. As expected, training adaptations are highly specific to the overload applied with CON producing improvements in RE at lower percentage of MAS whereas INT produces improvements in MAS. The significantly increased stride length and decreased CT for the INT group are an important outcome of favorable changes in running gait.

  19. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ziman, Mario, E-mail: ziman@savba.sk [RCQI, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanická 68a, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  20. Effect of cholecalciferol on the anticonvulsant action of some second generation antiepileptic drugs in the mouse model of maximal electroshock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowicz, Kinga K; Morawska, Dorota; Morawska, Marta

    2015-10-01

    From a theoretical point of view, cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) as a precursor of calcitriol, a representative of secosteroids, may have neuroprotective properties and affect seizure phenomena. In the present study, interactions between cholecalciferol and three second generation antiepileptic drugs (oxcarbazepine, lamotrigine, and topiramate) were studied in the maximal electroshock test in mice. Effects of drugs on motor coordination, long-term memory and explorative behavior of animals were evaluated in the chimney test, passive-avoidance task and plus-maze test, respectively. Cholecalciferol applied ip at doses of 37.5-75μg/kg significantly raised the electroconvulsive threshold. Cholecalciferol, administered at the subthreshold dose of 18.75μg, potentiated the anticonvulsant activity of oxcarbazepine and lamotrigine, but did not change their brain concentrations, therefore the revealed interactions seem to be pharmacodynamic. Furthermore, the action of cholecalciferol was not dependent on its conversion to calcitriol. The anticonvulsant effect of topiramate was enhanced by cholecalciferol applied at the higher dose of 37.5μg/kg, at which it also increased the brain level of topiramate. As regards adverse effects, cholecalciferol, antiepileptic drugs, and their combinations did not significantly impair motor coordination or long-term memory in mice. Moreover, cholecalciferol did not show either anxiolytic or anxiogenic properties. Our findings show that cholecalciferol has not only its own anticonvulsant action but also enhances efficacy of certain antiepileptic drugs, at least in experimental conditions. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  1. Effectiveness of elite female basketball players’ technical-tactic actions and ways for their improvement at stage of maximal realization of individual potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushko R.A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: study effectiveness of elite female basketball players’ technical-tactic actions and determine the ways for their improvement at stage of maximal realization of individual potentials. Material: the authors analyzed competition functioning’s indicators of female basketball players of national combined team of Ukraine and their age characteristics. Results: effectiveness of technical-tactic actions in structure of national female basketball players’ combined team of Ukraine competition functioning at European championship. The authors present: indicators of team composition; roles in team; won and lost games; quantity of scored and skipped points; technical-tactic actions; age of sportswomen. Age indicators of elite female basketball players at stage of maximal realization have been given. Conclusions: we have composed a list of the most important technical-tactic actions in competition functioning. We also outlined ways for their perfection at stage of maximal realization of individual potentials of elite female basketball players of different game roles.

  2. Effects of Land Cover / Land Use, Soil Texture, and Vegetation on the Water Balance of Lake Chad Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babamaaji, R. A.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    Lake Chad Basin (LCB) has experienced drastic changes of land cover and poor water management practices during the last 50 years. The successive droughts in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in the shortage of surface water and groundwater resources. This problem of drought has a devastating implication on the natural resources of the Basin with great consequence on food security, poverty reduction and quality of life of the inhabitants in the LCB. Therefore, understanding the effects of land use / land cover must be a first step to find how they disturb cycle especially the groundwater in the LCB. The abundance of groundwater is affected by the climate change through the interaction with surface water, such as lakes and rivers, and disuse recharge through an infiltration process. Quantifying the impact of climate change on the groundwater resource requires reliable forecasting of changes in the major climatic variables and other spatial variations including the land use/land cover, soil texture, topographic slope, and vegetation. In this study, we employed a spatially distributed water balance model WetSpass to simulate a long-term average change of groundwater recharge in the LCB of Africa. WetSpass is a water balance-based model to estimate seasonal and spatial distribution of surface runoff, interception, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge. The model is especially suitable for studying the effect of land use/land cover change on the water regime in the LCB. The present study describes the concept of the model and its application to the development of recharge map of the LCB. The study shows that major role in the water balance of LCB. The mean yearly actual evapotranspiration (ET) from the basin range from 60mm - 400 mm, which is 90 % (69mm - 430) of the annual precipitation from 2003 - 2010. It is striking that about 50 - 60 % of the total runoff is produced on build-up (impervious surfaces), while much smaller contributions are obtained from vegetated

  3. Analysing the Effects of Different Land Cover Types on Land Surface Temperature Using Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şekertekin, A.; Kutoglu, Ş. H.; Kaya, S.; Marangoz, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring Land Surface Temperature (LST) via remote sensing images is one of the most important contributions to climatology. LST is an important parameter governing the energy balance on the Earth and it also helps us to understand the behavior of urban heat islands. There are lots of algorithms to obtain LST by remote sensing techniques. The most commonly used algorithms are split-window algorithm, temperature/emissivity separation method, mono-window algorithm and single channel method. In this research, mono window algorithm was implemented to Landsat 5 TM image acquired on 28.08.2011. Besides, meteorological data such as humidity and temperature are used in the algorithm. Moreover, high resolution Geoeye-1 and Worldview-2 images acquired on 29.08.2011 and 12.07.2013 respectively were used to investigate the relationships between LST and land cover type. As a result of the analyses, area with vegetation cover has approximately 5 ºC lower temperatures than the city center and arid land., LST values change about 10 ºC in the city center because of different surface properties such as reinforced concrete construction, green zones and sandbank. The temperature around some places in thermal power plant region (ÇATES and ZETES) Çatalağzı, is about 5 ºC higher than city center. Sandbank and agricultural areas have highest temperature due to the land cover structure.

  4. ANALYSING THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT LAND COVER TYPES ON LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE USING SATELLITE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Şekertekin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring Land Surface Temperature (LST via remote sensing images is one of the most important contributions to climatology. LST is an important parameter governing the energy balance on the Earth and it also helps us to understand the behavior of urban heat islands. There are lots of algorithms to obtain LST by remote sensing techniques. The most commonly used algorithms are split-window algorithm, temperature/emissivity separation method, mono-window algorithm and single channel method. In this research, mono window algorithm was implemented to Landsat 5 TM image acquired on 28.08.2011. Besides, meteorological data such as humidity and temperature are used in the algorithm. Moreover, high resolution Geoeye-1 and Worldview-2 images acquired on 29.08.2011 and 12.07.2013 respectively were used to investigate the relationships between LST and land cover type. As a result of the analyses, area with vegetation cover has approximately 5 ºC lower temperatures than the city center and arid land., LST values change about 10 ºC in the city center because of different surface properties such as reinforced concrete construction, green zones and sandbank. The temperature around some places in thermal power plant region (ÇATES and ZETES Çatalağzı, is about 5 ºC higher than city center. Sandbank and agricultural areas have highest temperature due to the land cover structure.

  5. Listening to Music during Warming-Up Counteracts the Negative Effects of Ramadan Observance on Short-Term Maximal Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklouti, Hana; Chtourou, Hamdi; Driss, Tarak; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of the present study was to examine whether listening to music during warming-up might influence short-term maximal performance (STMP), cognitive anxiety, self-confidence, and enjoyment during Ramadan, and whether these affects might predict STMP. Methods Nine male physical education students (age: 21 ± 1.1 years; height: 1.8 ± 0.04 m; body mass: 83 ± 5 kg) volunteered to participate in the present study. A within-subjects design consisted of four experimental sessions: Two sessions occurred one week before Ramadan and two others took place during Ramadan. They were scheduled at 5 p.m. and were conducted as follows: After a 10-minute warm-up either with or without listening to music, each participant performed a 5-m multiple shuttle run test, after which he was asked to answer items intended to assess his affective state during the experimental task. Results Our findings revealed that STMP was lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan in the no-music condition. Additionally, it was found that STMP was higher in the music condition than in the no-music condition during Ramadan, and that STMP measured before Ramadan did not differ from that measured during Ramadan in the music condition. Regarding affects, the findings revealed that enjoyment was lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan in the music condition, and that cognitive anxiety was lower in the music condition than in the no-music condition before Ramadan. Self-confidence was not influenced by the experimental conditions. Conclusion This study showed that listening to music during warming-up not only would be beneficial for STMP in Ramadan fasters, but also would counteract the negative effects of Ramadan observance on STMP. PMID:26301508

  6. Listening to Music during Warming-Up Counteracts the Negative Effects of Ramadan Observance on Short-Term Maximal Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloui, Asma; Briki, Walid; Baklouti, Hana; Chtourou, Hamdi; Driss, Tarak; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether listening to music during warming-up might influence short-term maximal performance (STMP), cognitive anxiety, self-confidence, and enjoyment during Ramadan, and whether these affects might predict STMP. Nine male physical education students (age: 21 ± 1.1 years; height: 1.8 ± 0.04 m; body mass: 83 ± 5 kg) volunteered to participate in the present study. A within-subjects design consisted of four experimental sessions: Two sessions occurred one week before Ramadan and two others took place during Ramadan. They were scheduled at 5 p.m. and were conducted as follows: After a 10-minute warm-up either with or without listening to music, each participant performed a 5-m multiple shuttle run test, after which he was asked to answer items intended to assess his affective state during the experimental task. Our findings revealed that STMP was lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan in the no-music condition. Additionally, it was found that STMP was higher in the music condition than in the no-music condition during Ramadan, and that STMP measured before Ramadan did not differ from that measured during Ramadan in the music condition. Regarding affects, the findings revealed that enjoyment was lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan in the music condition, and that cognitive anxiety was lower in the music condition than in the no-music condition before Ramadan. Self-confidence was not influenced by the experimental conditions. This study showed that listening to music during warming-up not only would be beneficial for STMP in Ramadan fasters, but also would counteract the negative effects of Ramadan observance on STMP.

  7. Listening to Music during Warming-Up Counteracts the Negative Effects of Ramadan Observance on Short-Term Maximal Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Aloui

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine whether listening to music during warming-up might influence short-term maximal performance (STMP, cognitive anxiety, self-confidence, and enjoyment during Ramadan, and whether these affects might predict STMP.Nine male physical education students (age: 21 ± 1.1 years; height: 1.8 ± 0.04 m; body mass: 83 ± 5 kg volunteered to participate in the present study. A within-subjects design consisted of four experimental sessions: Two sessions occurred one week before Ramadan and two others took place during Ramadan. They were scheduled at 5 p.m. and were conducted as follows: After a 10-minute warm-up either with or without listening to music, each participant performed a 5-m multiple shuttle run test, after which he was asked to answer items intended to assess his affective state during the experimental task.Our findings revealed that STMP was lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan in the no-music condition. Additionally, it was found that STMP was higher in the music condition than in the no-music condition during Ramadan, and that STMP measured before Ramadan did not differ from that measured during Ramadan in the music condition. Regarding affects, the findings revealed that enjoyment was lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan in the music condition, and that cognitive anxiety was lower in the music condition than in the no-music condition before Ramadan. Self-confidence was not influenced by the experimental conditions.This study showed that listening to music during warming-up not only would be beneficial for STMP in Ramadan fasters, but also would counteract the negative effects of Ramadan observance on STMP.

  8. Effects of eight weeks of exercise training and orlistat therapy on body composition and maximal exercise capacity in obese females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcelik, O; Dogan, H; Kelestimur, H

    2006-01-01

    A comparative assessment was made of the short-term effects of orlistat therapy and exercise training on body composition and aerobic fitness in obese females. A total of 24 obese patients were enrolled in to the study; 12 received orlistat therapy (DO) and 12 participated in a regular aerobic exercise-training programme (DE). All patients were on hypocaloric diets. Each patient performed three incremental ramp exercise tests (one at Week 0, one at the end of Week 4 and one at the end of Week 8) to exhaustion using an electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer to determine their anaerobic threshold and maximal exercise (Wmax) capacity. Patients in the DE group performed continuous exercise at a work rate that corresponded to the anaerobic threshold. Weight loss and loss of fat mass after 8 weeks were -6.4% (P=0.002) and -13.4% (DE) vs -5.8% (P=0.002) and -6.4% (P=0.008) (DO), respectively. Wmax capacity was 90.8+/-5 W (basal) vs 92.9+/-5 W (Week 4, P=0.1) and 100.4+/-6 W (Week 8, 10.5%, P=0.04) in the DO group, and 96.2+/-6 W (basal) vs 129.1+/-4 W (Week 4, 34.1%, P=0.002) and 137.5+/-5 W(Week 8, 42.9%, P=0.002) in the DE group. Despite similar decreases in body weight in both groups, patients in the DE group achieved a markedly higher level of Wmax, reflecting a better improvement in cardiopulmonary fitness, compared with patients in the DO group. Considering the improvement of aerobic fitness in the short term, an aerobic exercise-training programme should be considered for sedentary obese patients to improve their aerobic fitness and thereby reduce the negative outcomes of obesity.

  9. Land Use Change and Its Effect on Environment Based on Farmers' Behaviors: A Case Study in Agricultural Areas of Tibet, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Wei; YAN Yan; ZENG Yun-ying; ZHONG Xiang-hao

    2005-01-01

    In the case study in Agricultural Area of Tibet, the process and characteristics of farmers' land use were surveyed by semi-structural interview questionnaire. By comparing the change of land covers and farmers' land decision in two periods, the spatial connection of them was obtained. And the relations among farmers' land decision, land use change and environment were examined by calculating emergy and value flow. The results show that: hunting the maximal profits is the primary aim of farmers' land decision; farmers' land decision is incompatible with sustainable land use presently; farmers' land decision and land cover can be embodied spatially by each other; the change of farmers' land decision can be monitored by observing the change of land cover, and the sustainability of farmers' land decision can be appraised by calculating emergy and value flow.

  10. Monitoring the effects of land use/landcover changes on urban heat island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Ong K.; Sarker, Md Latifur Rahman

    2013-10-01

    Urban heat island effects are well known nowadays and observed in cities throughout the World. The main reason behind the effects of urban heat island (UHI) is the transformation of land use/ land cover, and this transformation is associated with UHI through different actions: i) removal of vegetated areas, ii) land reclamation from sea/river, iii) construction of new building as well as other concrete structures, and iv) industrial and domestic activity. In rapidly developing cities, urban heat island effects increases very hastily with the transformation of vegetated/ other types of areas into urban surface because of the increasing population as well as for economical activities. In this research the effect of land use/ land cover on urban heat island was investigated in two growing cities in Asia i.e. Singapore and Johor Bahru, (Malaysia) using 10 years data (from 1997 to 2010) from Landsat TM/ETM+. Multispectral visible band along with indices such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Build Index (NDBI), and Normalized Difference Bareness Index (NDBaI) were used for the classification of major land use/land cover types using Maximum Likelihood Classifiers. On the other hand, land surface temperature (LST) was estimated from thermal image using Land Surface Temperature algorithm. Emissivity correction was applied to the LST map using the emissivity values from the major land use/ land cover types, and validation of the UHI map was carried out using in situ data. Results of this research indicate that there is a strong relationship between the land use/land cover changes and UHI. Over this 10 years period, significant percentage of non-urban surface was decreased but urban heat surface was increased because of the rapid urbanization. With the increase of UHI effect it is expected that local urban climate has been modified and some heat related health problem has been exposed, so appropriate measure should be taken in order to

  11. Maximizers versus satisficers

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Andrew M.; Wandi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff

    2007-01-01

    Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions...

  12. Possible Biogeophysical Effects of Cultivated Land Conversion in Northeast China in 2010–2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There will be substantial cultivated land change in China as the society strives to meet the growing food demands, which will greatly influence the future climate. This study analyzed the possible biogeophysical effects of cultivated land change on the climate in Northeast China during 2010–2030 on the basis of simulation with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF model. Scenario analysis was first carried out on the possible changing trends of cultivated land. Then the climate effects of the cultivated land change were analyzed on the basis of the simulation with the WRF model. The simulation results indicate that the total cultivated land area in Northeast China will decrease during 2010–2030, mainly converting into urban and built-up land and forests due to the urbanization and governmental policies. Besides, the cultivated land change will lead to the increase of the sensible heat flux in the regions where a lot of cultivated land will change into urban and built-up land, while it will make the latent heat flux increase in the regions where the cultivated land will be mainly converted into forests through influencing the evapotranspiration. All these results can provide theoretical support for implementing the future land management in Northeast China.

  13. The Effect of No Agricultural Productivity Growth on Future Land Use and Climate through Biogeophysical Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Barnard, T.; Valdes, P. J.; Singarayer, J. S.; Jones, C.

    2012-12-01

    Future land use and the consequent land cover change will have a significant impact on future climate through biogeophysical (albedo, surface roughness and latent heat transfer, etc.) as well as biogeochemical (greenhouse gas emissions etc.) mechanisms. One of the major determinants of the extent of land use induced land cover change is the agricultural productivity growth within the socio-economic models used for developing the RCP scenarios. There are considerable uncertainties in the size of agricultural productivity under climate change, as yields are projected to vary spatially in signal and strength. Previous climate modeling work has considered the impacts to the carbon cycle of different levels of agricultural productivity growth, but has failed to consider the biogeophysical effects of the land use induced land cover change on climate. Here we examine the climate impacts of the assumption of agricultural productivity growth and business as usual land use. The effects are considered through the biogeophysical land use induced land cover change, using the Hadley Centre climate model HadGEM2. The model simulations use the set biogeochemical climate forcing of the RCP 4.5 scenario, but the biogeophysical land use change specification is altered over a 100 year simulation. Simulations are run with combinations of no land use change; standard RCP 4.5 land use change; business as usual land use change; and zero agricultural productivity growth. The key effect of no agricultural productivity growth is that more cropland is required to feed the same population, necessitating cropland expansion. The expansion of cropland and consequent deforestation increases the albedo and gives an extensive cooling effect in the northern hemisphere (up to 2°C). Differences in global mean temperature between the zero agricultural productivity growth with business as usual land use change specified run and the standard RCP 4.5 run are -0.2°C by 2040 and -0.7°C by 2100. There is

  14. Effect of antecedent moderate-intensity exercise on the glycemia-increasing effect of a 30-sec maximal sprint: a sex comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Tara D; Hammer, Greta L; Davey, Raymond J; Paramalingam, Nirubasini; Guelfi, Kym J; Lewis, Lynley; Davis, Elizabeth A; Jones, Timothy W; Fournier, Paul A

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether a prior bout of moderate-intensity exercise attenuates the glycemia-increasing effect of a maximal 30-sec sprint. A secondary aim was to determine whether the effect of antecedent exercise on the glucoregulatory response to sprinting is affected by sex. Participants (men n = 8; women n = 7) were tested on two occasions during which they either rested (CON) or cycled for 60-min at a moderate intensity of ~65% V ˙ O 2 peak (EX) before performing a 30-sec maximal cycling effort 195 min later. In response to the sprint, blood glucose increased to a similar extent between EX and CON trials, peaking at 10 min of recovery, with no difference between sexes (P > 0.05). Blood glucose then declined at a faster rate in EX, and this was associated with a glucose rate of disappearance (R d) that exceeded the glucose rate of appearance (R a) earlier in EX compared with CON, although the overall glucose R a and R d profile was higher in men compared with women (P women compared with men (P women compared with men (P sprint; however, the subsequent decline in blood glucose is more rapid. This blood glucose response is similar between men and women, despite less pronounced changes in glucose R a and R d, and a lower response of plasma catecholamines and growth hormone to sprinting in women.

  15. Not quite so fast: effect of training at 90% sprint speed on maximal and repeated-sprint ability in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Thomas; Tonnessen, Espen; Leirstein, Svein; Hem, Erlend; Seiler, Stephen

    2014-12-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of training at an intensity eliciting 90% of maximal sprinting speed on maximal and repeated-sprint performance in soccer. It was hypothesised that sprint training at 90% of maximal velocity would improve soccer-related sprinting. Twenty-two junior club-level male and female soccer players (age 17 ± 1 year, body mass 64 ± 8 kg, body height 174 ± 8 cm) completed an intervention study where the training group (TG) replaced one of their weekly soccer training sessions with a repeated-sprint training session performed at 90% of maximal sprint speed, while the control group (CG) completed regular soccer training according to their teams' original training plans. Countermovement jump, 12 × 20-m repeated-sprint, VO2max and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 test were performed prior to and after a 9-week intervention period. No significant between-group differences were observed for any of the performance indices and effect magnitudes were trivial or small. Before rejecting the hypothesis, we recommend that future studies should perform intervention programmes with either stronger stimulus or at other times during the season where total training load is reduced.

  16. Effects of the land use change on ecosystem service value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of land utilization change on the ecosystem service values in Daqing during 1995 to 2015 were analyzed based on unit area ecosystem service value of Chinese territorial ecosystem from Mr. Xie Gaodi and ecosystem service value calculation formula from Costanza. Results showed that the ecosystem service value of Daqing decreased from US $4343.1559m in 1995 to US $3824.327m in 2015, with the ecological value of US $518.8289 m decreased during the past 20 years. Wetland and water body were the two main land utilization types with the greatest contributions to the ecosystem service value. Ecosystem services value of per capita decreased 23.52%. The sensitivity coefficient of eco-service values of all types of land utilization to their value coefficients were all less than 1 in Daqing area. The sensitivity coefficients followed that wetland > water body > woodland > unutilized land > pasture land> cultivated land in 2015, which indicating that the changes of the land utilization are lack of flexibility to the changes of the ecosystem service value.

  17. The Effects of Cardiovascular Fitness and Body Composition on Maximal Core Temperature in Collegiate Football Players During Pre-season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, JoAnna M; Godek, Sandra Fowkes; Chlad, Pamela S; Feairheller, Deborah L; Morrison, Katherine E

    2017-07-14

    This study evaluated the effects of BMI and aerobic fitness (VO2max) on maximal core temperature values (Tcmax) in 17 NCAA Division III football players during pre-season. The subjects included nine backs (BKs) and eight linemen (LM). VO2max testing was performed one week prior to pre-season. Core temperature was monitored via ingestible sensor every 10 min during practices on day 4(D1), day 5(D2), day 7(D3), and post-acclimatization on day 14(D4). Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) was recorded on each collection day. Independent, paired t-tests and Pearson's correlations were performed (α=0.05). There were no significant correlations between VO2max and Tcmax on D1 (WBGT=29.07°C) or D2 (WBGT=30.93°C), but on D3 (WBGT=31.39 °C) there was a non-significant moderate negative correlation (r=-0.564, P=0.090). There were no significant correlations between BMI and Tcmax on D1or D2, but on D3 there was a non-significant moderate positive correlation (r=0.596, P=0.069). Paired t-tests revealed that overall Tcmax (D1-3) (38.56±0.32°C) was statistically higher (P=0.002) than D4 (38.16±0.30 °C). Independent t-tests between groups showed the Tcmax values during pre-acclimatization (D1-D3) were significantly higher in LM (38.50±0.37°C) than BKs (38.16±0.35°C) (P=0.007). VO2max was significantly lower (P=0.006) in LM [36.89±6.40 ml/kg•min] than BKs [47.44±7.09 ml/kg•min] and BMI was significantly higher (P=0.019) in LM (35.59±4.00 kg/m) than BKs (28.68±3.38 kg/m). The results of this study demonstrate that LM are significantly less fit than BKs and have a greater BMI. When WBGT was the highest on D3, the results suggest that those with lower VO2max and higher BMI experienced a higher Tcmax.

  18. The Effects of Multiple-Joint Isokinetic Resistance Training on Maximal Isokinetic and Dynamic Muscle Strength and Local Muscular Endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Ratamess, Noah A. Beller, Adam M. Gonzalez, Gregory E. Spatz, Jay R. Hoffman, Ryan E. Ross, Avery D. Faigenbaum, Jie Kang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The transfer of training effects of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training to dynamic exercise performance remain poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the magnitude of isokinetic and dynamic one repetition-maximum (1RM strength and local muscular endurance increases after 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training. Seventeen women were randomly assigned to either an isokinetic resistance training group (IRT or a non-exercising control group (CTL. The IRT group underwent 6 weeks of training (2 days per week consisting of 5 sets of 6-10 repetitions at 75-85% of subjects’ peak strength for the isokinetic chest press and seated row exercises at an average linear velocity of 0.15 m s-1 [3-sec concentric (CON and 3-sec eccentric (ECC phases]. Peak CON and ECC force during the chest press and row, 1RM bench press and bent-over row, and maximum number of modified push-ups were assessed pre and post training. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance with repeated measures and Tukey’s post hoc tests were used for data analysis. The results showed that 1RM bench press (from 38.6 ± 6.7 to 43.0 ± 5.9 kg, 1RM bent-over row (from 40.4 ± 7.7 to 45.5 ± 7.5 kg, and the maximal number of modified push-ups (from 39.5 ± 13.6 to 55.3 ± 13.1 repetitions increased significantly only in the IRT group. Peak isokinetic CON and ECC force in the chest press and row significantly increased in the IRT group. No differences were shown in the CTL group for any measure. These data indicate 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic muscle strength and local muscular endurance performance in addition to specific isokinetic strength gains in women.

  19. Fractional Maximal Effect Method for In Vitro Synergy between Amoxicillin and Ceftriaxone and between Vancomycin and Ceftriaxone against Enterococcus faecalis and Penicillin-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Desbiolles, Norbert; Piroth, Lionel; Lequeu, Catherine; Neuwirth, Catherine; Portier, Henri; Chavanet, Pascal

    2001-01-01

    In the present study we assessed the use of a new in vitro testing method and graphical representation of the results to investigate the potential effectiveness of combinations of amoxicillin (AMZ) plus ceftriaxone (CRO) and of CRO plus vancomycin (VAN) against strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae highly resistant to penicillin and cephalosporins (PRP strains). We used the fractional maximal effect (FME) method of time-kill curves to calculate adequate concentrations of the drugs to be tested ...

  20. Land-Use Change and the Billion Ton 2016 Resource Assessment: Understanding the Effects of Land Management on Environmental Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, K. L.; Eaton, L. M.; Efroymson, R.; Davis, M. R.; Dunn, J.; Langholtz, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    The federal government, led by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), quantified potential U.S. biomass resources for expanded production of renewable energy and bioproducts in the 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy (BT16) (DOE 2016). Volume 1 of the report provides analysis of projected supplies from 2015 to2040. Volume 2 (forthcoming) evaluates changes in environmental indicators for water quality and quantity, carbon, air quality, and biodiversity associated with production scenarios in BT16 volume 1. This presentation will review land-use allocations under the projected biomass production scenarios and the changes in land management that are implied, including drivers of direct and indirect LUC. National and global concerns such as deforestation and displacement of food production are addressed. The choice of reference scenario, input parameters and constraints (e.g., regarding land classes, availability, and productivity) drive LUC results in any model simulation and are reviewed to put BT16 impacts into context. The principal LUC implied in BT16 supply scenarios involves the transition of 25-to-47 million acres (net) from annual crops in 2015 baseline to perennial cover by 2040 under the base case and 3% yield growth case, respectively. We conclude that clear definitions of land parameters and effects are essential to assess LUC. A lack of consistency in parameters and outcomes of historic LUC analysis in the U.S. underscores the need for science-based approaches.

  1. The plot size effect on soil erosion on rainfed agriculture land under different land uses in eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.; Bodí, M. B.; Burguet, M.; Segura, M.; Jovani, C.

    2009-04-01

    Soil erosion at slope scale is dependent on the size of the plot. This is because soil erosion is a scale-dependent process due to the spatial variability in infiltration, the potential for sediment to be captured by vegetation and other roughness components, and the changes in erosion rates and processes with increasing amounts of runoff. The effects of plot size may also vary with land use, as plot size may be less important in areas with a more homogeneous plant cover or bares soils; meanwhile the soil transmission losses will higher on vegetation covered soils and on patchy distributed plants. A series of study plots were established in 2003 at the El Teularet experimental Station in the Sierra de Enguera in eastern Spain. The overall goal is to assess runoff and erosion rates from different land uses at different spatial scales. Thirteen sets of plots have been established, and each set consists of five adjacent plots that vary in size from 1 m2 (1 x 1 m), 2 m2 (1 x 2 m), 4 m2 (1 x 4 m), 16 m2 (2 x 8 m) and 48 m2 (3 m wide x 16 m length). Each set of plots has a different land use, and the land uses being tested in the first year of this study are fallow, ploughed but unplanted, untilled oats and beans, tilled oats and beans, straw mulch, mulched with chipped olive branches, a geotextile developed to control erosion on agricultural fields, scrub oaks (Quercus coccifera), gorse (Ulex parviflorus), and three herbicide treatments—a systemic herbicide, a contact herbicide, and a persistent herbicide. From those plots, three plots were selected to analyse the effect of the size of the plot on the soil erosion assessment. Herbicide (bare), Catch crops (oat) and scrubland were selected to analyze the soil losses during 2004 and 2005. The results shows that sediment delivery is highly dependent on the land use and land management as the scrubland contributed with null sediment yield, meanwhile the herbicide reached the largest soil loss. The soil erosion was higher

  2. Effect of acute dietary nitrate intake on maximal knee extensor speed and power in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggan, Andrew R; Leibowitz, Joshua L; Kadkhodayan, Ana; Thomas, Deepak P; Ramamurthy, Sujata; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Waller, Suzanne; Farmer, Marsha; Peterson, Linda R

    2015-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been demonstrated to enhance the maximal shortening velocity and maximal power of rodent muscle. Dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) intake has been demonstrated to increase NO bioavailability in humans. We therefore hypothesized that acute dietary NO3(-) intake (in the form of a concentrated beetroot juice (BRJ) supplement) would improve muscle speed and power in humans. To test this hypothesis, healthy men and women (n = 12; age = 22-50 y) were studied using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. After an overnight fast, subjects ingested 140 mL of BRJ either containing or devoid of 11.2 mmol of NO3(-). After 2 h, knee extensor contractile function was assessed using a Biodex 4 isokinetic dynamometer. Breath NO levels were also measured periodically using a Niox Mino analyzer as a biomarker of whole-body NO production. No significant changes in breath NO were observed in the placebo trial, whereas breath NO rose by 61% (P power at the highest angular velocity tested (i.e., 6.28 rad/s). Calculated maximal knee extensor power was therefore greater (i.e., 7.90 ± 0.59 vs. 7.44 ± 0.53 W/kg; P power in healthy men and women.

  3. On Maximal Injectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Yi WANG; Guo ZHAO

    2005-01-01

    A right R-module E over a ring R is said to be maximally injective in case for any maximal right ideal m of R, every R-homomorphism f : m → E can be extended to an R-homomorphism f' : R → E. In this paper, we first construct an example to show that maximal injectivity is a proper generalization of injectivity. Then we prove that any right R-module over a left perfect ring R is maximally injective if and only if it is injective. We also give a partial affirmative answer to Faith's conjecture by further investigating the property of maximally injective rings. Finally, we get an approximation to Faith's conjecture, which asserts that every injective right R-module over any left perfect right self-injective ring R is the injective hull of a projective submodule.

  4. Maximizers versus satisficers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Parker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007. Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002, we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions, more avoidance of decision making, and greater tendency to experience regret. Contrary to predictions, self-reported maximizers were more likely to report spontaneous decision making. However, the relationship between self-reported maximizing and worse life outcomes is largely unaffected by controls for measures of other decision-making styles, decision-making competence, and demographic variables.

  5. On Maximal Green Sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Brüstle, Thomas; Pérotin, Matthieu

    2012-01-01

    Maximal green sequences are particular sequences of quiver mutations which were introduced by Keller in the context of quantum dilogarithm identities and independently by Cecotti-Cordova-Vafa in the context of supersymmetric gauge theory. Our aim is to initiate a systematic study of these sequences from a combinatorial point of view. Interpreting maximal green sequences as paths in various natural posets arising in representation theory, we prove the finiteness of the number of maximal green sequences for cluster finite quivers, affine quivers and acyclic quivers with at most three vertices. We also give results concerning the possible numbers and lengths of these maximal green sequences. Finally we describe an algorithm for computing maximal green sequences for arbitrary valued quivers which we used to obtain numerous explicit examples that we present.

  6. HEDONIC PRICE APPROACH OF FLOOD EFFECT ON AGRICULTURAL LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Saptutyningsih

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The natural disasters that took place in many parts of Indonesia in the last 10 years have caused an enormous losses, including agricultural sector. The objective of this paper is to estimate the magnitude of the influence of flood disaster on land price changes in Yogyakarta, using a hedonic price approach. The sample are is choosen from the vulnerable flood area mapped by Geographical Information Systems (GIS, from which farmers and land owner are selected as the respondents. The paper finds the evidence of a high level of flood stream coefficient, indicating that the flood significantly reduces the land price. The average of household’s marginal willingness to pay for the decrease in flood stream level is estimated to be Rp 2.175.  Keywords: Agricultural land, marginal willingness to pay (MWTP, hedonic priceJEL classification numbers: Q15, Q19

  7. Land cover changes and their biogeophysical effects on climate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahmood, Rezaul; Pielke, Roger A; Hubbard, Kenneth G; Niyogi, Dev; Dirmeyer, Paul A; McAlpine, Clive; Carleton, Andrew M; Hale, Robert; Gameda, Samuel; Beltrán‐Przekurat, Adriana; Baker, Bruce; McNider, Richard; Legates, David R; Shepherd, Marshall; Du, Jinyang; Blanken, Peter D; Frauenfeld, Oliver W; Nair, U.S; Fall, Souleymane

    2014-01-01

    Land cover changes ( LCCs ) play an important role in the climate system. Research over recent decades highlights the impacts of these changes on atmospheric temperature, humidity, cloud cover, circulation, and precipitation...

  8. Study of Effective Land Registration Usage in State-Subsidised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MichaelB

    serviced sites have been made available through state programmes since .... form – land system fit under that condition set in a particular level of social, ..... Additional tenure information for them includes that their name is on the municipal.

  9. Effects of short-term training combining strength and balance exercises on maximal strength and upright standing steadiness in elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzer, Félix; Duchateau, Jacques; Baudry, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two training programmes of 6 weeks combining strength and balance exercises in different proportions. One training programme [n=10; 71.4 (6.3) years] consisted mainly of strength exercises (ST) and the other programme [n=8; 71.4 (6.4) years] included a majority of balance exercises (BT). Maximal strength of lower leg muscles and centre of pressure (CoP) steadiness during upright stance in various sensory conditions were measured before and after training. The input-output relation of motor evoked potential (MEP) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation and H reflex was also assessed in soleus during upright standing. The maximal strength of the ankle plantar flexor muscles increased after training programmes (ptraining programmes decreased maximal amplitude and mean fluctuations of CoP displacements recorded in the backward-forward direction when standing on a foam mat (ptraining but not for the tibialis anterior. Results obtained for H reflex and MEP input-output relations suggest an increased efficacy of Ia afferents to activate low-threshold motor neurones and a decrease in corticospinal excitability after training. This study indicates that short-term training combining strength and balance exercises increases maximal strength and induces change in the neural control of lower leg muscles during upright standing.

  10. The Effect of Land-Use Intensity on Surface Temperature in the Dongting Lake Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenmin Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Land use and its environmental effects can be quantitatively expressed with land-use intensity. In this study, a land-use intensity metric was improved using a geographic mapping method. The relationships between observed rapid changes in land use and temperature in the Dongting Lake area from 2001 to 2010 were examined. The results revealed the following features: (1 The temperature increased when the land-use intensity increased via a hierarchical transition owing to grass and forest land reductions of 26.25% and 11.74%, respectively; built-up land increased by 48.45%. (2 The temperature increase was driven more by the external environment than by land-use intensity changes. Human activities produced larger effects in the western region than in the eastern or central region of the study area, according to the observed variations in the centres of gravity for temperature and land-use intensity. (3 The temperature response to land-use intensity changes was more sensitive in low-altitude areas than in high-altitude areas; the response presented a north-south gradient, possibly due to socioeconomic and urbanisation differences.

  11. Effects of land use/land cover on diurnal temperature range in the temperate grassland region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiangjin; Liu, Binhui; Lu, Xianguo

    2017-01-01

    As a fragile ecological zone, the temperate grassland region of China has experienced dramatic land use/land cover (LULC) changes due to human disturbances. So far, the impacts of LULC change on climate especially the diurnal temperature range (DTR) in this region are still not well understood. Based on the OMR (observation minus reanalysis) method, this study investigated the effects of LULC on DTR in the temperate grassland region of China. Considering the possible uncertainty of the results due to spatial resolution of the reanalysis dataset, two reanalysis datasets with different spatial resolutions were utilized. Results showed that LULC generally contributed to the decline of DTR in the temperate grassland region of China during 1980 to 2005. Due to different warming effects on monthly maximum temperature (Tmax) and minimum temperature (Tmin), grassland and forest tend to slightly decrease monthly DTR (approximately -0.053 to -0.050°C/decade and approximately -0.059 to -0.055°C/decade, respectively), while bare land has a slightly positive effect on DTR (approximately 0.018-0.021°C/decade). By contrast, cropland and urban tend to slightly decrease Tmax, obviously increase Tmin and thus result in a rapid decline of DTR (approximately -0.556 to -0.503°C/decade and approximately -0.617 to -0.612°C/decade, respectively). In the temperate grassland region of China, grassland vegetation changes due to human disturbances can have some effects on DTR mainly by changing the Tmax. Conversion from grassland to cropland could decrease the DTR by slowing down the increase of Tmax. But the conversion from grassland to bare land, as well as the reduction of grassland vegetation cover will increase Tmax, and consequently the DTR. The results suggest that grassland degradation is likely to result in daylight warming and increased DTR in the temperate grassland region of China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of land-use and land-cover change on nutrients in soil in Bashang area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Bashang area is a water-source area and ecological barrier zone for Beijing and Tianjin. The area is located at 200 km fromBeijing and Tianjin and is a typical agriculture-pasture-interlacing zone, in which the eco-environment is vulnerable and hence it is sensitive toenvironmental change. The area is relatively lagged in social and economic development, where the traditional cultivation mode is predominatedin agriculture and animal husbandry, but the disturbance by human activity is relatively small. Therefore, in order to reveal the interrelationbetween eco-environmental change in the area and environmental change in Beijing and Tianjin area, it is fairly necessary to study the effect ofland-use and land-cover change on nutrients in soil in this area. According to the actual situation of changed land use for the limited timeperiod, five series of changed land plots were selected and 4 samples were collected from each series for the study. The samples were collectedfrom different soil-forming levels at the same site in different time. Analysis of the collected samples indicates that in the process of change ofland use and land cover, the nutrients in soil, such as organic matter, total N, total P, total K, and available N, P, K, and B, Mo, Mn,Zn, Cu, and Fe, have regularly changed. When the land had changed from grassland and non-irrigated farmland into woodland, and from non-irrigated farmland into irrigated field, the nutrients in soil totally increased. But there exists some exception, i.e. quick-acting N, P, K, andsome microelements have appeared to be inconsistent with the mentioned above regularity in some cases.

  13. Effectiveness and sustainability of remedial actions for land restoration in Abeokuta urban communities, Ogun State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal-Adebowale, Okanlade

    2016-04-01

    Land as a major collective human property faces a great deal of threats and eventual degradation from both natural and human causal factors across the globe. But for the central role of land in human's sustenance and quality living, man cannot afford to lose its natural asset and as such takes mitigating or remedial actions to save and restore his land for sustainable use. In view of this, the study assessed the causal factors of land degradation in urban areas of Abeokuta and effectiveness and sustainability of the taken remedial actions to stem the tide of land degradation in the study area. The selected communities were purposively selected based on the observed prevalence of degraded lands in the areas. A qualitative research approach which encompasses observational techniques - participant/field observation, interactive discussion and photographic capturing, was used for collection of data on land degradation in the study area. A combination of phenomenological, inductive thematic analysis and conversation/discourse analysis was employed for data analysis. The results showed land gradients/slopes, rainfall, run-offs/erosion, land-entrenched foot impacts, sand scraping/mining, poor/absence of drainage system and land covers as causal factors of land degradation in the study area. The employed remedial actions for restoration of degraded land included filling of drenches with sand bags, wood logs, bricks and stones, and sand filling. The study though observed that filling of drenches caused by erosion with rubles/stones and construction of drainage were effective remedial actions, good drainage system was presumed to be the most appropriate and sustainable remedial action for land restoration in the study area.

  14. Land use effects on terrestrial carbon sources and sinks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Josep; G.; Canadell

    2002-01-01

    Current and past land use practices are critical in determining the distribution and size of global terrestrial carbon (C) sources and sinks. Althoughfossil fuel emissions dominate the anthropogenic perturbation of the global C cycle, land use still drives the largest portion of anthropogenic emissions in a number of tropical regions of Asia. The size of the emission flux owing to land use change is still the biggest uncertainty in the global C budget. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reported a flux term of 1.7 PgC@a-1 for 1990-1995 but more recent estimates suggest the magnitude of this source may be only of 0.96 PgC@a-1 for the 1990s. In addition, current and past land use practices are now thought to contribute to a large degree to the northern hemisphere terrestrial sink, and are the dominant driver for some regional sinks. However, mechanisms other than land use change need to be invoked in order to explain the inferred C sink in the tropics. Potential candidates are the carbon dioxide (CO2) fertilization and climate change; fertilization due to nitrogen (N) deposition is believed to be small or nil. Although the potential for managing C sinks is limited, improved land use management and new land uses such as reforestation and biomass fuel cropping, can further enhance current terrestrial C sinks. Best management practices in agriculture alone could sequester 0.4-0.8 PgC per year in soils if implemented globally. New methodologies to ensure verification and permanency of C sequestration need to be developed.

  15. Effect of Land Cover Change on Soil Phosphorus Fractions in Southeastern Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qiong; ZENG De-Hui; FAN Zhi-Ping; D.K.LEE

    2008-01-01

    In the past 50 years, large areas of the Horqin sandy land were afforested to prevent desertification. Although the afforestation policy appears successful, many people now doubt whether it is suitable to plant trees with high density on the poor soils in semiarid regions. Little is known about the impacts of afforestation on the sandy soil properties, although the evaluation of these impacts is fundamental to judge the rationality of afforestation policy. Soil phosphorus (P) fractions, acid phosphomonoesterase activities, and other soil chemical properties were compared among five adjoining typical ecosystems on poor sandy soils in southeastern Horqin sandy land. The ecosystems studied are natural elm savanna, degraded grassland, Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. Mongolica) plantation, Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation, and mixed plantation of Mongolian pine and poplar (Populus simonii). The results showed that organic P dominated soil P (47%-65%) was the principal source of available P. The degradation of elm savanna to grassland significantly reduced soil pH and resulted in an overall reduction in soil fertility, although slightly increased labile inorganic P. Grassland afforestation had no significant influence on soil pH, organic carbon, and total N but significantly reduced total P. Impacts of grassland afforestation on soil P fractions depended on tree species. Natural elm savanna had higher soil P conserving ability than artificial plantations. Therefore, with the aim of developing a sustainable ecosystem, we suggested that vegetations with low nutrient demand (particularly P) and efficient nutrient cycling would be more suitable for ecosystem restoration in the semiarid region.

  16. Atmospheric, radiative, and hydrologic effects of future land use and land cover changes: A global and multimodel climate picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Benjamin; Arneth, Almut; de Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie

    2017-05-01

    Land use and land cover changes (LULCC) modulate land surface energy, heat, moisture, and momentum fluxes. Using simulations performed with and without LULCC for five earth system models, averaged over the 2071-2100 period, we quantify the biophysical effects in response to a future realistic LULCC scenario (Representative Concentration Pathway RCP8.5) on 15 climate variables (i.e., atmospheric, radiative, wind, hydrologic variables, and heat fluxes). We find that climate models are able to simulate some robust and strong climate perturbations in response to LULCC. In tropical regions with substantial LULCC, significantly higher skin temperatures, less precipitation and soil moisture, less evaporation and clouds, more incoming radiation and stronger winds, more anticyclonic conditions and subsidence, are simulated in response to future LULCC. In midlatitude and high latitude, LULCC result in autumn cooling and higher tropospheric pressures, while East Asia is drier, warmer, with higher sensible heat flux and lower evaporation. The tropical wind strengthening and weakening of the hydrological cycle are comparable in magnitude to their future regional changes induced by greenhouse gases under RCP8.5, which make LULCC an indispensable forcing to take into account in future climatic assessments. Finally, our study reveals significant indirect atmospheric processes triggered by LULCC, implying substantial changes in incoming radiation, which dominate climatic responses over the direct effects, particularly in boreal regions.

  17. Effectiveness of Land Use Structure Evolution to Industrial Structure Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Scarcity of land resources and transformation of industrial structure is a pair of contradictory elements.We derive the characteristics of land use structure and industrial structure transformation in Xining City using Transformation Coefficient(TC):first,in the period 1999-2000,the land use structure coefficient(θ1) declined by 79.55%,but the overall evolution trend is gentle;second,the transformation coefficient of industrial structure(θ2) tended to decline ceaselessly on the whole,a decrease of 36.09%(overall,the transformation coefficient of industrial structure is slightly greater than the land use structure coefficient);third,the inter-annual variation of the two experienced ups and downs(in the period 1999-2007,the inter-annual variation was great and in the period 2008-2010,the inter-annual variation tended to be gentle).On the basis of autocorrelation and co-integration model,we draw the following conclusions through analysis:first,the land use structure in Xining City plays a role in promoting industrial structure transformation;second,there is a long-term equilibrium relationship between the two.Finally,relevant policy recommendations are put forward for the industrial development in Xining City.

  18. Effect of xanthotoxin (8-methoxypsoralen) on the anticonvulsant activity of classical antiepileptic drugs against maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagaja, Miroslaw; Pyrka, Daniel; Skalicka-Wozniak, Krystyna; Glowniak, Kazimierz; Florek-Luszczki, Magdalena; Glensk, Michał; Luszczki, Jarogniew J

    2015-09-01

    The effects of xanthotoxin (8-methoxypsoralen) on the anticonvulsant activity of four classical antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin and valproate) were studied in the mouse maximal electroshock seizure model. Tonic hind limb extension (seizure activity) was evoked in adult male albino Swiss mice by a current (25 mA, 500 V, 50 Hz, 0.2 s stimulus duration) delivered via auricular electrodes. Total brain concentrations of antiepileptic drugs were measured by fluorescence polarization immunoassay to ascertain any pharmacokinetic contribution to the observed anticonvulsant effects. Results indicate that xanthotoxin (50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly potentiated the anticonvulsant activity of carbamazepine against maximal electroshock-induced seizures (Panticonvulsant action of valproate in the maximal electroshock seizure test (Pdrugs. In conclusion, the combinations of xanthotoxin with carbamazepine and valproate, despite their beneficial effects in terms of seizure suppression in mice, were probably due to a pharmacokinetic increase in total brain concentrations of these antiepileptic drugs in experimental animals. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Effects of land management on large trees and carbon stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Kauppi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Large trees are important and unique organisms in forests, providing ecosystem services including carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere and long-term storage. There is concern about reports of global decline of big trees. Based on observations from Finland and the United States we report that trends of big trees during recent decades have been surprisingly variable among regions. In southern Finland, the growing stock volume of trees larger than 30 cm at breast height increased nearly five-fold during the second half of the 20th century, yet more recently ceased to expand. In the United States, large hardwood trees have become increasingly common since the 1950s, while large softwood trees declined until the mid 1990's as a consequence of harvests in the Pacific region, and then rebounded when harvesting there was reduced. We conclude that in the regions studied, the history of land use and forest management governs changes of tree populations especially with reference to large trees. Large trees affect greatly the carbon density of forests and usually have deeper roots and relatively lower mortality than small trees. An accumulating stock of large trees in forests may have negligible direct biophysical effects on climate because from changes in transpiration or forest albedo. Large trees have particular ecological importance and often constitute an unusually large proportion of biomass carbon stocks in a forest. Understanding the changes in big tree distributions in different regions of the world and the demography of tree populations makes a contribution to estimating the past impact and future potential of the role of forests in the global carbon budget.

  20. Effects of land management on large trees and carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppi, P. E.; Birdsey, R. A.; Pan, Y.; Ihalainen, A.; Nöjd, P.; Lehtonen, A.

    2015-02-01

    Large trees are important and unique organisms in forests, providing ecosystem services including carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere and long-term storage. Some reports have raised concerns about the global decline of large trees. Based on observations from two regions in Finland and three regions in the United States we report that trends of large trees during recent decades have been surprisingly variable among regions. In southern Finland, the growing stock volume of trees larger than 30 cm at breast height increased nearly five-fold during the second half of the 20th century, yet more recently ceased to expand. In the United States, large hardwood trees have become increasingly common in the Northeast since the 1950s, while large softwood trees declined until the mid 1990s as a consequence of harvests in the Pacific region, and then rebounded when harvesting there was reduced. We conclude that in the regions studied, the history of land use and forest management governs changes of the diameter-class distributions of tree populations. Large trees have significant benefits; for example, they can constitute a large proportion of the carbon stock and affect greatly the carbon density of forests. Large trees usually have deeper roots and long lifetimes. They affect forest structure and function and provide habitats for other species. An accumulating stock of large trees in existing forests may have negligible direct biophysical effects on climate through transpiration or forest albedo. Understanding changes in the demography of tree populations makes a contribution to estimating the past impact and future potential of forests in the global carbon budget and to assessing other ecosystem services of forests.

  1. Land use change and its ecological effect in Qian'an County of Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONGLinsheng; ZHANGYongmin; ZHAOShidong; KarlE.Rvavec

    2003-01-01

    Based on GIS and statistical methods, with the help of searching historical literatures and calculating the landscape indices, the land use changes of Qian'an County in both spatial and temporal aspects from 1945 to 1996 has been analyzed in this paper. And the driving forces of land use changes and their ecological effects are discussed too. The main findings of this study are as follows: (1) Land use changed greatly in Qian'an during 1945-1996, characterized by a decrease in grassland, wetland and water bodies, and an increase in cultivated land, saline-alkali land, and the land for housing and other construction purposes. Grassland decreased by 175,828.66 ha, and cultivated land increased by 102,137.23 ha over the half century. Accordingly, the main landscape type changed from a steppe landscape to a managed agricultural ecosystem. (2) Results of correlation analysis show that the land use change in the study area was mainly driven by the socioeconomic factors. (3) The ecological effects of land use change in the area are characterized by serious salinization, degression of soil fertility and the weakening, of landscaoe suitability.

  2. Once Again, Maxims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudiger Bubner

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Even though the maxims' theory is not at thecenter of Kant's ethics, it is the unavoidable basis of the categoric imperative's formulation. Kant leanson the transmitted representations of modem moral theory. During the last decades, the notion of maxims has deserved more attention, due to the philosophy of language's debates on rules, and due to action theory's interest in this notion. I here by brietly expound my views in these discussions.

  3. Effects of land use on lake nutrients: The importance of scale, hydrologic connectivity, and region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soranno, Patricia A.; Cheruvelil, Kendra Spence; Wagner, Tyler; Webster, Katherine E.; Bremigan, Mary Tate

    2015-01-01

    Catchment land uses, particularly agriculture and urban uses, have long been recognized as major drivers of nutrient concentrations in surface waters. However, few simple models have been developed that relate the amount of catchment land use to downstream freshwater nutrients. Nor are existing models applicable to large numbers of freshwaters across broad spatial extents such as regions or continents. This research aims to increase model performance by exploring three factors that affect the relationship between land use and downstream nutrients in freshwater: the spatial extent for measuring land use, hydrologic connectivity, and the regional differences in both the amount of nutrients and effects of land use on them. We quantified the effects of these three factors that relate land use to lake total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) in 346 north temperate lakes in 7 regions in Michigan, USA. We used a linear mixed modeling framework to examine the importance of spatial extent, lake hydrologic class, and region on models with individual lake nutrients as the response variable, and individual land use types as the predictor variables. Our modeling approach was chosen to avoid problems of multi-collinearity among predictor variables and a lack of independence of lakes within regions, both of which are common problems in broad-scale analyses of freshwaters. We found that all three factors influence land use-lake nutrient relationships. The strongest evidence was for the effect of lake hydrologic connectivity, followed by region, and finally, the spatial extent of land use measurements. Incorporating these three factors into relatively simple models of land use effects on lake nutrients should help to improve predictions and understanding of land use-lake nutrient interactions at broad scales.

  4. Quantifying effects of land use change on soil organic matter at the landscape scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, M.P.W.; Apeldoorn, van D.F.; Pepers, K.H.; Hanegraaf, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 14, EGU2012-8153, 2012 EGU General Assembly 2012 © Author(s) 2012 Quantifying effects of land use change on soil organic matter at the landscape scale M.P.W. Sonneveld (1), D.F. Van Apeldoorn (1), K.H. Pepers (1), and M.C. Hanegraaf (2) (1) Land Dynamics Group, Wa

  5. Land use change effects of oil palm expansion on ecosystem services in Tapi river basin, Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, K.; Hein, L.G.; Kroeze, C.; Jawjit, Warit

    2016-01-01

    The last decades have shown a strong increase in oil palm production in Thailand. This is increasingly leading to land conversion including loss of forest habitat. However the specific direct and indirect land use effects of oil palm expansion in Thailand are as yet insufficiently understood. We sel

  6. Quantifying effects of land use change on soil organic matter at the landscape scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, M.P.W.; Apeldoorn, van D.F.; Pepers, K.H.; Hanegraaf, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 14, EGU2012-8153, 2012 EGU General Assembly 2012 © Author(s) 2012 Quantifying effects of land use change on soil organic matter at the landscape scale M.P.W. Sonneveld (1), D.F. Van Apeldoorn (1), K.H. Pepers (1), and M.C. Hanegraaf (2) (1) Land Dynamics Group,

  7. Temporal assessment on land use land cover of Somalia after the effect of the civil war using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulle, Abdinur; Tan, Adhwa Amir; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Abdullahi, Saleh

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse land use and cover changes for the studied area during 1992-2015 and particularly evaluate the effect of civil war on these changes. Three Landsat images were used; Landsat 4 (1992), Landsat 7 (2000) and Landsat 8 (2015). Assessment of changes has been applied through three supervised classification algorithms, support vector machine, minimum classifier, and mahalanobis classifier. The result shows that SVM is providing highest overall accuracy of 98.5% for the years 2000 and 2015 with kappa coefficient of 0.9803 in year 2015. The change detection result show that the higher changes is between year 1992-2000 where vegetation land cover has dropped down to 11.1% and undeveloped area has increased to 11.4%. Whereas for year 2000-2015, higher changes belongs to build up area by 3.30% while undeveloped area and vegetation land cover keep decreasing by 2.64% and 1.93% respectively.

  8. Effects of changes in land use and land cover on sediment discharge of runoff in a typical watershed in the hill and gully loess region of northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoming ZHANG; Xinxiao YU; Sihong WU; Wenhong CAO

    2008-01-01

    Land use plays a much more important role than other factors, such as climate, soil properties, topo-graphic features, vegetation coverage, human activities and others, in affecting soil erosion and sediment discharge. In order to understand the effects of changes in land use on sediment discharge and to provide a theoretical basis for land use planning, management and ecological restoration, we used the controlled Qiaozidong watershed and the uncontrolled Qiaozixi watershed in the third sub-region of the Loess Plateau as examples and analyzed the effects of land use and land cover on the discharge of sediments. The results show that the impact of land use and land cover on the annual amount of sediment discharge is significant. Compared with the uncontrolled watershed during similar periods, the amount of sediment discharged from the con-trolled watershed was reduced by 44%, 75% and 86%, respectively, in wet, normal and dry years. In the controlled watershed, compared with the period from 1986 to 1994, the amount of sediments discharged was less during the period from 1995 to 2004. The impact of land use and land cover on sediment discharge demonstrated characteristics of seasonal fluctuation. The effects of sediment reduction in the controlled watershed were greater than those in the uncontrolled watershed in May and September. In the con-trolled watershed, the reduction effect coincided with the distribution of rainfall. The amount of discharged flood sediments is closely correlated with rainfall, rainfall intens-ity in a 60 min period and the volume of flood. The rain-storm-runoff process and the rainstorm-sediment discharge process demonstrate that land cover has a strong regulatory and control function in the flood process and sediment discharge in rainstorms. For the controlled water-shed, given the same precipitation frequency distribution, the average amount of sediment discharged during the land use period from 1995 to 2004 was less than that during the

  9. Land cover changes and their biogeophysical effects on climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaul Mahmood; Roger A. Pielke; Kenneth G. Hubbard; Dev Niyogi; Paul A. Dirmeyer; Clive McAlpine; Andrew M. Carleton; Robert Hale; Samuel Gameda; Adriana Beltrán-Przekurat; Bruce Baker; Richard McNider; David R. Legates; Marshall Shepherd; Jinyang Du; Peter D. Blanken; Oliver W. Frauenfeld; U.S. Nair; Souleymane. Fall

    2013-01-01

    Land cover changes (LCCs) play an important role in the climate system. Research over recent decades highlights the impacts of these changes on atmospheric temperature, humidity, cloud cover, circulation, and precipitation. These impacts range from the local- and regional-scale to sub-continental and global-scale. It has been found that the impacts of regional-scale...

  10. Modeling biofuel expansion effects on land use change dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Ethan; Inman, Daniel; Kunstman, Benjamin; Bush, Brian; Vimmerstedt, Laura; Peterson, Steve; Macknick, Jordan; Zhang, Yimin

    2013-03-01

    Increasing demand for crop-based biofuels, in addition to other human drivers of land use, induces direct and indirect land use changes (LUC). Our system dynamics tool is intended to complement existing LUC modeling approaches and to improve the understanding of global LUC drivers and dynamics by allowing examination of global LUC under diverse scenarios and varying model assumptions. We report on a small subset of such analyses. This model provides insights into the drivers and dynamic interactions of LUC (e.g., dietary choices and biofuel policy) and is not intended to assert improvement in numerical results relative to other works. Demand for food commodities are mostly met in high food and high crop-based biofuel demand scenarios, but cropland must expand substantially. Meeting roughly 25% of global transportation fuel demand by 2050 with biofuels requires >2 times the land used to meet food demands under a presumed 40% increase in per capita food demand. In comparison, the high food demand scenario requires greater pastureland for meat production, leading to larger overall expansion into forest and grassland. Our results indicate that, in all scenarios, there is a potential for supply shortfalls, and associated upward pressure on prices, of food commodities requiring higher land use intensity (e.g., beef) which biofuels could exacerbate.

  11. Regional Variability of the Effects of Land Use Systems on Soil Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In order to explore the regional variability of the effects of land use systems on soil properties, Shouyang County in Shanxi Province and Danling County in Sichuan Province of China were selected as the study areas. Field soil samples of the four land use systems (natural forest, forest plantation, shrubland, and cropland) were collected, respectively, from the two areas. The general statistical tools were used to analyze soil data. The results showed that the influence of land use systems on soil properties was significant. In general, soils in slightly human-disturbed land use systems presented a higher fertility level than those in strongly human-disturbed land use systems in both areas. Furthermore, the impacts of the same land use systems on soil properties showed a distinct regional variability, and even in the same land use system,different farming systems and site management measures (such as irrigation, fertilization, and pesticides) could also lead to the regional heterogeneity in soil properties. The regional variability of land use effects on soil properties reveals the regional variability of the effects of human activities on environmental changes, and could explain the complex relationship between humans and the natural environment in certain ways.

  12. Effect of acute exercise-induced fatigue on maximal rate of heart rate increase during submaximal cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Rebecca L; Rogers, Daniel K; Howe, Peter R C; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    Different mathematical models were used to evaluate if the maximal rate of heart rate (HR) increase (rHRI) was related to reductions in exercise performance resulting from acute fatigue. Fourteen triathletes completed testing before and after a 2-h run. rHRI was assessed during 5 min of 100-W cycling and a sigmoidal (rHRIsig) and exponential (rHRIexp) model were applied. Exercise performance was assessed using a 5-min cycling time-trial. The run elicited reductions in time-trial performance (1.34 ± 0.19 to 1.25 ± 0.18 kJ · kg(-1), P increased pre-exercise HR (73.0 ± 8.4 to 90.5 ± 11.4 beats · min(-1), P exercise and steady-state HR. rHRIsig was reduced following acute exercise-induced fatigue, and correlated with difference in performance.

  13. Ecological Effects of Land Use Patterns in Red Soil Hilly Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGXIAO-JU; GONGZI-TONG

    1995-01-01

    Plant biomass and biodiversity,element accumulation and return,water loss and soil erosion,and changes in soil properties were studied for up to 10 years after conversiton of sparse tree-shrubby grass land into the following four land use patterns:masson pine(Pinus massoniana Lamb.) land,beautiful sweetgum(Liquidambar formosana Hance)land,vegetation reservation aldn,and artificial mowing land.Thie annual biomass production of the masson pine land was 5060kg ha-1,being 4.9,2.1,and 6.0 times that of the beautiful sweetgum land,the vegetation reservation land,and the artificial mowing land,respectively,Compared with the background values,the number of plant species for the vegetation reservation and increased by 10 species after 10 years of land utilization,while for the masson pine and the beautiful weetgum decreased by 4,and for the artifiucial mowing land by 9.For masson pine land,total amount of N,P,K,Ca,and Mg needed for producing 1000kg dry matter was only 3.5kg,annual element return through litter was 22 kg ha-1,both of which were much lower than those of the other patterns.Vegetation reservation was an effective measure to conserve soil and water and improve soil fertility in the red soil hilly region.Artificial mowing aroused serous degradation of vegetation and soil.Some measures and suggestions for management and exploitation of the red soil hilly region such masson pine planting,closing hills for afforestation,and stereo-agriculture on one hill are proposed.

  14. Effect of Caffeine on near Maximal Blood Pressure and Blood Pressure Recovery in Physically-Active, College-Aged Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connahan, Laura E; Ott, Christopher A; Barry, Vaughn W

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine how caffeine affects exercise blood pressure (BP) and active and passive recovery BP after vigorous intensity exercise in physically active college-aged females. Fifteen physically active, ACSM stratified low-risk females (age (y): 23.53 ± 4.07, weight (kg): 60.34 ± 3.67, height (cm): 165.14 ± 7.20, BMI (kg/m(2)): 22.18 ± 1.55) participated in two Bruce protocol exercise tests. Before each test participants consumed 1) a placebo or 2) 3.3 mg·kg(-1) of caffeine at least one hour before exercise in a counterbalanced double-blinded fashion. After reaching 85% of their age-predicted maximum heart rate, BP was taken and participants began an active (i.e. walking) recovery phase for 6 minutes followed by a passive (i.e. sitting) recovery phase. BP was assessed every two minutes in each phase. Recovery times were assessed until active and passive BP equaled 20 mmHg and 10 mmHg above resting, respectively. Participants completed each test 1-2 weeks a part. Maximal systolic and diastolic blood pressures were not significantly different between the two trials. Active recovery, passive recovery, and total recovery times were all significantly longer during the caffeine trial than the placebo trial. Furthermore, the time to reach age-predicted maximum heart rate was significantly shorter in the placebo trial than the caffeine trial. While caffeine consumption did not significantly affect maximal blood pressure, it did affect active and passive recovery time following vigorous intensity exercise in physically active females. Exercise endurance also improved after consuming caffeine in this population.

  15. Effect of Caffeine on near Maximal Blood Pressure and Blood Pressure Recovery in Physically-Active, College-Aged Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    CONNAHAN, LAURA E.; OTT, CHRISTOPHER A.; BARRY, VAUGHN W.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine how caffeine affects exercise blood pressure (BP) and active and passive recovery BP after vigorous intensity exercise in physically active college-aged females. Fifteen physically active, ACSM stratified low-risk females (age (y): 23.53 ± 4.07, weight (kg): 60.34 ± 3.67, height (cm): 165.14 ± 7.20, BMI (kg/m2): 22.18 ± 1.55) participated in two Bruce protocol exercise tests. Before each test participants consumed 1) a placebo or 2) 3.3 mg·kg−1 of caffeine at least one hour before exercise in a counterbalanced double-blinded fashion. After reaching 85% of their age-predicted maximum heart rate, BP was taken and participants began an active (i.e. walking) recovery phase for 6 minutes followed by a passive (i.e. sitting) recovery phase. BP was assessed every two minutes in each phase. Recovery times were assessed until active and passive BP equaled 20 mmHg and 10 mmHg above resting, respectively. Participants completed each test 1–2 weeks a part. Maximal systolic and diastolic blood pressures were not significantly different between the two trials. Active recovery, passive recovery, and total recovery times were all significantly longer during the caffeine trial than the placebo trial. Furthermore, the time to reach age-predicted maximum heart rate was significantly shorter in the placebo trial than the caffeine trial. While caffeine consumption did not significantly affect maximal blood pressure, it did affect active and passive recovery time following vigorous intensity exercise in physically active females. Exercise endurance also improved after consuming caffeine in this population. PMID:28344739

  16. The Effect of Land Cover/Land Use Changes on the Regional Climate of the USA High Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Mutiibwa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the detection of the signatures of land use/land cover (LULC changes on the regional climate of the US High Plains. We used the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI as a proxy of LULC changes and atmospheric CO2 concentrations as a proxy of greenhouse gases. An enhanced signal processing procedure was developed to detect the signatures of LULC changes by integrating autoregression and moving average (ARMA modeling and optimal fingerprinting technique. The results, which are representative of the average spatial signatures of climate response to LULC change forcing on the regional climate of the High Plains during the 26 years of the study period (1981–2006, show a significant cooling effect on the regional temperatures during the summer season. The cooling effect was attributed to probable evaporative cooling originating from the increasing extensive irrigation in the region. The external forcing of atmospheric CO2 was included in the study to suppress the radiative warming effect of greenhouse gases, thus, enhancing the LULC change signal. The results show that the greenhouse gas radiative warming effect in the region is significant, but weak, compared to the LULC change signal. The study demonstrates the regional climatic impact of anthropogenic induced atmospheric-biosphere interaction attributed to LULC change, which is an additional and important climate forcing in addition to greenhouse gas radiative forcing in High Plains region.

  17. Effect of formoterol, a long-acting β2-adrenergic agonist, on muscle strength and power output, metabolism, and fatigue during maximal sprinting in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsen, Anders; Hostrup, Morten; Backer, Vibeke; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-06-01

    The aim was to investigate the effect of the long-acting β2-adrenergic agonist formoterol on muscle strength and power output, muscle metabolism, and phosphorylation of CaMKII Thr(287) and FXYD1 during maximal sprinting. In a double-blind crossover study, 13 males [V̇o2 max: 45.0 ± 0.2 (means ± SE) ml·min(-1)·kg(-1)] performed a 30-s cycle ergometer sprint after inhalation of either 54 μg of formoterol (FOR) or placebo (PLA). Before and after the sprint, muscle biopsies were collected from vastus lateralis and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and contractile properties of quadriceps were measured. Oxygen uptake was measured during the sprint. During the sprint, peak power, mean power, and end power were 4.6 ± 0.8, 3.9 ± 1.1, and 9.5 ± 3.2% higher (P power output during maximal sprinting is associated with increased rates of glycogenolysis and glycolysis that may counteract development of fatigue. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. The effect of Sub-maximal exercise-rehabilitation program on cardio-respiratory endurance indexes and oxygen pulse in patients with spastic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Izadi

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical or cardio-respiratory fitness are of the best important physiological variables in children with cerebral palsy (CP, but the researches on exercise response of individuals with CP are limited. Our aim was to determine the effect of sub-maximal rehabilitation program (aerobic exercise on maximal oxygen uptake, oxygen pulse and cardio- respiratory physiological variables of children with moderate to severe spastic cerebral palsy diplegia and compare with able-bodied children. Methods: In a controlled clinical trial study, 15 children with diplegia spastic cerebral palsy, were recruited on a voluntarily basis (experimental group and 18 subjects without neurological impairments selected as control group. In CP group, aerobic exercise program performed on the average of exercise intensity (144 beat per minute of heart rate, 3 times a week for 3 months. The time of each exercise session was 20-25 minutes. Dependent variables were measured in before (pretest and after (post test of rehabilitation program through Mac Master Protocol on Tantories cycle ergometer in CP group and compared with the control group. Results: The oxygen pulse (VO2/HR during ergometery protocol was significantly lower in CP group than normal group (P<0.05. No significant statistical difference in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max was found between groups. The rehabilitation program leads to little increase of this variable in CP group. After sub-maximal exercise in pretest and post test, the heart rate of patient group was greater than control group, and aerobic exercise leads to significant decrease in heart rate in CP patients(P<0.05. Conclusion: The patients with spastic cerebral palsy, because of high muscle tone, severe spasticity and involuntarily movements have higher energy cost and lower aerobic fitness than normal people. The rehabilitation exercise program can improve physiological function of muscle and cardio-respiratory endurance in these

  19. EFFECT OF INTERMITTENT SUB-MAXIMAL EXERCISE ON PERCENT BODY FAT USING LEG-TO-LEG BIOELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE ANALYSIS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L. Andreacci

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of intermittent sub-maximal exercise on percent body fat (%BF estimated by leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis (LBIA in children. Fifty-nine children (29 girls; 30 boys mean age 9.0 ± 1.3 years participated in this study. LBIA measured %BF values were obtained immediately before and within five minutes after completing an intermittent exercise protocol consisting of three 8-minute sub-maximal exercise bouts (2.74 km·hr-1, 0% grade; 4.03 km·hr-1, 0% grade; and 5.47 km·hr-1, 0% grade each separated by a 5-min seated rest period. The three exercise bouts corresponded to 56%, 61% and 71% of maximal heart rate. Significant differences (p < 0.001 were observed for fat mass, fat free mass, total body water, and body weight, post-exercise in both groups. Significant reductions (p < 0.001 in %BF were observed post-exercise in the female (23.1 ± 9.9 vs. 21.8 ± 9. 9 % and male (23.3 ± 10.5 vs. 21.8 ± 10.2 % children when compared to pre-exercise values. However, for the majority of the subjects (females = 86%; males = 73% the decrease in %BF post- exercise was less than 2.0 %BF. These data indicate that sub-maximal intermittent exercise, that may be representative of daily free-form activities in children, will most likely have a limited impact on %BF estimates when the assessment is performed immediately post-exercise

  20. Effect of compression stockings on physiological responses and running performance in division III collegiate cross-country runners during a maximal treadmill test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Brian C; Coughlin, Adam M; Hew-Butler, Tamara D; Goslin, Brian R

    2014-06-01

    There is a growing trend for runners to use compression stockings (CS) to improve performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CS on physiological variables associated with running performance. Participants were 10 NCAA division III cross-country runners. The study used a randomized, crossover design with 2 conditions (with CS and without CS). Both conditions consisted of a maximal treadmill test that involved 3-minute stages of increasing speed and incline, separated by a minute and one-half walking recovery stage. Seven days later, the participants repeated the maximal test but switched CS condition. Heart rate, blood lactate (BLa), blood lactate threshold, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), respiratory exchange ratio, rating of perceived exertion, and time to fatigue were measured. Before and during the maximal treadmill tests, the variables showed no significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between the CS conditions. Blood lactate was lower while wearing CS when measured during recovery at the 1-minute (CS = 13.3 ± 2.9 mmol · L(-1), non-CS = 14.8 ± 2.8 mmol · L(-1), p = 0.03) and the 5-minute (CS = 11.0 ± 2.7 mmol · L(-1), non-CS = 12.8 ± 2.8 mmol · L(-1), p = 0.02) periods. Time to fatigue was longer without CS (CS = 23.570 ± 2.39 minutes, non-CS = 23.93 ± 2.49 minutes, p = 0.04). These findings suggest that CS may not improve running performance, but could lend credence to certain manufacturers' claims of improved recovery through lower BLa values after exercise.

  1. Conservation development practices, extent, and land-use effects in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milder, Jeffrey C; Clark, Story

    2011-08-01

    Conservation development projects combine real-estate development with conservation of land and other natural resources. Thousands of such projects have been conducted in the United States and other countries through the involvement of private developers, landowners, land trusts, and government agencies. Previous research has demonstrated the potential value of conservation development for conserving species, ecological functions, and other resource values on private lands, especially when traditional sources of conservation funding are not available. Nevertheless, the aggregate extent and effects of conservation development were previously unknown. To address this gap, we estimated the extent and trends of conservation development in the United States and characterized its key attributes to understand its aggregate contribution to land-conservation and growth-management objectives. We interviewed representatives from land trusts, planning agencies, and development companies, searched the Internet for conservation development projects and programs, and compiled existing databases of conservation development projects. We collected data on 3884 projects encompassing 1.38 million ha. About 43% of the projects targeted the conservation of specific plant or animal species or ecological communities of conservation concern; 84% targeted the protection of native ecosystems representative of the project area; and 42% provided buffers to existing protected areas. The percentage of protected land in conservation development projects ranged from 99%, and the effects of these projects on natural resources differed widely. We estimate that conservation development projects have protected roughly 4 million ha of land in the United States and account for about 25% of private-land conservation activity nationwide.

  2. Land-use intensity and the effects of organic farming on biodiversity: a hierarchical meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Sean L; Winqvist, Camilla; Mota, Flávia; Ahnström, Johan; Turnbull, Lindsay A; Bengtsson, Janne

    2014-06-01

    The benefits of organic farming to biodiversity in agricultural landscapes continue to be hotly debated, emphasizing the importance of precisely quantifying the effect of organic vs. conventional farming. We conducted an updated hierarchical meta-analysis of studies that compared biodiversity under organic and conventional farming methods, measured as species richness. We calculated effect sizes for 184 observations garnered from 94 studies, and for each study, we obtained three standardized measures reflecting land-use intensity. We investigated the stability of effect sizes through time, publication bias due to the 'file drawer' problem, and consider whether the current literature is representative of global organic farming patterns. On average, organic farming increased species richness by about 30%. This result has been robust over the last 30 years of published studies and shows no sign of diminishing. Organic farming had a greater effect on biodiversity as the percentage of the landscape consisting of arable fields increased, that is, it is higher in intensively farmed regions. The average effect size and the response to agricultural intensification depend on taxonomic group, functional group and crop type. There is some evidence for publication bias in the literature; however, our results are robust to its impact. Current studies are heavily biased towards northern and western Europe and North America, while other regions with large areas of organic farming remain poorly investigated. Synthesis and applications. Our analysis affirms that organic farming has large positive effects on biodiversity compared with conventional farming, but that the effect size varies with the organism group and crop studied, and is greater in landscapes with higher land-use intensity. Decisions about where to site organic farms to maximize biodiversity will, however, depend on the costs as well as the potential benefits. Current studies have been heavily biased towards

  3. Simulation of regional temperature change effect of land cover change in agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingxiang; Zhang, Shuwen; Yu, Lingxue; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping

    2016-02-01

    The Northeast China is one of typical regions experiencing intensive human activities within short time worldwide. Particularly, as the significant changes of agriculture land and forest, typical characteristics of pattern and process of agroforestry ecotone change formed in recent decades. The intensive land use change of agroforestry ecotone has made significant change for regional land cover, which had significant impact on the regional climate system elements and the interactions among them. This paper took agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China as study region and simulated temperature change based on land cover change from 1950s to 1978 and from 1978 to 2010. The analysis of temperature difference sensitivity to land cover change based on Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model showed that the land cover change from 1950s to 1978 induced warming effect over all the study area, including the change of grassland to agriculture land, grassland to deciduous broad-leaved forest, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to shrub land. The land cover change from 1978 to 2010 induced cooling effect over all the study area, including the change of deciduous broad-leaved forest to agriculture land, grassland to agriculture land, shrub land to agriculture land, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to grassland. In addition, the warming and cooling effect of land cover change was more significant in the region scale than specific land cover change area.

  4. Simulation of regional temperature change effect of land cover change in agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingxiang; Zhang, Shuwen; Yu, Lingxue; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping

    2017-05-01

    The Northeast China is one of typical regions experiencing intensive human activities within short time worldwide. Particularly, as the significant changes of agriculture land and forest, typical characteristics of pattern and process of agroforestry ecotone change formed in recent decades. The intensive land use change of agroforestry ecotone has made significant change for regional land cover, which had significant impact on the regional climate system elements and the interactions among them. This paper took agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China as study region and simulated temperature change based on land cover change from 1950s to 1978 and from 1978 to 2010. The analysis of temperature difference sensitivity to land cover change based on Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model showed that the land cover change from 1950s to 1978 induced warming effect over all the study area, including the change of grassland to agriculture land, grassland to deciduous broad-leaved forest, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to shrub land. The land cover change from 1978 to 2010 induced cooling effect over all the study area, including the change of deciduous broad-leaved forest to agriculture land, grassland to agriculture land, shrub land to agriculture land, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to grassland. In addition, the warming and cooling effect of land cover change was more significant in the region scale than specific land cover change area.

  5. Innovative technology for a cost-effective land rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehra, S.; Bryce, T.

    1996-05-01

    Sedco Forex has recently completed a new land drilling rig, currently deployed in Gabon, that integrates well construction activities with multiskilling to create cost savings across the board in drilling operations. Historically, operators have produced a comprehensive tender package specifying strictly the type and size of individual rig components and the number of personnel required to drill. In this case, the drilling contractor provides a fit-for-purpose rig, consistent with field location, well profile, operator`s priorities, and local constraints.

  6. The Effect of Maximal and Submaximal Exercise Testing on NT-proBNP Levels in Patients with Systolic Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdrenghea Dumitru Tudor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Premise. La pacienţii cu insuficienţǎ cardiacǎ, testele de efort submaximale (testul de mers 400 metri şi testul de efort 6 minute reprezintǎ o alternativǎ a testului de efort clasic pe cicloergometru. Scopul studiului este de a compara creşterea la efort a peptidului natriuretic-NT-proBNP dupǎ testul de mers 400 m, respectiv testul de efort 6 minute faţă de testul clasic de efort pe cicloergometru. Material şi metodă. Au fost studiaţi 20 de pacienți cu insuficienţă cardiacă (fracţie de ejecţie <40% , cu vârste între 37 şi 70 de ani, 16 bărbaţi şi 4 femei. Dupǎ retrocedarea fenomenelor congestive, toţii pacienţii au efectuat în trei zile consecutive, cele trei tipuri de teste: testul de efort clasic pe cicloergometru, testul de mers 400 de metri, respectiv testul de efort de 6 minute. Valorile NT-pro BNP au fost determinate utilizând metoda ELISA înainte şi dupǎ cele trei teste de efort. Rezultate. Valorile medii ale NT-proBNP au fost crescute în repaus în toate cele trei zile, crescând apoi semnificativ, indiferent de tipul de test de efort efectuat: de la 688±72 fmol/ml la 1869±91 fmol/ml (p<0.05 în cazul testului de efort clasic, de la 843±90 fmol/ml la 977±93 fmol/ml (15%, p<0.05 în cazul testului de efort 6 minute şi de la 676±63 fmol/ ml la 927±95 fmol/ml (37%, p<0.05 pentru tesul de mers 400 de metri. Totodatǎ au existat corelaţii semnificative între valorile maxime ale NT-proBNP din cursul efortului pe cicloergometru /test de efort 6 minute (r=0.71, cicloergometeru/ test de mers 400 metri, (r=0.71, respectiv test de mers 400 metri/test de efort 6 minute (r=0.81, p<0.01. În concluzie concentraţia NT-proBNP creşte semnificativ şi similar la bolnavii cu insuficienţǎ cardiacǎ, atât în cursul efortului maximal cât şi în cursul efortului submaximal. Atât testul de efort 6 minute cât şi la testul de mers 400 metri, sunt suficiente ca intensitate pentru eliberarea de hormoni

  7. Climate effects caused by land plant invasion in the Devonian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hir guillaume, Le; yannick, Donnadieu; yves, Goddéris; brigitte, Meyer-Berthaud; gilles, Ramstein

    2017-04-01

    Land plants invaded continents during the Mid-Paleozoic. Their spreading and diversification have been compared to the Cambrian explosion in terms of intensity and impact on the diversification of life on Earth. Whereas prior studies were focused on the evolution of the root system and its weathering contribution, here we investigated the biophysical impacts of plant colonization on the surface climate through changes in continental albedo, roughness, thermal properties, and potential evaporation using a 3D-climate model coupled to a global biogeochemical cycles associated to a simple model for vegetation dynamics adapted to Devonian conditions. From the Early to the Late Devonian, we show that continental surface changes induced by land plants and tectonic drift have produced a large CO2 drawdown without being associated to a global cooling, because the cooling trend is counteracted by a warming trend resulting from the surface albedo reduction. If CO2 is consensually assumed as the main driver of the Phanerozoic climate, during land-plant invasion, the modifications of soil properties could have played in the opposite direction of the carbon dioxide fall, hence maintaining warm temperatures during part of the Devonian.

  8. Effect of coal resources development and compensation for damage to cultivated land in mining areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-feng; LIU Yuan-hua; DU Zhuan-ping; CHEN Jie

    2009-01-01

    The exploitation of coal resources inevitably affects, to different degrees, arable land resources and impacts the socio-economic development in mining areas. Therefore it is of great practical importance to probe the rules of the effect from coal resource exploration on arable land. Suitable and effective measures to compensate for damaged to and loss of arable land resources should be taken on the basis of carrying out green mining and reducing damage to limited arable land resources. We have used GIS in simulating the effect of coal resource exploration on arable land. In light of our simulation of the space-time spectrum, the effect is analyzed. Given the socio-economic development conditions of a mining area, specified rational amounts and opportunities for compensation to arable land in mining areas are explored. Finally, from a policy perspective, relevant proposals for rational arable land resource compensation are proposed to facilitate the coordinated development between coal resource exploitation and socio-economy development in mining areas.

  9. The effect of local land use and loss of forests on bats and nocturnal insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treitler, Julia T; Heim, Olga; Tschapka, Marco; Jung, Kirsten

    2016-07-01

    Land-use intensification at local and landscape level poses a serious threat to biodiversity and affects species interactions and ecosystem function. It is thus important to understand how interrelated taxa respond to land-use intensification and to consider the importance of different spatial scales. We investigated whether and how local land-use intensity and landscape features affect the predator-prey interaction of bats and insects. Bats and nocturnal insects were assessed on 50 grassland sites in the Schorfheide-Chorin. We analyzed the effect of local land use and distance to forested areas as a proxy for site accessibility on bats and insects and their biological interaction measured in bat's feeding activity. Insect abundance increased with higher land-use intensity, while size and diversity of insects decreased. In contrast, bat activity, diversity, and species composition were determined by the distance to forested areas and only slightly by land-use intensity. Feeding attempts of bats increased with higher insect abundance and diversity but decreased with insect size and distance to forested areas. Finally, our results revealed that near forested areas, the number of feeding attempts was much lower on grassland sites with high, compared to those with low land-use intensity. In contrast, far from forests, the feeding attempts did not differ significantly between intensively and extensively managed grassland sites. We conclude that the two interrelated taxa, bats and insects, respond to land-use intensification on very different scales. While insects respond to local land use, bats are rather influenced by surrounding landscape matrix. Hereby, proximity to forests reveals to be a prerequisite for higher bat species diversity and a higher rate of feeding attempts within the area. However, proximity to forest is not sufficient to compensate local high land-use intensity. Thus, local land-use intensification in combination with a loss of forest remnants

  10. The effect of land-use changes on actual geomorphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Manuel; Ries, Johannes B.; Marzolff, Irene

    2010-05-01

    Land-use changes are the cause of severe impacts on the earth's surface characteristics. Intensification commonly leads to a reduction of plant cover and to the destruction of soil's organic matter, whereas the extensification is understood to reduce disturbance on the soil's surface. The economic situation in agriculture is leading on one hand to an intensification of agricultural production, e.g. the expansion of irrigation, on the other hand to a parallel extensification by abandonment of dry-land farming practices and expansion of extensive or occasional grazing. The semi-arid north east of the Iberian Peninsula has been affected during the last decade by an increase of fallow land of around 20 %. The process has lead on one side to a slow increase of vegetation cover, but at the same time also to an increment of geomorphodynamics. This, apparently, contradictory behaviour of the areas is caused by an increase of the process' complexity. It is true that the vegetation cover tends to reduce the splash and sheet erosion, but its patchy development causes a runoff concentration and a subsequent strong increase of rill erosion processes. These are considered to be highly productive sediment sources, which stay active due to self reinforcing processes. A combination of experimental methods and monitoring techniques have proved that there is an increase of sediment production following the abandonment of agricultural practices. After some years it may decrease, but the runoff generation maintains high. This leads to a shift in process interactions and intensities, leading to increasing linear erosion (rills, gullies) and enhancing the downward coupling of runoff and erosion processes. Additionally, the coupling is enhanced by man-made structures like trails, ditches, terrace rims and animal paths. The results show clearly that land-use and land-use changes are the cause of high dynamics on the earth's surface. Even the reduction of disturbance leads to a change in

  11. Land Usage Changes and its Effects on the Provision of Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land Usage Changes and its Effects on the Provision of Social Facilities to Residents of ... pipe-borne water, sewage channels, sanitary sites and public open spaces. ... Geographic Information System (GIS) tools were employed to map out ...

  12. Land use change effects on GHG dynamics in Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucia, N.; Bernacchi, C. J.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.

    2012-12-01

    The need for alternative energies is accelerating land use change as native or managed ecosystems are being converted to intense agricultural crops for biofuel purposes. Agriculture represents the single largest terrestrial flux of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere resulting from nutrient applications. Livestock grazing also accounts for a significant release of methane (CH4) to the atmosphere. Together, CO2, N2O and CH4 represent the dominant greenhouse gasses (GHG) that are emitted to the atmosphere through anthropogenic influences. Significant alterations to the land surface, particularly associated with changes in nutrient application rates, ability of vegetation to uptake nutrients, or changes in the stocking density of livestock, could have a meaningful impact on GHG emissions. Therefore, understanding how these changes will affect soil GHG dynamics is essential to quantify the impact of land use change on the global climate system. Large-scale changes to land cover type in Central Florida Highlands County is currently occurring in which improved pasture (bahiagrass, Paspalum notatum L., as forage for cattle, Bos taurus L.) is being replaced by energy cane (genus Saccharum L.). Fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O), soil carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) were obtained over a complete wet-dry seasonal cycle in a grazed pasture and an energy cane plantation located in Highlands County, FL. In addition, we also investigated the biotic and environmental drivers that regulate soil GHG fluxes in these ecosystems. We predicted decreased rates of CH4 released to the atmosphere after the conversion process was completed to energy cane due to the absence of grazing cattle. We also predicted increased N2O emissions from aggressive fertilization of energycane. Using static chamber measurements, we collected gas samples from four energy cane crops at varying ages and improved pastures paired to each energy cane plot. The gas samples were analyzed using gas chromatography

  13. Effects of occlusal contact on the level of mandibular elevator muscle activity during maximal clenching in lateral positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinogaya, T; Kimura, M; Matsumoto, M

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify the normal relationship between jaw elevator muscle activity and occlusal contact in lateral positions in order to assess the appropriate anterior guidance of lateral jaw movements for occlusal reconstruction and treatment. The EMG-activity of the right and left masseter, anterior temporal, and posterior temporal muscles of 9 healthy subjects with full, natural dentition was measured with bipolar surface electrodes during two different biting efforts, one involves bite registration by a silicone material containing carbonate powder (BRS) and another is maximal voluntary clenching (MVC), at the right and left canines' edge to edge positions and intercuspal position. The difference in muscle activity between MVC and BRS, which was regarded as the actual muscle activity necessary for MVC, was calculated as a representative value for each muscle activity. When working-side occlusal contact was restricted by the anterior teeth, including the canines, the total actual EMG activity of the 6 jaw muscles had a significantly strong correlation with the frontal angle of the lateral incisal path and the occlusal contact area at the lateral occlusion. This result suggested the possibility that canine guidance would control the muscle activity during lateral tooth clenching.

  14. Effect of imposing changes in kick frequency on kinematics during undulatory underwater swimming at maximal effort in male swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimojo, Hirofumi; Sengoku, Yasuo; Miyoshi, Tasuku; Tsubakimoto, Shozo; Takagi, Hideki

    2014-12-01

    Undulatory underwater swimming (UUS) is an important swimming technique after a start and after turns. It was considered that a higher swimming velocity (U) resulted from a higher kick frequency (f), and greater propelling efficiency, i.e., Strouhal number (St) and Froude efficiency (ηF), resulted from a lower f. The aim of this study was to investigate whether changing f affected U and St, ηF plus other kinematics of UUS. Ten national-level male swimmers participated in the study. First, the swimmers performed maximal UUS (Pre; this f was defined as 100% F). Second, the swimmers synchronized their f with the sound of a metronome and with six frequencies (85% F, 90% F, 95% F, 105% F, 110% F, and 115% F) randomly presented. During the higher f sessions, kick amplitude (A) significantly decreased from Pre (115% F: -10.8%, p<.05); however, U was unchanged. In contrast, in lower f sessions, St and ηF were unchanged, but the wavelength per body length (λBL), which indicates UUS mode, significantly decreased (90% F: -1.3%, p<.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that increasing f for UUS would not affect U, but a decrease in f may be suitable for human undulation training. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hemodynamic segmentation of brain perfusion images with delay and dispersion effects using an expectation-maximization algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Feng Lu

    Full Text Available Automatic identification of various perfusion compartments from dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance brain images can assist in clinical diagnosis and treatment of cerebrovascular diseases. The principle of segmentation methods was based on the clustering of bolus transit-time profiles to discern areas of different tissues. However, the cerebrovascular diseases may result in a delayed and dispersed local perfusion and therefore alter the hemodynamic signal profiles. Assessing the accuracy of the segmentation technique under delayed/dispersed circumstance is critical to accurately evaluate the severity of the vascular disease. In this study, we improved the segmentation method of expectation-maximization algorithm by using the results of hierarchical clustering on whitened perfusion data as initial parameters for a mixture of multivariate Gaussians model. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to evaluate the performance of proposed method under different levels of delay, dispersion, and noise of signal profiles in tissue segmentation. The proposed method was used to classify brain tissue types using perfusion data from five normal participants, a patient with unilateral stenosis of the internal carotid artery, and a patient with moyamoya disease. Our results showed that the normal, delayed or dispersed hemodynamics can be well differentiated for patients, and therefore the local arterial input function for impaired tissues can be recognized to minimize the error when estimating the cerebral blood flow. Furthermore, the tissue in the risk of infarct and the tissue with or without the complementary blood supply from the communicating arteries can be identified.

  16. Quantifying the effect of land use and land cover change on green water and blue water in northern part of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Liu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of land use and land cover changes on hydrological process in northern parts of China, a distributed hydrological model was developed and applied in the Laohahe catchment. The direct evaporation from the intercepted water, potential canopy transpiration and potential soil evaporation were computed using a physically-based two-source potential evapotranspiration model, which would be regarded as input to the distributed hydrological model for the computation of actual evaportranspiration. Runoff generation was based on mixed runoff mechanisms of infiltration excess runoff and saturation excess runoff and the Muskingum-Cunge method was adopted for flow routing. The land cover data were available for 1980, 1989, 1996 and 1999. Daily streamflow measurements were available from 1964 to 2005 and were divided into 4 periods: 1964–1979, 1980–1989, 1990–1999 and 2000–2005, based on the land cover scenarios. The distributed hydrological model was coupled with a two-source potential evaportranspiration model for simulating daily runoff. The result of runoff simulation showed that the saturation excess runoff generation was dominant in the catchment. Model parameters were calibrated using hydrometeorological and land cover data corresponding to the same period. Streamflow simulation was conducted for each period under these four land cover scenarios. The results showed that the change of land use and land cover had a significant influence on evapotranspiration and runoff. The land cover data showed that forest land and water body had decreased from 1980 through 1999 and farm land and grass land had increased. This change caused the vegetation interception evaporation and vegetation transpiration to decrease, whereas the soil evaporation tended to increase. Thus the green water decreased but the blue water increased over the Laohahe catchment. This result was inconsistent with the fact that runoff ratio had a

  17. Remote Sensing of the Surface Urban Heat Island and Land Architecture in Phoenix, Arizona: Combined Effects of Land Composition and Configuration and Cadastral-Demographic-Economic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middel, A. C.; LI, X.

    2015-12-01

    This study seeks to determine the role of land architecture—the composition and configuration of land cover—as well as cadastral-demographic-economic factors on land surface temperature (LST) and the surface urban heat island (SUHI) effect of Phoenix, Arizona. It employs 1 m National Agricultural Imagery Program data of land-cover with 120 m Landsat-derived land surface temperature decomposed to 30m, a new measure of configuration, the normalized moment of inertia, and U.S. Census data to address the question for two randomly selected samples comprising 523 and 545 residential neighborhoods (census blocks) in the city. The results indicate that, contrary to most other studies, land configuration maintains as strong a role in LST as does land composition. In addition, land architecture combined with cadastral, demographic and economic data, captures a significant amount of explained variance in LST. The results indicate that attention to land architecture in the development of or reshaping of neighborhoods may ameliorate the summer extremes in LST.

  18. Satellite remotely-sensed land surface parameters and their climatic effects for three metropolitan regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, George

    2008-01-01

    By using both high-resolution orthoimagery and medium-resolution Landsat satellite imagery with other geospatial information, several land surface parameters including impervious surfaces and land surface temperatures for three geographically distinct urban areas in the United States – Seattle, Washington, Tampa Bay, Florida, and Las Vegas, Nevada, are obtained. Percent impervious surface is used to quantitatively define the spatial extent and development density of urban land use. Land surface temperatures were retrieved by using a single band algorithm that processes both thermal infrared satellite data and total atmospheric water vapor content. Land surface temperatures were analyzed for different land use and land cover categories in the three regions. The heterogeneity of urban land surface and associated spatial extents were shown to influence surface thermal conditions because of the removal of vegetative cover, the introduction of non-transpiring surfaces, and the reduction in evaporation over urban impervious surfaces. Fifty years of in situ climate data were integrated to assess regional climatic conditions. The spatial structure of surface heating influenced by landscape characteristics has a profound influence on regional climate conditions, especially through urban heat island effects.

  19. The effect of Urban Park Sunset Program on land value in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. R.; Yoon, H.

    2016-12-01

    Intense urbanization has increased land scarcity in cities in the world, and consequently, securing lands for public parks and open spaces has become more challenging. Korea is not an exception. With Urban Park Sunset Plan, a plan for cancelling the designation as urban parks, nearly 583㎢ of publicly appropriated private land for the purpose will be released and returned to private owners. If municipalities want to keep the easement on the land, first, they should prepare physical design for parks or open spaces by 2015, and second, they should complete construction of those by 2020. In this study, we investigate the effect of Urban Park Sunset Program on land value. Our two-fold analysis includes: First, trend analysis where we extract variations of land values in Korea for 20 years (1996 2015). Second, we use panel data modeling to estimate the impact size of milestone plan implementation on land value; in 2000, Urban Park Sunset Plan was announced publicly, in 2015, the reserved land without physical design plan were released and finally, in 2020 the rest of the reserved land that has not yet been developed as parks or open spaces will be released. Along this process, we assess the ripple effect induced from the policy. As a result, we expect to find out potential economic impact of Urban Park Sunset Plan on land value, which could be applied for the preparation of countermeasures and the political decision making happening in the near future. This work was supported by the Korea Environmental Industry and Technology Institute (KEITI) under Grant (No. 2014-001-310007).

  20. Effect of intermittent sub-maximal exercise on percent body fat using leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Andreacci, Joseph; B Dixon, Curt; Ledezma, Christina; L Goss, Fredric

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of intermittent sub-maximal exercise on percent body fat (%BF) estimated by leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis (LBIA) in children. Fifty-nine children (29 girls; 30 boys) mean age 9.0 ± 1.3 years participated in this study. LBIA measured %BF values were obtained immediately before and within five minutes after completing an intermittent exercise protocol consisting of three 8-minute sub-maximal exercise bouts (2.74 km·hr(-1), 0% grade; 4.03 km·hr(-1), 0% grade; and 5.47 km·hr(-1), 0% grade) each separated by a 5-min seated rest period. The three exercise bouts corresponded to 56%, 61% and 71% of maximal heart rate. Significant differences (p < 0.001) were observed for fat mass, fat free mass, total body water, and body weight, post-exercise in both groups. Significant reductions (p < 0.001) in %BF were observed post-exercise in the female (23.1 ± 9.9 vs. 21.8 ± 9. 9 %) and male (23.3 ± 10.5 vs. 21.8 ± 10.2 %) children when compared to pre-exercise values. However, for the majority of the subjects (females = 86%; males = 73%) the decrease in %BF post- exercise was less than 2.0 %BF. These data indicate that sub-maximal intermittent exercise, that may be representative of daily free-form activities in children, will most likely have a limited impact on %BF estimates when the assessment is performed immediately post-exercise. Key PointsLBIA measures of body weight, percent body fat, fat mass, fat free mass and total body water were significantly lower after the intermittent sub-maximal exercise.The reductions in percent body fat for girls (1.4%) and boys (1.5%) compare favorably to previous investigations.Intermittent exercise, that may be representative of daily free-form activities in children, will most likely have a limited impact on LBIA percent body fat estimates.

  1. Effect of land cover and green space on land surface temperature of a fast growing economic region in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhi, A.; Kanniah, K. D.; Ho, C. H.

    2015-10-01

    Green space must be increased in the development of new cities as green space can moderate temperature in the cities. In this study we estimated the land surface temperature (LST) and established relationships between LST and land cover and various vegetation and urban surface indices in the Iskandar Malaysia (IM) region. IM is one of the emerging economic gateways of Malaysia, and is envisaged to transform into a metropolis by 2025. This change may cause increased temperature in IM and therefore we conducted a study by using Landsat 5 image covering the study region (2,217 km2) to estimate LST, classify different land covers and calculate spectral indices. Results show that urban surface had highest LST (24.49 °C) and the lowest temperature was recorded in, forest, rubber and water bodies ( 20.69 to 21.02°C). Oil palm plantations showed intermediate mean LST values with 21.65 °C. We further investigated the relationship between vegetation and build up densities with temperature. We extracted 1000 collocated pure pixels of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDBI), Urban Index (UI) and LST in the study area. Results show a strong and significant negative correlation with (R2= -0.74 and -0.79) respectively between NDVI, NDWI and LST . Meanwhile a strong positive correlation (R2=0.8 and 0.86) exists between NDBI, UI and LST. These results show the importance of increasing green cover in urban environment to combat any adverse effects of climate change.

  2. Acute effects of stretching on maximal muscle strength and functional performance: A systematic review of Japanese-language randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mine, Koya; Nakayama, Takashi; Milanese, Steve; Grimmer, Karen

    2016-02-01

    There is no consensus in the English-language literature regarding the best types or dosages of stretching to maximise muscle strength and functional performance. It is possible that primary research published in non-English languages provides different insights, and could add to the body of international knowledge. This systematic review aimed to identify and evaluate Japanese-language randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating acute effects of stretching on maximal strength and functional performance. Three Japanese databases and five English databases were searched from inception to 24 March 2015. Only Japanese-language RCTs examining acute effects of stretching on maximal strength and/or functional performance were included. Risk of bias in included studies was assessed using Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. GRADE (Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach was applied to evaluate the quality of evidence. Descriptive synthesis was attempted. Seven RCTs with variable methodological quality were included. No two studies were the same, thus meta-analysis was not possible. Descriptively, because of heterogeneity of interventions and outcome measures, it was not possible to identify consensus on the benefits of stretching. GRADE approach indicated low to very low quality evidence for this topic. This review of Japanese-language RCTs provided no additional information to strengthen or challenge the current English-language evidence base on acute effects of stretching on maximal strength and performance. Future Japanese-language studies should address methodological flaws exposed in this review and incorporate functional outcome measures to strengthen the international evidence base. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation as a method to maximize the beneficial effects of muscle stem cells transplanted into dystrophic skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Distefano

    Full Text Available Cellular therapy is a potential approach to improve the regenerative capacity of damaged or diseased skeletal muscle. However, its clinical use has often been limited by impaired donor cell survival, proliferation and differentiation following transplantation. Additionally, functional improvements after transplantation are all-too-often negligible. Because the host microenvironment plays an important role in the fate of transplanted cells, methods to modulate the microenvironment and guide donor cell behavior are warranted. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES for 1 or 4 weeks following muscle-derived stem cell (MDSC transplantation into dystrophic skeletal muscle can modulate the fate of donor cells and enhance their contribution to muscle regeneration and functional improvements. Animals submitted to 4 weeks of NMES after transplantation demonstrated a 2-fold increase in the number of dystrophin+ myofibers as compared to control transplanted muscles. These findings were concomitant with an increased vascularity in the MDSC+NMES group when compared to non-stimulated counterparts. Additionally, animals subjected to NMES (with or without MDSC transplantation presented an increased maximal specific tetanic force when compared to controls. Although cell transplantation and/or the use of NMES resulted in no changes in fatigue resistance, the combination of both MDSC transplantation and NMES resulted in a faster recovery from fatigue, when compared to non-injected and non-stimulated counterparts. We conclude that NMES is a viable method to improve MDSC engraftment, enhance dystrophic muscle strength, and, in combination with MDSC transplantation, improve recovery from fatigue. These findings suggest that NMES may be a clinically-relevant adjunct approach for cell transplantation into skeletal muscle.

  4. Modeling the effect of land use change on hydrology of a forested watershed in coastal South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaohua Dai; Devendra M. Amatya; Ge Sun; Changsheng Li; Carl C. Trettin; Harbin Li

    2009-01-01

    Since hydrology is one of main factors controlling wetland functions, hydrologic models are useful for evaluating the effects of land use change on we land ecosystems. We evaluated two process-based hydrologic models with...

  5. Land use effects and stream metabolic rates: a review of ecosystem response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Francisco da Silva-Junior

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To conduct a review of the literature in order to identify the general stream metabolic responses to land use change. Methods I conducted a scientometric review analyzing the distribution of the studies among different environments, the land use scale used, and the general trends in stream metabolism response under each kind of land-use impact. Major Results Most of the analyzed studies were conducted in temperate environments, studying land-use impacts at catchment scale. Ecosystem metabolism responded to land use impacts most of the cases, especially under agricultural pressure. The general responses to land-use alterations were increases in rates of Gross Primary Production (GPP and ecosystem Respiration (R. Primary production increases were mostly related to light and nutrient concentration increases, while R was usually related to water nutrient concentration, temperature and amount of particulate organic matter, but this general behavior can change under high impact levels where sometimes GPP decreases in response to turbidity increases. Riparian vegetation restoration have a positive effect in driving stream metabolic conditions in the direction of pristine condition, but the effectiveness of this approach is reduced in highly impacted systems. Conclusions To elucidate the mechanistic relations between stream metabolic changes and land use impacts is still one fundamental aspect to study in order to best predict effects of land use changes and establish management and protection programs. Thus, studies should focus on the causative relations between stream processes and land use changes considering different scales and multiple stress scenarios in order to improve our understanding about factors that drive the observed metabolic changes.

  6. The effects of land surface process perturbations in a global ensemble forecast system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Guo; Zhu, Yuejian; Gong, Jiandong; Chen, Dehui; Wobus, Richard; Zhang, Zhe

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric variability is driven not only by internal dynamics, but also by external forcing, such as soil states, SST, snow, sea-ice cover, and so on. To investigate the forecast uncertainties and effects of land surface processes on numerical weather prediction, we added modules to perturb soil moisture and soil temperature into NCEP's Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS), and compared the results of a set of experiments involving different configurations of land surface and atmospheric perturbation. It was found that uncertainties in different soil layers varied due to the multiple timescales of interactions between land surface and atmospheric processes. Perturbations of the soil moisture and soil temperature at the land surface changed sensible and latent heat flux obviously, as compared to the less or indirect land surface perturbation experiment from the day-to-day forecasts. Soil state perturbations led to greater variation in surface heat fluxes that transferred to the upper troposphere, thus reflecting interactions and the response to atmospheric external forcing. Various verification scores were calculated in this study. The results indicated that taking the uncertainties of land surface processes into account in GEFS could contribute a slight improvement in forecast skill in terms of resolution and reliability, a noticeable reduction in forecast error, as well as an increase in ensemble spread in an under-dispersive system. This paper provides a preliminary evaluation of the effects of land surface processes on predictability. Further research using more complex and suitable methods is needed to fully explore our understanding in this area.

  7. Effects of Land Use Change on the Ecosystem Services Value in the Dry-Hot Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hongyi; XIONG Donghong; YANG Zhong; HE Xiubin

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study reported here was to determine whether LANDSAT TM images could be used to quantify changes in land-use and ecosystem services in Yuanmou County. The sizes of six land use/land cover (LUCC) categories were estimated in Yuanmou County according to the LANDSAT TM images in the summer of 1986 and 2005. Coefficients published by Xie Gaodi and co-workers in 2003 were used to value changes in ecosystem services delivered by each land use/land cover category, and the ecosystem services sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the effect of manipulating these coefficients on the estimated values. The important results are summarized as followings. ①The estimated size of cultivated land, pasture land, water area and unused land decreased by 6.39%, 1.35%, 2.25% and 10.67% respectively between 1986 and 2005. By contrast, the estimated size of forest land and construction land increased by about 2.23% and 71.15% respectively between 1986 and 2005. ②The total ecosystem services value (EVS) of the study area increased from 2 142 132 609.46 yuan to 2 146 416 621.00 yuan, with the net increase of 4 284 011.54 yuan during the 20-year time period. ③The coefficient sensitivity (CS) of the study are less than unity in all cases (CS < 1=. This indicates that the total ecosystem values estimated for the study area are relatively inelastic with respect to the ecosystem service coefficients. While this implies that our estimates are robust and the coefficient is reasonable, highly under or over valued coefficients can substantially affect the veracity of estimated changes in ecosystem service values overtime even when the CS are less than unity(CS<1).

  8. Global effects of land use on local terrestrial biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, Tim; Hudson, Lawrence N; Hill, Samantha L L; Contu, Sara; Lysenko, Igor; Senior, Rebecca A; Börger, Luca; Bennett, Dominic J; Choimes, Argyrios; Collen, Ben; Day, Julie; De Palma, Adriana; Díaz, Sandra; Echeverria-Londoño, Susy; Edgar, Melanie J; Feldman, Anat; Garon, Morgan; Harrison, Michelle L K; Alhusseini, Tamera; Ingram, Daniel J; Itescu, Yuval; Kattge, Jens; Kemp, Victoria; Kirkpatrick, Lucinda; Kleyer, Michael; Correia, David Laginha Pinto; Martin, Callum D; Meiri, Shai; Novosolov, Maria; Pan, Yuan; Phillips, Helen R P; Purves, Drew W; Robinson, Alexandra; Simpson, Jake; Tuck, Sean L; Weiher, Evan; White, Hannah J; Ewers, Robert M; Mace, Georgina M; Scharlemann, Jörn P W; Purvis, Andy

    2015-04-01

    Human activities, especially conversion and degradation of habitats, are causing global biodiversity declines. How local ecological assemblages are responding is less clear--a concern given their importance for many ecosystem functions and services. We analysed a terrestrial assemblage database of unprecedented geographic and taxonomic coverage to quantify local biodiversity responses to land use and related changes. Here we show that in the worst-affected habitats, these pressures reduce within-sample species richness by an average of 76.5%, total abundance by 39.5% and rarefaction-based richness by 40.3%. We estimate that, globally, these pressures have already slightly reduced average within-sample richness (by 13.6%), total abundance (10.7%) and rarefaction-based richness (8.1%), with changes showing marked spatial variation. Rapid further losses are predicted under a business-as-usual land-use scenario; within-sample richness is projected to fall by a further 3.4% globally by 2100, with losses concentrated in biodiverse but economically poor countries. Strong mitigation can deliver much more positive biodiversity changes (up to a 1.9% average increase) that are less strongly related to countries' socioeconomic status.

  9. Launch and Landing Effects Ground Operations (LLEGO) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    LLEGO is a model for understanding recurring launch and landing operations costs at Kennedy Space Center for human space flight. Launch and landing operations are often referred to as ground processing, or ground operations. Currently, this function is specific to the ground operations for the Space Shuttle Space Transportation System within the Space Shuttle Program. The Constellation system to follow the Space Shuttle consists of the crewed Orion spacecraft atop an Ares I launch vehicle and the uncrewed Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The Constellation flight and ground systems build upon many elements of the existing Shuttle flight and ground hardware, as well as upon existing organizations and processes. In turn, the LLEGO model builds upon past ground operations research, modeling, data, and experience in estimating for future programs. Rather than to simply provide estimates, the LLEGO model s main purpose is to improve expenses by relating complex relationships among functions (ground operations contractor, subcontractors, civil service technical, center management, operations, etc.) to tangible drivers. Drivers include flight system complexity and reliability, as well as operations and supply chain management processes and technology. Together these factors define the operability and potential improvements for any future system, from the most direct to the least direct expenses.

  10. The effects of elevated levels of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO₃) on the acute power output and time to fatigue of maximally stimulated mouse soleus and EDL muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, M F; Tallis, J; Price, M J; James, R S

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the effects of elevated buffer capacity [~32 mM HCO₃(-)] through administration of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO₃) on maximally stimulated isolated mouse soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles undergoing cyclical length changes at 37 °C. The elevated buffering capacity was of an equivalent level to that achieved in humans with acute oral supplementation. We evaluated the acute effects of elevated [HCO₃(-)] on (1) maximal acute power output (PO) and (2) time to fatigue to 60 % of maximum control PO (TLIM60), the level of decline in muscle PO observed in humans undertaking similar exercise, using the work loop technique. Acute PO was on average 7.0 ± 4.8 % greater for NaHCO₃-treated EDL muscles (P muscles (P muscle performance was variable, suggesting that there might be inter-individual differences in response to NaHCO₃ supplementation. These results present the best indication to date that NaHCO₃ has direct peripheral effects on mammalian skeletal muscle resulting in increased acute power output.

  11. Effects on muscle strength, maximal jump height, flexibility and postural sway after soccer and Zumba exercise among female hospital employees: a 9-month randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barene, Svein; Holtermann, Andreas; Oseland, Harald; Brekke, Ole-Lars; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-10-01

    This 9-month randomised controlled workplace physical activity trial investigated the effects of soccer and Zumba exercise, respectively, on muscle strength, maximal jump height, sit-and-reach flexibility and postural sway among female workers. A total of 107 female hospital employees aged 25-63 were cluster-randomised to a soccer group, a Zumba group or a control group. Training was conducted outside working hours as two to three 1-h weekly sessions the first 3 months and once a week the last 6 months. Tests were conducted at baseline, after 3 and 9 months. The soccer group improved maximal neck extension strength both after 3 (1.2 kg; P flexibility. The present study indicates that workplace-initiated soccer and Zumba exercise may be beneficial for improvement of the neck and trunk strength, which may have preventive effects with regard to future perceived muscle pain in the respective body regions. Furthermore, the Zumba group revealed positive effects on lower limb lean mass and postural sway compared to the control group.

  12. Effects of long-term blindness on preparatory emg modulation in humans performing landing movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Fernando Henrique; Goroso, Daniel Gustavo

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the long-term effect of blindness on the task of leaping down to a lower landing surface, five blind individuals were compared with 10 sighted individuals who performed landing movements with and without sight. Participants performed six consecutive drop-landings from four different heights, during which the prelanding modulation of EMG timing and amplitude in four lower-limb muscles were recorded. Analysis showed that blind individuals showed specific prelanding EMG modulation, suggesting that long-term dependence on somesthetic and vestibular cues leads to different preparatory measures for vertical falls.

  13. Modelling the effects of recent agricultural land use change on catchment flow and sediment generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar Ruiz, Veronica; Smith, Hugh; Blake, William

    2016-04-01

    Intensive agricultural practices can exacerbate runoff and soil erosion leading to detrimental impacts downstream. Physically-based models have previously been used to assess the impacts on flow and sediment transport in response to land use change, but there has been little investigation of the effect shorter-term changes linked to variations in the extent of cultivated land. The aim of this project is to quantify the impacts on flow generation and sediment transport of different catchment conditions related to both actual recent changes in agricultural land use as well as future change scenarios. To this end, a physically-based distributed hydrological model, SHETRAN was applied in the Blackwater catchment (12 km2) located in south-west England. Land cover was simulated on the basis of satellite-derived land cover maps (1990, 2000 and 2007) as well as a catchment-scale field survey (2011). Soils were represented in the model using five layers for five different soil types in which parameter values were varied in accordance with land use and literature values. Rainfall data (15 min) combined with monthly calculations of evapotranspiration using a simple temperature-based PE model were used to represent contemporary climatic conditions spanning 2010-2014. Calibration was undertaken for selected events during 2011 when land use information was concurrent with available flow and suspended sediment yield data. All land use simulations were then completed for the period 2010-2014 to enable the comparison of model outputs. This contribution will present preliminary results from these land use simulations alongside the effect of several future changes scenarios on catchment flow and sediment generation.

  14. Assessing the Effects of ‘Stand-alone’ Structuration of Land Administration System on Urban Land Delivery and Accessibility in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbola Kazeem Bolayemi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency and effectiveness of land administration system had been acknowledged to be premised on so many factors, arguably the chief of which, is the degree of mutuality, frictionlessness and bi-directionality in the interrelationship that exist amongst the various factors that are discharging arrays of tasks that these formal lands regulo-administrative machineries are saddled with. Undoubtedly, this simple conduct of affairs resultantly drives the formal lands delivery, hence it increases accessibility to urban lands by several categories of users in Nigeria, as thus the case globally. However, these interrelationships are absent among land administration and regulation systems in Nigeria. Hence, this study intends to assess the direct and possible indirect impacts that these interrelationships fallouts have on the formal delivery and accessibility of urban lands in Nigeria, Firstly, this was done by articulating the issues involved and calibrating them into constructs, then measuring them via the following score-cards, thus: myopism, non-ingenuity, disservice, eco-financial loss, distrust, trauma, anti-growth, death, market distortion and thriving informalisation focussing on the South Western Nigeria. Out of the total 586 individuals considered as the total population for the sample space, 120 individual qualified for the sample frame, upon which the structured questionnaires were distributed among land regulators, land administrators, independent land consultants and ultimate land users, essentially to have a fair and broad view of the issues inherent in this lands accessibility dilemma. 93 questionnaires were retrieved, out of which 87 questionnaires were valid, thus formed the basis upon which analyses were done, with emphasis on the 5 point Likert scale measurement usage, via both inferential and descriptive statistical tools. The results showed amongst other things, that unbridled relationship frictions had led to unwarranted role

  15. Effects of Two Fatigue Protocols on Impact Forces and Lower Extremity Kinematics during Drop Landings: Implications for Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of fatigue on the impact forces and sagittal plane kinematics of the lower extremities in a drop landing task. 15 male collegiate athletes were recruited. Five successful trials of a drop landing task were obtained during prefatigue and postfatigue in two fatigue protocols (constant speed running fatigue protocol [R-FP] and shuttle running + vertical jumping fatigue protocol [SV-FP]. Duration time, maximal heart rate, and RPE of each protocol were measured separately. Kinematic measures of the hip, knee, and ankle joints at different times coupled with peak impact force and loading rate were acquired. Our results showed a more flexed landing posture due to an increase in hip and knee flexion angles in the postfatigue condition. However, no differences in peak impact force and loading rate were found between pre- and postfatigue conditions. The changes were similar between protocols, but the SV-FP showed a significantly shorter exercise duration time than the R-FP. Fatigued athletes in this study demonstrated altered motor control strategies during a drop landing task, which may be an intentional or unintentional protective strategy for preventing themselves from potential ACL injury.

  16. Effects of Controlled Release Fertilizer on the Flag Leaves Senescence in Dry-land Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Dandan Liu; Yan Shi

    2013-01-01

    In order to select a reasonable controlled release fertilizer application method to slow down the senescence of flag leaf in dry-land wheat. The effects of controlled release fertilizer on soluble protein content, MDA content, the Catalase (CAT) activity, the Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity on the flag leaves senescence in dry-land wheat had been studied in the open field with the variety wheat Jimai22. The results indicated that, the combination application of controlled release fertiliz...

  17. Effects of Controlled Release Fertilizer on the Flag Leaves Senescence in Dry-land Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Dandan Liu; Yan Shi

    2013-01-01

    In order to select a reasonable controlled release fertilizer application method to slow down the senescence of flag leaf in dry-land wheat. The effects of controlled release fertilizer on soluble protein content, MDA content, the Catalase (CAT) activity, the Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity on the flag leaves senescence in dry-land wheat had been studied in the open field with the variety wheat Jimai22. The results indicated that, the combination application of controlled release fertiliz...

  18. Maximally Atomic Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Brzozowski

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The atoms of a regular language are non-empty intersections of complemented and uncomplemented quotients of the language. Tight upper bounds on the number of atoms of a language and on the quotient complexities of atoms are known. We introduce a new class of regular languages, called the maximally atomic languages, consisting of all languages meeting these bounds. We prove the following result: If L is a regular language of quotient complexity n and G is the subgroup of permutations in the transition semigroup T of the minimal DFA of L, then L is maximally atomic if and only if G is transitive on k-subsets of 1,...,n for 0 <= k <= n and T contains a transformation of rank n-1.

  19. Effect of land use change on soil properties and functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonutare, Tonu; Kõlli, Raimo; Köster, Tiina; Rannik, Kaire; Szajdak, Lech; Shanskiy, Merrit

    2014-05-01

    For good base of sustainable land management and ecologically sound protection of soils are researches on soil properties and functioning. Ecosystem approach to soil properties and functioning is equally important in both natural and cultivated land use conditions. Comparative analysis of natural and agro-ecosystems formed on similar soil types enables to elucidate principal changes caused by land use change (LUC) and to elaborate the best land use practices for local pedo-ecological conditions. Taken for actual analysis mineral soils' catena - rendzina → brown soils → pseudopodzolic soils → gley-podzols - represent ca 1/3 of total area of Estonian normal mineral soils. All soils of this catena differ substantially each from other by calcareousness, acidity, nutrition conditions, fabric and humus cover type. This catena (representative to Estonian pedo-ecological conditions) starts with drought-prone calcareous soils. Brown (distributed in northern and central Estonia) and pseudopodzolic soils (in southern Estonia) are the most broadly acknowledged for agricultural use medium-textured high-quality automorphic soils. Dispersedly distributed gley-podzols are permanently wet and strongly acid, low-productivity sandy soils. In presentation four complex functions of soils are treated: (1) being a suitable soil environment for plant cover productivity (expressed by annual increment, Mg ha-1 yr-1); (2) forming adequate conditions for decomposition, transformation and conversion of fresh falling litter (characterized by humus cover type); (3) deposition of humus, individual organic compounds, plant nutrition elements, air and water, and (4) forming (bio)chemically variegated active space for soil type specific edaphon. Capacity of soil cover as depositor (3) depends on it thickness, texture, calcareousness and moisture conditions. Biological activity of soil (4) is determined by fresh organic matter influx, quality and quantity of biochemical substances and humus

  20. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline with...... to the saline/oil emulsion. Placing of the challenge patches affected the response, as simultaneous chlorocresol challenge on the flank located 2 cm closer to the abdomen than the usual challenge site gave decreased reactions....

  1. Effects of Supplementation with BCAA and L-glutamine on Blood Fatigue Factors and Cytokines in Juvenile Athletes Submitted to Maximal Intensity Rowing Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Ga Hee; Woo, Jinhee; Kang, Sungwhun; Shin, Ki Ok

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to understand the impacts of BCAA (branched-chain amino acid) and glutamine supplementation on the degree of blood fatigue factor stimulation and cytokines along with performance of exercise at the maximal intensity. [Subjects] Five male juvenile elite rowing athletes participated in this study as the subjects; they took 3 tests and received placebo supplementation (PS), BCAA supplementation (BS), and glutamine supplementation (GS). [Methods] The exercise applied in the tests was 2,000 m of rowing at the maximal intensity using an indoor rowing machine, and blood samples were collected 3 times, while resting, at the end of exercise, and after 30 min of recovery, to analyze the blood fatigue factors (lactate, phosphorous, ammonia, creatine kinase (CK)) and blood cytokines (IL (interleukin)-6, 8, 15). [Results] The results of the analysis showed that the levels of blood phosphorous in the BS and GS groups at the recovery stage were decreased significantly compared with at the end of exercise, and the level of CK appeared lower in the GS group alone at recovery stage than at the end of exercise. The level of blood IL-15 in the PS and BS groups appeared higher at the end of exercise compared with the resting stage. [Conclusion] It seemed that glutamine supplementation had a positive effect on the decrease in fatigue factor stimulation at the recovery stage after maximal intensity exercise compared with supplementation with the placebo or BCAA. Besides, pre-exercise glutamine supplementation seemed to help enhance immune function and the defensive inflammatory reaction.

  2. Land Cover Heterogeneity Effects on Sub-Pixel and Per-Pixel Classifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung V. Tran

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Per-pixel and sub-pixel are two common classification methods in land cover studies. The characteristics of a landscape, particularly the land cover itself, can affect the accuracies of both methods. The objectives of this study were to: (1 compare the performance of sub-pixel vs. per-pixel classification methods for a broad heterogeneous region; and (2 analyze the impact of land cover heterogeneity (i.e., the number of land cover classes per pixel on both classification methods. The results demonstrated that the accuracy of both per-pixel and sub-pixel classification methods were generally reduced by increasing land cover heterogeneity. Urban areas, for example, were found to have the lowest accuracy for the per-pixel method, because they had the highest heterogeneity. Conversely, rural areas dominated by cropland and grassland had low heterogeneity and high accuracy. When a sub-pixel method was used, the producer’s accuracy for artificial surfaces was increased by more than 20%. For all other land cover classes, sub-pixel and per-pixel classification methods performed similarly. Thus, the sub-pixel classification was only advantageous for heterogeneous urban landscapes. Both creators and users of land cover datasets should be aware of the inherent landscape heterogeneity and its potential effect on map accuracy.

  3. Land use effects on climate in China as simulated by a regional climate model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO XueJie; ZHANG DongFeng; CHEN ZhongXin; J.S.PAL; F. GIORGI

    2007-01-01

    A regional climate model (RegCM3)nested within ERA40 re-analyzed data is used to investigate the climate effects of land use change over China. Two 15-year simulations (1987-2001),one with current land use and the other with potential vegetation cover without human intervention, are conducted for a domain encompassing China. The climate impacts of land use change are assessed from the difference between the two simulations. Results show that the current land use (modified by anthropogenic activities) influences local climate as simulated by the model through the reinforcement of the monsoon circulation in both the winter and summer seasons and through changes of the surface energy budget. In winter. Land use change leads to reduced precipitation and decreased surface air temperature south of the Yangtze River, and increased precipitation north of the Yangtze River. Land use change significantly affects summer climate in southern China, yielding increased precipitation over the region, decreased temperature along the Yangtze River and increased temperature in the South China area (south-end of China).In summer, a reduction of precipitation over northern China and a temperature rise over Northwest China are also simulated. Both daily maximum and minimum temperatures are affected in the simulations. In general, the current land use in China leads to enhanced mean annual precipitation and decreased annual temperature over south China along with decreased precipitation over North China.

  4. Land use effects on climate in China as simulated by a regional climate model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.S.PAL; F.GIORGI

    2007-01-01

    A regional climate model (RegCM3) nested within ERA40 re-analyzed data is used to investigate the climate effects of land use change over China. Two 15-year simulations (1987―2001), one with current land use and the other with potential vegetation cover without human intervention, are conducted for a domain encompassing China. The climate impacts of land use change are assessed from the difference between the two simulations. Results show that the current land use (modified by anthropogenic ac- tivities) influences local climate as simulated by the model through the reinforcement of the monsoon circulation in both the winter and summer seasons and through changes of the surface energy budget. In winter, land use change leads to reduced precipitation and decreased surface air temperature south of the Yangtze River, and increased precipitation north of the Yangtze River. Land use change signifi- cantly affects summer climate in southern China, yielding increased precipitation over the region, de- creased temperature along the Yangtze River and increased temperature in the South China area (south-end of China). In summer, a reduction of precipitation over northern China and a temperature rise over Northwest China are also simulated. Both daily maximum and minimum temperatures are affected in the simulations. In general, the current land use in China leads to enhanced mean annual precipitation and decreased annual temperature over south China along with decreased precipitation over North China.

  5. Quantum-Inspired Maximizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2008-01-01

    A report discusses an algorithm for a new kind of dynamics based on a quantum- classical hybrid-quantum-inspired maximizer. The model is represented by a modified Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced by different, specially chosen 'computational' potential. As a result, the dynamics attains both quantum and classical properties: it preserves superposition and entanglement of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables, using classical methods. Such optimal combination of characteristics is a perfect match for quantum-inspired computing. As an application, an algorithm for global maximum of an arbitrary integrable function is proposed. The idea of the proposed algorithm is very simple: based upon the Quantum-inspired Maximizer (QIM), introduce a positive function to be maximized as the probability density to which the solution is attracted. Then the larger value of this function will have the higher probability to appear. Special attention is paid to simulation of integer programming and NP-complete problems. It is demonstrated that the problem of global maximum of an integrable function can be found in polynomial time by using the proposed quantum- classical hybrid. The result is extended to a constrained maximum with applications to integer programming and TSP (Traveling Salesman Problem).

  6. Land-cover effects on soil organic carbon stocks in a European city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Jill L; Davies, Zoe G; McCormack, Sarah A; Gaston, Kevin J; Leake, Jonathan R

    2014-02-15

    Soil is the vital foundation of terrestrial ecosystems storing water, nutrients, and almost three-quarters of the organic carbon stocks of the Earth's biomes. Soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks vary with land-cover and land-use change, with significant losses occurring through disturbance and cultivation. Although urbanisation is a growing contributor to land-use change globally, the effects of urban land-cover types on SOC stocks have not been studied for densely built cities. Additionally, there is a need to resolve the direction and extent to which greenspace management such as tree planting impacts on SOC concentrations. Here, we analyse the effect of land-cover (herbaceous, shrub or tree cover), on SOC stocks in domestic gardens and non-domestic greenspaces across a typical mid-sized U.K. city (Leicester, 73 km(2), 56% greenspace), and map citywide distribution of this ecosystem service. SOC was measured in topsoil and compared to surrounding extra-urban agricultural land. Average SOC storage in the city's greenspace was 9.9 kg m(-2), to 21 cm depth. SOC concentrations under trees and shrubs in domestic gardens were greater than all other land-covers, with total median storage of 13.5 kg m(-2) to 21 cm depth, more than 3 kg m(-2) greater than any other land-cover class in domestic and non-domestic greenspace and 5 kg m(-2) greater than in arable land. Land-cover did not significantly affect SOC concentrations in non-domestic greenspace, but values beneath trees were higher than under both pasture and arable land, whereas concentrations under shrub and herbaceous land-covers were only higher than arable fields. We conclude that although differences in greenspace management affect SOC stocks, trees only marginally increase these stocks in non-domestic greenspaces, but may enhance them in domestic gardens, and greenspace topsoils hold substantial SOC stores that require protection from further expansion of artificial surfaces e.g. patios and driveways.

  7. The Challenge of Developing Social Indicators for Cumulative Effects Assessment and Land Use Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Parkins

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a synopsis on social indicators as relevant to cumulative effects assessment and land use planning. Although much has been done to better understand the social dimensions of environmental assessment, empirical work has been lacking on social indicators that could be used either as measurable inputs or outputs for cumulative effects assessment and land use planning in different kinds of communities and regions. Cumulative effects models currently in practice often fail to address deeper issues of community and regional well-being. Against this gap, social scientists are being asked to make reliable generalizations about functional, measurable relationships between certain social indicators and land use change or scenarios. To address this challenge, the Alberta Research Council held a two-day workshop in 2005 with social scientists. The workshop resulted in a list of prioritized social indicators that could be included in cumulative effects modeling/assessments and land use planning. The top five social indicators included population growth rate, education attainment, self-assessed quality of life, equity, i.e., distribution of benefits, and locus of control. Although consensus on social indicators and social thresholds for cumulative effects models was not reached, the insight gained from the workshop will help inform future cumulative effects assessment and land use planning.

  8. Effects of land use-change on some properties of tropical soils - An example from Southeast Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geissen, V.; Sánchez-Hernández, R.; Kampichler, C.; Ramos-Reyes, R.; Sepulveda-Lozada, A.; Ochoa-Gaona, S.; Jong, de B.H.J.; Huerta-Lwanga, E.; Hernández-Daumás, S.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effects of land-use and land-cover changes on physical and chemical properties of soil in tropical South-East Mexico. In the study area of about 5500 km2, the dominant land use is pastureland (Pa seasonal agriculture (TA), fruit plantations (FP), sugarcane, (SC) secondary (SF) and pri

  9. The Effects of Opposition and Gender on Knee Kinematics and Ground Reaction Force during Landing from Volleyball Block Jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gerwyn; Watkins, James; Owen, Nick

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of opposition and gender on knee kinematics and ground reaction force during landing from a volleyball block jump. Six female and six male university volleyball players performed two landing tasks: (a) an unopposed and (b) an opposed volleyball block jump and landing. A 12-camera motion analysis…

  10. 77 FR 40405 - Notice of a Non-Aeronautical Land-Use Change Effecting the Quitclaim Deed and Federal Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of a Non-Aeronautical Land-Use Change Effecting the Quitclaim Deed... Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of a Non-Aeronautical Land-Use Change. SUMMARY: The Federal...-aeronautical land- use change for approximately 38 acres of airport property at Delano Municipal...

  11. RESOLUTION AND ERROR IN MEASURING LAND-COVER CHANGE: EFFECTS ON ESTIMATING NET CARBON RELEASE FROM MEXICAN TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reliable estimates of carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere due to land-use change have become increasingly important. One source of land-use changes estimates comes from comparing multi-date remote sensing imagery, though the effect of land-cover clas...

  12. The Effects of Opposition and Gender on Knee Kinematics and Ground Reaction Force during Landing from Volleyball Block Jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gerwyn; Watkins, James; Owen, Nick

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of opposition and gender on knee kinematics and ground reaction force during landing from a volleyball block jump. Six female and six male university volleyball players performed two landing tasks: (a) an unopposed and (b) an opposed volleyball block jump and landing. A 12-camera motion analysis…

  13. Land Markets and its Effects on the Spatial Segregation: The Case of Ciudad Juarez, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César M. Fuentes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to analyze the land market imperfec-tions and their effect on spatial segregation. It uses a spatial approach through the construction of socio-spatial segregation and infrastructure deficit indexes. The principal component element was used to estimate the socio-spatial in-dexes at the AGEB scale. The data used to calculate the indexes was obtained from the XII Population and Housing Census at census tracts level. The result show that the city suffers from spatial segregation caused mainly by land market imperfections. The land market is not able to ensure an adequate supply at affordable prices and as a result, the biggest sufferers have been the urban poor. The lack of access to urban land has pushed low income inhabitants to the outer limits of the urban core: low value areas without public infrastructure.

  14. Relaxing technical regulations under the Landings Obligation – effects on the discard ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars O.; Olesen, Hans Jakob; Qvist Eliasen, Søren

    The landings obligation (LO), currently being implemented in the new CFP, puts major constraints on fishers, by making the landing of unwanted catch mandatory. Less restrictive technical rules (TR) in a results-based management frame have been suggested as a mechanism to release some of these con......The landings obligation (LO), currently being implemented in the new CFP, puts major constraints on fishers, by making the landing of unwanted catch mandatory. Less restrictive technical rules (TR) in a results-based management frame have been suggested as a mechanism to release some...... of these constraints. To investigate the effects of the existing TR, some fishers were relaxed from TR during the trial and could freely choose and develop alternative gears, aiming to optimize annual catch value, while reducing discards. The study included 14 demersal fishing vessels, operating in the North Sea...

  15. THE POTENTIAL OF RECLAIMED LANDS TO SEQUESTER CARBON AND MITIGATE THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Brown; Song Jin

    2006-05-01

    Reclaimed mine lands have the potential to sequester carbon. The use of amendments to increase fertility and overall soil quality is encouraging. Waste amendments such as sewage sludge and clarifier sludge, as well as commercial compost were tested to determine their effects on carbon sequestration and humic acid formation in reclaimed mine lands. Sewage sludge and clarifier sludge have the potential to work as reclaimed mine lands amendments. C:N ratios need to be understood to determine probability of nutrient leaching and water contamination. Microbial activity on the humic acid fraction of sludge is directed toward the readily degradable constituents containing single chain functional groups. This finding indicate that amendments with lower molecular constituents such as aliphatic compounds are more amenable to microbial degradation, therefore serves as better nutrient sources to enhance the formation of vegetation in mine lands and leads to more efficient carbon sequestration.

  16. Inclusive fitness maximization: An axiomatic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John A; Bossert, Walter

    2014-06-07

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of quasi-inclusive fitness maximization can be derived from axioms on an individual׳s 'as if preferences' (binary choices) for the case in which phenotypic effects are additive. Our results help integrate evolutionary theory and rational choice theory, help draw out the behavioural implications of inclusive fitness maximization, and point to a possible way in which evolution could lead organisms to implement it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of exercise-induced muscle damage on resting metabolic rate, sub-maximal running and post-exercise oxygen consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Dean Gareth; Lamb, Kevin; Nicholas, Ceri; Twist, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), described as the acute weakness of the musculature after unaccustomed eccentric exercise, increases oxidative metabolism at rest and during endurance exercise. However, it is not known whether oxygen uptake during recovery from endurance exercise is increased when experiencing symptoms of EIMD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of EIMD on physiological and metabolic responses before, during and after sub-maximal running. After a 12 h fast, eight healthy male participants completed baseline measurements comprising resting metabolic rate (RMR), indirect markers of EIMD, 10 min of sub-maximal running and 30 min of recovery to ascertain excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). Measurements were then repeated at 24 and 48 h after 100 Smith-machine squats. Data analysis revealed significant (PEPOC were increased in the two days after squatting exercise (PEPOC. Individuals engaging in unaccustomed resistance exercise that results in muscle damage should be mindful of the increases in resting energy expenditure and increased metabolic demand to exercise in the days that follow.

  18. Effect of Short-Term Maximal Exercise on Biochemical Markers of Muscle Damage, Total Antioxidant Status, and Homocysteine Levels in Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammouda, Omar; Chtourou, Hamdi; Chaouachi, Anis; Chahed, Henda; Ferchichi, Salyma; Kallel, Choumous; Chamari, Karim; Souissi, Nizar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Prolonged physical exercise results in transient elevations of biochemical markers of muscular damage. This study examined the effect of short-term maximal exercise on these markers, homocysteine levels (Hcy), and total antioxidant status (TAS) in trained subjects. Methods Eighteen male football players participated in this study. Blood samples were collected 5-min before and 3-min after a 30-s Wingate test. Results The results indicated that plasma biochemical markers of muscle injury increased significantly after the Wingate test (Pbilirubin, and TAS increased significantly after exercise (P<0.05). However, Hcy levels were unaffected by the Wingate test (for 3-min post-exercise measurement). Conclusions Short-term maximal exercise (e.g. 30-s Wingate test) is of sufficient intensity and duration to increase markers of muscle damage, and TAS; but not Hcy levels. Increases in the selected enzymes probably come primarily from muscle damage, rather than liver damage. Moreover, increase of TAS confirms the Wingate test induced oxidative stress. PMID:23342222

  19. The effect of high pass filtering and non-linear normalization on the EMG-force relationship during sub-maximal finger exertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Alison C; Sanei, Kia; Keir, Peter J

    2013-06-01

    Muscle force estimates are important for full understanding of the musculoskeletal system and EMG is a modeling method used to estimate muscle force. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of high pass filtering and non-linear normalization on the EMG-force relationship of sub-maximal finger exertions. Sub-maximal isometric ramp exertions were performed under three conditions (i) extension with restraint at the mid-proximal phalanx, (ii) flexion at the proximal phalanx and (iii) flexion at the distal phalanx. Thirty high pass filter designs were compared to a standardized processing procedure and an exponential fit equation was used for non-linear normalization. High pass filtering significantly reduced the %RMS error and increased the peak cross correlation between EMG and force in the distal flexion condition and in the other two conditions there was a trend towards improving force predictions with high pass filtering. The degree of linearity differed between the three contraction conditions and high pass filtering improved the linearity in all conditions. Non-linear normalization had greater impact on the EMG-force relationship than high pass filtering. The difference in optimal processing parameters suggests that high pass filtering and linearity are dependent on contraction mode as well as the muscle analyzed.

  20. Effect of land use on mayfly assemblages structure in Neotropical headwater streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA EMILIA SIEGLOCH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the effect of agricultural and forestry land use on the structure of mayfly assemblages in low-order streams. Twenty-nine headwater streams were investigated in the state of São Paulo. We analyzed 15 streams in pristine areas (mixed tropical rainforest, semideciduous forest and dense tropical rainforest, and 14 streams covered with sugarcane, eucalyptus and pasture. Mayfly richness obtained by rarefaction curves was higher in pristine areas (21 genera, especially in mixed and semideciduous forest when compared to land use (9 genera, where values were particularly low in sugarcane plantation (3 genera. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS ordination showed clear difference in mayfly assemblages between land uses and pristine areas, supported by analysis of similarity (R=0.67, p=0.001. In partial redundancy analysis (pRDA, the environmental descriptors that best explained differences in assemblage structure were Riparian, Channel and Environmental Inventory (RCE index score, percentage of fine sediment stream substrate, water pH and land elevation. Our results show that agricultural and forestry land use has a strong negative effect on the structure of mayfly assemblages. These results also support the use of mayflies as environmental indicators, as some genera were sensitive to changes in land use, while others responded to naturally occurring changes in the study area.

  1. Land use and land management effects on soil organic carbon stock in Mediterranean agricultural areas (Southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2014-05-01

    INTRODUCTION Soils play a key role in the carbon geochemical cycle. Agriculture contributes to carbon sequestration through photosynthesis and the incorporation of carbon into carbohydrates. Soil management is one of the best tools for climate change mitigation. Small increases or decreases in soil carbon content due to changes in land use or management practices, may result in a significant net exchange of carbon between the soil carbon pool and the atmosphere. In the last decades arable crops (AC) have been transformed into olive grove cultivations (OG) or vineyards (V) in Mediterranean areas. A field study was conducted to determine long-term effects of land use change (LUC) (AC by OG and V) on soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C:N ratio and their stratification in Calcic-Chromic Luvisols (LVcc/cr) in Mediterranean conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS An unirrigated farm in Montilla-Moriles (Córdoba, Spain) cultivated under conventional tillage (animal power with lightweight reversible plows and non-mineral fertilization or pesticides) was selected for study in 1965. In 1966, the farm was divided into three plots with three different uses (AC, OG and V). The preliminary analyses were realized in 1965 for AC (AC1), and the second analyses were realized in 2011 for AC (AC2 - winter crop rotation with annual wheat and barley, receiving mineral fertilization or pesticides), OG (annual passes with disk harrow and cultivator in the spring, followed by a tine harrow in the summer receiving mineral fertilization and weed control with residual herbicides), and V (with three or five chisel passes a year from early spring to early autumn with mineral fertilization or pesticides.). In all cases (AC1, AC2, OG and V) were collected soil entire profiles. Soil properties determined were: soil particle size, bulk density, SOC, TN, C:N ratio, stocks and SRs. The statistical significance of the differences in the variables between land use practices was tested using the

  2. Differential half-maximal effects of human insulin and its analogs for in situ glucose transport and protein synthesis in rat soleus muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Randi B.; Eleid, Noura; LeCesne, Catherine; Durando, Bianca; Crawford, Julie T.; Heffner, Michelle; Layton, Christle; O'Keefe, Matthew; Robinson, Jennifer; Rudinsky, Suzy; Henriksen, Erik J.; Tischler, Marc E.

    2002-01-01

    Analogs of human insulin have been used to discriminate between responses of metabolic and mitogenic (growth-related) pathways. This study compared the stimulatory effects of human insulin (HI) and 2 analogs (X2, B-Asp(9), B-Glu(27) and H2, A-His(8),B-His(4),B-Glu(10), B-His(27)) on glucose uptake and protein synthesis in rat soleus muscle in situ. Glucose uptake, estimated by intramuscular (IM) injection of 2-deoxy[1,2-3H]glucose with or without insulin, was maximally increased at 10(-6) mol/L for HI and X2 and 10(-7) mol/L for H2. HI had a larger effect (318%) than either X2 (156%) or H2 (124%). The half-maximal effect (ED(50)) values for HI, X2, and H2 were 3.3 x10(-8) mol/L, 1.7 x 10(-7) mol/L, and 1.6 x 10(-9) mol/L, respectively. Protein synthesis, estimated by protein incorporation of [(3)H]phenylalanine injected into muscles with or without insulin, was maximally increased at 10(-5) mol/L for HI and 10(-6) for X2 and H2. HI had a larger effect in stimulating protein synthesis (34%) than either X2 (25%) or H2 (19.8%). The ED(50) values for HI, X2, and H2 were 3.0 x 10(-7) mol/L, 3.2 x 10(-7) mol/L, and 1.0 x 10(-9) mol/L, respectively. The biological potency of each analog (ED(50)insulin/ED(50)analog) showed X2 to be less potent than HI for both glucose uptake (0.2) and protein synthesis (0.9), whereas H2 is more potent than HI with ratios of 20 and 300, respectively. These data suggest that this approach for studying insulin responsiveness in a single muscle in situ may be a useful tool for investigating insulin signaling in muscle in vivo. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  3. An Integrated Assessment of Water Scarcity Effects on Energy and Land Use Decisions and Mitigation Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, M. I.; Kim, S. H.; Liu, L.; Liu, Y.; Calvin, K. V.; Leon, C.; Edmonds, J.; Kyle, P.; Patel, P.; Wise, M. A.; Davies, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    Water is essential for the world's food supply, for energy production, including bioenergy and hydroelectric power, and for power system cooling. Water is already scarce in many regions and could present a critical constraint as society attempts simultaneously to mitigate climate forcing and adapt to climate change, and to provide food for an increasing population. We use the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), where interactions between population, economic growth, energy, land and water resources interact simultaneously in a dynamically evolving system, to investigate how water scarcity affects energy and land use decisions as well as mitigation policies. In GCAM, competing claims on water resources from all claimants—energy, land, and economy—are reconciled with water resource availability—from renewable water, non-renewable groundwater sources and desalinated water—across 235 major river basins. Limits to hydrologic systems have significant effects on energy and land use induced emissions via constraints on decisions of their use. We explore these effects and how they evolve under climate change mitigation policies, which can significantly alter land use patterns, both by limiting land use change emissions and by increasing bioenergy production. The study also explores the mitigation scenarios in the context of the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). We find that previous estimates of global water withdrawal projections are overestimated, as our simulations show that it is more economical in some basins to alter agricultural and energy activities rather than utilize non-renewable groundwater or desalinated water. This study highlights the fact that water is a binding factor in agriculture, energy and land use decisions in integrated assessment models (IAMs), and stresses the crucial role of water in regulating agricultural commodities trade and land-use and energy decisions.

  4. Effects of River Discharge and Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) on Water Quality Dynamics in Migina Catchment, Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwimana, Abias; van Dam, Anne; Gettel, Gretchen; Bigirimana, Bonfils; Irvine, Kenneth

    2017-09-01

    Agricultural intensification may accelerate the loss of wetlands, increasing the concentrations of nutrients and sediments in downstream water bodies. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of land use and land cover and river discharge on water quality in the Migina catchment, southern Rwanda. Rainfall, discharge and water quality (total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, and temperature) were measured in different periods from May 2009 to June 2013. In 2011, measurements were done at the outlets of 3 sub-catchments (Munyazi, Mukura and Akagera). Between May 2012 and May 2013 the measurements were done in 16 reaches of Munyazi dominated by rice, vegetables, grass/forest or ponds/reservoirs. Water quality was also measured during two rainfall events. Results showed seasonal trends in water quality associated with high water flows and farming activities. Across all sites, the total suspended solids related positively to discharge, increasing 2-8 times during high flow periods. Conductivity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH decreased with increasing discharge, while total nitrogen and total phosphorus did not show a clear pattern. The total suspended solids concentrations were consistently higher downstream of reaches dominated by rice and vegetable farming. For total nitrogen and total phosphorus results were mixed, but suggesting higher concentration of total nitrogen and total phosphorus during the dry and early rainy (and farming) season, and then wash out during the rainy season, with subsequent dilution at the end of the rains. Rice and vegetable farming generate the transport of sediment as opposed to ponds/reservoir and grass/forest.

  5. Effect of inspiration on airway dimensions measured in maximal inspiration CT images of subjects without airflow limitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Wille, Mathilde M.W.; Raket, Lars Lau;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of inspiration on airway dimensions measured in voluntary inspiration breath-hold examinations. METHODS: 961 subjects with normal spirometry were selected from the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial. Subjects were examined annually for five years with low-dose CT. ...... • The effect of inspiration is greater in higher-generation (more peripheral) airways • Airways of generation 5 and beyond are as distensible as lung parenchyma • Airway dimensions measured from CT should be adjusted for inspiration level....

  6. Land management and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... land related data. It is argued that development of such a model is important or even necessary for facilitating a holistic approach to the management of land as the key asset of any nation or jurisdiction....

  7. Social group utility maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b

  8. Maximizing Modularity is hard

    CERN Document Server

    Brandes, U; Gaertler, M; Goerke, R; Hoefer, M; Nikoloski, Z; Wagner, D

    2006-01-01

    Several algorithms have been proposed to compute partitions of networks into communities that score high on a graph clustering index called modularity. While publications on these algorithms typically contain experimental evaluations to emphasize the plausibility of results, none of these algorithms has been shown to actually compute optimal partitions. We here settle the unknown complexity status of modularity maximization by showing that the corresponding decision version is NP-complete in the strong sense. As a consequence, any efficient, i.e. polynomial-time, algorithm is only heuristic and yields suboptimal partitions on many instances.

  9. Precision Teaching in the High School Classroom: A Necessary Step Towards Maximizing Teacher Effectiveness and Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuning, Stephen E.

    1978-01-01

    The effectiveness of precision teaching and traditional teaching were compared in high school classes. In a second experiment, students' performance improved when good performers were allowed more hours of employment. The results suggest that poor academic performance may be due to an interaction between teaching procedure and incentive…

  10. Effect of inspiration on airway dimensions measured in maximal inspiration CT images of subjects without airflow limitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Jens; Raket, Lars Lau; Nielsen, Mads [University of Copenhagen, Department of Computer Science, Copenhagen (Denmark); Wille, Mathilde M.W.; Dirksen, Asger [University of Copenhagen, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Gentofte Hospital, Hellerup (Denmark); Feragen, Aasa [University of Copenhagen, Department of Computer Science, Copenhagen (Denmark); Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems and Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Tuebingen (Germany); Pedersen, Jesper H. [Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery RT, Copenhagen (Denmark); Bruijne, Marleen de [University of Copenhagen, Department of Computer Science, Copenhagen (Denmark); Erasmus MC Rotterdam, Departments of Medical Informatics and Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-09-15

    To study the effect of inspiration on airway dimensions measured in voluntary inspiration breath-hold examinations. 961 subjects with normal spirometry were selected from the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial. Subjects were examined annually for five years with low-dose CT. Automated software was utilized to segment lungs and airways, identify segmental bronchi, and match airway branches in all images of the same subject. Inspiration level was defined as segmented total lung volume (TLV) divided by predicted total lung capacity (pTLC). Mixed-effects models were used to predict relative change in lumen diameter (ALD) and wall thickness (AWT) in airways of generation 0 (trachea) to 7 and segmental bronchi (R1-R10 and L1-L10) from relative changes in inspiration level. Relative changes in ALD were related to relative changes in TLV/pTLC, and this distensibility increased with generation (p < 0.001). Relative changes in AWT were inversely related to relative changes in TLV/pTLC in generation 3-7 (p < 0.001). Segmental bronchi were widely dispersed in terms of ALD (5.7 ± 0.7 mm), AWT (0.86 ± 0.07 mm), and distensibility (23.5 ± 7.7 %). Subjects who inspire more deeply prior to imaging have larger ALD and smaller AWT. This effect is more pronounced in higher-generation airways. Therefore, adjustment of inspiration level is necessary to accurately assess airway dimensions. (orig.)

  11. Effects of ATP-induced leg vasodilation on VO2 peak and leg O2 extraction during maximal exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Lundby, C; Sander, M

    2006-01-01

    During maximal whole body exercise VO2 peak is limited by O2 delivery. In turn, it is though that blood flow at near-maximal exercise must be restrained by the sympathetic nervous system to maintain mean arterial pressure. To determine whether enhancing vasodilation across the leg results in higher...... O2 delivery and leg VO2 during near-maximal and maximal exercise in humans, seven men performed two maximal incremental exercise tests on the cycle ergometer. In random order, one test was performed with and one without (control exercise) infusion of ATP (8 mg in 1 ml of isotonic saline solution......) into the right femoral artery at a rate of 80 microg.kg body mass-1.min-1. During near-maximal exercise (92% of VO2 peak), the infusion of ATP increased leg vascular conductance (+43%, P...

  12. Forecasting the effects of land-use change on forest rodents in Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizkalla, Carol E; Swihart, Robert K

    2009-11-01

    Forest cover in the upper Wabash River basin in Indiana was fragmented due to agricultural conversion beginning more than 175 years ago. Currently, urban expansion is an important driver of land-use change in the basin. A land transformation model was applied to the basin to forecast land use from 2000 to 2020. We assessed the effect of this projected land-use change scenario on five forest rodent species at three scales: using occupancy models at the patch level, proportional occupancy models at the landscape level, and ecologically scaled landscape indices to assess the change in connectivity at the watershed level. At the patch and landscape scales, occupancy models had low predictability but suggest that gray squirrels are most susceptible to land-use change. At the watershed scale, declines in connectivity did not correspond with the decline of forest. This study highlights the importance of map resolution and consideration of matrix elements in constructing forecast models. Unforeseen drivers of land use, such as changing economic incentives, may also have important ramifications.

  13. The effects of China’s Sloping Land Conversion Program on agricultural households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhen; Henningsen, Arne

    In the late 1990s, China aimed to mitigate environmental degradation from agricultural production activities by introducing the world’s largest ’Payments for Environmental Services’ (PES) program ― the Sloping Land Conversion Program (SLCP). In order to analyze its effects on agricultural...... compensation payment rates has had some notable, but generally small effects....

  14. The effect of ankle bracing on landing biomechanics in female netballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Mackay, Anna Ruth; Whatman, Chris; Reid, Duncan; Lorimer, Anna

    2016-07-01

    Investigate the impact of lace-up ankle braces on landing biomechanics. Within-subject repeated measures. Participants completed a drop jump, drop land, and netball-specific task in braced and unbraced conditions. Biomechanical research laboratory. Twenty female high school netballers. Leg, knee, and ankle stiffness, knee/ankle stiffness ratio, knee and ankle sagittal excursion, peak vertical ground reaction force, time-to-peak vertical ground reaction force, and loading rate. In the brace condition leg stiffness increased bilaterally during the drop land (ES = 0.21, 0.22), ankle stiffness increased bilaterally during the drop jump (ES = 0.37, 0.29) and drop land (ES = 0.40, 0.60), and knee/ankle stiffness ratio decreased in all three tasks (ES = -0.22 to -0.45). Ankle sagittal excursion decreased bilaterally during the drop jump (ES = -0.35, -0.53) and drop land (ES = -0.23, -0.46), and decreased in the lead limb during the netball jump (ES = -0.36). Knee excursion decreased bilaterally during the drop jump (ES = -0.36, -0.40) and in the lead limb during netball task (ES = -0.59). Lead limb TTP was greater during the netball jump (ES = 0.41). Lace-up ankle braces may increase leg and joint stiffness and reduce joint excursion during landing but do not appear to affect landing forces. The observed effect on landing biomechanics may predispose young netballers to injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of land use change on water discharge in Srepok watershed, Central Highland, Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Ngoc Quyen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Srepok watershed plays an important role in Central Highland in Viet Nam. It impacts to developing social-economic conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to research elements which impact to natural resources in this watershed. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model and Geography Information System (GIS were used to simulate water discharge in the Srepok watershed. The objectives of the research were to apply GIS and SWAT model for simulation water discharge and then, we assessed land use change which impacted on water discharge in the watershed. The observed stream flow data from Ban Don Stream gauge station was used to calibrate for the period from 1981 to 2000 and then validate for the period from 2001 to 2009. After using SWAT-CUP software to calibration, NSI reached 0.63 and R square value achieved 0.64 from 2004 to 2008 in calibration and NSI gained good level at 0.74 and R square got 0.75 from 2009 to 2012 in validation step at Ban Don Station. After that, land cover in 2010 was processed like land cover in 2000 and set up SWAT model again. The simulated water discharge in scenario 1 (land use 2000 was compared with scenario 2 (land use 2010, the simulation result was not significant difference between two scenarios because the change of area of land use was not much enough to affect the fluctuation of water discharge. However, the effect of land cover on water resource could be seen clearly via total water yield. The percentage of surface flow in 2000 was twice times more than in 2010; retard and base flow in 2000 was slightly more than in 2010. Therefore, decreased surface flow, increased infiltration capacity of water and enriched base flow resulted in the growth of land cover.

  16. Maximizing without difficulty: A modified maximizing scale and its correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Lai

    2010-01-01

    This article presents several studies that replicate and extend previous research on maximizing. A modified scale for measuring individual maximizing tendency is introduced. The scale has adequate psychometric properties and reflects maximizers' aspirations for high standards and their preference for extensive alternative search, but not the decision difficulty aspect included in several previous studies. Based on this scale, maximizing is positively correlated with optimism, need for cogniti...

  17. Effect of surface BRDF of various land cover types on geostationary observations of tropospheric NO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, K.; Richter, A.; Rozanov, V.; Rozanov, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Irie, H.; Kita, K.

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the effect of surface reflectance anisotropy, bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), on satellite retrievals of tropospheric NO2. We assume the geometry of geostationary measurements over Tokyo, which is one of the worst air-polluted regions in East Asia. We calculated air mass factors (AMF) and box AMFs (BAMF) for tropospheric NO2 to evaluate the effect of BRDF by using the radiative transfer model SCIATRAN. To model the BRDF effect, we utilized the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products (MOD43B1 and MOD43B2), which provide three coefficients to express the RossThick-LiSparse reciprocal model, a semi-empirical and kernel-based model of BRDF. Because BRDF depends on the land cover type, we also utilized the High Resolution Land-Use and Land-Cover Map of the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS)/Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2), which classifies the ground pixels over Tokyo into six main types: water, urban, paddy, crop, deciduous forest, and evergreen forest. We first develop an empirical model of the three BRDF coefficients for each land cover type over Tokyo and then apply the model to the calculation of land-cover-type-dependent AMFs and BAMFs. Results show that the variability of AMF among the land types is up to several tens of percent, and if we neglect the reflectance anisotropy, the difference with AMFs based on BRDF reaches 10% or more. The evaluation of the BAMFs calculated shows that not considering BRDF will cause large errors if the concentration of NO2 is high close to the surface, although the importance of BRDF for AMFs decreases for large aerosol optical depth (AOD).

  18. Optimizing methyl-eugenol aromatherapy to maximize posttreatment effects to enhance mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Ihsan ul; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2015-10-01

    Methyl-eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural phytochemical, did enhance male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) mating competitiveness 3 d after ingestion. Enhanced male mating competitiveness can significantly increase the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique (SIT). ME application to mass reared sterile flies by feeding is infeasible. ME application by aromatherapy however, would be a very practical way of ME application in fly emergence and release facilities. This approach was shown to enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae 3 d posttreatment (DPT). Despite this added benefit, every additional day of delaying release will reduce sterile fly quality and will add cost to SIT application. The present study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 1DPT and 2DPT. ME aromatherapy 1DPT or 2DPT did enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae males whereas ME feeding 1DPT and 2DPT did not. Male mating competitiveness was enhanced by the ME aromatherapy irrespective if they received 1DPT, 2DPT or 3DPT. ME aromatherapy, being a viable approach for its application, did enhance mating competitiveness of male B. carambolae 1 d posttreatment as ME feeding did 3 d after ingestion.

  19. Fitting Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equation Models with Random Effects and Unknown Initial Conditions Using the Stochastic Approximation Expectation-Maximization (SAEM) Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Sy-Miin; Lu, Zhaohua; Sherwood, Andrew; Zhu, Hongtu

    2016-03-01

    The past decade has evidenced the increased prevalence of irregularly spaced longitudinal data in social sciences. Clearly lacking, however, are modeling tools that allow researchers to fit dynamic models to irregularly spaced data, particularly data that show nonlinearity and heterogeneity in dynamical structures. We consider the issue of fitting multivariate nonlinear differential equation models with random effects and unknown initial conditions to irregularly spaced data. A stochastic approximation expectation-maximization algorithm is proposed and its performance is evaluated using a benchmark nonlinear dynamical systems model, namely, the Van der Pol oscillator equations. The empirical utility of the proposed technique is illustrated using a set of 24-h ambulatory cardiovascular data from 168 men and women. Pertinent methodological challenges and unresolved issues are discussed.

  20. Effect of spaceflight on the maximal shortening velocity, morphology, and enzyme profile of fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscle fibers in rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts, R. H.; Romatowski, J. G.; De La Cruz, L.; Widrick, J. J.; Desplanches, D.

    2000-01-01

    Weightlessness has been shown to cause limb muscle wasting and a reduced peak force and power in the antigravity soleus muscle. Despite a reduced peak power, Caiozzo et al. observed an increased maximal shortening velocity in the rat soleus muscle following a 14-day space flight. The major purpose of the present investigation was to determine if weightlessness induced an elevated velocity in the antigravity slow type I fibers of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), as well as to establish a cellular mechanism for the effect. Spaceflight or models of weightlessness have been shown to increase glucose uptake, elevate muscle glycogen content, and increase fatigability of the soleus muscle. The latter appears to be in part caused by a reduced ability of the slow oxidative fibers to oxidize fats. A second goal of this study was to establish the extent to which weightlessness altered the substrate profile and glycolytic and oxidative enzyme capacity of individual slow- and fast-twitch fibers.

  1. Effect of shoes containing nanosilica particles on knee valgus in active females during landing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bassiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The effect of silica nanoparticles (SNPs in sport shoes outsoles on the  parameters related to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL Injury has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of shoes outsole containing a composite of thermoplastic elastomer based on styrene-butadiene and silica nanoparticles (TPEN shoe on Knee Valgus Angle (KVA as a risk factor of ACL injuries during landing Materials and Methods: Fourteen active healthy women without knee injuries and disorders performed bilateral drop jump (DJ and single leg drop landing (SLL tasks in barefoot, wearing shoes fabricated with polyvinyl chloride outsole (PVC shoe and TPEN shoes conditions , randomly. The knee valgus angle values of right and left legs were calculated in the landing conditions. Two factors repeated measures ANOVA were used to investigate the effect of landing and footwear conditions on KVA of right and left legs.  Results: For both left and right limbs, the KVA was at maximum and minimum values during landing with barefoot and TPEN shoes, respectively. PVC shoe significantly reduced the knee valgus by 3.84% in left and 4.18% in right knee (P

  2. Maximizing Power Output in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines and Enabling Effective Control of Combustion Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Samveg

    Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines are one of the most promising engine technologies for the future of energy conversion from clean, efficient combustion. HCCI engines allow high efficiency and lower CO2 emission through the use of high compression ratios and the removal of intake throttle valves (like Diesel), and allow very low levels of urban pollutants like nitric oxide and soot (like Otto). These engines, however, are not without their challenges, such as low power density compared with other engine technologies, and a difficulty in controlling combustion timing. This dissertation first addresses the power output limits. The particular strategies for enabling high power output investigated in this dissertation focus on avoiding five critical limits that either damage an engine, drastically reduce efficiency, or drastically increase emissions: (1) ringing limits, (2) peak in-cylinder pressure limits, (3) misfire limits, (4) low intake temperature limits, and (5) excessive emissions limits. The research shows that the key factors that enable high power output, sufficient for passenger vehicles, while simultaneously avoiding the five limits defined above are the use of: (1) high intake air pressures allowing improved power output, (2) highly delayed combustion timing to avoid ringing limits, and (3) using the highest possible equivalence ratio before encountering ringing limits. These results are revealed by conducting extensive experiments spanning a wide range of operating conditions on a multi-cylinder HCCI engine. Second, this dissertation discusses strategies for effectively sensing combustion characteristics on a HCCI engine. For effective feedback control of HCCI combustion timing, a sensor is required to quantify when combustion occurs. Many laboratory engines use in-cylinder pressure sensors but these sensors are currently prohibitively expensive for wide-scale commercialization. Instead, ion sensors made from inexpensive sparkplugs

  3. Land use/land cover change and their effects on landscape patterns in the Yanqi Basin, Xinjiang (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuixian; Wang, Shengli

    2013-12-01

    Human modification of land use and land cover change (LUCC) drives the change of landscape patterns and limits the availability of products and services for human and livestock. LUCC can undermine environmental health. Thus, this study aimed to develop an understanding of LUCC in the Yanqi Basin, Xinjiang, China, an arid area experiencing dramatic water and land resource use. A time series of satellite images (1964, 1973, 1989, 1999, and 2009) were used to calculate the index of landscape patterns to study the processes involved in changes to land uses and landscape patterns and the influence of this changes on landscape patterns. The results show that land uses in the Yanqi Basin have changed dramatically since 1964 with grassland being mainly converted to cropland. Landscape fragmentation and diversity have decreased in the study area, although landscape fragmentation increased from 1964 to 1999 and then decreased by 2009. The index of landscape diversity decreased from 1.64 in 1964 to 0.71 in 2009. The heterogeneity and complexity of the landscape increased during this period. In contrast, the index of dominance decreased from 0.85 in 1964 to 0.83 in 2009. Land use change drives landscape patterns of the development of the watershed toward diversity and a fragmented structure. Population growth, economic development, and industrial policies were the dominant driving forces behind LUCC in the Yanqi Basin. Sustainable use of land resources is a significant factor in maintaining economic development and environmental protection in this arid inland river basin.

  4. Effect of inspiration on airway dimensions measured in maximal inspiration CT images of subjects without airflow limitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Wille, Mathilde M.W.; Raket, Lars Lau

    2014-01-01

    . Automated software was utilized to segment lungs and airways, identify segmental bronchi, and match airway branches in all images of the same subject. Inspiration level was defined as segmented total lung volume (TLV) divided by predicted total lung capacity (pTLC). Mixed-effects models were used to predict...... relative change in lumen diameter (ALD) and wall thickness (AWT) in airways of generation 0 (trachea) to 7 and segmental bronchi (R1-R10 and L1-L10) from relative changes in inspiration level. RESULTS: Relative changes in ALD were related to relative changes in TLV/pTLC, and this distensibility increased...... with generation (p TLC in generation 3--7 (p 

  5. Maximizing the Hydrogen Photoproduction Yields in Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii Cultures: The Effect of the H2 Partial Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosourov, S. N.; Batyrova, K. A.; Petushkova, E. P.; Tsygankov, A. A.; Ghirardi, M. L.; Seibert, M.

    2012-05-01

    Photoproduction of H{sub 2} gas has been examined in sulfur/phosphorus-deprived Chalmydomonas reinhardtii cultures, placed in photobioreactors (PhBRs) with different gas phase to liquid phase ratios (V{sub g.p.}/V{sub l.p.}). The results demonstrate that an increase in the ratio stimulates H{sub 2} photoproduction activity in both algal suspension cultures and in algae entrapped in thin alginate films. In suspension cultures, a 4x increase (from {approx}0.5 to {approx}2) in V{sub g.p.}/V{sub l.p} results in a 2x increase (from 10.8 to 23.1 mmol l{sup -1} or 264-565 ml l{sup -1}) in the total yield of H{sub 2} gas. Remarkably, 565 ml of H{sub 2} gas per liter of the suspension culture is the highest yield ever reported for a wild-type strain in a time period of less than 190 h. In immobilized algae, where diffusion of H{sub 2} from the medium to the PhBR gas phase is not affected by mixing, the maximum rate and yield of H{sub 2} photoproduction occur in PhBRs with V{sub g.p.}/V{sub l.p} above 7 or in a PhBR with smaller headspace, if the H{sub 2} is effectively removed from the medium by continuous flushing of the headspace with argon. These experiments in combination with studies of the direct inhibitory effect of high H{sub 2} concentrations in the PhBR headspace on H{sub 2} photoproduction activity in algal cultures clearly show that H{sub 2} photoproduction in algae depends significantly on the partial pressure of H{sub 2} (not O{sub 2} as previously thought) in the PhBR gas phase.

  6. Maximizing allele detection: Effects of analytical threshold and DNA levels on rates of allele and locus drop-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakay, Christine A; Bregu, Joli; Grgicak, Catherine M

    2012-12-01

    Interpretation of DNA evidence depends upon the ability of the analyst to accurately compare the DNA profile obtained from an item of evidence and the DNA profile of a standard. This interpretation becomes progressively more difficult as the number of 'drop-out' and 'drop-in' events increase. Analytical thresholds (AT) are typically selected to ensure the false detection of noise is minimized. However, there exists a tradeoff between the erroneous labeling of noise as alleles and the false non-detection of alleles (i.e. drop-out). In this study, the effect ATs had on both types of error was characterized. Various ATs were tested, where three relied upon the analysis of baseline signals obtained from 31 negative samples. The fourth AT was determined by utilizing the relationship between RFU signal and DNA input. The other ATs were the commonly employed 50, 150 and 200 RFU thresholds. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) plots showed that although high ATs completely negated the false labeling of noise, DNA analyzed with ATs derived using analysis of the baseline signal exhibited the lowest rates of drop-out and the lowest total error rates. In another experiment, the effect small changes in ATs had on drop-out was examined. This study showed that as the AT increased from ∼10 to 60 RFU, the number of heterozygous loci exhibiting the loss of one allele increased. Between ATs of 60 and 150 RFU, the frequency of allelic drop-out remained constant at 0.27 (±0.02) and began to decrease when ATs of 150 RFU or greater were utilized. In contrast, the frequency of heterozygous loci exhibiting the loss of both alleles consistently increased with AT. In summary, for samples amplified with less than 0.5ng of DNA, ATs derived from baseline analysis of negatives were shown to decrease the frequency of drop-out by a factor of 100 without significantly increasing rates of erroneous noise detection.

  7. Assessing land use and cover change effects on hydrological response in the river C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A.

    2009-04-01

    runoff plots (8×2 m) that drain to a modified Gerlach trough. Regarding the hydrological analysis at basin scale, a study of the temporal evolution of the monthly and annual discharges (Dam3) was made at two measuring stations, between 1956 and 1999. During this period the river was not subjected to the effects of large reservoir and its data on discharges can be considered representative of the natural functioning under a natural regimen. After 2000, the Côa river functioning was submitted to the effect of a large dam. For the analysis of temperatures and precipitation, the monthly and annual series recorded between 1956 and 1999 were used. To check the degree of significance of the trend with a certain level of confidence and to detect correlations among observed variables, a non-parametric test and Pearson coefficient were applied. The obtained results show that an important increase occurred on plant covers between 1960 and 2000; scrub plant communities became the most extensive land cover and the most important vegetation type. When a permanent vegetated cover is dominant surface runoff are very well controlled at plot scale. The major part of rainfall is infiltrated. On a catchment scale, the temporal evolution of the annual discharges has been negative and statistically significant (p-value < 0.05). The correlation coefficient between rainfall and discharges was quite significant for the studied period, which means that river discharges are very sensitive to rainfall amount. Nevertheless, the relationship between the variables seems to have a significant change throughout the analysed period, which is confirmed by the observation of temporal trend in residuals, the product of the year-by-year correlation between rainfall and discharge, and time. In general, residuals behaviour are clearly positive before the 80`s and negative after this date. This temporal variability could be related with changes occurred in land use and land cover.

  8. Land Breeze and Thermals: A Scale Threshold to Distinguish Their Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Land breeze is a type of mesoscale circulation developed due to thermal forcing over a heterogeneous landscape. It can contribute to atmospheric dynamic and hydrologic processes through affecting heat and water fluxes on the land-atmosphere interface and generating shallow convective precipitation. If the scale of the landscape heterogeneity is smaller than a certain size, however, the resulting land breeze becomes weak and becomes mixed up with other thermal convections like thermals. This study seeks to identify a scale threshold to distinguish the effects between land breeze and thermals. Two-dimensional simulations were performed with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) to simulate thermals and land breeze. Their horizontal scale features were analyzed using the wavelet transform. The thermals developed over a homogeneous landscape under dry or wet conditions have an initial scale of 2-5 km during their early stage of development. The scale jumps to 10-15 km when condensation occurs. The solution of an analytical model indicates that the reduced degree of atmospheric instability due to the release of condensation potential heat could be one of the contributing factors for the increase in scale.The land breeze, on the other hand, has a major scale identical to the size of the landscape heterogeneity throughout various stages of development. The results suggest that the effects of land breeze can be clearly distinguished from those of thermals only if the size of the landscape heterogeneity is larger than the scale threshold of about 5 km for dry atmospheric processes or about 15 km for moist ones.

  9. Inter-regional comparison of land-use effects on stream metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernot, M.J.; Sobota, D.J.; Hall, R.O.; Mulholland, P.J.; Dodds, W.K.; Webster, J.R.; Tank, J.L.; Ashkenas, L.R.; Cooper, L.W.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Gregory, S.V.; Grimm, N. B.; Hamilton, S.K.; Johnson, S.L.; McDowell, W.H.; Meyer, J.L.; Peterson, B.; Poole, G.C.; Maurice, Valett H.M.; Arango, C.; Beaulieu, J.J.; Burgin, A.J.; Crenshaw, C.; Helton, A.M.; Johnson, L.; Merriam, J.; Niederlehner, B.R.; O'Brien, J. M.; Potter, J.D.; Sheibley, R.W.; Thomas, S.M.; Wilson, K.

    2010-01-01

    control pathways including a direct effect of land-use on GPP as well as SRP, DIN, and PAR effects on GPP; GPP effects on autotrophic biomass, organic matter, and ER; and organic matter effects on ER.6. Overall, consideration of the data separated by land-use categories showed reduced inter-regional variability in rates of metabolism, indicating that the influence of agricultural and urban land use can obscure regional differences in stream metabolism. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Regional Climate Enterprises in the South Central U.S.: Crossover Relationships to Maximize User Engagement Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, M. A.; Shafer, M.; Bartush, B.; Brown, D. P.

    2016-12-01

    Several Federal agencies have recently established regional enterprises that provide climate science and services. These include DOI's Climate Science Centers (CSCs), USDA's Regional Climate Hubs (Hubs), DOI's Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs), and NOAA's Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments Programs (RISAs), all of which have missions that include translating climate information for various constituencies and user groups. Each of these organizations makes a unique contribution to the regional climate services landscape; however, the potential for duplication of effort is also present. To ensure that appropriate levels of programmatic coordination are taking place, these entities have developed roles and relationships that crossover between organizations. These efforts have typically not been formally codified or prescribed; rather, they have developed organically and effectively in a fashion appropriate for the regional context. In this presentation, both advantages and disadvantages of this approach are addressed via examples from the South Central U.S. Advantages include flexibility and the development of extensive, multi-disciplinary networks; disadvantages include the lack of a holistic approach to oversight and planning. Best practices and opportunities to continue strengthening cross-organizational regional efficiencies are also highlighted.

  11. The effects of minimal length and maximal momentum on the transition rate of ultra cold neutrons in gravitational field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedram, Pouria; Nozari, Kourosh; Taheri, S. H.

    2011-03-01

    The existence of a minimum observable length and/or a maximum observable momentum is in agreement with various candidates of quantum gravity such as string theory, loop quantum gravity, doubly special relativity and black hole physics. In this scenario, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle is changed to the so-called Generalized (Gravitational) Uncertainty Principle (GUP) which results in modification of all Hamiltonians in quantum mechanics. In this paper, following a recently proposed GUP which is consistent with quantum gravity theories, we study the quantum mechanical systems in the presence of both a minimum length and a maximum momentum. The generalized Hamiltonian contains two additional terms which are proportional to αp 3 and α 2 p 4 where α ˜ 1 /M Pl c is the GUP parameter. For the case of a quantum bouncer, we solve the generalized Schrödinger equation in the momentum space and find the modified energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions up to the second-order in GUP parameter. The effects of the GUP on the transition rate of ultra cold neutrons in gravitational spectrometers are discussed finally.

  12. Effects of fatty acid provision during severe hypoxia on routine and maximal performance of the in situ tilapia heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speers-Roesch, Ben; Lague, Sabine L; Farrell, Anthony P; Richards, Jeffrey G

    2013-08-01

    The ability to maintain stable cardiac function during environmental hypoxia exposure is crucial for hypoxia tolerance in animals and depends upon the maintenance of cardiac energy balance as well as the state of the heart's extracellular environment (e.g., availability of metabolic fuels). Hypoxic depression of plasma [non-esterified fatty acids] (NEFA), an important cardiac aerobic fuel, is a common response in many species of hypoxia-tolerant fishes, including tilapia. We tested the hypothesis that decreased plasma [NEFA] is important for maintaining stable cardiac function during and following hypoxia exposure, based on the premise that continued reliance upon cardiac fatty acid metabolism under such conditions could impair cardiac function. We examined the effect of severe hypoxia exposure (PO2 tilapia heart under conditions of routine (400 μmol L(-1)) and low (75 μmol L(-1)) [palmitate], which mimicked the in vivo levels of plasma [NEFA] found in normoxic and hypoxic tilapia, respectively. Under both concentrations of palmitate, the in situ tilapia heart showed exceptional hypoxic performance as a result of a high maximum glycolytic potential, confirming our previous results using a perfusate without fatty acids. We additionally provide evidence suggesting that non-contractile ATP demand is depressed in tilapia heart during hypoxia exposure. Cardiac performance during and following severe hypoxia exposure was unaffected by the level of palmitate. Thus, we conclude that hypoxic depression of plasma [NEFA] in fishes does not play a role in cardiac hypoxia tolerance.

  13. How Does Land Development Promote China’s Urban Economic Growth? The Mediating Effect of Public Infrastructure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xianwei Fan; Dan Zheng; Minjun Shi

    2016-01-01

    Although substantial studies emphasized the close relationship among land development, public infrastructure, and urban economic growth, the mediating effect of public infrastructure remains unexplored...

  14. The role of potassium BK channels in anticonvulsant effect of cannabidiol in pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock models of seizure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi-zand, Zahra; Ahmad-Molaei, Leila; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Naderi, Nima

    2013-07-01

    Cannabidiol is a nonpsychoactive member of phytocannabinoids that produces various pharmacological effects that are not mediated through putative CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptors and their related effectors. In this study, we examined the effect of the i.c.v. administration of potassium BK channel blocker paxilline alone and in combination with cannabidiol in protection against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)- and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure in mice. In the PTZ-induced seizure model, i.c.v. administration of cannabidiol caused a significant increase in seizure threshold compared with the control group. Moreover, while i.c.v. administration of various doses of paxilline did not produce significant change in the PTZ-induced seizure threshold in mice, coadministration of cannabidiol and paxilline attenuated the antiseizure effect of cannabidiol in PTZ-induced tonic seizures. In the MES model of seizure, both cannabidiol and paxilline per se produced significant increase in percent protection against electroshock-induced seizure. However, coadministration of cannabidiol and paxilline did not produce significant interaction in their antiseizure effect in the MES test. The results of the present study showed a protective effect of cannabidiol in both PTZ and MES models of seizure. These results suggested a BK channel-mediated antiseizure action of cannabidiol in PTZ model of seizure. However, such an interaction might not exist in MES-induced convulsion.

  15. Characterization of endophytic fungi from Acer ginnala Maxim. in an artificial plantation: media effect and tissue-dependent variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenghui Qi

    Full Text Available The community of endophytic fungi associated with Acer ginnala, a common tree in northeastern China, was investigated. Four media, PDA, Czapek's, WA and Sabouraud's, were used to inoculate explants from seeds, annual twigs and perennial twigs (xylem and bark. Media strongly affected the isolated species number, but not colonization frequency (CF or isolation frequency (IF. To investigate media effect further, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA was done. As a result, two components accounted for 86.502% of the total variance were extracted. These two components were named as PDA-determined factor (accounted for 45.139% of the total variance and Czapek's-determined factor (accounted for 41.363% of the total variance, respectively. This result suggested that only two media, PDA and Czapek's, could be used instead of all four media in this study without affecting the isolation results significantly. In total, ten taxa were isolated in this study. Alternaria sp., Phomopsis sp., Neurospora sp. and Phoma sp. were dominant endophytes while Pleosporales Incertae Sedis sp., Cladosporium sp., Trichoderma sp. and Epicoccum sp. were rare taxa. Different tissues/organs had different endophyte assemblages. All tissue/organ pairs had low Bray-Curtis indices (<0.3 except for bark and annual twigs (0.63. Compared to perennial twigs, annual twigs had a lower taxon number, lower isolate number, lower endophyte dominance and diversity indices. Seeds had distinct assemblage, lower similarity and similar low diversity indices to annual twigs. These results suggested that tissue type determines the endophyte assemblage while age determines the diversity.

  16. HEMI: Hyperedge Majority Influence Maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Gangal, Varun; Narayanam, Ramasuri

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we consider the problem of influence maximization on a hypergraph. We first extend the Independent Cascade (IC) model to hypergraphs, and prove that the traditional influence maximization problem remains submodular. We then present a variant of the influence maximization problem (HEMI) where one seeks to maximize the number of hyperedges, a majority of whose nodes are influenced. We prove that HEMI is non-submodular under the diffusion model proposed.

  17. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...... with 30% (v/v) ethanol or saline, respectively. Relative viscosity was used as one measure of physical properties of the emulsion. Higher degrees of sensitization (but not rates) were obtained at the 48 h challenge reading with the oil/propylene glycol and oil/saline + ethanol emulsions compared...... to the saline/oil emulsion. Placing of the challenge patches affected the response, as simultaneous chlorocresol challenge on the flank located 2 cm closer to the abdomen than the usual challenge site gave decreased reactions....

  18. Revaluating US Land Ownership and Management in Order to Effectively Combat Soil Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drohan, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Land privatization has resulted throughout history in: a variety of governance types; wealth imbalances; fluctuating degrees of food production; industrialization; and the privatization of intellectual ideas/property. USA government strategies to combat soil degradation have in large been reactive and driven by land privatization and the entrepreneurial nature of the US economy, especially agriculture. This has led to boom and bust cycles of agriculture and soil resilience. Further straining the capability to combat soil degradation are weaknesses in land management legislation due to separation of federal and state law and unfunded mandates. Last, the sheer size of the United States may be its greatest weakness in effectively developing a coherent national soil degradation policy. The recent failure of the European Soil Directive emphasizes the continual struggle between land privatization, food production, and the generation of wealth. We suggest several new strategies to combat USA soil degradation based on existing and new land management schemes, which have the potential to more effectively buffer the unpredictable future of increasing population and climate change.

  19. The Effect of Menstrual Cycle and 6% ‍‍Carbohydrate Beverage Consumption on Maximal Physical Performance in Active Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Samavati Sharif

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Women during their lifetime experience a variety of physiological changes that can affect their physiological capacity to perform exercise and induce reduction in achieving the benefits of training. So, finding the best time to perform maximum physical performance is essential. Sports drink consumption can also help to enhance athletic performance. The purpose of this study is to determine the best time to perform the maximum physical performance and the effect of sports drink on exercise capacity in active young women. Materials & Methods: 22 female students with at least 2 years experience in regular aerobic exercise, voluntarily participated in this clinical trial study and were randomly divided into control group (no supplement and intervention group (drinking sports drink. The physical performance was evaluated in two periods of early and late follicular phases.The data was analyzed by statistical tests and spss16 software. Results: In the early follicular phase compared with the late follicular phase, Vo2max significantly decreased in the control group (P=0.02, There was a significant difference between the two groups in the Vo2max during the early follicular phase (P=0.03. Resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were not significantly different between the groups and different phases (P>0.05. Contrary to the intervention group, the first and third minute recovery heart rates in the control group significantly increased in the early follicular phase compared with the late follicular phase (Respectively, P= 0.016,P=0.043, and compared with the intervention group, the first and third minute recovery heart rates significantly increased during the early follicular phase (Respectively, P= 0.021, P=0.025. Recovery systolic and diastolic blood pressure were not statistically significant between the two groups, and each group in different phases (P>0.05. Conclusion: Late follicular phase compared to

  20. Grazing impacts on the susceptibility of rangelands to wind erosion: The effects of stocking rate, stocking strategy and land condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubault, Hélène; Webb, Nicholas P.; Strong, Craig L.; McTainsh, Grant H.; Leys, John F.; Scanlan, Joe C.

    2015-06-01

    An estimated 110 Mt of dust is eroded by wind from the Australian land surface each year, most of which originates from the arid and semi-arid rangelands. Livestock production is thought to increase the susceptibility of the rangelands to wind erosion by reducing vegetation cover and modifying surface soil stability. However, research is yet to quantify the impacts of grazing land management on the erodibility of the Australian rangelands, or determine how these impacts vary among land types and over time. We present a simulation analysis that links a pasture growth and animal production model (GRASP) to the Australian Land Erodibility Model (AUSLEM) to evaluate the impacts of stocking rate, stocking strategy and land condition on the erodibility of four land types in western Queensland, Australia. Our results show that declining land condition, over stocking, and using inflexible stocking strategies have potential to increase land erodibility and amplify accelerated soil erosion. However, land erodibility responses to grazing are complex and influenced by land type sensitivities to different grazing strategies and local climate characteristics. Our simulations show that land types which are more resilient to livestock grazing tend to be least susceptible to accelerated wind erosion. Increases in land erodibility are found to occur most often during climatic transitions when vegetation cover is most sensitive to grazing pressure. However, grazing effects are limited during extreme wet and dry periods when the influence of climate on vegetation cover is strongest. Our research provides the opportunity to estimate the effects of different land management practices across a range of land types, and provides a better understanding of the mechanisms of accelerated erosion resulting from pastoral activities. The approach could help further assessment of land erodibility at a broader scale notably if combined with wind erosion models.

  1. Modelling the effects of land-use and land-cover change on water availability in the Jordan River region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schaldach

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Within the GLOWA Jordan River project, a first-time overview of the current and possible future land and water conditions of a major part of the Eastern Mediterranean region (ca. 100 000 km2 is given. First, we applied the hydrological model TRAIN to simulate current water availability (runoff and groundwater recharge and irrigation water demand on a 1 km×1 km spatial resolution. The results demonstrate the scarcity of water resources in the study region, with extremely low values of water availability in the semi-arid and arid parts. Then, a set of four divergent scenarios on the future of water has been developed using a stakeholder driven approach. Relevant drivers for land-use/land-cover change were fed into the LandSHIFT.R model to produce land-use and land-cover maps for the different scenarios. These maps were used as input to TRAIN in order to generate scenarios of water availability and irrigation water demand for the region. For this study, two intermediate scenarios were selected, with projected developments ranging between optimistic and pessimistic futures (with regard to social and economic conditions in the region. Given that climate conditions remain unchanged, the simulations show both increases and decreases in water availability, depending on the future pattern of natural and agricultural vegetation and the related dominance of hydrological processes.

  2. Agricultural policy effects on land cover and land use over 30 years in Tartous, Syria, as seen in Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Waad Youssef; Batzli, Sam; Menzel, W. Paul

    2014-01-01

    This study pursues a connection between agricultural policy and the changes in land use and land cover detected with remote sensing satellite data. One part of the study analyzes the Syrian agricultural policy, wherein, certain regional targets have been selected for annual citrus or greenhouse development along with tools of enforcement, support, and monitoring. The second part of the study investigates the utility of remote sensing (RS) and geographical information systems (GIS) to map land use land cover changes (LULC-Cs) in a time series of images from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) from 1987, 1998, 2006, and 2010 and Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) from 1999 to 2002. Several multispectral band analyses have been performed to determine the most suitable band combinations for isolating greenhouses and citrus farms. Supervised classification with maximum likelihood classifier has been used to produce precise land use land cover map. This research demonstrates that spatial relationship between LULC-Cs and agricultural policies can be determined through a science-based GIS/RS application to a time series of satellite images taken at the same time of the implemented policy.

  3. Soil conditions and land use intensification effects on soil microbial communities across a range of European field sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomson, Bruce C.; Tisserant, Emilie; Plassart, Pierre; Uroz, Stéphane; Griffiths, Rob I.; Hannula, S. Emilia; Buée, Marc; Mougel, Christophe; Ranjard, Lionel; Van Veen, Johannes A.; Martin, Francis; Bailey, Mark J.; Lemanceau, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intensive land use practices necessary for providing food and raw materials are known to have a deleterious effect on soil. However, the effects such practices have on soil microbes are less well understood. To investigate the effects of land use intensification on soil microbial communitie

  4. Economic effects of western Federal land-use restrictions on U.S. coal markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, William Downing; Medlin, A.L.; Krohn, K.K.; Brookshire, D.S.; Bernknopf, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Current regulations on land use in the Western United States affect access to surface minable coal resources. This U.S. Geological Survey study analyzes the long-term effects of Federal land-use restrictions on the national cost of meeting future coal demands. The analysis covers 45 years. The U.S. Bureau of Land Management has determined the environmental, aesthetic, and economic values of western Federal coal lands and has set aside certain areas from surface coal mining to protect other valued land uses, including agricultural, environmental, and aesthetic uses. Although there are benefits to preserving natural areas and to developing areas for other land uses, these restrictions produce long-term national and regional costs that have not been estimated previously. The Dynamic Coal Allocation Model integrates coal supply (coal resource tonnage and coal quality by mining cost for 60 coal supply regions) with coal demand (in 243 regions) for the entire United States. The model makes it possible to evaluate the regional economic impacts of coal supply restrictions wherever they might occur in the national coal market. The main factors that the economic methodology considers are (1) coal mining costs, (2) coal transportation costs, (3) coal flue gas desulfurization costs, (4) coal demand, (5) regulations to control sulfur dioxide discharges, and (6) specific reductions in coal availability occurring as a result of land-use restrictions. The modeling system combines these economic factors with coal deposit quantity and quality information--which is derived from the U.S. Geological Survey's National Coal Resources Data System and the U.S. Department of Energy's Demonstrated Reserve Base--to determine a balance between supply and demand so that coal is delivered at minimum cost.

  5. Effects of anthropogenic land-subsidence on inundation dynamics: the case study of Ravenna, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carisi, Francesca; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio

    2016-05-01

    Can differential land-subsidence significantly alter river flooding dynamics, and thus flood risk in flood prone areas? Many studies show how the lowering of the coastal areas is closely related to an increase in the flood-hazard due to more important tidal flooding and see level rise. The literature on the relationship between differential land-subsidence and possible alterations to riverine flood-hazard of inland areas is still sparse, although several geographical areas characterized by significant land-subsidence rates during the last 50 years experienced intensification in both inundation magnitude and frequency. We investigate the possible impact of a significant differential ground lowering on flood hazard over a 77 km2 area around the city of Ravenna, in Italy. The rate of land-subsidence in the study area, naturally in the order of a few mm year-1, dramatically increased up to 110 mm year-1 after World War II, primarily due to groundwater pumping and gas production platforms. The result was a cumulative drop that locally exceeds 1.5 m. Using a recent digital elevation model (res. 5 m) and literature data on land-subsidence, we constructed a ground elevation model over the study area in 1897 and we characterized either the current and the historical DEM with or without road embankments and land-reclamation channels in their current configuration. We then considered these four different topographic models and a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model to simulate and compare the inundation dynamics associated with a levee failure scenario along embankment system of the river Montone, which flows eastward in the southern portion of the study area. For each topographic model, we quantified the flood hazard in terms of maximum water depth (h) and we compared the actual effects on flood-hazard dynamics of differential land-subsidence relative to those associated with other man-made topographic alterations, which resulted to be much more significant.

  6. Investigating the Effects of Hanna Dam Construction on Long-Term Land Use/ Cover Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hadian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Hana’s dam (constructed in 1996 on land use and cover changes using Landsat satellite images. Three images over 35 years (taken in 1976, 1998, and 2011 were obtained and geometric, atmospheric and topographic corrections were applied. The dam’s affected area was selected based on the interpretation of satellite imagery and local expert knowledge. Maximum likelihood and post-classification techniques were used to detect land use/ cover changes and their accuracy then was assessed using field works. The overall classification accuracy and Kappa statistics for all the maps were more than 83% and 79%, respectively. The classification map of year 1998 indicated that about 703 hectares of rangelands and agricultural lands were destroyed due to Hanna dam construction. In year 1998, the agricultural irrigated lands increased about100% due to Hanna dam construction in 1996 but in 2011 their extent decreased up to 69% and 36% in comparison with year 1998 and 1976, respectively. There was also a decrease about 10 percent in rangeland land use from 1976 (195906 ha to 2011 (176827ha. The results of 2011 classified map revealed that 425 hectares of the water reservoir has changed to bare land because of severe drought conditions and over-exploitation in recent years. Overall, the results confirmed that in a short period of time after dam construction, the extent of agricultural irrigated lands has been increased, but a sharp decline was observed in agricultural areas after 15 years which can be as a result of population growth and water consumption in residential, commercial and industrial sectors in the region.

  7. [Effects of China future land use change on aboveground vegetation biomass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Fang; Yue, Tian-Xiang

    2012-08-01

    Land use change has significant effects on vegetation biomass via altering ecosystem structure. By adopting a spatially explicit land use change model, this paper simulated the spatiotemporal pattern of land use change in China till 2030, based on the historical scenario (in this scenario, the land use trend in 1988-2005 was extrapolated to obtain the area of each land use type in the future) and the planned scenario (in this scenario, the area of each land use type in the future was based on the national scale land use planning). On the basis of this simulation and using a biomass density approach, the spatial pattern of vegetation biomass change in China was estimated. The simulation showed that under the historical scenario, the forest area would be decreased but the forest age would be in adverse, and accordingly, the forest biomass density would have an increase. Till 2030, the overall vegetation biomass in China would be 14619 Tg, with an increase of 251.19 Tg as compared to the situation in 2005. Under the planned scenario, the forest area would be increased, and the overall vegetation biomass in 2030 would be 15468 Tg, with an increase of 1100 Tg as compared to the situation in 2005. In the planned scenario, the planted forest area would be larger while the forest age would be younger, resulting in a much lower vegetation biomass density in 2030 than that in the historical scenario, and thus, the China's vegetation in the planned scenario would have a higher potential to act as a carbon sink.

  8. The effects of sewer infrastructure on water quality: implications for land use studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrebos, Dirk; Staes, Jan; Meire, Patrick

    2010-05-01

    The European Water Framework Directive requires a good ecological status of the European water bodies and the necessary measures to obtain this have to be implemented. The water quality of a river is the result of complex anthropogenic systems (buildings, waste water treatment infrastructure, regulations, etc.) and biogeochemical and eco-hydrological interactions. It is therefore essential to obtain more insight in the factors that determine the water quality in a river. Research into the relation between land use and water quality is necessary. Human activities have a huge impact on the flow regimes and associated water quality of river systems. Effects of land use bound activities on water quality are often investigated, but these studies generally ignore the hydrological complexity of a human influenced catchment. Infrastructure like sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) can displace huge quantities of polluted water. The transfers change flow paths, displace water between catchments and change the residence time of the system. If we want to correctly understand the effect of land use distribution on water quality we have to take these sewer systems into account. In this study we analyse the relation between land use and water quality in the Nete catchment (Belgium) and investigate the impact of the sewage infrastructure on this relation. The Nete catchment (1.673 km²) is a mosaic of semi natural, agricultural and urbanized areas and the land use is very fragmented. For the moment 74% of the households within the catchment are connected to a WWTP. The discharges from these WWTP's compose 15% of the total discharge of the Nete. Based on a runoff model the surface of upstream land use was calculated for 378 points. These data were then corrected for the impact of WWTP's. Using sewage infrastructure plans, urban areas connected to a WWTP were added to the upstream land use of the WWTP's water receiving stream. In order to understand the effect of

  9. 7 CFR 1955.145 - Land acquisition to effect sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955... necessary to effect sale of inventory real property. This action must be considered only on a case-by-case...

  10. [Effects of Different Land Uses on Soil Active Organic Carbon and Nitrogen Fractions in Jinyun Mountain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xin; Jiang, Chang-sheng; Hao, Qing-ju; Li, Jian-lin

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we take Jinyun Mountain where located in Beibei district of Chongqing as the research object and explore the effect of different ways of land use on soil active organic carbon, nitrogen components by collecting the soil samples from 0 to 60 cm depth in subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest (hereinafter referred to as the forest), abandoned land, orchard, farmland and measuring the content of MBC, MBN, DOC and DON. The research results show that the contents of soil MBC, MBN, DOC, DON are reduced with the increase of soil depth in four types of land using soils. Variance analysis of the single factor shows that four kinds of land uses have no significant difference in the contents of MBC, MBN and DON, but the DOC content of the abandoned land is significantly higher than that of other three kinds. It shows that the different ways of land use have no obvious effects on soil MBC, MBN and DON but the abandonment of slope cropland can significantly increase the content of soil DOC. There is no significant difference among the distribution ratio of MBN, DOC, DON in forest, abandoned land, orchard and farmland within the soil from 0 to 60 cm, but the distribution ratio of slope MBC is significantly higher than that of other three kinds. It means farmland soil organic carbon has a higher biological activity, this could due to the application of green manure, farmland manure and other organic fertilizers. Under different land utilizations, DOC/DON is the highest, MBC/MBN is the second, and SOC/TN is the lowest. It means the biological solidification of dissolved organic matter is the strongest, and the mineralization of soil organic matter is the most obvious. Under the four kinds of land uses, there are the lowest ratios in SOC/TN, MBC/MBN and DOC/DON in the farmland. And all the ratios are less than 20, which suggest that the mineralization of farmland soil organic matter is stronger and it's easy to cause the loss of soil carbon.

  11. How Does Land Development Promote China’s Urban Economic Growth? The Mediating Effect of Public Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Xianwei Fan; Dan Zheng; Minjun Shi

    2016-01-01

    Although substantial studies emphasized the close relationship among land development, public infrastructure, and urban economic growth, the mediating effect of public infrastructure remains unexplored. Using panel data of 253 prefecture-level Chinese cities from 1999 to 2012, we empirically conduct a mediating effect analysis to examine how land development promotes urban economic growth. It is found that land development has a positive impact on public infrastructure, whereas the constructi...

  12. Ways to maximize effective collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Tracy L

    2009-01-01

    Medical practices across the country face a variety of collection challenges, especially when considering the condition of today's economy. It is now more important than ever for a practice to establish proactive collection procedures and learn the keys to minimizing collection problems. This starts with educating patients about your payment terms prior to appointments and educating your staff to be aware of early warning signs when an account could become a problem. Taking steps that lead to quick resolution, while retaining patients, is a vital component to increased cash flow and fewer aging accounts in receivables. Careful review of your practice's policies on billing and collections can lead to a greater knowledge on how healthy the practice really is. This article provides key strategies that will help streamline your billing and collections process and recover money owed to you while maintaining those ever so important patient relationships.

  13. Instruments of Enhancing the Effectiveness of State Regulation of Land -lease Relations in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Pomaza-Ponomarenko Alina Leonidovna

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing the effectiveness of state regulation of the land lease relations is an actual problem for Ukraine, which is proposed to solve through the involvement of civil society institutions. In this regard, the elements of public evaluation results of public authorities` operation in the said sphere have been determined.

  14. Adaptation: Planning for climate change and its effects on federal lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie Oliver; David L. Peterson; Michael J. Furniss

    2012-01-01

    National forest managers are charged with tackling the effects of climate change on the natural resources under their care. The Forest Service National Roadmap for Responding to Climate Change and the Climate Change Performance Scorecard require managers to make significant progress in addressing climate change by 2015. To help land managers meet this challenge,...

  15. Effect of vegetation manipulation of abandoned arable land on soil microbial properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maly, S.; Korthals, G.W.; Van Dijk, C.; Van der Putten, W.H.; De Boer, W.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of vegetation composition on various soil microbial properties in abandoned arable land was investigated 2 years after agricultural practice had terminated. Microbial numbers and processes were determined in five replicate plots of each of the following treatments: continued agricultural

  16. Satellite detection of land-use change and effects on regional forest aboveground biomass estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daolan Zheng; Linda S. Heath; Mark J. Ducey

    2008-01-01

    We used remote-sensing-driven models to detect land-cover change effects on forest aboveground biomass (AGB) density (Mg·ha−1, dry weight) and total AGB (Tg) in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan USA, between the years 1992-2001, and conducted an evaluation of the approach. Inputs included remotely-sensed 1992 reflectance data...

  17. Sensitive indicators of side-effects of pesticides on the epigeal fauna of arable land.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible impact of pesticides on epigeal arthropods in arable land. It was also envisaged to develop a predictive model for possible undesirable effects of pesticides on the epigeal arthropod fauna using an indicator species from the field.

  18. Sensitive indicators of side-effects of pesticides on the epigeal fauna of Arable land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible impact of pesticides on epigeal arthropods in arable land. It was also envisaged to develop a predictive model for possible undesirable effects of pesticides on the epigeal arthropod fauna using an indicator species from

  19. The global land shortwave cryosphere radiative effect during the MODIS era

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The shortwave cryosphere radiative effect (CrRE) is the instantaneous influence of snow and ice cover on Earth's top-of-atmosphere (TOA) solar energy budget. Here, we apply measurements from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), combined with microwave retrievals of snow presence and radiative kernels produced from four different models, to derive CrRE over global land during 2001–2013. We estimate global annual-mean land CrRE during this period of −2.6 W m...

  20. Plume aerodynamic effects of cushion engine in lunar landing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Bijiao; He Xiaoying; Zhang Mingxing; Cai Guobiao

    2013-01-01

    During the second period of China “Tanyue” Project,the explorer will softland on the moon.The cushion engines are used to decelerate the explorer and reduce the impact on the lunar ground.It is necessary to study its plume effects on the explorer component.The self-developed PWS (Plume WorkStation) software based on direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is used to simulate the plume effects of two 150 N engines.Due to the complex structure of the explorer,PWS uses a decoupling method to treat the boundary mesh,which mainly interacts with simulation particles,and has no relation with the computational grids.After the analytical expressions of plane surfaces and curved surfaces of each boundary block are given,the particle position within or without the boundary blocks can be easily determined.Finally the 3D plume field of two 150 N engines is simulated.The pressure,temperature and velocity distributions of plume field are clearly presented by three characteristic slices.The aerodynamic effects on the explorer bottom,the landfall legs and antenna are separately shown.The compression influence on the plume flow of four landfall legs can be observed.

  1. The effect of land use change on water quality: A case study in Ciliwung Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayu Permatasari, Prita; Setiawan, Yudi; Nur Khairiah, Rahmi; Effendi, Hefni

    2017-01-01

    Ciliwung is the biggest river in Jakarta. It is 119 km long with a catchment area of 476 km2. It flows from Bogor Regency and crosses Bogor City, Depok City, and Jakarta before finally flowing into Java Sea through Jakarta Bay. The water quality in Ciliwung River has degraded. Many factors affect water quality. Understanding the relationship between land use and surface water quality is necessary for effective water management. It has been widely accepted that there is a close relationship between the land use type and water quality. This study aims to analyze the influence of various land use types on the water quality within the Ciliwung Watershed based on the water quality monitoring data and remote sensing data in 2010 and 2014. Water quality parameters exhibited significant variations between the urban-dominated and forest-dominated sites. The proportion of urban land was strongly positively associated with total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen concentrations. The result can provide scientific reference for the local land use optimization and water pollution control and guidance for the formulation of policies to coordinate the exploitation and protection of the water resource.

  2. Effects of urban land-use on largescale stonerollers in the Mobile River Basin, Birmingham, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Deborah; Black, M.C.; Blazer, Vicki; Zappia, H.; Bryant, Wade L.

    2016-01-01

    During the spring and fall of 2001 and the spring of 2002 a study was conducted to evaluate the health of the largescale stoneroller (Campostoma oligolepis) populations in streams along an urban land-use gradient. Sites were selected from a pool of naturally similar sub-basins (eco-region, basin size, and geology) of the Mobile River basin (MRB), using an index of urban intensity derived from infrastructure, socioeconomic, and land-use data. This urban land-use gradient (ULUG) is a multimetric indicator of urban intensity, ranging from 0 (background) to 100 (intense urbanization). Campostoma sp. have been used previously as indicators of stream health and are common species found in all sites within the MRB. Endpoints used to determine the effects of urban land-use on the largescale stoneroller included total glutathione, histology, hepatic apoptosis, condition factor and external lesions. Liver glutathione levels were positively associated with increasing urban land-use (r2 = 0.94). Histopathological examination determined that some abnormalities and lesions were correlated with the ULUG and generally increased in prevalence or severity with increasing urbanization. Liver macrophage aggregates were positively correlated to the ULUG. The occurrence of nucleosomal ladders (indicating apoptotic cell death) did not correspond with urban intensity in a linear fashion. Apoptosis, as well as prevalence and severity of a myxozoan parasite, appeared to have a hormetic dose–response relationship. The majority of the biomarkers suggested fish health was compromised in areas where the ULUG ≥ 36.

  3. Scale-dependence of land use effects on water quality of streams in agricultural catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Oliver; Niyogi, Dev K; Townsend, Colin R

    2004-07-01

    The influence of land use on water quality in streams is scale-dependent and varies in time and space. In this study, land cover patterns and stocking rates were used as measures of agricultural development in two pasture and one native grassland catchment in New Zealand and were related to water quality in streams of various orders. The amount of pasture per subcatchment correlated well to total nitrogen and nitrate in one catchment and turbidity and total phosphorous in the other catchment. Stocking rates were only correlated to total phosphorous in one pasture catchment but showed stronger correlations to ammonium, total phosphorous and total nitrogen in the other pasture catchment. Winter and spring floods were significant sources of nutrients and faecal coliforms from one of the pasture catchments into a wetland complex. Nutrient and faecal coliform concentrations were better predicted by pastural land cover in fourth-order than in second-order streams. This suggests that upstream land use is more influential in larger streams, while local land use and other factors may be more important in smaller streams. These temporal and spatial scale effects indicate that water-monitoring schemes need to be scale-sensitive.

  4. MAXIMS VIOLATIONS IN LITERARY WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Hanum Sari Pertiwi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was qualitative research action that focuses to find out the flouting of Gricean maxims and the functions of the flouting in the tales which are included in collection of children literature entitled My Giant Treasury of Stories and Rhymes. The objective of the study is generally to identify the violation of maxims of quantity, quality, relevance, and manner in the data sources and also to analyze the use of the flouting in the tales which are included in the book. Qualitative design using categorizing strategies, specifically coding strategy, was applied. Thus, the researcher as the instrument in this investigation was selecting the tales, reading them, and gathering every item which reflects the violation of Gricean maxims based on some conditions of flouting maxims. On the basis of the data analysis, it was found that the some utterances in the tales, both narration and conversation, flouting the four maxims of conversation, namely maxim of quality, maxim of quantity, maxim of relevance, and maxim of manner. The researcher has also found that the flouting of maxims has one basic function that is to encourage the readers’ imagination toward the tales. This one basic function is developed by six others functions: (1 generating specific situation, (2 developing the plot, (3 enlivening the characters’ utterance, (4 implicating message, (5 indirectly characterizing characters, and (6 creating ambiguous setting. Keywords: children literature, tales, flouting maxims

  5. The effects of environmental and socioeconomic factors on land-use changes: a study of Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Xiaofeng; Qiu, Feng; Dyck, Miles

    2016-08-01

    Various environmental and socioeconomic issues have been attributed to land-use changes, and therefore, the underlying mechanisms merit investigation and quantification. This study assesses a comprehensive series of land-use conversions that were implemented over a recent 12-year period in the province of Alberta, Canada, where rapid economic and population growth has occurred. Spatial autocorrelation models are applied to identify the comprehensive effects of environmental and socioeconomic factors in each conversion case. The empirical results show that the impacts of key environmental and socioeconomic factors varied in intensity depending on the type of land-use conversion involved. Overall, land suitability for agricultural uses, road density, elevation, and population growth were found to be significant predictors of land-use changes. High land suitability, low elevation, and moderate road density were associated with land conversion for agricultural purposes.

  6. The effects of container design and stair climbing on maximal acceptable lift weight, wrist posture, psychophysical, and physiological responses in wafer-handling tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, H C; Wang, M J

    2001-12-01

    Despite the high level of automation in semiconductor manufacturing processes, many manual operations are still involved in the workplace. Due to inadequate human-machine interface design, stairs are frequently used to help operators perform wafer-handling tasks. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of climbing stairs and carrying wafer containers (pods) on psychophysical responses (maximal acceptable weight of lift--MAWL, and ratings of perceived exertion--RPE), physiological responses (oxygen consumption--VO2, and heart rate--HR), and wrist posture (ulnar and radial deviations). Each of 12 subjects (six males and six females) performed six sessions (3 climbing stairs x 2 pods types). The results indicate that climbing stairs had a significant influence on MAWL and VO2 (p<0.01). The type of pod effect on wrist posture was significant (p<0.01). Gender effect differences on MAWL, VO2 and wrist posture were also significant (p<0.05). Job design implications are discussed.

  7. Effect of acutely and chronically administered venlafaxine on the anticonvulsant action of classical antiepileptic drugs in the mouse maximal electroshock model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowicz, Kinga K; Gołyska, Dorota; Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J

    2011-11-16

    The influence of acute and chronic treatments with intraperitoneal venlafaxine, a selective serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, on the anticonvulsant activity of selected antiepileptic drugs was studied in the maximal electroshock test in mice. Venlafaxine (12.5 and 25mg/kg), given either acutely or chronically, significantly increased the electroconvulsive threshold. Moreover, both acute and chronic venlafaxine, applied at the highest subprotective dose of 6.25mg/kg, enhanced the anticonvulsant effect of valproate, without affecting the protective action of carbamazepine, phenobarbital and phenytoin. The antidepressant did not affect brain concentration of valproate, indicating that the interaction between the two drugs seems pharmacodynamic in nature. Despite the lack of effect on the antielectroshock action of the remaining antiepileptics, acute venlafaxine increased the brain concentration of phenobarbital, while chronic venlafaxine reduced the brain level of phenytoin. In terms of adverse effects, acute/chronic venlafaxine and antiepileptic drugs alone, as well as their combinations, did not produce significant motor or long-term memory deficits in mice. Summing up, it seems that venlafaxine may be considered as a safe drug for the clinical use in patients with epilepsy and depressive disorders.

  8. Indirect effects of land-use legacies determine tree colonization patterns in abandoned heathland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepfer Rojas, Sebastian; Verheyen, Kris; Johannsen, Vivian Kvist

    2015-01-01

    of tree/shrubs in the heathland. Further, we used high-resolution LiDAR data to classify the vegetation and identify forest patches. In the analysis, we first used a logistic mixed model to test whether colonization of tree and shrub species differed between areas with different land-use history......Questions How do land-use legacies and distance to forest patches influence tree colonization at a post-agricultural heathland? Are colonizing species with different life-history traits affected differently by these factors? Is the effect of increased nutrient availability from land-use legacies...... and whether it was influenced by the distance to forest patches and life-history traits (seed mass) of colonizing species. Then, to determine how different factors influence colonization, we explored the direct and indirect relationships among nutrient availability, density of adult trees, canopy cover, cover...

  9. The effects of land use change and precipitation change on direct runoff in Wei River watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Leihua; Xiong, Lihua; Lall, Upmanu; Wang, Jiwu

    2015-01-01

    The principles and degrees to which land use change and climate change affect direct runoff generation are distinctive. In this paper, based on the MODIS data of land use in 1992 and 2003, the impacts of land use and climate change are explored using the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) method under two defined scenarios. In the first scenario, the precipitation is assumed to be constant, and thus the consequence of land use change could be evaluated. In the second scenario, the condition of land use is assumed to be constant, so the influence only induced by climate change could be assessed. Combining the conclusions of two scenarios, the effects of land use and climate change on direct runoff volume can be separated. At last, it is concluded: for the study basin, the land use types which have the greatest effect on direct runoff generation are agricultural land and water body. For the big sub basins, the effect of land use change is generally larger than that of climate change; for middle and small sub basins, most of them suffer more from land use change than from climate change.

  10. Effects of Explicit Convection on Global Land-atmosphere Coupling in the Superparameterized CAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J.; Pritchard, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Many global climate models are prone to producing land-atmosphere coupling dynamics that are too strong and simplistic. Cumulus and convection parameterizations are natural culprits but the effect of bypassing them with explicitly resolved convection on global land-atmosphere coupling dynamics has not been explored systematically. We apply a suite of modern land-atmosphere coupling diagnostics to isolate the effect of cloud superparameterization (SP) in the Community Atmosphere Model v3.5, focusing on both the land segment (i.e., soil moisture and evapotranspiration relationship) and atmospheric segment (i.e., evapotranspiration and precipitation relationship) in the water pathway of the land-atmosphere feedback loop. Comparing SPCAM3.5 and conventional CAM3.5 in daily timescale, our results show that the Super-Parameterized model reduces the coupling strength in the Central Great Plain in American, and reverses the terrestrial segment coupling sign (from negative to positive) over India. Which are consistent with previous studies and are favorable improvements on the known issues reported in literatures. Analysis of the triggering feedback strength (TFS) and amount feedback strength (AFS) shows that SPCAM3.5 favorably reproduces the patterns of these indices over North America, with probability of afternoon precipitation enhanced by high evaporative fraction along the eastern United States and Mexico, while conventional CAM3.5 does not capture this signal. The links in the soil moisture-precipitation feedback loop are further explored through applying the mixing diagram approach to the diurnal cycles of the land surface and planetary boundary layer variables.

  11. Assessing the effect of agricultural land abandonment on bird communities in southern-eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakkak, Sylvia; Radovic, Andreja; Nikolov, Stoyan C; Shumka, Spase; Kakalis, Lefteris; Kati, Vassiliki

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural land abandonment is recognized as a major environmental threat in Europe, being particularly pronounced in south-eastern Europe, where knowledge on its effects is limited. Taking the Balkan Peninsula as a case study, we investigated agricultural abandonment impact on passerine communities at regional level. We set up a standard methodology for site selection (70 sites) and data collection, along a well-defined forest-encroachment gradient that reflects land abandonment in four countries: Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia and Greece. Regardless the different socio-economic and political histories in the Balkans that led to diverse land abandonment patterns in space and time, rural abandonment had a consistent negative effect on bird communities, while regional-level analysis revealed patterns that were hidden at local level. The general trends were an increase of forest-dwelling bird species at the expense of farmland birds, the decline of overall bird species richness, as well as the decline of Species of European Conservation Concern (SPECs) richness and abundance. Many farmland bird species declined with land abandonment, whereas few forest species benefited from the process. In conclusion, our results support CAP towards hampering rural land abandonment and preserving semi-open rural mosaics in remote upland areas, using a suite of management measures carefully tailored to local needs. The maintenance of traditional rural landscapes should be prioritized in the Balkans, through the timely identification of HNV farmland that is most prone to abandonment. We also suggest that coordinated transnational research is needed, for a better assessment of conservation options in remote rural landscapes at European scale, including the enhancement of wild grazers' populations as an alternative in areas where traditional land management is rather unlikely to be re-established.

  12. A tool to evaluate local biophysical effects on temperature due to land cover change transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugini, Lucia; Caporaso, Luca; Duveiller, Gregory; Cescatti, Alessandro; Abad-Viñas, Raul; Grassi, Giacomo; Quesada, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    Land Cover Changes (LCC) affect local, regional and global climate through biophysical variations of the surface energy budget mediated by albedo, evapotranspiration, and roughness. Assessment of the full climate impacts of anthropogenic LCC are incomplete without considering biophysical effects, but the high level of uncertainties in quantifying their impacts to date have made it impractical to offer clear advice on which policy makers could act. To overcome this barrier, we provide a tool to evaluate the biophysical impact of a matrix of land cover transitions, following a tiered methodological approach similar to the one provided by the IPCC to estimate the biogeochemical effects, i.e. through three levels of methodological complexity, from Tier 1 (i.e. default method and factors) to Tier 3 (i.e. specific methods and factors). In particular, the tool provides guidance for quantitative assessment of changes in temperature following a land cover transition. The tool focuses on temperature for two main reasons (i) it is the main variable of interest for policy makers at local and regional level, and (ii) temperature is able to summarize the impact of radiative and non-radiative processes following LULCC. The potential changes in annual air temperature that can be expected from various land cover transitions are derived from a dedicated dataset constructed by the JRC in the framework of the LUC4C FP7 project. The inputs for the dataset are air temperature values derived from satellite Earth Observation data (MODIS) and land cover characterization from the ESA Climate Change Initiative product reclassified into their IPCC land use category equivalent. This data, originally at 0.05 degree of spatial resolution, is aggregated and analysed at regional level to provide guidance on the expected temperature impact following specific LCC transitions.

  13. Monitoring urban expansion and its effects on land use and land cover changes in Guangzhou city, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanyan; Li, Shuyuan; Yu, Shixiao

    2016-01-01

    There are widespread concerns about urban sprawl in China. In response, modeling and assessing urban expansion and subsequent land use and land cover (LULC) changes have become important approaches to support decisions about appropriate development and land resource use. Guangzhou, a major metropolitan city in South China, has experienced rapid urbanization and great economic growth in the past few decades. This study applied a series of Landsat images to assess the urban expansion and subsequent LULC changes over 35 years, from 1979 to 2013. From start to end, urban expansion increased by 1512.24 km(2) with an annual growth rate of 11.25 %. There were four stages of urban growth: low rates from 1979 to 1990, increased rates from 1990 to 2001, high rates from 2001 to 2009, and steady increased rates from 2009 to 2013. There were also three different urban growth types in these different stages: edge-expansion growth, infilling growth, and spontaneous growth. Other land cover, such as cropland, forest, and mosaics of cropland and natural vegetation, were severely impacted as a result. To analyze these changes, we used landscape metrics to characterize the changes in the spatial patterns across the Guangzhou landscape and the impacts of urban growth on other types of land cover. The significant changes in LULC and urban expansion were highly correlated with economic development, population growth, technical progress, policy elements, and other similar indexes.

  14. Maximal equilateral sets

    CERN Document Server

    Swanepoel, Konrad J

    2011-01-01

    A subset of a normed space X is called equilateral if the distance between any two points is the same. Let m(X) be the smallest possible size of an equilateral subset of X maximal with respect to inclusion. We first observe that Petty's construction of a d-dimensional X of any finite dimension d >= 4 with m(X)=4 can be generalised to show that m(X\\oplus_1\\R)=4 for any X of dimension at least 2 which has a smooth point on its unit sphere. By a construction involving Hadamard matrices we then show that both m(\\ell_p) and m(\\ell_p^d) are finite and bounded above by a function of p, for all 1 1 such that m(X) <= d+1 for all d-dimensional X with Banach-Mazur distance less than c from \\ell_p^d. Using Brouwer's fixed-point theorem we show that m(X) <= d+1 for all d-\\dimensional X with Banach-Mazur distance less than 3/2 from \\ell_\\infty^d. A graph-theoretical argument furthermore shows that m(\\ell_\\infty^d)=d+1. The above results lead us to conjecture that m(X) <= 1+\\dim X.

  15. Unified Maximally Natural Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Junwu

    2016-01-01

    Maximally Natural Supersymmetry, an unusual weak-scale supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model based upon the inherently higher-dimensional mechanism of Scherk-Schwarz supersymmetry breaking (SSSB), possesses remarkably good fine tuning given present LHC limits. Here we construct a version with precision $SU(2)_{\\rm L} \\times U(1)_{\\rm Y} $ unification: $\\sin^2 \\theta_W(M_Z) \\simeq 0.231$ is predicted to $\\pm 2\\%$ by unifying $SU(2)_{\\rm L} \\times U(1)_{\\rm Y} $ into a 5D $SU(3)_{\\rm EW}$ theory at a Kaluza-Klein scale of $1/R_5 \\sim 4.4\\,{\\rm TeV}$, where SSSB is simultaneously realised. Full unification with $SU(3)_{\\rm C}$ is accommodated by extending the 5D theory to a $N=4$ supersymmetric $SU(6)$ gauge theory on a 6D rectangular orbifold at $1/R_6 \\sim 40 \\,{\\rm TeV}$. TeV-scale states beyond the SM include exotic charged fermions implied by $SU(3)_{\\rm EW}$ with masses lighter than $\\sim 1.2\\,{\\rm TeV}$, and squarks in the mass range $1.4\\,{\\rm TeV} - 2.3\\,{\\rm TeV}$, providing distinct signature...

  16. Risk-based design of process plants with regard to domino effects and land use planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakzad, Nima; Reniers, Genserik

    2015-12-15

    Land use planning (LUP) as an effective and crucial safety measure has widely been employed by safety experts and decision makers to mitigate off-site risks posed by major accidents. Accordingly, the concept of LUP in chemical plants has traditionally been considered from two perspectives: (i) land developments around existing chemical plants considering potential off-site risks posed by major accidents and (ii) development of existing chemical plants considering nearby land developments and the level of additional off-site risks the land developments would be exposed to. However, the attempts made to design chemical plants with regard to LUP requirements have been few, most of which have neglected the role of domino effects in risk analysis of major accidents. To overcome the limitations of previous work, first, we developed a Bayesian network methodology to calculate both on-site and off-site risks of major accidents while taking domino effects into account. Second, we combined the results of risk analysis with Analytic Hierarchical Process to design an optimal layout for which the levels of on-site and off-site risks would be minimum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Effects of land use type and slope position on soil physical properties in loess tableland area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Liu, Wen-Zhao; Wang, Qiu-Xian

    2008-06-01

    Soil samples under different land use types and at different slope positions in the Wangdonggou watershed of loess tableland area were collected to determine their particle composition, bulk density (pb), and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), and the effects of land use type and slope position on the soil physical properties were studied in virtue of the variation coefficient and non-parameter tests. The results showed that the physical properties of soil varied in horizontal direction and vertical profile, however at the same slope position or under the same land use type, the pb and particle composition were similar. In horizontal direction, Ks varied strongly, slit content and pb varied weakly, and clay and sand contents varied medially. In vertical profile, soil particles had a continuous distribution, but pb and Ks varied greatly in 0-25 cm layer. With the slope degree descended, soil contained more clay and had a higher pb, and Ks increased. At upper and middle slopes, soil physical properties were similar, and thus, could be merged into one in related researches. There was a significant difference in soil physical properties between grassland and other land use types, which was mainly due to the effects of slope position, but the soil physical properties in farmland and orchard were similar, indicating the important effects of human activities.

  18. Simulation of Effects of Land Use Change on Climate in China by a Regional Climate Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高学杰; 罗勇; 林万涛; 赵宗慈; FilippoGIORGI

    2003-01-01

    Climate effects of land use change in China as simulated by a regional climate model (RegCM2)are investigated. The model is nested in one-way mode within a global coupled atmosphere-ocean model(CSIRO R21L9 AOGCM). Two multi-year simulations, one with current land use and the other with potential vegetation cover, are conducted. Statistically significant changes of precipitation, surface air temperature, and daily maximum and daily minimum temperature are analyzed based on the difference between the two simulations. The simulated effects of land use change over China include a decrease of mean annual precipitation over Northwest China, a region with a prevalence of arid and semi-arid areas;an increase of mean annual surfaoe air temperature over some areas; and a decrease of temperature along coastal areas. Summer mean daily maximum temperature increases in many locations, while winter mean daily minimum temperature decreases in East China and increases in Northwest China. The upper soil moisture decreases significantly across China. The results indicate that the same land use change may cause different climate effects in different regions depending on the surrounding environment and climate characteristics.

  19. Selection of effective maximal expiratory parameters to differentiate asthmatic patients from healthy adults by discriminant analysis using all possible selection procedure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meguro,Tadamichi

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available Maximal expiratory volume-time and flow-volume (MEVT and MEFV curves were drawn for young male nonsmoking healthy adults and for young male nonsmoking asthmatic patients. Eleven parameters, two MEVT (%FVC and FEV1.0%, six MEFV (PFR, V75, V50, V25, V10 and V50/V25, and three MTC parameters (MTC75-50, MTC50-25 and MTC25-RV were used for the multivariate analysis. The multivariate analysis in this study consisted of correlation coefficient matrix computation, the test for mean values in the multivariates, and the linear discriminant analysis using the all possible selection procedure (APSP. Correlation coefficients among flow rate parameters and flow rate related parameters in high lung volumes were different between the two groups. In the eleven-parameter discriminant analysis by APSP using single parameters, PFR, V75 (flow rate at 75% of forced vital capacity, and FEV1.0% were considered to be the effective parameters. In the seven-parameter discriminant analysis using the parameter groups, the group of all parameters and the %FVC and flow rate-related parameter group were considered to be the effective numerical alternatives to MEFV curves discriminating between healthy adults and asthmatic patients.

  20. The Effects of Positive and Negative Feedback on Maximal Voluntary Contraction Level of the Biceps Brachii Muscle: Moderating Roles of Gender and Conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarıkabak, Murat; Yaman, Çetin; Tok, Serdar; Binboga, Erdal

    2016-11-02

    We investigated the effect of positive and negative feedback on maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the biceps brachii muscle and explored the mediating effects of gender and conscientiousness. During elbow flexion, MVCs were measured in positive, negative, and no-feedback conditions. Participants were divided into high- and low-conscientiousness groups based on the median split of their scores on Tatar's five-factor personality inventory. Considering all participants 46 college student athletes (21 female, 28 male), positive feedback led to a greater MVC percentage change (-5.76%) than did negative feedback (2.2%). MVC percentage change in the positive feedback condition differed significantly by gender, but the negative feedback condition did not. Thus, positive feedback increased female athletes' MVC level by 3.49%, but decreased male athletes' MVC level by 15.6%. For conscientiousness, MVC percentage change in the positive feedback condition did not differ according to high and low conscientiousness. However, conscientiousness interacted with gender in the positive feedback condition, increasing MVC in high-conscientiousness female athletes and decreasing MVC in low-conscientiousness female athletes. Positive feedback decreased MVC in both high- and low-conscientiousness male athletes.

  1. Effects of oil palm expansion through direct and indirect land use change in Tapi river basin, Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, Kanokwan; Hein, Lars; Kroeze, Carolien; Jawjit, Warit

    2016-01-01

    The Thai government has ambitious plan to further promote the use of biodiesel. However, there has been insufficient consideration on the environmental effects of oil palm expansion in Thailand. This paper focuses on the effects of oil palm expansion on land use. We analysed the direct land use c

  2. Contrasting Effects of Land Use Intensity and Exotic Host Plants on the Specialization of Interactions in Plant-Herbivore Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Walter Santos; Vieira, Marcos Costa; Lewinsohn, Thomas M.; Almeida-Neto, Mário

    2015-01-01

    Human land use tends to decrease the diversity of native plant species and facilitate the invasion and establishment of exotic ones. Such changes in land use and plant community composition usually have negative impacts on the assemblages of native herbivorous insects. Highly specialized herbivores are expected to be especially sensitive to land use intensification and the presence of exotic plant species because they are neither capable of consuming alternative plant species of the native flora nor exotic plant species. Therefore, higher levels of land use intensity might reduce the proportion of highly specialized herbivores, which ultimately would lead to changes in the specialization of interactions in plant-herbivore networks. This study investigates the community-wide effects of land use intensity on the degree of specialization of 72 plant-herbivore networks, including effects mediated by the increase in the proportion of exotic plant species. Contrary to our expectation, the net effect of land use intensity on network specialization was positive. However, this positive effect of land use intensity was partially canceled by an opposite effect of the proportion of exotic plant species on network specialization. When we analyzed networks composed exclusively of endophagous herbivores separately from those composed exclusively of exophagous herbivores, we found that only endophages showed a consistent change in network specialization at higher land use levels. Altogether, these results indicate that land use intensity is an important ecological driver of network specialization, by way of reducing the local host range of herbivore guilds with highly specialized feeding habits. However, because the effect of land use intensity is offset by an opposite effect owing to the proportion of exotic host species, the net effect of land use in a given herbivore assemblage will likely depend on the extent of the replacement of native host species with exotic ones. PMID

  3. The effects of the diurnal atmospheric variability on entry, descent and landing on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marčeta D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Landing on Mars is extremely challenging task due to the fact that the Martian atmosphere is the most hostile environment in the Solar system to perform the entry, descent and landing (EDL process, because it is thick enough to create substantial heating of the entry vehicle but not thick enough to reduce its velocity to the one necessary for safe landing. Beside this, the atmosphere is very dynamic mainly due to high eccentricity of the Martian orbit, obliquity of the orbital to the equatorial plane and close alignment of the winter solstice and the orbital perihelion. Although seasonal variations of atmospheric parameters are significantly larger than the diurnal, it is very important to analyze diurnal cycles as they can significantly change vertical and horizontal atmospheric profiles in very short time intervals. This can present a serious threat to missions which have very precise timings and specific requirements such as the requirement for the daytime landing to enable ground images acquisition during the descent and landing phase. A 3-degrees-of-freedom trajectory integration routine was combined with the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM to identify the dependence of the EDL profiles on the diurnal cycles of atmospheric parameters throughout the Martian year. The obtained results show that the influence of the diurnal cycles is the largest at the equator and decreases relatively symmetrically towards the poles with a slightly stronger influence in the northern hemisphere. Also, there is a significant influence of the orbital position of Mars on the effect of diurnal atmospheric variations which causes that, around the orbital perihelion and winter solstice, there is some kind of inversion of the dependance of optimal entry timing on latitude of the landing site comparing to the rest of the Martian year. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176002

  4. Ecological Effects of Land Use Changes on European Terrestrial Mountain Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cernusca, Alexander

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Initiative (TERI within Framework IV of the EU, ECOMONT aims at investigating ecological effects of land-use changes in European terrestrial mountain ecosystems. ECOMONT is coordinated by Prof Cernusca (University of Innsbruck and is carried out by eight European partner teams in the Eastern Alps, the Swiss Alps, the Spanish Pyrennees and the Scottish Highlands. ECOMONT focuses on an analysis of structures and processes in the context of land-use changes, scaling from the leaf to the landscape level. The following research topics are being investigated: Spatial distribution of vegetation and soil in the composite experimental sites; physical and chemical soil properties, SOM status and turnover; canopy structure, primary production, and litter decomposition; water relations of ecosystems and hydrology of catchment areas; microclimate and energy budget of ecosystems; gas exchange of single plants and ecosystems; gas exchange between the composite experimental sites and the atmosphere, population and plant biology of keyspecies, plant-animal interactions, potential risks through land-use changes; GIS; remote sensing - environmental mapping; modeling activities integrating from plant to ecosystem and landscape level. First results of ECOMONT show that land-use changes have strong impacts on vegetation composition, structure and processes, on soil physics and chemistry, and therefore strongly affect exchange processes with the atmosphere and biogeochemical cycles. Abandonment of traditional agricultural practices (grazing, mowing causes characteristic changes of the vegetation. In most cases a successional reversion over many decades reaches its climax with the vegetation growing naturally at the sites. Sometimes, however, abandonment can also lead fo a degradation of vegetation and soil. In spite of common principles of changes of vegetation, soils and related processes with altered land

  5. Effects of land use on bird populations and pest control services on coffee farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Railsback, Steven F.; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Global increases in both agriculture and biodiversity awareness raise a key question: Should cropland and biodiversity habitat be separated, or integrated in mixed land uses? Ecosystem services by wildlife make this question more complex. For example, birds benefit agriculture by preying on pest insects, but other habitat is needed to maintain the birds. Resulting land use questions include what areas and arrangements of habitat support sufficient birds to control pests, whether this pest control offsets the reduced cropland, and the comparative benefits of “land sharing” (i.e., mixed cropland and habitat) vs. “land sparing” (i.e., separate areas of intensive agriculture and habitat). Such questions are difficult to answer using field studies alone, so we use a simulation model of Jamaican coffee farms, where songbirds suppress the coffee berry borer (CBB). Simulated birds select habitat and prey in five habitat types: intact forest, trees (including forest fragments), shade coffee, sun coffee, and unsuitable habitat. The trees habitat type appears to be especially important, providing efficient foraging and roosting sites near coffee plots. Small areas of trees (but not forest alone) could support a sufficient number of birds to suppress CBB in sun coffee; the degree to which trees are dispersed within coffee had little effect. In simulations without trees, shade coffee supported sufficient birds to offset its lower yield. High areas of both trees and shade coffee reduced pest control because CBB was less often profitable prey. Because of the pest control service provided by birds, land sharing was predicted to be more beneficial than land sparing in this system. PMID:24711377

  6. Satellite detection of land-use change and effects on regional forest aboveground biomass estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Daolan; Heath, Linda S; Ducey, Mark J

    2008-09-01

    We used remote-sensing-driven models to detect land-cover change effects on forest aboveground biomass (AGB) density (Mg.ha(-1), dry weight) and total AGB (Tg) in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan USA, between the years 1992-2001, and conducted an evaluation of the approach. Inputs included remotely-sensed 1992 reflectance data and land-cover map (University of Maryland) from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and 2001 products from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) at 1-km resolution for the region; and 30-m resolution land-cover maps from the National Land Cover Data (NLCD) for a subarea to conduct nine simulations to address our questions. Sensitivity analysis showed that (1) AVHRR data tended to underestimate AGB density by 11%, on average, compared to that estimated using MODIS data; (2) regional mean AGB density increased slightly from 124 (1992) to 126 Mg ha(-1) (2001) by 1.6%; (3) a substantial decrease in total forest AGB across the region was detected, from 2,507 (1992) to 1,961 Tg (2001), an annual rate of -2.4%; and (4) in the subarea, while NLCD-based estimates suggested a 26% decrease in total AGB from 1992 to 2001, AVHRR/MODIS-based estimates indicated a 36% increase. The major source of uncertainty in change detection of total forest AGB over large areas was due to area differences from using land-cover maps produced by different sources. Scaling up 30-m land-cover map to 1-km resolution caused a mean difference of 8% (in absolute value) in forest area estimates at the county-level ranging from 0 to 17% within a 95% confidence interval.

  7. Effects of land use on bird populations and pest control services on coffee farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Railsback, Steven F; Johnson, Matthew D

    2014-04-22

    Global increases in both agriculture and biodiversity awareness raise a key question: Should cropland and biodiversity habitat be separated, or integrated in mixed land uses? Ecosystem services by wildlife make this question more complex. For example, birds benefit agriculture by preying on pest insects, but other habitat is needed to maintain the birds. Resulting land use questions include what areas and arrangements of habitat support sufficient birds to control pests, whether this pest control offsets the reduced cropland, and the comparative benefits of "land sharing" (i.e., mixed cropland and habitat) vs. "land sparing" (i.e., separate areas of intensive agriculture and habitat). Such questions are difficult to answer using field studies alone, so we use a simulation model of Jamaican coffee farms, where songbirds suppress the coffee berry borer (CBB). Simulated birds select habitat and prey in five habitat types: intact forest, trees (including forest fragments), shade coffee, sun coffee, and unsuitable habitat. The trees habitat type appears to be especially important, providing efficient foraging and roosting sites near coffee plots. Small areas of trees (but not forest alone) could support a sufficient number of birds to suppress CBB in sun coffee; the degree to which trees are dispersed within coffee had little effect. In simulations without trees, shade coffee supported sufficient birds to offset its lower yield. High areas of both trees and shade coffee reduced pest control because CBB was less often profitable prey. Because of the pest control service provided by birds, land sharing was predicted to be more beneficial than land sparing in this system.

  8. The global land shortwave cryosphere radiative effect during the MODIS era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D.; Flanner, M. G.; Perket, J.

    2015-11-01

    The shortwave cryosphere radiative effect (CrRE) is the instantaneous influence of snow and ice cover on Earth's top-of-atmosphere (TOA) solar energy budget. Here, we apply measurements from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), combined with microwave retrievals of snow presence and radiative kernels produced from four different models, to derive CrRE over global land during 2001-2013. We estimate global annual-mean land CrRE during this period of -2.6 W m-2, with variations from -2.2 to -3.0 W m-2 resulting from use of different kernels and variations of -2.4 to -2.6 W m-2 resulting from different algorithmic determinations of snow presence and surface albedo. Slightly more than half of the global land CrRE originates from perennial snow on Antarctica, whereas the majority of the northern hemispheric effect originates from seasonal snow. Consequently, the northern hemispheric land CrRE peaks at -6.0 W m-2 in April, whereas the southern hemispheric effect more closely follows the austral insolation cycle, peaking at -9.0 W m-2 in December. Mountain glaciers resolved in 0.05° MODIS data contribute about -0.037 W m-2 (1.4 %) of the global effect, with the majority (94 %) of this contribution originating from the Himalayas. Interannual trends in the global annual-mean land CrRE are not statistically significant during the MODIS era, but trends are positive (less negative) over large areas of northern Asia, especially during spring, and slightly negative over Antarctica, possibly due to increased snowfall. During a common overlap period of 2001-2008, our MODIS estimates of the northern hemispheric land CrRE are about 18 % smaller (less negative) than previous estimates derived from coarse-resolution AVHRR data, though interannual variations are well correlated (r = 0.78), indicating that these data are useful in determining longer-term trends in land CrRE.

  9. Maximizing peatland forest regeneration success at lowest cost to the atmosphere. Effects of soil preparation on Scots pine seedling vitality and GHG emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, M.

    2013-06-01

    This dissertation investigated the impacts of soil preparation after clearcutting Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest on thick-peated soil from silvicultural and climatic standpoints. Three growing seasons after outplanting, mounding most effectively secured seedling survival, growth, and vitality through improved soil aeration of the planting spot. However, other presumed benefits of mounding to seedlings such as warmer soil temperatures and faster organic matter decomposition were not confirmed here. Regeneration in scalps was unsuccessful due to waterlogged soil. Importantly when scalping, only the humus layer should be scraped off without creating depressions in the peat. Seedling tolerance to desiccated as well as waterlogged peat soil over one growing season was remarkable in controlled conditions. The impact of drought, however, was more immediate and severe as root and shoot growth, fractional colonization of ectomycorrhizal fungi, and root hydraulic conductance were reduced. Nevertheless, maintenance of rather high photochemical efficiency (expressed as variable to maximal chlorophyll fluorescence, Fv/Fm) especially in current-year needles despite harsh drought seemed to indicate a potential for seedling recovery. Polyamine analysis also revealed that new needles are preferred in protecting the different parts of the seedlings against drought stress. Wet-stressed seedlings, on the other hand, exhibited few signs of suffering. It was also demonstrated how the experimental environment a controlled versus field setting influences seedling tolerance to stress. The differing moisture levels within comparable microsites dry vs. wet scalps and ditch vs. inverted mounds had little influence on seedling growth and condition although physiological upset (i.e., Fv/Fm) was evident within scalps. Namely, the wetter the soil was, the lower Fv/Fm was. The fear of soil preparation accelerating GHG emissions, particularly CO{sub 2}, from peat into the atmosphere

  10. Maximal subgroups of finite groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Srinivasan

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In finite groups maximal subgroups play a very important role. Results in the literature show that if the maximal subgroup has a very small index in the whole group then it influences the structure of the group itself. In this paper we study the case when the index of the maximal subgroups of the groups have a special type of relation with the Fitting subgroup of the group.

  11. Quantifying the effects of land use and climate on Holocene vegetation in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquer, Laurent; Gaillard, Marie-José; Sugita, Shinya; Poska, Anneli; Trondman, Anna-Kari; Mazier, Florence; Nielsen, Anne Birgitte; Fyfe, Ralph M.; Jönsson, Anna Maria; Smith, Benjamin; Kaplan, Jed O.; Alenius, Teija; Birks, H. John B.; Bjune, Anne E.; Christiansen, Jörg; Dodson, John; Edwards, Kevin J.; Giesecke, Thomas; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Kangur, Mihkel; Koff, Tiiu; Latałowa, Małgorzata; Lechterbeck, Jutta; Olofsson, Jörgen; Seppä, Heikki

    2017-09-01

    Early agriculture can be detected in palaeovegetation records, but quantification of the relative importance of climate and land use in influencing regional vegetation composition since the onset of agriculture is a topic that is rarely addressed. We present a novel approach that combines pollen-based REVEALS estimates of plant cover with climate, anthropogenic land-cover and dynamic vegetation modelling results. This is used to quantify the relative impacts of land use and climate on Holocene vegetation at a sub-continental scale, i.e. northern and western Europe north of the Alps. We use redundancy analysis and variation partitioning to quantify the percentage of variation in vegetation composition explained by the climate and land-use variables, and Monte Carlo permutation tests to assess the statistical significance of each variable. We further use a similarity index to combine pollen-based REVEALS estimates with climate-driven dynamic vegetation modelling results. The overall results indicate that climate is the major driver of vegetation when the Holocene is considered as a whole and at the sub-continental scale, although land use is important regionally. Four critical phases of land-use effects on vegetation are identified. The first phase (from 7000 to 6500 BP) corresponds to the early impacts on vegetation of farming and Neolithic forest clearance and to the dominance of climate as a driver of vegetation change. During the second phase (from 4500 to 4000 BP), land use becomes a major control of vegetation. Climate is still the principal driver, although its influence decreases gradually. The third phase (from 2000 to 1500 BP) is characterised by the continued role of climate on vegetation as a consequence of late-Holocene climate shifts and specific climate events that influence vegetation as well as land use. The last phase (from 500 to 350 BP) shows an acceleration of vegetation changes, in particular during the last century, caused by new farming

  12. Modeling directional effects in land surface temperature derived from geostationary satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mads Olander

    This PhD-thesis investigates the directional effects in land surface temperature (LST) estimates from the SEVIRI sensor onboard the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites. The directional effects are caused by the land surface structure (i.e. tree size and shape) interacting with the changing...... sun-target-sensor geometry. The directional effects occur because the different surface components, e.g. tree canopies and bare soil surfaces, will in many cases have significantly different temperatures. Depending on the viewing angle, different fractions of each of the components will be viewed......; shaded and sunlit canopy and background, respectively. Given data on vegetation structure and density, the model estimates the fractions of the four components as well as the directional composite temperature in the view of a sensor, given the illumination and viewing geometry. The modeling results show...

  13. 毛乌素地区农业用地方式转换与沙漠化%The effects of land-use types and conversions on desertification in Mu Us Sandy Land of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝成元; 吴绍洪

    2006-01-01

    Based on multi-temporal remotely sensed materials of both 1985 and 2000, we analyzed the effects of land-use types and their conversions on desertification in Mu Us Sandy Land in the agro-pastoral transitional zone of north central China. In this study, the desertified land was classified into five degrees: potential, light, medium, severe and extreme. The results indicate that the extent of desertification expands slightly, while desertification degree is enhanced significantly. About 22.35% of the total land area in the study area is in the desertification course, and the expanded area of both severely and extremely desertified land accounts for 3.67% of the total area of Mu Us Sandy Land. About 9053 km2 of area witnessed changes in land-use types between 1985 and 2000, which accounted for 10.75% of the total. More importantly, the area of conversions among cultivated land, forestland and rangeland added up to 971.6 km2. This research reveals that both improper land-use types and conversions could accelerate the desertification process. Both cultivated land and forestland have more effects on the desertification development than rangeland. Some land-use type conversions, such as rangeland to cultivated land, rangeland to forestland and forestland to cultivated land, are attributed to the acceleration of the desertification development while the opposite can control the desertification development.

  14. Effect of increasing maximal aerobic exercise on serum gonadal hormones and alpha-fetoprotein in the luteal phase of professional female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otağ, Aynur; Hazar, Muhsin; Otağ, İlhan; Beyleroğlu, Malik

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The performance of female athletes during their menstrual period has attracted the attention of researchers for many years. It is known that the menstrual period changes with exercise. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is an oncofetal protein. In this study, the effect of maximal aerobic exercise in the luteal phase on some hormones and AFP in female athletes was researched. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve volunteers and healthy female footballers with normal menstrual cycles volunteered for this study as subjects. All the participants performed a shuttle run test. Blood samples were taken before, after, and one hour after exercise. Serum AFP, estrogen, progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) values were measured using an auto analyzer and original kits. Heart rate measurements were performed before and after the exercise. [Results] AFP activity had significantly decreased after 1 h of recovery from the exercise in the female soccer players, and estrogen and LH activity had significantly increased immediately after the exercise. Progesterone activity had significantly decreased immediately after the exercise. FSH values had significantly increased immediately after the exercise. [Conclusion] The results of the present study show there were significant decreases in the values of AFP, which is a cancer parameter, 1 hour after the exercise. This result may be valuable in future physiotherapy studies on the relationship between exercise and cancer.

  15. Effect of N-(m-bromoanilinomethyl-p-isopropoxyphenylsuccinimide on the anticonvulsant action of four classical antiepileptic drugs in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luszczki Jarogniew J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of N-(m-bromoanilinomethyl- p-isopropoxyphenylsuccinimide (BAM-IPPS - a new succinimide derivative on the protective action of four classical antiepileptic drugs (AEDs: carbamazepine [CBZ], phenobarbital [PB], phenytoin [PHT] and valproate [VPA] in the mouse maximal electroshock (MES-induced tonic seizure model. Tonic hind limb extension (seizure activity was evoked in adult male albino Swiss mice by a current (sine-wave, 25 mA, 500 V, 50 Hz, 0.2 s stimulus duration delivered via ear-clip electrodes. BAM-IPPS administered (i.p. at a dose of 150 mg/kg significantly elevated the threshold for electroconvulsions in mice (P<0.05. Lower doses of BAM-IPPS (50 and 100 mg/kg had no significant impact on the threshold for electroconvulsions in mice. Moreover, BAM-IPPS (100 mg/kg did not significantly affect the anticonvulsant potency of CBZ, PB, PHT and VPA in the mouse MES model. BAM-IPPS elevated the threshold for electroconvulsions in mice in a dosedependent manner. However, BAM-IPPS (100 mg/kg did not affect the anticonvulsant action of various classical AEDs in the mouse MES model, making the combinations of BAM-IPPS with CBZ, PB, PHT and VPA neutral, from a preclinical point of view.

  16. Finding Maximal Quasiperiodicities in Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    2000-01-01

    of length n in time O(n log n) and space O(n). Our algorithm uses the suffix tree as the fundamental data structure combined with efficient methods for merging and performing multiple searches in search trees. Besides finding all maximal quasiperiodic substrings, our algorithm also marks the nodes......Apostolico and Ehrenfeucht defined the notion of a maximal quasiperiodic substring and gave an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string of length n in time O(n log2 n). In this paper we give an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string...

  17. Maximizing Entropy over Markov Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2013-01-01

    computation reduces to finding a model of a specification with highest entropy. Entropy maximization for probabilistic process specifications has not been studied before, even though it is well known in Bayesian inference for discrete distributions. We give a characterization of global entropy of a process...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of an system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...

  18. Maximizing entropy over Markov processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2014-01-01

    computation reduces to finding a model of a specification with highest entropy. Entropy maximization for probabilistic process specifications has not been studied before, even though it is well known in Bayesian inference for discrete distributions. We give a characterization of global entropy of a process...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of a system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...

  19. Exploring Climate Change Effects on Watershed Sediment Yield and Land Cover-Based Mitigation Measures Using Swat Model, RS and Gis: Case of Cagayan River Basin, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principe, J. A.

    2012-07-01

    The impact of climate change in the Philippines was examined in the country's largest basin-the Cagayan River Basin-by predicting its sediment yield for a long period of time. This was done by integrating the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model, Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS). A set of Landsat imageries were processed to include an atmospheric correction and a filling procedure for cloud and cloud-shadow infested pixels was used to maximize each downloaded scene for a subsequent land cover classification using Maximum Likelihood classifier. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)-DEM was used for the digital elevation model (DEM) requirement of the model while ArcGIS™ provided the platform for the ArcSWAT extension, for storing data and displaying spatial data. The impact of climate change was assessed by varying air surface temperature and amount of precipitation as predicted in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios. A Nash-Sutcliff efficiency (NSE) > 0.4 and coefficient of determination (R2) > 0.5 for both the calibration and validation of the model showed that SWAT model can realistically simulate the hydrological processes in the study area. The model was then utilized for land cover change and climate change analyses and their influence on sediment yield. Results showed a significant relationship exists among the changes in the climate regime, land cover distributions and sediment yield. Finally, the study suggested land cover distribution that can potentially mitigate the serious negative effects of climate change to a regional watershed's sediment yield.

  20. EXPLORING CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON WATERSHED SEDIMENT YIELD AND LAND COVER-BASED MITIGATION MEASURES USING SWAT MODEL, RS AND GIS: CASE OF CAGAYAN RIVER BASIN, PHILIPPINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Principe

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate change in the Philippines was examined in the country's largest basin–the Cagayan River Basin–by predicting its sediment yield for a long period of time. This was done by integrating the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model, Remote Sensing (RS and Geographic Information System (GIS. A set of Landsat imageries were processed to include an atmospheric correction and a filling procedure for cloud and cloud-shadow infested pixels was used to maximize each downloaded scene for a subsequent land cover classification using Maximum Likelihood classifier. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM-DEM was used for the digital elevation model (DEM requirement of the model while ArcGIS™ provided the platform for the ArcSWAT extension, for storing data and displaying spatial data. The impact of climate change was assessed by varying air surface temperature and amount of precipitation as predicted in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC scenarios. A Nash-Sutcliff efficiency (NSE > 0.4 and coefficient of determination (R2 > 0.5 for both the calibration and validation of the model showed that SWAT model can realistically simulate the hydrological processes in the study area. The model was then utilized for land cover change and climate change analyses and their influence on sediment yield. Results showed a significant relationship exists among the changes in the climate regime, land cover distributions and sediment yield. Finally, the study suggested land cover distribution that can potentially mitigate the serious negative effects of climate change to a regional watershed's sediment yield.

  1. Effects of explicit convection on global land-atmosphere coupling in the superparameterized CAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Pritchard, Michael S.

    2016-09-01

    Conventional global climate models are prone to producing unrealistic land-atmosphere coupling signals. Cumulus and convection parameterizations are natural culprits but the effect of bypassing them with explicitly resolved convection on global land-atmosphere coupling dynamics has not been explored systematically. We apply a suite of modern land-atmosphere coupling diagnostics to isolate the effect of cloud Superparameterization in the Community Atmosphere Model (SPCAM) v3.5, focusing on both the terrestrial segment (i.e., soil moisture and surface turbulent fluxes interaction) and atmospheric segment (i.e., surface turbulent fluxes and precipitation interaction) in the water pathway of the land-atmosphere feedback loop. At daily timescales, SPCAM produces stronger uncoupled terrestrial signals (negative sign) over tropical rainforests in wet seasons, reduces the terrestrial coupling strength in the Central Great Plain in American, and reverses the coupling sign (from negative to positive) over India in the boreal summer season—all favorable improvements relative to reanalysis-forced land modeling. Analysis of the triggering feedback strength (TFS) and amplification feedback strength (AFS) shows that SPCAM favorably reproduces the observed geographic patterns of these indices over North America, with the probability of afternoon precipitation enhanced by high evaporative fraction along the eastern United States and Mexico, while conventional CAM does not capture this signal. We introduce a new diagnostic called the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) Feedback Strength (PFS), which reveals that SPCAM exhibits a tight connection between the responses of the lifting condensation level, the PBL height, and the rainfall triggering to surface turbulent fluxes; a triggering disconnect is found in CAM.

  2. Effects of Microclimate Condition Changes Due to Land Use and Land Cover Changes on the Survivorship of Malaria Vectors in China-Myanmar Border Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daibin Zhong

    Full Text Available In the past decade, developing countries have been experiencing rapid land use and land cover changes, including deforestation and cultivation of previously forested land. However, little is known about the impact of deforestation and land-use changes on the life history of malaria vectors and their effects on malaria transmission. This study examined the effects of deforestation and crop cultivation on the adult survivorship of major malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles sinensis and An. minimus in the China-Myanmar border region. We examined three conditions: indoor, forested, and banana plantation. Mean survival time of An. sinensis in banana plantation environment was significantly longer than those in forested environment, and mosquitoes exhibited the longest longevity in the indoor environment. This pattern held for both males and females, and also for An. minimus. To further test the effect of temperature on mosquito survival, we used two study sites with different elevation and ambient temperatures. Significantly higher survivorship of both species was found in sites with lower elevation and higher ambient temperature. Increased vector survival in the deforested area could have an important impact on malaria transmission in Southeast Asia. Understanding how deforestation impacts vector survivorship can help combat malaria transmission.

  3. Effects of Microclimate Condition Changes Due to Land Use and Land Cover Changes on the Survivorship of Malaria Vectors in China-Myanmar Border Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Daibin; Wang, Xiaoming; Xu, Tielong; Zhou, Guofa; Wang, Ying; Lee, Ming-Chieh; Hartsel, Joshua A; Cui, Liwang; Zheng, Bin; Yan, Guiyun

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, developing countries have been experiencing rapid land use and land cover changes, including deforestation and cultivation of previously forested land. However, little is known about the impact of deforestation and land-use changes on the life history of malaria vectors and their effects on malaria transmission. This study examined the effects of deforestation and crop cultivation on the adult survivorship of major malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles sinensis and An. minimus in the China-Myanmar border region. We examined three conditions: indoor, forested, and banana plantation. Mean survival time of An. sinensis in banana plantation environment was significantly longer than those in forested environment, and mosquitoes exhibited the longest longevity in the indoor environment. This pattern held for both males and females, and also for An. minimus. To further test the effect of temperature on mosquito survival, we used two study sites with different elevation and ambient temperatures. Significantly higher survivorship of both species was found in sites with lower elevation and higher ambient temperature. Increased vector survival in the deforested area could have an important impact on malaria transmission in Southeast Asia. Understanding how deforestation impacts vector survivorship can help combat malaria transmission.

  4. Effect of gender on trunk and pelvis control during lateral movements with perturbed landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltin, Elmar; Gollhofer, Albert; Mornieux, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    In lateral reactive movements, core stability may influence knee and hip joint kinematics and kinetics. Insufficient core stabilisation is discussed as a major risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Due to the higher probability of ACL injuries in women, this study concentrates on how gender influences trunk, pelvis and leg kinematics during lateral reactive jumps (LRJs). Perturbations were investigated in 12 men and 12 women performing LRJs under three different landing conditions: a movable landing platform was programmed to slide, resist or counteract upon landing. Potential group effects on three-dimensional trunk, pelvic, hip and knee kinematics were analysed for initial contact (IC) and the time of peak pelvic medial tilt (PPT). Regardless of landing conditions, the joint excursions in the entire lower limb joints were gender-specific. Women exhibited higher trunk left axial rotation at PPT (women: 4.0 ± 7.5°, men: -3.1 ± 8.2°; p = 0.011) and higher hip external rotation at both IC and PPT (p pelvis and lower limb alignment during lateral reactive movements were gender-specific; the trunk and hip rotations displayed by the women were associated with the higher knee abduction amplitudes and therefore might reflect a movement strategy which is associated with higher injury risk. However, training interventions are needed to fully understand how gender-specific core stability strategies are related to performance and knee injury.

  5. Effects of climate and land management change on streamflow in the driftless area of Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, P.F.; Hunt, R.J.; Anderson, M.P.; Robertson, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Baseflow and precipitation in the Kickapoo River Watershed, located in the Driftless Area of Wisconsin, exhibit a step increase around 1970, similar to minimum and median flows in many other central and eastern USA streams. Potential effects on streamflow due to climatic and land management changes were evaluated by comparing volumetric changes in the hydrologic budget before and after 1970. Increases in precipitation do not fully account for the increase in baseflow, which appears to be offset by a volumetric decrease in stormflow. This suggests that factors that influence the partitioning of precipitation into overland runoff or infiltration have changed. A transition from relatively more intensive to relatively less intensive agricultural land use is generally associated with higher infiltration rates, and likely influences partitioning of flow. Changes in agricultural land management practices in the Driftless Area, which began in the mid-1930s, do not coincide with the abrupt increase in baseflow around 1970. Instead, the timing of hydrologic change appears to coincide with changes in precipitation, whereas the magnitude of the change in baseflow and stormflow was likely amplified by changes in agricultural land management. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effects of Chinese Dietary Trends on Global and Local Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, J.

    2015-12-01

    Global land scarcity is a major concern, which, due to climate change, lifestyle changes, and population growth, will only continue to worsen. It is a major driver of global environmental degradation, famine, and sociopolitical conflicts. With some 33% of the world's dwindling supply of arable land dedicated to grossly inefficient animal husbandry or animal feed production, it is easy to see that dietary consumption patterns play an important role. Although population growth in East Asia has stagnated, changing dietary trends mean that China is now the world's largest consumers of meat, consuming 25% of global meat production, despite having less than half of the American per capita equivalent. This paper assesses changing dietary consumption patterns of Taiwan, whose current per capita meat consumption surpasses all other East Asian countries, over the past 30 years and considers the relationship this has had on overall land consumption. We then consider dietary trends of Mainland China, which shares a common cultural heritage and whose current Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) is similar to Taiwanese PPP levels in 1985. Finally we retrospectively project three alternative Taiwanese consumption patterns over the past 30 years, consider the effect of each scenario on per capita land consumption, and finally consider these results in terms of culturally analogues Mainland China.

  7. The effect of carbon credits on savanna land management and priorities for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Lucinda L; Possingham, Hugh P; Carwardine, Josie; Klein, Carissa J; Roxburgh, Stephen H; Russell-Smith, Jeremy; Wilson, Kerrie A

    2011-01-01

    Carbon finance offers the potential to change land management and conservation planning priorities. We develop a novel approach to planning for improved land management to conserve biodiversity while utilizing potential revenue from carbon biosequestration. We apply our approach in northern Australia's tropical savanna, a region of global significance for biodiversity and carbon storage, both of which are threatened by current fire and grazing regimes. Our approach aims to identify priority locations for protecting species and vegetation communities by retaining existing vegetation and managing fire and grazing regimes at a minimum cost. We explore the impact of accounting for potential carbon revenue (using a carbon price of US$14 per tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent) on priority areas for conservation and the impact of explicitly protecting carbon stocks in addition to biodiversity. Our results show that improved management can potentially raise approximately US$5 per hectare per year in carbon revenue and prevent the release of 1-2 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent over approximately 90 years. This revenue could be used to reduce the costs of improved land management by three quarters or double the number of biodiversity targets achieved and meet carbon storage targets for the same cost. These results are based on generalised cost and carbon data; more comprehensive applications will rely on fine scale, site-specific data and a supportive policy environment. Our research illustrates that the duel objective of conserving biodiversity and reducing the release of greenhouse gases offers important opportunities for cost-effective land management investments.

  8. Effect of a Compressive Garment on Kinematics of Jump-Landing Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Britto, Morgana A; Lemos, Andressa L; Dos Santos, Christielen S; Stefanyshyn, Darren J; Carpes, Felipe P

    2017-09-01

    de Britto, MA, Lemos, AL, dos Santos, CS, Stefanyshyn, DJ, and Carpes, FP. Effect of a compressive garment on kinematics of jump-landing tasks. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2480-2488, 2017-During jump-landing tasks, knee kinematics such as excessive valgus have been linked to knee injury in females. We determine the influence of a compressive garment on knee valgus during landing. Physically active women (n = 27, mean age 23 years) performed 4 different jump-landing tasks with 2 apparel conditions (compressive garment and regular sports shorts). Kinematic data were collected to determine knee flexion and valgus angles and the maximum jump height. Results showed that the compressive garment decreased knee flexion and knee valgus range of motion, without significant changes in the maximum jump height. As a practical application, we suggest that compression could be a strategy to reduce dynamic valgus without influencing jump performance, which motivates further study of its potential for knee injury prevention.

  9. Effects of Urbanization-Induced Cultivated Land Loss on Ecosystem Services in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Song

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the implementation of market oriented economic reform in 1978, China has been on the track of rapid urbanization. The unprecedented urbanization in China has resulted in substantial cultivated land loss and rapid expansion of urban areas. The cultivated land loss due to urbanization not only threatens food security in China, but has also led to ecological system degradation to which close attention should be paid. Therefore, we examined the effects of the conversion from cultivated to urban areas on the ecosystem service in the North China Plain on the basis of a net primary productivity based ecosystem service model (NESM and a buffer comparison method. Cultivated land loss due to urbanization in the North China Plain led to a total loss of ecosystem service value of 34.66% during the period 1988–2008. Urban expansion significantly decreased the ecosystem service function of water conservation (–124.03%, nutrient cycling (–31.91%, gas regulation (−7.18%, and organic production (–7.18%, while it improved the soil conservation function (2.40%. Land use change accounted for 57.40% of the changes in ecosystem service and had a major influence on the changes in nutrient cycling and water conservation. However, climate change mainly determined the changes in gas regulation, organic production, and soil conservation.

  10. Biophysical-and socioeconomic aspects of land degradation in the Guadalentin (SE-Spain): towards understanding and effective soil conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vente, J. de; Sole-Benet, A.; Boix-Fayos, C.; Nainggolan, D.; Romero-Diaz, A.

    2009-07-01

    Desertification and land degradation have been widely studied in the Guadalentin basin (SE Spain) through various national and international research projects. Most important identified degradation types are due to soil erosion, soil surface crusting, aridity, soil organic matter decline and salinisation. On the one hand, political and socioeconomic drivers have caused important land use and management changes, which have formed an important driver for further land degradation. On the other hand, soil conservation practice were initiated by the government and by individual land users, although there is very limited knowledge on their effectiveness. the objective of this work is to provide and overview of previous studies that addressed land degradation in the Guadalentin and to present an integrated synthesis of the main biophysical and socioeconomic factors identifies in these studies as being responsible for land degradation, with a focus on feasible soil conservation strategies. (Author) 18 refs.

  11. Effects of silvopastoral system conversion into different land-use systems on soil carbon and nitrogen storage

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, E.S.; Freese, D.; Reinhard F. J. Hüttl

    2009-01-01

    In agricultural soils, the carbon stocks are affected by changes in land-use systems or management practices. When silvopastoral systems are converted to arable lands, an effective decrease in soil carbon stocks, mainly in upper soil layers is expected. The aim of this work was to evaluate total C and N stocks in soil after conversion of silvopastoral systems to different land-use systems. The study areas are located in northeast Germany and refer to different land-use systems comprising: 2 a...

  12. Inhibition of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α Maximizes the Effects of Radiation in Sarcoma Mouse Models Through Destruction of Tumor Vasculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae-June [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Changhwan [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Park, Do Joong [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yeo-Jung [Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Schmidt, Benjamin [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Lee, Yoon-Jin [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Division of Radiation Effects, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Tap, William D. [Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Eisinger-Mathason, T.S. Karin [Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Choy, Edwin [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Simon, M. Celeste [Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Howard Hughes Medical Institute (United States); and others

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To examine the addition of genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) to radiation therapy (RT) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) inhibition (ie trimodality therapy) for soft-tissue sarcoma. Methods and Materials: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α was inhibited using short hairpin RNA or low metronomic doses of doxorubicin, which blocks HIF-1α binding to DNA. Trimodality therapy was examined in a mouse xenograft model and a genetically engineered mouse model of sarcoma, as well as in vitro in tumor endothelial cells (ECs) and 4 sarcoma cell lines. Results: In both mouse models, any monotherapy or bimodality therapy resulted in tumor growth beyond 250 mm{sup 3} within the 12-day treatment period, but trimodality therapy with RT, VEGF-A inhibition, and HIF-1α inhibition kept tumors at <250 mm{sup 3} for up to 30 days. Trimodality therapy on tumors reduced HIF-1α activity as measured by expression of nuclear HIF-1α by 87% to 95% compared with RT alone, and cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrase 9 by 79% to 82%. Trimodality therapy also increased EC-specific apoptosis 2- to 4-fold more than RT alone and reduced microvessel density by 75% to 82%. When tumor ECs were treated in vitro with trimodality therapy under hypoxia, there were significant decreases in proliferation and colony formation and increases in DNA damage (as measured by Comet assay and γH2AX expression) and apoptosis (as measured by cleaved caspase 3 expression). Trimodality therapy had much less pronounced effects when 4 sarcoma cell lines were examined in these same assays. Conclusions: Inhibition of HIF-1α is highly effective when combined with RT and VEGF-A inhibition in blocking sarcoma growth by maximizing DNA damage and apoptosis in tumor ECs, leading to loss of tumor vasculature.

  13. Analysis of Urban Land Use and Its Effects on Air Environment in Chengdu, Western China from 1992 to 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Wen-fu; PENG Ke; FAN Shu-yun; ZHOU Jie-ming; ZHAO Jing-feng; YANG Cun-jian

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale development of urban land use has led to change of a variety of natural processes and ecological processes, resulting in complex eco-environmental consequences. The objective of this study was to analyze the urban land use and its impact on air environment effect in Chengdu, western China from 1992 to 2008 following the RS (Remote Sensing) and GIS technique. The environmental effects data of urban land use was extracted and analyzed by overlaying layers of urban land use and the density of nitrogen dioxide and total suspended particulate matter in sampling points data concerning to the air quality of the environment in Chengdu based on GIS spatial analysis method. The results show that the main feature of urban land use change was substantial reduction of cultivated land and construction land and forest land increased significantly within the study area from1992 to 2008. The temporal-spatial change was notable in study period time. Land use has a significant impact on urban air environment, the chroma change of nitrogen dioxide derived from forest land was obvious, the area occupied by different nitrogen dioxide chroma was the largest. The urban land use impact on the highest class chroma of total suspended particulate matter was notable and its area was the greatest. The results show also the spatial distribution of nitrogen dioxide chroma and total suspended particulate matter chroma in study area is reduced following from Qingbaijiang District-Xindu District-downtown to both sides. The spatial distribution of industry, mining and traffic land is basically the same chroma spatial distribution. Therefore, the results of this study provide a scientific basis for improvement air environment quality, the urban sustainable development and a scientific response for decisions from the municipal governments.

  14. The Effect of Land Use on Availability of Japanese Freshwater Resources and Its Significance for Water Footprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Motoshita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All relevant effects on water must be assessed in water footprinting for identifying hotspots and managing the impacts of products, processes, and services throughout the life cycle. Although several studies have focused on physical water scarcity and degradation of water quality, the relevance of land use in water footprinting has not been widely addressed. Here, we aimed to verify the extent of land-use effect in the context of water footprinting. Intensity factors of land use regarding the loss of freshwater availability are modeled by calculating water balance at grid scale in Japan. A water footprint inventory and impacts related to land use are assessed by applying the developed intensity factors and comparing them with those related to water consumption and degradation. Artificial land use such as urban area results in the loss of many parts of available freshwater input by precipitation. When considering water footprint inventory, the dominance of land use is less than that of water consumption. However, the effect of land use is relevant to the assessment of water footprint impact by differentiating stress on water resources. The exclusion of land use effect underestimates the water footprint of goods produced in Japan by an average of around 37%.

  15. 77 FR 13173 - Notice of a Non-Aeronautical Land-Use Change Effecting the Quitclaim Deed and Federal Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of a Non-Aeronautical Land-Use Change Effecting the Quitclaim Deed... Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of a Non-aeronautical land-use change. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) proposes to rule and invites public comment on the application for a non-aeronautical...

  16. Effects of land-cover change on spatial pattern of forest communities in the Southern Appalachian Mountains (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monica G. Turner; Scott M. Pearson; Paul Bolstad; David N. Wear

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the implications of past. present and future patterns of human land use for biodiversity and ecosystem function is increasingly important in landscape ecology. We examined effects of land-use change on four major forest communities of the Southern Appalachian Mountains (USA), addressed two questions: (1) Are and forest communities differentially...

  17. Effects of different land use on soil chemical properties, decomposition rate and earthworm communities in tropical Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geissen, V.; Peña-Peña, K.; Huerta, E.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of land use on soil chemical properties were evaluated, and earthworm communities and the decomposition rate of three typical land use systems in tropical Mexico, namely banana plantations (B), agroforestry systems (AF) and a successional forest (S) were compared. The study was carried o

  18. Sensitive indicators of side-effects of pesticides on the epigeal fauna of arable land.

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible impact of pesticides on epigeal arthropods in arable land. It was also envisaged to develop a predictive model for possible undesirable effects of pesticides on the epigeal arthropod fauna using an indicator species from the field. The strategy was the following. In the field, species were identified that were (1) sensitive to a number of pesticides, (2) abundant, (3) regular in time and space and (4) easy to sample and iden...

  19. Risk-based design of process plants with regard to domino effects and land use planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khakzad, Nima, E-mail: nkhakzad@gmail.com [Safety and Security Science Group (S3G), Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, TU Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Reniers, Genserik [Safety and Security Science Group (S3G), Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, TU Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Antwerp Research Group on Safety and Security (ARGoSS), Faculty of Applied Economics, Universiteit Antwerpen, Antwerp (Belgium); Research Group CEDON, Campus Brussels, KULeuven, Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • A Bayesian network methodology has been developed to estimate the total probability of major accidents in chemical plants. • Total probability of accidents includes the probability of individual accidents and potential domino effects. • The methodology has been extended to calculate on-site and off-site risks. • The results of the risk analysis have been used in a multi-criteria decision analysis technique to risk-based design of chemical plants. - Abstract: Land use planning (LUP) as an effective and crucial safety measure has widely been employed by safety experts and decision makers to mitigate off-site risks posed by major accidents. Accordingly, the concept of LUP in chemical plants has traditionally been considered from two perspectives: (i) land developments around existing chemical plants considering potential off-site risks posed by major accidents and (ii) development of existing chemical plants considering nearby land developments and the level of additional off-site risks the land developments would be exposed to. However, the attempts made to design chemical plants with regard to LUP requirements have been few, most of which have neglected the role of domino effects in risk analysis of major accidents. To overcome the limitations of previous work, first, we developed a Bayesian network methodology to calculate both on-site and off-site risks of major accidents while taking domino effects into account. Second, we combined the results of risk analysis with Analytic Hierarchical Process to design an optimal layout for which the levels of on-site and off-site risks would be minimum.

  20. Smallest worthwhile effect of land-based and water-based pulmonary rehabilitation for COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Mark R.; Ferreira, Manuela L.; Spencer, Lissa M.; Herbert, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the smallest worthwhile effect of land-based and water-based pulmonary rehabilitation on 6-min walk distance among people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Using a benefit–harm trade-off method, people with COPD who had completed two baseline 6-min walk tests at the commencement of outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation were presented with two scenarios: 8 weeks of land-based and 8 weeks of water-based pulmonary rehabilitation. Participants were guided through an iterative process allowing them to progressively refine their estimates of the smallest improvement due to each form of rehabilitation that would outweigh the associated costs, risks and inconvenience presented in the scenario. 100 people with COPD participated (mean±sd age 72±9 years, forced expiratory volume in 1 s 54±16% predicted and baseline 6-min walk distance 377±101 m). For land-based pulmonary rehabilitation, the median smallest worthwhile effect was 20 m (95% CI 15–37 m). For water-based pulmonary rehabilitation, the median smallest worthwhile effect was 26 m (95% CI 15–33 m). These estimates did not differ significantly (p=0.10). People with COPD typically perceive that pulmonary rehabilitation would be worthwhile if it increased the 6-min walk distance by about 6%. The smallest worthwhile effects of land- and water-based pulmonary rehabilitation were similar. PMID:27730130

  1. Smallest worthwhile effect of land-based and water-based pulmonary rehabilitation for COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renae J. McNamara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the smallest worthwhile effect of land-based and water-based pulmonary rehabilitation on 6-min walk distance among people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Using a benefit–harm trade-off method, people with COPD who had completed two baseline 6-min walk tests at the commencement of outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation were presented with two scenarios: 8 weeks of land-based and 8 weeks of water-based pulmonary rehabilitation. Participants were guided through an iterative process allowing them to progressively refine their estimates of the smallest improvement due to each form of rehabilitation that would outweigh the associated costs, risks and inconvenience presented in the scenario. 100 people with COPD participated (mean±sd age 72±9 years, forced expiratory volume in 1 s 54±16% predicted and baseline 6-min walk distance 377±101 m. For land-based pulmonary rehabilitation, the median smallest worthwhile effect was 20 m (95% CI 15–37 m. For water-based pulmonary rehabilitation, the median smallest worthwhile effect was 26 m (95% CI 15–33 m. These estimates did not differ significantly (p=0.10. People with COPD typically perceive that pulmonary rehabilitation would be worthwhile if it increased the 6-min walk distance by about 6%. The smallest worthwhile effects of land- and water-based pulmonary rehabilitation were similar.

  2. Management Effectiveness and Land Cover Change in Dynamic Cultural Landscapes - Assessing a Central European Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Ohnesorge

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas are a central pillar of efforts to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services, but their contribution to the conservation and management of European cultural landscapes that have complex spatial-temporal dynamics is unclear. The conservation strategy of biosphere reserves aims at integrating biodiversity and ecosystem service conservation with economic development by designating zones of differing protection and use intensities. It is applied worldwide to protect and manage valuable cultural landscapes. Using the example of a German biosphere reserve, we developed a framework to assess the effectiveness of Central European reserves in meeting their land cover related management goals. Based on digital biotope maps, we defined and assessed land cover change processes that were relevant to the reserve management's goals over a period of 13 years. We then compared these changes in the reserve's core, buffer, and transition zones and in a surrounding reference area by means of a geographical information system. (Un-desirable key processes related to management aims were defined and compared for the various zones. We found that - despite an overall land cover persistence of approximately 85% across all zones - differences in land cover changes can be more prominent across zones inside the reserve than between the areas inside and outside of it. The reserve as a whole performed better than the surrounding reference area when using land cover related management goals as a benchmark. However, some highly desirable targets, such as the conversion of coniferous plantations into seminatural forests or the gain of valuable biotope types, affected larger areas in the nonprotected reference area than in the transition zone.

  3. Detection of irrigation timing using MODIS and SAR: Effect of land cover heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seungtaek, J.; Keunchang, J.; Lee, H.; Seokyeong, H.; Kang, S.

    2010-12-01

    Rice is one of the world’s major staple foods. Paddy rice fields had unique biophysical characteristics that the rice is grown on flooded soils unlike other crops. Distribution and timing of irrigation of paddy rice fields are of importance to determine hydrological balance and efficiency of water resource. In this paper, we detected the distribution and timing of irrigation of paddy rice fields using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor onboard the NASA EOS Aqua satellite. Previous researches demonstrated that MODIS data can be utilized to detect timing of irrigation by combining vegetation index and Land Surface Water Index (LSWI). Land cover heterogeneity, however, causes considerable uncertainty of the satellite-based detections. To evaluate and quantify the effect of land cover heterogeneity, Radarsat-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images were applied together with the MODIS images. Sub-pixel heterogeneity of MODIS image on land cover and irrigation was evaluated and quantified by using the Radarsat-1 SAR images. The degree of sub-pixel heterogeneity was related with detection of a threshold value of LSWI to determine the timing of irrigation. The threshold value with the degree of heterogeneity increased (R2=0.95), which was applied to detect the timing of irrigation over complex land cover areas. Reliable detecting of timing of irrigation could enhance reliability of MODIS-based estimation on evapotranspiration from paddy rice fields. In this presentation, we will demonstrate the enhancement of MODIS-based evapotranspiration by using our new algorithm on detection of timing of irrigation. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by National Academy of Agricultural Science, RDA, Republic of Korea.

  4. Effects of anthropogenic land-subsidence on inundation dynamics: the case study of Ravenna, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Carisi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Can differential land-subsidence significantly alter river flooding dynamics, and thus flood risk in flood prone areas? Many studies show how the lowering of the coastal areas is closely related to an increase in the flood-hazard due to more important tidal flooding and see level rise. The literature on the relationship between differential land-subsidence and possible alterations to riverine flood-hazard of inland areas is still sparse, although several geographical areas characterized by significant land-subsidence rates during the last 50 years experienced intensification in both inundation magnitude and frequency. We investigate the possible impact of a significant differential ground lowering on flood hazard over a 77 km2 area around the city of Ravenna, in Italy. The rate of land-subsidence in the study area, naturally in the order of a few mm year−1, dramatically increased up to 110 mm year−1 after World War II, primarily due to groundwater pumping and gas production platforms. The result was a cumulative drop that locally exceeds 1.5 m. Using a recent digital elevation model (res. 5 m and literature data on land-subsidence, we constructed a ground elevation model over the study area in 1897 and we characterized either the current and the historical DEM with or without road embankments and land-reclamation channels in their current configuration. We then considered these four different topographic models and a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model to simulate and compare the inundation dynamics associated with a levee failure scenario along embankment system of the river Montone, which flows eastward in the southern portion of the study area. For each topographic model, we quantified the flood hazard in terms of maximum water depth (h and we compared the actual effects on flood-hazard dynamics of differential land-subsidence relative to those associated with other man-made topographic alterations, which resulted to be much

  5. On w-maximal groups

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Sanchez, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Let $w = w(x_1,..., x_n)$ be a word, i.e. an element of the free group $F =$ on $n$ generators $x_1,..., x_n$. The verbal subgroup $w(G)$ of a group $G$ is the subgroup generated by the set $\\{w (g_1,...,g_n)^{\\pm 1} | g_i \\in G, 1\\leq i\\leq n \\}$ of all $w$-values in $G$. We say that a (finite) group $G$ is $w$-maximal if $|G:w(G)|> |H:w(H)|$ for all proper subgroups $H$ of $G$ and that $G$ is hereditarily $w$-maximal if every subgroup of $G$ is $w$-maximal. In this text we study $w$-maximal and hereditarily $w$-maximal (finite) groups.

  6. Polyploidy Induction of Pteroceltis tatarinowii Maxim

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin ZHANG; Feng WANG; Zhongkui SUN; Cuicui ZHU; Rongwei CHEN

    2015-01-01

    3%Objective] This study was conducted to obtain tetraploid Pteroceltis tatari-nowi Maxim. with excel ent ornamental traits. [Method] The stem apex growing points of Pteroceltis tatarinowi Maxim. were treated with different concentrations of colchicine solution for different hours to figure out a proper method and obtain poly-ploids. [Result] The most effective induction was obtained by treatment with 0.6%-0.8% colchicine for 72 h with 34.2% mutation rate. Flow cytometry and chromosome observation of the stem apex growing point of P. tatarinowi Maxim. proved that the tetraploid plants were successful y obtained with chromosome number 2n=4x=36. [Conclusion] The result not only fil s the blank of polyploid breeding of P. tatarinowi , but also provides an effective way to broaden the methods of cultivation of fast-growing, high-quality, disease-resilience, new varieties of Pteroceltis.

  7. Mapping Land Surface Temperature and Land Cover to Detect Urban Heat Island Effect: A Case Study of Tarkwa, South West Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Soakodan Aduah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban Heat Island (UHI effect controls internal climates of buildings and affects energy use and comfort of urban dwellers. The objective of this study was to detect UHI from Land Surface Temperature (LST and to investigate whether land cover has any influence on UHI in Tarkwa, South West Ghana using satellite remote sensing techniques. A Landsat 7 ETM+ image, DEM and meteorological data were used to generate a land cover map with the maximum likelihood classification algorithm whiles LST was modeled with the Landsat Plank’s curve. Validation of the LST map was achieved by comparing it with air temperature measured at the UMaT meteorological station. The mean modeled LST of 298.60 Kelvin compared well with the mean observed air temperature of 298.30 Kelvin. Furthermore, LST ranged between 289 and 305 Kelvin while urban areas and bare soils had higher LSTs than vegetated areas implying that higher NDVI areas are associated with lower temperatures. Hence, LST maps produced indicated the existence of UHI effect in the Tarkwa area. From the study it is evident that impervious and non-evaporative surfaces have high LSTs due to absence of vegetation. Therefore, uncontrolled land cover changes may intensify the UHI effect. The study has proven that remote sensing can be used in operational mapping of LST for climate studies, vegetation monitoring and detecting UHIs in the humid regions of Ghana. This confirms the important role Earth observation and geoinformation technology can play in environmental monitoring and management as global climate and land cover changes.

  8. A new drought index that considers the joint effects of climate and land surface change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meixian; Xu, Xianli; Xu, Chaohao; Sun, Alexander Y.; Wang, Kelin; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Zhang, Lu

    2017-04-01

    This study proposes a hydrological drought index, the standardized wetness index (SWI), by combining the structure of the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index and actual-evaporation-based residual water-energy ratio, in which actual evaporation is estimated using the Budyko hypothesis. The SWI requires three parameters—precipitation, potential evaporation, and parameter n of a Budyko-type formula. Based on different types of n (fixed or dynamic), SWI can be used to estimate the dryness/wetness resulting from climate change (variability) solely, and from the joint effects of climate and land surface change (variability). Performance of SWI is evaluated using historical droughts and by comparing to the self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index. Results show that SWI effectively captures global droughts. Furthermore, a case study in two catchments with significant land surface modification indicates that the joint effects of climate and land surface have greater impacts on dryness/wetness in the water-limited Wuding catchment than in the energy-limited Poyang catchment.

  9. Differentiating the effects of climate and land use change on European biodiversity: A scenario analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaat, Jan E; Hellmann, Fritz A; van Teeffelen, Astrid J A; van Minnen, Jelle; Alkemade, Rob; Billeter, Regula; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Boitani, Luigi; Cabeza, Mar; Feld, Christian K; Huntley, Brian; Paterson, James; WallisDeVries, Michiel F

    2017-04-01

    Current observed as well as projected changes in biodiversity are the result of multiple interacting factors, with land use and climate change often marked as most important drivers. We aimed to disentangle the separate impacts of these two for sets of vascular plant, bird, butterfly and dragonfly species listed as characteristic for European dry grasslands and wetlands, two habitats of high and threatened biodiversity. We combined articulations of the four frequently used SRES climate scenarios and associated land use change projections for 2030, and assessed their impact on population trends in species (i.e. whether they would probably be declining, stable or increasing). We used the BIOSCORE database tool, which allows assessment of the effects of a range of environmental pressures including climate change as well as land use change. We updated the species lists included in this tool for our two habitat types. We projected species change for two spatial scales: the EU27 covering most of Europe, and the more restricted biogeographic region of 'Continental Europe'. Other environmental pressures modelled for the four scenarios than land use and climate change generally did not explain a significant part of the variance in species richness change. Changes in characteristic bird and dragonfly species were least pronounced. Land use change was the most important driver for vascular plants in both habitats and spatial scales, leading to a decline in 50-100% of the species included, whereas climate change was more important for wetland dragonflies and birds (40-50 %). Patterns of species decline were similar in continental Europe and the EU27 for wetlands but differed for dry grasslands, where a substantially lower proportion of butterflies and birds declined in continental Europe, and 50 % of bird species increased, probably linked to a projected increase in semi-natural vegetation. In line with the literature using climate envelope models, we found little divergence

  10. Preventing and controlling land subsidence in Shanghai -towards more integrated and effective land use and ground water governance in the Yangtze Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Liping

    2016-04-01

    The Yangtze Delta, covers 210,700 square kilometers and with 156 million inhabitants (NRDC, 2010; The National Bureau of Statistics, 2011), is one of the areas most severely affected by land subsidence in China. Up to 2012, the area with cumulative subsidence above 200 mm in Yangtze Delta has been closed to 10,000 square kilometers. Shanghai, located at the estuary of the Yangtze River and with a population of 23 million, is the most densely populated city in Yangtze Delta (The National Bureau of Statistics, 2011). Since 1921, the recorded cumulative subsidence has been 200 to 300 mm in the central area of the city (Chai, Shen, Zhu, & Zhang, 2005). Excessive pumping of groundwater is considered to be the leading reason, accounts for nearly 70%, of the city's land subsidence, the weight of skyscrapers and global warming also play hefty roles (30%) (Springer, 2012). Research has shown that the main method to control land subsidence in Shanghai is to prevent groundwater from dropping (Chai, Shen, Zhu, & Zhang, 2005), the city has made great efforts in this regard since 1965 (the beginning of the so-called "control period"), for example, it has been recharging underground water through 121 wells with more than 60,000 tons every day since 2012 (Chinadaily, 2012). It is a huge burden considering the city has been suffering from a shortage of fresh water. In 2013, with the other two provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang in Yangtze Delta, Shanghai signed a delta cooperation agreement on the prevention and control of land subsidence and jointly issued a Prevention and Control Planning on Land Subsidence in Yangtze Delta (2014-2020), which aims to establish a long-effect mechanism in the delta scope. This research aims to analyze and assess the land and groundwater governance arrangements related to land subsidence in the Yangtze Delta in general and Shanghai in specific, in order to develop optimizing adaptation strategies and associated governance arrangements. It examines the

  11. Marketing to maximize profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duboff, R S

    1992-01-01

    An effective marketing strategy should focus on serving profitable customers, not just adding new ones. The author offers five steps that marketers can follow to ensure that their efforts provide the greatest boost to the bottom line.

  12. Maximal Margin Support Vector Machine with Magnetic Field Effect%具有磁场效应的大间隔支持向量机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶剑文; 王士同

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel maximal margin Support Vector Machine with Magnetic Field effect (MFSVM) is proposed in allusion to the improvement of the generalization performance of pattern classification issue. By introducing a minimum q-magnetic field tape, the basic idea of MFSVM is to find an optimal hyper-plane with magnetic field effect such that one class (or normal patterns) can be enclosed in the q-magnetic field tape due to the magnetic attractive effect, while at the same time the margin between the q-magnetic field tape and the other class (or abnormal patterns) is as large as possible due to magnetic repulsion, thus implementing both maximum between-class margin and minimum within-class volume so as to improve the generalization capability of the proposed method. Experimental results obtained with benchmarking and synthetic datasets show that the proposed algorithm is effective and competitive to other related methods in such cases as two-class and one-class pattern classification respectively.%为了提升模式分类泛化性能,该文提出一种新颖的具有磁场效应的大间隔支持向量机(MFSVM).为了学习最优分割超平面,MFSVM通过引入最小化的q-磁场带,使得一类(或正常类)被包含其中,而另一类(或异常类)与该q-磁场带的间隔尽可能地大,从而实现类内内聚性的提高和类间间隔的增大,增强SVM学习泛化能力.在人造和实际数据集上实验结果显示,MFSVM分别在二类和一类模式分类上的性能均优于或等同于相关方法.

  13. Effects of short-period exercise training and orlistat therapy on body composition and maximal power production capacity in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, R; Ozcelik, O

    2004-01-01

    We examined the effects of weight loss induced by diet-orlistat (DO) and diet-orlistat combined with exercise (DOE) on maximal work rate production (Wmax) capacity in obese patients. Total of 24 obese patients were involved in this study. Twelve of them were subjected to DO therapy only and the remaining 12 patients participated in a regular aerobic exercise-training program in addition to DO therapy (DOE). Each patient performed two incremental ramp exercise tests up to exhaustion using an electromagnetically-braked cycle ergometer: one at the onset and one at the end of the 4th week. DOE therapy caused a significant decrease in total body weight: 101.5+/-17.4 kg (basal) vs 96.3+/-17.3 kg (4 wk) associated with a significant decrease in body fat mass: 45.0+/-10.5 kg (basal) vs 40.9+/-9.8 kg (4 wk). DO therapy also resulted in a significant decrease of total body weight 94.9+/-14.9 kg (basal) vs 91.6+/-13.5 kg (4 wk) associated with small but significant decreases in body fat mass: 37.7+/-5.6 kg (basal) to 36.0+/-6.2 kg (4 wk). Weight reduction achieved during DO therapy was not associated with increased Wmax capacity: 106+/-32 W (basal) vs 106+/-33 W (4 wk), while DOE therapy resulted in a markedly increased Wmax capacity: 109+/-39 W (basal) vs 138+/-30 W (4 wk). DO therapy combined with aerobic exercise training resulted in a significant reduction of fat mass tissue and markedly improved the aerobic fitness and Wmax capacities of obese patients. Considering this improvement within such a short period, physicians should consider applying an aerobic exercise-training program to sedentary obese patients for improving their physical fitness and thereby reduce the negative outcomes of obesity.

  14. Land Holding Rights of Fulani Pastoralists and its Effect on their Agropastoral Production System in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sodiya, CI.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on land holding rights of the Fulani pastoralists and its effect on their agropastoral production system. It was discovered that among the land holding rights options available for land users in Yoruba communities where the Fulanis are settled, leasehold right was the viable option for the pastoralists. The implications of this is that the Fulani pastoralists cannot use the allotted lands for viable social and economic activities such as building of modern houses, establishment of small cottage industry and cultivation of permanent or cash crops such as Oil palm, Cacao, Kola etc since they are holding the land in their custody on a temporary basis. Therefore, their economic activities were limited to production of arable crops. From the average land size of about 5 ha available to majority of the pastoralist, between 0.5 and 1 ha are used for building livestock sheds, residential housing units and storage silos. Land size of about 1ha or more are cultivated for crop production and grazing pad. The situation of the pastoralists calls for government intervention in order to ensure that they have access to secured land rights. This is essential as it will make it possible for the pastoralists to become empowered to use allotted land for viable economic activities that would enhance their living status and meaningfully impact on the economy and development of their areas of settlement.

  15. Ecological mechanisms linking protected areas to surrounding lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Andrew J; DeFries, Ruth

    2007-06-01

    Land use is expanding and intensifying in the unprotected lands surrounding many of the world's protected areas. The influence of this land use change on ecological processes is poorly understood. The goal of this paper is to draw on ecological theory to provide a synthetic framework for understanding how land use change around protected areas may alter ecological processes and biodiversity within protected areas and to provide a basis for identifying scientifically based management alternatives. We first present a conceptual model of protected areas embedded within larger ecosystems that often include surrounding human land use. Drawing on case studies in this Invited Feature, we then explore a comprehensive set of ecological mechanisms by which land use on surrounding lands may influence ecological processes and biodiversity within reserves. These mechanisms involve changes in ecosystem size, with implications for minimum dynamic area, species-area effect, and trophic structure; altered flows of materials and disturbances into and out of reserves; effects on crucial habitats for seasonal and migration movements and population source/sink dynamics; and exposure to humans through hunting, poaching, exotics species, and disease. These ecological mechanisms provide a basis for assessing the vulnerability of protected areas to land use. They also suggest criteria for designing regional management to sustain protected areas in the context of surrounding human land use. These design criteria include maximizing the area of functional habitats, identifying and maintaining ecological process zones, maintaining key migration and source habitats, and managing human proximity and edge effects.

  16. Land use and conservation reserve program effects on the persistence of playa wetlands in the High Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Dale W; Smith, Loren M; Haukos, David A; Johnson, Lacrecia A; McMurry, Scott T

    2014-04-15

    Watershed cultivation and subsequent soil erosion remains the greatest threat to the service provisioning of playa wetlands in the High Plains. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) plants perennial vegetation cover on cultivated lands including playa watersheds, and therefore, the program influences sediment deposition and accumulation in playas. Our objective was to measure the effects of the CRP on sediment deposition by comparing sediment depth and present/historic size characteristics in 258 playas among three High-Plains subregions (northern, central, and southern) and the three dominant watershed types: cropland, CRP, and native grassland. Sediment depth and resultant volume loss for CRP playas were 40% and 57% lower than cropland playas, but 68% and 76% greater than playas in native grassland. Playas in CRP had remaining volumes exceeding those of cropland playas. Grassland playas had nearly three times more original playa volume and 122% greater wetland area than CRP playas. Overall, playas were larger in the south than other subregions. Sediment depth was also three times greater in the south than the north, which resulted in southern playas losing twice as much total volume as northern playas. However, the larger southern playas provide more remaining volume per playa than those in other subregions. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of proper watershed management in preserving playa wetland ecosystem service provisioning in the High Plains. Furthermore, we identify regional differences in playas that may influence management decisions and provide valuable insight to conservation practitioners trying to maximize wetland services with limited resources.

  17. Maximizing without difficulty: A modified maximizing scale and its correlates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lai, Linda

    2010-01-01

    ... included in several previous studies. Based on this scale, maximizing is positively correlated with optimism, need for cognition, desire for consistency, risk aversion, intrinsic motivation, self-efficacy and perceived workload, whereas...

  18. Maximizing and customer loyalty: Are maximizers less loyal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Lai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite their efforts to choose the best of all available solutions, maximizers seem to be more inclined than satisficers to regret their choices and to experience post-decisional dissonance. Maximizers may therefore be expected to change their decisions more frequently and hence exhibit lower customer loyalty to providers of products and services compared to satisficers. Findings from the study reported here (N = 1978 support this prediction. Maximizers reported significantly higher intentions to switch to another service provider (television provider than satisficers. Maximizers' intentions to switch appear to be intensified and mediated by higher proneness to regret, increased desire to discuss relevant choices with others, higher levels of perceived knowledge of alternatives, and higher ego involvement in the end product, compared to satisficers. Opportunities for future research are suggested.

  19. Are maximizers really unhappy? The measurement of maximizing tendency,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia L. Diab

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent research suggesting that people who maximize are less happy than those who satisfice has received considerable fanfare. The current study investigates whether this conclusion reflects the construct itself or rather how it is measured. We developed an alternative measure of maximizing tendency that is theory-based, has good psychometric properties, and predicts behavioral outcomes. In contrast to the existing maximization measure, our new measure did not correlate with life (dissatisfaction, nor with most maladaptive personality and decision-making traits. We conclude that the interpretation of maximizers as unhappy may be due to poor measurement of the construct. We present a more reliable and valid measure for future researchers to use.

  20. Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum mechanics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S M Roy

    2002-08-01

    Recently Auberson, Mahoux, Roy and Singh have proved a long standing conjecture of Roy and Singh: In 2-dimensional phase space, a maximally realistic quantum mechanics can have quantum probabilities of no more than + 1 complete commuting cets (CCS) of observables coexisting as marginals of one positive phase space density. Here I formulate a stationary principle which gives a nonperturbative definition of a maximally classical as well as maximally realistic phase space density. I show that the maximally classical trajectories are in fact exactly classical in the simple examples of coherent states and bound states of an oscillator and Gaussian free particle states. In contrast, it is known that the de Broglie–Bohm realistic theory gives highly nonclassical trajectories.

  1. Modelling the Effects of Land-Use Changes on Climate: a Case Study on Yamula DAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köylü, Ü.; Geymen, A.

    2016-10-01

    Dams block flow of rivers and cause artificial water reservoirs which affect the climate and the land use characteristics of the river basin. In this research, the effect of the huge water body obtained by Yamula Dam in Kızılırmak Basin is analysed over surrounding spatial's land use and climate change. Mann Kendal non-parametrical statistical test, Theil&Sen Slope method, Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW), Soil Conservation Service-Curve Number (SCS-CN) methods are integrated for spatial and temporal analysis of the research area. For this research humidity, temperature, wind speed, precipitation observations which are collected in 16 weather stations nearby Kızılırmak Basin are analyzed. After that these statistical information is combined by GIS data over years. An application is developed for GIS analysis in Python Programming Language and integrated with ArcGIS software. Statistical analysis calculated in the R Project for Statistical Computing and integrated with developed application. According to the statistical analysis of extracted time series of meteorological parameters, statistical significant spatiotemporal trends are observed for climate change and land use characteristics. In this study, we indicated the effect of big dams in local climate on semi-arid Yamula Dam.

  2. Effects of visual guidance on the reduction of impacts during landings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebermann, D G; Goodman, D

    1991-11-01

    While a common view is that vision is essential to motor performance, some recent studies have shown that continuous visual guidance may not always be required within certain time constraints. This study investigated a landing-related task (self-released falls) to assess the extent to which visual information enhances the ability to reduce the impacts at touchdown. Six individuals performed six blocked trials from four height categories in semi-counterbalanced order (5-10, 20-25, 60-65, and 90-95 cm) in vision and no-vision conditions randomly assigned. A series of two-way ANOVA with repeated measures were carried out separately on each dependent variable collapsed over six trials. The results indicated that vision during the flight did not produce softer landings. Indeed, in analysing the first peak (PFP) a main effect for visual condition was revealed in that the mean amplitude was slightly higher when vision was available (F(1,5) = 6.57; p less than 0.05), thus implicating higher forces at impact. The results obtained when the time to the first peak (TFP) was applied showed no significant differences between conditions (F(1,5) less than 1). As expected, in all cases, the analyses yielded significant main effects for the height categories factor. It appears that during self-initiated falls in which the environmental cues are known before the event, visual guidance is not necessary in order to adopt a softer landing strategy.

  3. Compensatory Water Effects Link Yearly Global Land CO2 Sink Changes to Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Martin; Reichstein, Markus; Tramontana, Gianluca; Viovy, Nicolas; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Wang, Ying-Ping; Weber, Ulrich; Weber, Ulrich; Zaehle, Soenke; Zeng, Ning; hide

    2017-01-01

    Large interannual variations in the measured growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) originate primarily from fluctuations in carbon uptake by land ecosystems13. It remains uncertain, however, to what extent temperature and water availability control the carbon balance of land ecosystems across spatial and temporal scales314. Here we use empirical models based on eddy covariance data15 and process-based models16,17 to investigate the effect of changes in temperature and water availability on gross primary productivity (GPP), terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) at local and global scales. We find that water availability is the dominant driver of the local interannual variability in GPP and TER. To a lesser extent this is true also for NEE at the local scale, but when integrated globally, temporal NEE variability is mostly driven by temperature fluctuations. We suggest that this apparent paradox can be explained by two compensatory water effects. Temporal water-driven GPP and TER variations compensate locally, dampening water-driven NEE variability. Spatial water availability anomalies also compensate, leaving a dominant temperature signal in the year-to-year fluctuations of the land carbon sink. These findings help to reconcile seemingly contradictory reports regarding the importance of temperature and water in controlling the interannual variability of the terrestrial carbon balance36,9,11,12,14. Our study indicates that spatial climate covariation drives the global carbon cycle response.

  4. Effects of Land Use Land Cover (LULC) and Climate on Simulation of Phosphorus loading in the Southeast United States Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jima, T. G.; Roberts, A.

    2013-12-01

    Quality of coastal and freshwater resources in the Southeastern United States is threatened due to Eutrophication as a result of excessive nutrients, and phosphorus is acknowledged as one of the major limiting nutrients. In areas with much non-point source (NPS) pollution, land use land cover and climate have been found to have significant impact on water quality. Landscape metrics applied in catchment and riparian stream based nutrient export models are known to significantly improve nutrient prediction. The regional SPARROW (Spatially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes), which predicts Total Phosphorus has been developed by the Southeastern United States regions USGS, as part of the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program and the model accuracy was found to be 67%. However, landscape composition and configuration metrics which play a significant role in the source, transport and delivery of the nutrient have not been incorporated in the model. Including these matrices in the models parameterization will improve the models accuracy and improve decision making process for mitigating and managing NPS phosphorus in the region. The National Land Cover Data 2001 raster data will be used (since the base line is 2002) for the region (with 8321 watersheds ) with fragstats 4.1 and ArcGIS Desktop 10.1 for the analysis of landscape matrices, buffers and creating map layers. The result will be imported to the Southeast SPARROW model and will be analyzed. Resulting statistical significance and model accuracy will be assessed and predictions for those areas with no water quality monitoring station will be made.

  5. Relationship between urban heat island effect and land use in Taiyuan City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shu Ting

    2016-01-01

    2015 years in Taiyuan, China. The mono-window algorithm is used to remove the influence of the atmosphere. The land surface thermal radiation intensity is obtained by the mono-window algorithm. Then the land surface true temperature is converted by the land surface thermal radiation intensity. At the same time, the remote sensing images of Taiyuan city in three time periods are classified by supervised classification method. Finally, the relationship between different years of Taiyuan land surface temperature and land use change is analysed. The results show that Taiyuan city land surface temperature is positively correlated with land use. The land surface temperature is higher when the land is frequently used. Taiyuan city land surface temperature is negatively correlated with vegetation coverage. The land surface temperature is lower when the higher vegetation is covered in the area.

  6. Effects of rainfall patterns and land cover on the subsurface flow generation of sloping Ferralsols in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jian; Yang, Jie; Tang, Chongjun; Chen, Lihua; Liu, Yaojun; Wang, Lingyun

    2017-01-01

    Rainfall patterns and land cover are two important factors that affect the runoff generation process. To determine the surface and subsurface flows associated with different rainfall patterns on sloping Ferralsols under different land cover types, observational data related to surface and subsurface flows from 5 m × 15 m plots were collected from 2010 to 2012. The experiment was conducted to assess three land cover types (grass, litter cover and bare land) in the Jiangxi Provincial Soil and Water Conservation Ecological Park. During the study period, 114 natural rainfall events produced subsurface flow and were divided into four groups using k-means clustering according to rainfall duration, rainfall depth and maximum 30-min rainfall intensity. The results showed that the total runoff and surface flow values were highest for bare land under all four rainfall patterns and lowest for the covered plots. However, covered plots generated higher subsurface flow values than bare land. Moreover, the surface and subsurface flows associated with the three land cover types differed significantly under different rainfall patterns. Rainfall patterns with low intensities and long durations created more subsurface flow in the grass and litter cover types, whereas rainfall patterns with high intensities and short durations resulted in greater surface flow over bare land. Rainfall pattern I had the highest surface and subsurface flow values for the grass cover and litter cover types. The highest surface flow value and lowest subsurface flow value for bare land occurred under rainfall pattern IV. Rainfall pattern II generated the highest subsurface flow value for bare land. Therefore, grass or litter cover are able to convert more surface flow into subsurface flow under different rainfall patterns. The rainfall patterns studied had greater effects on subsurface flow than on total runoff and surface flow for covered surfaces, as well as a greater effect on surface flows associated

  7. Maximization Paradox: Result of Believing in an Objective Best.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Mo; Li, Hong

    2017-05-01

    The results from four studies provide reliable evidence of how beliefs in an objective best influence the decision process and subjective feelings. A belief in an objective best serves as the fundamental mechanism connecting the concept of maximizing and the maximization paradox (i.e., expending great effort but feeling bad when making decisions, Study 1), and randomly chosen decision makers operate similar to maximizers once they are manipulated to believe that the best is objective (Studies 2A, 2B, and 3). In addition, the effect of a belief in an objective best on the maximization paradox is moderated by the presence of a dominant option (Study 3). The findings of this research contribute to the maximization literature by demonstrating that believing in an objective best leads to the maximization paradox. The maximization paradox is indeed the result of believing in an objective best.

  8. Evaluating the combined effects of climate and land-use change on tree species distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Valdes, Raul; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Zavala, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    of the lost habitats. However, we did not detect synergies between climate change and habitat loss. The combined effect (with 20% habitat loss) was 5-13% less than what it would be if the effects were additive. Importantly, reforestation could partially offset the negative effects of climate change....... The combined effect (with 20% habitat loss) was 5-13% less than what it would be if the effects were additive. Importantly, reforestation could partially offset the negative effects of climate change, but complete mitigation would require an increase in forested land of ∼80%, and the prioritization......-use changes leading to habitat gain (i.e. creation through reforestation) could slightly mitigate the effects of climate change, but a 20% increment in habitat would reduce climate change-driven losses in species occupancies by only ∼3%. Synthesis and applications. The distributions of the most common tree...

  9. Effects of Slope on Land Use/Land Cover Change%坡度对土地利用/覆被变化的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡荣明; 李锐; 郭斌; 文雯

    2011-01-01

    为了研究坡度因素对土地利用/覆被分布及其动态变化的影响,以陕西省西安市长安区为研究区,采用数字高程模型、遥感影像及相关辅助数据,应用GIS手段提供的空间分析方法,将长安区地形进行坡度分级,把两个不同时期的遥感影像解译结果与坡度分级图进行了空间叠加分析。研究结果表明,耕地、建筑用地、水域等分布在坡度较小范围,林地、草地的坡度分布范围近似于正态分布。不同年份各土地利用类型在相同坡度所占面积比例基本不变;不同坡度范围内的土地利用变化不尽相同。其它土地类型向耕地和建筑用地的转化主要集中在低坡度范围内,而其它土地类型向林地和草地的转化在整个坡度范围上大体呈正态分布。因此,坡度因素是土地利用/土地覆被的重要影响因素,坡度因素对土地利用格局具有明显的控制作用。%In order to study the effects of slope on land use/land cover distribution and its dynamic change,taking Chang′an District of Xi′an City,Shaanxi Province as a case study area,classified the slope derived from the digital elevation model,and then a spatial overlay analysis has been done for slope map and land use map derived from remote sensing maps.The results showed that cultivated field,construction land,water mainly distributed in areas with slight slope,and woodland,grassland distribution on slope showed a normal distribution.The percentage of different land use types in same slope area was essentially same in different years while different land-use change existed in different slopes.The conversion of other land use types to construction land and the farmland mainly occurred in the slight slope area while the conversion to forest and grassland showed a normal distribution in the whole range of slope.The slope is an important factor to land use/land cover distribution and land use pattern.

  10. Subsurface Emission Effects in AMSR-E Measurements: Implications for Land Surface Microwave Emissivity Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galantowicz, John F.; Moncet, Jean-Luc; Liang, Pan; Lipton, Alan E.; Uymin, Gennady; Prigent, Catherine; Grassotti, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of land surface microwave emission time series shows that the characteristic diurnal signature associated with subsurface emission in sandy deserts carry over to arid and semi-arid region worldwide. Prior work found that diurnal variation of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) brightness temperatures in deserts was small relative to International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project land surface temperature (LST) variation and that the difference varied with surface type and was largest in sand sea regions. Here we find more widespread subsurface emission effects in Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) measurements. The AMSR-E orbit has equator crossing times near 01:30 and 13 :30 local time, resulting in sampling when near-surface temperature gradients are likely to be large and amplifying the influence of emission depth on effective emitting temperature relative to other factors. AMSR-E measurements are also temporally coincident with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST measurements, eliminating time lag as a source of LST uncertainty and reducing LST errors due to undetected clouds. This paper presents monthly global emissivity and emission depth index retrievals for 2003 at 11, 19, 37, and 89 GHz from AMSR-E, MODIS, and SSM/I time series data. Retrieval model fit error, stability, self-consistency, and land surface modeling results provide evidence for the validity of the subsurface emission hypothesis and the retrieval approach. An analysis of emission depth index, emissivity, precipitation, and vegetation index seasonal trends in northern and southern Africa suggests that changes in the emission depth index may be tied to changes in land surface moisture and vegetation conditions

  11. Clinical evaluation of iterative reconstruction (ordered-subset expectation maximization) in dynamic positron emission tomography: quantitative effects on kinetic modeling with N-13 ammonia in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, Jens Dahlgaard; Rasmussen, R.; Freiberg, J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the quantitative properties of ordered-subset expectation maximization (OSEM) on kinetic modeling with nitrogen 13 ammonia compared with filtered backprojection (FBP) in healthy subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cardiac N-13 ammonia positron...

  12. Effect of formoterol, a long-acting β2-adrenergic agonist, on muscle strength and power output, metabolism and fatigue during maximal sprinting in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalsen, Anders; Hostrup, Morten; Backer, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    L min(-1) kg(-1)) performed a 30-s cycle ergometer sprint after inhalation of either 54 µg formoterol (FOR) or placebo (PLA). Before and after the sprint, muscle biopsies were collected from vastus lateralis and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and contractile properties of quadriceps were measured...

  13. Low temperature lignocellulose pretreatment: effects and interactions of pretreatment pH are critical for maximizing enzymatic monosaccharide yields from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Johansen, Katja S.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    C for 10 min. The maximal enzymatic glucose and xylose yields from the solid, pretreated wheat straw fraction were obtained after pretreatments at the most extreme pH values (pH 1 or pH 13) at the maximum pretreatment temperature of 140 degrees C. Surface response models revealed significantly...

  14. Biophysical effects on temperature and precipitation due to land cover change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugini, Lucia; Caporaso, Luca; Marconi, Sergio; Cescatti, Alessandro; Quesada, Benjamin; de Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie; House, Johanna I.; Arneth, Almut

    2017-05-01

    Anthropogenic land cover changes (LCC) affect regional and global climate through biophysical variations of the surface energy budget mediated by albedo, evapotranspiration, and roughness. This change in surface energy budget may exacerbate or counteract biogeochemical greenhouse gas effects of LCC, with a large body of emerging assessments being produced, sometimes apparently contradictory. We reviewed the existing scientific literature with the objective to provide an overview of the state-of-the-knowledge of the biophysical LCC climate effects, in support of the assessment of mitigation/adaptation land policies. Out of the published studies that were analyzed, 28 papers fulfilled the eligibility criteria, providing surface air temperature and/or precipitation change with respect to LCC regionally and/or globally. We provide a synthesis of the signal, magnitude and uncertainty of temperature and precipitation changes in response to LCC biophysical effects by climate region (boreal/temperate/tropical) and by key land cover transitions. Model results indicate that a modification of biophysical processes at the land surface has a strong regional climate effect, and non-negligible global impact on temperature. Simulations experiments of large-scale (i.e. complete) regional deforestation lead to a mean reduction in precipitation in all regions, while air surface temperature increases in the tropics and decreases in boreal regions. The net global climate effects of regional deforestation are less certain. There is an overall consensus in the model experiments that the average global biophysical climate response to complete global deforestation is atmospheric cooling and drying. Observed estimates of temperature change following deforestation indicate a smaller effect than model-based regional estimates in boreal regions, comparable results in the tropics, and contrasting results in temperate regions. Regional/local biophysical effects following LCC are important for

  15. Simulation of the climatic effects of land use/land cover changes in eastern China using multi-model ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianliang; Xiong, Zhe; Zhang, Xuezhen; Shi, Ying; Liu, Jiyuan; Shao, Quanqin; Yan, Xiaodong

    2017-07-01

    Human activities have caused substantial land use/cover change (LUCC) in China, especially in northeast China, the Loess Plateau and southern China. Three high-resolution regional climate models were used to simulate the impacts of LUCC on climate through one control experiment and three land use change experiments from 1980 to 2000. The results showed that multi-regional climate model ensemble simulations (the arithmetic ensemble mean (AEM) and Bayesian model averaging (BMA)) provide more accurate results than a single model in over 70% grid cells of study regions. Uncertainty was reduced when using the two ensemble methods. The results of the AEM and BMA ensembles showed that the temperatures decreased by 0.2-0.4 °C in northeast China, the Yangtze river valley and the north of the Loess Plateau, and by 0.6-1.0 °C in the south of the Loess Plateau in spring, autumn and winter. The AEM precipitations changed by - 40-40 mm in in spring and winter, and by - 100-100 mm in summer and autumn, while the BMA precipitations changed by - 20-20 mm in spring, autumn and winter, and by - 50-50 mm in summer. The seasonal precipitation decreased in northeast China and the Yangtze river valley, and increased in the Loess Plateau in most grid cells of study regions. Winter and spring precipitation decreased more in the Yangtze river valley and the Loess Plateau than in northeast China.

  16. Land-use intensification effects on functional properties in tropical plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreño-Rocabado, Geovana; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Bongers, Frans; Díaz, Sandra; Quetier, Fabien; Chuviña, José; Poorter, Lourens

    2016-01-01

    There is consensus that plant diversity and ecosystem processes are negatively affected by land-use intensification (LUI), but, at the same time, there is empirical evidence that a large heterogeneity can be found in the responses. This heterogeneity is especially poorly understood in tropical ecosystems. We evaluated changes in community functional properties across five common land-use types in the wet tropics with different land-use intensity: mature forest, logged forest, secondary forest, agricultural land, and pastureland, located in the lowlands of Bolivia. For the dominant plant species, we measured 12 functional response traits related to their life history, acquisition and conservation of resources, plant domestication, and breeding. We used three single-trait metrics to describe community functional properties: community abundance-weighted mean (CWM) traits values, coefficient of variation, and kurtosis of distribution. The CWM of all 12 traits clearly responded to LUI. Overall, we found that an increase in LUI resulted in communities dominated by plants with acquisitive leaf trait values. However, contrary to our expectations, secondary forests had more conservative trait values (i.e., lower specific leaf area) than mature and logged forest, probably because they were dominated by palm species. Functional variation peaked at intermediate land-use intensity (high coefficient of variation and low kurtosis), which included secondary forest but, unexpectedly, also agricultural land, which is an intensely managed system. The high functional variation of these systems is due to a combination of how response traits (and species) are filtered out by biophysical filters and how management practices introduced a range of exotic species and their trait values into the local species pool. Our results showed that, at local scales and depending on prevailing environmental and management practices, LUI does not necessarily result in communities with more acquisitive

  17. The effects of climate change and land-use change on demographic rates and population viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwood, Katherine E; McGeoch, Melodie A; Mac Nally, Ralph

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the processes that lead to species extinctions is vital for lessening pressures on biodiversity. While species diversity, presence and abundance are most commonly used to measure the effects of human pressures, demographic responses give a more proximal indication of how pressures affect population viability and contribute to extinction risk. We reviewed how demographic rates are affected by the major anthropogenic pressures, changed landscape condition caused by human land use, and climate change. We synthesized the results of 147 empirical studies to compare the relative effect size of climate and landscape condition on birth, death, immigration and emigration rates in plant and animal populations. While changed landscape condition is recognized as the major driver of species declines and losses worldwide, we found that, on average, climate variables had equally strong effects on demographic rates in plant and animal populations. This is significant given that the pressures of climate change will continue to intensify in coming decades. The effects of climate change on some populations may be underestimated because changes in climate conditions during critical windows of species life cycles may have disproportionate effects on demographic rates. The combined pressures of land-use change and climate change may result in species declines and extinctions occurring faster than otherwise predicted, particularly if their effects are multiplicative.

  18. Evaluating the effect of land use land cover change in a rapidly urbanizing semi-arid watershed on estuarine freshwater inflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, D.; Smith, P.; Popescu, S.

    2006-12-01

    Estuarine freshwater inflows along with their associated nutrient and metal delivery are influenced by the land use/land cover (LULC) and water management practices in the contributing watershed. This study evaluates the effect of rapid urbanization in the San Antonio River Watershed on the amount of freshwater inflow reaching the San Antonio-Guadalupe estuary on the Gulf Coast of Texas. Remotely sensed data from satellite imagery provided a source of reliable data for land use classification and land cover change analysis; while long time series of the geophysical signals of stream flow and precipitation provided the data needed to assess change in flow in the watershed. LULC was determined using LANDSAT (5 TM and 7 ETM) satellite images over 20 years (1985-2003). The LANDSAT images were classified using an ENVI. ISODATA classification scheme. Changes were quantified in terms of the urban expansion that had occurred in past 20 years using an urban index. Streamflow was analyzed using 20 years (1985-2004) of average daily discharge obtained from the USGS gauging station (08188500) closest to the headwaters of the estuary. Baseflow and storm flow were partitioned from total flow using a universally used baseflow separation technique. Precipitation data was obtained from an NCDC station in the watershed. Preliminary results indicate that the most significant change in land use over the 20 year period was an increase in the total amount of impervious area in the watershed. This increase in impervious area was accompanied by an increase in both total streamflow and in baseflow over the same period. The investigation did not show a significant change in total annual precipitation from 1990 to 2004. This suggests that the increase in streamflow was more influenced by LULC than climate change. One explanation for the increase in baseflow may be an increase in return flows resulting from an increase in the total number of wastewater treatment plants in the watershed.

  19. Studying the Effect of Runoff Parameterization and Interaction between Atmosphere and Land Surface in Land Surface Schemes Used in NWP Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodamorad Poor, M.; Irannejad, P.

    2009-04-01

    Land Surface Schemes that is one of the most important components in climate and numerical weather prediction models (NWP) has concentrated on surface energy and water budgets. Water budget is the hydrologic core of the land surface schemes and it is presented as the precipitation which is divided into evapotranspiration, runoff and changing in soil moisture. It is also introduced by different parameterizations among land surface schemes. Since Runoff is the major component of the water budget, unrealistic simulation of it can have some effects on the other components used in water budget and hence on the laten heat flux between atmosphere and land surface. Different representations of runoff in NWP models are relatively simple because runoff is conceptually difficult to be parameterized. Regarding that topography has a major control on the distribution of soil moisture and runoff, the main objective in this study is to find the parameterization runoff which is better to be introduced in NWP models. The algorithm used in Simple TOP Model (SIMTOP) for runoff parameterization is put in NOAH LSM utilized in Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). In SIMTOP, surface and subsurface runoff are considered as exponential functions of water table depth, but in NOAH LSM runoff is produced by extra maximum soil infiltration. The SIMTOP is like TOPMODEL that implemented topographic information (expressed by topographic index) and the nature of soil (indicated by reducing hydraulic conductivity with soil depth). The SIMTOP is simpler than TOPMODEL because of reducing in parameters that are needed to be calibrated. The surface runoff is the sum of two components, the first generated by infiltration excess (Horton mechanism) and the second, referring to variable contributed area, by saturation excess (Dunn mechanism). The subsurface runoff is represented by topographic control, bottom drainage and saturation excess. Although the river routing is very important for

  20. The effect of atmospheric and topographic correction methods on land cover classification accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanonckelen, Steven; Lhermitte, Stefaan; Van Rompaey, Anton

    2013-10-01

    Mapping of vegetation in mountain areas based on remote sensing is obstructed by atmospheric and topographic distortions. A variety of atmospheric and topographic correction methods has been proposed to minimize atmospheric and topographic effects and should in principle lead to a better land cover classification. Only a limited number of atmospheric and topographic combinations has been tested and the effect on class accuracy and on different illumination conditions is not yet researched extensively. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of coupled correction methods on land cover classification accuracy. Therefore, all combinations of three atmospheric (no atmospheric correction, dark object subtraction and correction based on transmittance functions) and five topographic corrections (no topographic correction, band ratioing, cosine correction, pixel-based Minnaert and pixel-based C-correction) were applied on two acquisitions (2009 and 2010) of a Landsat image in the Romanian Carpathian mountains. The accuracies of the fifteen resulting land cover maps were evaluated statistically based on two validation sets: a random validation set and a validation subset containing pixels present in the difference area between the uncorrected classification and one of the fourteen corrected classifications. New insights into the differences in classification accuracy were obtained. First, results showed that all corrected images resulted in higher overall classification accuracies than the uncorrected images. The highest accuracy for the full validation set was achieved after combination of an atmospheric correction based on transmittance functions and a pixel-based Minnaert topographic correction. Secondly, class accuracies of especially the coniferous and mixed forest classes were enhanced after correction. There was only a minor improvement for the other land cover classes (broadleaved forest, bare soil, grass and water). This was explained by the position

  1. Analysis and Countermeasures on Effective Land Use of Rural Residential Area in Jinan,Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hong

    2006-01-01

    With the improvement of urbanization and the expansion of urban size, the cultivated land decreases gradually but the demand for urban land increases, thereby resulting in the conflict of land use. Analyzing the status quo of land use of rural residential area, this paper points out that two main problems, namely, the low degree of land use, and the waste of land resources that are prevalent in the rural residential area. Based on the above analysis,the author states that the emphasis on land use will be the plain regions in the future, and adoption of reasonable economic measures will be the new solution to the problems.

  2. Maximizing ROI with yield management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neil Snyder

    2001-01-01

    .... the technology is based on the concept of yield management, which aims to sell the right product to the right customer at the right price and the right time therefore maximizing revenue, or yield...

  3. Effects of land cover change on the tropical circulation in a GCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonko, Alexandra Karolina [Universitaet Bonn, Meteorologisches Institut, Bonn (Germany); Oregon State University, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Corvallis, OR (United States); Hense, Andreas [Universitaet Bonn, Meteorologisches Institut, Bonn (Germany); Feddema, Johannes Jan [University of Kansas, Department of Geography, Lawrence, KS (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Multivariate statistics are used to investigate sensitivity of the tropical atmospheric circulation to scenario-based global land cover change (LCC), with the largest changes occurring in the tropics. Three simulations performed with the fully coupled Parallel Climate Model (PCM) are compared: (1) a present day control run; (2) a simulation with present day land cover and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A2 greenhouse gas (GHG) projections; and (3) a simulation with SRES A2 land cover and GHG projections. Dimensionality of PCM data is reduced by projection onto a priori specified eigenvectors, consisting of Rossby and Kelvin waves produced by a linearized, reduced gravity model of the tropical circulation. A Hotelling T {sup 2} test is performed on projection amplitudes. Effects of LCC evaluated by this method are limited to diabatic heating. A statistically significant and recurrent signal is detected for 33% of all tests performed for various combinations of parameters. Taking into account uncertainties and limitations of the present methodology, this signal can be interpreted as a Rossby wave response to prescribed LCC. The Rossby waves are shallow, large-scale motions, trapped at the equator and most pronounced in boreal summer. Differences in mass and flow fields indicate a shift of the tropical Walker circulation patterns with an anomalous subsidence over tropical South America. (orig.)

  4. Predicting bee community responses to land-use changes: Effects of geographic and taxonomic biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, Adriana; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Aizen, Marcelo A.; Albrecht, Matthias; Basset, Yves; Bates, Adam; Blake, Robin J.; Boutin, Céline; Bugter, Rob; Connop, Stuart; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Cunningham, Saul A.; Darvill, Ben; Diekötter, Tim; Dorn, Silvia; Downing, Nicola; Entling, Martin H.; Farwig, Nina; Felicioli, Antonio; Fonte, Steven J.; Fowler, Robert; Franzén, Markus; Goulson, Dave; Grass, Ingo; Hanley, Mick E.; Hendrix, Stephen D.; Herrmann, Farina; Herzog, Felix; Holzschuh, Andrea; Jauker, Birgit; Kessler, Michael; Knight, M. E.; Kruess, Andreas; Lavelle, Patrick; Le Féon, Violette; Lentini, Pia; Malone, Louise A.; Marshall, Jon; Pachón, Eliana Martínez; McFrederick, Quinn S.; Morales, Carolina L.; Mudri-Stojnic, Sonja; Nates-Parra, Guiomar; Nilsson, Sven G.; Öckinger, Erik; Osgathorpe, Lynne; Parra-H, Alejandro; Peres, Carlos A.; Persson, Anna S.; Petanidou, Theodora; Poveda, Katja; Power, Eileen F.; Quaranta, Marino; Quintero, Carolina; Rader, Romina; Richards, Miriam H.; Roulston, T’ai; Rousseau, Laurent; Sadler, Jonathan P.; Samnegård, Ulrika; Schellhorn, Nancy A.; Schüepp, Christof; Schweiger, Oliver; Smith-Pardo, Allan H.; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stout, Jane C.; Tonietto, Rebecca K.; Tscharntke, Teja; Tylianakis, Jason M.; Verboven, Hans A. F.; Vergara, Carlos H.; Verhulst, Jort; Westphal, Catrin; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Purvis, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Land-use change and intensification threaten bee populations worldwide, imperilling pollination services. Global models are needed to better characterise, project, and mitigate bees' responses to these human impacts. The available data are, however, geographically and taxonomically unrepresentative; most data are from North America and Western Europe, overrepresenting bumblebees and raising concerns that model results may not be generalizable to other regions and taxa. To assess whether the geographic and taxonomic biases of data could undermine effectiveness of models for conservation policy, we have collated from the published literature a global dataset of bee diversity at sites facing land-use change and intensification, and assess whether bee responses to these pressures vary across 11 regions (Western, Northern, Eastern and Southern Europe; North, Central and South America; Australia and New Zealand; South East Asia; Middle and Southern Africa) and between bumblebees and other bees. Our analyses highlight strong regionally-based responses of total abundance, species richness and Simpson's diversity to land use, caused by variation in the sensitivity of species and potentially in the nature of threats. These results suggest that global extrapolation of models based on geographically and taxonomically restricted data may underestimate the true uncertainty, increasing the risk of ecological surprises. PMID:27509831

  5. Optimization in the utility maximization framework for conservation planning: a comparison of solution procedures in a study of multifunctional agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Kreitler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative methods of spatial conservation prioritization have traditionally been applied to issues in conservation biology and reserve design, though their use in other types of natural resource management is growing. The utility maximization problem is one form of a covering problem where multiple criteria can represent the expected social benefits of conservation action. This approach allows flexibility with a problem formulation that is more general than typical reserve design problems, though the solution methods are very similar. However, few studies have addressed optimization in utility maximization problems for conservation planning, and the effect of solution procedure is largely unquantified. Therefore, this study mapped five criteria describing elements of multifunctional agriculture to determine a hypothetical conservation resource allocation plan for agricultural land conservation in the Central Valley of CA, USA. We compared solution procedures within the utility maximization framework to determine the difference between an open source integer programming approach and a greedy heuristic, and find gains from optimization of up to 12%. We also model land availability for conservation action as a stochastic process and determine the decline in total utility compared to the globally optimal set using both solution algorithms. Our results are comparable to other studies illustrating the benefits of optimization for different conservation planning problems, and highlight the importance of maximizing the effectiveness of limited funding for conservation and natural resource management.

  6. Optimization in the utility maximization framework for conservation planning: a comparison of solution procedures in a study of multifunctional agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitler, Jason; Stoms, David M; Davis, Frank W

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative methods of spatial conservation prioritization have traditionally been applied to issues in conservation biology and reserve design, though their use in other types of natural resource management is growing. The utility maximization problem is one form of a covering problem where multiple criteria can represent the expected social benefits of conservation action. This approach allows flexibility with a problem formulation that is more general than typical reserve design problems, though the solution methods are very similar. However, few studies have addressed optimization in utility maximization problems for conservation planning, and the effect of solution procedure is largely unquantified. Therefore, this study mapped five criteria describing elements of multifunctional agriculture to determine a hypothetical conservation resource allocation plan for agricultural land conservation in the Central Valley of CA, USA. We compared solution procedures within the utility maximization framework to determine the difference between an open source integer programming approach and a greedy heuristic, and find gains from optimization of up to 12%. We also model land availability for conservation action as a stochastic process and determine the decline in total utility compared to the globally optimal set using both solution algorithms. Our results are comparable to other studies illustrating the benefits of optimization for different conservation planning problems, and highlight the importance of maximizing the effectiveness of limited funding for conservation and natural resource management.

  7. Hydro-climatic Effects of Present and Future Land Cover / Land Use Changes in the Upper Mesopotamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Yeliz; Lütfi Şen, Ömer; Utku Turunçoǧlu, Ufuk

    2016-04-01

    The Southeastern Anatolia Project (SAP) of Turkey, one of the largest regional development projects in the world, aims to irrigate the vast semi-arid plains of the upper Mesopotamia by transferring water from the Euphrates and Tigris rivers. At the current realization level of irrigation projects (about 25%), it has already caused extensive land cover / land use (LCLU) changes in the region. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess the resultant hydro-climatic changes using a state-of-the-art regional climate model (RegCM4). The simulations include a reference one with a LCLU map reflecting the pre-SAP conditions, and two sensitivity simulations incorporating the current and future LCLU maps for the region, the latter being the situation upon the completion of the project. The model is driven with the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis for the 20-year period between 1991 and 2010. The sensitivity experiment involves two nesting domains with 48 and 12 km resolutions, respectively, the latter being downscaled to 3 km resolution with the subgrid feature of the land surface model. The performance analysis of the model yields that it is able to reproduce the temperature and precipitation fields fairly well. The preliminary results indicate that, on annual basis, the LCLU change in the region will decrease the surface temperatures by about 0.4-0.8 °C and will increase specific humidity by about 8-17%. Furthermore, these changes will lead to 3-7% precipitation increase in the region, and much of this increase will occur in spring. The evapotranspiration increase estimated by the model amounts to 51-114% over the pre-SAP conditions. Given the fact that the water of the region is primarily partitioned between energy production, irrigation and release for the downstream countries, Syria and Iraq, the dramatic increase in water loss through evapotranspiration has potential to alter the water management practices and policy measures in the larger region. Acknowledgment This study has been

  8. Are CEOs Expected Utility Maximizers?

    OpenAIRE

    John List; Charles Mason

    2009-01-01

    Are individuals expected utility maximizers? This question represents much more than academic curiosity. In a normative sense, at stake are the fundamental underpinnings of the bulk of the last half-century's models of choice under uncertainty. From a positive perspective, the ubiquitous use of benefit-cost analysis across government agencies renders the expected utility maximization paradigm literally the only game in town. In this study, we advance the literature by exploring CEO's preferen...

  9. Gaussian maximally multipartite entangled states

    CERN Document Server

    Facchi, Paolo; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Pascazio, Saverio

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the notion of maximally multipartite entangled states (MMES) in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. These are bosonic multipartite states that are maximally entangled over all possible bipartitions of the system. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect MMESs, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of MMESs and their frustration for n <= 7.

  10. All maximally entangling unitary operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Scott M. [Department of Physics, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15282 (United States); Department of Physics, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    We characterize all maximally entangling bipartite unitary operators, acting on systems A and B of arbitrary finite dimensions d{sub A}{<=}d{sub B}, when ancillary systems are available to both parties. Several useful and interesting consequences of this characterization are discussed, including an understanding of why the entangling and disentangling capacities of a given (maximally entangling) unitary can differ and a proof that these capacities must be equal when d{sub A}=d{sub B}.

  11. On the maximal diphoton width

    CERN Document Server

    Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the 750 GeV diphoton excess found at LHC, we compute the maximal width into $\\gamma\\gamma$ that a neutral scalar can acquire through a loop of charged fermions or scalars as function of the maximal scale at which the theory holds, taking into account vacuum (meta)stability bounds. We show how an extra gauge symmetry can qualitatively weaken such bounds, and explore collider probes and connections with Dark Matter.

  12. Management effectiveness and land cover change in dynamic cultural landscapes-assessing a central European biosphere reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohnesorge, B.; Plieninger, Tobias; Hostert, P.

    2013-01-01

    to assess the effectiveness of Central European reserves in meeting their land cover related management goals. Based on digital biotope maps, we defined and assessed land cover change processes that were relevant to the reserve management's goals over a period of 13 years. We then compared these changes...... 85% across all zones-differences in land cover changes can be more prominent across zones inside the reserve than between the areas inside and outside of it. The reserve as a whole performed better than the surrounding reference area when using land cover related management goals as a benchmark...... in the reserve's core, buffer, and transition zones and in a surrounding reference area by means of a geographical information system. (Un-)desirable key processes related to management aims were defined and compared for the various zones. We found that-despite an overall land cover persistence of approximately...

  13. The Effect of Land Use Change on Soil Type and Clay Mineralogy in Safashahr Area, Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Karimi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, changing the rangelands to agriculture and garden is common. To investigate the impact of land use change on the soils type and clay mineralogy, four land uses including rangeland with poor vegetation, agricultural land, new and old apple orchards were selected in Safashahr area, Fars province. In each land use, three soil profiles were excavated and described and one profile was considered as representative. After required physical and chemical analyses, they were classified according to Soil Taxonomy (ST and the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB. Selected surface and subsurface samples were also collected for clay mineralogy studies. Results showed that changing land use did not have significant effect on soil type and clay minerals and all soils consist of mica, chlorite, smectite, kaolinite and mixed layer minerals. Results demonstrated that ST is more efficient compared to WRB to classify the studied soils.

  14. Dynamic Variation Characteristics of Phosphorus in Paddy Field Runoff in Saline Land and Its Potential Environmental Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the dynamic variation characteristics of phosphorus in paddy field runoff in saline land and its potential environmental effect. [Method] Taking Qianguo irrigation district in soda-saline land in Songnen Plain as study object, the dynamic variation law of phosphorus in paddy field runoff under different irrigation conditions and its potential environmental effect were discussed. [Result] Surface water in paddy field was alkaline, and scattered soil had poor fertilizer conser...

  15. Carbon Emission Effect of Land Use in Nanchang City and Its Optimization Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haisheng; CAI; Ting; ZHANG; Xueling; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Land use/coverage change(LUCC)exerts a profound influence on global carbon emission through changing structure and functions of ecosystem.Taking Nanchang City as an example,this study determined organic carbon emission of land ecosystem by ecosystem type method.In 2005,total carbon emission of Nanchang City was 4.826 2 Tg.In 2010,it became 5.535 9 Tg,showing a growth trend of carbon emission from land use change.The carbon emission of cropland and grassland decreased in 2005-2010,that of garden land and construction land had increase,and carbon absorption function of water land and other unused land was weakened.Due to difference of land use structure,the carbon emission of Nanchang City is varied.In 2005-2010,the rank of carbon emission from high to low is as follows:Nanchang County,Xinjian County,Jinxian County and Qingshanhu District.In combination with land use change and development plan of Nanchang City,Nanchang City should take carbon emission reduction measures,including conceding the land to forestry,returning the land to water,limiting excessive expansion of construction land,optimizing distribution of urban land use,flexibly regulating land supply policies,and establishing carbon trading legal system,to reach the objective of combining land use plan with ecological construction.

  16. Predicting plant diversity patterns in Madagascar: understanding the effects of climate and land cover change in a biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kerry A; Parks, Katherine E; Bethell, Colin A; Johnson, Steig E; Mulligan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Climate and land cover change are driving a major reorganization of terrestrial biotic communities in tropical ecosystems. In an effort to understand how biodiversity patterns in the tropics will respond to individual and combined effects of these two drivers of environmental change, we use species distribution models (SDMs) calibrated for recent climate and land cover variables and projected to future scenarios to predict changes in diversity patterns in Madagascar. We collected occurrence records for 828 plant genera and 2186 plant species. We developed three scenarios, (i.e., climate only, land cover only and combined climate-land cover) based on recent and future climate and land cover variables. We used this modelling framework to investigate how the impacts of changes to climate and land cover influenced biodiversity across ecoregions and elevation bands. There were large-scale climate- and land cover-driven changes in plant biodiversity across Madagascar, including both losses and gains in diversity. The sharpest declines in biodiversity were projected for the eastern escarpment and high elevation ecosystems. Sharp declines in diversity were driven by the combined climate-land cover scenarios; however, there were subtle, region-specific differences in model outputs for each scenario, where certain regions experienced relatively higher species loss under climate or land cover only models. We strongly caution that predicted future gains in plant diversity will depend on the development and maintenance of dispersal pathways that connect current and future suitable habitats. The forecast for Madagascar's plant diversity in th