WorldWideScience

Sample records for land-based transport systems

  1. LAND-BASED MOBILE LASER SCANNING SYSTEMS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Puente

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile mapping has been using various photogrammetric techniques for many years. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of mobile mapping systems using laser scanners available in the market, partially because of the improvement in GNSS/INS performance for direct georeferencing. In this article, some of the most important land-based mobile laser scanning (MLS systems are reviewed. Firstly, the main characteristics of MLS systems vs. airborne (ALS and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS systems are compared. Secondly, a short overview of the mobile mapping technology is also provided so that the reader can fully grasp the complexity and operation of these devices. As we put forward in this paper, a comparison of different systems is briefly carried out regarding specifications provided by the manufacturers. Focuses on the current research are also addressed with emphasis on the practical applications of these systems. Most of them have been utilized for data collection on road infrastructures or building façades. This article shows that MLS technology is nowadays well established and proven, since the demand has grown to the point that there are several systems suppliers offering their products to satisfy this particular market.

  2. Land-Based Mobile Laser Scanning Systems: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, I.; González-Jorge, H.; Arias, P.; Armesto, J.

    2011-09-01

    Mobile mapping has been using various photogrammetric techniques for many years. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of mobile mapping systems using laser scanners available in the market, partially because of the improvement in GNSS/INS performance for direct georeferencing. In this article, some of the most important land-based mobile laser scanning (MLS) systems are reviewed. Firstly, the main characteristics of MLS systems vs. airborne (ALS) and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) systems are compared. Secondly, a short overview of the mobile mapping technology is also provided so that the reader can fully grasp the complexity and operation of these devices. As we put forward in this paper, a comparison of different systems is briefly carried out regarding specifications provided by the manufacturers. Focuses on the current research are also addressed with emphasis on the practical applications of these systems. Most of them have been utilized for data collection on road infrastructures or building façades. This article shows that MLS technology is nowadays well established and proven, since the demand has grown to the point that there are several systems suppliers offering their products to satisfy this particular market.

  3. Tracing dissolved organic matter (DOM) from land-based aquaculture systems in North Patagonian streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimptsch, Jorge; Woelfl, Stefan; Osorio, Sebastian; Valenzuela, Jose; Ebersbach, Paul; von Tuempling, Wolf; Palma, Rodrigo; Encina, Francisco; Figueroa, David; Kamjunke, Norbert; Graeber, Daniel

    2015-12-15

    Chile is the second largest producer of salmonids worldwide. The first step in the production of salmonids takes place in land-based aquacultures. However, the effects of the discharge from these aquacultures on stream dissolved organic matter (DOM) content, molecular composition and degradability are unknown. The aim of this study was thus to investigate the inputs of anthropogenic DOM from land-based aquaculture to the predominantly pristine river systems of North Patagonia. We hypothesized, that i) DOM exported from land-based aquaculture mainly consists of protein-like fluorescence (tyrosine and tryptophan) released from fish feces and food remains, and that ii) this DOM is highly degradable and therefore rapidly turned-over within the receiving streams. In the North Patagonian region we conducted a screening of ten land-based aquacultures and an intensive sampling campaign for one aquaculture. This was combined with longitudinal transects and a degradation experiment in order to couple the composition of DOM exported from land-based aquacultures to its degradability in streams. We measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration by high-temperature catalytic oxidation and DOM composition by fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis. In the effluent of the ten screened aquacultures and in the repeated sampling of one aquaculture, we consistently found an increase of DOC concentrations and a dominance of protein-like fluorescence. The protein-like fluorescence rapidly disappeared downstream of the aquacultures, and in the degradation experiment. 21% of the DOC export from the repeatedly sampled aquaculture resulted from food addition and 76% from fish production. We conclude that large amounts of degradable DOM are exported from land-based aquacultures. This probably has strong effects on the ecological structure and function of North Patagonian streams, and similarly affected streams worldwide.

  4. Land-based mobile mapping system with its applications for the Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI DeRen; HU QingWu; GUO Sheng; CHEN ZhiYong

    2009-01-01

    There is a trend for rapid spatial data capture supported by integration of multiple platforms and multiple sensors.This paper presents the principles and technologies of land-based mobile mapping systems based on an integration of remote sensing,GPS and GIS technologies.The innovations and advantages of the integrated system are described.The analytic model and error model of a mobile mapping system are proposed and the application interface of digital measurable images is also discussed.A Truemap Engine(R) with Plug-in and API is designed to manage a huge volume of stereo image series from a land-based mobile mapping system so that other geographic information systems (GIS) engines can freely use the sequence of stereo images.The applications of digital measurable images (DMI) as well as mobile mapping systems in the Olympic Games in Beijing,2008 are presented.

  5. Direct Sensor Orientation of a Land-Based Mobile Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hua Li

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A land-based mobile mapping system (MMS is flexible and useful for the acquisition of road environment geospatial information. It integrates a set of imaging sensors and a position and orientation system (POS. The positioning quality of such systems is highly dependent on the accuracy of the utilized POS. This limitation is the major drawback due to the elevated cost associated with high-end GPS/INS units, particularly the inertial system. The potential accuracy of the direct sensor orientation depends on the architecture and quality of the GPS/INS integration process as well as the validity of the system calibration (i.e., calibration of the individual sensors as well as the system mounting parameters. In this paper, a novel single-step procedure using integrated sensor orientation with relative orientation constraint for the estimation of the mounting parameters is introduced. A comparative analysis between the proposed single-step and the traditional two-step procedure is carried out. Moreover, the estimated mounting parameters using the different methods are used in a direct geo-referencing procedure to evaluate their performance and the feasibility of the implemented system. Experimental results show that the proposed system using single-step system calibration method can achieve high 3D positioning accuracy.

  6. New land-based method for surveying sandy shores and extracting DEMs: the INSHORE system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Paulo; Cunha, Telmo R; Matias, Ana; Gama, Cristina; Bernardes, Cristina; Ferreira, Oscar

    2011-11-01

    The INSHORE system (INtegrated System for High Operational REsolution in shore monitoring) is a land-base survey system designed and developed for the specific task of monitoring the evolution in time of sandy shores. This system was developed with two main objectives: (1) to produce highly accurate 3D coordinates of surface points (in the order of 0.02 to 0.03 m); and (2) to be extremely efficient in surveying a beach stretch of several kilometres. Previous tests have demonstrated that INSHORE systems fulfil such objectives. Now, the usefulness of the INSHORE system as a survey tool for the production of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of sandy shores is demonstrated. For this purpose, the comparison of DEMs obtained with the INSHORE system and with other relevant survey techniques is presented. This comparison focuses on the final DEM accuracy and also on the survey efficiency and its impact on the costs associated with regular monitoring programmes. The field survey method of the INSHORE system, based on profile networks, has a productivity of about 30 to 40 ha/h, depending on the beach surface characteristics. The final DEM precision, after interpolation of the global positioning system profile network, is approximately 0.08 to 0.12 m (RMS), depending on the profile network's density. Thus, this is a useful method for 3D representation of sandy shore surfaces and can permit, after interpolation, reliable calculations of volume and other physical parameters.

  7. Evaluation of a LIDAR Land-Based Mobile Mapping System for Monitoring Sandy Coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pieter Van Waarden

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Dutch coast is characterized by sandy beaches flanked by dunes. Understanding the morphology of the coast is essential for defense against flooding of the hinterland. Because most dramatic changes of the beach and the first dune row happen during storms, it is important to assess the state of the coast immediately after a storm. This is expensive and difficult to organize with Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS. Therefore, the performance of a Land-based Mobile Mapping System (LMMS in mapping a stretch of sandy Dutch coast of 6 km near the municipality of Egmond is evaluated in this research. A test data set was obtained by provider Geomaat using the StreetMapper LMMS system. Both the relative quality of laser point heights and of a derived Digital Terrain model (DTM are assessed. First, the height precision of laser points is assessed a priori by random error propagation, and a posteriori by calculating the height differences between close-by points. In the a priori case, the result is a theoretical laser point precision of around 5 cm. In the a posteriori approach it is shown that on a flat beach a relative precision of 3 mm is achieved, and that almost no internal biases exist. In the second analysis, a DTM with a grid size of 1 m is obtained using moving least squares. Each grid point height includes a quality description, which incorporates both measurement precision and terrain roughness. Although some problems remain with the scanning height of 2 m, which causes shadow-effect behind low dunes, it is concluded that a laser LMMS enables the acquisition of a high quality DTM product, which is available within two days.

  8. Tracing dissolved organic matter (DOM) from land-based aquaculture systems in North Patagonian streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nimptsch, Jorge; Woelfl, Stefan; Osorio, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Chile is the second largest producer of salmonids worldwide. The first step in the production of salmonids takes place in land-based aquacultures. However, the effects of the discharge from these aquacultures on stream dissolved organic matter (DOM) content, molecular composition and degradabilit...... effects on the ecological structure and function of North Patagonian streams, and similarly affected streams worldwide....

  9. Transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The transport system comprises at least one road surface (2) and at least one vehicle (4) on wheels (6). The road surface (2) has a substantially bowl-shaped cross section and the vehicle (4) is designed so that the wheels (6) run directly on the road surface (2) while the road surface (2) acts as a

  10. Land-Based Wind Plant Balance-of-System Cost Drivers and Sensitivities (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mone, C.; Maples, B.; Hand, M.

    2014-04-01

    With Balance of System (BOS) costs contributing up to 30% of the installed capital cost, it is fundamental to understand the BOS costs for wind projects as well as potential cost trends for larger turbines. NREL developed a BOS model using project cost estimates developed by industry partners. Aspects of BOS covered include engineering and permitting, foundations for various wind turbines, transportation, civil work, and electrical arrays. The data introduce new scaling relationships for each BOS component to estimate cost as a function of turbine parameters and size, project parameters and size, and geographic characteristics. Based on the new BOS model, an analysis to understand the non‐turbine wind plant costs associated with turbine sizes ranging from 1-6 MW and wind plant sizes ranging from 100-1000 MW has been conducted. This analysis establishes a more robust baseline cost estimate, identifies the largest cost components of wind project BOS, and explores the sensitivity of the capital investment cost and the levelized cost of energy to permutations in each BOS cost element. This presentation shows results from the model that illustrate the potential impact of turbine size and project size on the cost of energy from US wind plants.

  11. Construction of the Classification and Grading Index System of Cultivated Land Based on the Viewpoint of Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In order to objectively and reasonably evaluate the actual and potential value of cultivated land, both social and ecological values are introduced into the classification and grading index system of cultivated land based on the viewpoint of sustainable development, after considering the natural and economic values of cultivated land. Index system construction of the sustainable utilization of cultivated land should follow the principles of economic viability, social acceptability, and ecological protection. Classification of cultivated land should take into account the soil fertility of cultivated land. Then, grading of cultivated land is carried out from the practical productivity (or potential productivity) of cultivated land. According to the existing classification index system of cultivated land, the soil, natural and environmental factors in plains, mountains and hills are mainly modified in the classification index system of cultivated land. And index systems for the cultivated land classification in plains, mountains and hills are set up. The grading index system of cultivated land is established based on the economic viability (economic value), social acceptability (social value) and protection of cultivated land (ecological value). Quantitative expression of cultivated land grading index is also carried out.

  12. Production of market-size North American strain Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in a land-based recirculation aquaculture system using freshwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is interest in culturing Atlantic salmon Salmo salar to market-size in land-based, closed containment systems that use recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS), as this technology often enables facilities to locate near major markets, obtain permits, exclude obligate pathogens, and/or reduce en...

  13. Intelligent Freigth Transport Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overø, Helene Martine; Larsen, Allan; Røpke, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The Danish innovation project entitled “Intelligent Freight Transport Systems” aims at developing prototype systems integrating public intelligent transport systems (ITS) with the technology in vehicles and equipment as well as the IT-systems at various transport companies. The objective is to en......The Danish innovation project entitled “Intelligent Freight Transport Systems” aims at developing prototype systems integrating public intelligent transport systems (ITS) with the technology in vehicles and equipment as well as the IT-systems at various transport companies. The objective...... is to enhance the efficiency and lower the environmental impact in freight transport. In this paper, a pilot project involving real-time waste collection at a Danish waste collection company is described, and a solution approach is proposed. The problem corresponds to the dynamic version of the waste collection...... problem which can be formulated as a dynamic version of the vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW)....

  14. Transportation System Requirements Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

  15. Growth of juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in land-based recirculation systems: Effects of feeding regime, photoperiod and diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fülberth, Michael; Moran, Damian; Jarlbæk, Henrik;

    2009-01-01

    . Three RAS units were used to simultaneously test three feed/photoperiod regimes that might be encountered in the wild or aquaculture; LightDark (LD) 24:0, LD12:11 (+ 1 h crepuscular periods) and LD6:6 (+ 12 h crepuscular periods). Feed was administered during the light period every 30 min for a 3 min...... feeding duration. In each RAS unit three diets (A, B and C) were tested, which were broadly similar in composition but from different manufacturers. Water exchange rate averaged 10–19% in the three recirculation systems, and key water quality parameters such as NH4+ and CO2 remained at low effect...

  16. A lunar transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Due to large amounts of oxygen required for space travel, a method of mining, transporting, and storing this oxygen in space would facilitate further space exploration. The following project deals specifically with the methods for transporting liquid oxygen from the lunar surface to the Lunar Orbit (LO) space station, and then to the Lower Earth Orbit (LEO) space station. Two vehicles were designed for operation between the LEO and LO space stations. The first of these vehicles is an aerobraked design vehicle. The Aerobrake Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) is capable of transporting 5000 lbm of payload to LO while returning to LEO with 60,000 lbm of liquid oxygen, and thus meet mission requirements. The second vehicle can deliver 18,000 lbm of payload to LO and is capable of bringing 60,000 lbm of liquid oxygen back to LEO. A lunar landing vehicle was also designed for operation between LO and the established moon base. The use of an electromagnetic railgun as a method for launching the lunar lander was also investigated. The feasibility of the railgun is doubtful at this time. A system of spheres was also designed for proper storing and transporting of the liquid oxygen. The system assumes a safe means for transferring the liquid oxygen from tank to tank is operational. A sophisticated life support system was developed for both the OTV and the lunar lander. This system focuses on such factors as the vehicle environment, waste management, water requirements, food requirements, and oxygen requirements.

  17. Pickering UDM transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, P.J.; Vissers, J.J. [GE Canada Nuclear Products, Mechanical Engineering, Peterborough, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: patrick.brennan@cdnnuc.ge.com; jeff.vissers@cdnnuc.ge.com; Brown, R. [Ontario Power Generation, Inspection Services Div., Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    The Universal Delivery Machine (UDM) is a new CANDU reactor maintenance tool that allows safe, timely, and cost-effective inspection and maintenance of fuel channels. The UDM had to be transported through the Pickering nuclear station and installed onto the reactor bridge. This involved lifting the UDM between station levels, navigating it through several challenging airlock and vault areas, and traversing the bridge opening directly in front of the reactor. This paper describes the system used to transport and install the Pickering UDM. (author)

  18. Simulating the conversion of rural settlements to town land based on multi-agent systems and cellular automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaolin; Kong, Xuesong; Liu, Yanfang; Chen, Yiyun

    2013-01-01

    Rapid urbanization in China has triggered the conversion of land from rural to urban use, particularly the conversion of rural settlements to town land. This conversion is the result of the joint effects of the geographic environment and agents involving the government, investors, and farmers. To understand the dynamic interaction dominated by agents and to predict the future landscape of town expansion, a small town land-planning model is proposed based on the integration of multi-agent systems (MAS) and cellular automata (CA). The MAS-CA model links the decision-making behaviors of agents with the neighbor effect of CA. The interaction rules are projected by analyzing the preference conflicts among agents. To better illustrate the effects of the geographic environment, neighborhood, and agent behavior, a comparative analysis between the CA and MAS-CA models in three different towns is presented, revealing interesting patterns in terms of quantity, spatial characteristics, and the coordinating process. The simulation of rural settlements conversion to town land through modeling agent decision and human-environment interaction is very useful for understanding the mechanisms of rural-urban land-use change in developing countries. This process can assist town planners in formulating appropriate development plans.

  19. Rail transport systems approach

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book shows how the systems approach is employed by scientists in various countries to solve specific problems concerning railway transport. In particular, the book describes the experiences of scientists from Romania, Germany, the Czech Republic, the UK, Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania and Poland. For many of these countries there is a problem with the historical differences between the railways. In particular, there are railways with different rail gauges, with different signaling and communication systems, with different energy supplies and, finally, with different political systems, which are reflected in the different approaches to the management of railway economies. The book’s content is divided into two main parts, the first of which provides a systematic analysis of individual means of providing and maintaining rail transport. In turn, the second part addresses infrastructure and management development, with particular attention to security issues. Though primarily written for professionals involved...

  20. Land-based turbine casting initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, B.A.; Spicer, R.A. [Howmet Corp., Whitehall, MI (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program has set goals which include a large-scale utility turbine efficiency that exceeds 60 percent (LHV) on natural gas and an industrial turbine system heat rate improvement of 15 percent. To meet these goals, technological advances developed for aircraft gas turbine engines need to be applied to land based gas turbines. These technological advances include: directionally solidified and single crystal castings, alloys tailored to exploit these microstructures, complex internal cooling schemes, and coatings. Equiaxed and directionally solidified castings are employed in current land based power generation equipment. These castings do not possess the ability to meet the efficiency targets as outlined above. The production use of premium single crystal components with complex internal cooling schemes in the latest generation of alloys is necessary to meet the ATS goals. However, at present, the use of single crystal components with complex internal cooling schemes is restricted to industrial sized or aeroderivative engines, and prototype utility sized components.

  1. SUBSURFACE EMPLACEMENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Wilson; R. Novotny

    1999-11-22

    The objective of this analysis is to identify issues and criteria that apply to the design of the Subsurface Emplacement Transportation System (SET). The SET consists of the track used by the waste package handling equipment, the conductors and related equipment used to supply electrical power to that equipment, and the instrumentation and controls used to monitor and operate those track and power supply systems. Major considerations of this analysis include: (1) Operational life of the SET; (2) Geometric constraints on the track layout; (3) Operating loads on the track; (4) Environmentally induced loads on the track; (5) Power supply (electrification) requirements; and (6) Instrumentation and control requirements. This analysis will provide the basis for development of the system description document (SDD) for the SET. This analysis also defines the interfaces that need to be considered in the design of the SET. These interfaces include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Waste handling building; (2) Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface site layout; (3) Waste Emplacement System (WES); (4) Waste Retrieval System (WRS); (5) Ground Control System (GCS); (6) Ex-Container System (XCS); (7) Subsurface Electrical Distribution System (SED); (8) MGR Operations Monitoring and Control System (OMC); (9) Subsurface Facility System (SFS); (10) Subsurface Fire Protection System (SFR); (11) Performance Confirmation Emplacement Drift Monitoring System (PCM); and (12) Backfill Emplacement System (BES).

  2. Transportation System Concept of Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Slater-Thompson

    2006-08-16

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended, authorized the DOE to develop and manage a Federal system for the disposal of SNF and HLW. OCRWM was created to manage acceptance and disposal of SNF and HLW in a manner that protects public health, safety, and the environment; enhances national and energy security; and merits public confidence. This responsibility includes managing the transportation of SNF and HLW from origin sites to the Repository for disposal. The Transportation System Concept of Operations is the core high-level OCRWM document written to describe the Transportation System integrated design and present the vision, mission, and goals for Transportation System operations. By defining the functions, processes, and critical interfaces of this system early in the system development phase, programmatic risks are minimized, system costs are contained, and system operations are better managed, safer, and more secure. This document also facilitates discussions and understanding among parties responsible for the design, development, and operation of the Transportation System. Such understanding is important for the timely development of system requirements and identification of system interfaces. Information provided in the Transportation System Concept of Operations includes: the functions and key components of the Transportation System; system component interactions; flows of information within the system; the general operating sequences; and the internal and external factors affecting transportation operations. The Transportation System Concept of Operations reflects OCRWM's overall waste management system policies and mission objectives, and as such provides a description of the preferred state of system operation. The description of general Transportation System operating functions in the Transportation System Concept of Operations is the first step in the OCRWM systems engineering process, establishing the starting point for the lower

  3. Air transport system

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The book addresses all major aspects to be considered for the design and operation of aircrafts within the entire transportation chain. It provides the basic information about the legal environment, which defines the basic requirements for aircraft design and aircraft operation. The interactions between  airport, air traffic management and the airlines are described. The market forecast methods and the aircraft development process are explained to understand the very complex and risky business of an aircraft manufacturer. The principles of flight physics as basis for aircraft design are presented and linked to the operational and legal aspects of air transport including all environmental impacts. The book is written for graduate students as well as for engineers and experts, who are working in aerospace industry, at airports or in the domain of transport and logistics.

  4. ANALYISIS OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSPORTATION POLICIES IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Payıdar AKGÜNGÖR

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation systems have to be considered and analysed as a whole while transportation demand, becoming as a natural outcome of socioeconomic and socio-cultural structure, is being evaluated. It is desired that transportation system, which will be selected for both passenger and freight transport, should be rapid, economic, safe, causing least harm to environment and appropriate for the conditions of a country. However, it is difficult for a transportation system to have all these properties. Every transportation system has advantages and disadvantages over each other. Therefore, comprehensive plans for future periods have to be prepared and how the sources of the country should be reasonably distributed among transportation systems must be investigated. Also, transportation plans have to be prepared to get coordinated operations among transportation systems while great investments are instituted in the entire country. There is no doubt that it is possible with combined transportation instead of concentration on one transportation system. Transportation policies in Turkey should be questioned since the level of highway transportation usage reaches to 95 % and level of sea transportation usage drops to less than 1 % in spite of being surrounded with sea in three sides of our land. In this paper, transportation systems and transportation policies in Turkey are evaluated in general and problems are analysed. Proposals are presented for the solutions of these problems.

  5. Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John J.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Langley's Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program employs a heavily instrumented, B 737-100 as its Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TRSV). The TRSV has been used during the demonstration trials of the Time Reference Scanning Beam Microwave Landing System (TRSB MLS), the '4D flight-management' concept, ATC data links, and airborne windshear sensors. The credibility obtainable from successful flight test experiments is often a critical factor in the granting of substantial commitments for commercial implementation by the FAA and industry. In the case of the TRSB MLS, flight test demonstrations were decisive to its selection as the standard landing system by the ICAO.

  6. Phase 1: DCL System Research Using Advanced Approaches for Land-based or Ship-based Real-Time Recognition and Localization of Marine Mammals - HPC System Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Dugan, Peter J.; Clark, Christopher W.; LeCun, Yann André; Van Parijs, Sofie M.

    2016-01-01

    We aim to investigate advancing the state of the art of detection, classification and localization (DCL) in the field of bioacoustics. The two primary goals are to develop transferable technologies for detection and classification in: (1) the area of advanced algorithms, such as deep learning and other methods; and (2) advanced systems, capable of real-time and archival and processing. This project will focus on long-term, continuous datasets to provide automatic recognition, minimizing human...

  7. Transport phenomena in particulate systems

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, José Teixeira; Ferreira, Maria do Carmo

    2012-01-01

    This volume spans 10 chapters covering different aspects of transport phenomena including fixed and fluidized systems, spouted beds, electrochemical and wastewater treatment reactors. This e-book will be valuable for students, engineers and researchers aiming to keep updated on the latest developments on particulate systems.

  8. Intelligent Transport Systems in the Management of Road Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalupová, Blanka; Hlavoň, Ivan

    2016-11-01

    Extension of European Union causes increase of free transfer of people and goods. At the same time they raised the problems associated with the transport, e.g. congestion and related accidents on roads, air traffic delays and more. To increase the efficiency and safety of transport, the European Commission supports the introduction of intelligent transport systems and services in all transport sectors. Implementation of intelligent transport systems and services in the road transport reduces accident frequency, increases the capacity of existing infrastructure and reduces congestions. Use of toll systems provides resources needed for the construction and operation of a new road network, improves public transport, cycling transport and walking transport, and also their multimodal integration with individual car transport.

  9. Coal transportation by MGR system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daga, P.R.

    1980-08-01

    34000 tonnes of coal per day will need to be transported nearly 34 km by rail to India's coal-fired Korba Super Thermal Power Project. The Merry-go-Round rail system was adopted because it has a much higher rate of loading and unloading of wagons than the Tippler Arrangement. The route for the railway is described, together with regulations that the route has satisfied. Details are given of the track, wagons, locomotives, loading station, unloading station, signalling, telecommunications, maintenance workshop and total capital costs. The MGR system of coal transportation will provide greater reliability and reduced time factor.

  10. Surveillance systems for intermodal transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovlev, Sergej; Voznak, Miroslav; Andziulis, Arunas

    2015-05-01

    Intermodal container monitoring is considered a major security issue in many major logistic companies and countries worldwide. Current representation of the problem, we face today, originated in 2002, right after the 9/11 attacks. Then, a new worldwide Container Security Initiative (CSI, 2002) was considered that shaped the perception of the transportation operations. Now more than 80 larger ports all over the world contribute to its further development and integration into everyday transportation operations and improve the regulations for the developing regions. Although, these new improvements allow us to feel safer and secure, constant management of transportation operations has become a very difficult problem for conventional data analysis methods and information systems. The paper deals with a proposal of a whole new concept for the improvement of the Containers Security Initiative (CSI) by virtually connecting safety, security processes and systems. A conceptual middleware approach with deployable intelligent agent modules is proposed to be used with possible scenarios and a testbed is used to test the solution. Middleware examples are visually programmed using National Instruments LabView software packages and Wireless sensor network hardware modules. An experimental software is used to evaluate he solution. This research is a contribution to the intermodal transportation and is intended to be used as a means or the development of intelligent transport systems.

  11. Thermal transport in fractal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Jørgen

    1992-01-01

    Recent experiments on the thermal transport in systems with partial fractal geometry, silica aerogels, are reviewed. The individual contributions from phonons, fractons and particle modes, respectively, have been identified and can be described by quantitative models consistent with heat capacity...... data. The interpretation in the particle mode regime sheds light on the mechanisms for thermal conductivity in normal vitreous silica....

  12. Lunar articulated remote transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The students of the Florida A&M/Florida State University College of Engineering continued their design from 1988 to 1989 on a first generation lunar transportation vehicle for use on the surface of the Moon between the years 2010 and 2020. Attention is focused on specific design details on all components of the Lunar Articulated Remote Transportation System (Lunar ARTS). The Lunar ARTS will be a three-cart, six-wheeled articulated vehicle. Its purpose will be the transportation of astronauts and/or materials for excavation purposes at a short distance from the base (37.5 km). The power system includes fuel cells for both the primary system and the back-up system. The vehicle has the option of being operated in a manned or unmanned mode. The unmanned mode includes stereo imaging with signal processing for navigation. For manned missions the display console is a digital readout displayed on the inside of the astronaut's helmet. A microprocessor is also on board the vehicle. Other components of the vehicle include a double wishbone/flexible hemispherical wheel suspension; chassis; a steering system; motors; seat retraints; heat rejection systems; solar flare protection; dust protection; and meteoroid protection. A one-quarter scale dynamic model has been built to study the dynamic behavior of the vehicle. The dynamic model closely captures the mechanical and electrical details of the total design.

  13. Vapor phase heat transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedstrom, J.C.; Neeper, D.A.

    1985-09-01

    This report describes progress in theoretical and experimental investigations of various forms of a vapor transport system for solar space heating, which could also be applied to service water heating. Refrigerant is evaporated in a solar collector, which may be located on the external wall or roof of a building. The vapor is condensed in a passively discharged thermal storage unit located within the building. The condensed liquid can be returned to the collector either by a motor-driven pump or by a completely passive self-pumping mechanism in which the vapor pressure lifts the liquid from the condenser to the collector. The theoretical investigation analyzes this self-pumping scheme. Experiments in solar test cells compare the operation of both passive and active forms of the vapor system with the operation of a passive water wall. The vapor system operates as expected, with potential advantages over other passive systems in design flexibility and energy yield.

  14. DCL System Using Deep Learning Approaches for Land-Based or Ship-Based Real Time Recognition and Localization of Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. FINAL REPORT DCL System Using Deep Learning Approaches for...that do not integrate well with data formats in bioacoustics or they are too general. Furthermore, complex algorithms that use deep learning ...explore aspects of deep - learning as they relate to bioacoustics, the initial planning suggested from the beginning that bioacoutsics did not yet

  15. Evaluation of depuration procedures to mitigate off-flavor from harvest size Atlantic Salmon Salmo Salar cultured in a land-based recirculating aquaculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish cultured within water recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) can develop “earthy” or “musty” off-flavors in their flesh due to the bioaccumulation of the compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborenol (MIB), respectively, that are produced by certain bacteria (e.g., actinomycetes). These bacteria an...

  16. DCL System Research Using Advanced Approaches for Land-based or Ship-based Real-Time Recognition and Localization of Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    advanced algorithms, such as deep learning and other methods ; and (2) advanced systems, capable of real-time and archival and processing. This project...respectively. APPROACH This effort will develop advanced methods for exploring passive acoustic data, specifically new approaches for detection...onfigurations may serve as a starting point for various reseach and development envornments, such as at Naval Processing Labs or other university centers that

  17. Research on advanced transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Hirokazu; Hashimoto, Ryouhei; Nosaka, Masataka; Koyari, Yukio; Yamada, Yoshio; Noda, Keiichirou; Shinohara, Suetsugu; Itou, Tetsuichi; Etou, Takao; Kaneko, Yutaka

    1992-08-01

    An overview of the researches on advanced space transportation systems is presented. Conceptual study is conducted on fly back boosters with expendable upper stage rocket systems assuming a launch capacity of 30 tons and returning to the launch site by the boosters, and prospect of their feasibility is obtained. Reviews are conducted on subjects as follows: (1) trial production of 10 tons sub scale engines for the purpose of acquiring hardware data and picking up technical problems for full scale 100 tons thrust engines using hydrocarbon fuels; (2) development techniques for advanced liquid propulsion systems from the aspects of development schedule, cost; (3) review of conventional technologies, and common use of component; (4) oxidant switching propulsion systems focusing on feasibility of Liquefied Air Cycle Engine (LACE) and Compressed Air Cycle Engine (CACE); (5) present status of slosh hydrogen manufacturing, storage, and handling; (6) construction of small high speed dynamometer for promoting research on mini pump development; (7) hybrid solid boosters under research all over the world as low-cost and clean propulsion systems; and (8) high performance solid propellant for upper stage and lower stage propulsion systems.

  18. Comparison of decision support systems for an optimised application of compost and sewage sludge on agricultural land based on heavy metal accumulation in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Andreas L; Düring, Rolf-Alexander; Gäth, Stefan

    2003-07-20

    Two different decision support systems (DSS) for the application of organic wastes on agricultural land were developed. Both DSS calculate the maximum application period of organic waste considering exhaustion of the uptake potential of soils for heavy metals. The definition of the uptake potential differs between the DSS alternatives. In the first DSS (DSS-AR), the uptake potential is derived from the difference of actual total heavy metal concentration in soil (according to aqua regia digestion) and the respective statutory limit value. The other DSS (DSS-SI) calculates the remaining sorption capacity of the soil for a heavy metal, i.e. the difference between the predefined maximum and the actual heavy metal concentration at the sorbent. The concentration of sorbed heavy metal is derived from pedotransfer functions (general purpose Freundlich isotherms) using predefined limit concentrations in soil solution (WHO drinking water quality standards) or the actual concentration of soluble heavy metal (according to neutral salt extraction), respectively. For evaluation of their individual characteristics, both DSS were tested in model scenarios using soil data (basic physicochemical properties; Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations) from various agricultural regions and German guidelines for organic waste application. The DSS-SI showed a better performance than the DSS-AR in this context. The capacity of the soil for heavy metal uptake was used with higher efficiency, i.e. the potential was maximised while environmental limit values were still complied with. Furthermore, the DSS-SI offered a better approximation of the natural variability of soil conditions using an extended set of soil properties in comparison to the DSS-AR. Despite these indications of good DSS-SI performance, the approach requires improvement with regard to the pedotransfer functions implemented in order to consolidate and extend the range of predictions. Furthermore, it should be noted that assessment of

  19. Railway intelligent transportation system and its applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Yong; Jia Limin; Zhang Yuan

    2011-01-01

    With the development of artificial intelligence, communication, computer and other related technologies, it becomes feasible to rebuild traditional railway with such advanced technologies in order to establish a new generation railway transport system. The railway intelligent transportation system is the trend of railway transportation system in China, and it is also the research focus of international railway transport industry. This paper presents the definition, characters, architecture, key technologies and developing pattern of the RITS (railway intelligent transportation system). Then three typical applications are introduced. Finally, the prospect of the RITS is summarized.

  20. Classical transport in disordered systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Antonios

    This thesis reports on the manifestation of structural disorder on molecular transport and it consists of two parts. Part I discusses the relations between classical transport and the underlying structural complexity of the system. Both types of molecular diffusion, namely Gaussian and non- Gaussian are presented and the relevant time regimes are discussed. In addition the concept of structural universality is introduced and connected with the diffusion metrics. One of the most robust techniques for measuring molecular mean square displacements is magnetic resonance. This method requires encoding and subsequently reading out after an experimentally controlled time, a phase φ to the spins using magnetic field gradients. The main limitation for probing short diffusion lengths L(t) ˜ 1micro m with magnetic resonance is the requirement to encode and decode the phase φ in very short time intervals. Therefore, to probe such displacements a special probe was developed equipped with a gradient coil capable of delivering magnetic field gradients of approximately 90 G/cmA . The design of the probe is reported. Part I also includes a discussion of experiments of transport in two qualitatively different disordered phantoms and reports on a direct observation of universality in one-dimension. The results reveal the universal power law scaling of the diffusion coefficient at the long-time regime and illustrate the essence of structural universality by experimentally determining the structure correlation function of the phantoms. In addition, the scaling of the diffusive permeability of the phantoms with respect to the pore size is investigated. Additional work presented includes a detailed study of adsorption of methane gas in Vycor disordered glass. The techniques described in Part I of this thesis are widely used for measuring structural parameters of porous media, such as the surface-to-volume ratio or diffusive permeability. Part II of this thesis discusses the

  1. Intelligent transportation systems problems and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Pamuła, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a discussion of problems encountered in the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). It puts emphasis on the early tasks of designing and proofing the concept of integration of technologies in Intelligent Transport Systems. In its first part the book concentrates on the design problems of urban ITS. The second part of the book features case studies representative for the different modes of transport. These are freight transport, rail transport and aerospace transport encompassing also space stations. The book provides ideas for deployment which may be developed by scientists and engineers engaged in the design of Intelligent Transport Systems. It can also be used in the training of specialists, students and post-graduate students in universities and transport high schools.    .

  2. Transport Efficiency of Gas-jet Tape Transport System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WandXudong; MaRuichang; XieYuanxiang; XingYebin; XuShuwei; LiZhankui

    2003-01-01

    The Gas-jet Tape Transport System (GTTS) was used in several on-line experiments. The transport efficiency of GTTS was studied with three different inorganic salts, PbI2, PbC12 and NaC1, by using a 252 Cf source. The fission fragments of 252Cf were transported and collected by the GTTS before measurement. Nitrogen gas was used as a substitute of cxpensive Helium gas, in consideration of longer stopping range of fragments. The fragments were also directly collected on Aluminum foils with thickness of 50μm for original yield measurement.

  3. Integrated transport and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Nørgaard, P.

    2008-01-01

    No single technology can solve the problem of ever increasing CO2 emissions from transport. Here, a coherent effort to integrate transport into energyplanning is proposed, using multiple means promoting sustainable transport. It is concluded that a 100 per cent renewable energy transport system...... is possible but is connected to significant challenges in the path towards it. Biomass is a limited resource and it is important to avoid effecting the production of food. The integration of the transport with the energy system is crucial as is a multi-pronged strategy. Short term solutions have to consider...

  4. METHODS OF INTEGRATED OPTIMIZATION MAGLEV TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lasher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To demonstrate feasibility of the proposed integrated optimization of various MTS parameters to reduce capital investments as well as decrease any operational and maintenance expense. This will make use of MTS reasonable. At present, the Maglev Transport Systems (MTS for High-Speed Ground Transportation (HSGT almost do not apply. Significant capital investments, high operational and maintenance costs are the main reasons why Maglev Transport Systems (MTS are hardly currently used for the High-Speed Ground Transportation (HSGT. Therefore, this article justifies use of Theory of Complex Optimization of Transport (TCOT, developed by one of the co-authors, to reduce MTS costs. Methodology. According to TCOT, authors developed an abstract model of the generalized transport system (AMSTG. This model mathematically determines the optimal balance between all components of the system and thus provides the ultimate adaptation of any transport systems to the conditions of its application. To identify areas for effective use of MTS, by TCOT, the authors developed a dynamic model of distribution and expansion of spheres of effective use of transport systems (DMRRSEPTS. Based on this model, the most efficient transport system was selected for each individual track. The main estimated criterion at determination of efficiency of application of MTS is the size of the specific transportation tariff received from calculation of payback of total given expenses to a standard payback period or term of granting the credit. Findings. The completed multiple calculations of four types of MTS: TRANSRAPID, MLX01, TRANSMAG and TRANSPROGRESS demonstrated efficiency of the integrated optimization of the parameters of such systems. This research made possible expending the scope of effective usage of MTS in about 2 times. The achieved results were presented at many international conferences in Germany, Switzerland, United States, China, Ukraine, etc. Using MTS as an

  5. Comparative economic performance and carbon footprint of two farming models for producing atlantic salmon (salmo salar): Land-based closed containment system in freshwater and open pen in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocean net pen production of Atlantic salmon is approaching 2 million metric tons (MT) annually and has proven to be cost- and energy- efficient. Recently, with technology improvements, freshwater aquaculture of Atlantic salmon from eggs to harvestable size of 4 -5 kg in land-based closed containmen...

  6. Earthquake Damage to Transportation Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Earthquakes represent one of the most destructive natural hazards known to man. A serious result of large-magnitude earthquakes is the disruption of transportation...

  7. Stability and Transport in Magnetic Confinement Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Weiland, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Stability and Transport in Magnetic Confinement Systems provides an advanced introduction to the fields of stability and transport in tokamaks. It serves as a reference for researchers with its highly-detailed theoretical background, and contains new results in the areas of analytical nonlinear theory of transport using kinetic theory and fluid closure. The use of fluid descriptions for advanced stability and transport problems provide the reader with a better understanding of this topic. In addition, the areas of nonlinear kinetic theory and fluid closure gives the researcher the basic knowledge of a highly relevant area to the present development of transport physics.

  8. Integrated transport and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Nørgaard, Per

    2007-01-01

    transport. It is concluded that a 100 per cent renewable energy transport system is possible but is connected to significant challenges in the path towards it. Biomass is a limited resource and it is important to avoid effecting the production. The integration of the transport with the remaining energy......Governments worldwide aim at reducing CO2 emissions and expanding renewable energy. A key element in achieving such a goal is to use renewable energy in transport such as biofuels. However, efforts to promote single transport technologies and single fuels only represent a partial solution...

  9. STARS: The Space Transportation Architecture Risk System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Joel S.

    1997-01-01

    Because of the need to perform comparisons between transportation systems that are likely to have significantly different levels of risk, both because of differing degrees of freedom in achieving desired performance levels and their different states of development and utilization, an approach has been developed for performing early comparisons of transportation architectures explicitly taking into account quantitative measures of uncertainty and resulting risk. The approach considers the uncertainty associated with the achievement of technology goals, the effect that the achieved level of technology will have on transportation system performance and the relationship between transportation system performance/capability and the ability to accommodate variations in payload mass. The consequences of system performance are developed in terms of expected values and associated standard deviations of nonrecurring, recurring and the present value of transportation system life cycle cost. Typical results are presented to illustrate the application of the methodology.

  10. Emerging Applications for Cyber Transportation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昌旭; 侯云飞; 徐宏力; 黄刘生; 李旭; 乔春明; 张龙飞

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in connected vehicles and autonomous driving are going to change the face of ground trans-portation as we know it. This paper describes the design and evaluation of several emerging applications for such a cyber transportation system (CTS). These applications have been designed using holistic approaches, which consider the unique roles played by the human drivers, the transportation system, and the communication network. They can improve driver safety and provide on-road infotainment. They can also improve transportation operations and efficiency, thereby benefiting travelers and attracting investment from both government agencies and private businesses to deploy infrastructures and bootstrap the evolutionary process of CTS.

  11. OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS ON SUBURBAN TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Grigorovа

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems that permit to solve such issue as organization of  transport service for suburban population with due account of passenger transport fatigue which is considered as one of subconscious criteria for selection of a travel mode. Improvement of transportation process entails an increase in demand for such service. Demands predetermine transport supply and situation on the market depends on supply-and-demand balance.  The paper presents an analysis of approaches to the estimation of  parameters for a suburban transport system with due regard for influence of transport process parameters on the rate of passenger transport fatigue.  This rate is estimated through value of an index which demonstrates an activity of passenger’s regulatory systems while performing every element of motion process. Nonlinear regression equation has been used to describe changes in the activity index of the passenger’s regulatory systems when a passenger is taking a standing position in a passenger compartment of a suburban transport facility. In this case value of activity index of regulatory systems  before transportation, passenger age, transportation duration,   operation factor of transport  capacity and ratio of new bus cost to nominal capacity have been taken as variables for calculations.The paper proposes an index change model for assessment of passenger’s transport fatigue when a passenger has a standing position in a transport facility. The model has shown that an impact of the activity index of passenger’s regulatory systems before  making any elemental motion is rather pertinent because this index provides information on an initial condition of a person before executing any other elemental motion. The influence of the activity index of passenger’s regulatory systems before  making any elemental motion is considered as an important characteristic because it has an impact on passenger’s condition after executing

  12. Review on Land-Based Wheeled Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasam Himanshu R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the state of art of mobile robots presenting aspects of their current level of sophistication, fields mobile robots are being presently used, the future application and scope of mobile robots. Classifying the primary research topics of multi-robot systems into seven major categories (Biological inspirations, architecture, localization/mapping/exploration, object transport and manipulation, motion co-ordination, reconfigurable and learning robot systems, vision, we discuss the current state of research in these areas. An attempt to cover the points for which a general agreement has emerged within the scientific domain, are then presented, followed by a discussion of alternative approaches and currently unsolved problems. This paper also reviews the most relevant literature and previous research activity regarding mobile robotics. We conclude by identifying more topics of scientific consensus, open research issues and a discussion of some application areas where mobile robots could be used with existing technology.

  13. Integrated design for space transportation system

    CERN Document Server

    Suresh, B N

    2015-01-01

    The book addresses the overall integrated design aspects of a space transportation system involving several disciplines like propulsion, vehicle structures, aerodynamics, flight mechanics, navigation, guidance and control systems, stage auxiliary systems, thermal systems etc. and discusses the system approach for design, trade off analysis, system life cycle considerations, important aspects in mission management, the risk assessment, etc. There are several books authored to describe the design aspects of various areas, viz., propulsion, aerodynamics, structures, control, etc., but there is no book which presents space transportation system (STS) design in an integrated manner. This book attempts to fill this gap by addressing systems approach for STS design, highlighting the integrated design aspects, interactions between various subsystems and interdependencies. The main focus is towards the complex integrated design to arrive at an optimum, robust and cost effective space transportation system. The orbit...

  14. Diffusive gas transport through flooded rice systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, van P.M.; Groot, T.; Hout, van de B.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Goudriaan, J.

    2001-01-01

    A fully mechanistic model based on diffusion equations for gas transport in a flooded rice system is presented. The model has transport descriptions for various compartments in the water-saturated soil and within the plant. Plant parameters were estimated from published data and experiments independ

  15. RELIABILITY OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS OF ROCK HAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stepanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ways of increasing of exploitation reliability of dump trucks with the aim of increasing of effectiveness of exploitation of transportation systems of rock heaps at coal mines.

  16. Optimization parameters system maintenance transport aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І.І. Ліннік

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available  The algorithm of unconditional and conditional optimization Markov models of maintenance systems of transport airplanes of their programs of technical operation used at improvement is considered.

  17. The German Saenger space transportation system concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelle, D. E.; Kuczera, H.; Hoegenauer, E.

    The vehicle configuration, performance criteria, and technological problems of the Saenger space transportation system are reviewed. The vehicle consists of a two-stage system, including a hypersonic first stage employing turboramjet propulsion. The cruise speed is Mach 4.4, with the capability to accelerate to Mach 6.8 prior to separation of the upper stage. Two different upper stages are proposed to fulfull the different requirements of manned space flight and unmanned payload transportation.

  18. 49 CFR 37.25 - University transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false University transportation systems. 37.25 Section 37.25 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.25 University transportation systems....

  19. 49 CFR 37.33 - Airport transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airport transportation systems. 37.33 Section 37.33 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.33 Airport transportation systems. (a)...

  20. TRANSIMS: Transportation analysis and simulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, L.; Beckman, R.; Baggerly, K. [and others

    1995-07-01

    This document summarizes the TRansportation ANalysis and SIMulation System (TRANSIMS) Project, the system`s major modules, and the project`s near-term plans. TRANSIMS will employ advanced computational and analytical techniques to create an integrated regional transportation systems analysis environment. The simulation environment will include a regional population of individual travelers and freight loads with travel activities and plans, whose individual interactions will be simulated on the transportation system, and whose environmental impact will be determined. We will develop an interim operational capability (IOC) for each major TRANSIMS module during the five-year program. When the IOC is ready, we will complete a specific case study to confirm the IOC features, applicability, and readiness.

  1. Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) and road safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Many developments are taking place in the area of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) for traffic purposes. Many of the current ITS applications are mainly aimed at increasing comfort while driving and at improving accessibility. In addition, systems like the alcolock and the seatbelt lock are being

  2. The Integrated Air Transportation System Evaluation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingrove, Earl R., III; Hees, Jing; Villani, James A.; Yackovetsky, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Throughout U.S. history, our nation has generally enjoyed exceptional economic growth, driven in part by transportation advancements. Looking forward 25 years, when the national highway and skyway systems are saturated, the nation faces new challenges in creating transportation-driven economic growth and wealth. To meet the national requirement for an improved air traffic management system, NASA developed the goal of tripling throughput over the next 20 years, in all weather conditions while maintaining safety. Analysis of the throughput goal has primarily focused on major airline operations, primarily through the hub and spoke system.However, many suggested concepts to increase throughput may operate outside the hub and spoke system. Examples of such concepts include the Small Aircraft Transportation System, civil tiltrotor, and improved rotorcraft. Proper assessment of the potential contribution of these technologies to the domestic air transportation system requires a modeling capability that includes the country's numerous smaller airports, acting as a fundamental component of the National Air space System, and the demand for such concepts and technologies. Under this task for NASA, the Logistics Management Institute developed higher fidelity demand models that capture the interdependence of short-haul air travel with other transportation modes and explicitly consider the costs of commercial air and other transport modes. To accomplish this work, we generated forecasts of the distribution of general aviation based aircraft and GA itinerant operations at each of nearly 3.000 airport based on changes in economic conditions and demographic trends. We also built modules that estimate the demand for travel by different modes, particularly auto, commercial air, and GA. We examined GA demand from two perspectives: top-down and bottom-up, described in detail.

  3. Towards protecting the Great Barrier Reef from land-based pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Frederieke J; Thorburn, Peter; Schaffelke, Britta; Whitten, Stuart

    2016-06-01

    The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is an iconic coral reef system extending over 2000 km along the north-east coast of Australia. Global recognition of its Outstanding Universal Value resulted in the listing of the 348 000 km(2) GBR World Heritage Area (WHA) by UNESCO in 1981. Despite various levels of national and international protection, the condition of GBR ecosystems has deteriorated over the past decades, with land-based pollution from the adjacent catchments being a major and ongoing cause for this decline. To reduce land-based pollution, the Australian and Queensland Governments have implemented a range of policy initiatives since 2003. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of existing initiatives to reduce discharge of land-based pollutants into the waters of the GBR. We conclude that recent efforts in the GBR catchments to reduce land-based pollution are unlikely to be sufficient to protect the GBR ecosystems from declining water quality within the aspired time frames. To support management decisions for desired ecological outcomes for the GBR WHA, we identify potential improvements to current policies and incentives, as well as potential changes to current agricultural land use, based on overseas experiences and Australia's unique potential. The experience in the GBR may provide useful guidance for the management of other marine ecosystems, as reducing land-based pollution by better managing agricultural sources is a challenge for coastal communities around the world. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Bacterial ferrous iron transport: the Feo system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Cheryl K Y; Krewulak, Karla D; Vogel, Hans J

    2016-03-01

    To maintain iron homeostasis within the cell, bacteria have evolved various types of iron acquisition systems. Ferric iron (Fe(3+)) is the dominant species in an oxygenated environment, while ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) is more abundant under anaerobic conditions or at low pH. For organisms that must combat oxygen limitation for their everyday survival, pathways for the uptake of ferrous iron are essential. Several bacterial ferrous iron transport systems have been described; however, only the Feo system appears to be widely distributed and is exclusively dedicated to the transport of iron. In recent years, many studies have explored the role of the FeoB and FeoA proteins in ferrous iron transport and their contribution toward bacterial virulence. The three-dimensional structures for the Feo proteins have recently been determined and provide insight into the molecular details of the transport system. A highly select group of bacteria also express the FeoC protein from the same operon. This review will provide a comprehensive look at the structural and functional aspects of the Feo system. In addition, bioinformatics analyses of the feo operon and the Feo proteins have been performed to complement our understanding of this ubiquitous bacterial uptake system, providing a new outlook for future studies. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Amino acid transport by prosthecae of Asticcacaulis biprosthecum: evidence for a broad-range transport system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, E; Pate, J L

    1985-10-01

    Prosthecae purified from cells of Asticcaulis biprosthecum possess active transport systems that transport all 20 amino acids tested. Using ascorbate-reduced phenazine methosulphate in the presence of oxygen, all 20 amino acids are accumulated against a concentration gradient by isolated prosthecae. Results of experiments testing the inhibition of transport of one amino acid by another, and of experiments testing the exchange of exogenous amino acids with those preloaded in prosthecae, along with characteristics of mutants defective in amino acid transport, suggest the presence in prosthecae of three amino acid transport systems. One, the general or G system, transports at least 18 of the 20 amino acids tested. Another system, referred to as the proline or P system, transports seven amino acids (including proline) that are also transported by the G system. The third system transports only glutamate and aspartate, and is referred to as the acidic amino acid transport system or A system.

  6. Vapor-phase heat-transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedstrom, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    A vapor-phase heat-transport system is being tested in one of the passive test cells at Los Alamos. The system consists of one selective-surface collector and a condenser inside a water storage tank. The refrigerant, R-11, can be returned to the collector by gravity or with a pump. Results from several operating configurations are presented, together with a comparison with other passive systems. A new self-pumping concept is presented.

  7. Pathogen transport in groundwater systems: contrasts with traditional solute transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Randall J.; Johnson, William P.

    2017-06-01

    Water quality affects many aspects of water availability, from precluding use to societal perceptions of fit-for-purpose. Pathogen source and transport processes are drivers of water quality because they have been responsible for numerous outbreaks resulting in large economic losses due to illness and, in some cases, loss of life. Outbreaks result from very small exposure (e.g., less than 20 viruses) from very strong sources (e.g., trillions of viruses shed by a single infected individual). Thus, unlike solute contaminants, an acute exposure to a very small amount of contaminated water can cause immediate adverse health effects. Similarly, pathogens are larger than solutes. Thus, interactions with surfaces and settling become important even as processes important for solutes such as diffusion become less important. These differences are articulated in "Colloid Filtration Theory", a separate branch of pore-scale transport. Consequently, understanding pathogen processes requires changes in how groundwater systems are typically characterized, where the focus is on the leading edges of plumes and preferential flow paths, even if such features move only a very small fraction of the aquifer flow. Moreover, the relatively short survival times of pathogens in the subsurface require greater attention to very fast (<10 year) flow paths. By better understanding the differences between pathogen and solute transport mechanisms discussed here, a more encompassing view of water quality and source water protection is attained. With this more holistic view and theoretical understanding, better evaluations can be made regarding drinking water vulnerability and the relation between groundwater and human health.

  8. Pathogen transport in groundwater systems: contrasts with traditional solute transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Randall J.; Johnson, William P.

    2016-12-01

    Water quality affects many aspects of water availability, from precluding use to societal perceptions of fit-for-purpose. Pathogen source and transport processes are drivers of water quality because they have been responsible for numerous outbreaks resulting in large economic losses due to illness and, in some cases, loss of life. Outbreaks result from very small exposure (e.g., less than 20 viruses) from very strong sources (e.g., trillions of viruses shed by a single infected individual). Thus, unlike solute contaminants, an acute exposure to a very small amount of contaminated water can cause immediate adverse health effects. Similarly, pathogens are larger than solutes. Thus, interactions with surfaces and settling become important even as processes important for solutes such as diffusion become less important. These differences are articulated in "Colloid Filtration Theory", a separate branch of pore-scale transport. Consequently, understanding pathogen processes requires changes in how groundwater systems are typically characterized, where the focus is on the leading edges of plumes and preferential flow paths, even if such features move only a very small fraction of the aquifer flow. Moreover, the relatively short survival times of pathogens in the subsurface require greater attention to very fast (<10 year) flow paths. By better understanding the differences between pathogen and solute transport mechanisms discussed here, a more encompassing view of water quality and source water protection is attained. With this more holistic view and theoretical understanding, better evaluations can be made regarding drinking water vulnerability and the relation between groundwater and human health.

  9. Crew Transportation System Design Reference Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Contains summaries of potential design reference mission goals for systems to transport humans to andfrom low Earth orbit (LEO) for the Commercial Crew Program. The purpose of this document is to describe Design Reference Missions (DRMs) representative of the end-to-end Crew Transportation System (CTS) framework envisioned to successfully execute commercial crew transportation to orbital destinations. The initial CTS architecture will likely be optimized to support NASA crew and NASA-sponsored crew rotation missions to the ISS, but consideration may be given in this design phase to allow for modifications in order to accomplish other commercial missions in the future. With the exception of NASA’s mission to the ISS, the remaining commercial DRMs are notional. Any decision to design or scar the CTS for these additional non-NASA missions is completely up to the Commercial Provider. As NASA’s mission needs evolve over time, this document will be periodically updated to reflect those needs.

  10. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2008-02-26

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel.The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  11. Differential privacy in intelligent transportation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kargl, Frank; Friedman, Arik; Boreli, Roksana

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how the concept of differential privacy can be applied to Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), focusing on protection of Floating Car Data (FCD) stored and processed in central Traffic Data Centers (TDC). We illustrate an integration of differential privacy with

  12. Transportation systems analyses: Volume 1: Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The principal objective of this study is to accomplish a systems engineering assessment of the nation's space transportation infrastructure. This analysis addresses the necessary elements to perform man delivery and return, cargo transfer, cargo delivery, payload servicing, and the exploration of the Moon and Mars. Specific elements analyzed, but not limited to, include the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), the National Launch System (NLS), the current expendable launch vehicle (ELV) fleet, ground facilities, the Space Station Freedom (SSF), and other civil, military and commercial payloads. The performance of this study entails maintaining a broad perspective on the large number of transportation elements that could potentially comprise the U.S. space infrastructure over the next several decades. To perform this systems evaluation, top-level trade studies are conducted to enhance our understanding of the relationships between elements of the infrastructure. This broad 'infrastructure-level perspective' permits the identification of preferred infrastructures. Sensitivity analyses are performed to assure the credibility and usefulness of study results. This executive summary of the transportation systems analyses (TSM) semi-annual report addresses the SSF logistics resupply. Our analysis parallels the ongoing NASA SSF redesign effort. Therefore, there could be no SSF design to drive our logistics analysis. Consequently, the analysis attempted to bound the reasonable SSF design possibilities (and the subsequent transportation implications). No other strategy really exists until after a final decision is rendered on the SSF configuration.

  13. Differential privacy in intelligent transportation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kargl, Frank; Friedman, Arik; Boreli, Roksana

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how the concept of differential privacy can be applied to Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), focusing on protection of Floating Car Data (FCD) stored and processed in central Traffic Data Centers (TDC). We illustrate an integration of differential privacy with pr

  14. Advanced technologies for intelligent transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Picone, Marco; Amoretti, Michele; Zanichelli, Francesco; Ferrari, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on emerging technologies in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSs) namely efficient information dissemination between vehicles, infrastructures, pedestrians and public transportation systems. It covers the state-of-the-art of Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs), with centralized and decentralized (Peer-to-Peer) communication architectures, considering several application scenarios. With a detailed treatment of emerging communication paradigms, including cross networking  and distributed algorithms. Unlike most of the existing books, this book presents a multi-layer overview of information dissemination systems, from lower layers (MAC) to high layers (applications). All those aspects are investigated considering the use of mobile devices, such as smartphones/tablets and embedded systems, i.e. technologies that during last years completely changed the current market, the user expectations, and communication networks. The presented networking paradigms are supported and validate...

  15. Design of Large Momentum Acceptance Transport Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Douglas, David

    2005-01-01

    The use of energy recovery to enable high power linac operation often gives rise to an attendant challenge - the transport of high power beams subtending large phase space volumes. In particular applications - such as FEL driver accelerators - this manifests itself as a requirement for beam transport systems with large momentum acceptance. We will discuss the design, implementation, and operation of such systems. Though at times counterintuitive in behavior (perturbative descriptions may, for example, be misleading), large acceptance systems have been successfully utilized for generations as spectrometers and accelerator recirculators.* Such systems are in fact often readily designed using appropriate geometric descriptions of beam behavior; insight provided using such a perspective may in addition reveal inherent symmetries that simplify construction and improve operability. Our discussion will focus on two examples: the Bates-clone recirculator used in the Jefferson Lab 10 kW IR Upgrade FEL (which has an ob...

  16. Simulating charge transport in flexible systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Clark

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Systems in which movements occur on two significantly different time domains, such as organic electronic components with flexible molecules, require different simulation techniques for the two time scales. In the case of molecular electronics, charge transport is complicated by the several different mechanisms (and theoretical models that apply in different cases. We cannot yet combine time scales of molecular and electronic movement in simulations of real systems. This review describes our progress towards this goal.

  17. A Course in Transport Phenomena in Multicomponent, Multiphase, Reacting Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, R. G.; Whitaker, S.

    1978-01-01

    This course concentrates on a rigorous development of the multicomponent transport equations, boundary conditions at phase interfaces, and volume-averaged transport equations for multiphase reacting systems. (BB)

  18. The Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The present paper describes, for purposes of the Department of Energy (DoE) Hydrogen Program Review, Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period January through June 1996. This period represents the first six months of the three year project. The estimated cost over three years is $3.9M, $1.859M of which is funded by the DoE ($600 k for fiscal year 1996). The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project will demonstrate the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as vehicle power plants. This transportation system will be developed in the City of Palm Desert in southern California and will include a fleet of 8 fuel cell powered vehicles, solar and wind powered hydrogen generating facilities, a consumer-ready refueling station, and a service infrastructure. The system holds the promise of a clean environment and an energy supply that is predictable, domestic, safe, and abundant. During, the first part of 1996 SERC has nearly completed building a fuel cell powered personal utility vehicle, which features an upgraded safety and computer system; they have designed and built a test bench that is able to mimic golf cart loads and test fuel cell system auxiliary components; they have begun the design of the solar hydrogen generating station; they have worked with Sandia National Laboratory on an advanced metal hydride storage system; they have increased the power density of the SERC fuel cell by as much as 50%; and they have reached out to the rest of the world with a new fact sheet, world wide web pages, a press release, video footage for a television program. and instruction within the community.

  19. Liners for ion transport membrane systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Miller, Christopher Francis

    2010-08-10

    Ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel comprising an interior, an exterior, an inlet, an inlet conduit, an outlet, and an outlet conduit; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein the inlet and the outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; (c) a gas manifold having an interior surface wherein the gas manifold is in flow communication with the interior region of each of the planar ion transport membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel; and (d) a liner disposed within any of the inlet conduit, the outlet conduit, and the interior surface of the gas manifold.

  20. DTS: The NOAO Data Transport System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, M.; Semple, T.

    2014-05-01

    The NOAO Data Transport System (DTS) provides high-throughput, reliable, data transfer between telescopes, pipelines and archive centers located in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. It is a distributed application using XML-RPC for command and control, and either parallel-TCP or UDT protocols for bulk data transport. The system is data-agnostic, allowing arbitrary files or directories to be moved using the same infrastructure. Data paths are configurable in the system by connecting nodes as the source or destination of data in a queue. Each leg of a data path may be configured independently based on the network environment between the sites. A queueing model is currently implemented to manage the automatic movement of data, a streaming model is planned to support arbitrarily large transfers (e.g. as in a disk recovery scenario) or to provide a 'pass-thru' interface to minize overheads. A web-based monitor allows anyone to get a graphical overview of the DTS system as it runs, operators will be able to control individual nodes in the system. Through careful tuning of the network paths DTS is able to achieve in excess of 80-percent of the nominal wire speed using only commodity networks, making it ideal for long-haul transport of large volumes of data.

  1. Puerto Rico Land-Based Threat to Benthic Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set describes the potential threat of sediment delivery and land-based sources of pollution to benthic habitats. This dataset is derived from NOAA's study,...

  2. Puerto Rico Land-Based Threat to Benthic Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set describes the potential threat of sediment delivery and land-based sources of pollution to benthic habitats. This dataset is derived from NOAA's study,...

  3. USVI Land-Based Threat to Benthic Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set describes the potential threat of sediment delivery and land-based sources of pollution to benthic habitats. This dataset is derived from NOAA's study,...

  4. USVI Land-Based Threat to Benthic Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set describes the potential threat of sediment delivery and land-based sources of pollution to benthic habitats. This dataset is derived from NOAA's...

  5. Automatic braking system modification for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Transportation Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Modifications were designed for the B-737-100 Research Aircraft autobrake system hardware of the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Program at Langley Research Center. These modifications will allow the on-board flight control computer to control the aircraft deceleration after landing to a continuously variable level for the purpose of executing automatic high speed turn-offs from the runway. A bread board version of the proposed modifications was built and tested in simulated stopping conditions. Test results, for various aircraft weights, turnoff speed, winds, and runway conditions show that the turnoff speeds are achieved generally with errors less than 1 ft/sec.

  6. Stochastic transport processes in discrete biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Frehland, Eckart

    1982-01-01

    These notes are in part based on a course for advanced students in the applications of stochastic processes held in 1978 at the University of Konstanz. These notes contain the results of re­ cent studies on the stochastic description of ion transport through biological membranes. In particular, they serve as an introduction to an unified theory of fluctuations in complex biological transport systems. We emphasize that the subject of this volume is not to introduce the mathematics of stochastic processes but to present a field of theoretical biophysics in which stochastic methods are important. In the last years the study of membrane noise has become an important method in biophysics. Valuable information on the ion transport mechanisms in membranes can be obtained from noise analysis. A number of different processes such as the opening and closing of ion channels have been shown to be sources of the measured current or voltage fluctuations. Bio­ logical 'transport systems can be complex. For example, the tr...

  7. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, S.M. [Engineering Computer Optecnomics, Inc., Annapolis, MD (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) Project is the development and demonstration of a system to meet the unique needs of the DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. This laboratory system has been designed to provide the field and laboratory analytical equipment necessary to detect and quantify radionuclides, organics, heavy metals and other inorganic compounds. The laboratory system consists of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or as an interconnected group to meet each DOE site`s specific needs.

  8. Low energy beam transport system developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudnikov, V., E-mail: vadim@muonsinc.com [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Han, B.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R. [ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Dudnikova, G. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 3261 (United States); Institute of Computational Technologies SBRAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-08

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H{sup −} beams up to 60 mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100 mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 π mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1 m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H{sup −} beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H{sup −} beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H{sup −} beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed.

  9. Inelastic transport theory for nanoscale systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes theoretical and numerical investigations of inelastic scat- tering and energy dissipation in electron transport through nanoscale sys- tems. A computational scheme, based on a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and nonequilibrium Green’s functions (NEGF), has been...... the conductance. The methods have been applied to a number of specific systems, includ- ing monatomic gold chains, atomic point contacts, and metal-molecule-metal configurations. These studies have clarified the inelastic effects in the elec- tron transport and characterized the vibrational modes that couple...... to the current. For instance, the dominant scattering for gold chains could be traced back to the longitudinal “alternating bond-length” mode. Furthermore, the results have been compared critically with experimental measurements for the different systems, and provided a microscopic understanding for the im...

  10. The Efficiency of the Bimodal System Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Štrumberger

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of fast railway results in an increased applicationof Trailer Train bimodal system transportation. Thetraffic costs are multiply reduced, particularly the variablecosts. On the other hand the environmental pollution from exhaustgases is also reduced. Therefore, by the year 2010 cargotransport should be preponderant~v used which would be characterisedby fast electric trains producing less noise, at lowercosts and with clean environment.

  11. The Palm Desert renewable [hydrogen] transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlin, C.E.; Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period June 1997 through May 1998. The project began in March 1996. The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project demonstrates the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell as a vehicle power system. The project includes designing and building 4 fuel cell powered vehicles, a solar hydrogen generating and refueling station, and a fuel cell vehicle diagnostic center. Over this last year, SERC has built a fuel cell powered neighborhood electric vehicle and delivered it to the City of Palm Desert. The design of the hydrogen refueling station is near completion and it is anticipated that construction will be complete in the fall of 1998. The vehicles are currently being refueled at a temporary refueling station. The diagnostic center is being designed and maintenance procedures as well as computer diagnostic programs for the fuel cell vehicles are being developed. City employees are driving the vehicles daily and monitoring data are being collected. The drivers are pleased with the performance of the vehicles.

  12. Visualizing Mobility of Public Transportation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Fu, Chi-Wing; Arisona, Stefan Müller; Erath, Alexander; Qu, Huamin

    2014-12-01

    Public transportation systems (PTSs) play an important role in modern cities, providing shared/massive transportation services that are essential for the general public. However, due to their increasing complexity, designing effective methods to visualize and explore PTS is highly challenging. Most existing techniques employ network visualization methods and focus on showing the network topology across stops while ignoring various mobility-related factors such as riding time, transfer time, waiting time, and round-the-clock patterns. This work aims to visualize and explore passenger mobility in a PTS with a family of analytical tasks based on inputs from transportation researchers. After exploring different design alternatives, we come up with an integrated solution with three visualization modules: isochrone map view for geographical information, isotime flow map view for effective temporal information comparison and manipulation, and OD-pair journey view for detailed visual analysis of mobility factors along routes between specific origin-destination pairs. The isotime flow map linearizes a flow map into a parallel isoline representation, maximizing the visualization of mobility information along the horizontal time axis while presenting clear and smooth pathways from origin to destinations. Moreover, we devise several interactive visual query methods for users to easily explore the dynamics of PTS mobility over space and time. Lastly, we also construct a PTS mobility model from millions of real passenger trajectories, and evaluate our visualization techniques with assorted case studies with the transportation researchers.

  13. INFORMATION SUPPORT TRANSPORTATION PROCESS MULTIMODAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Filippova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: is to improve information support for the organization and functioning of multimodal systems delive-ry modes of transport in the northern regions of the Russian Federation on the basis of the development of theoretical and methodological and practical provisions, criteria, methods and mathematical models.Method or methodology of the work: a methodology placement vehicle logistics center (TLC in the Nordic region, providing links all transport modes involved in the delivery of energy, developed a model to optimize the parameters of the transport network, used for traffic, the most effective schemes of delivery of goods in multimodal report, taking into account the specifics of the Nordic region, and funding.Results: Studies have applied and may be used by the fe-deral and regional authorities and management in the deve-lopment of integrated programs for energy-Northern regions. Proposed in the theoretical research and methodological approaches are one way to increase the efficiency of the delivery of goods in the event of a little predictable situations on the route, TLC and transhipment points. The developed techniques are used and can be used to improve the northern region of the process control of cargo delivery.Conclusion: Therefore, based on the analysis of the status of the issue, it is quite obvious that the very topical area of optimization of the transport needs of the region to ensure the development and implementation of methods to improve the efficiency and quality of freight traffic by improving organizational structures and technology traffic control all transport space in the region.

  14. Hyperspectral range imaging for transportation systems evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgelall, Raj; Rafert, J. B.; Atwood, Don; Tolliver, Denver D.

    2016-04-01

    Transportation agencies expend significant resources to inspect critical infrastructure such as roadways, railways, and pipelines. Regular inspections identify important defects and generate data to forecast maintenance needs. However, cost and practical limitations prevent the scaling of current inspection methods beyond relatively small portions of the network. Consequently, existing approaches fail to discover many high-risk defect formations. Remote sensing techniques offer the potential for more rapid and extensive non-destructive evaluations of the multimodal transportation infrastructure. However, optical occlusions and limitations in the spatial resolution of typical airborne and space-borne platforms limit their applicability. This research proposes hyperspectral image classification to isolate transportation infrastructure targets for high-resolution photogrammetric analysis. A plenoptic swarm of unmanned aircraft systems will capture images with centimeter-scale spatial resolution, large swaths, and polarization diversity. The light field solution will incorporate structure-from-motion techniques to reconstruct three-dimensional details of the isolated targets from sequences of two-dimensional images. A comparative analysis of existing low-power wireless communications standards suggests an application dependent tradeoff in selecting the best-suited link to coordinate swarming operations. This study further produced a taxonomy of specific roadway and railway defects, distress symptoms, and other anomalies that the proposed plenoptic swarm sensing system would identify and characterize to estimate risk levels.

  15. Reactive Chemical Transport Under Multiphase System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Y.; Yeh, G.

    2001-12-01

    A numerical model, HYDROBIOGEOCHEM, is developed for modeling reactive chemical transport under multiphase flow systems. The chemistry part of this model is derived from BIOGEOCHEM, which is a general computer code that simulates biogeochemial processes from a reaction-based mechanistic point of view. To reduce primary dependent variables (PDVs), Gauss-Jordan decomposition is applied to the governing matrix equations for transport, resulting in mobile components and mobile kinetic variables as PDVs. Options of sequential iteration approach (SIA), predictor corrector and operator splitting method are incorporated in the code to make it versatile. The model is a practical tool for assessing migration of subsurface contamination and proper designing of remediation technologies. Examples are presented to demonstrate the capability of the new model.

  16. Smart Transportation Application using Global Positioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouf Mohammad Al Shammary

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Significant increase is noticed in the utilization of mobile applications for different purposes in the past decade. These applications can improve any individual’s way of life in many aspects such as communication, collaborative work, learning, location services, data collection, exploring, testing and analysis. One of the most interesting mobile applications is using it for tracking by having personal locators. These locators can track children, people on work, the elderly for personal protection etc. The intention behind developing this mobile application is to provide a smart transportation system to it users and to track their movements. Some of the essential features of this application are • Getting familiar with the shortest path from source to destination in advance. • Aware of approximate time of arrival to destination. • Knowing the capacity of vehicle used for transportation. • Short Message Service.

  17. Transport in low-dimensional mesoscopic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syzranov, Sergey

    2011-05-05

    The work is devoted to the physics of graphene-based optoelectronics and arrays of Josephson junctions. The first part deals with transport in a graphene p-n junction irradiated by an electromagnetic field. The photocurrent in such device is calculated analytically and compared to those observed in the recent experiments on graphene photodetectors. It is shown that in a clean effectively one-dimensional junction the photocurrent oscillates as a function of gate voltages due to the interference between electron paths accompanied by the resonant photon absorption. The second part of the thesis is devoted to the construction of a Drude-like theory for the transport of Cooper pairs in weakly disordered Josephson networks and to finding the conductivity and the characteristic temperature of the commencement of strong localization. Also, it is shown that the low-temperature superconductor-insulator transition is necessarily of the first order in all 3D and in most 2D systems.

  18. Progress in photonic transport network systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ken-Ichi

    2002-07-01

    The network paradigm is changing rapidly spurred by the dramatic increase in IP traffic and recent progress in photonic network technologies. A key requirement, enhancing the performance of existing IP-based multimedia communication networks, can be most effectively achieved by introducing optical path technologies that exploit wavelength routing. Cost effective and reliable optical cross-connection is essential. Different optical switch technologies have been proposed and tested. Among them, the PLC (Planer Lightwave Circuit) switch has demonstrated excellent performance, particularly with regard to system reliability. Network control mechanisms based on the overlay and peer model models have been developed. The presentation will highlight some of the key system technologies. To develop very large scale and robust networks, effective traffic engineering capabilities are necessary. This will be achieved through optical path control. To develop future IP-centric networks, an operation mechanism based on distributed control is important. The degree to which the necessary transport and IP routing functions are integrated will determine system cost-effectiveness. The Photonic MPLS (Multi Protocol Label Switching) router, which integrates all the functions and provides seamless operation between IP and optical layers, has been proposed and developed. The technical feasibility of a recent prototype system has been proven. Finally, some of the cutting-edge photonic transport technologies that we have recently developed are demonstrated; these technologies will enable us to achieve another level of network performance enhancement in the future.

  19. Accelerating technological change. Towards a more sustainable transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vooren, A.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis provides insights into the mechanisms of technological change by capturing the complexity that characterises the current technological transition of the transport system into existing evolutionary models of technological change. The transition towards a more sustainable transport system

  20. 78 FR 57454 - Marine Transportation System National Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... Maritime Administration Marine Transportation System National Advisory Council AGENCY: Maritime Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of request for applications. SUMMARY: The Maritime Administration (MarAd) is seeking applications for membership on the Marine Transportation System National Advisory Council...

  1. Transport systems and policies for sustainable cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučić Vukan R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century witnessed revolutionary developments in transportation technology with major impacts on the form and character of cities. Progress in increasing mobility has brought many benefits as well as serious problems, particularly in deterioration of livability and sustainability. Increase in auto ownership led to serious problems of chronic traffic congestion. Attempts to rebuild cities to provide full accommodation of private cars have led to serious problems of auto dependency and deterioration of cities. Experiences from recent decades have shown that urban transportation is much more complex than usually realized. Livable and sustainable cities require policies that lead to creation of a transportation system consisting of coordinated public transit and private cars, and encourages pedestrian environment and efficient, sustainable development. Great need for better understanding of the complex problems in implementing incentives and disincentives aimed at achieving intermodal balance is emphasized. Brief descriptions of cities which lead in achieving such livable conditions is followed by a summary of lessons and guidelines for the future.

  2. Saenger space transportation system - Progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelle, Dietrich E.; Kuczera, Heribert

    1992-10-01

    The first part of the Saenger System Definition Study within the German National Hypersonics Technology Program (1988 to 1992) was completed by mid-1990. This paper summarizes the progress made and the status of the project as of that milestone which was formally completed by the System Study Presentation in July 1990. For the second phase of the study (mid-1990 to end 1992) the original philosophy of different upper stages for manned space operations and for unmanned cargo/payloads transportation is being maintained, however, a winged unmanned Horus-C version has been found to be a better solution than the originally conceived expendable ballistic stage Cargus. The advantage of this twin-Horus Concept is the greater commonality of both upper stages as well as the new return capability of payloads up to 7 Mg. The maximum payload capability of the expendable stage was of course higher, but it is assumed that for larger payloads a complementary launch vehicle (i.e. Ariane 5) will be further available. The paper also presents new data about the Horus return flight trajectories as well as on the aerothermodynamic studies and experimental work. Finally, aspects of mission operations and economics are discussed which are of special importance for such an advanced reusable space transportation system.

  3. Investments and Operation in an Integrated Power and Transport System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Boomsma, Trine Krogh

    2013-01-01

    This chapter analyses an integrated power and road transport system. For analysing the influences of including passenger road transport in the energy system, a road transport model is developed. Based on this model, the benefits of integration of the two systems and using electric-drive vehicles ...

  4. Future Intelligent Transportation Systems and Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Akio

    A road vehicle traffic contributes to the social improvement greatly, but it has big problems such as safety, congestion, environment, energy, elder people driving and adaptation to information society. ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) is expected as a direction solving these. The intellectual function about a road vehicle traffic depended on most of human beings. ITS helps intellectual functions such as information sensing, situation recognition, judgment, planning and operation. A sensor detecting information is an important key in ITS. I describe expectation to a sensor in ITS.

  5. Operating systems in the air transportation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Consideration of the problems facing air transport at present, and to be expected in the future. In the Northeast Corridor these problems involve community acceptance, airway and airport congestion and delays, passenger acceptance, noise reduction, and improvements in low-density short-haul economics. In the development of a superior short-haul operating system, terminal-configured vs cruise-configured vehicles are evaluated. CTOL, STOL, and VTOL aircraft of various types are discussed. In the field of noise abatement, it is shown that flight procedural techniques are capable of supplementing ?quiet engine' technology.

  6. Third-order TRANSPORT: A computer program for designing charged particle beam transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, D.C. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Brown, K.L.; Rothacker, F. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    TRANSPORT has been in existence in various evolutionary versions since 1963. The present version of TRANSPORT is a first-, second-, and third-order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of static-magnetic beam transport systems. This report discusses the following topics on TRANSPORT: Mathematical formulation of TRANSPORT; input format for TRANSPORT; summaries of TRANSPORT elements; preliminary specifications; description of the beam; physical elements; other transformations; assembling beam lines; operations; variation of parameters for fitting; and available constraints -- the FIT command.

  7. A study of characteristics of intercity transportation systems. Phase 1: Definition of transportation comparison methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, J. M.; Smith, J. L.; Lifson, M. W.

    1978-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine a unified methodological framework for the comparison of intercity passenger and freight transportation systems; (2) to review the attributes of existing and future transportation systems for the purpose of establishing measures of comparison. These objectives were made more specific to include: (1) development of a methodology for comparing long term transportation trends arising from implementation of various R&D programs; (2) definition of value functions and attribute weightings needed for further transportation goals.

  8. Innovative technology summary report: Transportable vitrification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    At the end of the cold war, many of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) major nuclear weapons facilities refocused their efforts on finding technically sound, economic, regulatory compliant, and stakeholder acceptable treatment solutions for the legacy of mixed wastes they had produced. In particular, an advanced stabilization process that could effectively treat the large volumes of settling pond and treatment sludges was needed. Based on this need, DOE and its contractors initiated in 1993 the EM-50 sponsored development effort required to produce a deployable mixed waste vitrification system. As a consequence, the Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) effort was undertaken with the primary requirement to develop and demonstrate the technology and associated facility to effectively vitrify, for compliant disposal, the applicable mixed waste sludges and solids across the various DOE complex sites. After 4 years of development testing with both crucible and pilot-scale melters, the TVS facility was constructed by Envitco, evaluated and demonstrated with surrogates, and then successfully transported to the ORNL ETTP site and demonstrated with actual mixed wastes in the fall of 1997. This paper describes the technology, its performance, the technology applicability and alternatives, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned.

  9. Risk management model in road transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhapov, R. L.; Nikolaeva, R. V.; Gatiyatullin, M. H.; Makhmutov, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    The article presents the results of a study of road safety indicators that influence the development and operation of the transport system. Road safety is considered as a continuous process of risk management. Authors constructed a model that relates the social risks of a major road safety indicator - the level of motorization. The model gives a fairly accurate assessment of the level of social risk for any given level of motorization. Authors calculated the dependence of the level of socio-economic costs of accidents and injured people in them. The applicability of the concept of socio-economic damage is caused by the presence of a linear relationship between the natural and economic indicators damage from accidents. The optimization of social risk is reduced to finding the extremum of the objective function that characterizes the economic effect of the implementation of measures to improve safety. The calculations make it possible to maximize the net present value, depending on the costs of improving road safety, taking into account socio-economic damage caused by accidents. The proposed econometric models make it possible to quantify the efficiency of the transportation system, allow to simulate the change in road safety indicators.

  10. TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF THE STRONGLY CORRELATED SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Domanski

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The transport properties of various systems are studied here in the context of three different models. These are: - the disordered Hubbard model applicable to correlated binary alloys with a general disorder, - the Anderson model used in describing the Kondo physics of a quantum dot connected to the external superconducting leads, and - the Ranninger-Robaszkiewicz model applied to the study of optical properties of the system with preformed electron pairs above the temperature of transition to the superconducting state. We calculate the density of states, specific heat, the Wilson ratio and conductivity of the correlated binary alloy with off-diagonal disorder. We investigate the conditions under which the Kondo peak appears in the density of states and in the conductance of a dot coupled to the external superconducting leads. We analyze the effect of the pseudogap on the optical spectra in the high temperature superconductors described by the boson-fermion model.

  11. Sensor system for fuel transport vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Dennis Duncan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; West, David L.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary sensor system for a fuel transport vehicle can comprise a fuel marker sensor positioned between a fuel storage chamber of the vehicle and an access valve for the fuel storage chamber of the vehicle. The fuel marker sensor can be configured to measure one or more characteristics of one or more fuel markers present in the fuel adjacent the sensor, such as when the marked fuel is unloaded at a retail station. The one or more characteristics can comprise concentration and/or identity of the one or more fuel markers in the fuel. Based on the measured characteristics of the one or more fuel markers, the sensor system can identify the fuel and/or can determine whether the fuel has been adulterated after the marked fuel was last measured, such as when the marked fuel was loaded into the vehicle.

  12. A study of characteristics of intercity transportation systems. Phase 1: Definition of transportation comparison methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, J. M.; Smith, J. L.; Lifson, M. W.

    1978-01-01

    Decision making in early transportation planning must be responsive to complex value systems representing various policies and objectives. The assessment of alternative transportation concepts during the early initial phases of the system life cycle, when supportive research and technology development activities are defined, requires estimates of transportation, environmental, and socio-economic impacts throughout the system life cycle, which is a period of some 40 or 50 years. A unified methodological framework for comparing intercity passenger and freight transportation systems is described and is extended to include the comparison of long term transportation trends arising from implementation of the various R & D programs. The attributes of existing and future transportation systems are reviewed in order to establish measures for comparison, define value functions, and attribute weightings needed for comparing alternative policy actions for furthering transportation goals. Comparison criteria definitions and an illustrative example are included.

  13. Hemolysis associated with pneumatic tube system transport for blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Hasan; Bayir, Aysegul; Ak, Ahmet; Degirmenci, Selim; Akinci, Murat; Agacayak, Ahmet; Marcil, Emine; Azap, Melih

    2014-01-01

    The frequency of hemolysis of blood samples may be increased by transport in a pneumatic tube system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of pneumatic tube system transport on hemolysis of blood samples. Blood samples were transported from the emergency department to the hospital laboratory manually by hospital staff (49 patients) or with a pneumatic tube system (53 patients). The hemolysis index and serum chemistry studies were performed on the blood samples and compared between the different methods of transport. The blood samples that were transported by the pneumatic tube system had a greater frequency of hemolysis and greater mean serum potassium and median creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels than samples transported manually. Blood samples transported from the emergency department to the hospital laboratory by a pneumatic tube system may have a greater frequency of hemolysis than samples transported manually. This may necessitate repeat phlebotomy and cause a delay in completing the laboratory analysis.

  14. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory system. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, S.M.; Keith, V.F.; Spertzel, R.O.; De Avila, J.C.; O`Donnell, M.; Vann, R.L.

    1993-09-01

    This developmental effort clearly shows that a Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory System is a worthwhile and achievable goal. The RTAL is designed to fully analyze (radioanalytes, and organic and inorganic chemical analytes) 20 samples per day at the highest levels of quality assurance and quality control. It dramatically reduces the turnaround time for environmental sample analysis from 45 days (at a central commercial laboratory) to 1 day. At the same time each RTAL system will save the DOE over $12 million per year in sample analysis costs compared to the costs at a central commercial laboratory. If RTAL systems were used at the eight largest DOE facilities (at Hanford, Savannah River, Fernald, Oak Ridge, Idaho, Rocky Flats, Los Alamos, and the Nevada Test Site), the annual savings would be $96,589,000. The DOE`s internal study of sample analysis needs projects 130,000 environmental samples requiring analysis in FY 1994, clearly supporting the need for the RTAL system. The cost and time savings achievable with the RTAL system will accelerate and improve the efficiency of cleanup and remediation operations throughout the DOE complex.

  15. Propagating fronts in reaction-transport systems with memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, A. [Department of Chemistry, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0314 (United States)], E-mail: ayadav1@lsu.edu; Fedotov, Sergei [School of Mathematics, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1DQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: sergei.fedotov@manchester.ac.uk; Mendez, Vicenc [Grup de Fisica Estadistica, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)], E-mail: vicenc.mendez@uab.es; Horsthemke, Werner [Department of Chemistry, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0314 (United States)], E-mail: whorsthe@smu.edu

    2007-11-26

    In reaction-transport systems with non-standard diffusion, the memory of the transport causes a coupling of reactions and transport. We investigate the effect of this coupling for systems with Fisher-type kinetics and obtain a general analytical expression for the front speed. We apply our results to the specific case of subdiffusion.

  16. Multi-Agent Systems for Transportation Planning and Coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Moonen (Hans)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMany transportation problems are in fact coordination problems: problems that require communication, coordination and negotiation to be optimally solved. However, most software systems targeted at transportation have never approached it this way, and have instead concentrated on centrali

  17. A National Framework for Sustainable Urban Transport Systems : Proposals for Improving Urban Transportation in Russian Cities

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    In many Russian cities, these growing demands for mobility are not adequately met by the existing urban transport infrastructure and services. Most municipalities have had difficulties in planning and managing the development of their urban transport systems in a coherent manner, which is a precondition for successful resolution of the existing transport problems. In addition, there is a n...

  18. Advanced transport systems analysis, modeling, and evaluation of performances

    CERN Document Server

    Janić, Milan

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a systematic analysis, modeling and evaluation of the performance of advanced transport systems. It offers an innovative approach by presenting a multidimensional examination of the performance of advanced transport systems and transport modes, useful for both theoretical and practical purposes. Advanced transport systems for the twenty-first century are characterized by the superiority of one or several of their infrastructural, technical/technological, operational, economic, environmental, social, and policy performances as compared to their conventional counterparts. The advanced transport systems considered include: Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) systems in urban area(s), electric and fuel cell passenger cars, high speed tilting trains, High Speed Rail (HSR), Trans Rapid Maglev (TRM), Evacuated Tube Transport system (ETT), advanced commercial subsonic and Supersonic Transport Aircraft (STA), conventionally- and Liquid Hydrogen (LH2)-fuelled commercial air trans...

  19. Modelling the transport system in China and evaluating the current strategies towards the sustainable transport development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, W.; Lund, H.; Mathiesen, B.V.

    2013-01-01

    in China. With this purpose in mind, a Chinese transport model has been created and three current transport strategies which are high speed railway (HSR), urban rail transit (URT) and electric vehicle (EV) were evaluated together with a reference transport system in 2020. As conservative results, 13......Transport is one of the most challenge sectors when addressing energy security and climate change due to its high reliance on oil products and lack of the alternative fuels. This paper explores the ability of three transport strategies to contribute to the development of a sustainable transport......% of the energy saving and 12% of the CO2 emission reduction can be attained by accomplishing three strategies compared with the reference transport system. However, the energy demand of transport in 2020 with the implementation of three strategies will be about 1.7 times as much as today. The three strategies...

  20. OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS ON SUBURBAN TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    T. M. Grigorovа

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers problems that permit to solve such issue as organization of  transport service for suburban population with due account of passenger transport fatigue which is considered as one of subconscious criteria for selection of a travel mode. Improvement of transportation process entails an increase in demand for such service. Demands predetermine transport supply and situation on the market depends on supply-and-demand balance.  The paper presents an analysis of approaches to the...

  1. The safe road transport system approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vollpracht Hans-Joachim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available More than 1,24 million people die each year on the worlds roads and between 20 to 50 million suffer from nonfatal injuries. The UN Road Safety Collaboration Meetings under the leadership of WHO developed the Programme for the Decade of Actions for road safety taking nations into the responsibility of improving their accident figures by the five pillars of a national Road Safety Policy, safer Roads, safer Vehicles, safer Road Users and Post Crash Care. It is this Safe System Approach that takes into consideration the land use, infrastructure and transport planning, road user’s abilities and limitations and the close cooperation of all governmental and none governmental stakeholders involved.

  2. Transport in active systems crowded by obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mu-Jie; Schofield, Jeremy; Kapral, Raymond

    2017-02-01

    The reactive and diffusive dynamics of a single chemically powered Janus motor in a crowded medium of moving but passive obstacles is investigated using molecular simulation. It is found that the reaction rate of the catalytic motor reaction decreases in a crowded medium as the volume fraction of obstacles increases as a result of a reduction in the Smoluchowski diffusion-controlled reaction rate coefficient that contributes to the overall reaction rate. A continuum model is constructed and analyzed to interpret the dependence of the steady-state reaction rate observed in simulations on the volume fraction of obstacles in the system. The steady-state concentration fields of reactant and product are shown to be sensitive to the local structure of obstacles around the Janus motor. It is demonstrated that the active motor exhibits enhanced diffusive motion at long times with a diffusion constant that decreases as the volume fraction of crowding species increases. In addition, the dynamical properties of a passive tracer particle in a system containing many active Janus motors is studied to investigate how an active environment influences the transport of non-active species. The diffusivity of a passive tracer particle in an active medium is found to be enhanced in systems with forward-moving Janus motors due to the cooperative dynamics of these motors.

  3. Numerical Modelling Approaches for Sediment Transport in Sewer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Ole

    A study of the sediment transport processes in sewers has been carried out. Based on this study a mathematical modelling system has been developed to describe the transport processes of sediments and dissolved matter in sewer systems. The modelling system consists of three sub-models which...... constitute the basic modelling system necessary to give a discription of the most dominant physical transport processes concerning particles and dissolved matter in sewer systems: A surface model. An advection-dispersion model. A sediment transport model....

  4. Speeding Up Development of Container Railway Transportation and Establishing Integrative Container Inter-modal Transport System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Shunhu; Qian Jun

    2009-01-01

    Since the 16th CPC National Congress,the railway sector in China has been accelerating large-scale railway construction with the positive efforts to explore innovation of traffic organization,improve the quality and level of transport service,and lay solid foundation for development of container railway transportation.With the constant reform and innovation of container railway transportation in terms of operation and management,China Railways have achieved great progress in the aspects of traffic volume,transport network and transport equipment of container,as well as brand establishment of container block trains.Accelerating further the development of container transportation and establishing the integrative container intermodal transportation system need rational planning and construction of comprehensive logistics center,great development of rail-sea intermodal transportation,expansion of investment and financing channels and quick establishment of public logistics information platform.

  5. Intelligent transportation infrastructure deployment analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathi, A.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Harding, J.A. [Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Much of the work on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) to date has emphasized technologies, standards/protocols, architecture, user services, core infrastructure requirements, and various other technical and institutional issues. ITS implementations in the United States and elsewhere in the world have demonstrated benefits in the areas of safety, productivity, efficiency, and environmental impact. However, quantitative benefits and satisfactory cost estimates are not available or cannot be derived for many components of the ITS, whether deployed individually or in some integrated fashion. The limitations of existing analysis and evaluation capabilities coupled with the lack of strong empirical evidence presents a major knowledge and data gap for infrastructure investment decisions involving ITS alternatives. This paper describes the over-arching issues and requirements associated with the analysis capabilities required for a systematic, faithful, and rigorous evaluation of the impacts of deploying ITS in a metropolitan area. It then describes the conceptual framework of a modeling system that will provide a preliminary analysis capability to support ITS deployment analysis and evaluation.

  6. Comparison of land-based sources with ambient estuarine concentrations of total dissolved nitrogen in Jiaozhou Bay (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dongliang; Yang, Nannan; Liang, Shengkang; Li, Keqiang; Wang, Xiulin

    2016-10-01

    Seasonal, land-sea synchronous surveys were conducted from 2012 to 2013 to characterize the relationship between the composition of land-based total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and the concentration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in Jiaozhou Bay (JZB). A total of 11 freshwater riverine sampling sites were selected at the river mouths and at waste water outfalls around JZB, while a total 23 Bay stations were established in JZB. Among them, 11 Bay stations were located near the 11 outfalls. Each land-sea sampling was conducted synchronously during a semi-tidal cycle. The contribution of NO3sbnd N, NO2sbnd N, NH4sbnd N, and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) to TDN in land-based freshwater were similar to those in JZB seawater, while the contribution of the sum of NO3sbnd N and NO2sbnd N to TDN and the contribution of DON to TDN were about 3.2 and 4.1 times higher than the contribution of NH4sbnd N to TDN, respectively. These results showed that inputs of all land-based forms of nitrogen impact the DIN in seawater. Spatial distributions of DIN and DON, showing a gradual decrease from inner bay to the mouth of the bay, were negatively correlated with S in different seasons. In summer and winter, the ratio of DIN to DON in seawater (Rs) gradually decreased from the inner bay to the center of the bay, and the ratio of land-based DIN to DON (RL) was less than RS, indicating net transformation from land-based DON into marine DIN. However, in spring and autumn, the distribution of Rs was opposite to that in summer and winter, and RL was greater than RS, indicating net conversion from land-based DIN into marine DON. Throughout the whole year, net land-based DON was transformed into marine DIN. We provided direct evidence that the variation in DIN concentration in JZB was affected both by land-based TDN inputs and by their hydrodynamic transport and biogeochemical transformation processes.

  7. Nonlinear Dynamics and Quantum Transport in Small Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    Dynamics and Quantum Transport in Small Systems.” The PI is Ying-Cheng Lai from Arizona State University. The duration of the project was 12/1/2008...military systems may contain some graphene components. To understand various fundamental aspects of quantum transport dynamics is key to developing...conductance fluctuations, not seen previously in any quantum transport systems. This phenomenon has profound implications to the development of graphene

  8. Environmental analyses of land transportation systems in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, Mirjan E.; Moll, Henri C.

    Environmental analyses of the impact of transportation systems on the environment from the cradle to the grave are rare. This article makes a comparison of various Dutch passenger transportation systems by studying their complete life-cycle energy use. Moreover, systems are compared according to

  9. Selected legal and regulatory concerns affecting domestic energy transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuller, C.R.

    1979-07-01

    This report provides assessments of eight legal and regulatory concerns that may affect energy material transportation in the US during the rest of the century: state authority to regulate nuclear materials transport, divestiture of petroleum pipelines from major integrated oil companies, problems affecting the natural gas transportation system, capabilities of energy transportation systems during emergencies, Federal coal pipeline legislation, ability of Federal agencies to anticipate railroad difficulties, abandonment of uneconomic railroad lines, and impact of the Panama Canal treaty upon US energy transportation. (DLC)

  10. The Exchange Value Embedded In A Transport System

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Qinglan

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows that a well designed transport system has an embedded exchange value by serving as a market for potential exchange between consumers. Under suitable conditions, one can improve the welfare of consumers in the system simply by allowing some exchange of goods between consumers during transportation without incurring additional transportation costs. We propose an explicit valuation formula to measure this exchange value for a given compatible transport system. This value is always nonnegative and bounded from above. Criteria based on transport structures, preferences and prices are provided to determine the existence of a positive exchange value. Finally, we study a new optimal transport problem with an objective taking into account of both transportation cost and exchange value.

  11. Structuring a Sustainable Transportation System in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正> Since the implementation of the Master Plan of Beijing in 1993, Beijing has acquired economic development continually, and the construction of urban transportation has gained obvious achievements. But with the continually high-speed development of Beijing’s economy, the quickened tenor of urbanization and traffic motorization, the increasing need for transportation and amount of motor

  12. INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLIED TO TRANSPORT IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIAN ANDRES ZAPATA CORTES

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El transporte es uno de los elementos más relevantes para la competitividad de las empresas y las ciudades, pues un sistema de transporte inadecuado genera altos costos y bajos niveles de servicio al cliente, lo que fi nalmente produce un impacto económico para ambas partes. Este artículo presenta una revisión de herramientas tecnológicas que hacen parte de los sistemas de transporte inteligentes (ITS, sistemas utilizados para el mejoramiento del desempeño y seguridad del transporte, no solo de carga sino también de pasajeros y en diferentes modos. El artículo comienza con una descripción sobre los sistemas de transporte ITS, seguido por la presentación de los benefi cios de estos sistemas y fi nalmente se realiza una revisión de las diferentes herramientas que enmarcan los ITS.

  13. Highly reusable space transportation system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    To significantly increase demand for launch services by stimulating existing and planned markets as well as enabling new markets, the cost to orbit needs to be reduced a factor of ten below projected Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) goals. This will place the recurring operations cost around 200 per payload pound to low earth orbit (LEO). Methods for reducing the cost include: increasing relative vehicle performance, increasing vehicle reusability, and decreasing recurring operations. A study was conducted for NASA in support of its Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) initiative to identify for further assessment and development, those launch strategies that hold the greatest potential with respect to meeting this goal. During this study a number of candidate strategies were evaluated associated with access to space. Both technical and cost trades were performed, and concluded that there are two airbreathing propulsion concepts utilizing launch assist that appear promising in achieving the HRST-cost goals. These concepts employ both turbine based combine cycle (TBCC) and rocket based combine cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems. The launch assist selected uses electromagnetic propulsion and a guideway to provide both delta velocity and altitude. A first order investigation of system level requirements associated with HRST launch assist for a magnetically launched vehicle including guideway concept and requirements as well as magnetic levitation and propulsion concepts and requirements were also conducted. This study concluded that the HRST goals of total recurring operations cost of 200 per payload pound to Low Earth Orbit based on a ten year operational period were feasible if the required technology was matured. The most promising concept to achieve these goals is based on a RBCC powered vehicle with electromagnetic launch assist.

  14. Data security in Intelligent Transport Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Zelinka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent Transport Services expect availability of the secure seamless communications solutions typically covering widely spread areas. Different ITS solutions require different portfolio of telecommunications service quality. These parameters have to correspond with ITS service performance parameters required by specific service. Even though quite extensive range of public wireless data services with reasonable coverage are provided, most of them are provided with no guaranteed quality and security. ITS requirements can be in most parameters easier reached if multi-path communications systems are applied core solution is combined with both public as well as private ones where and when it is needed. Such solution requires implementation of relevant flexible system architecture supported by the efficient decision processes. This paper is concentrated the telecommunications security issues relevant to the ITS wide area networking. Expected level of security varies in dependence on relevant ITS service requirements. Data volumes transferred both in private data vehicle on board networks as well as between vehicles and infrastructure (C2I or other vehicles (C2C progressively grow. Such trend upsurges the fatal problems appearance probability in case security of the wide area networks is not relevantly treated. That is reason why relevant communications security treatment becomes crucial part of the ITS solution. Besides of available "off shelf" security tools we present solution based on non-public universal identifier with dynamical extension (time and position dependency as an autonomous variables and data selection according to actor role or category. Presented results were obtained within projects e-Ident1, DOTEK2 and SRATVU3.

  15. Phase 2: DCL System Using Deep Learning Approaches for Land-based or Ship-based Real-Time Recognition and Localization of Marine Mammals - Machine Learning Detection Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Dugan, Peter J.; Clark, Christopher W.; LeCun, Yann André; Van Parijs, Sofie M.

    2016-01-01

    Overarching goals for this work aim to advance the state of the art for detection, classification and localization (DCL) in the field of bioacoustics. This goal is primarily achieved by building a generic framework for detection-classification (DC) using a fast, efficient and scalable architecture, demonstrating the capabilities of this system using on a variety of low-frequency mid-frequency cetacean sounds. Two primary goals are to develop transferable technologies for detection and classif...

  16. Development trends in space transportation systems: From Hermes to Saenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontein, Volker; Koelle, Dietrich E.

    The criteria for the development of future space transportation systems are given. A trend in reducing transportation costs by reutilizing transportation systems is outlined. The European Hermes project represents a first step towards reutilization and manned winged apparatus. The technological and organizational requirements and the German participation in this project are described. The Saenger concept is shown as a logical advancement of this project, and of the corresponding technology. It consists of a two stage winged space tug with horizontal launch. A space transportation system with low launching costs, higher safety, and mission flexibility is expected. It should complete cargo rocket Ariane 5.

  17. 基于网闸技术的建设用地审批信息发布系统研究%A Study on Information Publishing System for the Examination and Approval of Construction Land Based on GAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      建设用地审批信息及时公布,是提高政府服务水平的一项重要举措。本文从建设用地审批信息发布实际需求出发,将网闸与 NAT 技术有机结合,提出了建设用地审批信息发布系统建设思路。本系统操作简便,且安全稳定,既能实现信息从内网向外网的实时发布,又能避免因内外网信息传递带来的安全隐患。%Information of the examination and approval of construction land to be published in time is an important measure to improve the service level of the government .Taking the organic combination of technology gap and NAT ,the paper ,from the real requirements ,put forward a thought to build the in-formation publishing system for the examination and approval of construction land .It is a system of us-er - friendly and stable security ,which not only can realize the information publishing from internal network to external network ,but also can ensure security of network caused by internal and external network information transmission trouble .

  18. Directed Transport of Interacting Particle Systems: Recent Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Zhi-Gang

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments in studies of directed transport processes in interacting particle systems are retrospected. Due to the interactions among elements, the directed transport process exhibits complicated and novel cooperative dynamics. We considered various possibilities in achieving ratchet motion by breaking different symmetries of many-body systems. It is shown that the directional transport can even be induced by breaking the coupling symmetry and the spatiotemporal symmetries.

  19. Dwight David Eisenhower Transportation Fellowship Program System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — DDETFP is a web-based application used to measure the performance of the DDETFP program, enhance reporting, and evaluate the programs' effectiveness in meeting goals...

  20. 2015 International Conference on Information Technology and Intelligent Transportation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Zhao, Xiangmo

    2017-01-01

    This volume includes the proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on Information Technology and Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITITS 2015) which was held in Xi’an on December 12-13, 2015. The conference provided a platform for all professionals and researchers from industry and academia to present and discuss recent advances in the field of Information Technology and Intelligent Transportation Systems. The presented information technologies are connected to intelligent transportation systems including wireless communication, computational technologies, floating car data/floating cellular data, sensing technologies, and video vehicle detection. The articles focusing on intelligent transport systems vary in the technologies applied, from basic management systems to more application systems including topics such as emergency vehicle notification systems, automatic road enforcement, collision avoidance systems and some cooperative systems. The conference hosted 12 invited speakers and over 200 part...

  1. Iontophoretic Transport Across a Multiple Membrane System

    OpenAIRE

    Molokhia, Sarah A.; Zhang, Yanhui; Higuchi, William I.; Li, S. Kevin

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the iontophoretic transport behavior across multiple membranes of different barrier properties. Spectra/Por® (SP) and Ionac membranes were the synthetic membranes and sclera was the biomembrane in this model study. The barrier properties of SP membranes were determined individually in passive and iontophoresis transport experiments with tetraethylammonium ion (TEA), chloride ion (Cl), and mannitol as the model permeants. Passive and iontop...

  2. Scheduling vehicles in automated transportation systems : algorithms and case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der Matthieu; Ebben, Mark; Gademann, Noud; Harten, van Aart

    2000-01-01

    One of the major planning issues in large scale automated transportation systems is so-called empty vehicle management, the timely supply of vehicles to terminals in order to reduce cargo waiting times. Motivated by a Dutch pilot project on an underground cargo transportation system using Automated

  3. Urban Transportation Systems in Bogotá and Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we explore the socio-technical dynamics of developing new urban transport systems. Based on the analysis of empirical material from the study of the Transmilenio in Bogotá and the Metro in Copenhagen, we propose that the design, construction and operation of urban transport systems...

  4. Status and Prospect of China's Space Transportation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LongLehao

    2004-01-01

    The space transportation system refers to all transportation vehicles carrying various paylaads and flying between the ground and space orbits or among orbits. It includes launch vehicle, space shuttle, space plane,emergency rescue vehicle and all kinds of auxiliary systems. The space

  5. Success and failures in urban transport planning in Europe — understanding the transport system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hermann Knoflacher

    2007-08-01

    Technological determinism has become a kind of religion for many people since it appears to offer solutions for societal problems as never before in history. Transport is one of the fascinating technology branches developed during the last 200 years. Effortless movement over long distances has become possible for car users as long as cheap fossil energy is available. However, the effect of fast transport on urban structures and society was not taken into account when developing these technical means. Technologists and economists have used indicators for expected benefits of these fast transport modes without taking into account the real system effects on society and urban structures. Plausible assumptions and hopes instead of scientific understanding of the complex system are used in practice. In contradiction to widely held beliefs of transportation planners, there is actually no growth of mobility if counted in number of trips per person per day, no time saving by increasing speed in the system, and no real freedom of modal choice. Modal choice is dependent on physical and other structures, the artificial environment built by urban planners, transport experts and political decisions. The core hypothesis of traditional urban and transport planning ‘growth of mobility’, ‘travel time saving by increasing speed’ and ‘freedom of modal choice’ are myths and do not exist in the real urban and transport system. This is the reason why urban planning and transport planning based on traditional non-scientific assumptions is creating continuously not only more transport problems, but also environmental and social as well as economic problems all over the world, where these principals are applied. Urban transport planning in Europe, understanding the transport system and the solutions are presented in this paper.

  6. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, James B.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Study (ATSS) task area 1 study effort is to examine manned launch vehicle booster concepts and two-way cargo transfer and return vehicle concepts to determine which of the many proposed concepts best meets NASA's needs for two-way transportation to low earth orbit. The study identified specific configurations of the normally unmanned, expendable launch vehicles (such as the National Launch System family) necessary to fly manned payloads. These launch vehicle configurations were then analyzed to determine the integrated booster/spacecraft performance, operations, reliability, and cost characteristics for the payload delivery and return mission. Design impacts to the expendable launch vehicles which would be required to perform the manned payload delivery mission were also identified. These impacts included the implications of applying NASA's man-rating requirements, as well as any mission or payload unique impacts. The booster concepts evaluated included the National Launch System (NLS) family of expendable vehicles and several variations of the NLS reference configurations to deliver larger manned payload concepts (such as the crew logistics vehicle (CLV) proposed by NASA JSC). Advanced, clean sheet concepts such as an F-1A engine derived liquid rocket booster (LRB), the single stage to orbit rocket, and a NASP-derived aerospace plane were also included in the study effort. Existing expendable launch vehicles such as the Titan 4, Ariane 5, Energia, and Proton were also examined. Although several manned payload concepts were considered in the analyses, the reference manned payload was the NASA Langley Research Center's HL-20 version of the personnel launch system (PLS). A scaled up version of the PLS for combined crew/cargo delivery capability, the HL-42 configuration, was also included in the analyses of cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV) booster concepts. In addition to strictly manned payloads, two-way cargo

  7. The transnational territorial transport system of the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumenyuk Ivan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the structure and territorial borders of the Baltic Sea region, and examine the key structural elements of the transnational territorial transport system. In this respect, we clarify some terms used in transport geography. For the first time the transport system gets territorially localized, which allows for a broad range of new studies of transnational transportation in the Baltic Sea area. We also identify the main principles of development and operation of international territorial transport systems and present them taking the Baltic Sea region as an example. Our findings, we hope, will have a great practical application for researchers of transport geography, especially those studying international logistics.

  8. research efforts on intelligent transportation system in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Keywords: Intelligent Transportation Systems, Policy formulation, Research product deployment, Funding,. System performance ... vehicles and among different vehicles (c) data ... plan and the use of traffic analysis tools to assist in evaluating ...

  9. Environment-assisted quantum transport in ordered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kassal, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Noise-assisted transport in quantum systems occurs when quantum time-evolution and decoherence conspire to produce a transport efficiency that is higher than what would be seen in either the purely quantum or purely classical cases. It has been understood as the suppression of coherent quantum localization through noise, which brings detuned quantum levels into resonance and thus facilitates transport. We report several new mechanisms of environment-assisted transport in ordered systems, in which there is no localization to be overcome.

  10. Shenzhen Comprehensive Transport System Planning:An Exploration of Sustainable Urban Transport Development on Condition of Limited Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    With "integration" as the direction,Shenzhen Comprehensive Transport Planning integrates the plan,construction and management of all kinds of transport mode in the transport system,and integrates the transport with the social,economic and environment development.The planning specifies the strategic targets,key indicators,development strategies as well as major policies of the comprehensive transport system,which explores an alternative way for the sustainable urban transport development under the condition of limited resources in Shenzhen.

  11. Procurement of a fully licensed radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Harold E.; Bearden, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    A fully licensed transportation system for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Units is currently being designed and built. The system will comply with all applicable U.S. Department of Transportation regulations without the use of a ``DOE Alternative.'' The U.S. Department of Transportation has special ``double containment'' requirements for plutonium. The system packaging uses a doubly contained ``bell jar'' concept. A refrigerated trailer is used for cooling the high-heat payloads. The same packaging is used for both high- and low-heat payloads. The system is scheduled to be available for use by mid-1992.

  12. Innovating for a competitive and resource-efficient transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-05-15

    Transport is vital to the economic prosperity and social integration of Europe. EU-transport policy is directed to developing a smart, efficient transport system with reduced dependency on fossil fuels and less environmental impacts that will enhance mobility in Europe and will underpin Europe's competitiveness in global markets. This includes the transport sector itself, which is an important part of the EU economy. In contributing to achieving these ambitious goals, extensive investments are made in research and development for sustainable and innovative solutions. This Policy Brochure, which is produced by the Transport Research and Innovation Portal (TRIP), highlights the contribution of research, development, and innovation in securing a competitive and resource-efficient transport system in Europe.

  13. Control of machine functions or transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodley, M.D.; Lee, M.J.; Jaeger, J.; King, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    A computer code, COMFORT, has been developed at SLAC for on-line calculation of the strengths of magnetic elements in an electron storage ring or transport beam line, subject to first order fitting constraints on the ring or beam line parameters. This code can also be used off-line as an interactive lattice or beam line design tool.

  14. Equilibrium models in multimodal container transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corman, F.; Viti, F.; Negenborn, R.R.

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing the performance of multimodal freight transport networks involves adequately balancing the interplay between costs, volumes, times of departure and arrival, and times of travel. In order to study this interplay, we propose an assignment model that is able to efficiently determine flows an

  15. Transport for Stochastic System with Infinite Locally Coupled Oscillators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ying-Kui; LI Jing-Hui; ZHAO Xian-Geng

    2003-01-01

    We consider the transport of particles for spatially periodic system with infinite locally coupled oscillatorsdriven by additive and multiplicative noises. A formula of the probability current derived by us shows that the couplingamong the infinite oscillators is an ingredient for transport. This coupling of the oscillators can induce transport ofparticles in the absence of the correlation of the additive and multiplicative noises, even without the multiplicative noise.

  16. Reaction-Transport Systems Mesoscopic Foundations, Fronts, and Spatial Instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Horsthemke, Werner; Mendez, Vicenc

    2010-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the dynamics of reaction-diffusion systems, with a focus on fronts and stationary spatial patterns. Emphasis is on systems that are non-standard in the sense that either the transport is not simply classical diffusion (Brownian motion) or the system is not homogeneous. A important feature is the derivation of the basic phenomenological equations from the mesoscopic system properties. Topics addressed include transport with inertia, described by persistent random walks and hyperbolic reaction-transport equations and transport by anomalous diffusion, in particular subdiffusion, where the mean square displacement grows sublinearly with time. In particular reaction-diffusion systems are studied where the medium is in turn either spatially inhomogeneous, compositionally heterogeneous or spatially discrete. Applications span a vast range of interdisciplinary fields and the systems considered can be as different as human or animal groups migrating under external influences, population...

  17. Transport and Power System Scenarios for Northern Europe in 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Meibom, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Increasing focus on sustainability affects all parts of the energy system. Integrating the power and transport system in future energy system planning, influences the economically optimal investments and optimal operation of the power system as well as the transport system. This work presents...... analysis of the optimal configuration and operation of the integrated power and transport system in Northern Europe. Optimal configuration and operation is obtained using the optimisation model, Balmorel [1], with a transport model extension. For electric drive vehicles with plug-in capabilities...... it is assumed that power can go both from grid-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-grid. Oil prices are assumed to be $120/barrel, and CO2 price 40 €/ton. This results in an optimal investment path with a large increase in sustainable energy; primarily wind energy, as well as an increase in the electric drive vehicles...

  18. A 10-Gbps optical WiMAX transport system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Pyng; Lu, Hai-Han; Wu, Po-Yi; Chen, Chia-Yi; Jhang, Tai-Wei; Ruan, Sheng-Siang; Wu, Kuan-Hung

    2014-02-10

    A 10-Gbps optical worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) transport system employing vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) and spatial light modulator (SLM) with 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)-orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulating signal is proposed. With the assistance of equalizer and low noise amplifier (LNA) at the receiving site, good bit error rate (BER) performance, clear constellation map, and clear eye diagram are achieved in the proposed systems. An optical WiMAX transport system, transmitting 16-QAM-OFDM signal over a 6-m free-space link, with a data rate of 10 Gbps is successfully demonstrated. Such a 10-Gbps optical WiMAX transport system would be attractive for providing services including Internet and telecommunication services. Our proposed system is suitable for the free-space lightwave transport system in visible light communication (VLC) application.

  19. Transport and Power System Scenarios for Northern Europe in 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Meibom, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Increasing focus on sustainability affects all parts of the energy system. Integrating the power and transport system in future energy system planning, influences the economically optimal investments and optimal operation of the power system as well as the transport system. This work presents...... analysis of the optimal configuration and operation of the integrated power and transport system in Northern Europe. Optimal configuration and operation is obtained using the optimisation model, Balmorel [1], with a transport model extension. For electric drive vehicles with plug-in capabilities...... it is assumed that power can go both from grid-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-grid. Oil prices are assumed to be $120/barrel, and CO2 price 40 €/ton. This results in an optimal investment path with a large increase in sustainable energy; primarily wind energy, as well as an increase in the electric drive vehicles...

  20. Public Transport Information System for Visually Impaired and Blind People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, Michał; Skomorowski, Marek

    This paper presents an assistive system for the visually impaired and blind people which helps them using public transport means. The proposed system uses mobile phones as a medium for passenger information system and GPS (Global Positioning System), GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and Bluetooth technologies for location and communication purposes. In the proposed system sound messages are given to the blind people via mobile phones which have dedicated software installed. This system has been implemented and tested in public transport in two pilot cities.

  1. Human behavior research and the design of sustainable transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J.

    2011-09-01

    Transport currently represents approximately 19% of the global energy demand and accounts for about 23% of the global carbon dioxide emissions (IEA 2009). As the demand for mobility is expected to continue to increase in the coming decades, the stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will require the evolution of transport, along with power generation, building design and manufacturing. The continued development of these sectors will need to include changes in energy sources, energy delivery, materials, infrastructure and human behavior. Pathways to reducing carbon from the transport sector have unique challenges and opportunities that are inherent to the human choices and behavioral patterns that mold the transportation systems and the associated energy needs. Technology, government investment, and regulatory policies have a significant impact on the formulation of transportation infrastructure; however, the role of human behavior and public acceptance on the efficiency and effectiveness of transport systems should not be underestimated. Although developed, rapidly developing, and underdeveloped nations face different challenges in the establishment of transport infrastructure that can meet transport needs while achieving sustainable carbon dioxide emissions, the constraints that establish the domain of possibilities are closely related for all nations. These constraints include capital investment, fuel supplies, power systems, and human behavior. Throughout the world, there are considerable efforts directed at advancing and optimizing the financing of sustainable infrastructures, the production of low carbon fuels, and the production of advanced power systems, but the foundational work on methods to understand human preferences and behavior within the context of transport and the valuation of reductions in carbon dioxide emissions is greatly lagging behind. These methods and the associated understanding of human behavior and the willingness to pay for

  2. Natural hazard impacts on transport systems: analyzing the data base of transport accidents in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Elena

    2015-04-01

    We consider a transport accident as any accident that occurs during transportation of people and goods. It comprises of accidents involving air, road, rail, water, and pipeline transport. With over 1.2 million people killed each year, road accidents are one of the world's leading causes of death; another 20-50 million people are injured each year on the world's roads while walking, cycling, or driving. Transport accidents of other types including air, rail, and water transport accidents are not as numerous as road crashes, but the relative risk of each accident is much higher because of the higher number of people killed and injured per accident. Pipeline ruptures cause large damages to the environment. That is why safety and security are of primary concern for any transport system. The transport system of the Russian Federation (RF) is one of the most extensive in the world. It includes 1,283,000 km of public roads, more than 600,000 km of airlines, more than 200,000 km of gas, oil, and product pipelines, 115,000 km of inland waterways, and 87,000 km of railways. The transport system, especially the transport infrastructure of the country is exposed to impacts of various natural hazards and weather extremes such as heavy rains, snowfalls, snowdrifts, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, snow avalanches, debris flows, rock falls, fog or icing roads, and other natural factors that additionally trigger many accidents. In June 2014, the Ministry of Transport of the RF has compiled a new version of the Transport Strategy of the RF up to 2030. Among of the key pillars of the Strategy are to increase the safety of the transport system and to reduce negative environmental impacts. Using the data base of technological accidents that was created by the author, the study investigates temporal variations and regional differences of the transport accidents' risk within the Russian federal regions and a contribution of natural factors to occurrences of different

  3. 3-D Nautical Charts as Decision Support for Land Based Piloting

    OpenAIRE

    Porathe, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In the event that remote pilotage is introduced in a wider extent, this paper suggests using nautical charts displayed in a 3-D egocentric perspective to improve situation awareness for both for the land based pilot and the bridge crew of the pilotless ship. The system will allow the port to send pre-planned routes with times and courses to individual ships, and present them in an ergonomic and intuitive way. The efficiency of the 3-D egocentric view has been shown in previous research. ...

  4. Use of MPEG transport stream in TV systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Sam

    1995-12-01

    This tutorial contribution covers the use of International Standard IS 13818-1 (MPEG-2 Systems) Transport Stream in Digital TV systems with main emphasis on broadcast systems. The Transport stream was developed by Working Group II of ISO/IEC JTC1 as a means for multiplexing and synchronizing multiple video and audio data as well as for transmission in a non-error resilient environment. This paper describes some salient features of the Transport Stream and details of how it is used to implement a complete end to end digital TV broadcast service with examples of functionality to support data, channel acquisition, navigation and near video on demand services.

  5. The process of motor transport technology development in intelligent transport systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudzinska O.V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Traffic is now regarded as one of the most complicated components of social and economic development in cities and suburban regions. The most advanced technologies for collecting and processing information about traffic parameters (density, speed, rolling stock should be used in these areas to ensure non-stop traffic flow on the roads. Methodological formation of ITS is based on the systematic approach, which considers the development of ITS services as a system rather than individual modules. Therefore a single open system architecture, protocols, information exchange, form of transport documents, standardization of means of communication parameters used for monitoring and control of vehicles are formed. Some specifications for the list of functions and service groups were made while searching for a solution of transport technology domain problems - commercial vehicles. Typical issues solved in service groups, on organisation of trucking transportations using the intelligent transport systems were defined – interpretation, diagnosis, monitoring, synthesis, forecasting, training and supporting the decisions already taken.

  6. Transport for a System with Additive Temporal-Spatial Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-Hui; HAN Yin-Xia; CHEN Shi-Gang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study the transport of the system with the additive temporal-spatial noise, by two models, i.e., a spatial asymmetry model and a spatial symmetry model. The study shows that the correlation of the additive noise with the space and the spatial asymmetry are ingredients for the transport.

  7. Applying intelligent transport systems to manage noise impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilmink, I.R.; Vonk, T.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution discusses how traffic management, and many other measures that can be categorised as Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS, i.e. all traffic and transport measures that use ICT) can help reduce noise levels by influencing mobility choices and driving behaviour. Several examples of suc

  8. Multimodal schedule design for synchromodal freight transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behdani, Behzad; Fan, Yun; Wiegmans, Bart; Zuidwijk, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Intermodal freight transport has been discussed for decades as an alternative to unimodal road transport. However, it still does not represent a significant portion of the total freight market. A new and promising possibility to improve the performance of freight systems is the synchromodal desig

  9. Multimodal schedule design for synchromodal freight transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Behdani (Behzad); Y. Fan (Yun); B.W. Wiegmans (Bart); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIntermodal freight transport has been discussed for decades as an alternative to unimodal road transport. However, it still does not represent a significant portion of the total freight market. A new and promising possibility to improve the performance of freight systems is the synchromo

  10. Transport phenomena in disordered interacting electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaeli, Karen

    We develop a user friendly scheme based on the quantum kinetic equation for studying electric and thermal transport phenomena in the presence of interactions and disorder. We demonstrate that this scheme is suitable for both a systematic perturbative calculation as well as a general analysis. The work was motivated by the growing number of experiments of thermal and thermoelectric transport, and the absence of adequate theoretical tools for studying them. In particular, for thermal transport, the widely used Kubo formula is rather cumbersome. In this thesis, we present a systematic derivation of the quantum kinetic approach which we believe can be a good alternative to the Kubo formula. One main advantage of the kinetic approach is that it provides us with an intuitive picture for both electric and thermal transport. The strength of our scheme is in its generality that allow us to apply it for different kinds of interactions. We study the effect of the superconducting fluctuations on the Hall and Nernst effects. We show that the strong Nernst effect observed recently in amorphous superconducting films far above the critical temperature is caused by the fluctuations of the superconducting order parameter. We demonstrate that in the limit T → 0 the contribution of the magnetization ensures the vanishing of the Nernst signal in accordance with the third law of thermodynamics. We obtained a striking agreement between our theoretical calculations and the experimental data in a broad region of temperatures and magnetic fields. In addition, we present the calculation of the Hall conductivity in the vicinity of the superconducting transition driven by a magnetic field. We discuss the peculiar feature of both the Hall coefficient and Nernst signal anticipated near the quantum phase transition.

  11. Variables Affecting Two Electron Transport System Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, G. Allen; Lanza, Guy R.

    1986-01-01

    Several methodological variables were critical in two commonly used electron transport activity assays. The dehydrogenase assay based on triphenyl formazan production exhibited a nonlinear relationship between formazan production (dehydrogenase activity) and sediment dilution, and linear formazan production occurred for 1 h in sediment slurries. Activity decreased with increased time of sediment storage at 4°C. Extraction efficiencies of formazan from sediment varied with alcohol type; methan...

  12. Transport and Dynamics in Toroidal Fusion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovinec, Carl [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-09-07

    The study entitled, "Transport and Dynamics in Toroidal Fusion Systems," (TDTFS) applied analytical theory and numerical computation to investigate topics of importance to confining plasma, the fourth state of matter, with magnetic fields. A central focus of the work is how non-thermal components of the ion particle distribution affect the "sawtooth" collective oscillation in the core of the tokamak magnetic configuration. Previous experimental and analytical research had shown and described how the oscillation frequency decreases and amplitude increases, leading to "monster" or "giant" sawteeth, when the non-thermal component is increased by injecting particle beams or by exciting ions with imposed electromagnetic waves. The TDTFS study applied numerical computation to self-consistently simulate the interaction between macroscopic collective plasma dynamics and the non-thermal particles. The modeling used the NIMROD code [Sovinec, Glasser, Gianakon, et al., J. Comput. Phys. 195, 355 (2004)] with the energetic component represented by simulation particles [Kim, Parker, Sovinec, and the NIMROD Team, Comput. Phys. Commun. 164, 448 (2004)]. The computations found decreasing growth rates for the instability that drives the oscillations, but they were ultimately limited from achieving experimentally relevant parameters due to computational practicalities. Nonetheless, this effort provided valuable lessons for integrated simulation of macroscopic plasma dynamics. It also motivated an investigation of the applicability of fluid-based modeling to the ion temperature gradient instability, leading to the journal publication [Schnack, Cheng, Barnes, and Parker, Phys. Plasmas 20, 062106 (2013)]. Apart from the tokamak-specific topics, the TDTFS study also addressed topics in the basic physics of magnetized plasma and in the dynamics of the reversed-field pinch (RFP) configuration. The basic physics work contributed to a study of two-fluid effects on interchange dynamics, where

  13. Multi-Agent Competition Simulation of Integrated Transportation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiashun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation networks have been developed during the recent decades with the rapid growth of economy. At the same time, the conflicts between different transportation modes were getting more and more intense. To describe the competition relationship in integrated transportation system, a multi-agent competition model was presented. It is important to provide decision support for regulators to lead more reasonable distribution of resources for planning and operating the integrated transportation network. Thus, a simulation program was developed to implement the proposed model and provide computer-aid decision support. Finally, several experiments were conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of this technique.

  14. The integration of transportation with the energy system in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Beella, Satish Kumar;

    were carried out in sequence. Firstly, a Chinese transport model has been created and approach reliability has been examined. Secondly, two scenarios, continued improvement (CI) scenario and accelerated improvement (AI) scenario, have been designed and evaluated. The results indicate that evident fuel......Energy security and climate change are forcing China to change its inappropriate energy structure. Today, transport is the second largest energy consumer in China. No single method can achieve a fossil fuel independent transport and it is necessary to propose a comprehensive strategy which can...... benefit both transport and the energy system. This paper aims to evaluate different transport development strategies in terms of their effects on fossil fuel demand reduction and to explore to what extent renewable energy can contribute to the transport sector. With this objective, three investigations...

  15. Biologically mediated transport of contaminants to aquatic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Jules M; Macdonald, Robie W; Mackay, Donald; Webster, Eva; Harvey, Colin; Smol, John P

    2007-02-15

    The prevailing view is that long-range transport of semivolatile contaminants is primarily conducted by the physical system (e.g., winds, currents), and biological transport is typically ignored. Although this view may be correct in terms of bulk budgets and fluxes, it neglects the potential of animals to focus contaminants into foodwebs due to their behaviors and lifecycles. In particular, gregarious animals that biomagnify and bioaccumulate certain contaminants and then migrate and congregate can become the predominant pathway for contaminants in many circumstances. Fish and birds provide prominent examples for such behavior. This review examines the potential for biovector transport to expose populations to contaminants. In addition, we apply a modeling approach to compare the potential of biovector transport to other physical transport pathways for a hypothetical lake receiving large numbers of fish. We conclude that biovector transport should not be neglected when considering environmental risks of biomagnifying contaminants.

  16. A multimodal transportation system routing implemented in waste collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rabbani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste collection is an important municipal service that charges large expenditures to waste management (WM system. In this study, a hierarchical structure is proposed in order to minimize total cost of waste collection routing problem. Moreover, in second stage destructive environmental effects of waste transportation are minimized concurrently through taking advantage of a road/rail transportation system. In the proposed multimodal transportation system, waste packs are transferred to final destination while travel time and risk of environmental threatening is minimized. The discussed problem is formulated mathematically in two stages. In the first stage, a household waste collection routing problem is formulated while, in second stage a multimodal transportation system is routed to transfer waste packs to final destination through roads and railroads. In order to solve the proposed NP hard models, an improved genetic algorithm is developed. Comparison of the obtained results with those of GAMS for small-size samples validates the proposed models.

  17. Advances in dynamic network modeling in complex transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ukkusuri, Satish V

    2013-01-01

    This book focuses on the latest in dynamic network modeling, including route guidance and traffic control in transportation systems and other complex infrastructure networks. Covers dynamic traffic assignment, flow modeling, mobile sensor deployment and more.

  18. An environmentally sustainable transport system in Sweden. A scenario study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brokking, P.; Emmelin, L.; Engstroem, M-G.; Nilsson, Jan-Evert; Eriksson, Gunnar; Wikberg, O.

    1997-02-01

    This is a short version of a scenario study concerning the possibilities to reach an Environmentally Sustainable Transport system in Sweden in a perspective of 30 years. The aim of the scenario study has been to describe one of several possible paths from today`s transport system to an environmentally adopted one. However, this does not imply that the task is to predict how such a transformation can be accomplished. The aim is rather to illustrate what such transformation require in the form of political decisions. The transformation of the transport system in to an environmentally adopted one, is primarily treated as a political problem, and a political perspective has accordingly been chosen for the study. In this English version of the scenario, the carbon dioxide problem is used to illuminate the many conflicts in goals and other problem that will attend an environmental adoption of the Swedish transport system, and to highlight the analytical points of departure for the scenario study. The analysis shows that it is possible to reach the national environmental goals that characterise, with given definitions, an environmentally sustainable transport system. However, this implies many severe political decisions over a long period of time, which in turn, implies a long term national consensus about the importance to reach the overall goal. Other results the scenario points out, is the risk that a policy focused on one sector leads to `solving` a problem by moving it outside systems limitations, and the limitations on a national environmental policy: Being able to count on assistance from other countries through an environmental adoption of the transport system in the European Union or globally, would drastically facilitate the environmental adoption of the Swedish transport system, through, among other things, a more rapid technological development. This indicates the necessity of promoting issues involving transportation and the environment in international

  19. An environmentally sustainable transport system in Sweden. A scenario study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brokking, P.; Emmelin, L.; Engstroem, M-G.; Nilsson, Jan-Evert; Eriksson, Gunnar; Wikberg, O.

    1997-02-01

    This is a short version of a scenario study concerning the possibilities to reach an Environmentally Sustainable Transport system in Sweden in a perspective of 30 years. The aim of the scenario study has been to describe one of several possible paths from today`s transport system to an environmentally adopted one. However, this does not imply that the task is to predict how such a transformation can be accomplished. The aim is rather to illustrate what such transformation require in the form of political decisions. The transformation of the transport system in to an environmentally adopted one, is primarily treated as a political problem, and a political perspective has accordingly been chosen for the study. In this English version of the scenario, the carbon dioxide problem is used to illuminate the many conflicts in goals and other problem that will attend an environmental adoption of the Swedish transport system, and to highlight the analytical points of departure for the scenario study. The analysis shows that it is possible to reach the national environmental goals that characterise, with given definitions, an environmentally sustainable transport system. However, this implies many severe political decisions over a long period of time, which in turn, implies a long term national consensus about the importance to reach the overall goal. Other results the scenario points out, is the risk that a policy focused on one sector leads to `solving` a problem by moving it outside systems limitations, and the limitations on a national environmental policy: Being able to count on assistance from other countries through an environmental adoption of the transport system in the European Union or globally, would drastically facilitate the environmental adoption of the Swedish transport system, through, among other things, a more rapid technological development. This indicates the necessity of promoting issues involving transportation and the environment in international

  20. Highly Scalable Trip Grouping for Large Scale Collective Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Risch, Tore

    2008-01-01

    Transportation-related problems, like road congestion, parking, and pollution, are increasing in most cities. In order to reduce traffic, recent work has proposed methods for vehicle sharing, for example for sharing cabs by grouping "closeby" cab requests and thus minimizing transportation cost...... and utilizing cab space. However, the methods published so far do not scale to large data volumes, which is necessary to facilitate large-scale collective transportation systems, e.g., ride-sharing systems for large cities. This paper presents highly scalable trip grouping algorithms, which generalize previous...

  1. Plasma transport simulation modeling for helical confinement systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, K.; Amano, T.

    1991-08-01

    New empirical and theoretical transport models for helical confinement systems are developed based on the neoclassical transport theory including the effect of radial electric field and multi-helicity magnetic components, and the drift wave turbulence transport for electrostatic and electromagnetic modes, or the anomalous semi-empirical transport. These electron thermal diffusivities are compared with CHS (Compact Helical System) experimental data, which indicates that the central transport coefficient of the ECH plasma agrees with the neoclassical axi-symmetric value and the transport outside the half radius is anomalous. On the other hand, the transport of NBI-heated plasmas is anomalous in the whole plasma region. This anomaly is not explained by the electrostatic drift wave turbulence models in these flat-density-profile discharges. For the detailed prediction of plasma parameters in LHD (Large Helical Device), 3-D(dimensional) equilibrium/1-D transport simulations including empirical or drift wave turbulence models are carried out, which suggests that the global confinement time of LHD is determined mainly by the electron anomalous transport near the plasma edge region rather than the helical ripple transport in the core region. Even if the ripple loss can be eliminated, the increase of the global confinement is 10%. However, the rise in the central ion temperature is more than 20%. If the anomalous loss can be reduced to the half level of the present scaling, like so-called `H-mode` of the tokamak discharge, the neoclassical ripple loss through the ion channel becomes important even in the plasma core. The 5% radial inward shift of the plasma column with respect to the major radius is effective for improving plasma confinement and raising more than 50% of the fusion product by reducing this neoclassical asymmetric ion transport loss and increasing 10% in the plasma radius. (author).

  2. Workshop on technology issues of superconducting Maglev transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegrzyn, J.E. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Shaw, D.T. (New York State Inst. of Superconductivity, Buffalo, NY (United States))

    1991-09-27

    There exists a critical need in the United States to improve its ground transportation system. One suggested system that offers many advantages over the current transportation infrastructure is Maglev. Maglev represents the latest evolution in very high and speed ground transportation, where vehicles are magnetically levitated, guided, and propelled over elevated guideways at speeds of 300 miles per hour. Maglev is not a new concept but is, however, receiving renewed interest. The objective of this workshop was to further promote these interest by bringing together a small group of specialists in Maglev technology to discuss Maglev research needs and to identify key research issues to the development of a successful Maglev system. The workshop was organized into four sessions based on the following technical areas: Materials, Testing, and Shielding; Magnet Design and Cryogenic Systems; Propulsion and Levitation Systems; and, System Control and Integration.

  3. Computational Intelligence and its Role in Enhancing Sustainable Transport Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Goodyer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available DeMontfort University’s (DMU Centre for Computational Intelligence (CCI is engaged in a range of programmes applying modern Computational Intelligence (CI techniques to provide superior analysis of complex real-time data sets that arise within transport systems. Better use of existing transport infrastructures can achieve positive sustainable outcomes, reducing congestion, improving air quality, providing real-time travel information and supporting low carbon vehicles. This is exemplified by the following examples: • ITRAQ, an integrated CI system that uses live feeds to determine the optimum use of the road system to reduce congestion and to improve air quality. • Sustainable Airport development Decision Support Systems. A CI based model that interfaces with a GIS system to model the environmental impact of flight paths. • The application of CI to solve multi-variable systems, logistics and passenger information. • VenusSim. The use of CI to model the dynamics of customer flows in transport terminals.

  4. Modern earthquake engineering offshore and land-based structures

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Junbo

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses applications of earthquake engineering for both offshore and land-based structures. It is self-contained as a reference work and covers a wide range of topics, including topics related to engineering seismology, geotechnical earthquake engineering, structural engineering, as well as special contents dedicated to design philosophy, determination of ground motions, shock waves, tsunamis, earthquake damage, seismic response of offshore and arctic structures, spatial varied ground motions, simplified and advanced seismic analysis methods, sudden subsidence of offshore platforms, tank liquid impacts during earthquakes, seismic resistance of non-structural elements, and various types of mitigation measures, etc. The target readership includes professionals in offshore and civil engineering, officials and regulators, as well as researchers and students in this field.

  5. Morse Monte Carlo Radiation Transport Code System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmett, M.B.

    1975-02-01

    The report contains sections containing descriptions of the MORSE and PICTURE codes, input descriptions, sample problems, deviations of the physical equations and explanations of the various error messages. The MORSE code is a multipurpose neutron and gamma-ray transport Monte Carlo code. Time dependence for both shielding and criticality problems is provided. General three-dimensional geometry may be used with an albedo option available at any material surface. The PICTURE code provide aid in preparing correct input data for the combinatorial geometry package CG. It provides a printed view of arbitrary two-dimensional slices through the geometry. By inspecting these pictures one may determine if the geometry specified by the input cards is indeed the desired geometry. 23 refs. (WRF)

  6. Quantum Transport in Strongly Correlated Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Dan

    2007-01-01

    describes the leads in momentum-space. We benchmark each of these schemes against exact Greens function results for the conductance in the non-interacting limit, thus demonstrating the accuracy of the lead descriptions. We first use the DMRG implementations to calculate the conductance of an interacting...... suppression when having the interaction inside the chain, and conjecture that the enhancement by interacting contacts is universal. This result challenges the commonly used division between interacting transport region and non-interacting leads, and shows that care should be taken when making....... Thus both coherence and correlation effects are important in this model, and the methods applied should be able to handle both these effects rigorously. We present the DMRG setup for this model and benchmark against existing Greens function results for the model. Then we present initial DMRG results...

  7. A multilayer perspective for the analysis of urban transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aleta, Alberto; Moreno, Yamir

    2016-01-01

    Public urban mobility systems are composed by several transportation modes connected together. Most studies in urban mobility and planning often ignore the multi-layer nature of transportation systems considering only aggregated versions of this complex scenario. In this work we present a model for the representation of the transportation system of an entire city as a multiplex network. Using two different perspectives, one in which each line is a layer and one in which lines of the same transportation mode are grouped together, we study the interconnected structure of 9 different cities in Europe raging from small towns to mega-cities like London and Berlin highlighting their vulnerabilities and possible improvements. Finally, for the city of Zaragoza in Spain, we also consider data about service schedule and waiting times, which allow us to create a simple yet realistic model for urban mobility able to reproduce real-world facts and to test for network improvements.

  8. The beam transport system in the SRS-1200

    CERN Document Server

    Ivashchenko, V E

    2002-01-01

    In NSC KIPT the synchrotron radiation source SRS-1200 for the Ukrainian national synchrotron center (Kiev) is developed. An injector for a storage ring is the electron linear accelerator with energy 180 MeV. For compactness of a complex LUE-180 dispose under a storage ring. The transport system provides transport of electron beam from linear accelerator without losses and injection him in the storage ring. The calculations of the performances of transport systems with five-lens and three-lens variants of translation line, and also with use 42 and 45-th of degree rectangular and sector bending magnets were carried out. As a result of the comparative analysis the five-lens symmetric variant of translation line with 42-th degree sector bending magnets was chosen. In the report the basic results of calculations, parameters and performances of transport system of electron beam are submitted.

  9. A Multilayer perspective for the analysis of urban transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleta, Alberto; Meloni, Sandro; Moreno, Yamir

    2017-03-01

    Public urban mobility systems are composed by several transportation modes connected together. Most studies in urban mobility and planning often ignore the multi-layer nature of transportation systems considering only aggregated versions of this complex scenario. In this work we present a model for the representation of the transportation system of an entire city as a multiplex network. Using two different perspectives, one in which each line is a layer and one in which lines of the same transportation mode are grouped together, we study the interconnected structure of 9 different cities in Europe raging from small towns to mega-cities like London and Berlin highlighting their vulnerabilities and possible improvements. Finally, for the city of Zaragoza in Spain, we also consider data about service schedule and waiting times, which allow us to create a simple yet realistic model for urban mobility able to reproduce real-world facts and to test for network improvements.

  10. A Multilayer perspective for the analysis of urban transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleta, Alberto; Meloni, Sandro; Moreno, Yamir

    2017-01-01

    Public urban mobility systems are composed by several transportation modes connected together. Most studies in urban mobility and planning often ignore the multi-layer nature of transportation systems considering only aggregated versions of this complex scenario. In this work we present a model for the representation of the transportation system of an entire city as a multiplex network. Using two different perspectives, one in which each line is a layer and one in which lines of the same transportation mode are grouped together, we study the interconnected structure of 9 different cities in Europe raging from small towns to mega-cities like London and Berlin highlighting their vulnerabilities and possible improvements. Finally, for the city of Zaragoza in Spain, we also consider data about service schedule and waiting times, which allow us to create a simple yet realistic model for urban mobility able to reproduce real-world facts and to test for network improvements. PMID:28295015

  11. Freight Transport Time Savings and Organizational Performance: A Systemic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Sambracos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of freight transport time savings (FTTS on the performance of transport consuming companies. In the first part existing methods on FTTS valuation are critically discussed and their limitations are identified. Following, a conceptual model is built introducing an alternative approach for the valuation of FTTS that is based on the system perspective of firms, integrating the disciplines of systems thinking, performance measurement, transport and logistics decision making. Evidence from a Systems Dynamics’ simulation experiment on a retailer suggests that the effect of FTTS on performance depends highly on the structure of the firm's transport related processes and decision making process. Through the development and simulation of several scenarios concerning the reaction of the firm to the FTTS, it is concluded that the value of FTTS is sensitive to the type of the reaction and its time profile.

  12. Toward a Shared Urban Transport System Ensuring Passengers & Goods Cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trentini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents radical new urban transportation system concepts, potentially allowing changing the economic and environmental costs of passenger and freight transportation. The driver focuses on the concept of sharing, which means to make a joint use of transport resources, between passengers and goods flows. From a field observation of several existing solutions, an inductive reasoning enables us to move from a set of specific facts to establish an archetype for a radical new urban transportation system. Once the archetype defined, it is translated in real life through the example of the On Route proposal for London. The research frame of this paper is the ANR C-Goods (City Goods Operation Optimization using Decision support System project. Started in February 2009 the project involves four partners , and will end on 2011.

  13. Simulation model for the WIPP transportation and delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, F. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States); Lippis, J. [USDOE Albuquerque Operations Office, Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project Office; Quinn, D. [Systems Modeling Corp., Sewickley, PA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a first of its kind repository designed to demonstrate safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste in bedded salt 2150 feet underground. Contact-handled (CH) TRU waste, waste with low beta or gamma emitting radionuclides that can be handled without protective clothing or additional shielding, will be transported to WIPP in Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) certified containers known as TRUPACT-IIs. The TRUPACT-II is the cornerstone of a transportation system designed for extraordinarily safe transport of TRU waste from ten DOE production and research sites to WIPP. This paper describes the complexities of the transportation system and discusses how a simulation model can be utilized as a tool to develop economical operating parameters for the system.

  14. Traffic Route Modelling and Assignment with Intelligent Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunicina Nadezhda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of signal transmitting environment for multimodal traffic control will enhance the integration of emergency and specialized transport routing tools in usual traffic control paradigms - it is one of the opportunities offered by modern intelligent traffic control systems. The improvement of effective electric power use in public transport system is an advantage of Intelligent Transport System (ITS. The research is connected with the improvement of on-line traffic control and adaptation of special traffic lighting alternatives by ITS. The assignment of the nearest appropriate transport will be done by passenger request, but unlike information system, the transport planning is done on demand. The task can be solved with the help of modern technical methods and equipment, as well as by applying control paradigms of the distributed systems. The problem is solved with the help of calculations hyper-graph and scheduling theory. The goal of the research is to develop methods, which support scheduling of the emergency transport, using high performance computing.

  15. A Feasibility Analysis of Land-Based SINS/GNSS Gravimetry for Groundwater Resource Detection in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Wei Chiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The integration of the Strapdown Inertial Navigation System and Global Navigation Satellite System (SINS/GNSS has been implemented for land-based gravimetry and has been proven to perform well in estimating gravity. Based on the mGal-level gravimetry results, this research aims to construct and develop a land-based SINS/GNSS gravimetry device containing a navigation-grade Inertial Measurement Unit. This research also presents a feasibility analysis for groundwater resource detection. A preliminary comparison of the kinematic velocities and accelerations using multi-combination of GNSS data including Global Positioning System, Global Navigation Satellite System, and BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, indicates that three-system observations performed better than two-system data in the computation. A comparison of gravity derived from SINS/GNSS and measured using a relative gravimeter also shows that both agree reasonably well with a mean difference of 2.30 mGal. The mean difference between repeat measurements of gravity disturbance using SINS/GNSS is 2.46 mGal with a standard deviation of 1.32 mGal. The gravity variation because of the groundwater at Pingtung Plain, Taiwan could reach 2.72 mGal. Hence, the developed land-based SINS/GNSS gravimetry can sufficiently and effectively detect groundwater resources.

  16. A Feasibility Analysis of Land-Based SINS/GNSS Gravimetry for Groundwater Resource Detection in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Kai-Wei; Lin, Cheng-An; Kuo, Chung-Yen

    2015-09-29

    The integration of the Strapdown Inertial Navigation System and Global Navigation Satellite System (SINS/GNSS) has been implemented for land-based gravimetry and has been proven to perform well in estimating gravity. Based on the mGal-level gravimetry results, this research aims to construct and develop a land-based SINS/GNSS gravimetry device containing a navigation-grade Inertial Measurement Unit. This research also presents a feasibility analysis for groundwater resource detection. A preliminary comparison of the kinematic velocities and accelerations using multi-combination of GNSS data including Global Positioning System, Global Navigation Satellite System, and BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, indicates that three-system observations performed better than two-system data in the computation. A comparison of gravity derived from SINS/GNSS and measured using a relative gravimeter also shows that both agree reasonably well with a mean difference of 2.30 mGal. The mean difference between repeat measurements of gravity disturbance using SINS/GNSS is 2.46 mGal with a standard deviation of 1.32 mGal. The gravity variation because of the groundwater at Pingtung Plain, Taiwan could reach 2.72 mGal. Hence, the developed land-based SINS/GNSS gravimetry can sufficiently and effectively detect groundwater resources.

  17. Organelle-localized potassium transport systems in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Shin; Uozumi, Nobuyuki

    2014-05-15

    Some intracellular organelles found in eukaryotes such as plants have arisen through the endocytotic engulfment of prokaryotic cells. This accounts for the presence of plant membrane intrinsic proteins that have homologs in prokaryotic cells. Other organelles, such as those of the endomembrane system, are thought to have evolved through infolding of the plasma membrane. Acquisition of intracellular components (organelles) in the cells supplied additional functions for survival in various natural environments. The organelles are surrounded by biological membranes, which contain membrane-embedded K(+) transport systems allowing K(+) to move across the membrane. K(+) transport systems in plant organelles act coordinately with the plasma membrane intrinsic K(+) transport systems to maintain cytosolic K(+) concentrations. Since it is sometimes difficult to perform direct studies of organellar membrane proteins in plant cells, heterologous expression in yeast and Escherichia coli has been used to elucidate the function of plant vacuole K(+) channels and other membrane transporters. The vacuole is the largest organelle in plant cells; it has an important task in the K(+) homeostasis of the cytoplasm. The initial electrophysiological measurements of K(+) transport have categorized three classes of plant vacuolar cation channels, and since then molecular cloning approaches have led to the isolation of genes for a number of K(+) transport systems. Plants contain chloroplasts, derived from photoautotrophic cyanobacteria. A novel K(+) transport system has been isolated from cyanobacteria, which may add to our understanding of K(+) flux across the thylakoid membrane and the inner membrane of the chloroplast. This chapter will provide an overview of recent findings regarding plant organellar K(+) transport proteins.

  18. A Configurable, Object-Oriented, Transportation System Software Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KELLY,SUZANNE M.; MYRE,JOHN W.; PRICE,MARK H.; RUSSELL,ERIC D.; SCOTT,DAN W.

    2000-08-01

    The Transportation Surety Center, 6300, has been conducting continuing research into and development of information systems for the Configurable Transportation Security and Information Management System (CTSS) project, an Object-Oriented Framework approach that uses Component-Based Software Development to facilitate rapid deployment of new systems while improving software cost containment, development reliability, compatibility, and extensibility. The direction has been to develop a Fleet Management System (FMS) framework using object-oriented technology. The goal for the current development is to provide a software and hardware environment that will demonstrate and support object-oriented development commonly in the FMS Central Command Center and Vehicle domains.

  19. Gathering Information from Transport Systems for Processing in Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodym, Oldřich; Unucka, Jakub

    2016-12-01

    Paper deals with complex system for processing information from means of transport acting as parts of train (rail or road). It focuses on automated information gathering using AutoID technology, information transmission via Internet of Things networks and information usage in information systems of logistic firms for support of selected processes on MES and ERP levels. Different kinds of gathered information from whole transport chain are discussed. Compliance with existing standards is mentioned. Security of information in full life cycle is integral part of presented system. Design of fully equipped system based on synthesized functional nodes is presented.

  20. Transport Information System using Query Centric Cyber Physical Systems (QCPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundra, Ankit; Rathee, Geetanjali; Chawla, Meenu; Soni, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    To incorporate the computation and communication with the physical world, next generation architecture i.e. CPS is viewed as a new technology. To improve the better interaction with the physical world or to perk up the electricity delivery usage, various CPS based approaches have been introduced. Recently several GPS equipped smart phones and sensor based frameworks have been proposed which provide various services i.e. environment estimation, road safety improvement but encounter certain limitations like elevated energy consumption and high computation cost. To meet the high reliability and safety requirements, this paper introduces a novel approach based on QCPS model which provides several users services (discussed in this paper). Further, this paper proposed a Transport Information System (TIS), which provide the communication with lower cost overhead by arranging the similar sensors in the form of grids. Each grid has a coordinator which interacts with cloud to process the user query. In order to evaluate the performance of proposed approach we have implemented a test bed of 16 wireless sensor nodes and have shown the performance in terms of computation and communication cost.

  1. The competitive advantage of a dual-transporter system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Sagi; Kafri, Moshe; Carmi, Miri; Barkai, Naama

    2011-12-09

    Cells use transporters of different affinities to regulate nutrient influx. When nutrients are depleted, low-affinity transporters are replaced by high-affinity ones. High-affinity transporters are helpful when concentrations of nutrients are low, but the advantage of reducing their abundance when nutrients are abundant is less clear. When we eliminated such reduced production of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae high-affinity transporters for phosphate and zinc, the elapsed time from the initiation of the starvation program until the lack of nutrients limited growth was shortened, and recovery from starvation was delayed. The latter phenotype was rescued by constitutive activation of the starvation program. Dual-transporter systems appear to prolong preparation for starvation and to facilitate subsequent recovery, which may optimize sensing of nutrient depletion by integrating internal and external information about nutrient availability.

  2. A flexible micro fluid transport system featuring magnetorheological elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrooz, Majid; Gordaninejad, Faramarz

    2016-02-01

    This study presents a flexible magnetically-actuated micro fluid transport system utilizing an isotropic magnetorheological elastomer (MRE). Theoretical modeling and analysis of this system is presented for a two-dimensional model. This fluid transport system can propel the fluid by applying a fluctuating magnetic field on the MRE. The magneto-fluid-structure interaction analysis is employed to determine movement of the solid domain and the velocity of the fluid under a controllable magnetic field. The effects of key material, geometric, and magnetic parameters on the behavior of this system are examined. It is demonstrated that the proposed system can propel the fluid unidirectionally, and the volume of the transported fluid is significantly affected by some of the design parameters.

  3. Modular transportable superconducting magnetic Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieurance, D.; Kimball, F.; Rix, C. [Martin Marietta Space Magnetics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Design and cost studies were performed for the magnet components of mid-size (1-5 MWh), cold supported SMES systems using alternative configurations. The configurations studied included solenoid magnets, which required onsite assembly of the magnet system, and toroid and racetrack configurations which consisted of factory assembled modules. For each configuration, design concepts and cost information were developed for the major features of the magnet system including the conductor, electrical insulation, and structure. These studies showed that for mid-size systems, the costs of solenoid and toroid magnet configurations are comparable and that the specific configuration to be used for a given application should be based upon customer requirements such as limiting stray fields or minimizing risks in development or construction.

  4. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Transportation Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  5. Energy coupling to periplasmic binding protein-dependent transport systems: stoichiometry of ATP hydrolysis during transport in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Mimmack, M L; Gallagher, M P; Pearce, S R; Hyde, S C; Booth, I R; Higgins, C F

    1989-01-01

    Periplasmic binding protein-dependent transport systems mediate the accumulation of many diverse substrates in prokaryotic cells. Similar transport systems, including the P-glycoprotein responsible for multidrug resistance in human tumors, are also found in eukaryotes. The mechanism by which energy is coupled to the accumulation of substrate by these transport systems has been controversial. In this paper we demonstrate that ATP hydrolysis occurs in vivo concomitantly with transport. These da...

  6. Transportation of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum in a closed system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Gomes

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of density, duration and the use of additives to the water during the transportation of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum and use of this data to establish a safe transportation protocol for the species. The tested products and dosages were: salt (1000, 2000 and 3000 mg/L, gypsum (100, 300 and 500 mg/L and benzocaine (10, 20 and 30 mg/L. Fish were transported in closed systems (plastic bag at different densities and time periods of up to 24 h. Fish survival (FS and water quality parameters were monitored immediately after transportation. The remaining fish were kept in floating cages in order to evaluate mortality which occurred up to 96 h after transportation (S96. The best fish density, additives dosages and time period of the transportation was estimated with a general linear model. The effect of the condition factor on FS and S96 was also evaluated. As expected, FS and S96 were significantly related to time and density. FS but not S96, were also were significantly related to treatment. FS with gypsum treatment was not different from controls and FS with table salt and benzocaine treatments were significantly reduced. The condition factor was not related to either FS or S96. FS was inversely correlated with carbon dioxide concentration. It was concluded that the additives did not improve fish transportation survival. Linear models were developed to predict the best transportation densities as a function of time.

  7. Integration of the Paratransit in Urban Public Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Verseckienė

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The demand of transport grows along with road traffic. Congestion costs 1% of the GDP of European Union (European Union 2014 and also causes significant emissions of carbon dioxide and other pollutants. This problem could be solved by transfering a part of passengers from private modes of transport to the public transport. But the essential condition is a sustainable development which means the accessibility on equal terms. Therefore, attention to the focus group – people with movement impairements, is neccessary. Since even under ideal conditions some of those people will not be able to use the ordinary public transport services, a special transportation service, called paratransit, should be offered. In this paper the parameters of paratransit as well as their variations are analyzed. Also the wider application possibilities are considered. The aspects of integration of paratransit into the existing system, pottential barriers for the integration and conditions for the integration are highlighted. The main purpose of this paper is to formulate the scenarios for the integration of paratransit into the existing public transport system based on the analysis of the scientific literature and the best practices, which could be used to form a policy of improving the accessibility of the public transport for people with movement impairments.

  8. Electricity for Road Transport, Flexible Power Systems and Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Ravn, Hans; Meibom, Peter;

    -vehicle connection systems including technical regulation options and analysis of needs for standardisation. 4: Setting up scenarios covering potential developments for utilizing electric drive trains in road transport. Period: Up to year 2030. 5: Analysis of capacity constraints in the electricity grid...... (transmission and distribution) as consequence of increasing electricity demand, and new flexible consumption patterns from segments in the transport sector, and as consequence of increasing capacity on wind power in the system. 6: Setting up and analysis of combined scenarios covering both the heat and power......The aim of the project is to analyse the potential synergistic interplay that may arise between the power sector and the transport sector, if parts of the road transport energy needs are based on electricity via the utilisation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and pure electric vehicles...

  9. Preliminary Transportation, Aging and Disposal Canister System Performance Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.A Kouts

    2006-11-22

    This document provides specifications for selected system components of the Transportation, Aging and Disposal (TAD) canister-based system. A list of system specified components and ancillary components are included in Section 1.2. The TAD canister, in conjunction with specialized overpacks will accomplish a number of functions in the management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Some of these functions will be accomplished at purchaser sites where commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) is stored, and some will be performed within the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) transportation and disposal system. This document contains only those requirements unique to applications within Department of Energy's (DOE's) system. DOE recognizes that TAD canisters may have to perform similar functions at purchaser sites. Requirements to meet reactor functions, such as on-site dry storage, handling, and loading for transportation, are expected to be similar to commercially available canister-based systems. This document is intended to be referenced in the license application for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). As such, the requirements cited herein are needed for TAD system use in OCRWM's disposal system. This document contains specifications for the TAD canister, transportation overpack and aging overpack. The remaining components and equipment that are unique to the OCRWM system or for similar purchaser applications will be supplied by others.

  10. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) sample pig transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCCOY, J.C.

    1999-03-16

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides a technical evaluation of the Sample Pig Transport System as compared to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1, Change 1, Chapter III. The evaluation concludes that the package is acceptable for the onsite transport of Type B, fissile excepted radioactive materials when used in accordance with this document.

  11. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation for Space Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Karl

    2000-01-01

    Current system simulations are mature, difficult to modify, and poorly documented. Probabilistic life prediction techniques for space applications are in their early application stage. Many parts of the full system, variable fidelity simulation, have been demonstrated individually or technology is available from aeronautical applications. A 20% reduction in time to design with improvements in performance and risk reduction is anticipated. GRC software development will proceed with similar development efforts in aeronautical simulations. Where appropriate, parallel efforts will be encouraged/tracked in high risk areas until success is assured.

  12. Growth and dispersal with inertia: Hyperbolic reaction-transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Vicenç; Campos, Daniel; Horsthemke, Werner

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the behavior of five hyperbolic reaction-diffusion equations most commonly employed to describe systems of interacting organisms or reacting particles where dispersal displays inertia. We first discuss the macroscopic or mesoscopic foundation, or lack thereof, of these reaction-transport equations. This is followed by an analysis of the temporal evolution of spatially uniform states. In particular, we determine the uniform steady states of the reaction-transport systems and their stability properties. We then address the spatiotemporal behavior of pure death processes. We end with a unified treatment of the front speed for hyperbolic reaction-diffusion equations with Kolmogorov-Petrosvskii-Piskunov kinetics. In particular, we obtain an exact expression for the front speed of a general class of reaction correlated random walk systems. Our results establish that three out of the five hyperbolic reaction-transport equations provide physically acceptable models of biological and chemical systems.

  13. Pump-lockage ore transportation system for deep sea flexible mining system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hai-liang; YIN Ping-wei; XU Shao-jun; YANG Fang-qiong

    2008-01-01

    Based on characteristics of deep sea flexible mining system, a new pump-lockage ore transportation system was designed. According to Bernoulli equation and two-phase hydrodynamics theory, parameters of the new system were obtained and four ore transportation systems were analyzed. The results indicate that the pump head of 1000 m mining system is 100-150 m and that of 5 000 m mining system is 660-750 m. In addition, based on similarity theory, a model of the new transportation system was made,which can simulate more than 5 000 m actual ore transportation system. So both theory and experiment prove that the new pump-lockage ore transportation system is an ideal design for deep sea flexible mining system.

  14. [The diseases of circulatory system in employees of railway transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molodtsov, R N; Shemetova, G N

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the epidemiologic and medical social aspects of diseases of circulatory system in employees of railway transport in 2000-2010 exemplified by Privolzhskiy railroad. The established tendencies in prevalence of pathology of cardio-vascular system in railroad workers makes the issues of practical implementation of priority of prevention in the organization of medical care to this group of patients to come to foreground. The main directions for complex prevention of diseases of circulatory system in employees of railway transport are presented.

  15. Renal amino acid transport systems and essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Vanda; Pinho, Maria João; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2013-08-01

    Several clinical and animal studies suggest that "blood pressure goes with the kidney," that is, a normotensive recipient of a kidney genetically programmed for hypertension will develop hypertension. Intrarenal dopamine plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension by regulating epithelial sodium transport. The candidate transport systems for L-DOPA, the source for dopamine, include the sodium-dependent systems B(0), B(0,+), and y(+)L, and the sodium-independent systems L (LAT1 and LAT2) and b(0,+). Renal LAT2 is overexpressed in the prehypertensive spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), which might contribute to enhanced L-DOPA uptake in the proximal tubule and increased dopamine production, as an attempt to overcome the defect in D1 receptor function. On the other hand, it has been recently reported that impaired arginine transport contributes to low renal nitric oxide bioavailability observed in the SHR renal medulla. Here we review the importance of renal amino acid transporters in the kidney and highlight pathophysiological changes in the expression and regulation of these transporters in essential hypertension. The study of the regulation of renal amino acid transporters may help to define the underlying mechanisms predisposing individuals to an increased risk for development of hypertension.

  16. The plasma membrane transport systems and adaptation to salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Mohamed Magdy F

    2014-11-15

    Salt stress represents one of the environmental challenges that drastically affect plant growth and yield. Evidence suggests that glycophytes and halophytes have a salt tolerance mechanisms working at the cellular level, and the plasma membrane (PM) is believed to be one facet of the cellular mechanisms. The responses of the PM transport proteins to salinity in contrasting species/cultivars were discussed. The review provides a comprehensive overview of the recent advances describing the crucial roles that the PM transport systems have in plant adaptation to salt. Several lines of evidence were presented to demonstrate the correlation between the PM transport proteins and adaptation of plants to high salinity. How alterations in these transport systems of the PM allow plants to cope with the salt stress was also addressed. Although inconsistencies exist in some of the information related to the responses of the PM transport proteins to salinity in different species/cultivars, their key roles in adaptation of plants to high salinity is obvious and evident, and cannot be precluded. Despite the promising results, detailed investigations at the cellular/molecular level are needed in some issues of the PM transport systems in response to salinity to further evaluate their implication in salt tolerance.

  17. Toward a shared urban transport system passengers & Goods Cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trentini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents radical new urban transportation system concepts, potentially allowing changing the economic and environmental costs of passenger and freight transportation. The driver focuses on the concept of sharing, which means to make a joint use of transport resources, between passengers and goods flows. From a field observation of several existing solutions, an inductive reasoning enables us to move from a set of specific facts to establish an archetype for a radical new urban transportation system. Once the archetype defined, it is translated in real life through the example of the On Route proposal for London.The research frame of this paper is the ANR ( French National Research Agency C-Goods (City Goods Operation Optimization using Decision support System project. Started in February 2009 the project involves four partners, (The multi-disciplinary French engineer school EIGSI (Ecole d’Ingénieurs en Génie des Systèmes Industriels, the French university ENMP (Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, the Poitiers Urban Community (CAP, and the consulting service Interface Transport, specialized in transport economy and will end on 2012.

  18. Transformations in Air Transportation Systems For the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.

    2004-01-01

    Globally, our transportation systems face increasingly discomforting realities: certain of the legacy air and ground infrastructures of the 20th century will not satisfy our 21st century mobility needs. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity for those nations unable to transform from the 20th to 21st century systems. Clearly, new thinking is required regarding business models that cater to consumers value of time, airspace architectures that enable those new business models, and technology strategies for innovating at the system-of-networks level. This lecture proposes a structured way of thinking about transformation from the legacy systems of the 20th century toward new systems for the 21st century. The comparison and contrast between the legacy systems of the 20th century and the transformed systems of the 21st century provides insights into the structure of transformation of air transportation. Where the legacy systems tend to be analog (versus digital), centralized (versus distributed), and scheduled (versus on-demand) for example, transformed 21st century systems become capable of scalability through technological, business, and policy innovations. Where air mobility in our legacy systems of the 20th century brought economic opportunity and quality of life to large service markets, transformed air mobility of the 21st century becomes more equitable available to ever-thinner and widely distributed populations. Several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems create new foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation. One of the technological developments of importance arises from complexity science and modern network theory. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of robustness

  19. Space Transportation Systems Life Cycle Cost Assessment and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, John W.; Rhodes, Russell E.; Zapata, Edgar; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Donahue, Benjaamin B.; Knuth, William

    2008-01-01

    Civil and military applications of space transportation have been pursued for just over 50 years and there has been, and still is, a need for safe, dependable, affordable, and sustainable space transportation systems. Fully expendable and partially reusable space transportation systems have been developed and put in operation that have not adequately achieved this need. Access to space is technically achievable, but presently very expensive and will remain so until there is a breakthrough in the way we do business. Since 1991 the national Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) has reviewed and assessed the lessons learned from the major U.S. space programs of the past decades focusing on what has been learned from the assessment and control of Life Cycle Cost (LCC) from these systems. This paper presents the results of a selected number of studies and analyses that have been conducted by the SPST addressing the need, as well as the solutions, for improvement in LCC. The major emphasis of the SPST processes is on developing the space transportation system requirements first (up front). These requirements must include both the usual system flight performance requirements and also the system functional requirements, including the infrastructure on Earth's surface, in-space and on the Moon and Mars surfaces to determine LCC. This paper describes the development of specific innovative engineering and management approaches and processes. This includes a focus on flight hardware maturity for reliability, ground operations approaches, and business processes between contractor and government organizations. A major change in program/project cost control is being proposed by the SPST to achieve a sustainable space transportation system LCC - controlling cost as a program metric in addition to the existing practice of controlling performance and weight. Without a firm requirement and methodically structured cost control, it is unlikely that an affordable and sustainable space

  20. Development of City Transport System and Twowheel Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫焕久; 李理光

    2003-01-01

    Based on the study on the city transport systems of some typical cities worldwide,this paper put forward that each city transport system has its own development mode,which is influenced by the city development plan,economic development level,traveling vehicle composition etc..When some problems occur,such as the congestions caused by contradiction between the road capacity and vehicle composition,the city transport system may come into temporary maturity period.If the improvement for road system is limited meanwhile,optimized structure of vehicle composition should be an effective solution in this case.With the development of economy-internationalization,the development speed of city transport modernization is rapid.When traveling easiness is conflicting with efficiency,the advantages of public transport system become more obvious.Correspondingly,the superiority of two-wheel vehicles will reappear.Though the important function of two-wheel vehicles for alleviating city traffic problems is obvious,however,their development strategy must be reasonably proposed,and operation regulations must be performed accordingly.

  1. THE UNCONVENTIONAL DESIGN OF THE ELECTRODYNAMIC TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Dzenzersjkyj

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The arrangements of electro-dynamic transport systems with the flat track structure are described and the fluctuations and stability of levitation motion of their vehicles are evaluated. It is shown that under rational choice of main parameters of the systems a stable levitation motion of the vehicles in straight-line and curvilinear sections of the track is provided.

  2. Optimal configuration of an integrated power and transport system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Meibom, Peter

    2011-01-01

    optimal investments in both power plants and vehicle technologies is presented in this article. The model includes the interactions between the power system and the transport system including the competition between flexibility measures such as hydrogen storage in combination with electrolysis, heat...

  3. Copper transport systems are involved in multidrug resistance and drug transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Komatsu, Masaharu; Ikeda, Ryuji; Tsujikawa, Kazutake; Akiyama, Shin-ichi

    2008-01-01

    metabolism modulate drug transport appears to involve modulation of drug cellular localization via modulation of the vesicle transport system. In ATP7A overexpressing cells, Dox accumulates in the Golgi apparatus. In contrast, in the parental cells, Dox is localized in the nuclei, where the target molecules of Dox, topoisomerase II and DNA, are found. Disruption of the intracellular vesicle transport system with monensin, a Na+/H+ ionophore, induced the relocalization of Dox from the Golgi apparatus to the nuclei in the ATP7A overexpressing cells. These data suggested that ATP7A-related drug transport is dependent on the vesicle transport system. Thus copper transport systems play important roles in drug transport as well as in copper metabolism. Components of copper metabolism are therefore likely to include target molecules for the modulation of drug potency of not only anti-cancer agents but also of other drugs.

  4. ''Swap trough'' combined transport system. A system solution for rail freight transport; Kombiverkehrssystem Wechseltrog-Transport. Eine Systemloesung fuer den Eisenbahngueterverkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windsinger, J. [Freundekreis Koenigsberg/Kalinigrad, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Fasterding, G. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen

    2005-07-01

    Representatives of the German, Polish and Russian railways have held several discussions on the subject of freight transport from Germany via Poland to Kaliningrad and onwards to Russia. On 20 February 2004, the Friends of Koenigsberg - Kaliningrad in turn founded to 'Swap Trough Transport (STT) Consortium' in Celle, Germany. The aim of the consortium is to develop and implement a new, cost-effective combined transport system. The objective is to set up a trans-Eurasian WTT system using a continuous rail link all the way from Vladivostok to Lisbon. (orig.)

  5. Engineering intracellular active transport systems as in vivo biomolecular tools.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachand, George David; Carroll-Portillo, Amanda

    2006-11-01

    Active transport systems provide essential functions in terms of cell physiology and metastasis. These systems, however, are also co-opted by invading viruses, enabling directed transport of the virus to and from the cell's nucleus (i.e., the site of virus replication). Based on this concept, fundamentally new approaches for interrogating and manipulating the inner workings of living cells may be achievable by co-opting Nature's active transport systems as an in vivo biomolecular tool. The overall goal of this project was to investigate the ability to engineer kinesin-based transport systems for in vivo applications, specifically the collection of effector proteins (e.g., transcriptional regulators) within single cells. In the first part of this project, a chimeric fusion protein consisting of kinesin and a single chain variable fragment (scFv) of an antibody was successfully produced through a recombinant expression system. The kinesin-scFv retained both catalytic and antigenic functionality, enabling selective capture and transport of target antigens. The incorporation of a rabbit IgG-specific scFv into the kinesin established a generalized system for functionalizing kinesin with a wide range of target-selective antibodies raised in rabbits. The second objective was to develop methods of isolating the intact microtubule network from live cells as a platform for evaluating kinesin-based transport within the cytoskeletal architecture of a cell. Successful isolation of intact microtubule networks from two distinct cell types was demonstrated using glutaraldehyde and methanol fixation methods. This work provides a platform for inferring the ability of kinesin-scFv to function in vivo, and may also serve as a three-dimensional scaffold for evaluating and exploiting kinesin-based transport for nanotechnological applications. Overall, the technology developed in this project represents a first-step in engineering active transport system for in vivo

  6. Economic model of pipeline transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-07-29

    The objective of the work reported here was to develop a model which could be used to assess the economic effects of energy-conservative technological innovations upon the pipeline industry. The model is a dynamic simulator which accepts inputs of two classes: the physical description (design parameters, fluid properties, and financial structures) of the system to be studied, and the postulated market (throughput and price) projection. The model consists of time-independent submodels: the fluidics model which simulates the physical behavior of the system, and the financial model which operates upon the output of the fluidics model to calculate the economics outputs. Any of a number of existing fluidics models can be used in addition to that developed as a part of this study. The financial model, known as the Systems, Science and Software (S/sup 3/) Financial Projection Model, contains user options whereby pipeline-peculiar characteristics can be removed and/or modified, so that the model can be applied to virtually any kind of business enterprise. The several dozen outputs are of two classes: the energetics and the economics. The energetics outputs of primary interest are the energy intensity, also called unit energy consumption, and the total energy consumed. The primary economics outputs are the long-run average cost, profit, cash flow, and return on investment.

  7. Modeling Reactive Transport in Coupled Groundwater-Conduit Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiessl, S. M.; Sauter, M.; Zheng, C.; Viswanathan, H. S.

    2002-05-01

    Modeling reactive transport in coupled groundwater-conduit systems requires consideration of two transport time scales in the flow and transport models. Consider for example a subsurface mine consisting of a network of highly conductive shafts, drifts or ventilation raises (i.e., conduits) within the considerably less permeable ore material (i.e., matrix). In the conduits, potential contaminants can travel much more rapidly than in the background aquifer (matrix). Since conduits cannot necessarily be regarded as a continuum, double continuum models are only of limited use for simulation of contaminant transport in such coupled groundwater-conduit systems. This study utilizes a "hybrid" flow and transport model in which contaminants can in essence be transported at a slower time scale in the matrix and at a faster time scale in the conduits. The hybrid flow model uses an approach developed by Clemens et al. (1996), which is based on the modelling of flow in a discrete pipe network, coupled to a continuum representing the low-permeability inter-conduit matrix blocks. Laminar or turbulent flow can be simulated in the different pipes depending on the flow conditions in the model domain. The three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater flow model MODFLOW (Harbaugh and McDonald, 1996) is used to simulate flow in the continuum. Contaminant transport within the matrix is simulated with a continuum approach using the three-dimensional multi-species solute transport model MT3DMS (Zheng and Wang, 1999), while that in the conduit system is simulated with a one-dimensional advective transport model. As a first step for reactive transport modeling in such systems, only equilibrium reactions among multiple species are considered by coupling the hybrid transport model to a geochemical speciation package. An idealized mine network developed by Viswanathan and Sauter (2001) is used as a test problem in this study. The numerical experiment is based on reference date collected from

  8. GPS and GPRS Based Telemonitoring System for Emergency Patient Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Satyanarayana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Telemonitoring during the golden hour of patient transportation helps to improve medical care. Presently there are different physiological data acquisition and transmission systems using cellular network and radio communication links. Location monitoring systems and video transmission systems are also commercially available. The emergency patient transportation systems uniquely require transmission of data pertaining to the patient, vehicle, time of the call, physiological signals (like ECG, blood pressure, a body temperature, and blood oxygen saturation, location information, a snap shot of the patient, and voice. These requirements are presently met by using separate communication systems for voice, physiological data, and location that result in a lot of inconvenience to the technicians, maintenance related issues, in addition to being expensive. This paper presents design, development, and implementation of such a telemonitoring system for emergency patient transportation employing ARM 9 processor module. This system is found to be very useful for the emergency patient transportation being undertaken by organizations like the Emergency Management Research Institute (EMRI.

  9. Isotope effects on particle transport in the Compact Helical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.; Okamura, S.; Minami, T.; Ida, K.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Osakabe, M.; Yoshimura, Y.; Isobe, M.; Morita, S.; Matsuoka, K.

    2016-05-01

    The hydrogen isotope effects of particle transport were studied in the hydrogen and deuterium dominant plasmas of the Compact Helical System (CHS). Longer decay time of electron density after the turning-off of the gas puffing was observed in the deuterium dominant plasma suggesting that the recycling was higher and/or the particle confinement was better in the deuterium dominant plasma. Density modulation experiments showed the quantitative difference of the particle transport coefficients. Density was scanned from 0.8  ×  1019 m-3 to 4  ×  1019 m-3 under the same magnetic field and almost the same heating power. In the low density regime (line averaged density  2.5  ×  1019 m-3) no clear difference was observed. This result indicates that the isotope effects of particle transport exist only in the low density regime. Comparison with neoclassical transport coefficients showed that the difference of particle transport is likely to be due to the difference of turbulence driven anomalous transport. Linear character of the ion scale turbulence was studied. The smaller linear growth rate qualitatively agreed with the reduced particle transport in the deuterium dominant plasma of the low density regime.

  10. Decentralized control of multi-agent aerial transportation system

    KAUST Repository

    Toumi, Noureddine

    2017-04-01

    Autonomous aerial transportation has multiple potential applications including emergency cases and rescue missions where ground intervention may be difficult. In this context, the following work will address the control of multi-agent Vertical Take-off and Landing aircraft (VTOL) transportation system. We develop a decentralized method. The advantage of such a solution is that it can provide better maneuverability and lifting capabilities compared to existing systems. First, we consider a cooperative group of VTOLs transporting one payload. The main idea is that each agent perceive the interaction with other agents as a disturbance while assuming a negotiated motion model and imposing certain magnitude bounds on each agent. The theoretical model will be then validated using a numerical simulation illustrating the interesting features of the presented control method. Results show that under specified disturbances, the algorithm is able to guarantee the tracking with a minimal error. We describe a toolbox that has been developed for this purpose. Then, a system of multiple VTOLs lifting payloads will be studied. The algorithm assures that the VTOLs are coordinated with minimal communication. Additionally, a novel gripper design for ferrous objects is presented that enables the transportation of ferrous objects without a cable. Finally, we discuss potential connections to human in the loop transportation systems.

  11. Storage, transportation and disposal system for used nuclear fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaglione, John M.; Wagner, John C.

    2017-07-11

    An integrated storage, transportation and disposal system for used fuel assemblies is provided. The system includes a plurality of sealed canisters and a cask sized to receive the sealed canisters in side by side relationship. The plurality of sealed canisters include an internal basket structure to receive a plurality of used fuel assemblies. The internal basket structure includes a plurality of radiation-absorbing panels and a plurality of hemispherical ribs generally perpendicular to the canister sidewall. The sealed canisters are received within the cask for storage and transportation and are removed from the cask for disposal at a designated repository. The system of the present invention allows the handling of sealed canisters separately or collectively, while allowing storage and transportation of high burnup fuel and damaged fuel to the designated repository.

  12. Feasibility study for a transportation operations system cask maintenance facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennich, M.J.; Medley, L.G.; Attaway, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the development of a waste management program for the disposition of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste (HLW). The program will include a transportation system for moving the nuclear waste from the sources to a geologic repository for permanent disposal. Specially designed casks will be used to safely transport the waste. The cask systems must be operated within limits imposed by DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the Department of Transportation (DOT). A dedicated facility for inspecting, testing, and maintaining the cask systems was recommended by the General Accounting Office (in 1979) as the best means of assuring their operational effectiveness and safety, as well as regulatory compliance. In November of 1987, OCRWM requested a feasibility study be made of a Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF) that would perform the required functions. 46 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. Storage, transportation and disposal system for used nuclear fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaglione, John M.; Wagner, John C.

    2017-01-10

    An integrated storage, transportation and disposal system for used fuel assemblies is provided. The system includes a plurality of sealed canisters and a cask sized to receive the sealed canisters in side by side relationship. The plurality of sealed canisters include an internal basket structure to receive a plurality of used fuel assemblies. The internal basket structure includes a plurality of radiation-absorbing panels and a plurality of hemispherical ribs generally perpendicular to the canister sidewall. The sealed canisters are received within the cask for storage and transportation and are removed from the cask for disposal at a designated repository. The system of the present invention allows the handling of sealed canisters separately or collectively, while allowing storage and transportation of high burnup fuel and damaged fuel to the designated repository.

  14. Exploitation of Bile Acid Transport Systems in Prodrug Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Sievänen

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids is one of the most efficient recycling routes in the human body. It is a complex process involving numerous transport proteins, which serve to transport bile acids from the small intestine into portal circulation, from the portal circulation into the hepatocyte, from the hepatocyte into the bile, and from the gall bladder to the small intestine. The tremendous transport capacity and organ specificity of enterohepatic circulation combined with versatile derivatization possibilities, rigid steroidal backbone, enantiomeric purity, availability, and low cost have made bile acids attractive tools in designing pharmacological hybrid molecules and prodrugs with the view of improving intestinal absorption, increasing the metabolic stability of pharmaceuticals, specifically targeting drugs to organs involved in enterohepatic circulation, as well as sustaining therapeutically reasonable systemic concentrations of active agents. This article briefly describes bile acid transport proteins involved in enterohepatic circulation, summarizes the key factors affecting on the transport by these proteins, and reviews the use of bile acids and their derivatives in designing prodrugs capable of exploiting the bile acid transport system.

  15. Inhibition of System Xc(-) Transporter Attenuates Autoimmune Inflammatory Demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evonuk, Kirsten S; Baker, Brandi J; Doyle, Ryan E; Moseley, Carson E; Sestero, Christine M; Johnston, Bryce P; De Sarno, Patrizia; Tang, Andrew; Gembitsky, Igor; Hewett, Sandra J; Weaver, Casey T; Raman, Chander; DeSilva, Tara M

    2015-07-15

    T cell infiltration into the CNS is a significant underlying pathogenesis in autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating diseases. Several lines of evidence suggest that glutamate dysregulation in the CNS is an important consequence of immune cell infiltration in neuroinflammatory demyelinating diseases; yet, the causal link between inflammation and glutamate dysregulation is not well understood. A major source of glutamate release during oxidative stress is the system Xc(-) transporter; however, this mechanism has not been tested in animal models of autoimmune inflammatory demyelination. We find that pharmacological and genetic inhibition of system Xc(-) attenuates chronic and relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Remarkably, pharmacological blockade of system Xc(-) 7 d after induction of EAE attenuated T cell infiltration into the CNS, but not T cell activation in the periphery. Mice harboring a Slc7a11 (xCT) mutation that inactivated system Xc(-) were resistant to EAE, corroborating a central role for system Xc(-) in mediating immune cell infiltration. We next examined the role of the system Xc(-) transporter in the CNS after immune cell infiltration. Pharmacological inhibitors of the system Xc(-) transporter administered during the first relapse in a SJL animal model of relapsing-remitting EAE abrogated clinical disease, inflammation, and myelin loss. Primary coculture studies demonstrate that myelin-specific CD4(+) Th1 cells provoke microglia to release glutamate via the system Xc(-) transporter, causing excitotoxic death to mature myelin-producing oligodendrocytes. Taken together, these studies support a novel role for the system Xc(-) transporter in mediating T cell infiltration into the CNS as well as promoting myelin destruction after immune cell infiltration in EAE.

  16. Development of an analysis capability for the National Transportation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anson, D.; Nelson, R.

    1997-10-24

    The purpose of this report is to examine the Department of Transportation`s (DOT) National Transportation System (NTS) initiative, to document what has been learned, and to outline a National Transportation Network Analysis Capability (NTNAC) based on a ``TRANSIMS-like`` approach. This study was conducted over a two month period at the end of FY1997. The scope of the effort was carefully defined to accommodate the short time horizon and to provide focus to a very large analytical problem. The objectives were to: (1) define the NTS and the NTS problem; (2) identify problem characteristics; (3) describe an analytical solution based on the TRANSIMS approach; (4) identify data requirements and availability; (5) develop criteria for a scenario to be used in a prototype demonstration; and (6) select a scenario for the prototype demonstration.

  17. Efficiency improvements in pipeline transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.; Horton, J. F.

    1977-09-09

    This report identifies potential energy-conservative pipeline innovations that are most energy- and cost-effective and formulates recommendations for the R, D, and D programs needed to exploit those opportunities. From a candidate field of over twenty classes of efficiency improvements, eight systems are recommended for pursuit. Most of these possess two highly important attributes: large potential energy savings and broad applicability outside the pipeline industry. The R, D, and D program for each improvement and the recommended immediate next step are described. The eight technologies recommended for R, D, and D are gas-fired combined cycle compressor station; internally cooled internal combustion engine; methanol-coal slurry pipeline; methanol-coal slurry-fired and coal-fired engines; indirect-fired coal-burning combined-cycle pump station; fuel-cell pump station; drag-reducing additives in liquid pipelines; and internal coatings in pipelines.

  18. Information transport in classical statistical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wetterich, C

    2016-01-01

    In many materials or equilibrium statistical systems the information of boundary conditions is lost inside the bulk of the material. In contrast, we describe here static classical statistical probability distributions for which bulk properties depend on boundary conditions. Such "static memory materials" can be realized if no unique equilibrium state exists. The propagation of information from the boundary to the bulk is described by a classical wave function or a density matrix, which obey generalized Schr\\"odinger or von Neumann equations. For static memory materials the evolution within a subsector is unitary, as characteristic for the time evolution in quantum mechanics. The space-dependence in static memory materials can be used as an analogue representation of the time evolution in quantum mechanics - such materials are "quantum simulators". For example, an asymmetric Ising model represents the time evolution of relativistic fermions in two-dimensional Minkowski space.

  19. Recent developments in the Los Alamos radiation transport code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, R.A.; Parsons, K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-06-01

    A brief progress report on updates to the Los Alamos Radiation Transport Code System (LARTCS) for solving criticality and fixed-source problems is provided. LARTCS integrates the Diffusion Accelerated Neutral Transport (DANT) discrete ordinates codes with the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code. The LARCTS code is being developed with a graphical user interface for problem setup and analysis. Progress in the DANT system for criticality applications include a two-dimensional module which can be linked to a mesh-generation code and a faster iteration scheme. Updates to MCNP Version 4A allow statistical checks of calculated Monte Carlo results.

  20. Directly modulated cable television transport systems using negative dispersion fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Han; Liaw, Je-Wei; Lee, Yi-Shiuan; Tsai, Wan-Lin; Ji, Yu-Jie

    2005-03-01

    A directly modulated AM-VSB cable-television transport system using negative dispersion fiber (NDF) as the transmission medium is proposed and successfully demonstrated. Good performances of carrier-to-noise radio, composite second order, and composite triple beat were obtained over a 70-km NDF transport without optical amplification. The directly modulated laser has a positive chirp, while NDF has a negative dispersion property in the transmission fiber. This negative dispersion property compensates for the laser chirp and results in a system with better transmission performance.

  1. Optical free-space wavelength-division-multiplexing transport system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Lin, Ying-Pyng; Lu, Hai-Han; Chen, Chia-Yi; Jhang, Tai-Wei; Chen, Min-Chou

    2014-01-15

    An optical free-space wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) transport system employing vertical cavity surface emitting lasers and spatial light modulators with 16-quadrature amplitude modulation orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing modulating signals over a 17.5 m free-space link is proposed and demonstrated. With the help of a low-noise amplifier and data comparator, good bit error rate performance is obtained for each optical channel. Such an optical free-space WDM transport system would be attractive for providing services including data and telecommunication services.

  2. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) control display unit software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Parks, Mark A.; Debure, Kelly R.; Heaphy, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The software created for the Control Display Units (CDUs), used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project, on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) is described. Module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, a detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The CDUs, one for the pilot and one for the copilot, are used for flight management purposes. Operations performed with the CDU affects the aircraft's guidance, navigation, and display software.

  3. Electricity for road transport, flexible power systems and wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Ravn, H.; Meibom, P. (and others)

    2011-12-15

    The aim of the project is to analyse the potential synergistic interplay that may arise between the power sector and the transport sector, if parts of the road transport energy needs are based on electricity via the utilisation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and pure electric vehicles. The project focuses on the technical elements in the chain that comprises: 1: The electric vehicle status, potentials and expected development. Electric batteries are in focus in this part of the analysis. 2: Analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle interacting with a local grid. 3: Analysis of grid-vehicle connection systems including technical regulation options and analysis of needs for standardisation. 4: Setting up scenarios covering potential developments for utilizing electric drive trains in road transport. Period: Up to year 2030. 5: Analysis of capacity constraints in the electricity grid (transmission and distribution) as consequence of increasing electricity demand, and new flexible consumption patterns from segments in the transport sector, and as consequence of increasing capacity on wind power in the system. 6: Setting up and analysis of combined scenarios covering both the heat and power system and the transport sector. (Author)

  4. [Pneumatic tube system for transport of laboratory samples: preanalytical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Judit; Lenkey, Ágota; V Oláh, Anna; Köteles, Julianna; Kissné Sziráki, Valéria; Kerényi, Adrienne; Kappelmayer, János

    2014-07-13

    A considerable proportion of laboratory errors occurs in the preanalytical phase. The aims of the authors were to study preanalytical errors in routine and emergency laboratory diagnostics in a regional clinical laboratory and evaluate the effect of the pneumatic tube system on turnaround time and laboratory results. The ratio of preanalytical errors and reasons of test rejection were analysed. In addition, the effects of pneumatic tube and manual transport on the occurrence of hemolysis and platelet activation were compared. Using the pneumatic tube transport system, preanalytical error was below 1%. The main causes of test rejection were haemolysis in case of serum samples, and clot formation and citrate excess in anticoagulated samples. The pneumatic tube transport resulted in significantly faster sample transport, more equalized sample arrival and processing, hence the turnaround time became shorter both for routine and emergency tests. Autovalidation and proper control of preanalytical errors are essential for rapid and reliable laboratory service supported by the pneumatic tube system for sample transport.

  5. An adaptive robust controller for time delay maglev transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Reza Hamidi; Zarabadipour, Hassan; Shahnazi, Reza

    2012-12-01

    For engineering systems, uncertainties and time delays are two important issues that must be considered in control design. Uncertainties are often encountered in various dynamical systems due to modeling errors, measurement noises, linearization and approximations. Time delays have always been among the most difficult problems encountered in process control. In practical applications of feedback control, time delay arises frequently and can severely degrade closed-loop system performance and in some cases, drives the system to instability. Therefore, stability analysis and controller synthesis for uncertain nonlinear time-delay systems are important both in theory and in practice and many analytical techniques have been developed using delay-dependent Lyapunov function. In the past decade the magnetic and levitation (maglev) transportation system as a new system with high functionality has been the focus of numerous studies. However, maglev transportation systems are highly nonlinear and thus designing controller for those are challenging. The main topic of this paper is to design an adaptive robust controller for maglev transportation systems with time-delay, parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. In this paper, an adaptive robust control (ARC) is designed for this purpose. It should be noted that the adaptive gain is derived from Lyapunov-Krasovskii synthesis method, therefore asymptotic stability is guaranteed.

  6. EVermont Renewable Hydrogen Production and Transportation Fueling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabedian, Harold T.

    2008-03-30

    A great deal of research funding is being devoted to the use of hydrogen for transportation fuel, particularly in the development of fuel cell vehicles. When this research bears fruit in the form of consumer-ready vehicles, will the fueling infrastructure be ready? Will the required fueling systems work in cold climates as well as they do in warm areas? Will we be sure that production of hydrogen as the energy carrier of choice for our transit system is the most energy efficient and environmentally friendly option? Will consumers understand this fuel and how to handle it? Those are questions addressed by the EVermont Wind to Wheels Hydrogen Project: Sustainable Transportation. The hydrogen fueling infrastructure consists of three primary subcomponents: a hydrogen generator (electrolyzer), a compression and storage system, and a dispenser. The generated fuel is then used to provide transportation as a motor fuel. EVermont Inc., started in 1993 by then governor Howard Dean, is a public-private partnership of entities interested in documenting and advancing the performance of advanced technology vehicles that are sustainable and less burdensome on the environment, especially in areas of cold climates, hilly terrain and with rural settlement patterns. EVermont has developed a demonstration wind powered hydrogen fuel producing filling system that uses electrolysis, compression to 5000 psi and a hydrogen burning vehicle that functions reliably in cold climates. And that fuel is then used to meet transportation needs in a hybrid electric vehicle whose internal combustion engine has been converted to operate on hydrogen Sponsored by the DOE EERE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies (HFC&IT) Program, the purpose of the project is to test the viability of sustainably produced hydrogen for use as a transportation fuel in a cold climate with hilly terrain and rural settlement patterns. Specifically, the project addresses the challenge of building a renewable

  7. Survival of vaginal microorganisms in three commercially available transport systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Allison L; Rabe, Lorna K; Austin, Michele N; Stoner, Kevin A; Avolia, Hilary A; Meyn, Leslie A; Hillier, Sharon L

    2017-06-01

    Transport systems are used to collect and maintain the viability of microorganisms. Two Amies media based transport systems, BD CultureSwab™ MaxV(+) Amies Medium without Charcoal (MaxV(+)) and Fisherfinest(®) with Amies gel Transport Medium without charcoal (Fisherfinest(®)) were compared to a Cary-Blair media based transport system, Starswab(®) Anaerobic Transport System (Starswab(®)), for their capacity to maintain the viability of 17 clinical microorganisms commonly isolated from the vagina (Lactobacillus crispatus, L. jensenii, L. iners, group B streptococci, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Atopobium vaginae, Peptoniphilus harei, Mycoplasma hominis, Gardnerella vaginalis, Dialister microaerophilus, Mobiluncus curtisii, Prevotella amnii, P. timonensis, P. bivia, and Porphyromonas uenonis). Single swabs containing mixtures of up to five different species were inoculated in triplicate and held at 4 °C and room temperature for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h (h). At each time point, swabs were eluted into a sterile salt solution, serially diluted, inoculated onto selected media, and incubated. Each colony type was quantified and identified. A change in sample stability was reported as a ≥1 log increase or decrease in microorganism density from baseline. Overall, the viability of fastidious anaerobes was maintained better at 4 °C than room temperature. At 4 °C all three transport systems maintained the viability and prevented replication of C. albicans, E. faecalis, GBS, and E. coli. Microorganisms having a ≥1 log decrease in less than 24 h at 4 °C included A. vaginae, G. vaginalis, and P. uenonis in Starswab(®), L. iners, A. vaginae, and P. amnii in MaxV(+), and A. vaginae, G. vaginalis, P. bivia, and P. amnii in Fisherfinest(®). At 48 h at 4 °C, a ≥1 log decrease in concentration density was observed for P. harei and P. amnii in Starswab(®), G. vaginalis, P. bivia and P. uenonis in MaxV(+), and L

  8. EFFECTIVENESS OF LAND BASED ENDURANCE TRAINING VERSUS AQUATIC BASED ENDURANCE TRAINING ON IMPROVING ENDURANCE IN NORMAL INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabitha Eunice Regima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently the exercises and fitness professionals have adopted water as an alternative medium for delivering programs to improve fitness and health. When exercise on dry land our skeletal muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory and other body systems are greatly affected by the forces of gravity. When exercise in water, the effects created by the gravitational pull on the body are attenuated. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of land based endurance training and aquatic based endurance training for enhancing endurance in normal individuals. Methods: An experimental study design with 30 subjects healthy individuals between 20-30 years of both sexes currently were divided equally into 2 groups. Group A underwent land based exercises while Group B underwent aquatic based exercises. The outcome measures consist of RPP (rate pressure product, REC HR (recovery heart rate, RHR (resting heart rate and 6MWD (6 minute walking distance was measured before (pre-training and after four weeks of endurance training. Results: In this study, the mean improvement between the 2 groups of land and aquatic based endurance exercises were tested for significance using a dependent t test. The calculated t value were 43.550, 4.583, 16, 5.870 for RPP, REC HR, RHR, 6MWD for group A respectively. For group B 25.922, 12.762, 27.495,19.236 for RPP, REC HR, RHR, 6MWD for group A respectively with p<0.05. This clearly indicated that both land based exercises and aquatic based exercises will improve cardiovascular endurance significantly and there is no significant difference between land based exercises and aquatic based exercises for enhancing endurance in normal individuals. Conclusion: It is concluded that both land based and aquatic based endurance exercises methods produce equivalent, if not same effect on the enhancement of aerobic endurance. There was no significant difference between these two exercising mediums. Nonetheless

  9. Viability of a Reusable In-Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Sharon A.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Nufer, Brian M.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Merrill, Raymond G.; North, David D.; Martin, John G.; Komar, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently developing options for an Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) that expands human presence from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) into the solar system and to the surface of Mars. The Hybrid in-space transportation architecture is one option being investigated within the EMC. The architecture enables return of the entire in-space propulsion stage and habitat to cis-lunar space after a round trip to Mars. This concept of operations opens the door for a fully reusable Mars transportation system from cis-lunar space to a Mars parking orbit and back. This paper explores the reuse of in-space transportation systems, with a focus on the propulsion systems. It begins by examining why reusability should be pursued and defines reusability in space-flight context. A range of functions and enablers associated with preparing a system for reuse are identified and a vision for reusability is proposed that can be advanced and implemented as new capabilities are developed. Following this, past reusable spacecraft and servicing capabilities, as well as those currently in development are discussed. Using the Hybrid transportation architecture as an example, an assessment of the degree of reusability that can be incorporated into the architecture with current capabilities is provided and areas for development are identified that will enable greater levels of reuse in the future. Implications and implementation challenges specific to the architecture are also presented.

  10. Video Analytics Algorithm for Automatic Vehicle Classification (Intelligent Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ArtaIftikhar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Automated Vehicle detection and classification is an important component of intelligent transport system. Due to significant importance in various fields such as traffic accidents avoidance, toll collection, congestion avoidance, terrorist activities monitoring, security and surveillance systems, intelligent transport system has become important field of study. Various technologies have been used for detecting and classifying vehicles automatically. Automated vehicle detection is broadly divided into two types- Hardware based and software based detection. Various algorithms have been implemented to classify different vehicles from videos. In this paper an efficient and economical solution for automatic vehicle detection and classification is proposed. The proposed system first isolates the object through background subtraction followed by vehicle detection using ontology. Vehicle detection is based on low level features such as shape, size, and spatial location. Finally system classifies vehicles into one of the known classes of vehicle based on size.

  11. Controlled Spin Transport in Planar Systems Through Topological Exciton

    CERN Document Server

    Abhinav, Kumar

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that a charge-neutral spin-1 exciton, possibly realizable only in planar systems like graphene and topological insulators, can be effectively used for controlled spin transport in such media. The effect of quantum and thermal fluctuations yield a parametric excitation threshold for its realization. This planar exciton differs from the conventional ones, as it owes its existence to the topological Chern-Simons (CS) term. The parity and time-reversal violating CS term can arise from quantum effects in systems with parity-breaking mass-gap. The spinning exciton naturally couples to magnetic field, leading to the possibility of controlled spin transport. Being neutral, it is immune to a host of effect, which afflicts spin transport through charged fermions.

  12. Hydrologic modeling of pathogen fate and transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorner, Sarah M; Anderson, William B; Slawson, Robin M; Kouwen, Nicholas; Huck, Peter M

    2006-08-01

    A watershed-scale fate and transport model has been developed for Escherichia coli and several waterborne pathogens: Cryptosporidiumspp., Giardiaspp., Campylobacter spp, and E. coli O157:H7. The objectives were to determine the primary sources of pathogenic contamination in a watershed used for drinking water supply and to gain a greater understanding of the factors that most influence their survival and transport. To predict the levels of indicator bacteria and pathogens in surface water, an existing hydrologic model, WATFLOOD, was augmented for pathogen transport and tested on a watershed in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. The pathogen model considered transport as a result of overland flow, subsurface flow to tile drainage systems, and in-stream routing. The model predicted that most microorganisms entering the stream from land-based sources enter the stream from tile drainage systems rather than overland transport. Although the model predicted overland transport to be rare, when it occurred, it corresponded to the highest observed and modeled microbial concentrations. Furthermore, rapid increases in measured E. coli concentrations during storm events suggested that the resuspension of microorganisms from stream sediments may be of equal or greater importance than land-based sources of pathogens.

  13. 77 FR 19683 - Proposed Information Collection; Land-Based Wind Energy Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Information Collection; Land-Based Wind Energy Guidelines AGENCY..., on an emergency basis, our request to collect information associated with the Land- Based Wind Energy... proposed wind energy facilities may have on wildlife and their habitat. OMB approved our request...

  14. The transport performance evaluation system building of logistics enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueli Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: modern logistics has a significant role in today’s society, logistics cost accounts for 35% to 50% of total logistics costs, so it’s great significance to improve the transport performance of logistics enterprises. Design/methodology/approach: the authors select the transportation performance evaluation index of logistics enterprise, with the aid of the fuzzy theory and analytic hierarchy process (AHP, adopt the combining method of quantitative and qualitative analysis, construct the transport performance evaluation system of logistics enterprises. Findings: the choice of transport performance evaluation indicator system for Logistics enterprise is in a state of "high", which indicates the indicator selection is reasonable. Research limitations/implications: the selected indicators with experts’ subjective factors can not accurately quantify. Practical implications: it has important practical significance to promote the development of modern logistics enterprises and save social cost. Originality/value: current research methods mainly include the PDCA cycle model, key performance indicators (KPI and benchmarking method, principal component analysis method, etc. The authors for the first time with the aid of fuzzy theory and analytic hierarchy process (AHP, adopt the combining method of quantitative and qualitative research on transport performance problems.

  15. Maximal load of the vitamin B12 transport system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lildballe, Dorte L; Mutti, Elena; Birn, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Several studies suggest that the vitamin B12 (B12) transport system can be used for the cellular delivery of B12-conjugated drugs, also in long-term treatment Whether this strategy will affect the endogenous metabolism of B12 is not known. To study the effect of treatment with excess B12 or an in...

  16. Chaotic Dynamics and Transport in Classical and Quantum Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this summer school is to provide a set of extended and pedagogical lectures, on the major present-day topics in dynamical systems and statistical mechanics including applications. Some articles are dedicated to chaotic transport in plasma turbulence and to quantum chaos. This document gathers the summaries of some presentations.

  17. Cost Analysis for Regional Transportation System. CRTR-36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Edward T.

    The Education Cooperative (TEC) composed of nine contiguous Massachusetts towns (Dedham, Natick, Needham, Norwood, Walpole, Wayland, Wellesley, Weston, and Westwood) is exploring the possible development of a regional transportation system to serve the special education pupils within these communities. This report describes the planning required…

  18. Transport properties of the Fermi hard-sphere system

    CERN Document Server

    Mecca, Angela; Benhar, Omar; Polls, Artur

    2015-01-01

    The transport properties of neutron star matter play an important role in a variety of astrophysical processes. We report the results of a calculation of the shear viscosity and thermal conductivity coefficients of the hard-sphere fermion system of degeneracy $\

  19. Intelligent Public Transport System with Information Forensics and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Nagaraj

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To increase the usability of a public transport system it needs to go under revolutionary changes in its operating procedure. It is an attempt to make this possible using recent computer technology, mobile computing advancements and Wi-Fi or GPRS.The Intelligent Public Transport Information System will be specifically developed for Commercial public Transport. In this System passenger can get information about all buses, routes, timings of buses and all stops in any particular route. This system includes two phases. One is for user and other for administrator. At user side, user can request for information about all buses, routes, timings of buses and all stops in any particular route using Wi-Fi or GPRS technology from his mobile or PDA. At administrator side, administrator can update, delete and insert information about all buses, routes, timings of buses, all stops in any particular route and helpline numbers. Administrator can have all rights about database operations .The administrator requires the authentication of smart card for addition or deletion of information from commercial public transport

  20. Hydraulic calculation of gravity transportation pipeline system for backfill slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qin-li; HU Guan-yu; WANG Xin-min

    2008-01-01

    Taking cemented coal gangue pipeline transportation system in Suncun Coal Mine, Xinwen Mining Group, Shandong Province, China, as an example, the hydraulic calculation approaches and process about gravity pipeline transportation of backfill slurry were investigated. The results show that the backfill capability of the backfill system should be higher than 74.4m3/h according to the mining production and backfill times in the mine; the minimum velocity (critical velocity) and practical working velocity of the backfill slurry are 1.44 and 3.82m/s, respectively. Various formulae give the maximum ratio of total length to vertical height of pipeline (L/H ratio) of the backfill system of 5.4, and then the reliability and capability of the system can be evaluated.

  1. On generating neutron transport tables with the NJOY system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldeira, Alexandre D.; Claro, Luiz H., E-mail: alexdc@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: luizhenu@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Incorrect values for the product of the average number of neutrons released per fission and the fission microscopic cross-section were detected in several energy groups of a neutron transport table generated with the most updated version of the NJOY system. It was verified that the problem persists when older versions of this system are utilized. Although this problem exists for, at least, ten years, it is still an open question. (author)

  2. Video upload from public transport vehicles using multihomed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mellia, Marco; Safari Khatouni, Ali; Ajmone Marsan, Marco Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: We consider a surveillance system for public transport vehicles, which is based on the collection of on-board videos, and the upload via mobile network to a central security system of video segments corresponding to those cameras and time intervals involved in an accident. We assume that vehicles are connected to several wireless interfaces, provided by different Mobile Network Operators (MNOs), each charging a different cost. Both the cost and the upload rate for each network inter...

  3. Recent trends in intelligent transportation systems: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Bhupendra; GUPTA, Ankit

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Managing the increasing traffic is a big problem all over the world. Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) provides solution to these problems with the help of new technologies. ITS is an integrated system that implements a broad range of communication, control, vehicle sensing and electronics technologies to solve and manage the traffic problems. ITS is being used in the developed countries since past two decades, but it is still a new concept when developing countries like India,...

  4. Boundary conditions on faster-than-light transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Knowles, H. B.

    1993-01-01

    In order to be consistent with current physical theories, any proposal of a faster-than light (FTL) transportation system must satisfy several critical conditions. It must predict the mass, space, and time dimensional changes predicted by relativity physics when velocity falls below the speed of light. It must also not violate causality, and remain consistent with quantum physics in the limit of microscopic systems. It is also essential that the proposal conserve energy.

  5. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) utility library software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinedinst, Winston C.; Slominski, Christopher J.; Dickson, Richard W.; Wolverton, David A.

    1993-01-01

    The individual software processes used in the flight computers on-board the Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) aircraft have many common functional elements. A library of commonly used software modules was created for general uses among the processes. The library includes modules for mathematical computations, data formatting, system database interfacing, and condition handling. The modules available in the library and their associated calling requirements are described.

  6. THE EFFICIENCY FORMATION MECHANISM OF THE FREIGHT TRANSPORT SYSTEM IN TERMS OF THE VARIABLE NATURE OF DEMANDS FOR TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Smyrnova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of formation of efficiency of freight motor transport system in conditions of variable character of demand for freightage is developed on the basis of space-time approach development to efficiency formation for difficult systems. In the article the definitions of the notions of freight motor transport system adaptability, standard operation conditions are given.

  7. Macroscopic diffusive transport in a microscopically integrable Hamiltonian system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosen, Tomaž; Zunkovič, Bojan

    2013-07-26

    We demonstrate that a completely integrable classical mechanical model, namely the lattice Landau-Lifshitz classical spin chain, supports diffusive spin transport with a finite diffusion constant in the easy-axis regime, while in the easy-plane regime, it displays ballistic transport in the absence of any known relevant local or quasilocal constant of motion in the symmetry sector of the spin current. This surprising finding should open the way towards analytical computation of diffusion constants for integrable interacting systems and hints on the existence of new quasilocal classical conservation laws beyond the standard soliton theory.

  8. Markov-Tree model of intrinsic transport in Hamiltonian systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiss, J. D.; Ott, E.

    1985-01-01

    A particle in a chaotic region of phase space can spend a long time near the boundary of a regular region since transport there is slow. This 'stickiness' of regular regions is thought to be responsible for previous observations in numerical experiments of a long-time algebraic decay of the particle survival probability, i.e., survival probability approximately t to the (-z) power for large t. This paper presents a global model for transport in such systems and demonstrates the essential role of the infinite hierarchy of small islands interspersed in the chaotic region. Results for z are discussed.

  9. Transport properties of the Fermi hard-sphere system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mecca, Angela; Lovato, Alessandro; Benhar, Omar; Polls, Artur

    2016-03-01

    The transport properties of neutron star matter play an important role in many astrophysical processes. We report the results of a calculation of the shear viscosity and thermal conductivity coefficients of the hard-sphere fermion system of degeneracy ν = 2, that can be regarded as a model of pure neutron matter. Our approach is based on the effective interaction obtained from the formalism of correlated basis functions and the cluster expansion technique. The resulting transport coefficients show a strong sensitivity to the quasiparticle effective mass, reflecting the effect of second-order contributions to the self-energy that are not taken into account in nuclear matter studies available in the literature.

  10. Anomalous transport in low-dimensional systems with correlated disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izrailev, F M [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal J-48, Puebla, Pue., 72570 (Mexico); Makarov, N M [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Priv. 17 Norte No 3417, Col. San Miguel Hueyotlipan, Puebla, Pue., 72050 (Mexico)

    2005-12-09

    We review recent results on the anomalous transport in one-dimensional and quasi-one-dimensional systems with bulk and surface disorder. Principal attention is paid to the role of long-range correlations in random potentials for the bulk scattering and in corrugated profiles for the surface scattering. It is shown that with the proper type of correlations one can construct such a disorder that results in a selective transport with given properties. Of particular interest is the possibility to arrange windows of a complete transparency (or reflection) with dependence on the wave number of incoming classical waves or electrons.

  11. Saenger II, a hypersonic flight and space transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelle, Dietrich E.

    The paper presents the actual design status of the Saenger advanced space transportation system which comprises a hypersonic aircraft as first stage (EHTV). This vehicle (European Hypersonic Transport Vehicle) has been conceived for a dual purpose: to serve as the first stage of a launch vehicle with cruise capability, which is required to reach the space station orbit (28.5 deg) from Europe, and in the same basic configuration as passenger plane with some 230 passengers for a range of more than 10,000 km. The optimum cruise speed seems to be Mach 4.4 in 24.5 km altitude for economic and environmental reasons.

  12. REDESIGN OF TRANSPORT SYSTEMS ON HIGHWAYS, STREETS AND AVENUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi OGUCHI

    2008-01-01

    The handling of transport demands, especially in urban areas with traffic congestion, is important because the prediction of demand is very difficult under such conditions the true demand possibly becoming a potentiality caused by traffic congestion. One of the solutions of this difficulty is also proposed. The junction treatments, including traffic signal control, dominate over the LOS of the road transport system network in urban streets and avenues. The process of design, control, and operation of junctions at critical intersections is proposed. A tentative evaluation method for highway LOS is also discussed.

  13. The energy logistic model for analyses of transportation- and energy systems; Energilogistikmodell foer systemberaekningar av transport- och energifoersoerjningssystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinge, M.

    1995-05-01

    The Energy Logistic Model has been improved to become a tool for analysis of all production processes, transportation systems and systems including several energy users and several fuels. Two cases were studied. The first case deals with terminal equipment for inter modal transport systems and the second case deals with diesel fuelled trucks, cranes and machines in the Goeteborg area. In both cases, the environmental improvements of the city air quality are analyzed when natural gas is substituted for diesel oil. The comparison between inter modal transport and road haulage shows that the environmental impacts from the operations at the terminal are limited, and that the potential for environmental benefits when using inter modal transport is improving with the transportation distance. The choice of electricity production system is of great importance when calculating the environmental impact from railway traffic in the total analysis of the transportation system. 13 refs, 27 tabs

  14. Formal Vulnerability Assessment of a maritime transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berle, Oyvind, E-mail: berle@ntnu.n [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Marine Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Asbjornslett, Bjorn Egil [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Marine Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Rice, James B. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for Transportation and Logistics, Cambridge (United States)

    2011-06-15

    World trade increasingly relies on longer, larger and more complex supply chains, where maritime transportation is a vital backbone of such operations. Long and complex supply chain systems are more prone to being vulnerable, though through reviews, no specific methods have been found to assess vulnerabilities of a maritime transportation system. Most existing supply chain risk assessment frameworks require risks to be foreseen to be mitigated, rather than giving transportation systems the ability to cope with unforeseen threats and hazards. In assessing cost-efficiency, societal vulnerability versus industrial cost of measures should be included. This conceptual paper presents a structured Formal Vulnerability Assessment (FVA) methodology, seeking to transfer the safety-oriented Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) framework into the domain of maritime supply chain vulnerability. To do so, the following two alterations are made: (1) The focus of the assessment is defined to ensure the ability of the transportation to serve as a throughput mechanism of goods, and to survive and recover from disruptive events. (2) To cope with low-frequency high-impact disruptive scenarios that were not necessarily foreseen, two parallel tracks of risk assessments need to be pursued-the cause-focused risk assessment as in the FSA, and a consequence-focused failure mode approach.

  15. Transport of BMAA into Neurons and Astrocytes by System xc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Rebecca; Lobner, Doug

    2017-05-03

    The study of the mechanism of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) neurotoxicity originally focused on its effects at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. In recent years, it has become clear that its mechanism of action is more complicated. First, there are certain cell types, such as motor neurons and cholinergic neurons, where the dominate mechanism of toxicity is through action at AMPA receptors. Second, even in cortical neurons where the primary mechanism of toxicity appears to be activation of NMDA receptors, there are other mechanisms involved. We found that along with NMDA receptors, activation of mGLuR5 receptors and effects on the cystine/glutamate antiporter (system xc-) were involved in the toxicity. The effects on system xc- are of particular interest. System xc- mediates the transport of cystine into the cell in exchange for releasing glutamate into the extracellular fluid. By releasing glutamate, system xc- can potentially cause excitotoxicity. However, through providing cystine to the cell, it regulates the levels of cellular glutathione (GSH), the main endogenous intracellular antioxidant, and in this way may protect cells against oxidative stress. We have previously published that BMAA inhibits cystine uptake leading to GSH depletion and had indirect evidence that BMAA is transported into the cells by system xc-. We now present direct evidence that BMAA is transported into both astrocytes and neurons through system xc-. The fact that BMAA is transported by system xc- also provides a mechanism for BMAA to enter brain cells potentially leading to misincorporation into proteins and protein misfolding.

  16. Verification of ARES transport code system with TAKEDA benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Penghe; Chen, Mengteng; Zhao, Jingchang; Zhang, Shun; Chen, Yixue

    2015-10-01

    Neutron transport modeling and simulation are central to many areas of nuclear technology, including reactor core analysis, radiation shielding and radiation detection. In this paper the series of TAKEDA benchmarks are modeled to verify the critical calculation capability of ARES, a discrete ordinates neutral particle transport code system. SALOME platform is coupled with ARES to provide geometry modeling and mesh generation function. The Koch-Baker-Alcouffe parallel sweep algorithm is applied to accelerate the traditional transport calculation process. The results show that the eigenvalues calculated by ARES are in excellent agreement with the reference values presented in NEACRP-L-330, with a difference less than 30 pcm except for the first case of model 3. Additionally, ARES provides accurate fluxes distribution compared to reference values, with a deviation less than 2% for region-averaged fluxes in all cases. All of these confirms the feasibility of ARES-SALOME coupling and demonstrate that ARES has a good performance in critical calculation.

  17. Information systems and technology in the marketing of railway transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Zharska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to improve the system of theoretical, methodological and methodic background for the implementation of information technology in the marketing system of the railway undertaking. The article identifies the necessity of marketing use in companies which are natural monopolies. Besides the general system of railway transport is described and its place in the marketing system is defined. The existing deficiencies of marketing system have been detected.The results of the analysis. The main computerized control systems, which have been introduced into the system of marketing services in the field of railway transport, were given full consideration in recent years. In particular it has been examined the integration of the automated control system into the system of services associated with freight and the transition from paper to electronic transport documents. Such advantages of system for consumers were determined: time reduction, the possibility of clearance from any station and information received in the automatic mode concerning the freight traffic. The organizational transformation that took place on the railway transport as a result of the specified system integration was considered. The need to create such system for freight crossing the border was defined.System of passenger train tickets sale online in Ukraine has been considered the and its basic shortcomings, including the inability to print previously reserved ticket and the complexity and incomprehensibility of ticket purchase technology online for the consumers was found. The experience of sales system delivering of the passenger railway services has been examined in different European countries and it has been found out that in many countries for tickets sales is used modern information technology: the Internet, via mobile communications, with start-card, etc.Moreover a comparative analysis of web-sites of the Ukrainian and foreign

  18. 76 FR 6841 - ITS Joint Program Office; Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... TRANSPORTATION ITS Joint Program Office; Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice of... (FACA) (Pub. L. 72-363; 5 U.S.C. app. 2), a meeting of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS... study, development, and implementation of intelligent transportation systems. Through its sponsor,...

  19. Nonlinear closure relations theory for transport processes in nonequilibrium systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnino, Giorgio

    2009-05-01

    A decade ago, a macroscopic theory for closure relations has been proposed for systems out of Onsager's region. This theory is referred to as the thermodynamic field theory (TFT). The aim of this work was to determine the nonlinear flux-force relations that respect the thermodynamic theorems for systems far from equilibrium. We propose a formulation of the TFT where one of the basic restrictions, namely, the closed-form solution for the skew-symmetric piece of the transport coefficients, has been removed. In addition, the general covariance principle is replaced by the De Donder-Prigogine thermodynamic covariance principle (TCP). The introduction of TCP requires the application of an appropriate mathematical formalism, which is referred to as the entropy-covariant formalism. By geometrical arguments, we prove the validity of the Glansdorff-Prigogine universal criterion of evolution. A new set of closure equations determining the nonlinear corrections to the linear ("Onsager") transport coefficients is also derived. The geometry of the thermodynamic space is non-Riemannian. However, it tends to be Riemannian for high values of the entropy production. In this limit, we recover the transport equations found by the old theory. Applications of our approach to transport in magnetically confined plasmas, materials submitted to temperature, and electric potential gradients or to unimolecular triangular chemical reactions can be found at references cited herein. Transport processes in tokamak plasmas are of particular interest. In this case, even in the absence of turbulence, the state of the plasma remains close to (but, it is not in) a state of local equilibrium. This prevents the transport relations from being linear.

  20. Backcasting sustainable freight transport systems for Europe in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattila, Tuomas, E-mail: tuomas.mattila@ymparisto.f [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Mechelininkatu 34a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland); Antikainen, Riina [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Mechelininkatu 34a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-03-15

    European freight transport emissions and fuel consumption are projected to increase. This study focuses on long distance freight transport (LDFT) and explores possible sustainable futures through quantitative modeling. The evaluation was part of European foresight process between researchers, policy makers and freight companies (FREIGHTVISION). Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy demand of road, rail and inland waterways were estimated for an EU-27 in 2005. Development was extrapolated to 2050 based on technology and freight performance forecasts. Stakeholders found the forecasted GHG emissions and fossil fuel share unsustainable, so alternative futures were developed with backcasting. The developed emission model was run with random parameter combinations to screen a set of sustainable futures, with an 80% reduction of GHG emissions and fossil fuel share. Freight transport performance was not controlled in the backcasts, but several sustainable futures were found if significant changes in transport efficiency and energy mix are implemented. In spite of agreeing on the importance of reducing emissions, stakeholders had difficulties in choosing a preferred technological future. Simple models were found to be an effective tool for communicating the influence of various measures. Further research is recommended to screen preferable technological roadmaps from the broad range of available futures. - Research highlights: {yields} Sustainable transport systems were explored with modeling and stakeholder workshops. {yields} Backcasting identified technological options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80%. {yields} Improving road vehicle efficiency, engine efficiency and fuel mix showed the greatest potential.

  1. Structure of a Type-1 Secretion System ABC Transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jacob L W; Acheson, Justin F; Zimmer, Jochen

    2017-03-07

    Type-1 secretion systems (T1SSs) represent a widespread mode of protein secretion across the cell envelope in Gram-negative bacteria. The T1SS is composed of an inner-membrane ABC transporter, a periplasmic membrane-fusion protein, and an outer-membrane porin. These three components assemble into a complex spanning both membranes and providing a conduit for the translocation of unfolded polypeptides. We show that ATP hydrolysis and assembly of the entire T1SS complex is necessary for protein secretion. Furthermore, we present a 3.15-Å crystal structure of AaPrtD, the ABC transporter found in the Aquifex aeolicus T1SS. The structure suggests a substrate entry window just above the transporter's nucleotide binding domains. In addition, highly kinked transmembrane helices, which frame a narrow channel not observed in canonical peptide transporters, are likely involved in substrate translocation. Overall, the AaPrtD structure supports a polypeptide transport mechanism distinct from alternating access.

  2. Transport signatures in topological systems coupled to ac fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Leonard; Gómez-León, Álvaro

    2017-02-01

    We study the transport properties of a topological system coupled to an ac electric field by means of Floquet-Keldysh formalism. We consider a semi-infinite chain of dimers coupled to a semi-infinite metallic lead and obtain the density of states and current when the system is out of equilibrium. Our formalism is nonperturbative and allows us to explore, in the thermodynamic limit, a wide range of regimes for the ac field, arbitrary values of the coupling strength to the metallic contact and corrections to the wide-band limit (WBL). We find that hybridization with the contact can change the dimerization phase, and that the current dependence on the field amplitude can be used to discriminate between them. We also show the appearance of side bands and nonequilibrium zero-energy modes, characteristic of the Floquet systems. Our results directly apply to the stability of nonequilibrium topological phases, when transport measurements are used for their detection.

  3. Stochastic transport in complex systems from molecules to vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Schadschneider, Andreas; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2011-01-01

    What is common between a motor protein, an ant and a vehicle? Each can be modelled as a"self-propelled particle"whose forward movement can be hindered by another in front of it. Traffic flow of such interacting driven"particles"has become an active area of interdisciplinary research involving physics, civil engineering and computer science. We present a unified pedagogical introduction to the analytical and computational methods which are currently used for studying such complex systems far from equilibrium. We also review a number of applications ranging from intra-cellular molecular motor transport in living systems to ant trails and vehicular traffic. Researchers working on complex systems, in general, and on classical stochastic transport, in particular, will find the pedagogical style, scholarly critical overview and extensive list of references extremely useful.

  4. Computational transport phenomena of fluid-particle systems

    CERN Document Server

    Arastoopour, Hamid; Abbasi, Emad

    2017-01-01

    This book concerns the most up-to-date advances in computational transport phenomena (CTP), an emerging tool for the design of gas-solid processes such as fluidized bed systems. The authors examine recent work in kinetic theory and CTP and illustrate gas-solid processes’ many applications in the energy, chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. They also discuss the kinetic theory approach in developing constitutive equations for gas-solid flow systems and how it has advanced over the last decade as well as the possibility of obtaining innovative designs for multiphase reactors, such as those needed to capture CO2 from flue gases. Suitable as a concise reference and a textbook supplement for graduate courses, Computational Transport Phenomena of Gas-Solid Systems is ideal for practitioners in industries involved with the design and operation of processes based on fluid/particle mixtures, such as the energy, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and food processing. Explains how to couple the population balance e...

  5. Modular transportation system with a three dimensional routeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löffler Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In intra-enterprise logistics and automation of manufacturing processes general a rising productivity by high flexibility is required. Existing transportation systems exclusively use two-dimensional track sections, because they can be served with standard drives. Because of these simple structures the transport speed is limited and thereby also the throughput. In this paper now a modular transportation system is presented which could reach higher speeds with a direct drive and the use of centrifugal force compensating curves. Simultaneously the system also can change the altitude. All this succeeds with the integration of three-dimensional track sections. Therefore a two piped guiding system with a long stator linear motor was designed. To combine the linear motor with the three dimensional track special stator elements were developed which allow a bending of the stator to follow the route course. The current work deals with the implementation of a mechanical passive switch, which is operated by the electromagnetic forces of the linear motor. So no additional mechanical actors or a separate electromagnetic system are necessary.

  6. Isolation systems for electronic black-box transportation to orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrich, Nicholas M.; Pendleton, Scott C.

    1998-06-01

    Servicing the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) requires the safe transportation of electronic Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) on the Space Transportation System (STS) to replace or enhance the capability of existing units. The delicate design of these electronic ORUs makes it imperative to provide isolation from the STS launch random vibration, while maintaining fundamental modes above the transient load environment. Two methods were developed and used exclusively, on Servicing Mission 2 (SM2), to isolate the ORUs from the environmental launch loads imposed by the STS. The first load isolation system utilizes a refined open/closed cell foam design to provide the required damping and corner frequency, while the second method uses an innovative Viscoelastic Material (VEM) design. This paper addresses both systems as initially designed including finite element (FE) model analysis of the VEM system. Vibration testing of prototype systems and modifications to the design resulting from test will be discussed. The final design as flown on HST SM2 with recommendations for future applications of these technologies in transporting electronic black boxes to orbit will conclude the paper.

  7. Longitudinal vibrations of mechanical systems with the transportation effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Buchacz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: this thesis purpose is a new way of modelling systems working with high speeds of mechanisms. Systems are analyzed with taking into consideration the rotational movement and with criterions of using materials with high flexibility and high precision of work. The dynamical analysis was done with giving into consideration the interaction between working motion and local vibrations. During the motion a model is loaded by longitudinal forces.Design/methodology/approach: equations of motion were derived by the Lagrange method, with generalized coordinates and generalized velocities assumed as orthogonal projections of individual quantities of the rod and manipulators to axes of the global reference frame.Findings: the model of longitudinally vibrating systems in plane motion was derived, after that the model can be transformed to the dynamical flexibility of these systems. Derived equations are the beginning of analysis of complex systems, especially can be used in deducing of the substitute dynamical flexibility of multilinked systems in motion.Research limitations/implications: mechanical systems vibrating longitudinally in terms of rotation were considered in this thesis. Successive problem of the dynamical analysis is the analysis of systems in spatial transportation and systems loaded by transversal forces.Practical implications: effects of presented calculations can be applied into machines and mechanisms in transportation such as: high speed turbines, wind power plant, water-power plants, manipulators, aerodynamics issues, and in different rotors etc.Originality/value: the contemporary analysis of beams and rods were made in a separate way, first working motion of the main system and next the local vibrations. A new way of modelling took into consideration the interaction between those two displacement. There was defined the transportation effect for models vibrating longitudinally in this paper.

  8. Geochemical signature of land-based activities in Caribbean coral surface samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, N.G.; Hughen, K.A.; Carilli, J.

    2008-01-01

    Anthropogenic threats, such as increased sedimentation, agrochemical run-off, coastal development, tourism, and overfishing, are of great concern to the Mesoamerican Caribbean Reef System (MACR). Trace metals in corals can be used to quantify and monitor the impact of these land-based activities. Surface coral samples from the MACR were investigated for trace metal signatures resulting from relative differences in water quality. Samples were analyzed at three spatial scales (colony, reef, and regional) as part of a hierarchical multi-scale survey. A primary goal of the paper is to elucidate the extrapolation of information between fine-scale variation at the colony or reef scale and broad-scale patterns at the regional scale. Of the 18 metals measured, five yielded statistical differences at the colony and/or reef scale, suggesting fine-scale spatial heterogeneity not conducive to regional interpretation. Five metals yielded a statistical difference at the regional scale with an absence of a statistical difference at either the colony or reef scale. These metals are barium (Ba), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), and antimony (Sb). The most robust geochemical indicators of land-based activities are coral Ba and Mn concentrations, which are elevated in samples from the southern region of the Gulf of Honduras relative to those from the Turneffe Islands. These findings are consistent with the occurrence of the most significant watersheds in the MACR from southern Belize to Honduras, which contribute sediment-laden freshwater to the coastal zone primarily as a result of human alteration to the landscape (e.g., deforestation and agricultural practices). Elevated levels of Cu and Sb were found in samples from Honduras and may be linked to industrial shipping activities where copper-antimony additives are commonly used in antifouling paints. Results from this study strongly demonstrate the impact of terrestrial runoff and anthropogenic activities on coastal water

  9. Abiotic Methane in Land-Based Serpentinized Peridotites: New Discoveries and Isotope Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiticar, M. J.; Etiope, G.

    2014-12-01

    Until 2008, abiotic methane in land-based serpentinized ultramafic rocks was documented (including gas and C- and H- isotope compositions) only at sites in Oman, Philippines, New Zealand and Turkey. Methane emanates from seeps and/or hyperalkaline water springs along faults and is associated with molecular hydrogen. These were considered to be very unusual and rare occurrences of gas. Now, methane is documented for peridotite-based springs or seeps (in ophiolites, orogenic massifs or intrusions) in US, Canada, Costa Rica, Greece, Italy, Japan, New Caledonia, Portugal, Spain and United Arab Emirates. Gas flux measurements are indicating that methane can also flux as invisible microseepages from the ground, through fractured peridotites, even far removed from seeps and springs. Methane C-isotope ratios range from -6 to -37 permil (VPDB) for dominantly abiotic methane. The more 13-C depleted values, e.g., California, are likely mixed with biotic gas (microbial and thermogenic gas). Methane H-isotope ratios cover a wide range from -118 to -333 permil (VSMOW). The combination of C- and H-isotopes clearly distinguish biotic from abiotic methane. Radiocarbon (14-C) analysis from bubbling seeps in Italian peridotites indicate that the methane is fossil (pMC temperatures of land-based peridotites (generally methane production. We discuss some hypotheses concerning gas generation in water vs. dry systems, i.e., in deeper, older, waters or in unsaturated rocks). We also discuss low vs. high temperatures, i.e., at the present-day low T conditions or at higher temperatures eventually occurring in the early stages of peridotite emplacement on land.

  10. An Overview of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transport Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL

    2010-09-01

    Heat transport is central to all thermal-based forms of electricity generation. The ever increasing demand for higher thermal efficiency necessitates power generation cycles transitioning to progressively higher temperatures. Similarly, the desire to provide direct thermal coupling between heat sources and higher temperature chemical processes provides the underlying incentive to move toward higher temperature heat transfer loops. As the system temperature rises, the available materials and technology choices become progressively more limited. Superficially, fluoride salts at {approx}700 C resemble water at room temperature being optically transparent and having similar heat capacity, roughly three times the viscosity, and about twice the density. Fluoride salts are a leading candidate heat-transport material at high temperatures. Fluoride salts have been extensively used in specialized industrial processes for decades, yet they have not entered widespread deployment for general heat transport purposes. This report does not provide an exhaustive screening of potential heat transfer media and other high temperature liquids such as alkali metal carbonate eutectics or chloride salts may have economic or technological advantages. A particular advantage of fluoride salts is that the technology for their use is relatively mature as they were extensively studied during the 1940s-1970s as part of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's program to develop molten salt reactors (MSRs). However, the instrumentation, components, and practices for use of fluoride salts are not yet developed sufficiently for commercial implementation. This report provides an overview of the current understanding of the technologies involved in liquid salt heat transport (LSHT) along with providing references to the more detailed primary information resources. Much of the information presented here derives from the earlier MSR program. However, technology has evolved over the intervening years

  11. An Overview of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transport Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL

    2010-09-01

    Heat transport is central to all thermal-based forms of electricity generation. The ever increasing demand for higher thermal efficiency necessitates power generation cycles transitioning to progressively higher temperatures. Similarly, the desire to provide direct thermal coupling between heat sources and higher temperature chemical processes provides the underlying incentive to move toward higher temperature heat transfer loops. As the system temperature rises, the available materials and technology choices become progressively more limited. Superficially, fluoride salts at {approx}700 C resemble water at room temperature being optically transparent and having similar heat capacity, roughly three times the viscosity, and about twice the density. Fluoride salts are a leading candidate heat-transport material at high temperatures. Fluoride salts have been extensively used in specialized industrial processes for decades, yet they have not entered widespread deployment for general heat transport purposes. This report does not provide an exhaustive screening of potential heat transfer media and other high temperature liquids such as alkali metal carbonate eutectics or chloride salts may have economic or technological advantages. A particular advantage of fluoride salts is that the technology for their use is relatively mature as they were extensively studied during the 1940s-1970s as part of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's program to develop molten salt reactors (MSRs). However, the instrumentation, components, and practices for use of fluoride salts are not yet developed sufficiently for commercial implementation. This report provides an overview of the current understanding of the technologies involved in liquid salt heat transport (LSHT) along with providing references to the more detailed primary information resources. Much of the information presented here derives from the earlier MSR program. However, technology has evolved over the intervening years

  12. California air transportation study: A transportation system for the California Corridor of the year 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    To define and solve the problems of transportation in the California Corrider in the year 2010, the 1989 California Polytechnic State University Aeronautical Engineering Senior Design class determined future corridor transportation needs and developed a system to meet the requirements. A market study, which included interpreting travel demand and gauging the future of regional and national air travel in and out of the corridor, allowed the goals of the project to be accurately refined. Comprehensive trade-off studies of several proposed transporation systems were conducted to determine which components would form the final proposed system. Preliminary design and further analysis were performed for each resulting component. The proposed system consists of three vehicles and a special hub or mode mixer, the Corridor Access Port (CAP). The vehicles are: (1) an electric powered aircraft to serve secondary airports and the CAP; (2) a high speed magnetic levitation train running through the CAP and the high population density areas of the corridor; and (3) a vertical takeoff and landing tilt rotor aircraft to serve both intercity and intrametropolitan travelers from the CAP and city vertiports. The CAP is a combination and an extension of the hub, mode mixer, and Wayport concepts. The CAP is an integrated part of the system which meets the travel demands in the corridor, and interfaces with interstate and international travel.

  13. A Study of Transport Airplane Crash-Resistant Fuel Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lisa (Technical Monitor); Robertson, S. H.; Johnson, N. B.; Hall, D. S.; Rimson, I. J.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study, funded by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), of transport airplane crash-resistant fuel system (CRFS). The report covers the historical studies related to aircraft crash fires and fuel containment concepts undertaken by the FAA, NASA, and the U.S. Army, which ultimately led to the current state of the art in CRFS technology. It describes the basic research, testing, field investigations and production efforts which have led to the highly successful military CRFS, which has saved many lives and reduced costs of accidents. Current CRFS technology used in transport category airplanes is defined and compared to the available state-of-the-art technology. The report provides information to the FAA and other government organizations which can help them plan their efforts to improve the state of crash fire protection in the transport airplane fleet. The report provides guidance to designers looking for information about CRFS design problems, analysis tools to use for product improvement, and a summary of current and proposed regulations for transport category airplane fuel systems.

  14. Perceived risk and modal choice: risk compensation in transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, R B

    1995-08-01

    A transportation mode choice analysis is performed that examines behavioral responses to perceived risk in the choice of mode for daily commute trips. This methodology provides a technique for examining, by means of disaggregate individual level data, risk-compensating effects in transportation systems. Various measures of perceived risk are examined for explaining modal choice. Other studies have described how safety regulations have resulted in increases in "driving intensity." This study defines one component of driving intensity to be the increased probability of commuting by automobile. The results show that modal shifts occur when risk perceptions for a given mode are reduced. To demonstrate potential risk-compensating effects within the transportation system, an estimate of changes in accident fatalities due to commuting is derived using rough estimates of fatalities per person-mile travelled. It is shown that a given change in the perceived risk of commuting by automobile results in a less than proportionate change in net commuting fatalities. The relative magnitude is dependent on how objective reductions in risk translate into perceived reductions in risk. This study also shows that perceived safety improvements in bicycle transportation have an aggregate elasticity value that is greater than one. This means that bicycle safety improvements attract proportionately more people to bicycle commuting (i.e. a 10% increase in safety results in a greater than 10% increase in the share of people bicycle commuting).

  15. Adaptive fuzzy-neural-network control for maglev transportation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Rong-Jong; Lee, Jeng-Dao

    2008-01-01

    A magnetic-levitation (maglev) transportation system including levitation and propulsion control is a subject of considerable scientific interest because of highly nonlinear and unstable behaviors. In this paper, the dynamic model of a maglev transportation system including levitated electromagnets and a propulsive linear induction motor (LIM) based on the concepts of mechanical geometry and motion dynamics is developed first. Then, a model-based sliding-mode control (SMC) strategy is introduced. In order to alleviate chattering phenomena caused by the inappropriate selection of uncertainty bound, a simple bound estimation algorithm is embedded in the SMC strategy to form an adaptive sliding-mode control (ASMC) scheme. However, this estimation algorithm is always a positive value so that tracking errors introduced by any uncertainty will cause the estimated bound increase even to infinity with time. Therefore, it further designs an adaptive fuzzy-neural-network control (AFNNC) scheme by imitating the SMC strategy for the maglev transportation system. In the model-free AFNNC, online learning algorithms are designed to cope with the problem of chattering phenomena caused by the sign action in SMC design, and to ensure the stability of the controlled system without the requirement of auxiliary compensated controllers despite the existence of uncertainties. The outputs of the AFNNC scheme can be directly supplied to the electromagnets and LIM without complicated control transformations for relaxing strict constrains in conventional model-based control methodologies. The effectiveness of the proposed control schemes for the maglev transportation system is verified by numerical simulations, and the superiority of the AFNNC scheme is indicated in comparison with the SMC and ASMC strategies.

  16. 75 FR 6250 - ITS Joint Program Office; Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... ITS Joint Program Office; Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice of... Systems (ITS) Program Advisory Committee (ITSPAC). The Web conference will be held on February 24, 2010... to the study, development, and implementation of intelligent transportation systems. Through...

  17. Transportation of drug-gold nanocomposites by actinomyosin motor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Harsimran, E-mail: microsimbac@gmail.com; Chaudhary, Archana; Kaur, Inderpreet [Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Biomolecular Electronics and Nanotechnology Division (BEND), Central Scientific Instruments Organization - CSIO (India); Singh, Kashmir [Panjab University, Department of Biotechnology (India); Bharadwaj, Lalit M. [Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Biomolecular Electronics and Nanotechnology Division (BEND), Central Scientific Instruments Organization - CSIO (India)

    2011-06-15

    Nanotechnology is playing an important role in drug delivery to overcome limitations of conventional drug delivery systems in terms of solubility, in vivo stability, pharmacokinetics, and bio-distribution. The controlled transportation of drug into the cell and within the cell is a major challenge to be addressed. Cellular molecular motors have been exploited for their cargo carrying capacity for various applications including engineering and health care. Combination of nanotechnology and biomolecular motors can address some of the challenges in drug delivery. In the present study, transportation of drug nanocomposites has been demonstrated. Nanocomposites of 6-mercaptopurine and levodopa drugs (cancer and Parkinson's disease, respectively) were prepared with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) by covalent attachment and these nanocomposites were attached to actin filaments. These nanocomposites were in-turn transported by actin filaments on myosin tracks. Characterization of drug nanocomposites formation was done by UV-Vis spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy. GNP composites of 6-mercaptopurine and levodopa were formed by sulfide and amide bond formation, respectively. Average velocity of actin filament attached to nanocomposites was found to be 3.17 and 3.89 {mu}m/s for levodopa and 6-mercaptopurine, respectively, as compared to actin filaments with velocity of 4.0-6.0 {mu}m/s. Three concepts have been proposed for the study of drug transportation into the cell based on polycationic complex formation, interaction of actin with cellular myosin and Biomolecular Adaptor for Retrograde Transport (BART) technology. The aspects of this study heads toward the development of an approach to utilize molecular motors for nanoscale transportation endogenously.

  18. Sources and dispersal of land-based runoff from small Hawaiian drainages to a coral reef: Insights from geochemical signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takesue, Renee K.; Storlazzi, Curt

    2017-01-01

    Land-based sediment and contaminant runoff is a major threat to coral reefs, and runoff reduction efforts would benefit from knowledge of specific runoff sources. Geochemical signatures of small drainage basins were determined in the fine fraction of soil and sediment, then used in the nearshore region of a coral reef-fringed urban embayment on southeast Oahu, Hawaii, to describe sources and dispersal of land-based runoff. The sedimentary rare earth element ratio (La/Yb)N showed a clear distinction between the two main rock types in the overall contributing area, tholeiitic and alkalic olivine basalt. Based on this geochemical signature it was apparent that the majority of terrigenous sediment on the reef flat originated from geologically old tholeiitic drainages. Sediment from one of five tholeiitic drainages had a distinct geochemical signature, and sediment with this signature was dispersed on the reef flat 2 km west and 150 m offshore of the contributing basin. Sediment and the anthropogenic metals Cd, Pb, and Zn were entrained in runoff from the most heavily urbanized region of the watershed. Although anthropogenic Cd and Zn had localized distributions close to shore, anthropogenic Pb was found associated with fine sediment on the westernmost part of the reef flat and 400 m offshore, illustrating how trade-wind-driven sediment transport can increase the scale of runoff impacts to nearshore communities. Our findings show that sediment geochemical signatures can provide insights about the source and dispersal of land-based runoff in shallow coastal environments. The application of such knowledge to watershed management and habitat remediation efforts can aid in the protection and restoration of runoff-impacted coastal ecosystems worldwide.

  19. Sources and dispersal of land-based runoff from small Hawaiian drainages to a coral reef: Insights from geochemical signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takesue, Renee K.; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2017-03-01

    Land-based sediment and contaminant runoff is a major threat to coral reefs, and runoff reduction efforts would benefit from knowledge of specific runoff sources. Geochemical signatures of small drainage basins were determined in the fine fraction of soil and sediment, then used in the nearshore region of a coral reef-fringed urban embayment on southeast Oahu, Hawaii, to describe sources and dispersal of land-based runoff. The sedimentary rare earth element ratio (La/Yb)N showed a clear distinction between the two main rock types in the overall contributing area, tholeiitic and alkalic olivine basalt. Based on this geochemical signature it was apparent that the majority of terrigenous sediment on the reef flat originated from geologically old tholeiitic drainages. Sediment from one of five tholeiitic drainages had a distinct geochemical signature, and sediment with this signature was dispersed on the reef flat 2 km west and 150 m offshore of the contributing basin. Sediment and the anthropogenic metals Cd, Pb, and Zn were entrained in runoff from the most heavily urbanized region of the watershed. Although anthropogenic Cd and Zn had localized distributions close to shore, anthropogenic Pb was found associated with fine sediment on the westernmost part of the reef flat and 400 m offshore, illustrating how trade-wind-driven sediment transport can increase the scale of runoff impacts to nearshore communities. Our findings show that sediment geochemical signatures can provide insights about the source and dispersal of land-based runoff in shallow coastal environments. The application of such knowledge to watershed management and habitat remediation efforts can aid in the protection and restoration of runoff-impacted coastal ecosystems worldwide.

  20. Directed transport of coupled systems in symmetric periodic potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志刚; 刘凤芝; 高建

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the damped unidirectional motions of a coupled lattice in a periodic potential. Each particle in the lattice is subject to a time-periodic ac force. Our studies reveal that a directed transport process can be observed when the ac forces acting on the coupled lattice have a phase shift (mismatch). This directed motion is a collaboration of the coupling, the substrate potential, and the periodic force, which are all.symmetric. The absence of any one of these three factors will not give rise to a directed current. We discuss the complex relations between the directed current and parameters in the system. Results in this paper can be accomplished in experiments. Moreover,our results can be generalized to the studies of directed transport processes in more complicated spatially extended systems.

  1. Wind Turbine Blade Nondestructive Testing with a Transportable Radiography System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Fantidis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbines are becoming widely used as they are an environmentally friendly way for energy production without emissions; however, they are exposed to a corrosive environment. In addition, as wind turbines typically are the tallest structures in the surrounding area of a wind farm, it is expected that they will attract direct lightning strikes several times during their operating life. The purpose of this paper is to show that the radiography with a transportable unit is a solution to find defects in the wind turbine blade and reduce the cost of inspection. A transportable neutron radiography system, incorporating an Sb–Be source, has been simulated using the MCNPX code. The simulated system has a wide range of radiography parameters.

  2. From microsystems technology to the Saenger II space transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogels, Hanns Arnt

    The role of space projects as drivers and catalysts of technology advances is discussed and illustrated from the perspective of the West German aerospace industry, summarizing a talk presented at the 1986 meeting of the German aerospace society DGLR. The history of space-transportation-system (STS) technology since the 1950s is traced, emphasizing the needs for greater payload weights and lower costs, and the design concept of Saenger II, a proposed two-stage ESA STS employing a hypersonic jet transport aircraft as its first stage, is outlined. It is argued that experience gained in developing the rocket-launched Hermes STS will be applicable to the second stage of Saenger II. Recent developments in microsystems (combining microelectronics, micromechanics, and microoptics), advanced materials (fiber-reinforced plastics, metals, and ceramics), and energy technology (hydrogen-based systems and solar cells) are surveyed, and their applicability to STSs is considered.

  3. Hand calculations for transport of radioactive aerosols through sampling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Mark; Thompson, Martha; Farfan, Eduardo; Hadlock, Dennis

    2014-05-01

    Workplace air monitoring programs for sampling radioactive aerosols in nuclear facilities sometimes must rely on sampling systems to move the air to a sample filter in a safe and convenient location. These systems may consist of probes, straight tubing, bends, contractions and other components. Evaluation of these systems for potential loss of radioactive aerosols is important because significant losses can occur. However, it can be very difficult to find fully described equations to model a system manually for a single particle size and even more difficult to evaluate total system efficiency for a polydispersed particle distribution. Some software methods are available, but they may not be directly applicable to the components being evaluated and they may not be completely documented or validated per current software quality assurance requirements. This paper offers a method to model radioactive aerosol transport in sampling systems that is transparent and easily updated with the most applicable models. Calculations are shown with the R Programming Language, but the method is adaptable to other scripting languages. The method has the advantage of transparency and easy verifiability. This paper shows how a set of equations from published aerosol science models may be applied to aspiration and transport efficiency of aerosols in common air sampling system components. An example application using R calculation scripts is demonstrated. The R scripts are provided as electronic attachments.

  4. Transport in nanoscale systems: hydrodynamics, turbulence, and local electron heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2007-03-01

    Transport in nanoscale systems is usually described as an open-boundary scattering problem. This picture, however, says nothing about the dynamical onset of steady states, their microscopic nature, or their dependence on initial conditions [1]. In order to address these issues, I will first describe the dynamical many-particle state via an effective quantum hydrodynamic theory [2]. This approach allows us to predict a series of novel phenomena like turbulence of the electron liquid [2], local electron heating in nanostructures [3], and the effect of electron viscosity on resistance [4]. I will provide both analytical results and numerical examples of first-principles electron dynamics in nanostructures using the above approach. I will also discuss possible experimental tests of our predictions. Work supported in part by NSF and DOE. [1] N. Bushong, N. Sai and M. Di Ventra, ``Approach to steady-state transport in nanoscale systems'' Nano Letters, 5 2569 (2005); M. Di Ventra and T.N. Todorov, ``Transport in nanoscale systems: the microcanonical versus grand-canonical picture,'' J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 16, 8025 (2004). [2] R. D'Agosta and M. Di Ventra, ``Hydrodynamic approach to transport and turbulence in nanoscale conductors,'' cond-mat/05123326; J. Phys. Cond. Matt., in press. [3] R. D'Agosta, N. Sai and M. Di Ventra, ``Local electron heating in nanoscale conductors,'' cond-mat/0605312; Nano Letters, in press. [4] N. Sai, M. Zwolak, G. Vignale and M. Di Ventra, ``Dynamical corrections to the DFT-LDA electron conductance in nanoscale systems,'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 186810 (2005).

  5. Protonic transport through solitons in hydrogen-bonded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, L.; Jayanthi, S.; Muniyappan, A.; Gopi, D.

    2011-09-01

    We offer an alternative route for investigating soliton solutions in hydrogen-bonded (HB) chains. We invoke the modified extended tangent hyperbolic function method coupled with symbolic computation to solve the governing equation of motion for proton dynamics. We investigate the dynamics of proton transfer in HB chains through bell-shaped soliton excitations, which trigger the bio-energy transport in most biological systems. This solitonic mechanism of proton transfer could play functional roles in muscular contraction, enzymatic activity and oxidative phosphorylation.

  6. Transportations Systems Modeling and Applications in Earthquake Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    earthquake (Japan) The 1995 Hanshin-Awaji earthquake ( wM 6.8) in the Osaka -Kobe area had an even greater impact on the transportation systems compared...with the Loma Prieta and Northridge earthquakes in the U.S. The span collapses of the elevated Osaka -Kobe expressway (Route 3) caused long- time...nation’s economy and society. The numerical case study focuses on the road network in the Memphis metropolitan area. The road network information

  7. Scaling of flow and transport behavior in heterogeneous groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibe, Timothy; Yabusaki, Steven

    1998-11-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations using a detailed synthetic hydraulic conductivity field developed from geological considerations provide insight into the scaling of subsurface flow and transport processes. Flow and advective transport in the highly resolved heterogeneous field were modeled using massively parallel computers, providing a realistic baseline for evaluation of the impacts of parameter scaling. Upscaling of hydraulic conductivity was performed at a variety of scales using a flexible power law averaging technique. A series of tests were performed to determine the effects of varying the scaling exponent on a number of metrics of flow and transport behavior. Flow and transport simulation on high-performance computers and three-dimensional scientific visualization combine to form a powerful tool for gaining insight into the behavior of complex heterogeneous systems. Many quantitative groundwater models utilize upscaled hydraulic conductivity parameters, either implicitly or explicitly. These parameters are designed to reproduce the bulk flow characteristics at the grid or field scale while not requiring detailed quantification of local-scale conductivity variations. An example from applied groundwater modeling is the common practice of calibrating grid-scale model hydraulic conductivity or transmissivity parameters so as to approximate observed hydraulic head and boundary flux values. Such parameterizations, perhaps with a bulk dispersivity imposed, are then sometimes used to predict transport of reactive or non-reactive solutes. However, this work demonstrates that those parameters that lead to the best upscaling for hydraulic conductivity and head do not necessarily correspond to the best upscaling for prediction of a variety of transport behaviors. This result reflects the fact that transport is strongly impacted by the existence and connectedness of extreme-valued hydraulic conductivities, in contrast to bulk flow which depends more strongly on

  8. A cislunar transportation system fuelled by lunar resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, G. F.

    2016-11-01

    A transportation system for a self sustaining economy in cislunar space is discussed. The system is based on liquid oxygen (LO2), liquid hydrogen (LH2) propulsion whose fuels are derived from ice mined at the polar regions of the Moon. The elements of the transportation system consist of the Advanced Cryogenic Evolved Stage (ACES) and the XEUS lander, both being developed by United Launch Alliance (ULA). The main propulsion elements and structures are common between ACES and XEUS. Both stages are fully reusable with refueling of their LO2/LH2 propellants. Utilization of lunar sourced propellants has the potential to dramatically lower the cost of transportation within the cislunar environs. These lower costs dramatically lower the barriers to entry of a number of promising cislunar based activities including space solar power. One early application of the architecture is providing lunar sourced propellant to refuel ACES for traditional spacecraft deployment missions. The business case for this application provides an economic framework for a potential lunar water mining operation.

  9. JOVIAN STRATOSPHERE AS A CHEMICAL TRANSPORT SYSTEM: BENCHMARK ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xi; Shia Runlie; Yung, Yuk L., E-mail: xiz@gps.caltech.edu [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-04-20

    We systematically investigated the solvable analytical benchmark cases in both one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) chemical-advective-diffusive systems. We use the stratosphere of Jupiter as an example but the results can be applied to other planetary atmospheres and exoplanetary atmospheres. In the 1D system, we show that CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6} are mainly in diffusive equilibrium, and the C{sub 2}H{sub 2} profile can be approximated by modified Bessel functions. In the 2D system in the meridional plane, analytical solutions for two typical circulation patterns are derived. Simple tracer transport modeling demonstrates that the distribution of a short-lived species (such as C{sub 2}H{sub 2}) is dominated by the local chemical sources and sinks, while that of a long-lived species (such as C{sub 2}H{sub 6}) is significantly influenced by the circulation pattern. We find that an equator-to-pole circulation could qualitatively explain the Cassini observations, but a pure diffusive transport process could not. For slowly rotating planets like the close-in extrasolar planets, the interaction between the advection by the zonal wind and chemistry might cause a phase lag between the final tracer distribution and the original source distribution. The numerical simulation results from the 2D Caltech/JPL chemistry-transport model agree well with the analytical solutions for various cases.

  10. A smart system for surveillance of animal welfare during transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebresenbet, G; Wikner, I; Van de Water, G; Freson, L; Geers, R

    2003-12-01

    New welfare regulations will impose surveillance systems so that information on the quality of transport conditions is available. Moreover a route description is useful for optimisation of transport logistics, but also in relation to estimating of sanitary risk and food safety, including traceability of individual animals. Therefore a transport surveillance system has been developed which is integrating the following information: individual identification of animals, (un)loading place and time, air quality (temperature, relative humidity, emissions), vibration and behaviour of the animals. These data are collected by telemetry and GPS, and are transmitted to a dispatch centre by GSM. Hence, information is available on-line and on disk, so that the driver can be informed and corrected at the spot. Dynamic route optimization of cattle collection from farms and logistical activities of abattoirs are considered in relation to animal welfare. Another instrumentation package that comprises sensors of heart rate and vibration on the animal has been integrated. These sensors can be mounted on animals and the data is transferred to a database through a wireless network. Comprehensive field measurement has been made to evaluate the system and found that the package performs well. Hence, advice will be generated for vehicle manufacturers, hauliers, farmers, slaughterhouses and retailers.

  11. System-of-Systems Framework for the Future Hydrogen-Based Transportation Economy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, M.; Sandor, D.

    2008-06-01

    From a supply chain view, this paper traces the flow of transportation fuels through required systems and addresses the current petroleum-based economy, DOE's vision for a future hydrogen-based transportation economy, and the challenges of a massive market and infrastructure transformation.

  12. OUTSIDER EDUCATION: INDIGENOUS LAW AND LAND-BASED LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Borrows

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines pedagogical developments in Canadian law schools related to outdoor education. In the process, it shows how recommendations from the Indian Residential Schools Truth and Reconciliation Commission can be applied, which called for law schools to create Indigenous-focused courses related to skills-based training in intercultural competency, conflict resolution, human rights and anti-racism. Land-based education on reserves can give law students meaningful context for exploring these Calls to Action. At the same time this article illustrates that taking students outside law school walls is not solely an Indigenous development. Thus, it first provides a few examples about how outdoors legal education is occurring in non-Indigenous settings. Next, the article examines unique Indigenous legal methodologies for learning law on and from the land. Finally, the author discusses his own experience in teaching Anishinaabe law on his reserve to demonstrate how students can develop deeper understandings of their professional responsibilities.   Dans cet article, l’auteur aborde les développements pédagogiques liés à l’enseignement de plein air dans les écoles de droit du Canada. Ainsi, il montre comment il est possible de donner suite aux recommandations de la Commission de vérité et de réconciliation relative aux pensionnats indiens, notamment en ce qui concerne la création par les écoles de droit de cours axés sur les compétences au regard de l’aptitude interculturelle, du règlement des différends, des droits de la personne et de la lutte contre le racisme. L’éducation axée sur le territoire qui est offerte sur les réserves peut donner aux étudiants en droit un contexte significatif qui les aidera à explorer ces appels à l’action. Au même moment, cet article montre que l’apprentissage du droit à l’extérieur des murs de l’école de droit n’est pas observé uniquement chez les Autochtones. Ainsi

  13. Advanced Launch System (ALS) Space Transportation Expert System Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    CONTROL ELECTRONICS DEVELOPMENT ENGR CONTROL SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT BRANCH DAVID K. BOWSER ASST CHIEF FLIGHT CONTROL DIVISION IF YOUR ADDRESS HAS CHANGED...Routers) to Processed Facts ato Conclusions. high& -- %sm memcry) omands . lee requestslevel KNOWLEDGE-BASE SYSTEMS Internal World (Layered Structure) kw...Kaiser, Gail E. and David Garlan ttl: MELDIng Data Flow and Object Oriented Programming - OPSLA 󈨛 Proceedings, October 1987 -eoories: Object Oriented

  14. The importance of transport parameter cross correlations in natural systems radioactive transport models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, Paul W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-03

    Transport parameter cross correlations are rarely considered in models used to predict radionuclide transport in natural systems. In this paper, it is shown that parameter cross correlations could have a significant impact on radionuclide transport predictions in saturated media. In fractured rock, the positive correlation between fracture apertures and groundwater residence times is shown to result in significantly less retardation due to matrix diffusion than is predicted without the correlation. The suppression of matrix diffusion is further amplified by a tendency toward larger apertures, smaller matrix diffusion coefficients, and less sorption capacity in rocks of lower matrix porosity. In a hypothetical example, strong cross correlations between these parameters result in a decrease in predicted radionuclide travel times of an order of magnitude or more relative to travel times calculated with uncorrelated parameters. In porous media, expected correlations between permeability, porosity, and sorption capacity also result in shorter predicted travel times than when the parameters are assumed to be uncorrelated. Individual parameter standard deviations can also have a significant influence on predicted radionuclide travel times, particularly when cross correlations are considered.

  15. Excess Surface Area in Bioelectrochemical Systems Causes ion Transport Limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, Timothy D.; Babauta, Jerome T.; Davenport, Emily K.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-05-01

    We investigated ion transport limitations on 3D graphite felt electrodes by growing Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms with advection to eliminate external mass transfer limitations. We characterized ion transport limitations by: (i) showing that serially increasing NaCl concentration up to 200mM increased current linearly up to a total of þ273% vs. 0mM NaCl under advective conditions; (ii) growing the biofilm with a starting concentration of 200mM NaCl, which led to a maximum current increase of 400% vs. current generation without NaCl, and (iii) showing that un-colonized surface area remained even after steadystate current was reached. After accounting for iR effects, we confirmed that the excess surface area existed despite a non-zero overpotential. The fact that the biofilm was constrained from colonizing and producing further current under these conditions confirmed the biofilms under study here were ion transport-limited. Our work demonstrates that the use of high surface area electrodes may not increase current density when the system design allows ion transport limitations to become dominant.

  16. Transport and Clogging of Particulate Flow in Fracture Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koplik, Joel [City College of New York, NY (United States)

    2016-10-31

    The aim of the project is to understand the effects of confinement in narrow rough-walled fractures on the transport behavior of fluids and suspended particles in subsurface hydro- carbon reservoirs. A key motivation for the study is that such fracture systems provide the highest throughput in oil and gas extraction and have been the focus of recent industrial activity. The scientific challenge is to understand how the confined geometry alters transport phenomena, and in particular its influence on (diagnostic) tracer transport and the effects of flow channeling and clogging on fluid motion. An important complicating feature of geological fractures is the self-affine fractal nature of their surface roughness, leading to irregular but correlated fluid and particle motion. The key technique used is computer simulation, augmented by analytical calculations and collaboration with outside experimental colleagues when possible. The principal topics studied were fluid permeability, tracer dispersion, flow channeling and anisotropy, particle transport in narrow channels and particle trapping in tight fractures.

  17. Analysis of mechanical systems with transversal vibrations in transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Buchacz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this article are modelling and dynamic analysis of mechanical systems during the rotationalmovement. Nowadays technical problems are tied with high speeds of mechanisms, high precision of work,using lower density materials, and many other high demands for elements of work. Objective of this paper wasthe analysis with giving into consideration the interaction between working motion and local vibrations. Themodel is loaded by transverse forces and transformed to the global reference frame.Design/methodology/approach: derived equations of motion were made by the Lagrange equations methodwith generalized coordinates and generalized velocities assumed as orthogonal projections of individualcoordinates and velocities of each beam to axes of the global reference frame.Findings: systems of equations of motion of transversally vibrating systems in two-dimensional motion willbe put to use to derivation of the dynamical flexibility of these systems and complex systems. Those equationsare the beginning of the analysis of complex systems. They can also be used to derivation of the substitutedynamical flexibility of n-linked systems.Research limitations/implications: mechanical systems vibrating transversally in terms of two-dimensionalmotion were considered in the thesis. The consecutive problem of dynamical analysis is modelling of systemsin spatial motion and also the analysis of systems loaded by longitudinal forces.Practical implications: mathematical effects of this article can be put to use into many mechanisms andmachines running in rotational transportation. For example applications are: high speed turbines, wind powerplants, rotors, manipulators and in aerodynamics issues, etc. Of course results should be adopted and modifiedto appropriate system.Originality/value: High demands for parameters of work of mechanisms and machines are the postulation fornew research and new ways of modelling and analyzing those type systems. The example way

  18. LCLS XTOD Tunnel Vacuum Transport System (XVTS) Final Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, S

    2006-10-16

    The design of the X-Ray Vacuum Transport System (XVTS) for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray Transport, Optics and Diagnostics (XTOD) system has been analyzed and configured by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's New Technologies Engineering Division (NTED) as requested by the SLAC/LCLS program. A preliminary design review was held on 11/14/05 [1][2]. This FDR (Final Design Report) presents system configuration, detailed analyses and selection of the mechanical and electrical components for the XTOD tunnel section, as well as the response to all issues raised in the review committee report. Also included are the plans for procurement, mechanical integration, schedule and the cost estimates. It should be noticed that, after the XVTS PDR, LCLS management has decided to lower the number of beamlines from three to one, and shorten the tunnel length from 212 m to 184 m. [3][4] The final design of XVTS system is completed. The major subjects presented in this report are: (1) Design of the complete system. (2) System analysis results. (3) ES&H issues and plan. (4) Project cost estimates and schedule.

  19. The UMTS-AKA Protocols for Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Min-Shiang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of communication protocols into transport systems is a much adored research area today. Much of seminal work has been reported on the topic of intelligent transportation systems (ITS in the recent years. Many advanced techniques have been garnered to improve online communication and to promote the security, comfort, and efficiency of ITS. Of primary importance to the effective application of ITS is the communication protocol used. A fascinating development is that the yesterday's Global System for Mobile Communication protocol is being replaced by the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System protocol, which is the third-generation mobile technology. This article attempts to identify a suitable communication system for ITS applications. It is impracticable to substantially modify the original UMTS-IMS-AKA protocol which is in practice because it can disturb the operation of the current system, and thus we explore other possibilities through this research. We investigate a novel protocol to make the original UMTS-IMS-AKA protocol compliant with ITS as well as adaptable into the current UMTS protocol.

  20. Packaging design criteria for the K east basin sludge transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaszewski, T.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-11

    This packaging design criteria (PDC) establishes the onsite transportation safety criteria for a reusable packaging and transport system to transport K East Basin sludge and water.This PDC provides the basis for the development of a safety analysis report for packaging; establishes the packaging contents and safety class of the package; and provides design criteria for the package, packaging, and transport systems.

  1. Space Transportation System Availability Relationships to Life Cycle Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Donahue, Benjamin B.; Chen, Timothy T.

    2009-01-01

    Future space transportation architectures and designs must be affordable. Consequently, their Life Cycle Cost (LCC) must be controlled. For the LCC to be controlled, it is necessary to identify all the requirements and elements of the architecture at the beginning of the concept phase. Controlling LCC requires the establishment of the major operational cost drivers. Two of these major cost drivers are reliability and maintainability, in other words, the system's availability (responsiveness). Potential reasons that may drive the inherent availability requirement are the need to control the number of unique parts and the spare parts required to support the transportation system's operation. For more typical space transportation systems used to place satellites in space, the productivity of the system will drive the launch cost. This system productivity is the resultant output of the system availability. Availability is equal to the mean uptime divided by the sum of the mean uptime plus the mean downtime. Since many operational factors cannot be projected early in the definition phase, the focus will be on inherent availability which is equal to the mean time between a failure (MTBF) divided by the MTBF plus the mean time to repair (MTTR) the system. The MTBF is a function of reliability or the expected frequency of failures. When the system experiences failures the result is added operational flow time, parts consumption, and increased labor with an impact to responsiveness resulting in increased LCC. The other function of availability is the MTTR, or maintainability. In other words, how accessible is the failed hardware that requires replacement and what operational functions are required before and after change-out to make the system operable. This paper will describe how the MTTR can be equated to additional labor, additional operational flow time, and additional structural access capability, all of which drive up the LCC. A methodology will be presented that

  2. SBIR Advanced Technologies in Aviation and Air Transportation System 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Kaszeta, Richard W.; Gold, Calman; Corke, Thomas C.; McGowan, Ryan; Matlis, Eric; Eichenlaub, Jesse; Davis, Joshua T.; Shah, Parthiv N.

    2017-01-01

    This report is intended to provide a broad knowledge of various topics associated with NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), with particular interest on the NASA SBIR contracts awarded from 2011-2012 executed by small companies. The content of this report focuses on the high-quality, cutting-edge research that will lead to revolutionary concepts, technologies, and capabilities that enable radical change to both the airspace system and the aircraft that fly within it, facilitating a safer, more environmentally friendly, and more efficient air transportation system.

  3. Development of Library Processing System for Neutron Transport Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, J. S.; Park, S. Y.; Kim, H. Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2008-12-15

    A system for library generation was developed for the lattice neutron transport program for pressurized water reactor core analysis. The system extracts multi energy group nuclear data for requested nuclides from ENDF/B whose data are based on continuous energy, generates hydrogen equivalent factor and resonance integral table as functions of temperature and background cross section for resonance nuclides, generates subgroup data for the lattice program to treat resonance exactly as possible, and generates multi-group neutron library file including nuclide depletion data for use of the lattice program.

  4. Integrated Enhanced and Synthetic Vision System for Transport Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shantha Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A new avionics concept called integrated enhanced and synthetic vision system (IESVS is being developed to enable flight operations during adverse weather/visibility conditions even in non precision airfields. This paper presents the latest trends in IESVS, design concept of the system and the work being carried out at National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore towards indigenous development of the same for transport aircraft.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(2, pp.157-163, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.4258

  5. Development of a Techno-economic Model of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) for Deployment in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjin, Daniel Michael Okwabi; Tadayoni, Reza

    2011-01-01

    The concept of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is about the development and deployment of advanced Traffic Management Systems, Traveler Information Systems, Commercial Vehicle Operations, Public and Private Transportation Systems, and Rural Transportation Systems. Several key technologies....... The results show that deployment of Intelligent Vehicle Tracking Technology (IVTT) will address the problems of inefficiencies experienced in the Ghanaian road transport haulage tracking industry. Research for ITS development and eployment in these countries should be cost effective....

  6. Analysis on the Synergy Evolutionary Development of the Collecting, Distributing, and Transporting System of Railway Heavy Haul Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenling Feng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A synergy evolutionary model of the collecting, distributing, and transporting system of railway heavy haul transportation is built by introducing synergy-related concepts and applying synergy evolutionary theory. Then spline interpolation method, numerical differential five-point formula, and method of least squares are used to solve synergistic coefficient, while fourth-order Rugge-kutta method and fourth-order Adams linear implicit formula method are used to solve coevolutionary curve of the system. Finally, the heavy load transportation of Daqin Railway is an example of the empirical analysis. The research result shows that the degree of order of the system and its three subsystems—collecting, transporting, and distributing—increases as the synergetic coefficient of the subsystems increases; otherwise, the degree of the order will decrease. It also shows that this model can better analyze the coevolutionary process of the heavy load collecting, distributing, and transporting system of Daqin Railway, with its rationality and applicability verified.

  7. Land-based discharges of marine debris: From local to global regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Nollkaemper (Andre)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThis article outlines the major regulatory requirements involved in the control of land-based discharges of marine debris, and reviews the main developments in the process towards more appropriate international controls of such discharges.

  8. Land-based discharges of marine debris: From local to global regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Nollkaemper (Andre)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThis article outlines the major regulatory requirements involved in the control of land-based discharges of marine debris, and reviews the main developments in the process towards more appropriate international controls of such discharges.

  9. A randomized controlled trial of aquatic and land-based exercise in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Hans; Weile, Ulla; Christensen, Robin

    2008-01-01

    reported adverse events (i.e. discomfort) in land-based exercise, while only 3 reported adverse events in the aquatic exercise. CONCLUSION: Only land-based exercise showed some improvement in pain and muscle strength compared with the control group, while no clinical benefits were detectable after aquatic......OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of aquatic exercise and a land-based exercise programme vs control in patients with knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: Primary outcome was change in pain, and in addition Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score questionnaire (KOOS). Standing balance and strength...... was also measured after and at 3-month follow-up. Seventy-nine patients (62 women), with a mean age of 68 years (age range 40-89 years) were randomized to aquatic exercise (n = 27), land-based exercise (n = 25) or control (n = 27). RESULTS: No effect was observed immediately after exercise cessation (8...

  10. A randomized controlled trial of aquatic and land-based exercise in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, H.; Weile, U.; Christensen, R.

    2008-01-01

    patients reported adverse events (i.e. discomfort) in land-based exercise, while only 3 reported adverse events in the aquatic exercise. Conclusion: Only land-based exercise showed some improvement in pain and muscle strength compared with the control group, while no clinical benefits were detectable after......Objective: To compare the efficacy of aquatic exercise and a land-based exercise programme vs control in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: Primary outcome was change in pain, and in addition Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score questionnaire (KOOS). Standing balance and strength...... was also measured after and at 3-month follow-up. Seventy-nine patients (62 women), with a mean age of 68 years (age range 40-89 years) were randomized to aquatic exercise (n = 27), land-based exercise (n = 25) or control (n = 27). Results: No effect was observed immediately after exercise cessation (8...

  11. Public Transportation System at the Southern Cone: New projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Schweitzer

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the international restructuration of the economy and the regional integration process, according to the claim of accelerating the trade circulation, there is emerging a kind of transporting subestructure project with different characteristics from other times, which are producing a new territorial configuration.The present study has the objective to analyze the evolution of the transportation system in the South Cone and, in the context of the integration process and the economic restructuration, the new demans and which are the transformations of the involved territories since the concretion of this new actions. It is analyzed the regional transportation system related to the territory estructuration in those countries integrating the Mercosur (Argentina, Brasil, Uruguay and Paraguay, as well as in the associated nations (Bolivia and Chile.Based on the relief and diagnosis of the situation, and considering those new projects, we make a reflection about the tendency to reconcentrate the subestructure and the inversions, with the following territorial inequality that gets deeper and reproduces the territorial fragmentation in regions that receive the new projects obeying to external goals without considering the global impact in the territories’ group.

  12. Reserve a seat! Intelligent transportation reservation system for tourists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Conley, T. [GTE Wireless, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Providing safe, predictable, and efficient transportation for tourists to and from various venues presents a major challenge. Special-event transportation is notoriously unreliable and usually congested at peak times. The rural nature of certain tourist locations (e.g., the Grand Canyon) further complicates the problem. The proposed Intelligent Transportation Reservation System will have three components, each of which performs different functions. On-vehicle component: this component has three purposes: (1) to keep a running count of the passengers on the bus in order to determine how many additional passengers can be accommodated based on the total capacity of the vehicle; (2) through use of Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) technology, to be able to determine the location of the bus at all times; (3) to transmit information to a central data facility. Together these three features provide location, available-space, and condition information to controllers at a central data facility and to prospective riders of the bus. Kiosk component: located at every loading/unloading point, the purpose is to allow passengers-to-be to determine when the next bus (or buses) will arrive and the availability of seating. Individuals can make a reservation for the next bus with sufficient seating and will know when that bus will arrive at the kiosk. Information component: located within hotels and at venue sites, this component will provide information on the buses in the system (e.g. route and current capacity), and loading/unloading locations throughout the network at any point in time.

  13. Ligncellulosic feedstock supply systems with intermodal and overseas transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ric Hoefnagels; Kara Cafferty; Erin Searcy; Jacob J. Jacobson; Martin Junginger; Thijs Cornelissen; Andre Faaij

    2014-12-01

    With growing demand for biomass from industrial uses and international trade, the logistic operations required to economically move the biomass from the field or forest to the end users have become increasingly complex. In addition to economics, understanding energy and GHG emissions is required to design cost effective, sustainable logistic process operations; in order to improve international supply chains it is also important to understate their interdependencies and related uncertainties. This article presents an approach to assess lignocellulosic feedstock supply systems at the operational level. For this purpose, the Biomass Logistic Model (BLM) has been linked with the Geographic Information Systems based Biomass Intermodal Transportation model (BIT-UU) and extended with inter-continental transport routes. Case studies of herbaceous and woody biomass, produced in the U.S. Midwest and U.S. Southeast, respectively, and shipped to Europe for conversion to Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel are included to demonstrate how intermodal transportation and, in particular, overseas shipping integrates with the bioenergy supply chains. For the cases demonstrated, biomass can be supplied at 99 € Mg-1 to 117 € Mg-1 (dry) and converted to FT-diesel at 19 € GJ-1 to 24 € GJ-1 depending on the feedstock type and location, intermediate (chips or pellets) and size of the FT-diesel production plant. With the flexibility to change the design of supply chains as well as input variables, many alternative supply chain cases can be assessed.

  14. A Privacy-Preserving NFC Mobile Pass for Transport Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Arfaoui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the NFC (Near Field Communication technology brings new capacities to the next generation of smartphones, but also new security and privacy challenges. Indeed through its contactless interactions with external entities, the smartphone of an individual will become an essential authentication tool for service providers such as transport operators. However, from the point of view of the user, carrying a part of the service through his smartphone could be a threat for his privacy. Indeed, an external attacker or the service provider himself could be tempted to track the actions of the user. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving contactless mobile service, in which a user’s identity cannot be linked to his actions when using the transport system. The security of our proposition relies on the combination of a secure element in the smartphone and on a privacy-enhancing cryptographic protocol based on a variant of group signatures. In addition, although a user should remain anonymous and his actions unlinkable in his daily journeys, we designed a technique for lifting his anonymity in extreme circumstances. In order to guarantee the usability of our solution, we implemented a prototype demonstrating that our solution meets the major functional requirements for real transport systems: namely that the mobile pass can be validated at a gate in less than 300 ms, and this even if the battery of the smartphone is exhausted.

  15. Modelling of Cadmium Transport in Soil-Crop System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A model for simulating cadmium transport in a soil-plant system was built using a commercial simu lating program named Powersim on the basis of input-output processes happening in the soil-plant system.Convective and dispersive transport processes of cadmium in soil profile are embedded. Simulations on a daily base have been done up to a total simulating time of 250 years. Results show that applications of sewage sludge and fertilizer at the simulated rates would only cause slight cadmium accumulations in each layer of the soil, and cadmium accumulation would be levelling off, reaching an equilibrium concentrations layer by layer downward after certain time. The time scale to reach an equilibrium concentration varies from 10 years for the top three layers to over 250 years for the bottom layers. Plant cadmium uptake would increase from 52 ug m-2 under initial soil cadmium concentrations to 65 μg m-2 under equilibrium soil cadmium concentrations, which would not exceed the maximum allowable cadmium concentration in wheat grains. Main parameters which influence cadmium accumulation and transport in soil are total cadmium input, rainfall, evaporation, plant uptake and soil properties.

  16. Reserve a seat! Intelligent transportation reservation system for tourists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Conley, T. [GTE Wireless, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Providing safe, predictable, and efficient transportation for tourists to and from various venues presents a major challenge. Special-event transportation is notoriously unreliable and usually congested at peak times. The rural nature of certain tourist locations (e.g., the Grand Canyon) further complicates the problem. The proposed Intelligent Transportation Reservation System will have three components, each of which performs different functions. On-vehicle component: this component has three purposes: (1) to keep a running count of the passengers on the bus in order to determine how many additional passengers can be accommodated based on the total capacity of the vehicle; (2) through use of Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) technology, to be able to determine the location of the bus at all times; (3) to transmit information to a central data facility. Together these three features provide location, available-space, and condition information to controllers at a central data facility and to prospective riders of the bus. Kiosk component: located at every loading/unloading point, the purpose is to allow passengers-to-be to determine when the next bus (or buses) will arrive and the availability of seating. Individuals can make a reservation for the next bus with sufficient seating and will know when that bus will arrive at the kiosk. Information component: located within hotels and at venue sites, this component will provide information on the buses in the system (e.g. route and current capacity), and loading/unloading locations throughout the network at any point in time.

  17. Evaluation of KFB-funded research on transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, D.; Knudsen, T.; Wegener, M.

    1999-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of two research projects on transport systems, which have been financed fully or partially by KFB. The projects are: l. Systems analysis of transport markets at the Division of Transport and Location Analysis in the Department of Infrastructure and Planning of the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm; and 2. Planning, analysis and management in traffic networks - optimization models and methods at the Division of Optimization in the Department of Mathematics at Linkoeping University. The evaluation seeks to examine the scientific quality of the research and its relevance to the academic world and society. The two project teams prepared a self-assessment of their research activities and submitted copies of relevant publications. The evaluation committee visited both institutions and engaged the teams in discussions of their results and methodology. These visits occurred on June 1 and 2, 1999. This report is based on the self-assessments of the teams, the materials submitted and the meetings with the project teams. The evaluation and recommendations presented in the report are those of the reviewers and do not necessarily represent the views of KFB

  18. 78 FR 25758 - Migratory Birds; Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance: Module 1-Land-Based Wind Energy, Version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ...-- Land-Based Wind Energy, Version 2 AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... Guidance: Module 1--Land-based Wind Energy, Version 2 is available. The guidance provides recommendations... issued a draft of The Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance: Module 1-- Land-based Wind Energy for...

  19. 77 FR 17496 - Fisheries and Habitat Conservation and Migratory Birds Programs; Final Land-Based Wind Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ...; Final Land-Based Wind Energy Guidelines AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... voluntary Land-Based Wind Energy Guidelines (Guidelines). These Guidelines supersede the Service's 2003 voluntary interim guidelines for land-based wind energy development. They respond to accelerated...

  20. 76 FR 11506 - Fisheries and Habitat Conservation and Migratory Birds Programs; Draft Land-Based Wind Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ...; Draft Land-Based Wind Energy Guidelines; Correction AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... comment of draft Land-Based Wind Energy Guidelines (Guidelines). We are issuing a correction to that... Land-Based Wind Energy Guidelines (Guidelines). These draft Guidelines do not supersede the...

  1. Applications of Chaos Sequence in Intelligent Transportation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET is an essential technology to improve safety and efficiency of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS, it provides vehicle to vehicle as well as vehicle to roadside unit (RSU wireless communications, so that on board unit (OBU located in vehicles can share messages related to road traffic with not only other OBU in the same VANET but also transportation management centre depending on retransmission of RSU. It is very important to detect and transmit real time messages of road traffic condition in VANET. This paper presents two application schemes for VANET based on chaos sequence: traffic flow forecast and vehicle secret communications. The principles of these schemes are introduced separately, and performances are verified by theoretical analysis and simulation.  

  2. Modeling reactive flow and transport in natural systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtner, P.C. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, S.Antonio, TX (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A general formulation of reactive transport equations in a porous medium has been presented including homogeneous reactions of aqueous species, heterogenous reactions of minerals, and microbiological processes. The canonical form of chemical reactions was introduced and the transformation between primary or basis species derived. The use of parallel linearly-dependent reactions was discussed for incorporating different reaction rate mechanisms. It was demonstrated how the electron may be used in reactive transport equations with redox reactions formulated in terms of half-cell reactions. A single component system was investigated for both a one-dimensional porous medium and a two-dimensional geometry incorporating fracture-matrix interaction. Finally two multicomponent examples were considered using the computer code MULTIFLO of in situ leaching of copper ore and acid mine drainage.

  3. Information System for the Goods Transport Service Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caj Holm

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Intermodal transport can reduce the load of the road infrastructure.Knowledge gives it the necessary competitiveness andhelps to control its costs. Fast reaction to changing conditions,opportunities and requirements gives remarkable advantage.Setting up integrated logistic chains using alternative transportmodes requires the trust and close interaction of a variety of actorsinvolved in managing the chain. Especially in the dynamicmobile environment, knowledge has so far not been effectivelyused. FREIGHTWISE tackles this complexity by developing aframework architecture anchored and validated in a range ofdemonstration cases involving commercial and public actors.This paper discusses the general FREIGHTWISE objectivesand its North-East Case, the Logistiikkainfo goods transportservice network information system to be implemented for theEstonian - Finnish transport chain.

  4. Nucleocytoplasmic Transport: A Paradigm for Molecular Logistics in Artificial Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujica, Suncica; Zelmer, Christina; Panatala, Radhakrishnan; Lim, Roderick Y H

    2016-01-01

    Artificial organelles, molecular factories and nanoreactors are membrane-bound systems envisaged to exhibit cell-like functionality. These constitute liposomes, polymersomes or hybrid lipo-polymersomes that display different membrane-spanning channels and/or enclose molecular modules. To achieve more complex functionality, an artificial organelle should ideally sustain a continuous influx of essential macromolecular modules (i.e. cargoes) and metabolites against an outflow of reaction products. This would benefit from the incorporation of selective nanopores as well as specific trafficking factors that facilitate cargo selectivity, translocation efficiency, and directionality. Towards this goal, we describe how proteinaceous cargoes are transported between the nucleus and cytoplasm by nuclear pore complexes and the biological trafficking machinery in living cells (i.e. nucleocytoplasmic transport). On this basis, we discuss how biomimetic control may be implemented to selectively import, compartmentalize and accumulate diverse macromolecular modules against concentration gradients in artificial organelles.

  5. Hidden symmetries enhance quantum transport in Light Harvesting systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zech, Tobias; Wellens, Thomas; Buchleitner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    For more than 50 years we have known that photosynthetic systems harvest solar energy with almost unit {\\it quantum efficiency}. However, recent experimental evidence of {\\it quantum coherence} during the excitonic energy transport in photosynthetic organisms challenges our understanding of this fundamental biological function. Currently, and despite numerous efforts, the causal connection between coherence and efficiency is still a matter of debate. We show, through the study of extensive simulations of quantum coherent transport on networks, that three dimensional structures characterized by centro-symmetric Hamiltonians are statistically more efficient than random arrangements. Moreover, we demonstrate that the experimental data available for the electronic Hamiltonians of the Fenna-Mathew-Olson (FMO) complex of sulfur bacteria and of the crypophyte PC645 complex of marine algae are consistent with this strong correlation of centro-symmetry with quantum efficiency. These results show that what appears to b...

  6. Characterization of ferric and ferrous iron transport systems in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyckoff, Elizabeth E; Mey, Alexandra R; Leimbach, Andreas; Fisher, Carolyn F; Payne, Shelley M

    2006-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae has multiple iron acquisition systems, including TonB-dependent transport of heme and of the catechol siderophore vibriobactin. Strains defective in both of these systems grow well in laboratory media and in the infant mouse intestine, indicating the presence of additional iron acquisition systems. Previously uncharacterized potential iron transport systems, including a homologue of the ferrous transporter Feo and a periplasmic binding protein-dependent ATP binding cassette (ABC) transport system, termed Fbp, were identified in the V. cholerae genome sequence. Clones encoding either the Feo or the Fbp system exhibited characteristics of iron transporters: both repressed the expression of lacZ cloned under the control of a Fur-regulated promoter in Escherichia coli and also conferred growth on a Shigella flexneri mutant that has a severe defect in iron transport. Two other ABC transporters were also evaluated but were negative by these assays. Transport of radioactive iron by the Feo system into the S. flexneri iron transport mutant was stimulated by the reducing agent ascorbate, consistent with Feo functioning as a ferrous transporter. Conversely, ascorbate inhibited transport by the Fbp system, suggesting that it transports ferric iron. The growth of V. cholerae strains carrying mutations in one or more of the potential iron transport genes indicated that both Feo and Fbp contribute to iron acquisition. However, a mutant defective in the vibriobactin, Fbp, and Feo systems was not attenuated in a suckling mouse model, suggesting that at least one other iron transport system can be used in vivo.

  7. Multi-Dimensional Geometric Complexity in Urban Transportation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Peiravian, Farideddin

    2015-01-01

    Transportation networks serve as windows into the complex world of urban systems. By properly characterizing a road network, we can therefore better understand its encompassing urban system. This study offers a geometrical approach towards capturing inherent properties of urban road networks. It offers a robust and efficient methodology towards defining and extracting three relevant indicators of road networks: area, line, and point thresholds, through measures of their grid equivalents. By applying the methodology to 50 U.S. urban systems, we successfully observe differences between eastern versus western, coastal versus inland, and old versus young, cities. Moreover, we show that many socio-economic characteristics as well as travel patterns within urban systems are directly correlated with their corresponding area, line, and point thresholds.

  8. The new control system of HLS linac and transport line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gong-Fa; LI Wei-Min; LI Jing-Yi; LI Chuan; CHEN Li-Ping; BAO Xun; WANG Ji-Gang; XUAN Ke

    2005-01-01

    The new linac and transport line control system of Hefei Light Source (HLS) is a distributed control system based on EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System). Industrial PC (IPC) is widely used as not only Input/Output Controller (IOC) but also device controller. Besides industrial PC, PLC and microcontroller are also used as device controllers. The software for industrial PC based device controller is developed based on VxWorks real-time operating system. The software for PLC and microcontroller are written with ladder software package and assemble language, respectively. PC with Linux and SUN workstation with Solaris are used as operator interfaces (OPI). High level control is made up of some EPICS tools and Tcl/Tk scripts.

  9. Radionuclide inventories for short run-time space nuclear reactor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Space Nuclear Reactor Systems, especially those used for propulsion, often have expected operation run times much shorter than those for land-based nuclear power plants. This produces substantially different radionuclide inventories to be considered in the safety analyses of space nuclear systems. This presentation describes an analysis utilizing ORIGEN2 and DKPOWER to provide comparisons among representative land-based and space systems. These comparisons enable early, conceptual considerations of safety issues and features in the preliminary design phases of operational systems, test facilities, and operations by identifying differences between the requirements for space systems and the established practice for land-based power systems. Early indications are that separation distance is much more effective as a safety measure for space nuclear systems than for power reactors because greater decay of the radionuclide activity occurs during the time to transport the inventory a given distance. In addition, the inventories of long-lived actinides are very low for space reactor systems.

  10. Integrated system for coal-methanol liquefaction and slurry pipeline transportation. Final report. [In slurry transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W.F.; Davidson, J.K.; Horton, J.H.; Summers, C.W.

    1980-03-31

    The engineering economics of an integrated coal-to-methanol conversion system and coal-in-methanol transportation system are examined, under the circumstances of the western coalfields, i.e., long distances from major markets and scarcity of water in the vicinity of the mines. The transportation economics are attractive, indicating tariffs of approximately 40 cents per million Btu per thousand miles for the coal-methanol pipeline vs 60 cents via coal-water pipelines and upwards of a dollar via rail. Energy consumption is also less in the coal-methanol pipeline than in the coal-water pipeline, and about equal to rail. It is also concluded that, by a proper marriage of the synthetic fuel (methanolization) plant to the slurrification plant, most, and in some cases all, of the water required by the synthetic fuel process can be supplied by the natural moisture of the coal itself. Thus, the only technology which presently exists and by which synthetic fuel from western coal can displace petroleum in the automotive fuel market is the integrated methanol conversion and tranportation system. The key element is the ability of the methanol slurry pipeline to accept and to deliver dry (1 to 5% moisture) coal, allowing the natural coal moisture to be used as synthesis feedstock in satisfaction of the large water requirement of any synthetic fuel plant. By virtue of these unique properties, this integrated system is seen as the only means in the foreseeable future whereby western coal can be converted to synthetic fuel and moved to distant markets.

  11. Towards a reference architecture for a collaborative intelligent transport system infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osório, A.L.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    The intelligent transport systems, which aim at providing smarter transport infrastructures and sustainable mobility, are deeply grounded on the Information and Communication Technologies. Current trends in the development of integrated complex systems, such as integrated road/highway concessions ma

  12. Modeling elements of energy systems for thermal energy transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shurygin A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Heating industrial facilities and the residential sector in recent years is the economic and technical challenge. It has been noted that the efficiency of the heat generating equipment depends not only on its sophistication, fuel type, but also on work of the distributing network taking into account the thermal, hydraulic losses, characteristics and modes of use of heating objects – buildings and technological processes. Possibility of supplying maximum heat flow from the heating system considering mismatch of highs and types of resources consumed from individual consumers should be provided by the right choice of energy equipment set, as well as bandwidth of transport systems and possibility of its regulation. It is important not just to configure the system to work effectively in the current mode (usually at the maximum load, but in the entire load range, as the calculated mode often takes a relatively small portion of the operating time. Thus, the efficiency of heating systems is largely determined by the method used for its control, including the possibility of regulating the main units and elements of the system. The paper considers the factors affecting the system efficiency. Mathematical models of the system elements allowing adjust the amount of released heat energy for consumers have been presented. Separately the mathematical model of the control system of electric drive vehicles used in the system has been considered and implemented.

  13. Hydrogen-fueled polymer electrolyte fuel cell systems for transportation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, R.; Doss, E.D.; Kumar, R.

    1998-10-19

    The performance of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) system that is fueled directly by hydrogen has been evaluated for transportation vehicles. The performance was simulated using a systems analysis code and a vehicle analysis code. The results indicate that, at the design point for a 50-kW PEFC system, the system efficiency is above 50%. The efficiency improves at partial load and approaches 60% at 40% load, as the fuel cell operating point moves to lower current densities on the voltage-current characteristic curve. At much lower loads, the system efficiency drops because of the deterioration in the performance of the compressor, expander, and, eventually, the fuel cell. The results also indicate that the PEFC system can start rapidly from ambient temperatures. Depending on the specific weight of the fuel cell (1.6 kg/kW in this case), the system takes up to 180s to reach its design operating conditions. The PEFC system has been evaluated for three mid-size vehicles: the 1995 Chrysler Sedan, the near-term Ford AIV (Aluminum Intensive Vehicle) Sable, and the future P2000 vehicle. The results show that the PEFC system can meet the demands of the Federal Urban Driving Schedule and the Highway driving cycles, for both warm and cold start-up conditions. The results also indicate that the P2000 vehicle can meet the fuel economy goal of 80 miles per gallon of gasoline (equivalent).

  14. An Interactive Energy System with Grid, Heating and Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz de Cerio Mendaza, Iker

    is required. The models developed in this thesis include different features (thermal, mechanical, chemical…) which are not normally considered in the traditional power system modelling. In this sense, they are intended to serve as a reference for the new researchers starting in the field. Moreover, the grid......: thermostatic loads (electric water heaters and heat pumps), loads for hydrogen generation (alkaline electrolyzers) and load for electric mobility (plug-in and vehicle-to-grid concepts). Many of these are considered domestic loads and they fulfill certain need to the household they belong. Depending on the user...... requirements, these may perform a different power consumption patterns. In this context, the thermal comfort or mobility needs from Danish users are statistically analyzed. The outcome is used to generate random profiles that define the different thermal and mobility requirements from the users of a network...

  15. Overview of Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System PHITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji; Matsuda, Norihiro; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Furuta, Takuya; Noda, Shusaku; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Iwase, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Fukahori, Tokio; Okumura, Keisuke; Kai, Tetsuya; Chiba, Satoshi; Sihver, Lembit

    2014-06-01

    A general purpose Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS, is being developed through the collaboration of several institutes in Japan and Europe. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency is responsible for managing the entire project. PHITS can deal with the transport of nearly all particles, including neutrons, protons, heavy ions, photons, and electrons, over wide energy ranges using various nuclear reaction models and data libraries. It is written in Fortran language and can be executed on almost all computers. All components of PHITS such as its source, executable and data-library files are assembled in one package and then distributed to many countries via the Research organization for Information Science and Technology, the Data Bank of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's Nuclear Energy Agency, and the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center. More than 1,000 researchers have been registered as PHITS users, and they apply the code to various research and development fields such as nuclear technology, accelerator design, medical physics, and cosmic-ray research. This paper briefly summarizes the physics models implemented in PHITS, and introduces some important functions useful for specific applications, such as an event generator mode and beam transport functions.

  16. Geometric feasibility of flexible cask transportation system for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, P.; Ribeiro, M.I.; Aparicio, P. [Instituto Superior Tecnico-Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica, Lisboa (Portugal)

    1998-07-01

    One of the remote operations that has to be carried out in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is the transportation of sealed casks between the various ports of the Tokamak Building (TB) and the Hot Cell Building (HCB). The casks may contain different in-vessel components (e.g. blanket modules, divertors) and are designed for a maximum load of about 80 ton. To improve the safety and flexibility of ITER Remote Handling (RH) transport vehicles, the cask is not motorized by itself, but instead, a motorized platform carrying the cask was proposed. This paper addresses the geometric feasibility of the flexible cask transportation system, taking into account the vehicle kinematics. The feasibility issues studied include planning smooth paths to increase safety, the discussion of building constraints by the evaluation of the vehicle spanned areas when following a planned path, and the analysis of the clearance required to remove the platform from underneath the cask at different possible failure locations. Simulation results are presented for the recommended trajectory, the spanned area and the rescue manoeuvres at critical locations along the path. (authors)

  17. Flow Transport in Microtubes Inspired by Insect Respiratory Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboelkaasem, Yasser; Staples, Anne

    2010-11-01

    The mechanics of insect respiration and tracheal ventilation generally follow either highly discontinuous, or cyclic gas exchange patterns. In the former, gases are exchanged by diffusion, while in the latter, recent imaging of internal respiratory flow dynamics in insects performed at the x-ray synchrotron imaging facility at Argonne indicates that convective gas exchange is accomplished by changes in internal pressure due to rhythmic compressions of the tracheal tubes that comprise the respiratory network. These localized tracheal compressions are induced by global body movements and are used to enhance the oxygen transport to the tissue. Inspired by the dynamics of insect respiratory networks in the cyclic gas exchange regime, we study fluid transport in a mixed rigid/elastic microtube that undergoes localized single and multiple periodic collapses. The latter induces a streaming of flows and therefore enhances convection and flow transport in the tube downstream of the collapse site. The shape of the microtube, the material properties, and the compression and reinflation spatial and temporal profiles are selected to mimic those observed in insect tracheal tubes. A low Reynolds number assumption and lubrication theory are used to develop a mathematical model for the system. The effects of tube shape, collapse amplitude, collapse-to-collapse distance, and collapse phase lags on the net flow rate, pressure gradient, wall shear stress, velocity are investigated.

  18. Electrical transport in ethyl cellulose–chloranil system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Khare; R K Pandey; P L Jain

    2000-08-01

    The charge-transport behaviour in pure and chloranil (Chl) doped ethyl cellulose (EC) system has been studied by measuring the dependence of current on field, temperature, electrode material and dopant concentration. The role of doping molecular concentration in the polymer matrix and modification in the conduction characteristics are studied. Lowering of the activation energy due to doping was observed. The current was found to increase with an increase in the chloranil concentration. An explanation for this has been attempted on the basis of formation of molecular aggregates between chloranil molecules and ethoxy groups of ethyl cellulose. It is suggested that chloranil occupies interstitial positions between the polymer chains and assists in carrier transportation by reducing the hopping barriers. The current–voltage characteristics of different samples are analyzed using space charge limited current theory and quantitative information about the transport parameters is derived. The values of effective drift mobility and trapped charge carrier concentration which result in the build up of space charge have been calculated.

  19. Transport diffusion in one dimensional molecular systems: Power law and validity of Fick's law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-cheng; Zheng, Dong-qin; Ai, Bao-quan; Hu, Bambi; Zhong, Wei-rong

    2015-10-01

    The transport diffusion in one-dimensional molecular systems is investigated through non-equilibrium molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo methods. We have proposed the power law relationship of the transport diffusion coefficient with the temperature, the mass and the transport length, D* ∝ T*m*-1L*β, where β equals to 0.8 for small systems and zero for large systems. It is found that Fick's law is valid in long transport length but invalid in short transport length. Our results can provide a new perspective for understanding the microscopic mechanism of the molecular transport phenomena in low-dimensional systems.

  20. Enbridge system : crude types, transportation and handling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, A. [Enbridge Corp., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The supply of crude oil from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin is expected to increase by approximately 2.1 million barrels per day by 2015. The crudes that Enbridge handles range from 19 API to 40 API and 0.1 per cent sulphur to 4.7 per cent sulphur. The diverse supply of crude oil that the Enbridge system handles includes conventional heavy, synthetic heavy, heavy high tan, heavy low residual, medium, light sour, heavy sour, light sweet, light sweet synthetic, condensate and olefinic crudes. This presentation discussed Enbridge's plans for infrastructure expansion, crude types and quality assurance program. The company's infrastructure plans include the expansion of regional pipelines to bring more supplies to the mainline; expansion of the mainline capacity to existing markets; and providing pipeline access to new markets. Merchant storage terminals will be provided in some locations. The quality of various crude types will be maintained through judicious sequencing and tank bottoms crossings. tabs., figs.

  1. Universal bursty behavior in the air transportation system

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Hidetaka

    2015-01-01

    Social activities display bursty behavior characterized by heavy-tailed inter-event time distributions. We examine the bursty behavior of airplanes' arrivals in hub airports. The analysis indicates that the air transportation system universally follows a power-law inter-arrival time distribution with an exponent $\\alpha=2.5$ and an exponential cutoff. Moreover, we investigate the mechanism of this bursty behavior by introducing a simple model to describe it. In addition, we compare the extent of the hub-and-spoke structure and the burstiness of various airline networks in the system. Remarkably, the results suggest that the hub-and-spoke network of the system and the carriers' strategy to facilitate transit are the origins of this universality.

  2. Fano interference governs wave transport in disordered systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddubny, Alexander N; Rybin, Mikhail V; Limonov, Mikhail F; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2012-06-26

    Light localization in disordered systems and Bragg scattering in regular periodic structures are considered traditionally as two entirely opposite phenomena: disorder leads to degradation of coherent Bragg scattering whereas Anderson localization is suppressed by periodicity. Here we reveal a non-trivial link between these two phenomena, through the Fano interference between Bragg scattering and disorder-induced scattering, that triggers both localization and de-localization in random systems. We find unexpected transmission enhancement and spectrum inversion when the Bragg stop-bands are transformed into the Bragg pass-bands solely owing to disorder. Fano resonances are always associated with coherent scattering in regular systems, but our discovery of disorder-induced Fano resonances may provide novel insights into many features of the transport phenomena of photons, phonons, and electrons. Owning to ergodicity, the Fano resonance is a fingerprint feature for any realization of the structure with a certain degree of disorder.

  3. Molecular physiology of vesicular glutamate transporters in the digestive system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Li; Fayez K. Ghishan; Liqun Bai

    2005-01-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Packaging and storage of glutamate into glutamatergic neuronal vesicles require ATP-dependent vesicular glutamate uptake systems, which utilize the electrochemical proton gradient as a driving force. Three vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1-3) have been recently identified from neuronal tissue where they play a key role to maintain the vesicular glutamate level. Recently, it has been demonstrated that glutamate signaling is also functional in peripheral neuronal and non-neuronal tissues, and occurs in sites of pituitary, adrenal, pineal glands, bone, GI tract, pancreas,skin, and testis. The glutamate receptors and VGLUTs in digestivesystem have been found in both neuronal and endocrinal cells. The glutamate signaling in the digestive system may have significant relevance to diabetes and GI tract motility disorders. This review will focus on the most recent update of molecular physiology of digestive VGLUTs.

  4. Intelligent transportation systems dependable vehicular communications for improved road safety

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Joaquim; Fonseca, José

    2016-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge work on the most challenging research issues concerning intelligent transportation systems (ITS), introducing selected, highly relevant advanced research on scheduling and real-time communication for vehicular networks, as well as fault tolerance, test beds and simulations for ITS. The authors define new architectures that support cooperative sensing in ITS and offer guidance for the development of a reference end-to-end implementation. The presented results allow advanced traffic and travel management strategies to be formulated on the basis of reliable and real-time input data. The effectiveness of these new strategies, together with the proposed systems, is assessed in field trials and via simulations. The chapters in this book detail new research findings, algorithms, protocols, and the development of an implementation platform for ITS that merges and integrates heterogeneous data sources into a common system. In addition, they provide a set of advanced tools for the contro...

  5. Accessibility of a Destination-Based Transportation System: A Large Airport Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Jing; YING Xiwen

    2008-01-01

    The accessibility of a destination-based transportation system is defined to quantify the perform-ance of transportation systems which access a distinct destination. The access cost is used to reflect the utility of the transportation system including the fatigue and inconvenience in the total cost. The cost is quan-tified by two coefficients which represent the different characteristics of various people. The average cost and the income-relative accessibility are used to describe various aspects of the accessibility and to evaluate the accessibility of a destination-based system. A case study uses data from the Kunming transpor-tation system to evaluate the accessibility of the present city airport. The calibrated coefficients are then used to evaluate the transportation system to the new Kunming international airport. The results show that this transportation accessibility evaluation can be combined with transportation planning to study transporta-tion sub-systems.

  6. Applicability of the SCALE code system to MOX fuel transport systems for criticality safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Naito, Yoshitaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hayashi, Toshiaki; Takasugi, Masahiro; Natsume, Toshihiro; Tsuda, Kazuaki

    1996-11-01

    In order to ascertain feasibilities of the SCALE code system for MOX fuel transport systems, criticality analyses were performed for MOX fuel (Pu enrichment; 3.0 wt.%) criticality experiments at JAERI`s TCA and for infinite fuel rod arrays as parameters of Pu enrichment and lattice pitch. The comparison with a combination of the continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP and JENDL-3.2 indicated that the SCALE code system with GAM-THERMOS 123-group library can produce feasible results. Though HANSEN-ROACH 16-group library gives poorer results for MOS fuel transport systems, the errors are conservative except for high enriched fuels. (author)

  7. Socio-Economic Impact Assessment of Intelligent Transport Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUAN Zhicai; WU Jianping; Mike McDonald

    2006-01-01

    A general review of the socio-economic impact of the intelligent transport system (ITS) is presented with a case study to demonstrate the data envelopment analysis method. Cost-benefit analyses are still the dominant method for evaluating ITS and other transport engineering projects, while cost effective analyses and multi-criteria appraisals are widely used to define and prioritize objectives by providing useful information for the most promising policy decisions. Both cost-benefit analyses and a data envelopment analysis method are applied to analyze the socio-economic impact of convoy driving systems. The main findings are that a convoy provides a worthwhile benefit-cost ratio when more than 30% of the traffics in the convoys and the traffic load exceeds 5500 vehicles/h for a three-lane motorway. The results also show that for a fixed percentage of convoys, increased demand will increase the data envelopment analysis method relative efficiency and that the neglect of certain output indicators of an ITS may result in underestimation of the system effects.

  8. New magnet transport system for the LHC beam transfer lines

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system (pictured here in one of the tunnels) is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. The lead vehicle is powered by an electric rail set into the roof of the tunnel. The system is backed up by electrical batteries that enable it to operate in the absence of an outside power source or in the event of power failure. Last but not least, for the long-distance transport of magnets, it can be optically guided by a line traced on the tunnel floor. The convoy moves through the particularly narr...

  9. Modelling contaminant transport for pumping wells in riverbank filtration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Shaymaa; Bahar, Arifah; Aziz, Zainal Abdul; Suratman, Saim

    2016-01-01

    Analytical study of the influence of both the pumping well discharge rate and pumping time on contaminant transport and attenuation is significant for hydrological and environmental science applications. This article provides an analytical solution for investigating the influence of both pumping time and travelling time together for one-dimensional contaminant transport in riverbank filtration systems by using the Green's function approach. The basic aim of the model is to understand how the pumping time and pumping rate, which control the travelling time, can affect the contaminant concentration in riverbank filtration systems. Results of analytical solutions are compared with the results obtained using a MODFLOW numerical model. Graphically, it is found that both analytical and numerical solutions have almost the same behaviour. Additionally, the graphs indicate that any increase in the pumping rate or simulation pumping time should increase the contamination in groundwater. The results from the proposed analytical model are well matched with the data collected from a riverbank filtration site in France. After this validation, the model is then applied to the first pilot project of a riverbank filtration system conducted in Malaysia. Sensitivity analysis results highlight the importance of degradation rates of contaminants on groundwater quality, for which higher utilization rates lead to the faster consumption of pollutants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fault tolerant computer control for a Maglev transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Nagle, Gail A.; Anagnostopoulos, George

    1994-01-01

    Magnetically levitated (Maglev) vehicles operating on dedicated guideways at speeds of 500 km/hr are an emerging transportation alternative to short-haul air and high-speed rail. They have the potential to offer a service significantly more dependable than air and with less operating cost than both air and high-speed rail. Maglev transportation derives these benefits by using magnetic forces to suspend a vehicle 8 to 200 mm above the guideway. Magnetic forces are also used for propulsion and guidance. The combination of high speed, short headways, stringent ride quality requirements, and a distributed offboard propulsion system necessitates high levels of automation for the Maglev control and operation. Very high levels of safety and availability will be required for the Maglev control system. This paper describes the mission scenario, functional requirements, and dependability and performance requirements of the Maglev command, control, and communications system. A distributed hierarchical architecture consisting of vehicle on-board computers, wayside zone computers, a central computer facility, and communication links between these entities was synthesized to meet the functional and dependability requirements on the maglev. Two variations of the basic architecture are described: the Smart Vehicle Architecture (SVA) and the Zone Control Architecture (ZCA). Preliminary dependability modeling results are also presented.

  11. 75 FR 13643 - ITS Joint Program Office; Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... ITS Joint Program Office; Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice of... (FACA) (Pub. L. 72-363; 5 U.S.C. app. 2), a meeting of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS... implementation of intelligent transportation systems. Through its sponsor, the ITS Joint Program Office...

  12. Effect of Burstiness on the Air Transportation System

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Hidetaka

    2016-01-01

    The effect of burstiness in complex networks has received considerable attention. In particular, its effect on temporal distance and delays in the air transportation system is significant owing to their huge impact on our society. Therefore, in this paper, we propose two indexes of temporal distance based on passengers' behavior and analyze the effect. As a result, we find that burstiness shortens the temporal distance while delays are increased. Moreover, we discover that the positive effect of burstiness is lost when flight schedules get overcrowded.

  13. Approach to an Affordable and Sustainable Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Caey M.; Rhodes, R. E.; Robinson, J. W.; Henderson, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach and a general procedure for creating space transportation architectural concepts that are at once affordable and sustainable. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on a functional system breakdown structure for an architecture and definition of high-payoff design techniques with a technology integration strategy. This paper follows up by using a structured process that derives architectural solutions focused on achieving life cycle affordability and sustainability. Further, the paper includes an example concept that integrates key design techniques discussed in previous papers. !

  14. Maintenance of transport pipeline systems; Instandhaltung von Transportleitungssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorge, Hans-Christian; Christen, Thomas; Maelzer, Hans-Joachim [IWW Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wasser, Regionalstandort Rhein-Main, Bibesheim am Rhein (Germany). Bereich Wassernetze; Kappler, Kathrein [Hessenwasser GmbH und Co. KG, Gross-Gerau (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    The authors of the contribution under consideration describe a multi-criteria approach for the evaluation the timing and location of appropriate maintenance measures as part of a maintenance strategy for long-distance water pipelines and taking into account technical and economic risks. The innovative core consists of a powerful combination for the lifetime prediction, static component calculation, condition assessment and detailed cost analysis. The approach described here provides a detailed risk assessment of any number of line segments. For operators of transport systems, the required maintenance measures are identified and together with the associated costs compiled in an action plan.

  15. Aerothermodynamic challenges of the Saenger space-transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschel, E. H.

    1991-09-01

    The two-stage-to-orbit Saenger space transportation system is the reference concept of the German hypersonics technology program. The technology development concentrates first on the needs of the lower stage. Its requirements on aerothermodynamics and propulsion integration are sketched. The aerothermodynamic design challenge is discussed and the design tools and the design methodology are reviewed. The calibration of both the computational and the experimental methods, as well as the test of vehicle components like the inlet, control surfaces etc., make the Hypersonic Technology Experimental vehicle (HYTEX) mandatory. Contents and workplan of the technology program 'aerothermodynamics and propulsion integration' are laid out. Selected results from the current work are presented.

  16. A geometric approach for radiation transport inside complex systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumeron, S. [Groupe de Recherche en Ingenierie des Procedes et Systemes, Departement des Sciences Appliquees, Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555 Boulevard de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada)]. E-mail: sebastien_fumeron@uqac.ca

    2006-09-04

    The aim of this Letter is to extend the phenomenological theory of radiation transfer to complex systems. For elastic or electromagnetic waves, one presents a geometrization of matter based on relativistic gravitation models. In this approach, particles experience material media as curved spacetimes, which locally affect the energetic processes. The general form of Clausius invariant is calculated and the curved radiative transfer equation is derived. An application to phonon transport in solids shows that the presence of a defect can amplify the elastic energy carried in particular directions of propagation.

  17. Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.L. Hardin

    2000-07-17

    The Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is one of nine PMRs supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) being developed by the Yucca Mountain Project for the Site Recommendation Report (SRR). The EBS PMR summarizes the development and abstraction of models for processes that govern the evolution of conditions within the emplacement drifts of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Details of these individual models are documented in 23 supporting Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs). Nineteen of these AMRs are for process models, and the remaining 4 describe the abstraction of results for application in TSPA. The process models themselves cluster around four major topics: ''Water Distribution and Removal Model, Physical and Chemical Environment Model, Radionuclide Transport Model, and Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model''. One AMR (Engineered Barrier System-Features, Events, and Processes/Degradation Modes Analysis) summarizes the formal screening analysis used to select the Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) included in TSPA and those excluded from further consideration. Performance of a potential Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository depends on both the natural barrier system (NBS) and the engineered barrier system (EBS) and on their interactions. Although the waste packages are generally considered as components of the EBS, the EBS as defined in the EBS PMR includes all engineered components outside the waste packages. The principal function of the EBS is to complement the geologic system in limiting the amount of water contacting nuclear waste. A number of alternatives were considered by the Project for different EBS designs that could provide better performance than the design analyzed for the Viability Assessment. The design concept selected was Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II).

  18. Space Transportation System Availability Requirements and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russell E.; Adams, Timothy C.; McCleskey, Carey M.

    2008-01-01

    It is important that engineering and management accept the need for an availability requirement that is derived with its influencing attributes. It is the intent of this paper to provide the visibility of relationships of these major attribute drivers (variables) to each other and the resultant system inherent availability. Also important to provide bounds of the variables providing engineering the insight required to control the system's engineering solution, e.g., these influencing attributes become design requirements also. These variables will drive the need to provide integration of similar discipline functions or technology selection to allow control of the total parts count. The relationship of selecting a reliability requirement will place a constraint on parts count to achieve a given availability requirement or if allowed to increase the parts count will drive the system reliability requirement higher. They also provide the understanding for the relationship of mean repair time (or mean down time) to maintainability, e.g., accessibility for repair, and both the mean time between failure, e.g., reliability of hardware and availability. The concerns and importance of achieving a strong availability requirement is driven by the need for affordability, the choice of using the two launch solution for the single space application, or the need to control the spare parts count needed to support the long stay in either orbit or on the surface of the moon. Understanding the requirements before starting the architectural design concept will avoid considerable time and money required to iterate the design to meet the redesign and assessment process required to achieve the results required of the customer's space transportation system. In fact the impact to the schedule to being able to deliver the system that meets the customer's needs, goals, and objectives may cause the customer to compromise his desired operational goal and objectives resulting in considerable

  19. Space Transportation System Availability Requirement and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russell E.; Adams, Timothy C.; McCleskey, Carey M.

    2008-01-01

    It is important that engineering and management accept the need for an availability requirement that is derived with its influencing attributes. It is the intent of this paper to provide the visibility of relationships of these major attribute drivers (variables) to each other and the resultant system inherent availability. Also important to provide bounds of the variables providing engineering the insight required to control the system's engineering solution, e.g., these influencing attributes become design requirements also. These variables will drive the need to provide integration of similar discipline functions or technology selection to allow control of the total parts count. The relationship of selecting a reliability requirement will place a constraint on parts count to achieve a given availability requirement or if allowed to increase the parts count will drive the system reliability requirement higher. They also provide the understanding for the relationship of mean repair time (or mean down time) to maintainability, e.g., accessibility for repair, and both the mean time between failure, e.g., reliability of hardware and availability. The concerns and importance of achieving a strong availability requirement is driven by the need for affordability, the choice of using the two launch solution for the single space application, or the need to control the spare parts count needed to support the long stay in either orbit or on the surface of the moon. Understanding the requirements before starting the architectural design concept will avoid considerable time and money required to iterate the design to meet the redesign and assessment process required to achieve the results required of the customer's space transportation system. In fact the impact to the schedule to being able to deliver the system that meets the customer's needs, goals, and objectives may cause the customer to compromise his desired operational goal and objectives resulting in considerable

  20. Thermal barrier coatings issues in advanced land-based gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, William P.; Hoffman, Eugene E.; Lee, Woo Y.; Wright, Ian G.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program is aimed at fostering the development of a new generation of land-based gas turbine systems with overall efficiencies significantly beyond those of current state-of-the-art machines, as well as greatly increased times between inspection and refurbishment, improved environmental impact, and decreased cost. The proposed duty cycle of ATS machines will emphasize different criteria in the selection of materials for the critical components. In particular, thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) will be an essential feature of the hot gas path components in these machines. In fact, the goals of the ATS will require significant improvements in TBC technology, since these turbines will be totally reliant on TBC's, which will be required to function on critical components such as the first stage vanes and blades for times considerably in excess of those experienced in current applications. Issues that assume increased importance are the mechanical and chemical stability of the ceramic layer and of the metallic bond coat; the thermal expansion characteristics and compliance of the ceramic layer; and the thermal conductivity across the thickness of the ceramic layer. Obviously, the ATS program provides a very challenging opportunity for TBC's, and involves some significant opportunities to extend this technology. A significant TBC development effort is planned in the ATS program which will address these key issues.

  1. Space Transportation System Availability Requirements and Its Influencing Attributes Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Russel E.; Adams, TImothy C.

    2008-01-01

    It is essential that management and engineering understand the need for an availability requirement for the customer's space transportation system as it enables the meeting of his needs, goal, and objectives. There are three types of availability, e.g., operational availability, achieved availability, or inherent availability. The basic definition of availability is equal to the mean uptime divided by the sum of the mean uptime plus the mean downtime. The major difference is the inclusiveness of the functions within the mean downtime and the mean uptime. This paper will address tIe inherent availability which only addresses the mean downtime as that mean time to repair or the time to determine the failed article, remove it, install a replacement article and verify the functionality of the repaired system. The definitions of operational availability include the replacement hardware supply or maintenance delays and other non-design factors in the mean downtime. Also with inherent availability the mean uptime will only consider the mean time between failures (other availability definitions consider this as mean time between maintenance - preventive and corrective maintenance) that requires the repair of the system to be functional. It is also essential that management and engineering understand all influencing attributes relationships to each other and to the resultant inherent availability requirement. This visibility will provide the decision makers with the understanding necessary to place constraints on the design definition for the major drivers that will determine the inherent availability, safety, reliability, maintainability, and the life cycle cost of the fielded system provided the customer. This inherent availability requirement may be driven by the need to use a multiple launch approach to placing humans on the moon or the desire to control the number of spare parts required to support long stays in either orbit or on the surface of the moon or mars. It is

  2. Transport of methylmercury—cysteine conjugate by system L—tpye amino acid transporters and its transportermediated toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KanaY; KimDK

    2002-01-01

    Methylmercury(MeHg) is widely known for its potent neurotoxicity and the causal substance of Minamata disease.Since the conjugates of MeHg with thiol compounds are easily formed in vivo,the metabolism and transport of glutathione,cysteine and their derivatives are important determinants of tissue distribution and elimination of MeHg.It has been proposed that the amino acid transport system L,which transports large neutral amino acids,is one of the major routes for MeHg mobilization.We have identified two isoforms of system L amino acid transporters:L-type amino acid transkporter-1(LAT1) and LAT2 and found that they transport MeHg as a cysteine-conjugate (MeHg-Cys).We have further found that a classical system L inhibitor BCH[2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid] rescued T24 human bladder carcinoma cells expressing LAT1 form the toxicity of MeHg-Cysl.We concluded that the cytotoxicity of MeHg is mediated by system L transporters.The fact that BCH reduced the toxicity of MeHg-Cys suggests that the high-affinity inhibitors of system L transporters could be a new rationable to avoid MeHg-toxicity.

  3. Improvement Possibilities of City Transportation System by Using PINAVIA Interchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aušrius Juozapavičius

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The article analyzes transportation system problems of a common city by taking an example of Vilnius city and reveals drawbacks of street infrastructure and traffic organization which are responsible for traffic congestion and its consequences in many cities including Vilnius. A new high capacity Pinavia road interchange is presented. Mathematical model of the new interchange is described enabling transport specialists to optimize and adapt it to a given location. Unique features of the new Pinavia interchange are used to develop an improvement strategy of a city transportation system.

  4. A state-of-the-art review of transportation systems evaluation techniques relevant to air transportation, volume 1. [urban planning and urban transportation using decision theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    Mathematical and philosophical approaches are presented for evaluation and implementation of ground and air transportation systems. Basic decision processes are examined that are used for cost analyses and planning (i.e, statistical decision theory, linear and dynamic programming, optimization, game theory). The effects on the environment and the community that a transportation system may have are discussed and modelled. Algorithmic structures are examined and selected bibliographic annotations are included. Transportation dynamic models were developed. Citizen participation in transportation projects (i.e, in Maryland and Massachusetts) is discussed. The relevance of the modelling and evaluation approaches to air transportation (i.e, airport planning) is examined in a case study in St. Louis, Missouri.

  5. Analysis of Intelligent Transportation Systems Using Model-Driven Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fernández-Isabel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSs integrate information, sensor, control, and communication technologies to provide transport related services. Their users range from everyday commuters to policy makers and urban planners. Given the complexity of these systems and their environment, their study in real settings is frequently unfeasible. Simulations help to address this problem, but present their own issues: there can be unintended mistakes in the transition from models to code; their platforms frequently bias modeling; and it is difficult to compare works that use different models and tools. In order to overcome these problems, this paper proposes a framework for a model-driven development of these simulations. It is based on a specific modeling language that supports the integrated specification of the multiple facets of an ITS: people, their vehicles, and the external environment; and a network of sensors and actuators conveniently arranged and distributed that operates over them. The framework works with a model editor to generate specifications compliant with that language, and a code generator to produce code from them using platform specifications. There are also guidelines to help researchers in the application of this infrastructure. A case study on advanced management of traffic lights with cameras illustrates its use.

  6. Analysis of Intelligent Transportation Systems Using Model-Driven Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Isabel, Alberto; Fuentes-Fernández, Rubén

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSs) integrate information, sensor, control, and communication technologies to provide transport related services. Their users range from everyday commuters to policy makers and urban planners. Given the complexity of these systems and their environment, their study in real settings is frequently unfeasible. Simulations help to address this problem, but present their own issues: there can be unintended mistakes in the transition from models to code; their platforms frequently bias modeling; and it is difficult to compare works that use different models and tools. In order to overcome these problems, this paper proposes a framework for a model-driven development of these simulations. It is based on a specific modeling language that supports the integrated specification of the multiple facets of an ITS: people, their vehicles, and the external environment; and a network of sensors and actuators conveniently arranged and distributed that operates over them. The framework works with a model editor to generate specifications compliant with that language, and a code generator to produce code from them using platform specifications. There are also guidelines to help researchers in the application of this infrastructure. A case study on advanced management of traffic lights with cameras illustrates its use. PMID:26083232

  7. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system safety analysis report for packaging. Volumes 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, P.C.

    1996-04-18

    This SARP describes the RTG Transportation System Package, a Type B(U) packaging system that is used to transport an RTG or similar payload. The payload, which is included in this SARP, is a generic, enveloping payload that specifically encompasses the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) RTG payload. The package consists of two independent containment systems mounted on a shock isolation transport skid and transported within an exclusive-use trailer.

  8. TRACKING VEHICLE IN GSM NETWORK TO SUPPORT INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Koppanyi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The penetration of GSM capable devices is very high, especially in Europe. To exploit the potential of turning these mobile devices into dynamic data acquisition nodes that provides valuable data for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS, position information is needed. The paper describes the basic operation principles of the GSM system and provides an overview on the existing methods for deriving location data in the network. A novel positioning solution is presented that rely on handover (HO zone measurements; the zone geometry properties are also discussed. A new concept of HO zone sequence recognition is introduced that involves application of Probabilistic Deterministic Finite State Automata (PDFA. Both the potential commercial applications and the use of the derived position data in ITS is discussed for tracking vehicles and monitoring traffic flow. As a practical cutting edge example, the integration possibility of the technology in the SafeTRIP platform (developed in an EC FP7 project is presented.

  9. Tracking Vehicle in GSM Network to Support Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppanyi, Z.; Lovas, T.; Barsi, A.; Demeter, H.; Beeharee, A.; Berenyi, A.

    2012-07-01

    The penetration of GSM capable devices is very high, especially in Europe. To exploit the potential of turning these mobile devices into dynamic data acquisition nodes that provides valuable data for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), position information is needed. The paper describes the basic operation principles of the GSM system and provides an overview on the existing methods for deriving location data in the network. A novel positioning solution is presented that rely on handover (HO) zone measurements; the zone geometry properties are also discussed. A new concept of HO zone sequence recognition is introduced that involves application of Probabilistic Deterministic Finite State Automata (PDFA). Both the potential commercial applications and the use of the derived position data in ITS is discussed for tracking vehicles and monitoring traffic flow. As a practical cutting edge example, the integration possibility of the technology in the SafeTRIP platform (developed in an EC FP7 project) is presented.

  10. Coherence transport through imperfect x-ray optical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, K; Tran, C; Roberts, A

    2003-09-22

    The latest generation of synchrotron sources, so-called third generation sources, are able to produce copious amounts of coherent radiation. However it has become evident that the experimental systems that have been developed are unable to fully utilize the coherent flux. This has led to a perception that coherence is lost while the radiation is transported down the beamline. However it is well established that the degree of coherence must be preserved, or increased, by an experimental system, and so this apparent "decoherence" must have its origin in the nature of the measurement process. In this paper we use phase space methods to present an argument that the loss of useful coherent flux can be attributed to unresolved speckle in the x-ray beam.

  11. Speed of Last Vehicle Feedback Strategy in Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bokui; Chen, Mengsu; Zhang, Ziling; Xie, Yanbo; Wang, Binghong

    Traffic jam has become a big problem in the development of economy. How to effectively improve the road capacity is becoming the key problem in the research of traffic flow. As the core part of the next generation intelligent transportation systems, the feedback strategy has attracted much attention. In recent years, researchers have proposed many effective strategies. In this paper, a strategy called speed of last vehicle feedback strategy is introduced, and simulated in a two-route scenario with one exit. Result shows that compared with other strategies, this strategy has certain advantages on average flux — a criteria describing traffic capacity of traffic systems. More importantly, the implementation of this strategy is very simple.

  12. RIG-A New Management Information System for Railway Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Bo Wang; Da-Ke He; Yan Xu

    2009-01-01

    A grid technology together with data warehouse and mediator is used to develop the railway transport management information system (TMIS), which is aiming at managing and publishing all kinds of enterprise resources among dynamic collections of such information systems with heterogeneous architectures and distributed in geography within Chinese Ministry of Railway. As one logical information integration framework and a uniform interface for accessing resources, a prototype named railway information grid (RIG) is proposed. Its main modules and the key technologies, together with its feasibility, are discussed in detail. RIG can not only provide the integral information service and the interoperability of information at the application level, but also bring us such benefits as: easy use, high efficiency, and reasonable total cost of ownership.

  13. Proposal of Permanent Magnet Repulsive Maglev Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Shin-Ichi

    This paper describes a maglev transportation system for automobile. The track is an array of permanent magnet blocks, and the levitating body is the bedplate which consists of permanent magnet plates, propulsion coils, levitation coils and guidance coils. The feature of this system is that the automobile equipped with the bedplate is free to approach into the track or to swerve from the track by using four wheels with the lift. The force acting on the levitating body is calculated on the assumption that each permanent magnet can be expressed as a surface current. From the calculation results, it is proven that the automobile of 4.35m length, 1.8m width and 1700kg weight can run at speed of 500km/h against the air resistance force of 3704N on the condition that the battery has an output of 337.5V and a capacity of 190Ah.

  14. Mathematical structure of ocean container transport systems; Kaiyo container yuso system no suriteki kozo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinkai, A. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Chikushi, Y. [Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Mathematical structure of a vessel arrangement program was discussed in order to learn roles of container ships in ocean transport systems among China, NIES/ASEAN countries and Japan. Formulation is possible on a mathematical handling method for sailing route connection diagrams between ports, a transport network to indicate container movements, a service network to indicate sailing routes, and a network generalizing them. This paper describes an analysis made on the container transport system between Japan and China, taken as an example. Four ports were selected each from Japan and China, and the statistical database for fiscals 1996 and 1994 was utilized to set models for: (a) the liner network system with transshipment at the port of Shanghai and (b) the cruising route system going through the ports of Yokohama, Nagoya and Kobe. A hypothesis was set that a consortium (coordinated ship allocation) can be implemented ideally and completely. The transport network (a) is lower by 10% in total cost than the transport network (b), resulting in 1.6 times greater productivity. Actual service network is closer to the network (b), but the system can be utilized for discussing guidelines on vessel arrangement programs with which shipping companies pursue better management efficiency under a condition that the consortium can be formed. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Nuclear thermal propulsion transportation systems for lunar/Mars exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John S.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Mcilwain, Melvin C.; Pellaccio, Dennis G.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion technology development is underway at NASA and DoE for Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to Mars, with initial near-earth flights to validate flight readiness. Several reactor concepts are being considered for these missions, and important selection criteria will be evaluated before final selection of a system. These criteria include: safety and reliability, technical risk, cost, and performance, in that order. Of the concepts evaluated to date, the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications (NERVA) derivative (NDR) is the only concept that has demonstrated full power, life, and performance in actual reactor tests. Other concepts will require significant design work and must demonstrate proof-of-concept. Technical risk, and hence, development cost should therefore be lowest for the concept, and the NDR concept is currently being considered for the initial SEI missions. As lighter weight, higher performance systems are developed and validated, including appropriate safety and astronaut-rating requirements, they will be considered to support future SEI application. A space transportation system using a modular nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) system for lunar and Mars missions is expected to result in significant life cycle cost savings. Finally, several key issues remain for NTR's, including public acceptance and operational issues. Nonetheless, NTR's are believed to be the 'next generation' of space propulsion systems - the key to space exploration.

  16. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) color displays software description microprocessor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Plyler, Valerie E.; Dickson, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the software created for the Sperry Microprocessor Color Display System used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV). The software delivery known as the 'baseline display system', is the one described in this document. Throughout this publication, module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes procedures and common variables referenced by a particular module. The system described supports the Research Flight Deck (RFD) of the TSRV. The RFD contains eight cathode ray tubes (CRTs) which depict a Primary Flight Display, Navigation Display, System Warning Display, Takeoff Performance Monitoring System Display, and Engine Display.

  17. Transport through correlated systems with density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, S.; Stefanucci, G.

    2017-10-01

    We present recent advances in density functional theory (DFT) for applications in the field of quantum transport, with particular emphasis on transport through strongly correlated systems. We review the foundations of the popular Landauer–Büttiker(LB)  +  DFT approach. This formalism, when using approximations to the exchange-correlation (xc) potential with steps at integer occupation, correctly captures the Kondo plateau in the zero bias conductance at zero temperature but completely fails to capture the transition to the Coulomb blockade (CB) regime as the temperature increases. To overcome the limitations of LB  +  DFT, the quantum transport problem is treated from a time-dependent (TD) perspective using TDDFT, an exact framework to deal with nonequilibrium situations. The steady-state limit of TDDFT shows that in addition to an xc potential in the junction, there also exists an xc correction to the applied bias. Open shell molecules in the CB regime provide the most striking examples of the importance of the xc bias correction. Using the Anderson model as guidance we estimate these corrections in the limit of zero bias. For the general case we put forward a steady-state DFT which is based on one-to-one correspondence between the pair of basic variables, steady density on and steady current across the junction and the pair local potential on and bias across the junction. Like TDDFT, this framework also leads to both an xc potential in the junction and an xc correction to the bias. Unlike TDDFT, these potentials are independent of history. We highlight the universal features of both xc potential and xc bias corrections for junctions in the CB regime and provide an accurate parametrization for the Anderson model at arbitrary temperatures and interaction strengths, thus providing a unified DFT description for both Kondo and CB regimes and the transition between them.

  18. Molecular cloning of mouse amino acid transport system B0, a neutral amino acid transporter related to Hartnup disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröer, Angelika; Klingel, Karin; Kowalczuk, Sonja; Rasko, John E J; Cavanaugh, Juleen; Bröer, Stefan

    2004-06-04

    Resorption of amino acids in kidney and intestine is mediated by transporters, which prefer groups of amino acids with similar physico-chemical properties. It is generally assumed that most neutral amino acids are transported across the apical membrane of epithelial cells by system B(0). Here we have characterized a novel member of the Na(+)-dependent neurotransmitter transporter family (B(0)AT1) isolated from mouse kidney, which shows all properties of system B(0). Flux experiments showed that the transporter is Na(+)-dependent, electrogenic, and actively transports most neutral amino acids but not anionic or cationic amino acids. Superfusion of mB(0)AT1-expressing oocytes with neutral amino acids generated inward currents, which were proportional to the fluxes observed with labeled amino acids. In situ hybridization showed strong expression in intestinal microvilli and in the proximal tubule of the kidney. Expression of mouse B(0)AT1 was restricted to kidney, intestine, and skin. It is generally assumed that mutations of the system B(0) transporter underlie autosomal recessive Hartnup disorder. In support of this notion mB(0)AT1 is located on mouse chromosome 13 in a region syntenic to human chromosome 5p15, the locus of Hartnup disorder. Thus, the human homologue of this transporter is an excellent functional and positional candidate for Hartnup disorder.

  19. Hydrodynamics and transport in low-dimensional interacting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Manas

    Recent ground-breaking experiments have realized strongly interacting quantum degenerate Fermi gas in a cold atomic system with tunable interactions. This has provided a table-top system which is extremely hydrodynamic in nature. This experimental realization helps us to investigate several aspects such as the interplay between nonlinearity, dissipation and dispersion. We find, for instance, that the dynamics in such a system shows near perfect agreement with a hydrodynamic theory. In collaboration with the group of John Thomas at Duke we interpreted studies of collision of two strongly interacting Fermi gases that led to shock waves which are a hallmark of nonlinear physics. Due to reasons such as the nature of interactions, higher dimensionality, these cold atomic systems are non-integrable and moreover the underlying field theory construction is mostly phenomenological in nature. On the other hand there are certain one-dimensional systems which are not only integrable but also facilitate more formal and rigorous ways of deriving the corresponding integrable field theories. One such family of models is the family of Calogero models (and their generalizations). They provide an extraordinary insight into the field of strongly correlated systems and hydrodynamics. We study the collective field theory of such models and address aspects of nonlinear physics such as Spin-Charge Interaction, Emptiness Formation Probability, Solitons etc; We derive a two-component nonlinear, nonlocal, integrable field theory. We also show that the Calogero family which is integrable even in an external harmonic trap (usually unavoidable in cold atom setups) is relatively "short ranged" thereby qualifying as a toy model for cold atom experiments. Transport in certain strongly correlated systems (impurity models) was studied using few low-dimensional techniques such as a 1/N diagrammatic expansion, Slave Boson Mean Field Theory and the Bethe Ansatz. A mesoscopic setup such as parallel

  20. 77 FR 69899 - Public Conference on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Transportation Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... SAFETY BOARD Public Conference on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Transportation Safety The National Transportation Safety Board will hold a public conference on the use of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in transportation safety on December 4-5, 2012. GIS is a rapidly expanding group...

  1. 49 CFR 37.27 - Transportation for elementary and secondary education systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... elementary and secondary education systems. (a) The requirements of this part do not apply to public school... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation for elementary and secondary education systems. 37.27 Section 37.27 Transportation Office of the Secretary of...

  2. Integrated Design of Downwind Land-Based Wind Turbines using Analytic Gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning, Andrew; Petch, Derek

    2016-12-01

    Wind turbines are complex systems where component-level changes can have significant system-level effects. Effective wind turbine optimization generally requires an integrated analysis approach with a large number of design variables. Optimizing across large variable sets is orders of magnitude more efficient with gradient-based methods as compared with gradient-free method, particularly when using exact gradients. We have developed a wind turbine analysis set of over 100 components where 90% of the models provide numerically exact gradients through symbolic differentiation, automatic differentiation, and adjoint methods. This framework is applied to a specific design study focused on downwind land-based wind turbines. Downwind machines are of potential interest for large wind turbines where the blades are often constrained by the stiffness required to prevent a tower strike. The mass of these rotor blades may be reduced by utilizing a downwind configuration where the constraints on tower strike are less restrictive. The large turbines of this study range in power rating from 5-7MW and in diameter from 105m to 175m. The changes in blade mass and power production have important effects on the rest of the system, and thus the nacelle and tower systems are also optimized. For high-speed wind sites, downwind configurations do not appear advantageous. The decrease in blade mass (10%) is offset by increases in tower mass caused by the bending moment from the rotor-nacelle-assembly. For low-wind speed sites, the decrease in blade mass is more significant (25-30%) and shows potential for modest decreases in overall cost of energy (around 1-2%).

  3. Coarse mesh transport theory model for heterogeneous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilas, Danut

    To improve fuel utilization, recent reactor cores have become substantially more heterogeneous. In these cores, use of variable fuel enrichments and strong absorbers lead to high neutron flux gradients, which may limit the accuracy (validity) of diffusion theory based methods. In fact, the diffusion equation itself may become a poor approximation of the Boltzmann equation, the exact equation that describes the neutron flux. Therefore, numerical methods to solve the transport equation efficiently over a large heterogeneous region (such as a reactor core) are very desirable in case where the diffusion approximation breaks down. Presently, the only methods capable of computing the power (flux) distributions very accurately throughout a large system such as a nuclear reactor core are the Monte-Carlo or the fine-mesh transport theory methods. Both these methods suffer from the long computational time which makes them useless for routine core calculations. Starting from a variational principle that admits trial functions that can be discontinuous at coarse mesh (assembly) interfaces, we propose a method to solve the transport equation on a spatial grid made up of meshes as large as the size of a fuel assembly. The variational principle is derived for the most general case, but further methods are developed for one-dimensional geometry with the angular variable treated by discrete ordinates. The method uses the finite element approach for the space variable with basis functions precomputed for each element to obtain an algebraic linear system of equations. The eigenvalue of this system is the multiplication constant and the eigenvector represents the incoming angular fluxes for each coarse mesh. The latter allows the reconstruction of the fine mesh solution (angular flux) throughout the domain of interest when used with the basis functions (surface Green's function) for each coarse mesh. The method requires no homogenization procedure that can be a serious source of

  4. Space Transportation System Liftoff Debris Mitigation Process Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael; Riley, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Liftoff debris is a top risk to the Space Shuttle Vehicle. To manage the Liftoff debris risk, the Space Shuttle Program created a team with in the Propulsion Systems Engineering & Integration Office. The Shutt le Liftoff Debris Team harnesses the Systems Engineering process to i dentify, assess, mitigate, and communicate the Liftoff debris risk. T he Liftoff Debris Team leverages off the technical knowledge and expe rtise of engineering groups across multiple NASA centers to integrate total system solutions. These solutions connect the hardware and ana lyses to identify and characterize debris sources and zones contribut ing to the Liftoff debris risk. The solutions incorporate analyses sp anning: the definition and modeling of natural and induced environmen ts; material characterizations; statistical trending analyses, imager y based trajectory analyses; debris transport analyses, and risk asse ssments. The verification and validation of these analyses are bound by conservative assumptions and anchored by testing and flight data. The Liftoff debris risk mitigation is managed through vigilant collab orative work between the Liftoff Debris Team and Launch Pad Operation s personnel and through the management of requirements, interfaces, r isk documentation, configurations, and technical data. Furthermore, o n day of launch, decision analysis is used to apply the wealth of ana lyses to case specific identified risks. This presentation describes how the Liftoff Debris Team applies Systems Engineering in their proce sses to mitigate risk and improve the safety of the Space Shuttle Veh icle.

  5. Nonequilibrium transport in the pseudospin-1 Dirac-Weyl system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Zhen; Xu, Hong-Ya; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2017-09-01

    Recently, solid state materials hosting pseudospin-1 quasiparticles have attracted a great deal of attention. In these materials, the energy band contains a pair of Dirac cones and a flatband through the connecting point of the cones. As the "caging" of carriers with a zero group velocity, the flatband itself has zero conductivity. However, in a nonequilibrium situation where a constant electric field is suddenly switched on, the flatband can enhance the resulting current in both the linear and nonlinear response regimes through distinct physical mechanisms. Using the (2 +1 )-dimensional pseudospin-1 Dirac-Weyl system as a concrete setting, we demonstrate that, in the weak field regime, the interband current is about twice larger than that for pseudospin-1/2 system due to the interplay between the flatband and the negative band, with the scaling behavior determined by the Kubo formula. In the strong field regime, the intraband current is √{2 } times larger than that in the pseudospin-1/2 system, due to the additional contribution from particles residing in the flatband. In this case, the current and field follow the scaling law associated with Landau-Zener tunneling. These results provide a better understanding of the role of the flatband in nonequilibrium transport and are experimentally testable using electronic or photonic systems.

  6. Dynamics of Nutrients Transport in Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, G.; De, M.

    2013-05-01

    Domestic wastewater is abundant in nutrients¬ that originate from various activities in the households. In developed countries, wastewater is largely managed by (1) centralized treatment where wastewater from large population is collected, treated, and discharged and (2) onsite treatment where wastewater is collected from an individual house, treated, and dispersed onsite; this system is commonly known as septic system or onsite wastewater treatment system (OWTS) and consist of a septic tank (collects wastewater) and drain-field (disperses wastewater in soil). In areas with porous sandy soils, the transport of nutrients from drain-field to shallow groundwater is accelerated. To overcome this limitation, elevated disposal fields (commonly called mounds) on top of the natural soil are constructed to provide unsaturated conditions for wastewater treatment. Our objective was to study the dynamics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transport in the vadose zone and groundwater in traditional and advanced OWTS. Soil water samples were collected from the vadose zone by using suction cup lysimeters and groundwater samples were collected by using piezometers. Collected samples (wastewater, soil-water, groundwater) were analyzed for various water quality parameters. The pH (4.39-4.78) and EC (0.28-0.34 dS/m) of groundwater was much lower than both wastewater and soil-water. In contrast to >50 mg/L of ammonium-N in wastewater, concentrations in all lysimeters (0.02-0.81 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.82 mg/L) were 99% disappeared (primarily nitrified) in the vadose zone (20 mg/L in the vadose zones of traditional systems (drip dispersal and gravel trench). Concentrations of chloride showed a distinct pattern of nitrate-N breakthrough in vadose zone and groundwater; the groundwater nitrate-N was elevated upto 19.2 mg/L after wastewater delivery in tradional systems. Total P in the wastewater was ~10 mg/L, but low in all lysimeters (0.046-1.72 mg/L) and piezometers (0.01-0.78 mg

  7. Non-rocket Earth-Moon transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolonkin, A.

    Author suggests and researches one of his methods of flights to outer Space, described in book "Non Rocket Flights in Space", which is prepared and offered for publication. In given report the method and facilities named "Bolonkin Transport System" (BTS) for delivering of payload and people to Moon and back is presented. BTS can be used also for free trip to outer Space up at altitude 60,000 km and more. BTS can be applying as a trust system for atmospheric supersonic aircrafts, and as a free energy source. This method uses, in general, the rotary and kinetic energy of the Moon. The manuscript contains the theory and results of computation of special Project. This project uses three cables (main and two for driving of loads) from artificial material: fiber, whiskers, nanotubes, with the specific tensile strength (ratio the tensile stress to density) k=/=4*10^7 or more. The nanotubes with same and better parameters are received in scientific laboratories. Theoretical limit of nanotubes SWNT is about k=100*10^7. The upper end of the cable is connected to the Moon. The lower end of the cable is connected to an aircraft (or buoy), which flies (i.e. glides or slides) in Earth atmosphere along the planet's surface. The aircraft (and Moon) has devices, which allows the length of cables to be changed. The device would consists of a spool, motor, brake, transmission, and controller. The facility could have devices for delivering people and payloads t o the Moon and back using the suggested Transport System. The delivery devices include: containers, cables, motors, brakes, and controllers. If the aircraft is small and the cable is strong the motion of the Moon can be used to move the airplane. For example (see enclosed project), if the airplane weighs 15 tons and has an aerodynamic ratio (the lift force to the drag force) equal 5, a thrust of 3000 kg would be enough for the aircraft to fly for infinity without requiring any fuel. The aircraft could use a small turbine engine

  8. Improving estimates of oil pollution to the sea from land-based sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Laurel; Rosen, Michael R; Roesner, Larry; Howard, Nalin

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents improvements to calculation methods used in the National Research Council's (NRC) Oil in the Sea reports from 2003 and 1985 to estimate land-based contributions of petroleum hydrocarbons to the sea from North America. Using procedures similar to the 2003 report, but with more robust methods for handling non-detections, estimated land-based contributions for 1977 and 2000 were over 50% lower than the best 1996 estimate in the NRC report. The largest loads were from the northeastern United States and the Gulf of Mexico region for both the 2003 report and updated calculations. Calculations involved many sources of uncertainty, including lack of available data, variable methods of measuring and reporting data, and variable methods of reporting values below detection limits. This updated analysis of land-based loads of petroleum hydrocarbons to the sea highlights the continued need for more monitoring and research on inputs, fates and effects of these sources. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) color displays software description: MicroVAX system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Plyler, Valerie E.; Dickson, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the software created for the Display MicroVAX computer used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV). The software delivery of February 27, 1991, known as the 'baseline display system', is the one described in this document. Throughout this publication, module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, detailed description, and global references. The global references section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The system described supports the Research Flight Deck (RFD) of the TSRV. The RFD contains eight Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) which depict a Primary Flight Display, Navigation Display, System Warning Display, Takeoff Performance Monitoring System Display, and Engine Display.

  10. A management information system for mine railway transportation equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mei-yu; HAN Ke-qi; ZHANG Xiao-yong; LI Xiao-lin; ZHAI Yong-jun; YU Wei-hu

    2008-01-01

    Good equipment management is essential for the day to day management of an enterprise. Targeted at production opera-tion of the railway transportation department of a mining group and aimed at mine railway equipment management, we have estab-lished a management information system for the equipment in the entire process of the life cycle of equipment. The project deals with basic data about equipment, initial management, maintenance, operation and even disposal, based on a C/S and B/S structure.We adopted an object-oriented approach, dealing with software engineering, information engineering, economic and organizational measures. Thus, effective monitoring and control of the operation of railway equipment and its status in the entire process has been achieved.

  11. Distribution of dilemma zone after intelligent transportation system established

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuanchang; Yang, Huiqin; Wu, Linying

    2017-03-01

    Dilemma zone refers to an area where vehicles can neither clear the intersection during the yellow interval nor stop safely before the stop line. The purpose of this paper is to analyzing the distribution of two types of dilemma zone after intelligent transportation system (ITS) established at Outer Ring Roads signalized intersections in Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center. To collect field data a drone aircraft was used. When calculating the type II dilemma zone's distribution, we considered the information of drivers' aggressiveness, which was classified by driving speed and type I dilemma zone as well. We also compared the two types dilemma zone's distribution before and after ITS established and analyzed the changes, which was brought by ITS.

  12. Energy and magnetization transport in nonequilibrium macrospin systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlenghi, Simone; Iubini, Stefano; Lepri, Stefano; Chico, Jonathan; Bergqvist, Lars; Delin, Anna; Fransson, Jonas

    2015-07-01

    We investigate numerically the magnetization dynamics of an array of nanodisks interacting through the magnetodipolar coupling. In the presence of a temperature gradient, the chain reaches a nonequilibrium steady state where energy and magnetization currents propagate. This effect can be described as the flow of energy and particle currents in an off-equilibrium discrete nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS) equation. This model makes transparent the transport properties of the system and allows for a precise definition of temperature and chemical potential for a precessing spin. The present study proposes a setup for the spin-Seebeck effect, and shows that its qualitative features can be captured by a general oscillator-chain model.

  13. On transport in quantum Hall systems with constrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, S.

    2007-10-01

    We study edge transport in a simple model of a constricted quantum Hall system with a lowered local filling factor. The current backscattered from the constriction is explained from a matching of the properties of the edge-current excitations in the constriction (ν2) and bulk (ν1) regions. We develop a hydrodynamic theory for bosonic edge modes inspired by this model, finding that a competition between two tunneling process, related by a quasiparticle-quasihole symmetry, determines the fate of the low-bias transmission conductance. A novel generalisation of the Kane-Fisher quantum impurity model is found, describing transitions from a weak-coupling theory at partial transmission to strong-coupling theories for perfect transmission and reflection as well as a new symmetry dictated fixed point. These results provide satisfactory explanations for recent experimental results at filling factors of 1/3 and 1.

  14. Design of a Typical Offshore Transportation System for External Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shittu, A. A

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The external corrosion assessment of a typical offshore transportation system has been presented. Cathodic protection design was carried out for the pipeline and it was found that a bracelet square weld on anode of L = 195, G =101.6 , Thickness = 70, M = 149.75 , ∅ = 1.2235, N = 128 and s = 300was found to be satisfactory in providing secondary/ backup protection for the 48inchespipeline in the external environment provided. The external anticorrosion coating selected is the Three layer polyethylene (3LPE coating based on the dimensions of the pipeline and the design temperature of 80℃. The 3LPE external corrosioncoating will comprise of an inner layer fusion bond epoxy, a middle layer: adhesive and an outer layer: High density polyethylene (HDPE base with additives.

  15. System convergence in transport models: algorithms efficiency and output uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2015-01-01

    much in the literature. The paper first investigates several variants of the Method of Successive Averages (MSA) by simulation experiments on a toy-network. It is found that the simulation experiments produce support for a weighted MSA approach. The weighted MSA approach is then analysed on large......-scale in the Danish National Transport Model (DNTM). It is revealed that system convergence requires that either demand or supply is without random noise but not both. In that case, if MSA is applied to the model output with random noise, it will converge effectively as the random effects are gradually dampened...... in the MSA process. In connection to DNTM it is shown that MSA works well when applied to travel-time averaging, whereas trip averaging is generally infected by random noise resulting from the assignment model. The latter implies that the minimum uncertainty in the final model output is dictated...

  16. Environmental assessment of 9 European public bus transportation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanaki, Eva; Koroneos, Christophis; Roset, Jaume

    2017-01-01

    The transportation sector is one of the largest sources of EU’s greenhouse gas emissions. In 2011, transportation represented approximately 25 percent of total EU’s greenhouse gas emissions. Urban mobility accounts for 40% of all CO2 emissions of road transport and up to 70% of other pollutants f...

  17. ABC transporters : Lessons from a bacterial oligopeptide uptake system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeven, Mark Koop

    2006-01-01

    ABC transporters are proteins that are involved in the uptake of nutrients and excretion of harmful substances in biological cells. Defects in human ABC transporters can result in severe diseases. Too high ABC transporter activity can lead to non-responsiveness of cancercells to chemotherapy, and

  18. Microscopic theory on charge transports of a correlated multiorbital system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Naoya

    2016-07-01

    Current vertex correction (CVC), the backflowlike correction to the current, comes from conservation laws, and the CVC due to electron correlation contains information about many-body effects. However, it has been little understood how the CVC due to electron correlation affects the charge transports of a correlated multiorbital system. To improve this situation, I studied the in-plane resistivity ρa b and the Hall coefficient in the weak-field limit RH, in addition to the magnetic properties and the electronic structure, for a t2 g-orbital Hubbard model on a square lattice in a paramagnetic state away from or near an antiferromagnetic (AF) quantum-critical point (QCP) in the fluctuation-exchange (FLEX) approximation with the CVCs arising from the self-energy (Σ ), the Maki-Thompson (MT) irreducible four-point vertex function, and the main terms of the Aslamasov-Larkin (AL) one. Then, I found three main results about the CVCs. First, the main terms of the AL CVC do not qualitatively change the results obtained in the FLEX approximation with the Σ CVC and the MT CVC. Second, ρa b and RH near the AF QCP have a high-temperature region, governed mainly by the Σ CVC, and a low-temperature region, governed mainly by the Σ CVC and the MT CVC. Third, in case away from the AF QCP, the MT CVC leads to a considerable effect on only RH at low temperatures, although RH at high temperatures and ρa b at all temperatures considered are sufficiently described by including only the Σ CVC. Those findings reveal several aspects of many-body effects on the charge transports of a correlated multiorbital system. I also achieved the qualitative agreement with several experiments of Sr2RuO4 or Sr2Ru0.975Ti0.025O4 . Moreover, I showed several better points of this theory than other theories.

  19. Effects of Aquatic Therapy and Land-Based Therapy versus Land-Based Therapy Alone on Range of Motion, Edema, and Function after Hip or Knee Replacement: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Alison J.; Shields, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether aquatic therapy in combination with land-based therapy improves patient outcomes after hip or knee arthroplasty compared with land-based therapy alone. Methods: For this systematic review, six online databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, EMBASE, Cochrane, and PEDro) were searched from the earliest date available until September 2013. Controlled trials published in English in a peer-reviewed journal that compared aquatic therapy in combination with land-based therapy ...

  20. Safeguarding Schiphol airports accessibility for freight transport : the design of a fully automated underground transport system with an extensive use of simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der M.C.; Harten, van A.; Ebben, M.J.R.; Saanen, Y.A.; Valentin, E.C.; Verbraeck, A.

    2001-01-01

    Automated, underground freight transport should enable sustainable economic growth in the Amsterdam area in the Netherlands. An innovative transport system, which guarantees reliable logistics and which avoids congestion problems, is currently being developed. This logistics system will be highly au

  1. Physical processes that control droplet transport in rock fracture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Katrina Moran

    Aquifer recharge is generally driven by fluids that move from the Earths surface to groundwater through the unsaturated zone, also known as the vadose zone. When the vadose zone is fractured, fluids, which may include contaminants, can move through the fracture network as well as the porous matrix. Such a network of fractures can provide a more rapid path, thereby reducing contact time between the fluid and the matrix. Contact time allows for exchange of solutes between the fluid and the porous matrix, thus being able to quantify contact time is important. In addition, the behavior of fluids within a fracture network has been found to be very complex; large-scale models are yet not able to predict transport paths or flux rates. Because, small-scale flow phenomena can strongly influence the large-scale behavior of fluid movement through systems of fractures, it is important that small-scale dynamics be properly understood in order to improve our predictive capabilities in these complex systems. Relevant flow dynamics includes the impact of boundary conditions, fluid modes that evolve in time and space and transitions between modes. This thesis presents three investigations aimed at understanding the physical processes governing fluid movement in unsaturated fractures, with the ultimate goal of improving predictive relationships for fluid transport in rock fracture systems. These investigations include a theoretical analysis of the wetting of a rough surface, an experimental study of the dynamics of fluid droplets (or liquid bridges) moving in a single fracture and a theoretical analysis of the movement of a fluid droplet encountering a fracture intersection. Each investigation is motivated by environmental applications. Development of an analytical equation for the wetting of a rough surface is based on a balance between capillary forces and frictional resistive forces. The resulting equation predicts movement of the liquid invasion front driven solely by the

  2. Simulation and optimization of biomass harvest and transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busato, Patricia; Berruto, Remigio; Piccarolo, Pietro [University of Turin (Italy). Dipt. di Economia e Ingegneria Agraria, Forestale e Ambientale (DEIAFA)], E-mail: patrizia.busato@unito.it

    2008-07-01

    The implementation of a biomass supply chain needs the delivery of good feasibility studies. Since biomass is characterized by low value and low energy density, the logistic costs is an important component in order to assess this feasibility. To design the logistics and estimate the costs is a complex task because the process consists of multiple work processes intensively interlinked. Bottlenecks within transport or unloading operations can reduce system capacity below the capacity of the harvester. A well-matched system can lower the cost of producing forages. The overall goal of this study was to present the combined use of both the simulation and linear programming models to optimize the flow of biomass from field to a power plant. The simulation predicted the overall system performance. The results from the simulation model were then used as input in the linear programming model, which chosen the best combination of equipment for each field distance and yield, in order to minimize the logistic costs, while satisfying some constraint like the number of hours available for harvest and the area to be harvested. The presented case study refers to corn silage harvest of an area of 4000 ha (72000 tDM). The logistic operation costs ranged from 17.00 Euros.tDM{sup -1} for 10 km to 31.86 Euros.tDM{sup -1} for 40 km biomass collection radius. The average unitary costs were respectively of 306 Euros.ha{sup -1} and 574 Euros.ha{sup -1}. (author)

  3. Allocation of New Construction Land Based on Land Competitiveness Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Connotation of land competitiveness is expatiated from both the narrow sense and broad sense. Evaluation index system of land competitiveness is established according to the 2008 China Statistical Yearbook and 2008 China Land Resources Statistical Yearbook. Efficiency Coefficient Method and Principal Component Analysis Method are used to evaluate the land competitiveness of 31 provincial units in China. Result shows that in the year 2007, land competitiveness gradually decreases from southeast to northwest. The land competitiveness and GDP per unit land have significant negative correlation. The rank of approved new construction land has low positive correlation with the rank of land competitiveness in China. This indicates that there is little correlation between the allocation of regional new construction land and the land use efficiency. Therefore, it is suggested that regional allocation of new construction land should be treated differently based on the evaluation result of land competitiveness.

  4. MBB strategy consideration: From microsystem technique to the space transportation system SAENGER 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogels, Hanns Arnt

    Microsystems technique, as an example of technology developments, and the future space transportation system SAENGER 2 are treated. Microelectronics, micromechanics, and microoptics are presented. The characteristics of the materials used in microsystems technology are discussed. Economic and nonpolluting solar energy systems for future space systems are discussed. The status and the future of hypersonic transportation systems are discussed.

  5. Coherent quantum transport in disordered systems: A unified polaron treatment of hopping and band-like transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chee Kong [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Moix, Jeremy; Cao, Jianshu, E-mail: jianshu@mit.edu [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-04-28

    Quantum transport in disordered systems is studied using a polaron-based master equation. The polaron approach is capable of bridging the results from the coherent band-like transport regime governed by the Redfield equation to incoherent hopping transport in the classical regime. A non-monotonic dependence of the diffusion coefficient is observed both as a function of temperature and system-phonon coupling strength. In the band-like transport regime, the diffusion coefficient is shown to be linearly proportional to the system-phonon coupling strength and vanishes at zero coupling due to Anderson localization. In the opposite classical hopping regime, we correctly recover the dynamics described by the Fermi’s Golden Rule and establish that the scaling of the diffusion coefficient depends on the phonon bath relaxation time. In both the hopping and band-like transport regimes, it is demonstrated that at low temperature, the zero-point fluctuations of the bath lead to non-zero transport rates and hence a finite diffusion constant. Application to rubrene and other organic semiconductor materials shows a good agreement with experimental mobility data.

  6. Coherent quantum transport in disordered systems: A unified polaron treatment of hopping and band-like transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chee Kong; Moix, Jeremy; Cao, Jianshu

    2015-04-28

    Quantum transport in disordered systems is studied using a polaron-based master equation. The polaron approach is capable of bridging the results from the coherent band-like transport regime governed by the Redfield equation to incoherent hopping transport in the classical regime. A non-monotonic dependence of the diffusion coefficient is observed both as a function of temperature and system-phonon coupling strength. In the band-like transport regime, the diffusion coefficient is shown to be linearly proportional to the system-phonon coupling strength and vanishes at zero coupling due to Anderson localization. In the opposite classical hopping regime, we correctly recover the dynamics described by the Fermi's Golden Rule and establish that the scaling of the diffusion coefficient depends on the phonon bath relaxation time. In both the hopping and band-like transport regimes, it is demonstrated that at low temperature, the zero-point fluctuations of the bath lead to non-zero transport rates and hence a finite diffusion constant. Application to rubrene and other organic semiconductor materials shows a good agreement with experimental mobility data.

  7. Electrical Transport in Thin Film Systems for Energy Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bingyuan

    Many energy conversion technologies rely on the function and properties of thin films. In many cases, the fundamental physics underlying the structure-property-performance interrelationship is not completely understood. So it is not possible to fully exploit the true capabilities of these systems. Therefore, investigating and understanding such interrelationships in different systems is of both scientific and technological importance. In this dissertation, both conjugated polymer systems for photovoltaic application and strained silicon system for thermoelectric application are investigated in order to develop a clearer understanding of the effect of film thickness and microstructural features on electrical transport. Morphological features such as domain size, phase purity are investigated in the polymers in order to understand the effects on charge mobility, recombination and further on device performance. With regard to silicon, the effects of lattice strain on electrical conductivity and thermopower are studied. The out-of-plane hole mobility was investigated in regioregular P3HT thin films. It was shown that the hole mobilities monotonically increased an order of magnitude when film thickness increased from 80 nm to 700 nm. Based on X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic ellipsometry and simulations, this thickness-dependent mobility is associated with substrate induced anisotropies of the P3HT film structure. The role of microstructural features on the performance characteristics of the archetypal P3HT:PCBM (1:1) bulk heterojunction solar cell was investigated. It is demonstrated that small domain sizes and correspondingly large interfacial areas accommodated a high initial carrier density. However in these materials, non-geminate recombination of carriers could be significant, leading to low open circuit voltages and low fill factors. The purity of the domains also influenced the charge carrier mobilities and non-germinate recombination. One important finding from

  8. Conceptual analysis of a lunar base transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Trevor D.; Johnson, Lloyd B., III; Persons, Mark B.; Wright, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    Important to the planning for a lunar base is the development of transportation requirements for the establishment and maintenance of that base. This was accomplished as part of a lunar base systems assessment study conducted by the NASA Langley Research Center in conjunction with the NASA Johnson Space Center. Lunar base parameters are presented using a baseline lunar facility concept and timeline of developmental phases. Masses for habitation and scientific modules, power systems, life support systems, and thermal control systems were generated, assuming space station technology as a starting point. The masses were manifested by grouping various systems into cargo missions and interspersing manned flights consistent with construction and base maintenance timelines. A computer program that sizes the orbital transfer vehicles (OTV's), lunar landers, lunar ascenders, and the manned capsules was developed. This program consists of an interative technique to solve the rocket equation successively for each velocity correction (delta V) in a mission. The delta V values reflect integrated trajectory values and include gravity losses. As the program computed fuel masses, it matched structural masses from General Dynamics' modular space-based OTV design. Variables in the study included the operation mode (i.e., expendable vs. reusable and single-stage vs. two-stage OTV's), cryogenic specific impulse, reflecting different levels of engine technology, and aerobraking vs. all-propulsive return to Earth orbit. The use of lunar-derived oxygen was also examined for its general impact. For each combination of factors, the low-Earth orbit (LEO) stack masses and Earth-to-orbit (ETO) lift requirements are summarized by individual mission and totaled for the developmental phase. In addition to these discrete data, trends in the variation of study parameters are presented.

  9. Analysis of the energy efficiency of the transport system in Algeria; Analyse de l'efficacite energetique du systeme de transport en Algerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdani, Sid Ahmed

    2010-09-15

    The objective of this communication is analyze the energy efficiency of the transport system in Algeria and to show the areas of possible rationalization in this sector. Our approach is to analyze the existing configuration of the sector and its impact on energy consumption, by developing a sectional model Bottom Up, where the transport park has been modified by the means used. We have shown that the potential to improve the transport system energy efficiency is important and have recommended some options aimed at the sector organisation and aimed at increasing the relative part of transport systems to make it more energy efficient. [French] L'objectif de cette communication est d'analyser l'efficacite energetique du systeme de transport algerien et de montrer les gisements de rationalisation possibles dans ce secteur. Notre approche consiste a analyser la configuration existante du secteur et son impact sur la consommation d'energie, en elaborant un modele sectoriel Bottom Up, ou le parc de transport a ete desagrege par moyen utilise. Nous avons montre que le potentiel d'amelioration de la performance energetique du systeme de transport est important et avons recommande quelques options ciblant l'organisation du secteur et visant a augmenter la part relative de moyens de transport plus efficace energetiquement.

  10. Design of high-capacity fiber-optic transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhi Ming

    2001-08-01

    We study the design of fiber-optic transport systems and the behavior of fiber amplifiers/lasers with the aim of achieving higher capacities with larger amplifier spacing. Solitons are natural candidates for transmitting short pulses for high-capacity fiber-optic networks because of its innate ability to use two of fiber's main defects, fiber dispersion and fiber nonlinearity to balance each other. In order for solitons to retain its dynamic nature, amplifiers must be placed periodically to restore powers to compensate for fiber loss. Variational analysis is used to study the long-term stability of a periodical- amplifier system. A new regime of operation is identified which allows the use of a much longer amplifier spacing. If optical fibers are the blood vessels of an optical communication system, then the optical amplifier based on erbium-doped fiber is the heart. Optical communication systems can avoid the use of costly electrical regenerators to maintain system performance by being able to optically amplify the weakened signals. The length of amplifier spacing is largely determined by the gain excursion experienced by the solitons. We propose, model, and demonstrate a distributed erbium-doped fiber amplifier which can drastically reduce the amount of gain excursion experienced by the solitons, therefore allowing a much longer amplifier spacing and superior stability. Dispersion management techniques have become extremely valuable tools in the design of fiber-optic communication systems. We have studied in depth the advantage of different arnplification schemes (lumped and distributed) for various dispersion compensation techniques. We measure the system performance through the Q factor to evaluate the added advantage of effective noise figure and smaller gain excursion. An erbium-doped fiber laser has been constructed and characterized in an effort to develop a test bed to study transmission systems. The presence of mode-partition noise in an erbium

  11. Policies and initiatives for carbon neutrality in nordic heating and transport systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Jakob Glarbo; Wu, Qiuwei; Ostergaard, Jacob;

    2012-01-01

    to heat pumps in the Nordic region rely on both private economic and national economic incentives. Initiatives toward carbon neutrality in the transport system are mostly concentrated on research, development and demonstration for deployment of a large number of EVs. All Nordic countries have plans......Policies and initiatives promoting carbon neutrality in the Nordic heating and transport systems are presented. The focus within heating systems is the propagation of heat pumps while the focus within transport systems is initiatives regarding electric vehicles (EVs). It is found that conversion...... for the future heating and transport systems with the ambition of realizing carbon neutrality....

  12. Functional requirements for the Automated Transportation Management System: TTP number: RL 439002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portsmouth, J.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    This requirements analysis, documents Department of Energy (DOE) transportation management procedures for the purpose of providing a clear and mutual understanding between users and designers of the proposed Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS). It is imperative that one understand precisely how DOE currently performs traffic management tasks; only then can an integrated system be proposed that successfully satisfies the major requirements of transportation managers and other system users. Accordingly, this report describes the current workings of DOE transportation organizations and then proposes a new system which represents a synthesis of procedures (both current and desired) which forms the basis for further systems development activities.

  13. Economic Metrics for Commercial Reusable Space Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Eric J.; Hamaker, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    baseline. Still, economic metrics for technology development in these Programs and projects remain fairly straightforward, being based on reductions in acquisition and operating costs of the Systems. One of the most challenging requirements that NASA levies on its Programs is to plan for the commercialization of the developed technology. Some NASA Programs are created for the express purpose of developing technology for a particular industrial sector, such as aviation or space transportation, in financial partnership with that sector. With industrial investment, another set of goals, constraints and expectations are levied on the technology program. Economic benefit metrics then expand beyond cost and cost savings to include the marketability, profit, and investment return requirements of the private sector. Commercial investment criteria include low risk, potential for high return, and strategic alignment with existing product lines. These corporate criteria derive from top-level strategic plans and investment goals, which rank high among the most proprietary types of information in any business. As a result, top-level economic goals and objectives that industry partners bring to cooperative programs cannot usually be brought into technical processes, such as systems engineering, that are worked collaboratively between Industry and Government. In spite of these handicaps, the top-level economic goals and objectives of a joint technology program can be crafted in such a way that they accurately reflect the fiscal benefits from both Industry and Government perspectives. Valid economic metrics can then be designed that can track progress toward these goals and objectives, while maintaining the confidentiality necessary for the competitive process.

  14. Fabrication and electronic transport studies of single nanocrystal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, David Louis [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-05-01

    Semiconductor and metallic nanocrystals exhibit interesting electronic transport behavior as a result of electrostatic and quantum mechanical confinement effects. These effects can be studied to learn about the nature of electronic states in these systems. This thesis describes several techniques for the electronic study of nanocrystals. The primary focus is the development of novel methods to attach leads to prefabricated nanocrystals. This is because, while nanocrystals can be readily synthesized from a variety of materials with excellent size control, means to make electrical contact to these nanocrystals are limited. The first approach that will be described uses scanning probe microscopy to first image and then electrically probe surfaces. It is found that electronic investigations of nanocrystals by this technique are complicated by tip-sample interactions and environmental factors such as salvation and capillary forces. Next, an atomic force microscope technique for the catalytic patterning of the surface of a self assembled monolayer is described. In principle, this nano-fabrication technique can be used to create electronic devices which are based upon complex arrangements of nanocrystals. Finally, the fabrication and electrical characterization of a nanocrystal-based single electron transistor is presented. This device is fabricated using a hybrid scheme which combines electron beam lithography and wet chemistry to bind single nanocrystals in tunneling contact between closely spaced metallic leads. In these devices, both Au and CdSe nanocrystals show Coulomb blockade effects with characteristic energies of several tens of meV. Additional structure is seen the transport behavior of CdSe nanocrystals as a result of its electronic structure.

  15. Fuel Cell System for Transportation -- 2005 Cost Estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.

    2006-10-01

    Independent review report of the methodology used by TIAX to estimate the cost of producing PEM fuel cells using 2005 cell stack technology. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Manager asked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to commission an independent review of the 2005 TIAX cost analysis for fuel cell production. The NREL Systems Integrator is responsible for conducting independent reviews of progress toward meeting the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) technical targets. An important technical target of the Program is the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell cost in terms of dollars per kilowatt ($/kW). The Program's Multi-Year Program Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan established $125/kW as the 2005 technical target. Over the last several years, the Program has contracted with TIAX, LLC (TIAX) to produce estimates of the high volume cost of PEM fuel cell production for transportation use. Since no manufacturer is yet producing PEM fuel cells in the quantities needed for an initial hydrogen-based transportation economy, these estimates are necessary for DOE to gauge progress toward meeting its targets. For a PEM fuel cell system configuration developed by Argonne National Laboratory, TIAX estimated the total cost to be $108/kW, based on assumptions of 500,000 units per year produced with 2005 cell stack technology, vertical integration of cell stack manufacturing, and balance-of-plant (BOP) components purchased from a supplier network. Furthermore, TIAX conducted a Monte Carlo analysis by varying ten key parameters over a wide range of values and estimated with 98% certainty that the mean PEM fuel cell system cost would be below DOE's 2005 target of $125/kW. NREL commissioned DJW TECHNOLOGY, LLC to form an Independent Review Team (the Team) of industry fuel cell experts and to evaluate the cost estimation process and the results reported by TIAX. The results of

  16. Carbonless Transportation and Energy Storage in Future Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamont, A.D.; Berry, G.D.

    2001-01-17

    By 2050 world population is projected to stabilize near 10 billion. Global economic development will outpace this growth, achieving present European per capita living standards by quintupling the size of the global economy--and increasing energy use, especially electricity, substantially. Even with aggressive efficiency improvements, global electricity use will at least triple to 30 trillion kWh/yr in 2050. Direct use of fuels, with greater potential for efficiency improvement, may be held to 80 trillion kWh (289 EJ) annually, 50% above present levels (IPCC, 1996). Sustaining energy use at these or higher rates, while simultaneously stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels, will require massive deployment of carbon-conscious energy systems for electricity generation and transportation by the mid 21st Century. These systems will either involve a shift to non-fossil primary energy sources (such as solar, wind, biomass, nuclear, and hydroelectric) or continue to rely on fossil primary energy sources and sequester carbon emissions (Halmann, 1999). Both approaches share the need to convert, transmit, store and deliver energy to end-users through carbonless energy carriers.

  17. Mass transport model through the skin by microencapsulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras, Núria; Alonso, Cristina; Martí, Meritxell; Lis, Manel J

    2015-01-01

    Skin drug delivery can be subdivided into topical and transdermal administration. Transdermal administration can take advantage of chemical and physical strategies that can improve skin permeability and allow drug penetration. In this study, the development of a skin penetration profile was carried out by an in vitro technique for a microencapsulated system of ibuprofen. Release experiments were performed using percutaneous absorption tests to determine the evolution of the principle present in each of the different skin compartments as a function of time. A general kinetic model for a microencapsulated structure as a mass transport system through the skin was applied: [Formula: see text] This model could predict the penetration profile of encapsulated substances through skin from biofunctional textiles as well as estimate the dosage profile of the active principle. The apparent diffusion coefficients found were 1.20 × 10(-7 )cm/s for the stratum corneum and higher for the rest of the skin 6.67 × 10(-6 )cm/s.

  18. SECURE TRACKING AND TRANSPORT SYSTEM USING RWP AND GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silky Verma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present era where technology has become a part of our life, every day new applications are developed in every field to serve mankind. Many applications have been developed using GPS (globalpositioning system such as aquatic and spacecraft routing, surveying and mapping, precise time reference etc. GPS (global positioning system enables everyday activities such as banking, mobile phone operations, and even the control of power grids by allowing well harmonized hand-off switching and accurate time. The main contribution of this paper is tracking and transportation of object in a secured way using RWP and GPS. To assure the security of the tracking and tracing application we introduce a method to evaluate the one-hop distance between the target object and all the cooperative nodes in the object’s view. A key factor that increases the project’s accuracy and performance is GPS, a common example of wireless which can be interfaced to provide location and time information in all weather conditions. GPS has become a widely adopted and useful tool for commerce, scientific uses, tracking, and investigation. We control the ground session with RWP (random way point using AODV routing protocol. DOP (dilution of precision.

  19. Development of technical solutions for realisation of intelligent transport systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy KULIK

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the development of architecture and technicalsolutions for implementation intelligent transport systems (ITS. The presented system will perform the following functions: monitoring the movement of an object collecting and displaying information about the state of the road, warning of the approaching object to obstacles, routing, as well as control of movement and speed of the output parameters of the recommendations of the movement, the development of intelligent decisions about the choice of optimal routes, intellectual analysis of data (IAD of the style and movement of the driver (the influence of alcohol, IAD on the technical parameters of the vehicle. Thus, it is advisable for ITS to be divided into several subsystems, which are related but are responsible for one or more functional tasks. Consequently, the need for monitoring the movement subsystem, the database on the state of the object database onthe location of an object, display subsystem, the subsystem of control of the road, the engine safety (prevention of obstacles, the subsystem control parameters of movement, routing subsystem.

  20. Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS) Software Project Management Plan (SPMP). Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidert, R.S.

    1995-05-26

    As a cabinet level federal agency with a diverse range of missions and an infrastructure spanning the United States, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has extensive freight transportation requirements. Performance and management of this freight activity is a critical function. DOE`s Transportation Management Division (TMD) has an agency-wide responsibility for overseeing transportation activities. Actual transportation operations are handled by government or contractor staff at the field locations. These staff have evolved a diverse range of techniques and procedures for performing transportation functions. In addition to minimizing the economic impact of transportation on programs, facility transportation staff must be concerned with the increasingly complex task of complying with complex shipment safety regulations. Maintaining the department`s safety record for shipping hazardous and radioactive materials is a primary goal. Use of automation to aid transportation functions is not widespread within DOE, though TMD has a number of software systems designed to gather and analyze data pertaining to field transportation activities. These systems are not integrated. Historically, most field facilities have accomplished transportation-related tasks manually or with minimal computer assistance. At best, information and decision support systems available to transportation staffs within the facilities are fragmented. In deciding where to allocate resources for automation, facility managers have not tended to give the needs of transportation departments a high priority. This diversity causes TMD significant difficulty in collecting data for use in managing department-wide transportation activities.

  1. Modelling public transport passenger flows in the era of intelligent transport systems COST Action TU1004 (TransITs)

    CERN Document Server

    Noekel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    This book shows how transit assignment models can be used to describe and predict the patterns of network patronage in public transport systems. It provides a fundamental technical tool that can be employed in the process of designing, implementing and evaluating measures and/or policies to improve the current state of transport systems within given financial, technical and social constraints. The book offers a unique methodological contribution to the field of transit assignment because, moving beyond “traditional” models, it describes more evolved variants that can reproduce: • intermodal networks with high- and low-frequency services; • realistic behavioural hypotheses underpinning route choice; • time dependency in frequency-based models; and • assumptions about the knowledge that users have of network conditions that are consistent with the present and future level of information that intelligent transport systems (ITS) can provide. The book also considers the practical perspective of practit...

  2. Interhospital Transport System for Critically Ill Patients: Mobile Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation without a Ventilator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Hye Ju; Cho, Woo Hyun; Park, Jong Myung; Kim, Dohyung

    2017-01-01

    Background Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been successfully used as a method for the interhospital transportation of critically ill patients. In South Korea, a well-established ECMO interhospital transport system is lacking due to limited resources. We developed a simplified ECMO transport system without mechanical ventilation for use by public emergency medical services. Methods Eighteen patients utilized our ECMO transport system from December 2011 to September 2015. We retrospectively analyzed the indications for ECMO, the patient status during transport, and the patient outcomes. Results All transport was conducted on the ground by ambulance. The distances covered ranged from 26 to 408 km (mean, 65.9±88.1 km) and the average transport time was 56.1±57.3 minutes (range, 30 to 280 minutes). All patients were transported without adverse events. After transport, 4 patients (22.2%) underwent lung transplantation because of interstitial lung disease. Eight patients who had severe acute respiratory distress syndrome showed recovery of heart and lung function after ECMO therapy. A total of 13 patients (70.6%) were successfully taken off ECMO, and 11 patients (61.1%) survived. Conclusion Our ECMO transport system without mechanical ventilation can be considered a safe and useful method for interhospital transport and could be a good alternative option for ECMO transport in Korean hospitals with limited resources. PMID:28180097

  3. 25 CFR 170.806 - What is an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.806 What is an IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management System? An IRR Transportation Facilities Maintenance Management... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is an IRR Transportation Facilities...

  4. Transport of reactive carriers and contaminants in groundwater systems : a dynamic competitive happening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, van de H.

    2000-01-01

    Transport of contaminants constitutes a potential threat for public health and ecosystems. One of the potential pathways for contaminant transport in groundwater systems is transport adsorbed to carriers (colloidal particles, large molecules). Figure 1 shows a detail of a

  5. How can we better plan for the unplanned? Designing and operating more robust public transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cats, O.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, transport systems have been designed to perform well under normal conditions assuming that everything works as planned. As anyone that uses public transport can testify, deviations from planning are a recurrent phenomenon. Investments in public transport are therefore increasingly mot

  6. Transport of reactive carriers and contaminants in groundwater systems : a dynamic competitive happening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, van de H.

    2000-01-01

    Transport of contaminants constitutes a potential threat for public health and ecosystems. One of the potential pathways for contaminant transport in groundwater systems is transport adsorbed to carriers (colloidal particles, large molecules). Figure 1 shows a detail of a grou

  7. 75 FR 63892 - Marine Transportation System National Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ..., Vessel Operators, Non-Marine Transportation Providers, Metropolitan Planning Organizations and State DOTs...) positions will be filled. Organizations and companies with experience inone or more of the following...

  8. THE TONOPLAST TRANSPORT SYSTEMS OF PLANT VACUOLES AND THEIR POTENTIAL APPLICATION IN BIOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Isayenkov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The pivotal role of plant vacuoles in plant survival was discussed in the review. Particularly, the providing of cellular turgor, accumulation of inorganic osmolytes and nutrients are the primary tasks of these cellular organelles. The main mechanisms of tonoplast transport systems were described. The known transport pathways of minerals, heavy metals, vitamins and other organic compounds were classified and outlined. The main systems of membrane vacuolar transport were reviewed. The outline of the physiological functions and features of vacuolar membrane transport proteins were performed. The physiological role of transport of minerals, nutrients and other compounds into vacuoles were discussed. This article reviews the main types of plant vacuoles and their functional role in plant cell. Current state and progress in vacuolar transport research was outlined. The examples of application for rinciples and mechanisms of vacuolar membrane transport in plant biotechnology were iven. The perspectives and approaches in plant and food biotechnology concerning transport and physiology of vacuoles are discussed.

  9. Control system of HLS transport line and Linac focusing power supplies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The control system of transport line and Linac focusing power supplies of Hefei Light Source was built upon Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System. The hardware construction, software design and performance test of the control system are described.

  10. A Linear Systems Approach to Segmented Watershed Contaminant Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, J. N.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) employs simulation models to estimate concentrations of pesticide residues in surface waters for risk assessment. These models have historically been used to simulate runoff loadings from homogeneous landscapes to isolated, well-mixed lentic systems that generically represent vulnerable waters. Recent efforts to refine this approach in terms of realism and geographic specificity have focused on enhancing the level of detail of the landscape representation, rather than that of receiving water hydrology. Linear systems theory and transfer function based approaches have been applied by various investigators to the representation of contaminant leaching through soils, and to surface water hydrology (e.g., unit hydrographs), but rarely to contaminant transport either within surface waters, or through multi-compartment systems such as stream networks. This poster describes a straightforward approach to simulating watersheds as segmented into collections of linked water bodies. The approach employs convolution integrals, impulse response functions, and the Discrete Fourier Transform to propagate concentration time series from upstream to downstream locations. Given knowledge only of estimated mean stream residence times, with appropriately-scaled segmentations of catchments, realistic representations of concentration dynamics are shown to be achievable. These representations are based upon high-frequency atrazine monitoring data sets collected over common time periods from upstream and downstream locations within the same small watersheds. Simulated concentrations are shown to match measured concentrations well in both the temporal and spectral domains without the need for calibration, and despite inherent simplifying assumptions such as steady flow. The approach may have utility for enhancing surface water hydrologic representation in contaminant modeling used for regulatory purposes.

  11. Biased transportations in a spatially asymmetric system at the nano-scale under thermal noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Under the theory of ratchet effect for mesoand macro-scale systems, the additional perturbation with a long time correlation and the breaking of spatial inversion symmetry are two main ingredients to bring unidirected transportations. With the help of a simple model system, we show that a spatially asymmetric system of the nano-scale length may induce biased transportations under thermal noise.

  12. GUIDELINES FOR RATIONALIZATION OF MANAGEMENT OF PERFORMANCE OF LOGISTICS SYSTEM OF TRANSPORT MACHINE MANUFACTURING ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia A. Anankina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main problems that occurs in a process of movement of material flows in the enterprises of transport machine manufacturing enterprises are stated in the article. Particular attention is paid to the rational use of vehicles on the existing capacity of the material flow of the enterprise. Process of transport service of material flow is concerned step by step. The place of transport in the logistics enterprise system is determined by authors. We give guidelines for rationalization of management of performance of logistics system of transport machine manufacturing enterprises in the context of compliance capacity utilization with the current provision of transport.

  13. Diagnosis of Transport Activity as a Component of the Enterprise Logistical System

    OpenAIRE

    Skrynkovskyy Ruslan M.; Kostiuk Nataliia R.; Koval Nataliya M.; Haleliuk Mykola M.

    2016-01-01

    The article reveals the essence of the concept of “diagnosis of the enterprise transport activity”, by which there should be meant a process of evaluating the state of movement (transportation, carrying) of freight (material resources, work in process or finished products) by one type of transport facilities or their combination in accordance with the applied transport system and trends of its changes as well as determining the future prospects on the basis of sound manageme...

  14. An operational information systems architecture for assessing sustainable transportation planning: principles and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzacchiello, Maria Teresa; Torrieri, Vincenzo; Nijkamp, Peter

    2009-11-01

    This paper offers the description of an integrated information system framework for the assessment of transportation planning and management. After an introductory exposition, in the first part of the paper, a broad overview of international experiences regarding information systems on transportation is given, focusing in particular on the relationship between transportation system's performance monitoring and the decision-making process, and on the importance of this connection in the evaluation and planning process, in Italian and European cases. Next, the methodological design of an information system to support efficient and sustainable transportation planning and management aiming to integrate inputs from several different data sources is presented. The resulting framework deploys modular and integrated databases which include data stemming from different national or regional data banks and which integrate information belonging to different transportation fields. For this reason, it allows public administrations to account for many strategic elements that influence their decisions regarding transportation, both from a systemic and infrastructural point of view.

  15. Highly Scalable Trip Grouping for Large Scale Collective Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Risch, Tore

    2008-01-01

    Transportation-related problems, like road congestion, parking, and pollution, are increasing in most cities. In order to reduce traffic, recent work has proposed methods for vehicle sharing, for example for sharing cabs by grouping "closeby" cab requests and thus minimizing transportation cost...

  16. Numerical Modelling of Sediment Transport in Combined Sewer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlütter, Flemming

    A conceptual sediment transport model has been developed. Through a case study a comparison with other numerical models is performed.......A conceptual sediment transport model has been developed. Through a case study a comparison with other numerical models is performed....

  17. A cooperative system of silicon transport in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian Feng; Yamaji, Naoki

    2015-07-01

    The high accumulation of silicon (Si) protects plants from biotic and abiotic stresses. Two different types of Si transporter [Low Silicon 1 (Lsi1) and 2 (Lsi2)] involved in the uptake and distribution of Si have been identified. Lsi1, a Si permeable channel, belongs to the Nod26-like major intrinsic protein (NIP) III subgroup of the aquaporin membrane protein family with a distinct selectivity, whereas Lsi2, an efflux Si transporter, belongs to an uncharacterized anion transporter family. These transporters are localized to the plasma membrane, but, in different plant species, show different expression patterns and tissue or cellular localizations that are associated with different levels of Si accumulation. A recent mathematical modeling study revealed that cooperation of Lsi1 and Lsi2, which show a polarized localization, is required for the efficient transport of Si in rice.

  18. On the Study of Vehicle Density in Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Sanguesa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs are wireless communication networks which support cooperative driving among vehicles on the road. The specific characteristics of VANETs favor the development of attractive and challenging services and applications which rely on message exchanging among vehicles. These communication capabilities depend directly on the existence of nearby vehicles able to exchange information. Therefore, higher vehicle densities favor the communication among vehicles. However, vehicular communications are also strongly affected by the topology of the map (i.e., wireless signal could be attenuated due to the distance between the sender and receiver, and obstacles usually block signal transmission. In this paper, we study the influence of the roadmap topology and the number of vehicles when accounting for the vehicular communications capabilities, especially in urban scenarios. Additionally, we consider the use of two parameters: the SJ Ratio (SJR and the Total Distance (TD, as the topology-related factors that better correlate with communications performance. Finally, we propose the use of a new density metric based on the number of vehicles, the complexity of the roadmap, and its maximum capacity. Hence, researchers will be able to accurately characterize the different urban scenarios and better validate their proposals related to cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems based on vehicular communications.

  19. Neutron and photon transport calculations in fusion system. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    On the application of MCNP to the neutron and {gamma}-ray transport calculations for fusion reactor system, the wide range design calculation has been carried out in the engineering design activities for the international thermonuclear fusion experimental reactor (ITER) being developed jointly by Japan, USA, EU and Russia. As the objects of shielding calculation for fusion reactors, there are the assessment of dose equivalent rate for living body shielding and the assessment of the nuclear response for the soundness of in-core structures. In the case that the detailed analysis of complicated three-dimensional shapes is required, the assessment using MCNP has been carried out. Also when the nuclear response of peripheral equipment due to the gap streaming between blanket modules is evaluated with good accuracy, the calculation with MCNP has been carried out. The analyses of the shieldings for blanket modules and NBI port are explained, and the examples of the results of analyses are shown. In the blanket modules, there are penetrating holes and continuous gap. In the case of the NBI port, shielding plug cannot be installed. These facts necessitate the MCNP analysis with high accuracy. (K.I.)

  20. Non-equilibrium Transport in Carbon based Adsorbate Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürst, Joachim; Brandbyge, Mads; Stokbro, Kurt; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2007-03-01

    We have used the Atomistix Tool Kit(ATK) and TranSIESTA[1] packages to investigate adsorption of iron atoms on a graphene sheet. The technique of both codes is based on density functional theory using local basis sets[2], and non-equilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) to calculate the charge distribution under external bias. Spin dependent electronic structure calculations are performed for different iron coverages. These reveal adsorption site dependent charge transfer from iron to graphene leading to screening effects. Transport calculations show spin dependent scattering of the transmission which is analysed obtaining the transmission eigenchannels for each spin type. The phenomena of electromigration of iron in these systems at finite bias will be discussed, estimating the so-called wind force from the reflection[3]. [1] M. Brandbyge, J.-L. Mozos, P. Ordejon, J. Taylor, and K. Stokbro. Physical Review B (Condensed Matter and Materials Physics), 65(16):165401/11-7, 2002. [2] Jose M. Soler, Emilio Artacho, Julian D. Gale, Alberto Garcia, Javier Junquera, Pablo Ordejon, and Daniel Sanchez-Portal. Journal of Physics Condensed Matter, 14(11):2745-2779, 2002. [3] Sorbello. Theory of electromigration. Solid State Physics, 1997.

  1. Effects of burstiness on the air transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hidetaka; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    The effects of burstiness in complex networks have received considerable attention. In particular, the effects on temporal distance and delays in the air transportation system are significant owing to their huge impact on our society. Therefore, in this paper, the temporal distance of empirical U.S. flight schedule data is compared with that of regularized data without burstiness to analyze the effects of burstiness. The temporal distance is calculated by a graph analysis method considering flight delays, missed connections, flight cancellations, and congestion. In addition, we propose two temporal distance indexes based on passengers' behavior to quantify the effects. As a result, we find that burstiness reduces both the scheduled and the actual temporal distances for business travelers, while delays caused by missed connections and congestion are increased. We also find that the decrease of the scheduled temporal distance by burstiness is offset by an increase of the delays for leisure passengers. Moreover, we discover that the positive effect of burstiness is lost when flight schedules are overcrowded.

  2. Geographic Information Systems-Transportation ISTEA management systems server-net prototype pooled fund study: Phase B summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, J. Jr.; Dean, C.D.; Armstrong, H.M. [and others

    1997-06-01

    The Geographic Information System-Transportation (GIS-T) ISTEA Management Systems Server Net Prototype Pooled Fund Study represents the first national cooperative effort in the transportation industry to address the management and monitoring systems as well as the statewide and metropolitan transportation planning requirements of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). The Study was initiated in November 1993 through the Alliance for Transportation Research and under the leadership of the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department. Sandia National Laboratories, an Alliance partner, and Geographic Paradigm Computing. Inc. provided technical leadership for the project. In 1992, the Alliance for Transportation Research, the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department, Sandia National Laboratories, and Geographic Paradigm Computing, Inc., proposed a comprehensive research agenda for GIS-T. That program outlined a national effort to synthesize new transportation policy initiatives (e.g., management systems and Intelligent Transportation Systems) with the GIS-T server net ideas contained in the NCHRP project {open_quotes}Adaptation of GIS to Transportation{close_quotes}. After much consultation with state, federal, and private interests, a project proposal based on this agenda was prepared and resulted in this Study. The general objective of the Study was to develop GIS-T server net prototypes supporting the ISTEA requirements for transportation planning and management and monitoring systems. This objective can be further qualified to: (1) Create integrated information system architectures and design requirements encompassing transportation planning activities and data. (2) Encourage the development of functional GIS-T server net prototypes. (3) Demonstrate multiple information systems implemented in a server net environment.

  3. Geographic Information Systems-Transportation ISTEA management systems server-net prototype pooled fund study: Phase B summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, J. Jr.; Dean, C.D.; Armstrong, H.M. [and others

    1997-06-01

    The Geographic Information System-Transportation (GIS-T) ISTEA Management Systems Server Net Prototype Pooled Fund Study represents the first national cooperative effort in the transportation industry to address the management and monitoring systems as well as the statewide and metropolitan transportation planning requirements of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). The Study was initiated in November 1993 through the Alliance for Transportation Research and under the leadership of the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department. Sandia National Laboratories, an Alliance partner, and Geographic Paradigm Computing. Inc. provided technical leadership for the project. In 1992, the Alliance for Transportation Research, the New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department, Sandia National Laboratories, and Geographic Paradigm Computing, Inc., proposed a comprehensive research agenda for GIS-T. That program outlined a national effort to synthesize new transportation policy initiatives (e.g., management systems and Intelligent Transportation Systems) with the GIS-T server net ideas contained in the NCHRP project {open_quotes}Adaptation of GIS to Transportation{close_quotes}. After much consultation with state, federal, and private interests, a project proposal based on this agenda was prepared and resulted in this Study. The general objective of the Study was to develop GIS-T server net prototypes supporting the ISTEA requirements for transportation planning and management and monitoring systems. This objective can be further qualified to: (1) Create integrated information system architectures and design requirements encompassing transportation planning activities and data. (2) Encourage the development of functional GIS-T server net prototypes. (3) Demonstrate multiple information systems implemented in a server net environment.

  4. BioEnergy transport systems. Life cycle assessment of selected bioenergy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Goeran

    1999-07-01

    Biomass for energy conversion is usually considered as a local resource. With appropriate logistic systems, access to biomass can be improved over a large geographical area. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as method to investigate the environmental impacts of selected bioenergy transport chains. As a case study, chains starting in Sweden and ending in Holland have been investigated. Biomass originates from tree sections or forest residues, the latter upgraded to bales or pellets. The study is concentrated on production of electricity, hot cooling water is considered as a loss. Electricity is, as the main case, produced from solid biomass in the importing country. Electricity can also be produced in the country of origin and exported via the trans-national grid as transportation media. As an alternative, a comparison is made with a coal cycle. The results show that contribution of emissions from long-range transportation is of minor importance. The use of fuels and electricity for operating machines and transportation carriers requires a net energy input in bioenergy systems which amounts to typically 7-9% of delivered electrical energy from the system. Emissions of key substances such as NO{sub x}, CO, S, hydrocarbons, and particles are low. Emissions of CO{sub 2} from biocombustion are considered to be zero since there is approximately no net contribution of carbon to the biosphere in an energy system based on biomass. A method to quantify non-renewability is presented. For coal, the non-renewability factor is calculated to be 110%. For most of the cases with bioenergy, the non-renewability factor is calculated to be between 6 and 11%. Reclamation of biomass results in certain losses of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and base cations such as K, Ca and Mg. These are balanced by weathering, vitalisation or ash recirculation procedures. Withdrawal of N from the ecological system is approximately 10 times the load from the technical

  5. BioEnergy transport systems. Life cycle assessment of selected bioenergy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Goeran

    1999-07-01

    Biomass for energy conversion is usually considered as a local resource. With appropriate logistic systems, access to biomass can be improved over a large geographical area. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as method to investigate the environmental impacts of selected bioenergy transport chains. As a case study, chains starting in Sweden and ending in Holland have been investigated. Biomass originates from tree sections or forest residues, the latter upgraded to bales or pellets. The study is concentrated on production of electricity, hot cooling water is considered as a loss. Electricity is, as the main case, produced from solid biomass in the importing country. Electricity can also be produced in the country of origin and exported via the trans-national grid as transportation media. As an alternative, a comparison is made with a coal cycle. The results show that contribution of emissions from long-range transportation is of minor importance. The use of fuels and electricity for operating machines and transportation carriers requires a net energy input in bioenergy systems which amounts to typically 7-9% of delivered electrical energy from the system. Emissions of key substances such as NO{sub x}, CO, S, hydrocarbons, and particles are low. Emissions of CO{sub 2} from biocombustion are considered to be zero since there is approximately no net contribution of carbon to the biosphere in an energy system based on biomass. A method to quantify non-renewability is presented. For coal, the non-renewability factor is calculated to be 110%. For most of the cases with bioenergy, the non-renewability factor is calculated to be between 6 and 11%. Reclamation of biomass results in certain losses of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and base cations such as K, Ca and Mg. These are balanced by weathering, vitalisation or ash recirculation procedures. Withdrawal of N from the ecological system is approximately 10 times the load from the technical

  6. Characterization of loxoprofen transport in Caco-2 cells: the involvement of a proton-dependent transport system in the intestinal transport of loxoprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narumi, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Masaki; Kondo, Ayuko; Furugen, Ayako; Yamada, Takehiro; Takahashi, Natsuko; Iseki, Ken

    2016-11-01

    Loxoprofen, a propionate non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), is used widely in East Asian countries. However, little is known about the transport mechanisms contributing to its intestinal absorption. The objectives of this study were to characterize the intestinal transport of loxoprofen using the human intestinal Caco-2 cell model. The transport of loxoprofen was investigated in cellular uptake studies. The uptake of loxoprofen into Caco-2 cells was pH- and concentration-dependent, and was described by a Michaelis-Menten equation with passive diffusion (Km : 4.8 mm, Vmax : 142 nmol/mg protein/30 s, and Kd : 2.2 μl/mg protein/30 s). Moreover, the uptake of loxoprofen was inhibited by a typical monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) inhibitor as well as by various monocarboxylates. The uptake of [(14) C] l-lactic acid, a typical MCT substrate, in Caco-2 cells was saturable with relatively high affinity for MCT. Because loxoprofen inhibited the uptake of [(14) C] l-lactic acid in a noncompetitive manner, it was unlikely that loxoprofen uptake was mediated by high-affinity MCT(s). Our results suggest that transport of loxoprofen in Caco-2 cells is, at least in part, mediated by a proton-dependent transport system. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Energy material transport, now through 2000, system characteristics and potential problems. Task 3. Final report - petroleum transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSteese, J.G.

    1979-03-01

    This report contains a summary characterization of the petroleum transportation system and an assessment of some potential problems that may impact petroleum transportation in the United States during the balance of the century. A primary purpose of this task is to provide information and perspective that contribute to the evaluation of research and development needs and priorities in future programs. The system characterization in Section 3 includes a review of petroleum product movements, modal operations and comparisons, and transportation regulations and safety. This system overview summarizes domestic production and consumption scenarios to the year 2000. A median scenario based on published projections shows that the US will probably rely on foreign oil to supply between 40 and 50 percent of domestic petroleum needs throughout the balance of the century. Potential problems in petroleum transportation were identified by the analysis and prioritization of current issues. The relative priorities of problem concerns were judged on the basis of their overall impact on the system and the immediacy of this potential impact. Two classes of concern are distinguished: 1. Potential problems that appear to require new programmatic action, in addition to effort already committed, to minimize the possible future impact of these concerns. 2. Latent concerns that may increase or decrease in priority or entirely change in nature as they develop. While the trend of these concerns should be monitored, new program action does not appear necessary at this time.

  8. Road transport management system: a self regulation initiative to promote load optimisation, vehicle maintenance and driver wellness in heavy vehicle transport in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available vehicle transport industry through a Road Transport Management System (RTMS) with the aim of contributing to the road authorities’ efforts to address the above problems. During 2003 a heavy vehicle accreditation scheme was developed and implemented...

  9. Transport Aircraft System Identification from Wind Tunnel Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick C.; Klein, Vladislav

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have been undertaken to investigate and develop aerodynamic models that predict aircraft response in nonlinear unsteady flight regimes for transport configurations. The models retain conventional static and rotary dynamic terms but replace conventional acceleration terms with more general indicial functions. In the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Controls project of the NASA Aviation Safety Program one aspect of the research is to apply these current developments to transport configurations to facilitate development of advanced controls technology. This paper describes initial application of a more general modeling methodology to the NASA Langley Generic Transport Model, a sub-scale flight test vehicle.

  10. Feed gas contaminant removal in ion transport membrane systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Richard Paul [Allentown, PA; Makitka, III, Alexander; Carolan, Michael Francis [Allentown, PA

    2012-04-03

    An oxygen ion transport membrane process wherein a heated oxygen-containing gas having one or more contaminants is contacted with a reactive solid material to remove the one or more contaminants. The reactive solid material is provided as a deposit on a support. The one or more contaminant compounds in the heated oxygen-containing gas react with the reactive solid material. The contaminant-depleted oxygen-containing gas is contacted with a membrane, and oxygen is transported through the membrane to provide transported oxygen.

  11. Charge Transport by Superexchange in Molecular Host-Guest Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symalla, Franz; Friederich, Pascal; Massé, Andrea; Meded, Velimir; Coehoorn, Reinder; Bobbert, Peter; Wenzel, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    Charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors is generally described as a result of incoherent hopping between localized states. In this work, we focus on multicomponent emissive host-guest layers as used in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), and show using multiscale ab initio based modeling that charge transport can be significantly enhanced by the coherent process of molecular superexchange. Superexchange increases the rate of emitter-to-emitter hopping, in particular if the emitter molecules act as relatively deep trap states, and allows for percolation path formation in charge transport at low guest concentrations.

  12. 76 FR 9590 - Fisheries and Habitat Conservation and Migratory Birds Programs; Draft Land-Based Wind Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ...; Draft Land-Based Wind Energy Guidelines AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... comment of draft Wind Energy Guidelines (Guidelines). These draft Guidelines are intended to supersede the... intended to respond to accelerated development of land-based, wind energy generation projects in the...

  13. Design of a robotic automation system for transportation of goods in hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özkil, Ali Gürcan; Fan, Zhun; Sørensen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    Hospitals face with heavy traffic of goods everyday, where transportation tasks are mainly carried by human. Analysis of the current situation of transportation in a typical hospital showed several transportation tasks are suitable for automation. This paper presents a system, consisting of a fleet...... of robot vehicles, automatic stations and smart containers for automation of transportation of goods in hospitals. Design of semi-autonomous robot vehicles, containers and stations are presented and the overall system architecture is described. Implementing such a system in an existing hospital showed...

  14. OBSOLESCENCE ANALYSIS OF MAINTENANCE AND OPERATION OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEMS. CASE STUDY: TRAMWAY OF ORADEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CSUZI I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of transport infrastructure and vehicles is important cost element of the budget of local transport companies, cost reduction is optimized by adapting appropriate strategies. Obsolescence can directly and indirectly influence the operation and maintenance of public transport systems. Challenged by the technical wear and lack of spare parts, it is impossible to cover increased needs with amenities to the given level. The reliability and availability of transport systems will be adapted at minimal cost and maximum safety criteria. Case study: the tram system in Oradea.

  15. The Adaptation of Ways and Methods of Risk Minimization in Local Payment Systems in Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdaev Mausar Yushaevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems of risk management gain special relevance in the conditions of payment systems development in public passenger transport in Russia. The risk carriers as well as the sources of their occurrence are revealed; the characteristics of private risks of individual participants in the system of public passenger transport are presented. The directions of risk management in relation to the payment system in public transport are reasoned and structured. It is proved that the choice of specific ways to minimize the risks in local payment systems in public transport is conditioned by the following factors – the nature of the payment system integration in public transport areas, the temporary nature of risk components effect due to the improvement of organizational, economic and technological factors, the change of the stages of payment systems development, the evaluation of risks effects. The article reasons the possibility of using and adjusting traditional ways (risk evasion, risk compensation, decrease in risk level, risk transfer, distribution of risk between participants and the methods of risk management in the payment systems in public transport according to the stages of their development and functioning for the processing center, passenger motor transport organizations, financial center and passengers (payers. The authors justify the directions of integrating the local payment systems of public transport in the national payment system, taking into account the risks involved in the activity of its members.

  16. Computer-Based Decision Support for Railroad Transportation Systems: an Investment Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita DUTA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the development of the economical and social life increased the complexity of transportation systems. In this context, the role of Decision Support Systems (DSS became more and more important. The paper presents the characteristics, necessity, and usage of DSS in transportation and describes a practical application in the railroad field. To compute the optimal transportation capacity and flow on a certain railroad, specialized decision-support software which is available on the market was used.

  17. System and method for temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Sean M.

    2017-02-21

    A system and method for temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor is provided. The system and method involves introducing a specific quantity of cooling air or trim air in between stages in a multistage oxygen transport membrane based reactor or furnace to maintain generally consistent surface temperatures of the oxygen transport membrane elements and associated reactors. The associated reactors may include reforming reactors, boilers or process gas heaters.

  18. System and method for air temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean M

    2016-09-27

    A system and method for air temperature control in an oxygen transport membrane based reactor is provided. The system and method involves introducing a specific quantity of cooling air or trim air in between stages in a multistage oxygen transport membrane based reactor or furnace to maintain generally consistent surface temperatures of the oxygen transport membrane elements and associated reactors. The associated reactors may include reforming reactors, boilers or process gas heaters.

  19. Formation of transport-logistical systems in the conditions of reforming railway branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Kopytko

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The trends of transport-logistic systems formation in conditions of the railway transport reformation in Ukraine, taking into consideration the work experience of the logistic structures of the motor transport, demands of the regional bodies of local government, peculiarities of cross-border cooperation, goods advancement technologies on the basis of mixed approach and concepts of creating the logistic clusters are examined. The formation of logistic transportation systems using technological and competitive components, having conducted a classification of mediators, and on the basis of the above mentioned factors the reduction of transport component that will promote the increased interest of the goods owners in transportation and choice of the kind of transport is offered.

  20. Operational Efficiency of Public Transport System in Kwara State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... While the public Corporations are established by governments, private service operations are ... Data were also collected from records of the Transport Corporation relating to passenger traffic, bus ...

  1. Two independent anion transport systems in rabbit mandibular salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Young, J A

    1986-01-01

    Cholinergically stimulated Cl and HCO3 transport in perfused rabbit mandibular glands has been studied with extracellular anion substitution and administration of transport inhibitors. In glands perfused with HCO3-free solutions, replacement of Cl with other anions supported secretion in the foll......Cholinergically stimulated Cl and HCO3 transport in perfused rabbit mandibular glands has been studied with extracellular anion substitution and administration of transport inhibitors. In glands perfused with HCO3-free solutions, replacement of Cl with other anions supported secretion...... stimulated secretion by about 30%, but when infused in addition to furosemide (0.1 mmol/l), it inhibited by about 20%. Amiloride (1.0 mmol/l) caused no inhibition. The results suggest that there are at least three distinct carriers in the rabbit mandibular gland. One is a furosemide-sensitive Na-coupled Cl...

  2. DANTSYS: A diffusion accelerated neutral particle transport code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcouffe, R.E.; Baker, R.S.; Brinkley, F.W.; Marr, D.R.; O`Dell, R.D.; Walters, W.F.

    1995-06-01

    The DANTSYS code package includes the following transport codes: ONEDANT, TWODANT, TWODANT/GQ, TWOHEX, and THREEDANT. The DANTSYS code package is a modular computer program package designed to solve the time-independent, multigroup discrete ordinates form of the boltzmann transport equation in several different geometries. The modular construction of the package separates the input processing, the transport equation solving, and the post processing (or edit) functions into distinct code modules: the Input Module, one or more Solver Modules, and the Edit Module, respectively. The Input and Edit Modules are very general in nature and are common to all the Solver Modules. The ONEDANT Solver Module contains a one-dimensional (slab, cylinder, and sphere), time-independent transport equation solver using the standard diamond-differencing method for space/angle discretization. Also included in the package are solver Modules named TWODANT, TWODANT/GQ, THREEDANT, and TWOHEX. The TWODANT Solver Module solves the time-independent two-dimensional transport equation using the diamond-differencing method for space/angle discretization. The authors have also introduced an adaptive weighted diamond differencing (AWDD) method for the spatial and angular discretization into TWODANT as an option. The TWOHEX Solver Module solves the time-independent two-dimensional transport equation on an equilateral triangle spatial mesh. The THREEDANT Solver Module solves the time independent, three-dimensional transport equation for XYZ and RZ{Theta} symmetries using both diamond differencing with set-to-zero fixup and the AWDD method. The TWODANT/GQ Solver Module solves the 2-D transport equation in XY and RZ symmetries using a spatial mesh of arbitrary quadrilaterals. The spatial differencing method is based upon the diamond differencing method with set-to-zero fixup with changes to accommodate the generalized spatial meshing.

  3. Large Potential Exists in China's Oil & Gas Transportation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gordon Feller

    2002-01-01

    @@ As China in the decades ahead is to go through significant reorganization in the power sector and the petrochemical industry will see considerable growth,the transportation infrastructure for petroleum and gas should have a new shape. Implementing the largest infrastructure projects and creating on this basis a modern transportation network will not only see a new reincarnation of traditional industrial centers, but also open wider opportunities for regional development.

  4. FEATURES FOR TRANSPORT AND AIR MECHANICAL SYSTEMS OF DANGEROUS GOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Dumitru BUSA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Transport of dangerous goods are regulated activities, they take place under the direction and control of the authorities and specialized bodies in an institutional framework determined by national and international law. Of economic, transport infrastructure is the crucial element without which both production and trade would become meaningless, it is an essential element of a civilization, is also a necessary accessory of other economic activities.

  5. Particle Simulations of DARHT-II Transport System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, B; Chen, Y J

    2001-06-11

    The DARHT-II beam line utilizes a fast stripline kicker to temporally chop a high current electron beam from a single induction LINAC and deliver multiple temporal electron beam pulses to an x-ray converter target. High beam quality needs to be maintained throughout the transport line from the end of the accelerator through the final focus lens to the x-ray converter target to produce a high quality radiographic image. Issues that will affect beam quality such as spot size and emittance at the converter target include dynamic effects associated with the stripline kicker as well as emittance growth due to the nonlinear forces associated with the kicker and various focusing elements in the transport line. In addition, dynamic effects associated with transverse resistive wall instability as well as gas focusing will affect the beam transport. A particle-in-cell code is utilized to evaluate beam transport in the downstream transport line in DARHT-II. External focusing forces are included utilizing either analytic expressions or field maps. Models for wakefields from the beam kicker, transverse resistive wall instability, and gas focusing are included in the simulation to provide a more complete picture of beam transport in DARHT-II. From these simulations, for various initial beam loads based on expected accelerator performance the temporally integrated target spot size and emittance can be estimated.

  6. Normal and impaired charge transport in biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, John H., E-mail: jhmiller@uh.edu [Department of Physics & Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Villagrán, Martha Y. Suárez; Maric, Sladjana [Department of Physics & Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Briggs, James M. [Department of Biology & Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5001 (United States)

    2015-03-01

    We examine the physics behind some of the causes (e.g., hole migration and localization that cause incorrect base pairing in DNA) and effects (due to amino acid replacements affecting mitochondrial charge transport) of disease-implicated point mutations, with emphasis on mutations affecting mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). First we discuss hole transport and localization in DNA, including some of our quantum mechanical modeling results, as they relate to certain mutations in cancer. Next, we give an overview of electron and proton transport in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and how such transport can become impaired by mutations implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and other major illnesses. In particular, we report on our molecular dynamics (MD) studies of a leucine→arginine amino acid replacement in ATP synthase, encoded by the T→G point mutation at locus 8993 of mtDNA. This mutation causes Leigh syndrome, a devastating maternally inherited neuromuscular disorder, and has been found to trigger rapid tumor growth in prostate cancer cell lines. Our MD results suggest, for the first time, that this mutation adversely affects water channels that transport protons to and from the c-ring of the rotary motor ATP synthase, thus impairing the ability of the motor to produce ATP. Finally, we discuss possible future research topics for biological physics, such as mitochondrial complex I, a large proton-pumping machine whose physics remains poorly understood.

  7. Particle Simulations of DARHT-II Transport System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, B; Chen, Y J

    2001-06-11

    The DARHT-II beam line utilizes a fast stripline kicker to temporally chop a high current electron beam from a single induction LINAC and deliver multiple temporal electron beam pulses to an x-ray converter target. High beam quality needs to be maintained throughout the transport line from the end of the accelerator through the final focus lens to the x-ray converter target to produce a high quality radiographic image. Issues that will affect beam quality such as spot size and emittance at the converter target include dynamic effects associated with the stripline kicker as well as emittance growth due to the nonlinear forces associated with the kicker and various focusing elements in the transport line. In addition, dynamic effects associated with transverse resistive wall instability as well as gas focusing will affect the beam transport. A particle-in-cell code is utilized to evaluate beam transport in the downstream transport line in DARHT-II. External focusing forces are included utilizing either analytic expressions or field maps. Models for wakefields from the beam kicker, transverse resistive wall instability, and gas focusing are included in the simulation to provide a more complete picture of beam transport in DARHT-II. From these simulations, for various initial beam loads based on expected accelerator performance the temporally integrated target spot size and emittance can be estimated.

  8. Scheduling vehicles in automated transportation systems Algorithms and case study: Algorithms and case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der Matthieu; Ebben, Mark; Gademann, Noud; Harten, van Aart

    2002-01-01

    One of the major planning issues in large scale automated transportation systems is so-called empty vehicle management, the timely supply of vehicles to terminals in order to reduce cargo waiting times. Motivated by a Dutch pilot project on an underground cargo transportation system using Automated

  9. Analysis on the Chinese Urban Sustainable Development Demands for the Management Plan of Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵历男

    2002-01-01

    This article analyzes the demands of the sustainable development and Chinese urban environmental protection for the management plan of intelligent transportation systems. The article also comments on how to work out the management plan of intelligent transportation systems with China's own characteristics.

  10. 76 FR 31673 - ITS Joint Program Office; Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... ITS Joint Program Office; Intelligent Transportation Systems Program Advisory Committee; Notice of... (FACA) (Pub. L. 72-363; 5 U.S.C. app.), a meeting of the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Program Advisory Committee (ITS PAC). The meeting will be held on June 17, 2011, from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m....

  11. Dynamic airspace configuration algorithms for next generation air transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jian

    The National Airspace System (NAS) is under great pressure to safely and efficiently handle the record-high air traffic volume nowadays, and will face even greater challenge to keep pace with the steady increase of future air travel demand, since the air travel demand is projected to increase to two to three times the current level by 2025. The inefficiency of traffic flow management initiatives causes severe airspace congestion and frequent flight delays, which cost billions of economic losses every year. To address the increasingly severe airspace congestion and delays, the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is proposed to transform the current static and rigid radar based system to a dynamic and flexible satellite based system. New operational concepts such as Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) have been under development to allow more flexibility required to mitigate the demand-capacity imbalances in order to increase the throughput of the entire NAS. In this dissertation, we address the DAC problem in the en route and terminal airspace under the framework of NextGen. We develop a series of algorithms to facilitate the implementation of innovative concepts relevant with DAC in both the en route and terminal airspace. We also develop a performance evaluation framework for comprehensive benefit analyses on different aspects of future sector design algorithms. First, we complete a graph based sectorization algorithm for DAC in the en route airspace, which models the underlying air route network with a weighted graph, converts the sectorization problem into the graph partition problem, partitions the weighted graph with an iterative spectral bipartition method, and constructs the sectors from the partitioned graph. The algorithm uses a graph model to accurately capture the complex traffic patterns of the real flights, and generates sectors with high efficiency while evenly distributing the workload among the generated sectors. We further improve

  12. Shield construction methods. Recent status and examples of development of material transportation systems; Shirudo koho. Saikin no shizai hanso system kaihatsu genkyo to jirei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochizuki, M.; Tazaki, A.; Makigami, S. [Tomoe Electric Manufacturing Company, Limited, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-03-25

    Material transportation in a shield construction is assigned to transporting segments, aggregates, and pipes, particularly the segment transportation being the major assignment. Other materials are transported in spare moments between the segment transportation as required. The other materials can often be transported by utilizing segment transporting vehicles. Thus, for a transportation system in the shield construction, a segment transportation system which can synchronize with construction cycles based on those for a shield excavation machine is considered most importantly, and developed as the main force. The segment transportation system is classified into a rail type transportation system and a tire type transportation system. A high-speed transportation system of the former type transports materials at as high speed as 8 to 15 km/h. An Abt-system railway type steep-slope transportation system operates on slopes as steep as 20 to 40%. The tire transportation system is advantageous from an environmental preservation viewpoint. This paper introduces examples of constructions using a high-speed construction system for long tunnel construction, a steep-slope material transportation system, and an automatic trackless system. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. 41 CFR 102-118.170 - Will GSA continue to maintain a centralized numbering system for Government transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... maintain a centralized numbering system for Government transportation documents? 102-118.170 Section 102-118.170 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System... centralized numbering system for Government transportation documents? Yes, GSA will maintain a...

  14. Safety of high speed magnetic levitation transportation systems. Preliminary safety review of the transrapid maglev system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorer, R. M.; Hathaway, W. T.

    1990-11-01

    The safety of various magnetically levitated trains under development for possible implementation in the United States is of direct concern to the Federal Railroad Administration. Safety issues are addressed related to a specific maglev technology. The Transrapid maglev system was under development by the German Government over the last 10 to 15 years and was evolved into the current system with the TR-07 vehicle. A technically based safety review was under way over the last year by the U.S. Department of Transportation. The initial results of the review are presented to identify and assess potential maglev safety issues.

  15. Enhancing stakeholder participation in land-based adaptation to environmental change with photo elicitation and photovoice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Barron; Kong, Taryn; Kellner, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Land degradation is one of the main environmental changes confronting South Africa. Active participation from local land users to adopt land-based adaptation to land degradation is necessary for at least two obvious reasons. Firstly, most of the lands in South Africa are privately owned. Secondly, the costs for adapting to land degradation are substantial and are not feasible for an individual entity to afford. Land-based adaptation includes management practices that can reduce the vulnerability of land users to the threats posed by land degradation. To engage land users to participate in land-based adaptation, approaches to allow diverse stakeholders to effectively communicate their observations, knowledge and perspectives are needed. In addition to semi-structured interviews, photo elicitation and photovoice were implemented to engage 25 local livestock farmers from two rural areas in the South African Kalahari - Mier and Molopo - in a participatory research project. The results showed that photo elicitation enhanced stakeholder interaction relative to semi-structured interviews in a number of ways. Firstly, photo elicitation provided more details and new information beyond those in semi-structured interviews. Secondly, photo elicitation also allowed stakeholders to more easily communicate personal or concrete examples, comparisons, contrasts, explanatory information, attitudes and values. The results also showed that photovoice created opportunities for mutual learning among the participants. These enhancements have the potential to improve co-production of knowledge and quality of stakeholder engagement. Improvement in stakeholder engagement can in turn contribute toward land-based adaptation that is more locally relevant and a greater degree of translation of scientific advancement into actual adaptation practices.

  16. System dynamics modeling of the impact of Internet-of-Things on intelligent urban transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Phil

    2015-01-01

    Urban transportation systems are at the cusp of a major transformation that capitalizes on the proliferation of the Internet-of-Things (IoT), autonomous and cooperative vehicular and intelligent roadway technologies, advanced traffic management systems, and big data analytics. The benefits of these smart-transportation technologies were investigated using System Dynamics modeling, with particular emphasis towards vehicle sharing, intelligent highway systems, and smart-parking solutions. The m...

  17. SYSTEM OF BUSINESS-PROCESSES MANAGEMENT AT MOTOR-TRANSPORT ENTERPRISE

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The place of the system of business-processes management at motor-transport enterprise in the general system of management of the enterprise has been substantiated. The subsystems of strategic management, business-processes management of strategic orientation and current activity, processes of enterprise functioning management have been marked out. The system of motor-transport enterprise business-processes management has been formed, which, unlike the existing ones, is based on the system-cy...

  18. Diagnosis of Transport Activity as a Component of the Enterprise Logistical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrynkovskyy Ruslan M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the essence of the concept of “diagnosis of the enterprise transport activity”, by which there should be meant a process of evaluating the state of movement (transportation, carrying of freight (material resources, work in process or finished products by one type of transport facilities or their combination in accordance with the applied transport system and trends of its changes as well as determining the future prospects on the basis of sound management decisions in order to ensure a successful operation and development of the enterprise in the competitive environment. It has been found that the key business-indicators of the diagnosis system of transport activity as a component of the enterprise logistical system are: the coefficient of timeliness of freight transportation (delivery; coefficient of completeness of transportation; coefficient of freight safety conditions; coefficient of efficiency of freight transportation; coefficient of complexity of servicing freight owners; coefficient of satisfaction of freight owners’ demand, coefficient of readiness to operation of transport facilities per working day; coefficient of using vehicle kilometers travelled; coefficient of extensity of transport facility packing.

  19. The Passenger Satisfaction Survey in the Regional Integrated Public Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Valaskova

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the Quality criteria Method of the Servicesin the Integrated Public Transport System in Slovak Republic.The proposed method is based on the detailed list of theQuality criteria of the Services in Public Transport from theview of passengers. The criteria are determined based on theSlovak Technical Norm STN EN 138 16 which is related toquality of transport. The method has been applied in RegionalIntegrated Public Transport System of Zilina (ZRIDS in theform of Passenger Quality Satisfaction Survey.

  20. Comparative analysis of options for sustainable transport and traffic systems in the twenty first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijkamp, P.; Rienstra, S.; Vleugel, J. [Economic and Social Institute, Free University, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van Geenhuizen, M. [UCL, London (United Kingdom); Van der Heijden, E.; Rooijers, T. [VSC, Haren (Netherlands); Smokers, R. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Visser, J. [OTB, Delft (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    In this project on future sustainable transport alternatives a two-step search process has been followed. First, an analysis of critical success and failure factors of new technological options in passenger transport is made. These factors are found in the spatial, institutional, economic and social/psychological environment of the transport system. Next, systematically structured and expert based scenarios are constructed in order to achieve a sustainable transport system in the year 2030 in which possible, expected and desired developments in the distinct fields are analyzed. 2 figs., 2 refs.