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Sample records for lamprey lampetra fluviatilis

  1. Phylogeographical analysis reveals multiple conservation units in brook lampreys Lampetra planeri of Portuguese streams.

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    Pereira, A M; Robalo, J I; Freyhof, J; Maia, C; Fonseca, J P; Valente, A; Almada, V C

    2010-08-01

    The populations of brook lamprey Lampetra planeri of Portuguese Rivers were analysed phylogeographically using a fragment of 644 bp of the mitochondrial control region of 158 individuals from six populations. Samples representing L. planeri and migratory lampreys Lampetra fluviatilis of rivers draining to the North Sea and the Baltic Sea were also included to assess the relationships of Portuguese samples. The data support a clear differentiation of all the populations studied. Several populations, which are isolated among themselves and also from the migratory lampreys, proved to be entirely composed of private haplotypes, a finding that supports some time of independent evolutionary history for these populations. This, combined with the geographic confinement to small water bodies, justifies the recognition of at least four conservation units in the Portuguese rivers Sado, São Pedro, Nabão and Inha.

  2. On the Mechanism(s of Membrane Permeability Transition in Liver Mitochondria of Lamprey, Lampetra fluviatilis L.: Insights from Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Belyaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously we have shown that opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in its low conductance state is the case in hepatocytes of the Baltic lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis L. during reversible metabolic depression taking place in the period of its prespawning migration when the exogenous feeding is switched off. The depression is observed in the last year of the lamprey life cycle and is conditioned by reversible mitochondrial dysfunction (mitochondrial uncoupling in winter and coupling in spring. To further elucidate the mechanism(s of induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in the lamprey liver, we used Cd2+ and Ca2+ plus Pi as the pore inducers. We found that Ca2+ plus Pi induced the high-amplitude swelling of the isolated “winter” mitochondria both in isotonic sucrose and ammonium nitrate medium while both low and high Cd2+ did not produce the mitochondrial swelling in these media. Low Cd2+ enhanced the inhibition of basal respiration rate of the “winter” mitochondria energized by NAD-dependent substrates whereas the same concentrations of the heavy metal evoked its partial stimulation on FAD-dependent substrates. The above changes produced by Cd2+ or Ca2+ plus Pi in the “winter” mitochondria were only weakly (if so sensitive to cyclosporine A (a potent pharmacological desensitizer of the nonselective pore added alone and they were not sensitive to dithiothreitol (a dithiol reducing agent. Under monitoring of the transmembrane potential of the “spring” lamprey liver mitochondria, we revealed that Cd2+ produced its decrease on both types of the respiratory substrates used that was strongly hampered by cyclosporine A, and the membrane potential was partially restored by dithiothreitol. The effects of different membrane permeability modulators on the lamprey liver mitochondria function and the seasonal changes in their action are discussed.

  3. Genetic diversity, endemism and phylogeny of lampreys within the genus Lampetra sensu stricto (Petromyzontiformes: Petromyzontidae) in western North America.

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    Boguski, D A; Reid, S B; Goodman, D H; Docker, M F

    2012-11-01

    Phylogenetic structure of four Lampetra species from the Pacific drainage of North America (western brook lamprey Lampetra richardsoni, Pacific brook lamprey Lampetra pacifica, river lamprey Lampetra ayresii and Kern brook lamprey Lampetra hubbsi) and unidentified Lampetra specimens (referred to as Lampetra sp.) from 36 locations was estimated using the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inferences did not correspond with any taxonomic scheme proposed to date. Rather, although L. richardsoni (from Alaska to California) and L. ayresii (from British Columbia to California) together constituted a well-supported clade distinct from several genetically divergent Lampetra populations in Oregon and California, these two species were not reciprocally monophyletic. The genetically divergent populations included L. pacifica (from the Columbia River basin) and L. hubbsi (from the Kern River basin) and four Lampetra sp. populations in Oregon (Siuslaw River and Fourmile Creek) and California (Kelsey and Mark West Creeks). These four Lampetra sp. populations showed genetic divergence between 2.3 and 5.7% from any known species (and up to 8.0% from each other), and may represent morphologically cryptic and thus previously undescribed species. A fifth population (from Paynes Creek, California) may represent a range extension of L. hubbsi into the Upper Sacramento River. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. Distribution and seasonal differences in Pacific Lamprey and Lampetra spp eDNA across 18 Puget Sound watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, Carl O.; Chase, Dorothy M.; Hayes, Michael C.; Duda, Jeffrey J.

    2018-01-01

    Lampreys have a worldwide distribution, are functionally important to ecological communities and serve significant roles in many cultures. In Pacific coast drainages of North America, lamprey populations have suffered large declines. However, lamprey population status and trends within many areas of this region are unknown and such information is needed for advancing conservation goals. We developed two quantitative PCR-based, aquatic environmental DNA (eDNA) assays for detection of Pacific Lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) and Lampetra spp, using locked nucleic acids (LNAs) in the probe design. We used these assays to characterize the spatial distribution of lamprey in 18 watersheds of Puget Sound, Washington, by collecting water samples in spring and fall. Pacific Lamprey and Lampetraspp were each detected in 14 watersheds and co-occurred in 10 watersheds. Lamprey eDNA detection rates were much higher in spring compared to fall. Specifically, the Pacific Lamprey eDNA detection rate was 3.5 times higher in spring and the Lampetra spp eDNA detection rate was 1.5 times higher in spring even though larval lamprey are present in streams year-round. This significant finding highlights the importance of seasonality on eDNA detection. Higher stream discharge in the fall likely contributed to reduced eDNA detection rates, although seasonal life history events may have also contributed. These eDNA assays differentiate Pacific Lamprey and Lampetra spp across much of their range along the west coast of North America. Sequence analysis indicates the Pacific Lamprey assay also targets other Entosphenus spp and indicates the Lampetra spp assay may have limited or no capability of detecting Lampetra in some locations south of the Columbia River Basin. Nevertheless, these assays will serve as a valuable tool for resource managers and have direct application to lamprey conservation efforts, such as mapping species distributions, occupancy modeling, and monitoring

  5. Status report of the Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) in the Columbia River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, D.A.; Fitzpatrick, M.; Li, H.; James, G.

    1995-07-01

    The widespread decline of Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) in the Pacific Northwest, especially in the Columbia River system has led to concerns and questions from a number of regional agencies, Native American tribes, and the public. To address these concerns, new research efforts must focus on specific problems associated with this understudied species. The preservation and restoration of this species is critical for a number of reasons, including its importance to the tribes and its importance as an indicator of ecosystem health. Historically lamprey have been labeled a pest species due to the problems associated with the exotic sea lamprey, (Petromyzon marinus), invading the Great Lakes

  6. Status Report of the Pacific Lamprey (Lampetra Trzdentata) in the Columbia River Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, David A.; Parker, Blaine; James, gary

    1995-07-01

    The widespread decline of Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) in the Pacific Northwest, especially in the Columbia River system has led to concerns and questions from a number of regional agencies, Native American tribes, and the public. To address these concerns, new research efforts must focus on specific problems associated with this understudied species. The preservation and restoration of this species is critical for a number of reasons, including its importance to the tribes and its importance as an indicator of ecosystem health. Historically lamprey have been labeled a pest species due to the problems associated with the exotic sea lamprey, (Petromyzon marinus), invading the Great Lakes.

  7. Cloning and analysis of an HMG gene from the lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharman, A C; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Holland, P W

    1997-01-01

    Evolution has shaped the organisation of vertebrate genomes, including the human genome. To shed further light on genome history, we have cloned and analysed an HMG gene from lamprey, representing one of the earliest vertebrate lineages. Genes of the HMG1/2 family encode chromosomal proteins...

  8. Lamprey immune protein-1 (LIP-1) from Lampetra japonica induces cell cycle arrest and cell death in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xiaoyuan; Su, Peng; Bi, Dan; Tai, Zhao; Li, Yingying; Pang, Yue; Li, Qingwei

    2018-04-01

    The lamprey (Lampetra japonica), a representative of the jawless vertebrates, is the oldest extant species in the world. LIP-1, which has a jacalin-like domain and an aerolysin pore-forming domain, has previously been identified in Lampetra japonica. However, the structure and function of the LIP-1 protein have not been described. In this study, the LIP-1 gene was overexpressed in HeLa cells and H293T cells. The results showed that the overexpression of LIP-1 in HeLa cells significantly elevated LDH release (P HeLa cells, while it had no effect on H293T cell organelles. Array data indicated that overexpression of LIP-1 primarily upregulated P53 signaling pathways in HeLa cells. Cell cycle assay results confirmed that LIP-1 caused arrest in the G 2 /M phase of the cell cycle in HeLa cells. In summary, our findings provide insights into the function and characterization of LIP-1 genes in vertebrates and establish the foundation for further research into the biological function of LIP-1. Our observations suggest that this lamprey protein has the potential for use in new applications in the medical field. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Characterization of 12 microsatellite loci for the Pacific lamprey, Entosphenus tridentatus (Petromyzontidae), and cross-amplification in five other lamprey species.

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    Spice, E K; Whitesel, T A; McFarlane, C T; Docker, M F

    2011-12-22

    The Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) is an anadromous fish that is of conservation concern in North America and Asia. Data on Pacific lamprey population structure are scarce and conflicting, impeding conservation efforts. We optimized 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the Pacific lamprey. Three to 13 alleles per locus were observed in a sample of 51 fish collected from the West Fork Illinois River, Oregon. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.235 to 0.902 and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.214 to 0.750. Cross-species amplification produced 8 to 12 polymorphic loci in four other Entosphenus species and in the western brook lamprey (Lampetra richardsoni). Two loci appear to be diagnostic for distinguishing Entosphenus from Lampetra. These markers will be valuable for evaluating population structure and making conservation decisions for E. tridentatus and other lamprey species.

  10. Low reproductive isolation and highly variable levels of gene flow reveal limited progress towards speciation between European river and brook lampreys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougemont, Q; Gaigher, A; Lasne, E; Côte, J; Coke, M; Besnard, A-L; Launey, S; Evanno, G

    2015-12-01

    Ecologically based divergent selection is a factor that could drive reproductive isolation even in the presence of gene flow. Population pairs arrayed along a continuum of divergence provide a good opportunity to address this issue. Here, we used a combination of mating trials, experimental crosses and population genetic analyses to investigate the evolution of reproductive isolation between two closely related species of lampreys with distinct life histories. We used microsatellite markers to genotype over 1000 individuals of the migratory parasitic river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) and freshwater-resident nonparasitic brook lamprey (Lampetra planeri) distributed in 10 sympatric and parapatric population pairs in France. Mating trials, parentage analyses and artificial fertilizations demonstrated a low level of reproductive isolation between species even though size-assortative mating may contribute to isolation. Most parapatric population pairs were strongly differentiated due to the joint effects of geographic distance and barriers to migration. In contrast, we found variable levels of gene flow between sympatric populations ranging from panmixia to moderate differentiation, which indicates a gradient of divergence with some population pairs that may correspond to alternative morphs or ecotypes of a single species and others that remain partially isolated. Ecologically based divergent selection may explain these variable levels of divergence among sympatric population pairs, but incomplete genome swamping following secondary contact could have also played a role. Overall, this study illustrates how highly differentiated phenotypes can be maintained despite high levels of gene flow that limit the progress towards speciation. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. HPLC and ELISA analyses of larval bile acids from Pacific and western brook lampreys

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    Yun, S.-S.; Scott, A.P.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.; Close, D.A.; Li, W.

    2003-01-01

    Comparative studies were performed on two native lamprey species, Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) and western brook lamprey (Lampetra richardsoni) from the Pacific coast along with sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from the Great Lakes, to investigate their bile acid production and release. HPLC and ELISA analyses of the gall bladders and liver extract revealed that the major bile acid compound from Pacific and western brook larval lampreys was petromyzonol sulfate (PZS), previously identified as a migratory pheromone in larval sea lamprey. An ELISA for PZS has been developed in a working range of 20pg-10ng per well. The tissue concentrations of PZS in gall bladder were 127.40, 145.86, and 276.96??g/g body mass in sea lamprey, Pacific lamprey, and western brook lamprey, respectively. Releasing rates for PZS in the three species were measured using ELISA to find that western brook and sea lamprey released PZS 20 times higher than Pacific lamprey did. Further studies are required to determine whether PZS is a chemical cue in Pacific and western brook lampreys. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Olfactory sensitivity of Pacific Lampreys to lamprey bile acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T. Craig; Sorensen, Peter W.; Bayer, Jennifer M.; Seelye, James G.

    2009-01-01

    Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata are in decline throughout much of their historical range in the Columbia River basin. In support of restoration efforts, we tested whether larval and adult lamprey bile acids serve as migratory and spawning pheromones in adult Pacific lampreys, as they do in sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus. The olfactory sensitivity of adult Pacific lampreys to lamprey bile acids was measured by electro-olfactogram recording from the time of their capture in the spring until their spawning in June of the following year. As controls, we tested L-arginine and a non-lamprey bile acid, taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate (TLS). Migrating adult Pacific lampreys were highly sensitive to petromyzonol sulfate (a component of the sea lamprey migratory pheromone) and 3-keto petromyzonol sulfate (a component of the sea lamprey sex pheromone) when first captured. This sensitivity persisted throughout their long migratory and overwinter holding period before declining to nearly unmeasurable levels by the time of spawning. The absolute magnitudes of adult Pacific lamprey responses to lamprey bile acids were smaller than those of the sea lamprey, and unlike the sea lamprey, the Pacific lamprey did not appear to detect TLS. No sexual dimorphism was noted in olfactory sensitivity. Thus, Pacific lampreys are broadly similar to sea lampreys in showing sensitivity to the major lamprey bile acids but apparently differ in having a longer period of sensitivity to those acids. The potential utility of bile acid-like pheromones in the restoration of Pacific lampreys warrants their further investigation in this species.

  13. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration : Annual Report 1997.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Aaron D.; Hatch, Douglas R.; Close, David A.

    1998-08-05

    The once abundant stocks of Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) above Bonneville Dam are currently depressed (Close et al. 1995). It is likely that many of the same factors that led to the decline of wild stocks of Columbia River Pacific salmon and steelhead have impacted Pacific lamprey populations as well. The Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project, funded by Bonneville Power Administration, is a cooperative effort between the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, the Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, and Oregon State University with the goal to increase Pacific lamprey stocks above Bonneville Dam.

  14. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project : Annual Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, David A.

    2002-11-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 1999-2000. The findings in these chapters represent the efforts of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and collaborative efforts among other researchers working on Pacific lampreys (Lampetra tridentata) under this project. The findings in these chapters will help management and recovery of Pacific lampreys in the Columbia River Basin.

  15. Identification and characterisation of ROS modulator 1 in Lampetra japonica.

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    Zhao, Chunhui; Feng, Bin; Cao, Ying; Xie, Peng; Xu, Jie; Pang, Yue; Liu, Xin; Li, Qingwei

    2013-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a heterogeneous group of highly reactive molecules that oxidise targets in biological systems. ROS are also considered important immune regulators. In this study, we identified a homologue of reactive oxygen species modulator 1 (Romo1) in the Japanese lamprey (Lampetra japonica). The L japonica Romo1 (Lj-Romo1) gene shares high sequence homology with the Romo1 genes of jawed vertebrates. Real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated the wide distribution of Lj-Romo1 in lamprey tissues. Furthermore, after the lampreys were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the level of Lj-Romo1 mRNA was markedly up-regulated in the liver, gill, kidney, and intestine tissues. Lj-Romo1 was localised to the mitochondria and has the capacity to increase the ROS level in cells. The results obtained in the present study will help us to understand the roles of Romo1 in ROS production and innate immune responses in jawless vertebrates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project : Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, David A.

    2002-11-01

    Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) has significantly declined along the Oregon coast and in the Columbia River Basin (Downey et al. 1993; Close and Jackson 2001). Declines in adults can be partially attributed to hydroelectric dams, which have impeded passage of adult Pacific lamprey in the Columbia and Snake rivers, thus effecting larval recruitment in the basin. Adult pacific lamprey also declined in numbers in the Umatilla River, a tributary of the Columbia River. In addition to hydro power dams in the Columbia River, habitat alterations and chemical treatments have been involved in the collapse of Pacific lamprey populations in the Umatilla River. To initiate the restoration effort, CTUIR began developing a restoration plan in 1998. The goal of the lamprey research and restoration project is to restore natural production of Pacific lampreys in the Umatilla River to self-sustaining and harvestable level. This report is summarizing the studies and restoration efforts concluded in 2001.

  17. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, David; Aronsuu, Kimmo; Jackson, Aaron

    2003-07-01

    Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) has significantly declined along the Oregon coast and in the Columbia River Basin (Downey et al. 1993, Close and Jackson 2001). Declines in adults can be partially attributed to hydroelectric dams, which have impeded passage of adult Pacific lamprey in the Columbia and Snake rivers (Moser et al. 2002), thus effecting larval recruitment in the basin (Moser and Close in press). Adult Pacific lamprey also declined in numbers in the Umatilla River, a tributary of the Columbia River (Close and Jackson 2001). In addition to hydro power dams in the Columbia River, habitat alterations and chemical treatments have been involved in the collapse of Pacific lamprey populations in the Umatilla River (Close 1999). To initiate the restoration effort, CTUIR began developing a restoration plan in 1998. The goal of the lamprey research and restoration project is to restore natural production of Pacific lampreys in the Umatilla River to self-sustaining and harvestable level. This report is summarizing the studies and restoration efforts concluded in 2002.

  18. Variations in the presence of chloride cells in the gills of lampreys (Petromyzontiformes) and their evolutionary implications.

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    Bartels, H; Docker, M F; Krappe, M; White, M M; Wrede, C; Potter, I C

    2015-04-01

    Although confined to fresh water, non-parasitic species of lampreys and the landlocked parasitic sea lamprey, all of which were derived relatively recently from an adromous ancestors, still develop chloride cells, whose function in their ancestors was for osmoregulation in marine waters during the adult parasitic phase. In contrast, such cells are not developed by the non-parasitic least brook lamprey Lampetra aepyptera, which has been separated from its ancestor for >2 million years, nor by the freshwater parasitic species of the genus Ichthyomyzon. The length of time that a non-parasitic species or landlocked parasitic form or species has spent in fresh water is thus considered the overriding factor determining whether chloride cells are developed by those lampreys.

  19. Data on functional characterization of LECT2 from Lampetra japonica

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    Zhiliang Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Characterization of the LECT2 gene and its protective effects against microbial infection via large lymphocytes in Lampetra japonica” (Wang et al., 2017 [1]. Here, we presented new original data about the effect of rL-LECT2 on cancer cells migration and macrophages phagocytosis. Wound healing assay and transwell chemotaxis assays were used to measure rL-LECT2 inhibition rates on cancer cell migration. Additionally, fluospheres beads and Escherichia coli–FITC were used to measure whether the rL-LECT2 can affect the phagocytosis of RAW264.7 cells. Keywords: Lamprey, LECT2, Cell migration, Phagocytosis

  20. Studies on endangered and rare non-commercial fish species recorded in the Pomeranian Bay (southern Baltic Sea) in 2010-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Więcaszek, Beata; Sobecka, Ewa; Keszka, Sławomir; Stepanowska, Katarzyna; Dudko, Stanisław; Biernaczyk, Marcin; Wrzecionkowski, Konrad

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the results of studies on endangered and rare non-commercial fish species ( Spinachia spinachia, Nerophis ophidion, Syngnathus typhle, Agonus cataphractus, Pholis gunnellus, Enchelyopus cimbrius, Cyclopterus lumpus) and one lamprey species ( Lampetra fluviatilis), recorded as bycatch during monitoring surveys in 2010-2013 in the Pomeranian Bay. Two species were observed for the first time in the Pomeranian Bay: A. cataphractus and E. cimbrius. Descriptions of parasite fauna are provided for C. lumpus and E. cimbrius, which were infected with four pathogenic species from Neomonada, Digenea, Nematoda, and Acanthocephala. Almost all parasite species were new in the hosts examined.

  1. Ecological and Cultural Importance of a Species at Risk of Extinction, Pacific Lamprey, 1964-2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, David A.

    2002-07-01

    The cultural and ecological values of Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) have not been understood by Euro-Americans and thus their great decline has almost gone unnoticed except by Native Americans, who elevated the issue and initiated research to restore its populations, at least in the Columbia Basin. They regard Pacific lamprey as a highly valued resource and as a result ksuyas (lamprey) has become one of their cultural icons. Ksuyas are harvested to this day as a subsistence food by various tribes along the Pacific coast and are highly regarded for their cultural value. Interestingly, our review suggests that the Pacific lamprey plays an important role in the food web, may have acted as a buffer for salmon from predators, and may have been an important source of marine nutrients to oligotrophic watersheds. This is very different from the Euro-American perception that lampreys are pests. We suggest that cultural biases affected management policies.

  2. Characterisation of the bacterial community structures in the intestine of Lampetra morii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingying; Xie, Wenfang; Li, Qingwei

    2016-07-01

    The metagenomic analysis and 16S rDNA sequencing method were used to investigate the bacterial community in the intestines of Lampetra morii. The bacterial community structure in L. morii intestine was relatively simple. Eight different operational taxonomic units were observed. Chitinophagaceae_unclassified (26.5 %) and Aeromonas spp. (69.6 %) were detected as dominant members at the genus level. The non-dominant genera were as follows: Acinetobacter spp. (1.4 %), Candidatus Bacilloplasma (2.5 %), Enterobacteria spp. (1.5 %), Shewanella spp. (0.04 %), Vibrio spp. (0.09 %), and Yersinia spp. (1.8 %). The Shannon-Wiener (H) and Simpson (1-D) indexes were 0.782339 and 0.5546, respectively. The rarefaction curve representing the bacterial community richness and Shannon-Wiener curve representing the bacterial community diversity reached asymptote, which indicated that the sequence depth were sufficient to represent the majority of species richness and bacterial community diversity. The number of Aeromonas in lamprey intestine was two times higher after stimulation by lipopolysaccharide than PBS. This study provides data for understanding the bacterial community harboured in lamprey intestines and exploring potential key intestinal symbiotic bacteria essential for the L. morii immune response.

  3. Bioenergetics models to estimate numbers of larval lampreys consumed by smallmouth bass in Elk Creek, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Luke; Heck, Michael; Kowalski, Brandon M; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Coates, Kelly C.; Dunham, Jason B.

    2017-01-01

    Nonnative fishes have been increasingly implicated in the decline of native fishes in the Pacific Northwest. Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu were introduced into the Umpqua River in southwest Oregon in the early 1960s. The spread of Smallmouth Bass throughout the basin coincided with a decline in counts of upstream-migrating Pacific Lampreys Entosphenus tridentatus. This suggested the potential for ecological interactions between Smallmouth Bass and Pacific Lampreys, as well as freshwater-resident Western Brook Lampreys Lampetra richardsoni. To evaluate the potential effects of Smallmouth Bass on lampreys, we sampled diets of Smallmouth Bass and used bioenergetics models to estimate consumption of larval lampreys in a segment of Elk Creek, a tributary to the lower Umpqua River. We captured 303 unique Smallmouth Bass (mean: 197 mm and 136 g) via angling in July and September. We combined information on Smallmouth Bass diet and energy density with other variables (temperature, body size, growth, prey energy density) in a bioenergetics model to estimate consumption of larval lampreys. Larval lampreys were found in 6.2% of diet samples, and model estimates indicated that the Smallmouth Bass we captured consumed 925 larval lampreys in this 2-month study period. When extrapolated to a population estimate of Smallmouth Bass in this segment, we estimated 1,911 larval lampreys were consumed between July and September. Although the precision of these estimates was low, this magnitude of consumption suggests that Smallmouth Bass may negatively affect larval lamprey populations.

  4. Pacific Lamprey Research and Restoration Project : Annual Report 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, David A.

    2001-10-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted from 1996 through 1999. The findings in these chapters represent the efforts of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and collaborative efforts among other researchers working on Pacific lampreys (Lampetra tridentata) under this project. The findings in these chapters will help management and recovery of Pacific lampreys in the Columbia River Basin. Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) of Pacific lampreys from tribal members within the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation was useful in gaining baseline life history information. Tribal members described harvesting two types of lampreys from spring through fall, the short brown type and the long dark type. Lamprey spawning distribution was from the mouth to the headwaters in the Umatilla River. Larval lampreys were observed in the mud and sand areas of the river. Tribal members observed major declines in lampreys within the Columbia River basin. Larval Pacific lampreys were distributed throughout the John Day River basin. Larval distribution in the other subbasins was patchy and limited to the lower reaches of the streams. Larval densities were highly variable in the Middle Fork John Day and North Fork John Day rivers, as opposed to the Main stem John Day River. Larval lengths varied little in the Middle Fork John Day and North Fork John Day rivers, but were highly variable in the Main stem John Day River. Larval abundance decreased as we moved upstream in the Columbia and Snake rivers. In addition, we found strong evidence for lack of larval recruitment as distance increased from the mouth of the Columbia River. We identified clinical indicators of stress in adult Pacific lampreys. Plasma glucose became elevated soon after acute stress and remained elevated for one week. Plasma lactate also became elevated by 30 minutes; however, it decreased to resting levels by one hour after application of the stressor

  5. Large wood and in-stream habitat for juvenile coho salmon and larval lampreys in a Pacific Northwest stream

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    Gonzalez, Rosalinda; Dunham, Jason B.; Lightcap, Scott W.; McEnroe, Jeffery R.

    2017-01-01

    The influences of large wood on Pacific salmon are well-studied, but studies of nonsalmonid species such as lampreys are uncommon. To address this need, we evaluated the potential effects of large wood on larval lampreys (Pacific Lamprey, Entosphenus tridentatus; and potentially Western Brook Lamprey Lampetra richardsoni), as well as juvenile Coho Salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, in a small coastal Oregon stream. Our objectives were to 1) identify in-stream habitat characteristics associated with the presence of larval lampreys and abundance of juvenile Coho Salmon; and 2) evaluate how these characteristics were associated with in-stream wood. To address habitat use, we quantified presence of larval lampreys in 92 pools and abundance of juvenile Coho Salmon in 44 pools during summer low flows. We focused on a study reach where large wood was introduced into the stream between 2008 and 2009. Results indicated that presence of larval lampreys was significantly associated with availability of fine sediment and deeper substrate. The abundance of juvenile Coho Salmon (fish/pool) was strongly associated with pool surface area and to a weaker extent with the proportion of cobble and boulder substrates in pools. Pools with wood, regardless of whether they were formed by wood, had significantly greater coverage of fine sediment, deeper substrate, and greater pool surface area. Taken together, these results suggest that in-stream wood can provide habitat associated with presence of larval lampreys and greater abundance of juvenile Coho Salmon.

  6. Pacific lamprey research and restoration project: annual report 1999; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, David A.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted from 1996 through 1999. The findings in these chapters represent the efforts of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and collaborative efforts among other researchers working on Pacific lampreys (Lampetra tridentata) under this project. The findings in these chapters will help management and recovery of Pacific lampreys in the Columbia River Basin. Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) of Pacific lampreys from tribal members within the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation was useful in gaining baseline life history information. Tribal members described harvesting two types of lampreys from spring through fall, the short brown type and the long dark type. Lamprey spawning distribution was from the mouth to the headwaters in the Umatilla River. Larval lampreys were observed in the mud and sand areas of the river. Tribal members observed major declines in lampreys within the Columbia River basin. Larval Pacific lampreys were distributed throughout the John Day River basin. Larval distribution in the other subbasins was patchy and limited to the lower reaches of the streams. Larval densities were highly variable in the Middle Fork John Day and North Fork John Day rivers, as opposed to the Main stem John Day River. Larval lengths varied little in the Middle Fork John Day and North Fork John Day rivers, but were highly variable in the Main stem John Day River. Larval abundance decreased as we moved upstream in the Columbia and Snake rivers. In addition, we found strong evidence for lack of larval recruitment as distance increased from the mouth of the Columbia River. We identified clinical indicators of stress in adult Pacific lampreys. Plasma glucose became elevated soon after acute stress and remained elevated for one week. Plasma lactate also became elevated by 30 minutes; however, it decreased to resting levels by one hour after application of the stressor

  7. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho: Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2002-12-01

    Recent decline of Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata adult migrants to the Snake River drainage has focused attention on the species. Adult Pacific lamprey counted passing Ice Harbor Dam fishway averaged 18,158 during 1962-69 and 361 during 1993-2000. Human resource manipulations in the Snake River and Clearwater River drainages have altered ecosystem habitat in the last 120 years, likely impacting the productive potential of Pacific lamprey habitat. Timber harvest, stream impoundment, road construction, grazing, mining, and community development have dominated habitat alteration in the Clearwater River system and Snake River corridor. Hydroelectric projects in the Snake River corridor impact juvenile/larval Pacific lamprey outmigrants and returning adults. Juvenile and larval lamprey outmigrants potentially pass through turbines, turbine bypass/collection systems, and over spillway structures at the four lower Snake River hydroelectric dams. Clearwater River drainage hydroelectric facilities have impacted Pacific lamprey populations to an unknown degree. The Pacific Power and Light Dam on the Clearwater River in Lewiston, Idaho, restricted chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha passage in the 1927-1940 period, altering the migration route of outmigrating Pacific lamprey juveniles/larvae and upstream adult migrants (1927-1972). Dworshak Dam, completed in 1972, eliminated Pacific lamprey spawning and rearing in the North Fork Clearwater River drainage. Construction of the Harpster hydroelectric dam on the South Fork of the Clearwater River resulted in obstructed fish passage 1949-1963. Through Bonneville Power Administration support, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued investigation into the status of Pacific lamprey populations in Idaho's Clearwater River drainage in 2001. Trapping, electrofishing, and spawning ground redd surveys were used to determine Pacific lamprey distribution, life history strategies, and habitat requirements in the South

  8. Determining Adult Pacific Lamprey Abundance and Spawning Habitat in the Lower Deschutes River Sub-Basin, Oregon, 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Matt; Graham, Jennifer C. [Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation, Oregon

    2009-04-30

    An adult Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) escapement estimate was generated in the lower Deschutes River during run year 2008. This included a mark-recapture study to determine adult abundance and a tribal subsistence creel. Fish measuring less than 10.5 cm received two marks for the mark-recapture estimate while those measuring greater than 10.5 cm were surgically implanted with radio transmitters to monitor migration upstream of Sherars Falls (rkm 70.4). Radio telemetry was used to determine habitat, focal spawning areas and spawn timing. All fish were collected at the Sherars Falls fish ladder from July-October 2008 using a long handled dip-net. Escapement was generated using a two event mark-recapture experiment. Adult lamprey populations were estimated at 3,471 (95% CI = 2,384-5,041; M = 101; C = 885 R = 25) using Chapman's modification of the Peterson estimate. The relative precision around the estimate was 31.42. Tribal harvest was approximately 806 adult lamprey (95% CI = +/- 74) with a total escapement of 2,669. Fourteen lamprey received radio tags and were released at Lower Blue Hole recreation site (rkm 77.3). Movement was recorded by mobile, fixed site and aerial telemetry methods. Upstream movements of lamprey were documented from July through December 2008 with most lamprey over-wintering in the mainstem Deschutes River.

  9. Determining Lamprey Species Composition, Larval Distribution and Adult Abundance in the Deschutes River Subbasin, Oregon ; 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Matt; Graham, Jennifer C. [Department of Natural Resources, Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation, Oregon

    2009-06-26

    We will report results of an ongoing project in the Deschutes River Subbasin to describe Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) life history. Project objectives were to determine adult lamprey escapement from Sherars Falls located at Rkm 70.4 and determine lamprey focal spawning areas, spawn timing and habitat through radio telemetry. A mark-recapture study and tribal creel was conducted to determine adult escapement. Lamprey were radio tagged and are currently being mobile, aerial and fixed site tracked to describe spawning. Adult lamprey were collected at Sherars Falls using a long-handled dip net from June-September 2007. The fate of lamprey collected at Sherars Falls was determined based on girth measurements. Fish measuring less than 10.5 cm received two markings for the mark-recapture estimation while those measuring 10.5 cm or greater were implanted with radio transmitters. Two-hundred and nine lamprey were marked during first event sampling, 2,501 lamprey inspected for marks and 64 recaptured during second event sampling. We estimate lamprey abundance to be 8,083 (6,352-10,279) with a relative precision of 19.8. Tribal harvest was 2,303 +/- 88. Escapement was estimated at 5,780 adult lamprey. Thirty-six lamprey received radio transmitters. Lamprey were transported upstream 6.3 Rkm for surgery, held to recover from anesthesia and released. Mobile tracking efforts started mid-July 2007 and are on-going. To date 35 of the 36 lamprey have been detected. Upon release, extensive ground-based tracking was conducted until fish became dormant in mid-October. Since, fixed site downloading and tracking have occurred weekly on the mainstem Deschutes River. Majority of lamprey (88%) are holding in the mainstem Deschutes River. Three lamprey moved upstream more than 70 Rkms into westside tributaries from August-December. Three moved approximately 18 Rkms downstream of the release site. Tracking will continue through the spawning season when redd characteristics will be

  10. First record of the freshwater puffer Tetraodon fluviatilis fluviatilis from the coastal waters of Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Padate, V.P.; Rivonker, C.U.; Anil, A.C.; Sawant, S.S.; Venkat, K.

    Present study describes a new record of the freshwater green spotted puffer Tetraodon fluviatilis fluviatilis based on detailed examination of four specimens collected from the bay-estuarine regions of Goa. Differences between the present specimens...

  11. Reproductive ecology of lampreys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Buchinger, Tyler J.; Li, Weiming

    2014-01-01

    Lampreys typically spawn in riffle habitats during the spring. Spawning activity and diel (i.e., during daylight and at night) behavioral patterns are initiated when spring water temperatures increase to levels that coincide with optimal embryologic development. Nests are constructed in gravel substrate using the oral disc to move stones and the tail to fan sediment out of the nest. Spawning habitat used by individual species is generally a function of adult size, where small-bodied species construct nests in shallower water with slower flow and smaller gravel than large-bodied species. The mating system of lampreys is primarily polygynandrous (i.e., where multiple males mate with multiple females). Lamprey species with adult total length less than 30 cm generally spawn communally, where a nest may contain 20 or more individuals of both sexes. Lamprey species with adult sizes greater than 35 cm generally spawn in groups of two to four. Operational sex ratios of lampreys are highly variable across species, populations, and time, but are generally male biased. The act of spawning typically starts with the male attaching with his oral disc to the back of the female’s head; the male and female then entwine and simultaneously release gametes. However, alternative mating behaviors (e.g., release of gametes without paired courtship and sneaker males) have been observed. Future research should determine how multiple modalities of communication among lampreys (including mating pheromones) are integrated to inform species recognition and mate choice. Such research could inform both sea lamprey control strategies and provide insight into possible evolution of reproductive isolation mechanisms between paired lamprey species in sympatry.

  12. Novo registro altitudinal de Trichodactylus fluviatilis (Latreille, 1828 (Decapoda, Trichodactylidae no Brasil = New altitudinal record of Trichodactylus fluviatilis (Latreille, 1828 (Decapoda, Trichodactylidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Campos Gomides

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Trichodactylus fluviatilis (Latreille, 1828 (Decapoda, Trichodactylidae é uma espécie de caranguejo que habita rios e riachos montanhosos em altitudes até aproximadamente 500 m. Sua distribuição ocorre na América do Sul, desde as bacias costeiras da faixa leste do Brasil até a bacia do alto Paraná e na Argentina. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi registrar a ocorrência de T. fluviatilis em uma Unidade de Conservação de Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, e fornecer um novo registro altitudinal dessa espécie noBrasil. As amostras foram obtidas de outubro de 2004 a julho de 2005. Foram coletados três indivíduos vivos, dois machos e uma fêmea da espécie. Também foram analisados 16 regurgitos estomacais do cágado Hydromedusa maximiliani, dos quais, em seis foram encontrados partes corporais deste crustáceo. Muitas espécies de caranguejos do Brasil dafamília Trichodactylidae vivem em regiões acima de 500m do nível do mar. No presente estudo, T. fluviatilis foi coletado a 770 m de altitude, ampliando assim a faixa de distribuição altitudinal dessa espécie no Brasil. Até o presente estudo não existiam relatos de T. fluviatilis no município de Juiz de Fora, portanto este estudo também se constitui em um novo registro desse tricodatilídeo em Minas Gerais. Trichodactylus fluviatilis (Latreille, 1828 (Decapoda, Trichodactylidae is a crab species that lives in mountainous rivers and streams at altitudes up to 500m. Its distribution ranges from South America from the Basins of eastern coast of Brazil to basins of the Upper Paraná River and Argentina. The main objective of this study was to register a new occurrence of T. fluviatilis at a Conservation Unit in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais and provide a new altitudinal record for this species in Brazil. The samples were taken between October 2004 and July 2005. We collected three live T. fluviatilis individuals – two males and one female. We also analyzed the stomach contents of 16

  13. Genome-wide analysis of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene family in sea lamprey and Japanese lamprey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jianfeng; Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Chu-Yin; Scott, Camille; Brown, Titus; Li, Weiming

    2015-06-06

    Lampreys are extant representatives of the jawless vertebrate lineage that diverged from jawed vertebrates around 500 million years ago. Lamprey genomes contain information crucial for understanding the evolution of gene families in vertebrates. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene family is found from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. The recent availability of two lamprey draft genomes from sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus and Japanese lamprey Lethenteron japonicum presents an opportunity to infer early evolutionary events of ABC genes in vertebrates. We conducted a genome-wide survey of the ABC gene family in two lamprey draft genomes. A total of 37 ABC transporters were identified and classified into seven subfamilies; namely seven ABCA genes, 10 ABCB genes, 10 ABCC genes, three ABCD genes, one ABCE gene, three ABCF genes, and three ABCG genes. The ABCA subfamily has expanded from three genes in sea squirts, seven and nine in lampreys and zebrafish, to 13 and 16 in human and mouse. Conversely, the multiple copies of ABCB1-, ABCG1-, and ABCG2-like genes found in sea squirts have contracted in the other species examined. ABCB2 and ABCB3 seem to be new additions in gnathostomes (not in sea squirts or lampreys), which coincides with the emergence of the gnathostome-specific adaptive immune system. All the genes in the ABCD, ABCE and ABCF subfamilies were conserved and had undergone limited duplication and loss events. In the sea lamprey transcriptomes, the ABCE and ABCF gene subfamilies were ubiquitously and highly expressed in all tissues while the members in other gene subfamilies were differentially expressed. Thirteen more lamprey ABC transporter genes were identified in this study compared with a previous study. By concatenating the same gene sequences from the two lampreys, more full length sequences were obtained, which significantly improved both the assignment of gene names and the phylogenetic trees compared with a previous analysis using partial sequences. The ABC

  14. Behavioural strategy of large perch Perca fluviatilis varies between a mesotrophic and a hypereutrophic lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene; Berg, Søren; Baktoft, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Behaviour of large perch Perca fluviatilis was studied in two lakes differing in environmental state i.e. mesotrophic v. hypereutrophic. A total of 20 adult perch P. fluviatilis (29–42 cm total length) in each lake were tagged with radio-transmitters, tracked and located eight times a day during...... six 24 h tracking periods over a year, enabling detection of differences in diel activity patterns and habitat use during summer and winter under two different environmental regimes. During summer, P. fluviatilis in the mesotrophic lake showed a distinct crepuscular activity pattern and a change from...... factor of large P. fluviatilis did not differ between the two lakes. Thus, it is suggested that P. fluviatilis in the hypereutrophic turbid lake adopted an alternative behaviour for successful foraging, being uniformly active throughout the diel cycle...

  15. Behavioral responses of Pacific lamprey to alarm cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Laurie L.; Hayes, Michael C.; Jackson, Aaron D.; Burke, Brian J.; Moser, Mary L.; Wagner, R. Steven

    2017-01-01

    Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus), an anadromous ectoparasite, faces several challenges during adult migration to spawning grounds. Developing methods to address these challenges is critical to the success of ongoing conservation efforts. The challenges are diverse, and include anthropogenic alterations to the ecosystem resulting in loss of habitat, impassable barriers such as dams, climate change impacts, and altered predator fields. We conducted a behavioral study to understand how adult migrating Pacific lamprey respond to potential alarm cues: White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), human saliva, decayed Pacific lamprey, and river otter (Lontra canadensis). Research has shown that some species of lamprey can be guided to a location using odors and similar cues may be useful as a management tool for Pacific lamprey. Experiments were conducted over 2 nights and measured the number of entries (count) and duration of time spent (occupancy) by adult lamprey in each arm of a two-choice maze. During the first night, no odor was added to test for selection bias between arms. During the second night odor was added to one arm of the maze. Contrary to expectations, lamprey were significantly attracted to the river otter odor in both count and occupancy. No significant differences were found in the response of lamprey to the other three odors. Results from this study indicate that Pacific lamprey do respond to some odors; however, additional tests are necessary to better identify the types of odors and concentrations that elicit a repeatable response.

  16. Development of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) larvicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, John H.; Lech, John J.; Allen, John L.

    1980-01-01

    Larvicides are used to control sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes. These larvicides are useful because they are more toxic to sea lamprey than fish species found in the same habitat. The lampricides come from two classes of chemical compounds: (1) halonitrophenols, and (2) halonitrosalicylanilides. Selectivity of the larvicides appears to be based on the differences in the ability of sea lamprey larvae and fishes to detoxify and/or excrete the chemicals. Glucuronide conjugation is an important mechanism for detoxification of these larvicides by fish, and selectivity of larvicides may be due to differences in glucuronyl transferase activity between lamprey and fishes. If more detailed information were available on uptake, metabolism, excretion, and the biochemistry and physiology of lamprey as compared to fishes, it might be possible to design chemicals that would be more selective than those now in use.

  17. Lampreys as Diverse Model Organisms in the Genomics Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, David W; Docker, Margaret F; Whyard, Steve; Li, Weiming

    2015-11-01

    Lampreys, one of the two surviving groups of ancient vertebrates, have become important models for study in diverse fields of biology. Lampreys (of which there are approximately 40 species) are being studied, for example, (a) to control pest sea lamprey in the North American Great Lakes and to restore declining populations of native species elsewhere; (b) in biomedical research, focusing particularly on the regenerative capability of lampreys; and (c) by developmental biologists studying the evolution of key vertebrate characters. Although a lack of genetic resources has hindered research on the mechanisms regulating many aspects of lamprey life history and development, formerly intractable questions are now amenable to investigation following the recent publication of the sea lamprey genome. Here, we provide an overview of the ways in which genomic tools are currently being deployed to tackle diverse research questions and suggest several areas that may benefit from the availability of the sea lamprey genome.

  18. Vulnerability of larval lamprey to Columbia River hydropower system operations—effects of dewatering on larval lamprey movements and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Theresa L.; Weiland, Lisa K.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2015-08-27

    Numbers of adult and juvenile Pacific lamprey ( Entosphenus tridentatus ) in the upper Columbia River Basin of the interior Pacific Northwest have decreased from historical levels (Close and others, 2002), raising concerns f rom State and Federal agencies and Tribal entities. In 1994, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service designated Pacific lamprey as a Category 2 candidate species and in 2003, the species was petitioned for listing under the Endangered Species Act. Listing consideration and potential recovery planning are significantly hindered by a lack of information on the basic biology and ecology of lampreys, including limiting factors. To date (2015), several factors that may limit lamprey production require study, including dam passage issues, contaminants, and effects on habitat.

  19. First record of Pontian monkey goby, Neogobius fluviatilis (Pallas, 1814), in the Dutch Rhine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kessel, N.; Dorenbosch, M.; Spikmans, F.

    2009-01-01

    The Pontian monkey goby, Neogobius fluviatilis, was recorded for the first time in the Netherlands in March 2009. Seven specimens were caught in the lower parts of the River Rhine, at close distance of the German border. Based on the species invasive history, N. fluviatilis could become invasive.

  20. Fine-scale pathways used by adult sea lampreys during riverine spawning migrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Christopher; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Adams, Noah S.; Hatton, Tyson; McLaughlin, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Better knowledge of upstream migratory patterns of spawning Sea Lampreys Petromyzon marinus, an invasive species in the Great Lakes, is needed to improve trapping for population control and assessment. Although trapping of adult Sea Lampreys provides the basis for estimates of lake-wide abundance that are used to evaluate the Sea Lamprey control program, traps have only been operated at dams due to insufficient knowledge of Sea Lamprey behavior in unobstructed channels. Acoustic telemetry and radiotelemetry were used to obtain movement tracks for 23 Sea Lampreys in 2008 and 18 Sea Lampreys in 2009 at two locations in the Mississagi River, Ontario. Cabled hydrophone arrays provided two-dimensional geographic positions from acoustic transmitters at 3-s intervals; depth-encoded radio tag detections provided depths. Upstream movements occurred at dusk or during the night (2015–0318 hours). Sea Lampreys were closely associated with the river bottom and showed some preference to move near banks in shallow glide habitats, suggesting that bottom-oriented gears could selectively target adult Sea Lampreys in some habitats. However, Sea Lampreys were broadly distributed across the river channel, suggesting that the capture efficiency of nets and traps in open channels would depend heavily on the proportion of the channel width covered. Lack of vertical movements into the water column may have reflected lamprey preference for low water velocities, suggesting that energy conservation was more beneficial for lampreys than was vertical searching in rivers. Improved understanding of Sea Lamprey movement will assist in the development of improved capture strategies for their assessment and control in the Great Lakes.

  1. Wolbachia and dengue virus infection in the mosquito Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Barreto Lopes Silva

    Full Text Available Dengue represents a serious threat to human health, with billions of people living at risk of the disease. Wolbachia pipientis is a bacterial endosymbiont common to many insect species. Wolbachia transinfections in mosquito disease vectors have great value for disease control given the bacterium's ability to spread into wild mosquito populations, and to interfere with infections of pathogens, such as dengue virus. Aedes fluviatilis is a mosquito with a widespread distribution in Latin America, but its status as a dengue vector has not been clarified. Ae. fluviatilis is also naturally infected by the wFlu Wolbachia strain, which has been demonstrated to enhance infection with the avian malarial parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum. We performed experimental infections of Ae. fluviatilis with DENV-2 and DENV-3 isolates from Brazil via injection or oral feeding to provide insight into its competence for the virus. We also examined the effect of the native Wolbachia infection on the virus using a mosquito line where the wFlu infection had been cleared by antibiotic treatment. Through RT-qPCR, we observed that Ae. fluviatilis could become infected with both viruses via either method of infection, although at a lower rate than Aedes aegypti, the primary dengue vector. We then detected DENV-2 and DENV-3 in the saliva of injected mosquitoes, and observed that injection of DENV-3-infected saliva produced subsequent infections in naïve Ae. aegypti. However, across our data we observed no difference in prevalence of infection and viral load between Wolbachia-infected and -uninfected mosquitoes, suggesting that there is no effect of wFlu on dengue virus. Our results highlight that Ae. fluviatilis could potentially serve as a dengue vector under the right circumstances, although further testing is required to determine if this occurs in the field.

  2. Differential tolerance to cyanobacterial exposure between geographically distinct populations of Perca fluviatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Karl-Johan; Bergström, Kristofer; Mazur-Marzec, Hannah; Legrand, Catherine

    2013-12-15

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are an important problem worldwide. Cyanobacteria may negatively impact young-of-the-year (YOY) fish directly (toxin production, turbidity, decrease in water quality) or indirectly (trophic toxin transfer, changes in prey species composition). Here we test whether there are any differences in cyanobacterial tolerance between four geographically distinct populations of European perch (Perca fluviatilis). We show that P. fluviatilis may develop tolerance against cyanobacteria demonstrated by the ability of individuals from a marine site (exposed to annual cyanobacterial blooms) to increase their detoxification more than individuals from an oligotrophic site (rarely exposed to cyanobacteria). Our results also revealed significant interaction effects between genotypes within a population and response to cyanobacterial exposure in terms of absolute growth and detoxification activity. This genotype by treatment interaction may result in local adaptations to cyanobacterial exposure in P. fluviatilis. Hence, the sensitivity against cyanobacterial exposure may differ between within species populations increasing the importance of local management of fish populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of Sea Lamprey stream entry using dual‐frequency identification sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Erin L.; Johnson, Nicholas; Hrodey, Peter J.; Pangle, Kevin L.

    2018-01-01

    Effective methods to control invasive Sea Lampreys Petromyzon marinus in the Laurentian Great Lakes often rely on knowledge of the timing of the Sea Lamprey spawning migration, which has previously been characterized using data gathered from traps. Most assessment traps are located many kilometers upstream from the river mouth, so less is known about when Sea Lampreys enter spawning streams and which environmental cues trigger their transition from lakes to rivers. To decide how to develop barriers and traps that target Sea Lampreys when they enter a stream, the stream entry of Sea Lampreys into a Lake Huron tributary during 2 years was assessed using dual‐frequency identification sonar (DIDSON). Sea Lampreys entered the stream in low densities when temperatures first reached 4°C, which was up to 6 weeks and a mean of 4 weeks earlier than when they were first captured in traps located upstream. The probability of stream entry was significantly affected by stream temperature and discharge, and stream entry timing peaked when stream temperatures rose to 12°C and discharge was high. Examination of the entry at a finer temporal resolution (i.e., minutes) indicated that Sea Lampreys did not exhibit social behavior (e.g., shoaling) during stream entry. Our findings indicate that Sea Lampreys may be vulnerable to alternative trap types near river mouths and hydraulic challenges associated with traditional traps. Also, seasonal migration barriers near stream mouths may need to be installed soon after ice‐out to effectively block the entire adult Sea Lamprey cohort from upstream spawning habitat.

  4. Behavior and potential threats to survival of migrating lamprey ammocoetes and macrophthalmia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Mary L.; Jackson, Aaron D.; Lucas, Martyn C.; Mueller, Robert P.

    2015-03-01

    Upon metamorphosis, anadromous juvenile lamprey (macrophthalmia) exhibit distinct migration behaviors that take them from larval rearing habitats in streams to the open ocean. While poorly studied, lamprey larvae (ammocoetes) also engage in downstream movement to some degree. Like migrating salmon smolts, lamprey macrophthalmia undergo behavioral changes associated with a highly synchronized metamorphosis. Unlike salmon smolts, the timing of juvenile migration in lamprey is protracted and poorly documented. Lamprey macrophthalmia and ammocoetes are not strong swimmers, attaining maximum individual speeds of less than 1 m s-1, and sustained speeds of less than 0.5 m s-1. They are chiefly nocturnal and distribute throughout the water column, but appear to concentrate near the bottom in the thalweg of deep rivers. At dams and irrigation diversions, macrophthalmia can become impinged on screens or entrained in irrigation canals, suffer increased predation, and experience physical injury that may result in direct or delayed mortality. The very structures designed to protect migrating juvenile salmonids can be harmful to juvenile lamprey. Yet at turbine intakes and spillways, lampreys, which have no swim bladder, can withstand changes in pressure and shear stress large enough to injure or kill most teleosts. Lamprey populations are in decline in many parts of the world, with some species designated as species of concern for conservation that merit legally mandated protections. Hence, provisions for safe passage of juvenile lamprey are being considered at dams and water diversions in North America and Europe.

  5. Olfactory-mediated stream-finding behavior of migratory adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieze, L.A.; Bergstedt, R.A.; Sorensen, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    Stream-finding behavior of adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), an anadromous fish that relies on pheromones to locate spawning streams, was documented in the vicinity of an important spawning river in the Great Lakes. Untreated and anosmic migrating sea lampreys were implanted with acoustic transmitters and then released outside the Ocqueoc River. Lampreys swam only at night and then actively. When outside of the river plume, lampreys pursued relatively straight bearings parallel to the shoreline while making frequent vertical excursions. In contrast, when within the plume, lampreys made large turns and exhibited a weak bias towards the river mouth, which one-third of them entered. The behavior of anosmic lampreys resembled that of untreated lampreys outside of the plume, except they pursued a more northerly compass bearing. To locate streams, sea lampreys appear to employ a three-phase odor-mediated strategy that involves an initial search along shorelines while casting vertically, followed by river-water-induced turning that brings them close to the river's mouth, which they then enter using rheotaxis. This novel strategy differs from that of salmonids and appears to offer this poor swimmer adaptive flexibility and suggests ways that pheromonal odors might be used to manage this invasive species.

  6. 76 FR 12129 - Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... implementation of sea lamprey control techniques alternative to lampricide that are technically feasible, cost... regarding the implementation of sea lamprey control methods alternative to lampricides, to recommend...

  7. Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) parasite-host interactions in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bence, James R.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Christie, Gavin C.; Cochran, Phillip A.; Ebener, Mark P.; Koonce, Joseph F.; Rutter, Michael A.; Swink, William D.

    2003-01-01

    Prediction of how host mortality responds to efforts to control sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) is central to the integrated management strategy for sea lamprey (IMSL) in the Great Lakes. A parasite-host submodel is used as part of this strategy, and this includes a type-2 multi-species functional response, a developmental response, but no numerical response. General patterns of host species and size selection are consistent with the model assumptions, but some observations appear to diverge. For example, some patterns in sea lamprey marking on hosts suggest increases in selectivity for less preferred hosts and lower host survival when preferred hosts are scarce. Nevertheless, many of the IMSL assumptions may be adequate under conditions targeted by fish community objectives. Of great concern is the possibility that the survival of young parasites (parasitic-phase sea lampreys) varies substantially among lakes or over time. Joint analysis of abundance estimates for parasites being produced in streams and returning spawners could address this. Data on sea lamprey marks is a critical source of information on sea lamprey activity and potential effects. Theory connecting observed marks to sea lamprey feeding activity and host mortality is reviewed. Uncertainties regarding healing and attachment times, the probability of hosts surviving attacks, and problems in consistent classification of marks have led to widely divergent estimates of damages caused by sea lamprey. Laboratory and field studies are recommended to provide a firmer linkage between host blood loss, host mortality, and observed marks on surviving hosts, so as to improve estimates of damage.

  8. 76 FR 43698 - Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... implementation of sea lamprey control techniques alternative to lampricide that are technically feasible, cost... provide advice regarding the implementation of sea lamprey control methods alternative to lampricides, to...

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers from the Malaria Vector Anopheles fluviatilis Species T (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lather, Manila; Sharma, Divya; Dang, Amita S; Adak, Tridibes; Singh, Om P

    2015-05-01

    Anopheles fluviatilis James is an important malaria vector in India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Iran. It has now been recognized as a complex of at least four sibling species-S, T, U, and V, among which species T is the most widely distributed species throughout India. The taxonomic status of these species is confusing owing to controversies prevailing in the literature. In addition, chromosomal inversion genotypes, which were considered species-diagnostic for An. fluviatilis species T, are unreliable due to the existence of polymorphism in some populations. To study the genetic diversity at population level, we isolated and characterized 20 microsatellite markers from microsatellite-enriched genomic DNA library of An. fluviatilis T, of which 18 were polymorphic while two were monomorphic. The number of alleles per locus among polymorphic markers ranged from 4 to 19, and values for observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.352 to 0.857 and from 0.575 to 0.933, respectively. Thirteen markers had cross-cryptic species transferability to species S and U of the Fluviatilis Complex. This study provides a promising genetic tool for the population genetic analyses of An. fluviatilis. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Conservation challenges and research needs for Pacific lamprey in the Columbia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Benjamin J.; Beamish, Richard J.; Coates, Kelly C.; Docker, Margaret F.; Dunham, Jason B.; Gray, Ann E.; Hess, Jon E.; Jolley, Jeffrey C.; Lampman, Ralph T.; McIlraith, Brian J.; Moser, Mary L.; Murauskas, Joshua G.; Noakes, David L. G.; Schaller, Howard A.; Schreck, Carl B.; Starcevich, Steven J.; Streif, Bianca; van de Wetering, Stan J.; Wade, Joy; Weitkamp, Laurie A.; Wyss, Lance A.

    2017-01-01

    The Pacific Lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus, an anadromous fish native to the northern Pacific Ocean and bordering freshwater habitats, has recently experienced steep declines in abundance and range contractions along the West Coast of North America. During the early 1990s, Native American tribes recognized the declining numbers of lamprey and championed their importance. In 2012, 26 entities signed a conservation agreement to coordinate and implement restoration and research for Pacific Lamprey. Regional plans have identified numerous threats, monitoring needs, and strategies to conserve and restore Pacific Lamprey during their freshwater life stages. Prime among these are needs to improve lamprey passage, restore freshwater habitats, educate stakeholders, and implement lamprey-specific research and management protocols. Key unknowns include range-wide trends in status, population dynamics, population delineation, limiting factors, and marine influences. We synthesize these key unknowns, with a focus on the freshwater life stages of lamprey in the Columbia River basin.

  11. Adaptive major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and neutral genetic variation in two native Baltic Sea fishes (perch Perca fluviatilis and zander Sander lucioperca) with comparisons to an introduced and disease susceptible population in Australia (P. fluviatilis): assessing the risk of disease epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulks, L K; Östman, Ö

    2016-04-01

    This study assessed the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and neutral genetic variation and structure in two percid species, perch Perca fluviatilis and zander Sander lucioperca, in a unique brackish ecosystem, the Baltic Sea. In addition, to assess the importance of MHC diversity to disease susceptibility in these populations, comparisons were made to an introduced, disease susceptible, P. fluviatilis population in Australia. Eighty-three MHC class II B exon 2 variants were amplified: 71 variants from 92 P. fluviatilis samples, and 12 variants from 82 S. lucioperca samples. Microsatellite and MHC data revealed strong spatial genetic structure in S. lucioperca, but not P. fluviatilis, across the Baltic Sea. Both microsatellite and MHC data showed higher levels of genetic diversity in P. fluviatilis from the Baltic Sea compared to Australia, which may have facilitated the spread of an endemic virus, EHNV in the Australian population. The relatively high levels of genetic variation in the Baltic Sea populations, together with spatial genetic structure, however, suggest that there currently seems to be little risk of disease epidemics in this system. To ensure this remains the case in the face of ongoing environmental changes, fisheries and habitat disturbance, the conservation of local-scale genetic variation is recommended. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  12. PCB concentrations and activity of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus vary by sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Binder, Thomas R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, we performed a laboratory experiment using passive integrated transponder tags to determine whether male adult sea lampreys were more active than female adult sea lampreys. Sex had a significant effect on PCB concentration, and PCB concentration at a given level of sea lamprey condition was approximately 25 % greater in males than in females. Adjusting for the difference in condition between the sexes, males averaged a 17 % greater PCB concentration compared with females. Results from the laboratory experiment indicated that males were significantly more active than females. The observed sex difference in PCB concentrations was not due to female sea lampreys releasing eggs at spawning because the sea lamprey is semelparous, and we caught the sea lampreys before spawning. Rather, we attributed the sex difference in PCB concentrations to a greater rate of energy expenditure in males compared with females. We proposed that this greater rate of energy expenditure was likely due to greater activity. Our laboratory experiment results supported this hypothesis. A greater resting metabolic rate may also have contributed to a greater rate of energy expenditure. Our findings should eventually be applicable toward improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for considerable damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native.

  13. RNA Interference Technology to Control Pest Sea Lampreys - A Proof-of-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, George; Childs, Darcy; Docker, Margaret F.; McCauley, David W.; Whyard, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The parasitic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) has caused extensive losses to commercial fish stocks of the upper Great Lakes of North America. Methods of controlling the sea lamprey include trapping, barriers to prevent migration, and use of a chemical lampricide (3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol) to kill the filter-feeding larvae. Concerns about the non-specificity of these methods have prompted continued development of species-specific methods to control lampreys outside their native range. In this study, we considered the utility of RNA interference to develop a sea lamprey-specific lampricide. Injection of six different short interfering, double-stranded RNAs (siRNAs) into lamprey embryos first confirmed that the siRNAs could reduce the targeted transcript levels by more than 50%. Two size classes of lamprey larvae were then fed the siRNAs complexed with liposomes, and three of the siRNAs (targeting elongation factor 1α, calmodulin, and α-actinin) reduced transcript levels 2.5, 3.6, and 5.0–fold, respectively, within the lamprey midsections. This is not only the first demonstration of RNAi in lampreys, but it is also the first example of delivery of siRNAs to a non-mammalian vertebrate through feeding formulations. One of the siRNA treatments also caused increased mortality of the larvae following a single feeding of siRNAs, which suggests that prolonged or multiple feedings of siRNAs could be used to kill filter-feeding larvae within streams, following development of a slow-release formulation. The genes targeted in this study are highly conserved across many species, and only serve as a proof-of-concept demonstration that siRNAs can be used in lampreys. Given that RNA interference is a sequence-specific phenomenon, it should be possible to design siRNAs that selectively target gene sequences that are unique to sea lampreys, and thus develop a technology to control these pests without adversely affecting non-target species. PMID:24505485

  14. RNA interference technology to control pest sea lampreys--a proof-of-concept.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Heath

    Full Text Available The parasitic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus has caused extensive losses to commercial fish stocks of the upper Great Lakes of North America. Methods of controlling the sea lamprey include trapping, barriers to prevent migration, and use of a chemical lampricide (3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol to kill the filter-feeding larvae. Concerns about the non-specificity of these methods have prompted continued development of species-specific methods to control lampreys outside their native range. In this study, we considered the utility of RNA interference to develop a sea lamprey-specific lampricide. Injection of six different short interfering, double-stranded RNAs (siRNAs into lamprey embryos first confirmed that the siRNAs could reduce the targeted transcript levels by more than 50%. Two size classes of lamprey larvae were then fed the siRNAs complexed with liposomes, and three of the siRNAs (targeting elongation factor 1α, calmodulin, and α-actinin reduced transcript levels 2.5, 3.6, and 5.0-fold, respectively, within the lamprey midsections. This is not only the first demonstration of RNAi in lampreys, but it is also the first example of delivery of siRNAs to a non-mammalian vertebrate through feeding formulations. One of the siRNA treatments also caused increased mortality of the larvae following a single feeding of siRNAs, which suggests that prolonged or multiple feedings of siRNAs could be used to kill filter-feeding larvae within streams, following development of a slow-release formulation. The genes targeted in this study are highly conserved across many species, and only serve as a proof-of-concept demonstration that siRNAs can be used in lampreys. Given that RNA interference is a sequence-specific phenomenon, it should be possible to design siRNAs that selectively target gene sequences that are unique to sea lampreys, and thus develop a technology to control these pests without adversely affecting non-target species.

  15. RNA interference technology to control pest sea lampreys--a proof-of-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, George; Childs, Darcy; Docker, Margaret F; McCauley, David W; Whyard, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The parasitic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) has caused extensive losses to commercial fish stocks of the upper Great Lakes of North America. Methods of controlling the sea lamprey include trapping, barriers to prevent migration, and use of a chemical lampricide (3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol) to kill the filter-feeding larvae. Concerns about the non-specificity of these methods have prompted continued development of species-specific methods to control lampreys outside their native range. In this study, we considered the utility of RNA interference to develop a sea lamprey-specific lampricide. Injection of six different short interfering, double-stranded RNAs (siRNAs) into lamprey embryos first confirmed that the siRNAs could reduce the targeted transcript levels by more than 50%. Two size classes of lamprey larvae were then fed the siRNAs complexed with liposomes, and three of the siRNAs (targeting elongation factor 1α, calmodulin, and α-actinin) reduced transcript levels 2.5, 3.6, and 5.0-fold, respectively, within the lamprey midsections. This is not only the first demonstration of RNAi in lampreys, but it is also the first example of delivery of siRNAs to a non-mammalian vertebrate through feeding formulations. One of the siRNA treatments also caused increased mortality of the larvae following a single feeding of siRNAs, which suggests that prolonged or multiple feedings of siRNAs could be used to kill filter-feeding larvae within streams, following development of a slow-release formulation. The genes targeted in this study are highly conserved across many species, and only serve as a proof-of-concept demonstration that siRNAs can be used in lampreys. Given that RNA interference is a sequence-specific phenomenon, it should be possible to design siRNAs that selectively target gene sequences that are unique to sea lampreys, and thus develop a technology to control these pests without adversely affecting non-target species.

  16. Factors influencing the development of Plasmodium gallinaceum in Aedes fluviatilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana V. Tasón de Camargo

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Aedes fluviatilis is susceptible to infection by Plasmodium gallinaceum and is a convenient insect host for the malaria parasite in countries where Aedees aegypti cannot be maintained in laboratories. In South America, for instance, the rearing of A. aegypti the main vector of urban yellow fever, is not advaisable because of the potential health hazard it represents. Our results of the comparative studies carried out between the sporogonic cycle produced with two lines of P. gallinaceum parasites into A. fuviatilis were as follows. As proved for A. aegypti, mosquito infection rates were variable when A. fluviatilis blood-fed on chicks infected with and old syringe-passaged strain of P. gallinaceum. Oocysts developed in 41% of those mosquitos and the mean peak of oocyst production was 56 per stomach. Salivary gland infections developed in about 6% of the mosquitos. The course of sporogony was unrelated to the size of the inoculum administered to chicks or to the route by which the birds were infected. The development of infected salivary glands was unrelated to oocyst production. Sporogony of P. gallinaceum was more uniform when mosquitos blood-fed on chicks infected with a sporozoite-passaged strain. Oocysts developed in about 50% of those mosquitoes and the mean peak of oocyst production was 138 per stomach, with some individuals having as many as 600-800 oocysts. Infected salivary glands developed in a mean of 27% of the mosquitos but, in some batches, was a high as 50%. Patterns of salivary gland parasitism were similar to those of oocyst production. The course of sporogony of P. gallinaceum in A. fluviatilis is analized in relation to degree of parasitemia and gametocytemia in the vertebrate host.Aedes fluviatilis é susceptível à infecção por Plasmodium gallinaceum, sendo considerado um modelo experimental útil para esta infecção em regiões nas quais Aedes aegypti não deve ser criado em laboratório, por razões de segurança. Na

  17. Shape plasticity in response to water velocity in the freshwater blenny Salaria fluviatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, M; Claude, J; Berrebi, P; Perret, P; Magnan, P

    2016-03-01

    A non-random association between an environmental factor and a given trait could be explained by directional selection (genetic determinism) and by phenotypic plasticity (environmental determinism). A previous study showed a significant relationship between morphology and water velocity in Salaria fluviatilis that conformed to functional expectations. The objective of this study was to test whether this relationship could be explained by phenotypic plasticity. Salaria fluviatilis from a Corsican stream were placed in four experimental channels with different water velocities (0, 10, 20 and 30 cm s(-1)) to test whether there was a morphological response associated with this environmental factor. After 28 days, fish shape changed in response to water velocity without any significant growth. Fish in higher water velocities exhibited a more slender body shape and longer anal and caudal fins. These results indicate a high degree of morphological plasticity in riverine populations of S. fluviatilis and suggest that the previous relationship between morphology and water velocity observed in the field may largely be due to an environmental determinism. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Concentrations of heavy metals in Sotalia fluviatilis (Cetacea: Delphinidae) off the coast of Ceara, northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro-Neto, C.; Itavo, R.V.; Souza de Moraes, Luiz Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    As a top predator, Sotalia fluviatilis may be at risk from pollutants from outfalls. - Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) concentrations on liver and kidney of Sotalia fluviatilis (Cetacea: Delphinidae) stranded in the coast of Ceara, Brazil, were studied from 1996 to 1999. Pb levels were usually lower than the detection limit (0.1 μg/g). Concentrations of Cd were significantly higher in kidney than liver, averaging 0.8 μg/g. Mercury accumulation took place mainly in liver with an average concentration of 4.6 μg/g. Both metals were significantly higher in larger mature individuals, but differences between sexes were not significant. The detection of Cd, Hg and Pb in tissue samples of S. fluviatilis off the coast of Ceara indicated that heavy metals are locally available in the water, and bioaccumulation may be occurring through the food web. Contamination levels were not considered critical, but could be related to Ceara's growing industrial development. The associated risks of pollution outfalls may pose a threat to marine organisms in a near future, especially for top predators such as S. fluviatilis

  19. Boll weevil eradication: a model for sea lamprey control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James W.; Swink, William D.

    2003-01-01

    Invasions of boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) into the United States and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) into the Great Lakes were similar in many ways. Important species (American cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, and lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush) and the industries they supported were negatively affected. Initial control efforts were unsuccessful until pesticides and application technologies were developed. For boll weevils, controls relying on pesticides evolved into an integrated program that included recommended farming practices and poisoned baits. However, the discovery of a boll weevil sex pheromone in 1964 allowed adoption of an ongoing program of eradication. Despite opposition over concept and cost, insecticides, pheromone traps, poisoned baits, and approved farming practices were used to eradicate boll weevils from Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and Alabama by 1999. Using the working back approach along the path of the original invasion, eradication was nearly completed by 2002 in Mississippi and eradication programs were underway in Arkansas, Tennessee, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and parts of Texas. Insecticide use for cotton production decreased 50 to 90%, and cotton yields and farm income increased an average of 78 kg/ha and $190 U.S./ha in areas where boll weevils were eradicated. For sea lampreys, integrated management uses lampricides, barriers to migration, trapping, and release of sterilized males. Although sea lamprey eradication is not currently feasible, recent research on larval and sex pheromones might provide the tools to make it possible. A successful eradication program for sea lampreys starting in Lake Superior and expanding to the lower Great Lakes would ultimately provide huge ecological and economic benefits by eliminating lampricide applications, removing barriers that block teleost fishes, and facilitating the recovery of lake trout. Should the opportunity arise, the concept of sea lamprey eradication should

  20. Hsp90 and hepatobiliary transformation during sea lamprey metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Chu-Yin; Bussy, Ugo; Li, Ke; Davidson, Peter J; Nanlohy, Kaben G; Brown, C Titus; Whyard, Steven; Li, Weiming

    2015-12-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a human infant disease with inflammatory fibrous obstructions in the bile ducts and is the most common cause for pediatric liver transplantation. In contrast, the sea lamprey undergoes developmental BA with transient cholestasis and fibrosis during metamorphosis, but emerges as a fecund adult. Therefore, sea lamprey liver metamorphosis may serve as an etiological model for human BA and provide pivotal information for hepatobiliary transformation and possible therapeutics. We hypothesized that liver metamorphosis in sea lamprey is due to transcriptional reprogramming that dictates cellular remodeling during metamorphosis. We determined global gene expressions in liver at several metamorphic landmark stages by integrating mRNA-Seq and gene ontology analyses, and validated the results with real-time quantitative PCR, histological and immunohistochemical staining. These analyses revealed that gene expressions of protein folding chaperones, membrane transporters and extracellular matrices were altered and shifted during liver metamorphosis. HSP90, important in protein folding and invertebrate metamorphosis, was identified as a candidate key factor during liver metamorphosis in sea lamprey. Blocking HSP90 with geldanamycin facilitated liver metamorphosis and decreased the gene expressions of the rate limiting enzyme for cholesterol biosynthesis, HMGCoA reductase (hmgcr), and bile acid biosynthesis, cyp7a1. Injection of hsp90 siRNA for 4 days altered gene expressions of met, hmgcr, cyp27a1, and slc10a1. Bile acid concentrations were increased while bile duct and gall bladder degeneration was facilitated and synchronized after hsp90 siRNA injection. HSP90 appears to play crucial roles in hepatobiliary transformation during sea lamprey metamorphosis. Sea lamprey is a useful animal model to study postembryonic development and mechanisms for hsp90-induced hepatobiliary transformation.

  1. Daytime avoidance of chemosensory alarm cues by adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rocco, Richard; Belanger, Cowan; Imre, István; Brown, Grant; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) avoid damage-released and predator chemosensory cues at night, but their response to these cues during the day is unknown. Here, we explored (i) whether sea lamprey avoid these cues during the day and (ii) the effect of water temperature on the avoidance of chemosensory alarm cues in two diurnal laboratory experiments. We hypothesized that daytime activity would be temperature-dependent and that only sea lamprey vulnerable to predation (i.e., not hiding) would behaviourally respond to chemosensory alarm cues. Ten groups of ten sea lamprey were exposed to one of a variety of potential chemosensory cues. The experiments were conducted over a range of temperatures to quantify the effect of temperature on avoidance behaviour. Consistent with our hypothesis, a higher proportion of animals were active during daytime as water temperature increased. Moving sea lamprey showed an avoidance response to 2-phenylethylamine (a compound found in mammalian urine) and human saliva once water temperatures had risen to mean (±SD) = 13.7 (±1.4) °C. Resting and hiding sea lamprey did not show an avoidance response to any of the experimental stimuli.

  2. cDNA sequences of two apolipoproteins from lamprey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontes, M.; Xu, X.; Graham, D.; Riley, M.; Doolittle, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The messages for two small but abundant apolipoproteins found in lamprey blood plasma were cloned with the aid of oligonucleotide probes based on amino-terminal sequences. In both cases, numerous clones were identified in a lamprey liver cDNA library, consistent with the great abundance of these proteins in lamprey blood. One of the cDNAs (LAL1) has a coding region of 105 amino acids that corresponds to a 21-residue signal peptide, a putative 8-residue propeptide, and the 76-residue mature protein found in blood. The other cDNA (LAL2) codes for a total of 191 residues, the first 23 of which constitute a signal peptide. The two proteins, which occur in the high-density lipoprotein fraction of ultracentrifuged plasma, have amino acid compositions similar to those of apolipoproteins found in mammalian blood; computer analysis indicates that the sequences are largely helix-permissive. When the sequences were searched against an amino acid sequence data base, rat apolipoprotein IV was the best matching candidate in both cases. Although a reasonable alignment can be made with that sequence and LAL1, definitive assignment of the two lamprey proteins to typical mammalian classes cannot be made at this point

  3. Comparison of electrofishing techniques to detect larval lampreys in wadeable streams in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Jason B.; Chelgren, Nathan D.; Heck, Michael P.; Clark, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the probability of detecting larval lampreys using different methods of backpack electrofishing in wadeable streams in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Our primary objective was to compare capture of lampreys using electrofishing with standard settings for salmon and trout to settings specifically adapted for capture of lampreys. Field work consisted of removal sampling by means of backpack electrofishing in 19 sites in streams representing a broad range of conditions in the region. Captures of lampreys at these sites were analyzed with a modified removal-sampling model and Bayesian estimation to measure the relative odds of capture using the lamprey-specific settings compared with the standard salmonid settings. We found that the odds of capture were 2.66 (95% credible interval, 0.87–78.18) times greater for the lamprey-specific settings relative to standard salmonid settings. When estimates of capture probability were applied to estimating the probabilities of detection, we found high (>0.80) detectability when the actual number of lampreys in a site was greater than 10 individuals and effort was at least two passes of electrofishing, regardless of the settings used. Further work is needed to evaluate key assumptions in our approach, including the evaluation of individual-specific capture probabilities and population closure. For now our results suggest comparable results are possible for detection of lampreys by using backpack electrofishing with salmonid- or lamprey-specific settings.

  4. Novo registro altitudinal de Trichodactylus fluviatilis (Latreille, 1828 (Decapoda, Trichodactylidae no Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i3.785 New altitudinal record of Trichodactylus fluviatilis (Latreille, 1828 (Decapoda, Trichodactylidae in Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i3.785

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete Maria Sousa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Trichodactylus fluviatilis (Latreille, 1828 (Decapoda, Trichodactylidae é uma espécie de caranguejo que habita rios e riachos montanhosos em altitudes até aproximadamente 500 m. Sua distribuição ocorre na América do Sul, desde as bacias costeiras da faixa leste do Brasil até a bacia do alto Paraná e na Argentina. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi registrar a ocorrência de T. fluviatilis em uma Unidade de Conservação de Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, e fornecer um novo registro altitudinal dessa espécie no Brasil. As amostras foram obtidas de outubro de 2004 a julho de 2005. Foram coletados três indivíduos vivos, dois machos e uma fêmea da espécie. Também foram analisados 16 regurgitos estomacais do cágado Hydromedusa maximiliani, dos quais, em seis foram encontrados partes corporais deste crustáceo. Muitas espécies de caranguejos do Brasil da família Trichodactylidae vivem em regiões acima de 500m do nível do mar. No presente estudo, T. fluviatilis foi coletado a 770 m de altitude, ampliando assim a faixa de distribuição altitudinal dessa espécie no Brasil. Até o presente estudo não existiam relatos de T. fluviatilis no município de Juiz de Fora, portanto este estudo também se constitui em um novo registro desse tricodatilídeo em Minas Gerais.Trichodactylus fluviatilis (Latreille, 1828 (Decapoda, Trichodactylidae is a crab species that lives in mountainous rivers and streams at altitudes up to 500m. Its distribution ranges from South America from the Basins of eastern coast of Brazil to basins of the Upper Paraná River and Argentina. The main objective of this study was to register a new occurrence of T. fluviatilis at a Conservation Unit in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais and provide a new altitudinal record for this species in Brazil. The samples were taken between October 2004 and July 2005. We collected three live T. fluviatilis individuals – two males and one female. We also analyzed the stomach contents of 16

  5. Comparison of synthesis of 15α-hydroxylated steroids in males of four North American lamprey species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Mara B.; Young, Bradley A.; Close, David A.; Semeyn, Jesse; Robinson, T. Craig; Bayer, Jennifer M.; Li, Weiming

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence that 15α-hydroxytestosterone (15α-T) and 15α-hydroxyprogesterone (15α-P) are produced in vitro and in vivo in adult male sea lampreys (Petromyzonmarinus), and that circulatory levels increase in response to injections with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). We examined four species from the Petromyzontidae family including silver lampreys (Ichthyomyzon unicuspis), chestnut lampreys (I. castaneus), American brook lampreys (Lethenteron appendix), and Pacific lampreys (Entosphenus tridentatus) to determine if these unusual steroids were unique to sea lampreys or a common feature in lamprey species. In vitro production was examined through incubations of testis with tritiated precursors, and 15α-T and 15α-P production was confirmed in all species through co-elution with standards on both high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and thin layerchromatography. In vivo production was proven by demonstrating that HPLC-fractionated plasma had peaks of immunoreactive 15α-T and 15α-P that co-eluted with standards through using previously developed radioimmunoassays for 15α-T and 15α-P. The possible functionality of 15α-T and 15α-P was further examined in silver and Pacific lampreys by investigating the effect of injection of either type of lamprey GnRH on plasma concentrations of 15α-T and 15α-P. Injections with exogenous GnRH did not affect circulatory levels of either steroid in silver lampreys, and only GnRH III elicited higher levels of both steroids in Pacific lampreys. The 15α-hydroxylase enzyme(s) for steroids appeared to present in adult males of all species examined, but the question of whether 15α-hydroxylated steroids are functional in these lamprey species, and the significance of the 15-hydroxyl group, requires further research.

  6. 11-Deoxycortisol is a corticosteroid hormone in the lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, D.A.; Yun, S.-S.; McCormick, S.D.; Wildbill, A.J.; Li, W.

    2010-01-01

    Corticosteroid hormones are critical for controlling metabolism, hydromineral balance, and the stress response in vertebrates. Although corticosteroid hormones have been well characterized in most vertebrate groups, the identity of the earliest vertebrate corticosteroid hormone has remained elusive. Here we provide evidence that 11-deoxycortisol is the corticosteroid hormone in the lamprey, a member of the agnathans that evolved more than 500 million years ago. We used RIA, HPLC, and mass spectrometry analysis to determine that 11-deoxycortisol is the active corticosteroid present in lamprey plasma. We also characterized an 11-deoxycortisol receptor extracted from sea lamprey gill cytosol. The receptor was highly specific for 11-deoxycortisol and exhibited corticosteroid binding characteristics, including DNA binding. Furthermore, we observed that 11-deoxycortisol was regulated by the hypothalamus-pituitary axis and responded to acute stress. 11-Deoxycortisol implants reduced sex steroid concentrations and upregulated gill Na+, K+-ATPase, an enzyme critical for ion balance. We show here that 11-deoxycortisol functioned as both a glucocorticoid and a mineralocorticoid in the lamprey. Our findings indicate that a complex and highly specific corticosteroid signaling pathway evolved at least 500 million years ago with the arrival of the earliest vertebrate.

  7. Habituation of adult sea lamprey repeatedly exposed to damage-released alarm and predator cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imre, Istvan; Di Rocco, Richard T.; Brown, Grant E.; Johnson, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Predation is an unforgiving selective pressure affecting the life history, morphology and behaviour of prey organisms. Selection should favour organisms that have the ability to correctly assess the information content of alarm cues. This study investigated whether adult sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus habituate to conspecific damage-released alarm cues (fresh and decayed sea lamprey extract), a heterospecific damage-released alarm cue (white sucker Catostomus commersoniiextract), predator cues (Northern water snake Nerodia sipedon washing, human saliva and 2-phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PEA HCl)) and a conspecific damage-released alarm cue and predator cue combination (fresh sea lamprey extract and human saliva) after they were pre-exposed 4 times or 8 times, respectively, to a given stimulus the previous night. Consistent with our prediction, adult sea lamprey maintained an avoidance response to conspecific damage-released alarm cues (fresh and decayed sea lamprey extract), a predator cue presented at high relative concentration (PEA HCl) and a conspecific damage-released alarm cue and predator cue combination (fresh sea lamprey extract plus human saliva), irrespective of previous exposure level. As expected, adult sea lamprey habituated to a sympatric heterospecific damage-released alarm cue (white sucker extract) and a predator cue presented at lower relative concentration (human saliva). Adult sea lamprey did not show any avoidance of the Northern water snake washing and the Amazon sailfin catfish extract (heterospecific control). This study suggests that conspecific damage-released alarm cues and PEA HCl present the best options as natural repellents in an integrated management program aimed at controlling the abundance of sea lamprey in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  8. Lateral and vertical distribution of downstream migrating juvenile sea lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotola, V. Alex; Miehls, Scott M.; Simard, Lee G.; Marsden, J. Ellen

    2018-01-01

    Sea lamprey is considered an invasive and nuisance species in the Laurentian Great Lakes, Lake Champlain, and the Finger Lakes of New York and is a major focus of control efforts. Currently, management practices focus on limiting the area of infestation using barriers to block migratory adults, and lampricides to kill ammocoetes in infested tributaries. No control efforts currently target the downstream-migrating post-metamorphic life stage which could provide another management opportunity. In order to apply control methods to this life stage, a better understanding of their downstream movement patterns is needed. To quantify spatial distribution of downstream migrants, we deployed fyke and drift nets laterally and vertically across the stream channel in two tributaries of Lake Champlain. Sea lamprey was not randomly distributed across the stream width and lateral distribution showed a significant association with discharge. Results indicated that juvenile sea lamprey is most likely to be present in the thalweg and at midwater depths of the stream channel. Further, a majority of the catch occurred during high flow events, suggesting an increase in downstream movement activity when water levels are higher than base flow. Discharge and flow are strong predictors of the distribution of out-migrating sea lamprey, thus managers will need to either target capture efforts in high discharge areas of streams or develop means to guide sea lamprey away from these areas.

  9. Chondrogenesis of the branchial skeleton in embryonic sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, S L; Campbell, C K; Wright, G M

    2000-11-01

    This study provides concise temporal and spatial characteristics of branchial chondrogenesis in embryonic sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, using high resolution light microscopy, transmission electron, and immunoelectron microscopy. Prechondrogenic condensations representing the first branchial arch appeared first in the mid-region of the third pharyngeal arch at 13 days post-fertilization (pf). Cartilage differentiation, defined by the presence of the unique, fibrillar, non-collagenous matrix protein characteristic of branchial cartilage, was first observed at 14 days pf. Development of lamprey branchial cartilage appeared unusual compared to that in jawed fishes, in that precartilage condensations appear as a one-cell wide orderly stack of flattened cells that extend by the addition of one dorsal and one ventral condensation. Development of lamprey gill arches from three condensations that fuse to form a single skeletal element differs from the developing gill arches of jawed fishes, where more than one skeletal element forms from a single condensation. The initial orderly arrangement of cells in the lamprey branchial prechondrogenic condensations remains throughout development. Once chondrification of the condensations begins, the branchial arches start to grow. Initially, growth occurs as a result of matrix secretion and cell migration. Later in development, the arches grow mainly by cell proliferation and enlargement. This study defines the morphology and timing of lamprey branchial chondrogenesis. Studies of lamprey chondrogenesis provide not only insight into the developmental biology of a unique non-collagenous cartilage in a primitive vertebrate but also into the general evolution of the skeletal system in vertebrates. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. A synthesized mating pheromone component increases adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) trap capture in management scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wagner, C. Michael; Dawson, Heather; Wang, Huiyong; Steeves, Todd; Twohey, Michael; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Application of chemical cues to manipulate adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) behavior is among the options considered for new sea lamprey control techniques in the Laurentian Great Lakes. A male mating pheromone component, 7a,12a,24-trihydroxy-3-one-5a-cholan-24-sulfate (3kPZS), lures ovulated female sea lamprey upstream into baited traps in experimental contexts with no odorant competition. A critical knowledge gap is whether this single pheromone component influences adult sea lamprey behavior in management contexts containing free-ranging sea lampreys. A solution of 3kPZS to reach a final in-stream concentration of 10-12 mol·L-1 was applied to eight Michigan streams at existing sea lamprey traps over 3 years, and catch rates were compared between paired 3kPZS-baited and unbaited traps. 3kPZS-baited traps captured significantly more sexually immature and mature sea lampreys, and overall yearly trapping efficiency within a stream averaged 10% higher during years when 3kPZS was applied. Video analysis of a trap funnel showed that the likelihood of sea lamprey trap entry after trap encounter was higher when the trap was 3kPZS baited. Our approach serves as a model for the development of similar control tools for sea lamprey and other aquatic invaders.

  11. Use of chemosensory cues as repellents for sea lamprey: Potential directions for population management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imre, I.; Brown, G.E.; Bergstedt, R.A.; McDonald, R.

    2010-01-01

    Sea lamprey invaded the Great Lakes in the early 20th century and caused an abrupt decline in the population densities of several native fish species. The integrated management of this invasive species is composed of chemical (lampricide) applications, low-head barrier dams, adult trapping and sterile male release. Recently, there has been an increased emphasis on the development of control methods alternative to lampricide applications. We propose as an alternative-control method the use of chemosensory cues as repellents for sea lamprey population management. Based on the available evidence at this time, we suggest that injury-released chemical alarm cues show promise as repellents for sea lamprey and further research should be directed at determining whether sea lamprey show an avoidance response to these types of chemosensory cues. From a management perspective, these chemosensory cues could be used to restrict sea lamprey access to spawning grounds. Repellents could also be used together with attractants like sex pheromones to manipulate sea lamprey behavior, similar to the "push-pull" strategies utilized with insect pests. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Sequencing of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) genome provides insights into vertebrate evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeramiah J; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Holt, Carson; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Jiang, Ning; Campbell, Michael S; Yandell, Mark D; Manousaki, Tereza; Meyer, Axel; Bloom, Ona E; Morgan, Jennifer R; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Sims, Carrie; Garruss, Alexander S; Cook, Malcolm; Krumlauf, Robb; Wiedemann, Leanne M; Sower, Stacia A; Decatur, Wayne A; Hall, Jeffrey A; Amemiya, Chris T; Saha, Nil R; Buckley, Katherine M; Rast, Jonathan P; Das, Sabyasachi; Hirano, Masayuki; McCurley, Nathanael; Guo, Peng; Rohner, Nicolas; Tabin, Clifford J; Piccinelli, Paul; Elgar, Greg; Ruffier, Magali; Aken, Bronwen L; Searle, Stephen MJ; Muffato, Matthieu; Pignatelli, Miguel; Herrero, Javier; Jones, Matthew; Brown, C Titus; Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Nanlohy, Kaben G; Libants, Scot V; Yeh, Chu-Yin; McCauley, David W; Langeland, James A; Pancer, Zeev; Fritzsch, Bernd; de Jong, Pieter J; Zhu, Baoli; Fulton, Lucinda L; Theising, Brenda; Flicek, Paul; Bronner, Marianne E; Warren, Wesley C; Clifton, Sandra W; Wilson, Richard K; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Lampreys are representatives of an ancient vertebrate lineage that diverged from our own ~500 million years ago. By virtue of this deeply shared ancestry, the sea lamprey (P. marinus) genome is uniquely poised to provide insight into the ancestry of vertebrate genomes and the underlying principles of vertebrate biology. Here, we present the first lamprey whole-genome sequence and assembly. We note challenges faced owing to its high content of repetitive elements and GC bases, as well as the absence of broad-scale sequence information from closely related species. Analyses of the assembly indicate that two whole-genome duplications likely occurred before the divergence of ancestral lamprey and gnathostome lineages. Moreover, the results help define key evolutionary events within vertebrate lineages, including the origin of myelin-associated proteins and the development of appendages. The lamprey genome provides an important resource for reconstructing vertebrate origins and the evolutionary events that have shaped the genomes of extant organisms. PMID:23435085

  13. Sightings of Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D' Orbigny, 1844 and Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais, 1853 (Cetacea in South-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula M. Di Beneditto

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D' Orbigny, 1844 and Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais, 1853 have typically coastal habits and are sympatric in South-eastern Brazil. The purpose of this work was to record sightings and describe aspects concerning the behaviour of both species in this region, between 1993 and 1998. The sightings were accomplished by cruises and from a fixed point. Information provided by fishermen were also considered. In general, P. blainvillei was observed in all seasons of the year, up to five nautical miles away from the coast, up to 15 m deep and the groups comprised up to five specimens. The most part of the groups of S. fluviatilis, were observed in autumm and winter times and comprised up to 10 specimens. In about half of the sightings, the presence of calves and/or juveniles was noted. The cooperative (group fishing was the foranging behaviour most frequently noted for S. fluviatilis.Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D’Orgigny, 1844 e Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais, 1853 possuem hábitos tipicamente costeiros e são simpátricas no Sudeste do Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar avistagens e descrever aspectos relacionados ao comportamento de ambas as espécies na região, entre 1993 e 1998. As avistagens foram realizadas através de cruzeiros e ponto fixo. Informações fornecidas por pescadores também foram consideradas. Em geral, P. blainvillei foi observada em todas as estações do ano, a até cinco milhas náuticas de distância da linha da costa e 15 m de profundidade e, os grupos eram formados por até cinco espécimens. A maior parte dos grupos de S. fluviatilis foi observada no período de outono e inverno e, era formada por até 10 espécimens. Em metade das avistagens, a presença de filhotes e/ou juvenis foi verificada. A pesca cooperativa (em grupo foi o comportamento alimentar observado com maior freqüência para S. fluviatilis.

  14. The Freshwater Sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis Harbours Diverse Pseudomonas Species (Gammaproteobacteria, Pseudomonadales) with Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Costa, Tina; Jousset, Alexandre; van Overbeek, Leo; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Costa, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria are believed to play an important role in the fitness and biochemistry of sponges (Porifera). Pseudomonas species (Gammaproteobacteria, Pseudomonadales) are capable of colonizing a broad range of eukaryotic hosts, but knowledge of their diversity and function in freshwater invertebrates is rudimentary. We assessed the diversity, structure and antimicrobial activities of Pseudomonas spp. in the freshwater sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis. Polymerase Chain Reaction – Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprints of the global regulator gene gacA revealed distinct structures between sponge-associated and free-living Pseudomonas communities, unveiling previously unsuspected diversity of these assemblages in freshwater. Community structures varied across E. fluviatilis specimens, yet specific gacA phylotypes could be detected by PCR-DGGE in almost all sponge individuals sampled over two consecutive years. By means of whole-genome fingerprinting, 39 distinct genotypes were found within 90 fluorescent Pseudomonas isolates retrieved from E. fluviatilis. High frequency of in vitro antibacterial (49%), antiprotozoan (35%) and anti-oomycetal (32%) activities was found among these isolates, contrasting less-pronounced basidiomycetal (17%) and ascomycetal (8%) antagonism. Culture extracts of highly predation-resistant isolates rapidly caused complete immobility or lysis of cells of the protozoan Colpoda steinii. Isolates tentatively identified as P. jessenii, P. protegens and P. oryzihabitans showed conspicuous inhibitory traits and correspondence with dominant sponge-associated phylotypes registered by cultivation-independent analysis. Our findings suggest that E. fluviatilis hosts both transient and persistent Pseudomonas symbionts displaying antimicrobial activities of potential ecological and biotechnological value. PMID:24533086

  15. Dopamine and the Brainstem Locomotor Networks: From Lamprey to Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri Ryczko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In vertebrates, dopamine neurons are classically known to modulate locomotion via their ascending projections to the basal ganglia that project to brainstem locomotor networks. An increased dopaminergic tone is associated with increase in locomotor activity. In pathological conditions where dopamine cells are lost, such as in Parkinson's disease, locomotor deficits are traditionally associated with the reduced ascending dopaminergic input to the basal ganglia. However, a descending dopaminergic pathway originating from the substantia nigra pars compacta was recently discovered. It innervates the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR from basal vertebrates to mammals. This pathway was shown to increase locomotor output in lampreys, and could very well play an important role in mammals. Here, we provide a detailed account on the newly found dopaminergic pathway in lamprey, salamander, rat, monkey, and human. In lampreys and salamanders, dopamine release in the MLR is associated with the activation of reticulospinal neurons that carry the locomotor command to the spinal cord. Dopamine release in the MLR potentiates locomotor movements through a D1-receptor mechanism in lampreys. In rats, stimulation of the substantia nigra pars compacta elicited dopamine release in the pedunculopontine nucleus, a known part of the MLR. In a monkey model of Parkinson's disease, a reduced dopaminergic innervation of the brainstem locomotor networks was reported. Dopaminergic fibers are also present in human pedunculopontine nucleus. We discuss the conserved locomotor role of this pathway from lamprey to mammals, and the hypothesis that this pathway could play a role in the locomotor deficits reported in Parkinson's disease.

  16. Electrical guidance efficiency of downstream-migrating juvenile Sea Lamprey decreases with increasing water velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miehls, Scott M.; Johnson, Nicholas; Haro, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    We tested the efficacy of a vertically oriented field of pulsed direct current (VEPDC) created by an array of vertical electrodes for guiding downstream-moving juvenile Sea Lampreys Petromyzon marinus to a bypass channel in an artificial flume at water velocities of 10–50 cm/s. Sea Lampreys were more likely to be captured in the bypass channel than in other sections of the flume regardless of electric field status (on or off) or water velocity. Additionally, Sea Lampreys were more likely to be captured in the bypass channel when the VEPDC was active; however, an interaction between the effects of VEPDC and water velocity was observed, as the likelihood of capture decreased with increases in water velocity. The distribution of Sea Lampreys shifted from right to left across the width of the flume toward the bypass channel when the VEPDC was active at water velocities less than 25 cm/s. The VEPDC appeared to have no effect on Sea Lamprey distribution in the flume at water velocities greater than 25 cm/s. We also conducted separate tests to determine the threshold at which Sea Lampreys would become paralyzed. Individuals were paralyzed at a mean power density of 37.0 µW/cm3. Future research should investigate the ability of juvenile Sea Lampreys to detect electric fields and their specific behavioral responses to electric field characteristics so as to optimize the use of this technology as a nonphysical guidance tool across variable water velocities.

  17. Molecular variation and distribution of Anopheles fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae) complex in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, Saied Reza; Razavi, Mohammad Reza; Bahramali, Golnaz

    2010-09-01

    Anopheles fluviatilis James (Diptera: Culicidae) is one of the known malaria vectors in south and southeastern Iran. Earlier ITS2 sequences analysis of specimens from Iran demonstrated only a single genotype that was identical to species Y in India, which is also the same as species T. We identified 2 haplotypes in the An. fluviatilis populations of Iran based on differences in nucleotide sequences of D3 domain of the 28S locus of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Comparison of sequence data from 44 Iranian specimens with those publicly available in the Genbank database showed that all of the 28S-D3 sequences from Kazeroun and Khesht regions in Fars Province were identical to the database entry representing species U in India. In other regions, all the individuals showed heterozygosity at the single nucleotide position, which identifies species U and T. It is argued that the 2 species may co-occur in some regions and hybridize; however, the heterozygosity in the 28S-D3 locus was not reflected in ITS2 sequences and this locus for all individuals was identical to species T. This study shows that in a newly diverged species, like members of An. fluviatilis complex, a single molecular marker may not be sufficiently discriminatory to identify all the taxa over a vast geographical area. In addition, other molecular markers may provide more reliable information for species discrimination.

  18. Discovery of fossil lamprey larva from the Lower Cretaceous reveals its three-phased life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mee-mann; Wu, Feixiang; Miao, Desui; Zhang, Jiangyong

    2014-10-28

    Lampreys are one of the two surviving jawless vertebrate groups and one of a few vertebrate groups with the best exemplified metamorphosis during their life cycle, which consists of a long-lasting larval stage, a peculiar metamorphosis, and a relatively short adulthood with a markedly different anatomy. Although the fossil records have revealed that many general features of extant lamprey adults were already formed by the Late Devonian (ca. 360 Ma), little is known about the life cycle of the fossil lampreys because of the lack of fossilized lamprey larvae or transformers. Here we report the first to our knowledge discovery of exceptionally preserved premetamorphic and metamorphosing larvae of the fossil lamprey Mesomyzon mengae from the Lower Cretaceous of Inner Mongolia, China. These fossil ammocoetes look surprisingly modern in having an eel-like body with tiny eyes, oral hood and lower lip, anteriorly positioned branchial region, and a continuous dorsal skin fin fold and in sharing a similar feeding habit, as judged from the detritus left in the gut. In contrast, the larger metamorphosing individuals have slightly enlarged eyes relative to large otic capsules, thickened oral hood or pointed snout, and discernable radials but still anteriorly extended branchial area and lack a suctorial oral disk, which characterize the early stages of the metamorphosis of extant lampreys. Our discovery not only documents the larval conditions of fossil lampreys but also indicates the three-phased life cycle in lampreys emerged essentially in their present mode no later than the Early Cretaceous.

  19. The modulation of the symbiont/host interaction between Wolbachia pipientis and Aedes fluviatilis embryos by glycogen metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana da Rocha Fernandes

    Full Text Available Wolbachia pipientis, a maternally transmitted bacterium that colonizes arthropods, may affect the general aspects of insect physiology, particularly reproduction. Wolbachia is a natural endosymbiont of Aedes fluviatilis, whose effects in embryogenesis and reproduction have not been addressed so far. In this context, we investigated the correlation between glucose metabolism and morphological alterations during A. fluviatilis embryo development in Wolbachia-positive (W+ and Wolbachia-negative (W- mosquito strains. While both strains do not display significant morphological and larval hatching differences, larger differences were observed in hexokinase activity and glycogen contents during early and mid-stages of embryogenesis, respectively. To investigate if glycogen would be required for parasite-host interaction, we reduced Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3 levels in adult females and their eggs by RNAi. GSK-3 knock-down leads to embryonic lethality, lower levels of glycogen and total protein and Wolbachia reduction. Therefore, our results suggest that the relationship between A. fluviatilis and Wolbachia may be modulated by glycogen metabolism.

  20. Behavioural and morphological differences between lake and river populations of Salaria fluviatilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neat, F.C.; Lengkeek, W.; Westerbeek, P.; Laarhoven, B.; Videler, J.J

    Three populations (one from a river and two from lakes) of Salaria fluviatilis, the only exclusively freshwater representative of the Blenniidae, showed significant differences in reproductive behaviour and morphology. Breeding males and females were significantly larger at maturity in the river

  1. Gene expression during ovarian differentiation in parasitic and non-parasitic lampreys: implications for fecundity and life history types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spice, Erin K; Whyard, Steven; Docker, Margaret F

    2014-11-01

    Lampreys diverged from the jawed vertebrate lineage approximately 500million years ago. Lampreys undergo sex differentiation much later than most other vertebrates, and ovarian differentiation occurs several years before testicular differentiation. The genetic basis of lamprey sex differentiation is of particular interest both because of the phylogenetic importance of lampreys and because of their unusual pattern of sex differentiation. As well, differences between parasitic and non-parasitic lampreys may first become evident at ovarian differentiation. However, nothing is known about the genetic basis of ovarian differentiation in lampreys. This study examined potential differences in gene expression before, during, and after ovarian differentiation in parasitic chestnut lamprey Ichthyomyzon castaneus and non-parasitic northern brook lamprey Ichthyomyzonfossor. Eight target genes (17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, germ cell-less, estrogen receptor β, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, daz-associated protein 1, cytochrome c oxidase subunit III, Wilms' tumour suppressor protein 1, and dehydrocholesterol reductase 7) were examined. Northern brook lamprey displayed higher expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit III, whereas chestnut lamprey displayed higher expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor; these genes may be involved in apoptosis and oocyte growth, respectively. Presumptive male larvae had higher expression of Wilms' tumour suppressor protein 1, which may be involved in the undifferentiated gonad and/or later testicular development. Differentiated females had higher expression of 17β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and daz-associated protein 1, which may be involved in female development. This study is the first to identify genes that may be involved in ovarian differentiation and fecundity in lampreys. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis of juvenile lamprey migration and passage research and monitoring at Columbia and Snake River Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Weiland, Lisa K.; Christiansen, Helena E.

    2016-01-01

    We compiled and summarized previous sources of data and research results related to the presence, numbers, and migration timing characteristics of juvenile (eyed macropthalmia) and larval (ammocoetes) Pacific lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus, in the Columbia River basin (CRB). Included were data from various screw trap collections, data from historic fyke net studies, catch records of lampreys at JBS facilities, turbine cooling water strainer collections, and information on the occurrence of lampreys in the diets of avian and piscine predators. We identified key data gaps and uncertainties that should be addressed in a juvenile lamprey passage research program. The goal of this work was to summarize information from disparate sources so that managers can use it to prioritize and guide future research and monitoring efforts related to the downstream migration of juvenile Pacific lamprey within the CRB. A common finding in all datasets was the high level of variation observed for CRB lamprey in numbers present, timing and spatial distribution. This will make developing monitoring programs to accurately characterize lamprey migrations and passage more challenging. Primary data gaps centered around our uncertainty on the numbers of juvenile and larval present in the system which affects the ability to assign risk to passage conditions and prioritize management actions. Recommendations include developing standardized monitoring methods, such as at juvenile bypass systems (JBS’s), to better document numbers and timing of lamprey migrations at dams, and use biotelemetry tracking techniques to estimate survival potentials for different migration histories.

  3. Molecular characterization of Anopheles fluviatilis species complex in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, S R; Oshaghi, M A; Vatandoost, H; Assmar, M

    2003-05-01

    A species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to identify the species composition of the Anopheles fluviatilis complex in the Islamic Republic of Iran. All the amplified DNA samples from specimens collected from different areas yielded a fragment of 450 bp size, a PCR product corresponding to that of the species denoted as Y. The sequence data from 21 ITS2 [second internal transcribed spacer] regions were compared with those publicly available in the GenBank database and confirmed that the specimens were 100% identical to species Y of India. Species Y is presumably the same as species T that has no role in transmission of malaria in India, whereas An. fluviatilis is known as a secondary vector of malaria in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

  4. Development and Functional Organization of the Cranial Nerves in Lampreys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombal, Manuel A; Megías, Manuel

    2018-04-16

    Lampreys, together with hagfishes, are the only extant representatives of the oldest branch of vertebrates, the agnathans, which are the sister group of gnathostomes; therefore, studies on these animals are of great evolutionary significance. Lampreys exhibit a particular life cycle with remarkable changes in their behavior, concomitant, in part, with important modifications in the head and its musculature, which might influence the development of the cranial nerves. In this context, some cranial nerves such as the optic nerve and the ocular motor nerves, which develop slowly during an extremely long larval period lasting more than five years, have been more thoroughly investigated; however, much less experimental information is available about others, such as the facial or the hypoglossal nerves. In addition, the possible existence of a "true" accessory nerve in these animals is still a matter of conjecture. Although growing in last decades, investigations on the physiology of the lamprey cranial nerves is scanty. This review focuses on past and recent findings that have contributed to characterize the anatomical organization of the cranial nerves in lampreys, including their components and nuclei, and their relations in the brain; in addition, comments on their development and functional role are also included. Anat Rec, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Confirmation of Two Sibling Species among Anopheles fluviatilis Mosquitoes in South and Southeastern Iran by Analysis of Cytochrome Oxidase I Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, Saied Reza; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Vatandoost, Hassan

    2012-12-01

    Anopheles fluviatilis, one of the major malaria vectors in Iran, is assumed to be a complex of sibling species. The aim of this study was to evaluate Cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene alongside 28S-D3 as a diagnostic tool for identification of An. fluviatilis sibling species in Iran. DNA sample belonging to 24 An. fluviatilis mosquitoes from different geographical areas in south and southeastern Iran were used for amplification of COI gene followed by sequencing. The 474-475 bp COI sequences obtained in this study were aligned with 59 similar sequences of An. fluviatilis and a sequence of Anopheles minimus, as out group, from GenBank database. The distances between group and individual sequences were calculated and phylogenetic tree for obtained sequences was generated by using Kimura two parameter (K2P) model of neighbor-joining method. Phylogenetic analysis using COI gene grouped members of Fars Province (central Iran) in two distinct clades separate from other Iranian members representing Hormozgan, Kerman, and Sistan va Baluchestan Provinces. The mean distance between Iranian and Indian individuals was 1.66%, whereas the value between Fars Province individuals and the group comprising individuals from other areas of Iran was 2.06%. Presence of 2.06% mean distance between individuals from Fars Province and those from other areas of Iran is indicative of at least two sibling species in An. fluviatilis mosquitoes of Iran. This finding confirms earlier results based on RAPD-PCR and 28S-D3 analysis.

  6. Odor-conditioned rheotaxis of the sea lamprey: modeling, analysis and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jongeun; Jeon, Soo; Johnson, Nicholas S; Brant, Cory O; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms for orienting toward and locating an odor source are sought in both biology and engineering. Chemical ecology studies have demonstrated that adult female sea lamprey show rheotaxis in response to a male pheromone with dichotomous outcomes: sexually mature females locate the source of the pheromone whereas immature females swim by the source and continue moving upstream. Here we introduce a simple switching mechanism modeled after odor-conditioned rheotaxis for the sea lamprey as they search for the source of a pheromone in a one-dimensional riverine environment. In this strategy, the females move upstream only if they detect that the pheromone concentration is higher than a threshold value and drifts down (by turning off control action to save energy) otherwise. In addition, we propose various uncertainty models such as measurement noise, actuator disturbance, and a probabilistic model of a concentration field in turbulent flow. Based on the proposed model with uncertainties, a convergence analysis showed that with this simplistic switching mechanism, the lamprey converges to the source location on average in spite of all such uncertainties. Furthermore, a slightly modified model and its extensive simulation results explain the behaviors of immature female lamprey near the source location. (paper)

  7. Upstream migration of Pacific lampreys in the John Day River, Oregon: Behavior, timing, and habitat use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T. Craig; Bayer, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Adult Pacific lamprey migration and habitat preferences for over-winter holding and spawning, and larval rearing in tributaries to the Columbia River are not well understood. The John Day River is one such tributary where larval and adult stages of this species have been documented, and its free-flowing character provided the opportunity to study migration of Pacific lampreys unimpeded by passage constraints. Forty-two adult Pacific lampreys were captured in the John Day River near its mouth during their upstream migration. Pacific lampreys were surgically implanted with radio transmitters and released onsite, and tracked by fixed-site, aerial, and terrestrial telemetry methods for nearly one year. Adults moved upstream exclusively at night, with a mean rate of 11.1 ?? 6.3 km/day. They halted upstream migration by September, and held a single position for approximately six months in the lateral margins of riffles and glides, using boulders for cover. More than half of Pacific lampreys resumed migration in March before ending movement in early May. Pacific lampreys that resumed migration in spring completed a median of 87% of their upstream migration before over-winter holding. Upon completing migration. Pacific lampreys briefly held position before beginning downstream movement at the end of May. Though not directly observed, halting migration and movement downstream were likely the result of spawning and death. Gains in adult Pacific lamprey passage through the Columbia River hydrosystem and tributaries may be made by improvements that would expedite migration during spring and summer and increase the quantity and variety of cover and refuge opportunities. ?? 2005 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical Characterization of Lipophilic Constituents in the Skin of Migratory Adult Sea Lamprey from the Great Lakes Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila A Dissanayake

    Full Text Available The sea lamprey (Petromzons marinus is an invasive ectoparasite of large-bodied fishes that adversely affects the fishing industry and ecology of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Lipid content in the whole sea lamprey and muscles, liver and kidney of metamorphosing larval stages has been reported. Similarly, the fatty acid profile of the rope tissues of sexually-mature male sea lampreys has also been reported. The average body weight of a sub-adult migratory sea lamprey is 250 g, which includes 14.4% skin (36 g. Our preliminary extraction data of an adult sea lamprey skin revealed that it contained approximately 8.5% of lipophilic compounds. Lamprey skin is home to a naturally aversive compound (an alarm cue that is being developed into a repellent for use in pest management. As part of an ongoing investigation to identify the chemical structure of the sea lamprey alarm cue, we extracted the skin with water and methanol, respectively. The methanolic extract (1.55% contained exclusively lipophilic compounds and did not include the alarm cue. We chemically characterized all compounds present in the methanolic extract as cholesterol esters (CE, tri- and di-glycerides (TG and DG, cholesterol, free fatty acids (FFA and minor amounts of plasticizers. The free fatty acids fraction was composed of saturated (41.8%, monounsaturated (40.7% and polyunsaturated (17.4% fatty acids, respectively. The plasticizers characterized were phthalate and benzoate and found to be 0.95 mg and 2.54 mg, respectively, per adult sea lamprey skin. This is the first report of the chemical characterization of all the lipophilic constituents in the skin of sub-adult migratory sea lamprey. The CEs isolated and characterized from sea lamprey skin are also for the first time.

  9. Evidence that lake trout served as a buffer against sea lamprey predation on burbot in Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, M.A.; Madenjian, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    The population of burbot Lota lota in Lake Erie recovered during 1986–2003, mainly because of the control of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus, which began in 1986. Burbot populations continued to grow during 1996–1998, when sea lamprey control was substantially reduced. We calculated mortality parameters for burbot in Lake Erie by estimating age at capture for 2,793 burbot caught in annual gill-net surveys of eastern Lake Erie from 1994 to 2003. Based on catch-curve analysis, annual mortality in Lake Erie during 1994–2003 was estimated as 33%. Annual mortality of the 1992 year-class of burbot was estimated as 30%. The mortality of burbot during the years of reduced sea lamprey control was not different from that during the 3 years preceding reduced control and was significantly lower than that during the entire portion of the time series in which full sea lamprey control was conducted. These results suggest that the reduction in sea lamprey control did not lead to increased burbot mortality. The catch per gill-net lift of large burbot (total length > 600 mm), the size preferred by sea lampreys, was lower than that of adult lake trout Salvelinus namaycush (age 5 and older; total length > 700 mm) before lampricide application was reduced. Although adult lake trout populations declined, the abundance of large burbot did not change during the period of reduced lampricide application. These results support a hypothesis that a healthy population of adult lake trout can serve as a buffer species, acting to reduce predation of burbot by sea lampreys when sea lamprey populations increase. Burbot attained sexual maturity at a relatively early age (3 or 4 years) and a total length (approximately 500 mm) that was smaller than the preferred prey size for sea lampreys. These characteristics and the buffering effect of the lake trout population enabled growth of the burbot population during the brief period when lamprey control was reduced.

  10. Confirmation of Two Sibling Species among Anopheles Fluviatilis Mosquitoes in South and Southeastern Iran by Analysis of Cytochrome Oxidase I Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Reza Naddaf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anopheles fluviatilis, one of the major malaria vectors in Iran, is assumed to be a complex of sibling species. The aim of this study was to evaluate Cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene alongside 28S-D3 as a diagnostic tool for identification of An. fluviatilis sibling species in Iran.Methods: DNA sample belonging to 24 An. fluviatilis mosquitoes from different geographical areas in south and southeastern Iran were used for amplification of COI gene followed by sequencing. The 474–475 bp COI sequences obtained in this study were aligned with 59 similar sequences of An. fluviatilis and a sequence of Anopheles minimus, as out group, from GenBank database. The distances between group and individual sequences were calculated and phy­logenetic tree for obtained sequences was generated by using Kimura two parameter (K2P model of neighbor-join­ing method.Results: Phylogenetic analysis using COI gene grouped members of Fars Province (central Iran in two distinct clades separate from other Iranian members representing Hormozgan, Kerman, and Sistan va Baluchestan Provinces. The mean distance between Iranian and Indian individuals was 1.66%, whereas the value between Fars Province individ­uals and the group comprising individuals from other areas of Iran was 2.06%.Conclusion: Presence of 2.06% mean distance between individuals from Fars Province and those from other areas of Iran is indicative of at least two sibling species in An. fluviatilis mosquitoes of Iran. This finding confirms earlier results based on RAPD-PCR and 28S-D3 analysis.

  11. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2003-10-01

    In 2002 Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued investigation into the status of Pacific lamprey populations in Idaho's Clearwater River drainage. Trapping, electrofishing, and spawning ground redd surveys were used to determine Pacific lamprey distribution, life history strategies, and habitat requirements in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, and Middle Fork Clearwater River subbasins. Five-hundred forty-one ammocoetes were captured electroshocking 70 sites in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, Middle Fork Clearwater River, Clearwater River, and their tributaries in 2002. Habitat utilization surveys in Red River support previous work indicating Pacific lamprey ammocoete densities are greater in lateral scour pool habitats compared to riffles and rapids. Presence-absence survey findings in 2002 augmented 2000 and 2001 indicating Pacific lamprey macrothalmia and ammocoetes are not numerous or widely distributed. Pacific lamprey distribution was confined to the lower reaches of Red River below rkm 8.0, the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River (Ginger Creek to mouth), Selway River (Race Creek to mouth), Middle Fork Clearwater River, and the Clearwater River (downstream to Potlatch River).

  12. Lampreys, the jawless vertebrates, contain only two ParaHox gene clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huixian; Ravi, Vydianathan; Tay, Boon-Hui; Tohari, Sumanty; Pillai, Nisha E; Prasad, Aravind; Lin, Qiang; Brenner, Sydney; Venkatesh, Byrappa

    2017-08-22

    ParaHox genes ( Gsx , Pdx , and Cdx ) are an ancient family of developmental genes closely related to the Hox genes. They play critical roles in the patterning of brain and gut. The basal chordate, amphioxus, contains a single ParaHox cluster comprising one member of each family, whereas nonteleost jawed vertebrates contain four ParaHox genomic loci with six or seven ParaHox genes. Teleosts, which have experienced an additional whole-genome duplication, contain six ParaHox genomic loci with six ParaHox genes. Jawless vertebrates, represented by lampreys and hagfish, are the most ancient group of vertebrates and are crucial for understanding the origin and evolution of vertebrate gene families. We have previously shown that lampreys contain six Hox gene loci. Here we report that lampreys contain only two ParaHox gene clusters (designated as α- and β-clusters) bearing five ParaHox genes ( Gsxα , Pdxα , Cdxα , Gsxβ , and Cdxβ ). The order and orientation of the three genes in the α-cluster are identical to that of the single cluster in amphioxus. However, the orientation of Gsxβ in the β-cluster is inverted. Interestingly, Gsxβ is expressed in the eye, unlike its homologs in jawed vertebrates, which are expressed mainly in the brain. The lamprey Pdxα is expressed in the pancreas similar to jawed vertebrate Pdx genes, indicating that the pancreatic expression of Pdx was acquired before the divergence of jawless and jawed vertebrate lineages. It is likely that the lamprey Pdxα plays a crucial role in pancreas specification and insulin production similar to the Pdx of jawed vertebrates.

  13. Factors influencing capture of invasive sea lamprey in traps baited with a synthesized sex pheromone component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wagner, C. Michael; Bravener, Gale; Steeves, Todd; Twohey, Michael; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    The sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, is emerging as a model organism for understanding how pheromones can be used for manipulating vertebrate behavior in an integrated pest management program. In a previous study, a synthetic sex pheromone component 7α,12α, 24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-sulfate (3kPZS) was applied to sea lamprey traps in eight streams at a final in-stream concentration of 10−12 M. Application of 3kPZS increased sea lamprey catch, but where and when 3kPZS had the greatest impact was not determined. Here, by applying 3kPZS to additional streams, we determined that overall increases in yearly exploitation rate (proportion of sea lampreys that were marked, released, and subsequently recaptured) were highest (20–40 %) in wide streams (~40 m) with low adult sea lamprey abundance (pheromone), sea lamprey may have been more responsive to a partial sex pheromone blend emitted from traps. Furthermore, we found that the largest and most consistent responses to 3kPZS were during nights early in the trapping season, when water temperatures were increasing. This may have occurred because, during periods of increasing water temperatures, sea lamprey become more active and males at large may not have begun to release sex pheromone. In general, our results are consistent with those for pheromones of invertebrates, which are most effective when pest density is low and when pheromone competition is low.

  14. Evidence for a receiver bias underlying female preference for a male mating pheromone in sea lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchinger, Tyler J.; Wang, Huiyong; Li, Weiming; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Receiver bias models suggest that a male sexual signal became exaggerated to match a pre-existing sensory, perceptual or cognitive disposition of the female. Accordingly, these models predict that females of related taxa possessing the ancestral state of signalling evolved preference for the male trait in a non-sexual context. We postulated that female preference for the male-released bile alcohol mating pheromone, 3 keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS), of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) evolved as a result of a receiver bias. In particular, we propose that migratory silver lamprey (Ichthyomyzon unicuspis), a basal member of the Petromyzontidae, evolved a preference for 3kPZS released by stream-resident larvae as a means of identifying productive habitat for offspring. Larval silver lamprey released 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by migratory lampreys. Females responded to 3kPZS by exhibiting upstream movement behaviours relevant in a migratory context, but did not exhibit proximate behaviours important to mate search and spawning. Male silver lamprey did not release 3kPZS at rates sufficient to be detected by females in natural high-volume stream environments. We infer that female silver lamprey cue onto 3kPZS excreted by stream-resident larvae as a mechanism to locate habitat conducive to offspring survival and that males do not signal with 3kPZS. We suggest that this female preference for a male signal in a non-sexual context represents a bias leading to the sexual signalling observed in sea lamprey.

  15. The effect of rapid and sustained decompression on barotrauma in juvenile brook lamprey and Pacific lamprey: implications for passage at hydroelectric facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Brown, Richard S.; Brauner, Colin J.; Mueller, Robert P.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Deng, Zhiqun; Ahmann, Martin L.; Trumbo, Bradly A.

    2012-10-01

    Fish passing downstream through hydroelectric facilities may pass through hydroturbines where they experience a rapid decrease in barometric pressure as they pass by turbine blades, which can lead to barotraumas including swim bladder rupture, exopthalmia, emboli, and hemorrhaging. In juvenile Chinook salmon, the main mechanism for injury is thought to be expansion of existing gases (particularly those present in the swim bladder) and the rupture of the swim bladder ultimately leading to exopthalmia, emboli and hemorrhaging. In fish that lack a swim bladder, such as lamprey, the rate and severity of barotraumas due to rapid decompression may be reduced however; this has yet to be extensively studied. Another mechanism for barotrauma can be gases coming out of solution and the rate of this occurrence may vary among species. In this study, juvenile brook and Pacific lamprey acclimated to 146.2 kPa (equivalent to a depth of 4.6 m) were subjected to rapid (<1 sec; brook lamprey only) or sustained decompression (17 minutes) to a very low pressure (13.8 kPa) using a protocol previously applied to juvenile Chinook salmon. No mortality or evidence of barotraumas, as indicated by the presence of hemorrhages, emboli or exopthalmia, were observed during rapid or sustained decompression, nor following recovery for up to 120 h following sustained decompression. In contrast, mortality or injury would be expected for 97.5% of juvenile Chinook salmon exposed to a similar rapid decompression to these very low pressures. Additionally, juvenile Chinook salmon experiencing sustained decompression died within 7 minutes, accompanied by emboli in the fins and gills and hemorrhaging in the tissues. Thus, juvenile lamprey may not be susceptible to barotraumas associated with hydroturbine passage to the same degree as juvenile salmonids, and management of these species should be tailored to their specific morphological and physiological characteristics.

  16. Spatial and Ontogenetic Variation in Mercury in Lake Superior Basin Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Sara K; Polkinghorne, Christine N; Mattes, William P; Beesley, Kimberly M

    2018-01-01

    Mercury concentrations were measured in eggs, larvae, and adult spawning-phase sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) collected in tributaries of Lake Superior to investigate spatial and ontogenetic variation. There were significant differences in mercury concentrations between all three life stages, with levels highest in adults (mean = 3.01 µg/g), followed by eggs (mean = 0.942 µg/g), and lowest in larvae (mean = 0.455 µg/g). There were no significant differences in mercury concentrations by location for any life stage or by sex in adults. Mercury was not correlated with adult or larval lamprey length or mass. Mercury levels in adult lampreys exceeded U.S. and Canadian federal guidelines for human consumption. Mercury concentrations in all life stages exceeded criteria for the protection of piscivorous wildlife, posing a threat to local fish, birds, and mammals. High mercury levels in adult lampreys combined with their semelparous life history make them a potential source of lake-derived mercury to spawning streams.

  17. Anesthesia of juvenile Pacific Lampreys with MS-222, BENZOAK, AQUI-S 20E, and Aquacalm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Helena E.; Gee, Lisa P.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2013-01-01

    Effective anesthetics are a critical component of safe and humane fish handling procedures. We tested three concentrations each of four anesthetics—Finquel (tricaine methanesulfonate, herein referred to as MS-222), BENZOAK (20% benzocaine), AQUI-S 20E (10% eugenol), and Aquacalm (metomidate hydrochloride)—for efficacy and safety in metamorphosed, outmigrating juvenile Pacific Lampreys Entosphenus tridentatus. The anesthetics MS-222 (100 mg/L) and BENZOAK (60 mg/L) were the most effective for anesthetizing juvenile Pacific Lampreys to a handleable state with minimal irritation to the fish. Fish anesthetized with BENZOAK also had lower rates of fungal infection than those exposed to MS-222, AQUI-S 20E, or no anesthetic. Exposure to AQUI-S 20E irritated juvenile Pacific Lampreys, causing them to leap or climb out of the anesthetic solution, and Aquacalm anesthetized fish to a handleable state too slowly and incompletely for effective use with routine handling procedures. Our results indicate that MS-222 and BENZOAK are effective anesthetics for juvenile Pacific Lampreys, but field studies are needed to determine whether exposure to MS-222 increases risk of fungal infection in juvenile Pacific Lampreys released to the wild.

  18. Shifting patterns of nitrogen excretion and amino acid catabolism capacity during the life cycle of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Michael P; Claude, Jaime F; Cockshutt, Amanda; Holmes, John A; Wang, Yuxiang S; Youson, John H; Walsh, Patrick J

    2006-01-01

    The jawless fish, the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), spends part of its life as a burrow-dwelling, suspension-feeding larva (ammocoete) before undergoing a metamorphosis into a free swimming, parasitic juvenile that feeds on the blood of fishes. We predicted that animals in this juvenile, parasitic stage have a great capacity for catabolizing amino acids when large quantities of protein-rich blood are ingested. The sixfold to 20-fold greater ammonia excretion rates (J(Amm)) in postmetamorphic (nonfeeding) and parasitic lampreys compared with ammocoetes suggested that basal rates of amino acid catabolism increased following metamorphosis. This was likely due to a greater basal amino acid catabolizing capacity in which there was a sixfold higher hepatic glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity in parasitic lampreys compared with ammocoetes. Immunoblotting also revealed that GDH quantity was 10-fold and threefold greater in parasitic lampreys than in ammocoetes and upstream migrant lampreys, respectively. Higher hepatic alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities in the parasitic lampreys also suggested an enhanced amino acid catabolizing capacity in this life stage. In contrast to parasitic lampreys, the twofold larger free amino acid pool in the muscle of upstream migrant lampreys confirmed that this period of natural starvation is accompanied by a prominent proteolysis. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III was detected at low levels in the liver of parasitic and upstream migrant lampreys, but there was no evidence of extrahepatic (muscle, intestine) urea production via the ornithine urea cycle. However, detection of arginase activity and high concentrations of arginine in the liver at all life stages examined infers that arginine hydrolysis is an important source of urea. We conclude that metamorphosis is accompanied by a metabolic reorganization that increases the capacity of parasitic sea lampreys to catabolize intermittently large amino acid loads arising

  19. Bionomics of Anopheles fluviatilis and Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera: Culicidae) in Relation to Malaria Transmission in East-Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, S S; Gunasekaran, K; Krishnamoorthy, N; Vanamail, P; Mathivanan, A; Manonmani, A; Jambulingam, P

    2017-07-01

    The southern districts of Odisha State in east-central India have been highly endemic for falciparum malaria for many decades. However, there is no adequate information on the abundance of the vector species or their bionomics in relation to space and time in these districts. Therefore, a study was carried out on the entomological aspects of malaria transmission to generate such information. Collections of mosquitoes were made once during each of the three seasons in 128 villages selected from eight districts. Villages within the foot-hill ecotype had a significantly greater abundance of Anopheles fluviatilis James s. l., whereas the abundance of Anopheles culicifacies Giles s. l. was significantly greater in the plain ecotype. The abundance of An. fluviatilis was maximum during the cold season, whereas An. culicifacies abundance was highest during summer and rainy seasons. The maximum likelihood estimation of the malaria infection rate in An. fluviatilis was 1.78%, 6.05%, and 2.6% in Ganjam, Kalahandi, and Rayagada districts, respectively. The infection rate of An. culicifacies was 1.39% only in Kandhamal district; infected females were not detected elsewhere. Concurrently, the annual malaria parasite incidence (MPI) was significantly higher in hill-top (17.6) and foot-hill (14.4) villages compared to plain villages (4.1). The districts with more villages in hill-top and foot-hill ecotypes also had a greater abundance of An. fluviatilis, the major malaria vector, and exhibited a higher incidence of malaria than villages within the plain ecotype, where An. culicifacies was the most abundant vector. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  20. Origins of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in vertebrates: identification of a novel GnRH in a basal vertebrate, the sea lamprey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Scott I; Nozaki, Masumi; Sower, Stacia A

    2008-08-01

    We cloned a cDNA encoding a novel (GnRH), named lamprey GnRH-II, from the sea lamprey, a basal vertebrate. The deduced amino acid sequence of the newly identified lamprey GnRH-II is QHWSHGWFPG. The architecture of the precursor is similar to that reported for other GnRH precursors consisting of a signal peptide, decapeptide, a downstream processing site, and a GnRH-associated peptide; however, the gene for lamprey GnRH-II does not have introns in comparison with the gene organization for all other vertebrate GnRHs. Lamprey GnRH-II precursor transcript was widely expressed in a variety of tissues. In situ hybridization of the brain showed expression and localization of the transcript in the hypothalamus, medulla, and olfactory regions, whereas immunohistochemistry using a specific antiserum showed only GnRH-II cell bodies and processes in the preoptic nucleus/hypothalamus areas. Lamprey GnRH-II was shown to stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary axis using in vivo and in vitro studies. Lamprey GnRH-II was also shown to activate the inositol phosphate signaling system in COS-7 cells transiently transfected with the lamprey GnRH receptor. These studies provide evidence for a novel lamprey GnRH that has a role as a third hypothalamic GnRH. In summary, the newly discovered lamprey GnRH-II offers a new paradigm of the origin of the vertebrate GnRH family. We hypothesize that due to a genome/gene duplication event, an ancestral gene gave rise to two lineages of GnRHs: the gnathostome GnRH and lamprey GnRH-II.

  1. Temporal genetic population structure and interannual variation in migration behavior of Pacific Lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Benjamin J.; Wyss, Lance A.; McCoun, Rebecca; Courter, Ian; Schwabe, Lawrence; Peery, Christopher; Schreck, Carl B.; Spice, Erin K.; Docker, Margaret F.

    2017-01-01

    Studies using neutral loci suggest that Pacific lamprey, Entosphenus tridentatus, lack strong spatial genetic population structure. However, it is unknown whether temporal genetic population structure exists. We tested whether adult Pacific lamprey: (1) show temporal genetic population structure; and (2) migrate different distances between years. We non-lethally sampled lamprey for DNA in 2009 and 2010 and used eight microsatellite loci to test for genetic population structure. We used telemetry to record the migration behaviors of these fish. Lamprey were assignable to three moderately differentiated genetic clusters (FST = 0.16–0.24 for all pairwise comparisons): one cluster was composed of individuals from 2009, and the other two contained individuals from 2010. The FST value between years was 0.13 and between genetic clusters within 2010 was 0.20. A total of 372 (72.5%) fish were detected multiple times during their migrations. Most fish (69.9%) remained in the mainstem Willamette River; the remaining 30.1% migrated into tributaries. Eighty-two lamprey exhibited multiple back-and-forth movements among tributaries and the mainstem, which may indicate searching behaviors. All migration distances were significantly greater in 2010, when the amplitude of river discharge was greater. Our data suggest genetic structuring between and within years that may reflect different cohorts.

  2. Rapid evolution meets invasive species control: The potential for pesticide resistance in sea lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Erin S.; McLaughlin, Robert L.; Adams, Jean V.; Jones, Michael L.; Birceanu, Oana; Christie, Mark R.; Criger, Lori A.; Hinderer, Julia L.M.; Hollingworth, Robert M.; Johnson, Nicholas; Lantz, Stephen R.; Li, Weiming; Miller, James R.; Morrison, Bruce J.; Mota-Sanchez, David; Muir, Andrew M.; Sepulveda, Maria S.; Steeves, Todd B.; Walter, Lisa; Westman, Erin; Wirgin, Isaac; Wilkie, Michael P.

    2018-01-01

    Rapid evolution of pest, pathogen and wildlife populations can have undesirable effects; for example, when insects evolve resistance to pesticides or fishes evolve smaller body size in response to harvest. A destructive invasive species in the Laurentian Great Lakes, the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) has been controlled with the pesticide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) since the 1950s. We evaluated the likelihood of sea lamprey evolving resistance to TFM by (1) reviewing sea lamprey life history and control; (2) identifying physiological and behavioural resistance strategies; (3) estimating the strength of selection from TFM; (4) assessing the timeline for evolution; and (5) analyzing historical toxicity data for evidence of resistance. The number of sea lamprey generations exposed to TFM was within the range observed for fish populations where rapid evolution has occurred. Mortality from TFM was estimated as 82-90%, suggesting significant selective pressure. However, 57 years of toxicity data revealed no increase in lethal concentrations of TFM. Vigilance and the development of alternative controls are required to prevent this aquatic invasive species from evolving strategies to evade control.

  3. Spatial mismatch between sea lamprey behaviour and trap location explains low success at trapping for control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rous, Andrew M.; McLean, Adrienne R.; Barber, Jessica; Bravener, Gale; Castro-Santos, Theodore; Holbrook, Christopher M.; Imre, Istvan; Pratt, Thomas C.; McLaughlin, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    Crucial to the management of invasive species is understanding space use and the environmental features affecting space use. Improved understanding of space use by invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) could help researchers discern why trap success in large rivers is lower than needed for effective control. We tested whether manipulating discharge nightly could increase trap success at a hydroelectric generating station on the St. Marys River. We quantified numbers of acoustically tagged sea lampreys migrating up to, and their space use at, the hydroelectric generating station. In 2011 and 2012, 78% and 68%, respectively, of tagged sea lampreys reached the generating station. Sea lampreys were active along the face, but more likely to occur at the bottom and away from the traps near the surface, especially when discharge was high. Our findings suggest that a low probability of encountering traps was due to spatial (vertical) mismatch between space use by sea lamprey and trap locations and that increasing discharge did not alter space use in ways that increased trap encounter. Understanding space use by invasive species can help managers assess the efficacy of trapping and ways of improving trapping success.

  4. A new clarification method to visualize biliary degeneration during liver metamorphosis in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Davidson, Peter J.; Scott, Anne M.; Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Brant, Cory O.; Buchinger, Tyler; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Li, Weiming

    2014-01-01

    Biliary atresia is a rare disease of infancy, with an estimated 1 in 15,000 frequency in the southeast United States, but more common in East Asian countries, with a reported frequency of 1 in 5,000 in Taiwan. Although much is known about the management of biliary atresia, its pathogenesis is still elusive. The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) provides a unique opportunity to examine the mechanism and progression of biliary degeneration. Sea lamprey develop through three distinct life stages: larval, parasitic, and adult. During the transition from larvae to parasitic juvenile, sea lamprey undergo metamorphosis with dramatic reorganization and remodeling in external morphology and internal organs. In the liver, the entire biliary system is lost, including the gall bladder and the biliary tree. A newly-developed method called “CLARITY” was modified to clarify the entire liver and the junction with the intestine in metamorphic sea lamprey. The process of biliary degeneration was visualized and discerned during sea lamprey metamorphosis by using laser scanning confocal microscopy. This method provides a powerful tool to study biliary atresia in a unique animal model.

  5. Bioinformatic Characterization of Genes and Proteins Involved in Blood Clotting in Lampreys

    OpenAIRE

    Doolittle, RF

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Lampreys and hagfish are the earliest diverging of extant vertebrates and are obvious targets for investigating the origins of complex biochemical systems found in mammals. Currently, the simplest approach for such inquiries is to search for the presence of relevant genes in whole genome sequence (WGS) assemblies. Unhappily, in the past a high-quality complete genome sequence has not been available for either lampreys or hagfish, precluding th...

  6. An annotated bibliography for lamprey habitat in the White Salmon River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. Brady

    2012-01-01

    The October 2011 decommissioning of Condit Dam on the White Salmon River at river kilometer (rkm) 5.3 removed a significant fish passage barrier from the White Salmon River basin for the first time in nearly a century. This affords an opportunity to regain a potentially important drainage basin for Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) production. In anticipation of Pacific lamprey recolonization or reintroduction, aquatic resource managers, such as the Yakama Nation (YN), are planning to perform surveys in the White Salmon River and its tributaries. The likely survey objectives will be to investigate the presence of lamprey, habitat conditions, and habitat availability. In preparation for this work, a compilation and review of the relevant aquatic habitat and biological information on the White Salmon River was conducted. References specific to the White Salmon River were collected and an annotated bibliography was produced including reports containing:

  7. Anadromous sea lampreys recolonize a Maine coastal river tributary after dam removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Robert; Coghlan, Stephen M.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Sedgeunkedunk Stream, a third-order tributary to the Penobscot River, Maine, historically supported several anadromous fishes, including the Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar, AlewifeAlosa pseudoharengus, and Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus. However, two small dams constructed in the 1800s reduced or eliminated spawning runs entirely. In 2009, efforts to restore marine–freshwater connectivity in the system culminated with removal of the lowermost dam, thus providing access to an additional 4.6 km of lotic habitat. Because Sea Lampreys utilized accessible habitat prior to dam removal, they were chosen as a focal species with which to quantify recolonization. During spawning runs of 2008–2011 (before and after dam removal), individuals were marked with PIT tags and their activity was tracked with daily recapture surveys. Open-population mark–recapture models indicated a fourfold increase in the annual abundance of spawning-phase Sea Lampreys, with estimates rising from 59±4 () before dam removal (2008) to 223±18 and 242±16 after dam removal (2010 and 2011, respectively). Accompanying the marked increase in annual abundance was a greater than fourfold increase in nesting sites: the number of nests increased from 31 in 2008 to 128 and 131 in 2010 and 2011, respectively. During the initial recolonization event (i.e., in 2010), Sea Lampreys took 6 d to move past the former dam site and 9 d to expand into the furthest upstream reaches. Conversely, during the 2011 spawning run, Sea Lampreys took only 3 d to penetrate into the upstream reaches, thus suggesting a potential positive feedback in which larval recruitment into the system may have attracted adult spawners via conspecific pheromone cues. Although more research is needed to verify the migratory pheromone hypothesis, our study clearly demonstrates that small-stream dam removal in coastal river systems has the potential to enhance recovery of declining anadromous fish populations.

  8. Anatomical recovery of the GABAergic system after a complete spinal cord injury in lampreys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaus-Sanjurjo, D; Valle-Maroto, S M; Barreiro-Iglesias, A; Fernández-López, B; Rodicio, M C

    2018-03-15

    Lampreys recover locomotion spontaneously several weeks after a complete spinal cord injury. Dysfunction of the GABAergic system following SCI has been reported in mammalian models. So, it is of great interest to understand how the GABAergic system of lampreys adapts to the post-injury situation and how this relates to spontaneous recovery. The spinal cord of lampreys contains 3 populations of GABAergic neurons and most of the GABAergic innervation of the spinal cord comes from these local cells. GABAB receptors are expressed in the spinal cord of lampreys and they play important roles in the control of locomotion. The aims of the present study were to quantify: 1) the changes in the number of GABAergic neurons and innervation of the spinal cord and 2) the changes in the expression of the gabab receptor subunits b1 and b2 in the spinal cord of the sea lamprey after SCI. We performed complete spinal cord transections at the level of the fifth gill of mature larval lampreys and GABA immunohistochemistry or gabab in situ hybridization experiments. Animals were analysed up to 10 weeks post-lesion (wpl), when behavioural analyses showed that they recovered normal appearing locomotion (stage 6 in the Ayer's scale of locomotor recovery). We observed a significant decrease in the number of GABA-ir cells and fibres 1 h after lesion both rostral and caudal to the lesion site. GABA-ir cell numbers and innervation were recovered to control levels 1 to 2 wpl. At 1, 4 and 10 wpl the expression of gabab1 and gabab2 transcripts was significantly decreased in the spinal cord compared to control un-lesioned animals. This is the first study reporting the quantitative long-term changes in the number of GABAergic cells and fibres and in the expression of gabab receptors in the spinal cord of any vertebrate following a traumatic SCI. Our results show that in lampreys there is a full recovery of the GABAergic neurons and a decrease in the expression of gabab receptors when functional

  9. Anatomy of the lamprey ear: morphological evidence for occurrence of horizontal semicircular ducts in the labyrinth of Petromyzon marinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maklad, Adel; Reed, Caitlyn; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    In jawed (gnathostome) vertebrates, the inner ears have three semicircular canals arranged orthogonally in the three Cartesian planes: one horizontal (lateral) and two vertical canals. They function as detectors for angular acceleration in their respective planes. Living jawless craniates, cyclostomes (hagfish and lamprey) and their fossil records seemingly lack a lateral horizontal canal. The jawless vertebrate hagfish inner ear is described as a torus or doughnut, having one vertical canal, and the jawless vertebrate lamprey having two. These observations on the anatomy of the cyclostome (jawless vertebrate) inner ear have been unchallenged for over a century, and the question of how these jawless vertebrates perceive angular acceleration in the yaw (horizontal) planes has remained open. To provide an answer to this open question we reevaluated the anatomy of the inner ear in the lamprey, using stereoscopic dissection and scanning electron microscopy. The present study reveals a novel observation: the lamprey has two horizontal semicircular ducts in each labyrinth. Furthermore, the horizontal ducts in the lamprey, in contrast to those of jawed vertebrates, are located on the medial surface in the labyrinth rather than on the lateral surface. Our data on the lamprey horizontal duct suggest that the appearance of the horizontal canal characteristic of gnathostomes (lateral) and lampreys (medial) are mutually exclusive and indicate a parallel evolution of both systems, one in cyclostomes and one in gnathostome ancestors.

  10. Population ecology of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) as an invasive species in the Laurentian Great Lakes and an imperiled species in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Slade, Jeffrey W.; Steeves, Todd B.; Almeida, Pedro R.; Quintella, Bernardo R.

    2016-01-01

    The sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus (Linnaeus) is both an invasive non-native species in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America and an imperiled species in much of its native range in North America and Europe. To compare and contrast how understanding of population ecology is useful for control programs in the Great Lakes and restoration programs in Europe, we review current understanding of the population ecology of the sea lamprey in its native and introduced range. Some attributes of sea lamprey population ecology are particularly useful for both control programs in the Great Lakes and restoration programs in the native range. First, traps within fish ladders are beneficial for removing sea lampreys in Great Lakes streams and passing sea lampreys in the native range. Second, attractants and repellants are suitable for luring sea lampreys into traps for control in the Great Lakes and guiding sea lamprey passage for conservation in the native range. Third, assessment methods used for targeting sea lamprey control in the Great Lakes are useful for targeting habitat protection in the native range. Last, assessment methods used to quantify numbers of all life stages of sea lampreys would be appropriate for measuring success of control in the Great Lakes and success of conservation in the native range.

  11. White sucker Catostomus commersonii respond to conspecific and sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus alarm cues but not potential predator cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordbro, Ethan J.; Di Rocco, Richard T.; Imre, Istvan; Johnson, Nicholas; Brown, Grant E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies proposed the use of chemosensory alarm cues to control the distribution of invasive sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes and necessitate the evaluation of sea lamprey chemosensory alarm cues on valuable sympatric species such as white sucker. In two laboratory experiments, 10 replicate groups (10 animals each) of migratory white suckers were exposed to deionized water (control), conspecific whole-body extract, heterospecific whole-body extract (sea lamprey) and two potential predator cues (2-phenylethylamine HCl (PEA HCl) and human saliva) during the day, and exposed to the first four of the above cues at night. White suckers avoided the conspecific and the sea lamprey whole-body extract both during the day and at night to the same extent. Human saliva did not induce avoidance during the day. PEA HCl did not induce avoidance at a higher concentration during the day, or at night at the minimum concentration that was previously shown to induce maximum avoidance by sea lamprey under laboratory conditions. Our findings suggest that human saliva and PEA HCl may be potential species-specific predator cues for sea lamprey.

  12. Survival and metamorphosis of larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) residing in Lakes Michigan and Huron near river mouths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Brenden, Travis O.; Swink, William D.; Lipps, Mathew A.

    2016-01-01

    Although population demographics of larval lampreys in streams have been studied extensively, demographics in lake environments have not. Here, we estimated survival and rates of metamorphosis for larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations residing in the Great Lakes near river mouths (hereafter termed lentic areas). Tagged larvae were stocked and a Bayesian multi-state tag-recovery model was used to investigate population parameters associated with tag recovery, including survival and metamorphosis probabilities. Compared to previous studies of larvae in streams, larval growth in lentic areas was substantially slower (Brody growth coefficient = 0.00132; estimate based on the recovery of six tagged larvae), survival was slightly greater (annual survival = 63%), and the length at which 50% of the larvae would be expected to metamorphose was substantially shorter (126 mm). Stochastic simulations were used to estimate the production of parasitic stage (juvenile) sea lamprey from a hypothetical population of larvae in a lentic environment. Production of juvenile sea lamprey was substantial because, even though larval growth in these environments was slow relative to stream environments, survival was high and length at metamorphosis was less. However, estimated production of juvenile sea lamprey was less for the lentic environment than for similar simulations for river environments where larvae grew faster. In circumstances where the cost to kill a larva with lampricide was equal and control funds are limited, sea lamprey control effort may be best directed toward larvae in streams with fast-growing larvae, because stream-produced larvae will most likely contribute to juvenile sea lamprey populations.

  13. Elimination of super(14)C-bisazir residues in adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.L.; Dawson, V.K.

    1987-01-01

    Bisazir (P.P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide), a chemosterilant, was administered to sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus ) by intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg or by immersion for 2 h in a 100- mg/L aqueous solution of the chemical. Whole body analysis of the injected lampreys showed that total residue concentrations decreased to 4.65 in males and 10.07 in females during the first day after injection, and to 1.46 in males and 3.74 in females after 10 days of withdrawal. Lampreys exposed by bath immersion contained residues of about 25 mu g/g of tissue immediately after exposure. The concentration ( mu g/g) decreased to 1.02 in males and 2.11 in females after 1 day of withdrawal and to 0.51 in males and 0.85 in females after 10 days.

  14. Seasonal patterns in growth, blood consumption, and effects on hosts by parasitic-phase sea lampreys in the Great Lakes: an individual-based model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Cochran, Philip A.; Bergstedt, Roger A.

    2003-01-01

    An individual-based model (IBM) was developed for sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The IBM was then calibrated to observed growth, by season, for sea lampreys in northern Lake Huron under two different water temperature regimes: a regime experienced by Seneca-strain lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and a regime experienced by Marquettestrain lake trout. Modeling results indicated that seasonal blood consumption under the Seneca regime was very similar to that under the Marquette regime. Simulated mortality of lake trout directly due to blood removal by sea lampreys occurred at nearly twice the rate during August and September under the Marquette regime than under the Seneca regime. However, cumulative sea lamprey-induced mortality on lake trout over the entire duration of the sea lamprey's parasitic phase was only 7% higher for the Marquette regime compared with the Seneca regime. Thus, these modeling results indicated that the strain composition of the host (lake trout) population was not important in determining total number of lake trout deaths or total blood consumption attributable to the sea lamprey population, given the sea lamprey growth pattern. Regardless of water temperature regime, both blood consumption rate by sea lampreys and rate of sea lamprey-induced mortality on lake trout peaked in late October. Elevated blood consumption in late October appeared to be unrelated to changes in water temperature. The IBM approach should prove useful in optimizing control of sea lampreys in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  15. Growth and survival of sea lampreys from metamorphosis to spawning in Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swink, William D.; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Larval Sea Lampreys Petromyzon marinus live burrowed in stream bottoms and then metamorphose into their parasitic stage. Among larvae that metamorphose in a given year (i.e., parasitic cohort), autumn out-migrants (October–December) to the Laurentian Great Lakes can feed on fish for up to 6 months longer than spring outmigrants (March–May), which overwinter in streams without feeding. We evaluated whether the season of outmigration affected growth or survival of newlymetamorphosed Sea Lampreys in LakeHuron. Newlymetamorphosed individuals (n=2,718) from three parasitic cohorts were netted during their out-migration from BlackMallard Creek, Michigan, to LakeHuron during autumn 1997 through spring 2000; each out-migrant was injected with a sequentially numbered coded wire tag and was released back into the creek. After up to 18 months of feeding in the Great Lakes, 224 (8.2%) Sea Lampreys were recaptured (in 1999–2001) as upstream-migrating adults in tributaries to Lakes Huron and Michigan. Recovery rates of autumn and spring out-migrants as adults were 9.4% and 7.8%, respectively, and these rates did not significantly differ. Overwinter feeding (i.e., as parasites) by autumn out-migrants did not produce adult mean sizes greater than those of spring out-migrants. Because we detected no growth or survival differences between autumn and spring out-migrants, the capture of newly metamorphosed Sea Lampreys at any point during their out-migration should provide equal reductions in damage to Great Lakes fisheries. The absence of a difference in growth or survival between autumn and spring out-migrants is an aspect of Sea Lamprey life history that yields resiliency to this invasive parasite and complicates efforts for its control in the Great Lakes.

  16. Deep ancestry of programmed genome rearrangement in lampreys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoshevskiy, Vladimir A; Lampman, Ralph T; Hess, Jon E; Porter, Laurie L; Smith, Jeramiah J

    2017-09-01

    In most multicellular organisms, the structure and content of the genome is rigorously maintained over the course of development. However some species have evolved genome biologies that permit, or require, developmentally regulated changes in the physical structure and content of the genome (programmed genome rearrangement: PGR). Relatively few vertebrates are known to undergo PGR, although all agnathans surveyed to date (several hagfish and one lamprey: Petromyzon marinus) show evidence of large scale PGR. To further resolve the ancestry of PGR within vertebrates, we developed probes that allow simultaneous tracking of nearly all sequences eliminated by PGR in P. marinus and a second lamprey species (Entosphenus tridentatus). These comparative analyses reveal conserved subcellular structures (lagging chromatin and micronuclei) associated with PGR and provide the first comparative embryological evidence in support of the idea that PGR represents an ancient and evolutionarily stable strategy for regulating inherent developmental/genetic conflicts between germline and soma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Domestication drive the changes of immune and digestive system of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Wang, Jun; Qian, Long; Gaughan, Sarah; Xiang, Wei; Ai, Tao; Fan, Zhenming; Wang, Chenghui

    2017-01-01

    Domestication has altered a variety of traits within the Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis), including phenotypic, physiological and behavioral traits of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis). Little is known, however, about the genetic changes between domesticated and wild Eurasian perch. In this study, we assembled a high-quality de novo reference transcriptome and identified differentially expressed genes between wild and domesticated Eurasian perch. A total of 113,709 transcripts were assembled, and 58,380 transcripts were annotated. Transcriptomic comparison revealed 630 differentially expressed genes between domesticated and wild Eurasian perch. Within domesticated Eurasian perch there were 412 genes that were up-regulated including MHCI, MHCII, chia, ighm within immune system development. There were 218 genes including try1, ctrl, ctrb, cela3b, cpa1 and cpb1, which were down-regulated that were associated with digestive processes. Our results indicated domestication drives the changes of immune and digestive system of Eurasian perch. Our study not only provide valuable genetic resources for further studies in Eurasian perch, but also provide novel insights into the genetic basis of physiological changes in Eurasian perch during domestication process.

  18. Effects of sea lamprey substrate modification and carcass nutrients on macroinvertebrate assemblages in a small Atlantic coastal stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Daniel M.; Coghlan, Stephen M.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.

    2018-01-01

    Aquatic macroinvertebrates respond to patch dynamics arising from interactions of physical and chemical disturbances across space and time. Anadromous fish, such as sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, migrate from the ocean and alter physical and chemical properties of recipient spawning streams. Sea lamprey disturb stream benthos physically through nest construction and spawning, and enrich food webs through nutrient deposition from decomposing carcasses. Sea lamprey spawning nests support greater macroinvertebrate abundance than adjacent reference areas, but concurrent effects of stream bed modification and nutrient supplementation have not been examined sequentially. We added carcasses and cleared substrate experimentally to mimic the physical disturbance and nutrient enrichment associated with lamprey spawning, and characterized effects on macroinvertebrate assemblage structure. We found that areas receiving cleared substrate and carcass nutrients were colonized largely by Simuliidae compared to upstream and downstream control areas that were colonized largely by Hydropsychidae, Philopotamidae, and Chironomidae. Environmental factors such as stream flow likely shape assemblages by physically constraining macroinvertebrate establishment and feeding. Our results indicate potential changes in macroinvertebrate assemblages from the physical and chemical changes to streams brought by spawning populations of sea lamprey.

  19. Occurrence of Ergasilus megaceros Wilson, 1916, in the sea lamprey and other fishes from North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzzall, Patrick M.; Hudson, Patrick L.

    2004-01-01

    Ergasilus megaceros (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) was recovered from the nasal fossae (lamellae) of the olfactory sac in 1 (1.8%) of 56 sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus Linne, 1758, collected in May 2002 from the Cheboygan River, Michigan. Although the sea lamprey is a new host record for E. megaceros, this fish species may not be a preferred host because of its low prevalence. Ergasilus megaceros is the second ergasilid species reported from the sea lamprey in North America. This is the third report of an ergasilid species infecting the nasal fossae of fishes in North America, with E. rhinos being the only other species reported from this site.

  20. Prosomeric map of the lamprey forebrain based on calretinin immunocytochemistry, Nissl stain, and ancillary markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombal, M A; Puelles, L

    1999-11-22

    The structural organization of the lamprey extratelencephalic forebrain is re-examined from the perspective of the prosomeric segmental paradigm. The question asked was whether the prosomeric forebrain model used for gnathostomes is of material advantage for interpreting subdivisions in the lamprey forebrain. To this aim, the main longitudinal and transverse landmarks recognized by the prosomeric model in other vertebrates were identified in Nissl-stained lamprey material. Lines of cytoarchitectural discontinuity and contours of migrated neuronal groups were mapped in a two-dimensional sagittal representation and were also classified according to their radial position. Immunocytochemical mapping of calretinin expression in adjacent sections served to define particular structural units better, in particular, the dorsal thalamus. These data were complemented by numerous other chemoarchitectonic observations obtained with ancillary markers, which identified additional specific formations, subdivisions, or boundaries. Emphasis was placed on studying whether such chemically defined neuronal groups showed boundaries aligned with the postulated inter- or intraprosomeric boundaries. The course of diverse axonal tracts was studied also with regard to their prosomeric topography. This analysis showed that the full prosomeric model applies straightforwardly to the lamprey forebrain. This finding implies that a common segmental and longitudinal organization of the neural tube may be primitive for all vertebrates. Interesting novel aspects appear in the interpretation of the lamprey pretectum, the dorsal and ventral thalami, and the hypothalamus. The topologic continuity of the prosomeric forebrain regions with evaginated or non-evaginated portions of the telencephalon was also examined. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Does DNA methylation regulate metamorphosis? The case of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covelo-Soto, Lara; Saura, María; Morán, Paloma

    2015-07-01

    Lampreys represent one of the most ancient vertebrate lineages enclosing a special interest for genetic and epigenetic studies. The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is an anadromous species that experiences metamorphosis all the way up to the adult stage. Although representing a gradual process, metamorphosis in this species involves dramatic conversions with regard to physiological together with structural body changes preparing individuals for a marine and parasitic life; in consequence, multiple gene expression modifications are expected. The implications of thyroid hormones and HOX gene expression changes have previously been reported in this species and also in other vertebrate species. Nonetheless, information lacks on how these genes are regulated in lampreys. We here report about the existence of methylation pattern differences between the adult and the larvae sea lamprey life cycle stages making use of the Methylation-Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP) technique. Differentially methylated fragment sequencing allowed to establish homologous identities with HOX genes involved in morphogenesis, along with genes related to the water balance and to the osmotic homoeostasis, all associated to a marine environment adaptation. These results provide evidences revealing that DNA methylation plays a role in the epigenetic regulation of the P. marinus post-natal development representing a starting point for future studies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study which detects DNA methylation changes associated with metamorphosis in lampreys. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence and incrimination of Anopheles fluviatilis species S (Diptera: Culicidae in a malaria endemic forest area of Chhattisgarh state, central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda Nutan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chhattisgarh state in central India is highly endemic for malaria and contributes about 13% of annually reported malaria cases in the country with predominance of P. falciparum. Entomological investigations were carried out in a tribal forested area of district Bastar located in the southern part of Chhattisgarh state to record the prevalence of sibling species of Anopheles fluviatilis and An. culicifacies complexes. The vector species complexes were investigated at sibling species level for their biology in terms of resting and feeding behavior and malaria transmission potential. Methods Indoor resting vector mosquitoes collected during 2010–2011 were identified to sibling species by cytotaxonomy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. The blood meal source analysis and incrimination studies were done at sibling species level by counter current immunoelectrophoresis and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA respectively. Results Analysis of sibling species composition revealed predominance of An. fluviatilis species S in the study area, which was found to be highly anthropophagic and rested in human dwellings whereas the sympatric species T was primarily zoophagic. Incrimination studies showed high sporozoite rate in species S, thereby confirming its vectorial efficiency. An. culicifacies was encountered in low numbers and comprised species B and C in almost equal proportion. Both these species were found to be exclusively zoophagic. Conclusion The observations made strongly suggest that species S of Fluviatilis Complex is the principal vector of malaria in certain forest areas of district Bastar, Chhattisgarh state and should be the target species for vector control operation. Vector control strategies based on biological characteristics of Fluviatilis S will lead to substantial decline in malaria incidence in such areas.

  3. Estimating reach-specific fish movement probabilities in rivers with a Bayesian state-space model: application to sea lamprey passage and capture at dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Christopher M.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan P.; Twohey, Michael B.; Binder, Thomas R.; Krueger, Charles C.; Jones, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Improved methods are needed to evaluate barriers and traps for control and assessment of invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes. A Bayesian state-space model provided reach-specific probabilities of movement, including trap capture and dam passage, for 148 acoustic tagged invasive sea lamprey in the lower Cheboygan River, Michigan, a tributary to Lake Huron. Reach-specific movement probabilities were combined to obtain estimates of spatial distribution and abundance needed to evaluate a barrier and trap complex for sea lamprey control and assessment. Of an estimated 21 828 – 29 300 adult sea lampreys in the river, 0%–2%, or 0–514 untagged lampreys, could have passed upstream of the dam, and 46%–61% were caught in the trap. Although no tagged lampreys passed above the dam (0/148), our sample size was not sufficient to consider the lock and dam a complete barrier to sea lamprey. Results also showed that existing traps are in good locations because 83%–96% of the population was vulnerable to existing traps. However, only 52%–69% of lampreys vulnerable to traps were caught, suggesting that traps can be improved. The approach used in this study was a novel use of Bayesian state-space models that may have broader applications, including evaluation of barriers for other invasive species (e.g., Asian carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.)) and fish passage structures for other diadromous fishes.

  4. Evaluating harvest-based control of invasive fish with telemetry: Performance of sea lamprey traps in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Christopher; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Barber, Jessica M.; Bravener, Gale A; Jones, Michael L.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Physical removal (e.g., harvest via traps or nets) of mature individuals may be a cost-effective or socially acceptable alternative to chemical control strategies for invasive species, but requires knowledge of the spatial distribution of a population over time. We used acoustic telemetry to determine the current and possible future role of traps to control and assess invasive sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus, in the St. Marys River, the connecting channel between Lake Superior and Lake Huron. Exploitation rates (i.e., fractions of an adult sea lamprey population removed by traps) at two upstream locations were compared among three years and two points of entry to the system. Telemetry receivers throughout the drainage allowed trap performance (exploitation rate) to be partitioned into two components: proportion of migrating sea lampreys that visited trap sites (availability) and proportion of available sea lampreys that were caught by traps (local trap efficiency). Estimated exploitation rates were well below those needed to provide population control in the absence of lampricides and were limited by availability and local trap efficiency. Local trap efficiency estimates for acoustic-tagged sea lampreys were lower than analogous estimates regularly obtained using traditional mark–recapture methods, suggesting that abundance had been previously underestimated. Results suggested major changes would be required to substantially increase catch, including improvements to existing traps, installation of new traps, or other modifications to attract and retain more sea lampreys. This case study also shows how bias associated with telemetry tags can be estimated and incorporated in models to improve inferences about parameters that are directly relevant to fishery management.

  5. Strategies for swimming: explorations of the behaviour of a neuro-musculo-mechanical model of the lamprey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma L. Williams

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were performed on a neuro-musculo-mechanical model of a lamprey, to explore the strategies for controlling swimming speed. The muscle component of the model was based on previous experiments on isolated lamprey muscle. The patterns of muscle activation were those found in EMG studies on swimming lampreys. The fluid mechanics were modelled with G.I. Taylor's simplification. Tail beat frequencies of 2–6 sec−1 were combined with muscle activation strengths of 0.1% to 20% of maximum tetanic isometric strength. The resulting forward swimming speed and changing body shape were recorded. From the changing body shape the speed of the backward-travelling wave of curvature was calculated, as well as the ratio between the speeds of the waves of activation and curvature. For any given activation strength there was a tail beat frequency that gave maximal forward speed. Furthermore, for all the combinations of activation strength and tail beat frequency that gave such maximum swimming speeds, the ratio of the speed of the wave of curvature to the wave of muscle activation was approximately 0.75. This is similar to the ratio found in swimming lampreys.

  6. 15alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone in male sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus L

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryan, M. B.; Scott, A. P.; Černý, Ivan; Young, B. A.; Li, W.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 69, - (2004), s. 473-481 ISSN 0039-128X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : steroid * 15alpha-hydroxyprogesterone * sea lamprey Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.337, year: 2004

  7. Regulation of a putative corticosteroid, 17, 21-dihydroxypregn-4-ene, 3, 20-one, in sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W.; Didier, Wes; Satbir, Rai; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Libants, Scot V.; Sang-Seon, Yun; Close, David

    2013-01-01

    In higher vertebrates, in response to stress, the hypothalamus produces corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which stimulates cells in the anterior pituitary to produce adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which in turn stimulates production of either cortisol (F) or corticosterone (B) by the adrenal tissues. In lampreys, however, neither of these steroids is present. Instead, it has been proposed that the stress steroid is actually 17,21-dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione (11-deoxycortisol; S). However, there have been no studies yet to determine its mechanism of regulation or site of production. Here we demonstrate that (1) intraperitoneal injections of lamprey-CRH increase plasma S in a dose dependent manner, (2) intraperitoneal injections of four lamprey-specific ACTH peptides at 100 lg/kg, did not induce changes in plasma S concentrations in either males or females; (3) two lamprey-specific gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH I and III) and arginine-vasotocin (AVT), all at single doses, stimulated S production as well as, or to an even greater extent than CRH; (4) sea lamprey mesonephric kidneys, in vitro, converted tritiated 17a-hydroxyprogesterone (17a-P) into a steroid that had the same chromatographic properties (on HPLC and TLC) as S; (5) kidney tissues released significantly more immunoassayable S into the incubation medium than gill, liver or gonad tissues. One interpretation of these results is that the corticosteroid production of the sea lamprey, one of the oldest extant vertebrates, is regulated through multiple pathways rather than the classical HPI-axis. However, the responsiveness of this steroid to the GnRH peptides means that a reproductive rather than a stress role for this steroid cannot yet be ruled out.

  8. Colonization of leaf litter of two aquatic macrophytes, Mayaca fluviatilis Aublet and Salvinia auriculata Aublet by aquatic macroinvertebrates in a tropical reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Cristina de Paula

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition and colonization of S. auriculata and M. fluviatilis by macroinvertebrates were analyzed during 40 days to determine whether differences existed on colonization by aquatic macroinvertebrates of two macrophytes with distinct habits (submerged versus fluctuant. Leaf litter of S. auriculata and M. fluviatilis were incubated in 24 litter bags (12 of each species, in a small reservoir surrounded by a cerrado fragment with low level of anthropic impact. After 10, 20, 30 and 40 days, the litter bags were removed and aquatic macroinvertebrates community was analyzed. Two hundred twenty macroinvertebrates were associated with S. auriculata and 261 were associated with M. fluviatilis, identified in 24 taxa. Both macrophyte species were colonized mainly by macroinvertebrate predators. Ablabesmyia with predator and collector food mechanisms was present in all sampling. The data showed an expressive increase of abundance during the process of decomposition and a decrease at the end of the experiment, in both macrophytes. Cluster analysis permitted inference that the colonization of the leaf liter by macroinvertebrates was determinated by incubation time of leaf litter not by the habit of macrophytes (submerged or fluctuant.

  9. Test of a non-physical barrier consisting of light, sound, and bubble screen to block upstream movement of sea lamprey in an experimental raceway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miehls, Scott M.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Hrodey, Pete J.

    2017-01-01

    Control of the invasive Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus is critical for management of commercial and recreational fisheries in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Use of physical barriers to block Sea Lampreys from spawning habitat is a major component of the control program. However, the resulting interruption of natural streamflow and blockage of nontarget species present substantial challenges. Development of an effective nonphysical barrier would aid the control of Sea Lampreys by eliminating their access to spawning locations while maintaining natural streamflow. We tested the effect of a nonphysical barrier consisting of strobe lights, low-frequency sound, and a bubble screen on the movement of Sea Lampreys in an experimental raceway designed as a two-choice maze with a single main channel fed by two identical inflow channels (one control and one blocked). Sea Lampreys were more likely to move upstream during trials when the strobe light and low-frequency sound were active compared with control trials and trials using the bubble screen alone. For those Sea Lampreys that did move upstream to the confluence of inflow channels, no combination of stimuli or any individual stimulus significantly influenced the likelihood that Sea Lampreys would enter the blocked inflow channel, enter the control channel, or return downstream.

  10. Thyroid hormone and retinoid X receptor function and expression during sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzon, Lori A; Youson, John H; Holzer, Guillaume; Staiano, Leopoldo; Laudet, Vincent; Manzon, Richard G

    2014-08-01

    Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) are members of the ancient class Agnatha and undergo a metamorphosis that transforms blind, sedentary, filter-feeding larvae into free-swimming, parasitic juveniles. Thyroid hormones (THs) appear to be important for lamprey metamorphosis, however, serum TH concentrations are elevated in the larval phase, decline rapidly during early metamorphosis and remain low until metamorphosis is complete; these TH fluctuations are contrary to those of other metamorphosing vertebrates. Moreover, thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitors (goitrogens) induce precocious metamorphosis and exogenous TH treatments disrupt natural metamorphosis in P. marinus. Given that THs exert their effects by binding to TH nuclear receptors (TRs) that often act as heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs), we cloned and characterized these receptors from P. marinus and examined their expression during metamorphosis. Two TRs (PmTR1 and PmTR2) and three RXRs (PmRXRs) were isolated from P. marinus cDNA. Phylogenetic analyses group the PmTRs together on a branch prior to the gnathostome TRα/β split. The three RXRs also group together, but our data indicated that these transcripts are most likely either allelic variants of the same gene locus, or the products of a lamprey-specific duplication event. Importantly, these P. marinus receptors more closely resemble vertebrate as opposed to invertebrate chordate receptors. Functional analysis revealed that PmTR1 and PmTR2 can activate transcription of TH-responsive genes when treated with nanomolar concentrations of TH and they have distinct pharmacological profiles reminiscent of vertebrate TRβ and TRα, respectively. Also similar to other metamorphosing vertebrates, expression patterns of the PmTRs during lamprey metamorphosis suggest that PmTR1 has a dynamic, tissue-specific expression pattern that correlates with tissue morphogenesis and biochemical changes and PmTR2 has a more uniform expression pattern. This TR

  11. A sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) sex pheromone mixture increases trap catch relative to a single synthesized component in specific environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Tix, John A.; Hlina, Benjamin L.; Wagner, C. Michael; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wang, Huiyong; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Spermiating male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) release a sex pheromone, of which a component, 7α, 12α, 24-trihydoxy-3-one-5α-cholan-24-sulfate (3kPZS), has been identified and shown to induce long distance preference responses in ovulated females. However, other pheromone components exist, and when 3kPZS alone was used to control invasive sea lamprey populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes, trap catch increase was significant, but gains were generally marginal. We hypothesized that free-ranging sea lamprey populations discriminate between a partial and complete pheromone while migrating to spawning grounds and searching for mates at spawning grounds. As a means to test our hypothesis, and to test two possible uses of sex pheromones for sea lamprey control, we asked whether the full sex pheromone mixture released by males (spermiating male washings; SMW) is more effective than 3kPZS in capturing animals in traditional traps (1) en route to spawning grounds and (2) at spawning grounds. At locations where traps target sea lampreys en route to spawning grounds, SMW-baited traps captured significantly more sea lampreys than paired 3kPZS-baited traps (~10 % increase). At spawning grounds, no difference in trap catch was observed between 3kPZS and SMW-baited traps. The lack of an observed difference at spawning grounds may be attributed to increased pheromone competition and possible involvement of other sensory modalities to locate mates. Because fishes often rely on multiple and sometimes redundant sensory modalities for critical life history events, the addition of sex pheromones to traditionally used traps is not likely to work in all circumstances. In the case of the sea lamprey, sex pheromone application may increase catch when applied to specifically designed traps deployed in streams with low adult density and limited spawning habitat.

  12. An anti-steroidogenic inhibitory primer pheromone in male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Wang, Huiyong; Bryan, Mara B.; Wu, Hong; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive functions can be modulated by both stimulatory and inhibitory primer pheromones released by conspecifics. Many stimulatory primer pheromones have been documented, but relatively few inhibitory primer pheromones have been reported in vertebrates. The sea lamprey male sex pheromone system presents an advantageous model to explore the stimulatory and inhibitory primer pheromone functions in vertebrates since several pheromone components have been identified. We hypothesized that a candidate sex pheromone component, 7α, 12α-dihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one-24-oic acid (3 keto-allocholic acid or 3kACA), exerts priming effects through the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. To test this hypothesis, we measured the peptide concentrations and gene expressions of lamprey gonadotropin releasing hormones (lGnRH) and the HPG output in immature male sea lamprey exposed to waterborne 3kACA. Exposure to waterborne 3kACA altered neuronal activation markers such as jun and jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and lGnRH mRNA levels in the brain. Waterborne 3kACA also increased lGnRH-III, but not lGnRH-I or -II, in the forebrain. In the plasma, 3kACA exposure decreased all three lGnRH peptide concentrations after 1 h exposure. After 2 h exposure, 3kACA increased lGnRHI and -III, but decreased lGnRH-II peptide concentrations in the plasma. Plasma lGnRH peptide concentrations showed differential phasic patterns. Group housing condition appeared to increase the averaged plasma lGnRH levels in male sea lamprey compared to isolated males. Interestingly, 15α-hydroxyprogesterone (15α-P) concentrations decreased after prolonged 3kACA exposure (at least 24 h). To our knowledge, this is the only known synthetic vertebrate pheromone component that inhibits steroidogenesis in males.

  13. Re-examination of sea lamprey control policies for the St. Marys River: Completion of an adaptive management cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael L.; Brenden, Travis O.; Irwin, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    The St. Marys River (SMR) historically has been a major producer of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in the Laurentian Great Lakes. In the early 2000s, a decision analysis (DA) project was conducted to evaluate sea lamprey control policies for the SMR; this project suggested that an integrated policy of trapping, sterile male releases, and Bayluscide treatment was the most cost-effective policy. Further, it concluded that formal assessment of larval sea lamprey abundance and distribution in the SMR would be valuable for future evaluation of control strategies. We updated this earlier analysis, adding information from annual larval assessments conducted since 1999 and evaluating additional control policies. Bayluscide treatments continued to be critical for sea lamprey control, but high recruitment compensation minimized the effectiveness of trapping and sterile male release under current feasible ranges. Because Bayluscide control is costly, development of strategies to enhance trapping success remains a priority. This study illustrates benefits of an adaptive management cycle, wherein models inform decisions, are updated based on learning achieved from those decisions, and ultimately inform future decisions.

  14. Influence of some plant extracts on the ovi-position behavior of Aedes fluviatilis and Culex quinquifasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakim A. El Maghrbi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic/acetone extracts of nine species of plants (Allium tuberosum, Apium leptophylum, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Euphorbia cotinofolia, Melia azedarach, Ocimum canum, Ricinus communis and Tagetes erecta were tested in respect to their influence on the ovi-position behavior of the mosquito, Aedes fluviatilis and Culex quinquifasciatus in concentrations of 100, 10 and 1 mg/L. Three days after mosquito females had fed on blood of anesthetized mice and pigeon respectively, experimental and control dishes were placed into cages for 24 h then number of eggs laid in each dish was counted. Alcoholic/acetone extracts of C. papaya, C. citratus and T. erecta at 100 mg/L; E. cotinofolia and O. canum at 100 and 10 mg/L were proved to be repulsive for ovi-position of Ae. fluviatilis. On the other hand, acetone extracts of A. tuberosum and M. azederach at 100 and 10 mg/L; A. leptophyllum, O. canum, E. cotinofolia and R. communis at 100 mg/L produced same effect on ovi-position behavior of Ae. fluviatilis. Alcoholic extracts E. cotinofolia, R. communis (100 mg/L and M. azedarach (100 and 10 mg/L were attractive to Cx. quinquifasciatus. Five acetone extracts (A. tuberosum, A. leptophylum, C. papaya, C. Citrates and M. azedarach were repulsive for ovi-position at 100 mg/L. Acetone extract of A. tuberosum and M. azedarach at 10 and 1 mg/L and C. citratus at 10 mg/L maintained the same properties. Our results concluded that each plant extract has the potential to control ovi-position behavior of mosquito. The differences in obtained responses necessitate the adoption of deeper research to isolate the active principle of such plants for potential use in mosquito control program.

  15. Plasma osmolality and oxygen consumption of perch Perca fluviatilis in response to different salinities and temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Emil Aputsiaq Flindt; Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2017-01-01

    with salinity at 10 and 20° C. Maximum metabolic rate (MMR) and aerobic scope was lowest at salinity of 15 at 5° C, yet at 20° C, they were lowest at a salinity of 0. A cost of osmoregulation (SMR at a salinity of 0 and 15 compared with SMR at a salinity of 10) could only be detected at a salinity of 15 at 20...... of osmoregulation (28%) at a salinity of 15 at 20° C indicates that the cost of osmoregulation in P. fluviatilis increases with temperature under hyperosmotic conditions and a power analysis showed that the cost of osmoregulation could be lower than 12·5% under other environmental conditions. The effect of salinity......The present study determined the blood plasma osmolality and oxygen consumption of the perch Perca fluviatilis at different salinities (0, 10 and 15) and temperatures (5, 10 and 20° C). Blood plasma osmolality increased with salinity at all temperatures. Standard metabolic rate (SMR) increased...

  16. Migratory behavior of adult sea lamprey and cumulative passage performance through four fishways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Shi, Xiaotao; Haro, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a study of PIT-tagged sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) ascending four fishways comprising three designs at two dams on the Connecticut River, USA. Migration between dams was rapid (median migration rate = 23 km·day−1). Movement through the fishways was much slower, however (median = 0.02–0.33 km·day−1). Overall delay at dams was substantial (median = 13.6–14.6 days); many fish failed to pass (percent passage ranged from 29% to 55%, depending on fishway), and repeated passage attempts compounded delay for both passers and failers. Cox regression revealed that fishway entry rates were influenced by flow, temperature, and diel cycle, with most lampreys entering at night and at elevated flows, but with no apparent effect of sex or length. Overall delay was influenced by slow movement through the fishways, but repeated failures were the primary factor determining delay. These data suggest that although some lamprey were able to pass fishways, they did so with difficulty, and delays incurred as they attempted to pass may act to limit their distribution within their native range.

  17. Tradeoff between assessment and control of aquatic invasive species: A case study of sea lamprey management in the St. Marys River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jason M.; Wilberg, Michael J.; Adams, Jean V.; Jones, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Allocating resources between the gathering of information to guide management actions and implementing those actions presents an inherent tradeoff. This tradeoff is evident for control of the Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus in the St. Marys River, connecting Lakes Huron and Superior and a major source of parasitic Sea Lampreys to Lake Huron and northern Lake Michigan. Larval Sea Lampreys in the St. Marys River are controlled through the application of Bayluscide, which is applied to areas of high larval density. Bayluscide applications are guided with an annual deepwater electrofishing survey to estimate larval Sea Lamprey density at relatively fine spatial scales. We took a resampling approach to describe the effect of sampling intensity on the success of the larval Sea Lamprey management program and explicitly incorporated the economic tradeoff between assessment and control efforts to maximize numbers of larvae killed in the St. Marys River. When no tradeoff between assessment and control was incorporated, increasing assessment always led to more larvae killed for the same treatment budget. When the tradeoff was incorporated, the sampling intensity that maximized the number of larvae killed depended on the overall budget available. Increased sampling intensities maximized effectiveness under medium to large budgets (US \\$0.4 to \\$2.0 million), and intermediate sampling intensities maximized effectiveness under low budgets. Sea Lamprey control actions based on assessment information outperformed those that were implemented with no assessment under all budget scenarios.

  18. Metabolism of a sea lamprey pesticide by fish liver enzymes part A: identification and synthesis of TFM metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussy, Ugo; Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Buchinger, Tyler; Li, Ke; Smith, Scott A; Jones, A Daniel; Li, Weiming

    2018-02-01

    The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is a destructive invasive species in the Great Lakes that contributed to the collapse of native fish populations in the mid-1900s. 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) is a selective pesticide that has been applied to sea lamprey infested tributaries of the Great Lakes to kill larvae since the 1960s and has reduced the populations by as much as 90%. However, the metabolism of TFM by sea lamprey and non-target species is not fully illuminated. Elucidation of TFM metabolism is critical for understanding its mode of action and possible environmental impact. Here, we describe the screening, identification, synthesis and structural characterization of TFM metabolites in livers from sea lamprey and three non-target species that differ in their ability to survive TFM exposure. We identified glucuronidation, sulfation, N-acetylation, glutathione conjugation, and aromatic nitro group reduction as potential detoxification mechanisms. Seven metabolites were synthesized for use as markers of TFM metabolism in fish. Quantitative 1 H NMR was used to assay synthesized metabolite stock solutions that were then used as standard material to develop a quantitative LC-MS/MS method for TFM metabolites.

  19. The lamprey: a jawless vertebrate model system for examining origin of the neural crest and other vertebrate traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stephen A; Bronner, Marianne E

    2014-01-01

    Lampreys are a group of jawless fishes that serve as an important point of comparison for studies of vertebrate evolution. Lampreys and hagfishes are agnathan fishes, the cyclostomes, which sit at a crucial phylogenetic position as the only living sister group of the jawed vertebrates. Comparisons between cyclostomes and jawed vertebrates can help identify shared derived (i.e. synapomorphic) traits that might have been inherited from ancestral early vertebrates, if unlikely to have arisen convergently by chance. One example of a uniquely vertebrate trait is the neural crest, an embryonic tissue that produces many cell types crucial to vertebrate features, such as the craniofacial skeleton, pigmentation of the skin, and much of the peripheral nervous system (Gans and Northcutt, 1983). Invertebrate chordates arguably lack unambiguous neural crest homologs, yet have cells with some similarities, making comparisons with lampreys and jawed vertebrates essential for inferring characteristics of development in early vertebrates, and how they may have evolved from nonvertebrate chordates. Here we review recent research on cyclostome neural crest development, including research on lamprey gene regulatory networks and differentiated neural crest fates. Copyright © 2014 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Flexibility in the patterning and control of axial locomotor networks in lamprey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, James T

    2011-12-01

    In lower vertebrates, locomotor burst generators for axial muscles generally produce unitary bursts that alternate between the two sides of the body. In lamprey, a lower vertebrate, locomotor activity in the axial ventral roots of the isolated spinal cord can exhibit flexibility in the timings of bursts to dorsally-located myotomal muscle fibers versus ventrally-located myotomal muscle fibers. These episodes of decreased synchrony can occur spontaneously, especially in the rostral spinal cord where the propagating body waves of swimming originate. Application of serotonin, an endogenous spinal neurotransmitter known to presynaptically inhibit excitatory synapses in lamprey, can promote decreased synchrony of dorsal-ventral bursting. These observations suggest the possible existence of dorsal and ventral locomotor networks with modifiable coupling strength between them. Intracellular recordings of motoneurons during locomotor activity provide some support for this model. Pairs of motoneurons innervating myotomal muscle fibers of similar ipsilateral dorsoventral location tend to have higher correlations of fast synaptic activity during fictive locomotion than do pairs of motoneurons innervating myotomes of different ipsilateral dorsoventral locations, suggesting their control by different populations of premotor interneurons. Further, these different motoneuron pools receive different patterns of excitatory and inhibitory inputs from individual reticulospinal neurons, conveyed in part by different sets of premotor interneurons. Perhaps, then, the locomotor network of the lamprey is not simply a unitary burst generator on each side of the spinal cord that activates all ipsilateral body muscles simultaneously. Instead, the burst generator on each side may comprise at least two coupled burst generators, one controlling motoneurons innervating dorsal body muscles and one controlling motoneurons innervating ventral body muscles. The coupling strength between these two

  1. Mixtures of Two Bile Alcohol Sulfates Function as a Proximity Pheromone in Sea Lamprey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory O Brant

    Full Text Available Unique mixtures of pheromone components are commonly identified in insects, and have been shown to increase attractiveness towards conspecifics when reconstructed at the natural ratio released by the signaler. In previous field studies of pheromones that attract female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus, L., putative components of the male-released mating pheromone included the newly described bile alcohol 3,12-diketo-4,6-petromyzonene-24-sulfate (DkPES and the well characterized 3-keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS. Here, we show chemical evidence that unequivocally confirms the elucidated structure of DkPES, electrophysiological evidence that each component is independently detected by the olfactory epithelium, and behavioral evidence that mature female sea lamprey prefer artificial nests activated with a mixture that reconstructs the male-released component ratio of 30:1 (3kPZS:DkPES, molar:molar. In addition, we characterize search behavior (sinuosity of swim paths of females approaching ratio treatment sources. These results suggest unique pheromone ratios may underlie reproductive isolating mechanisms in vertebrates, as well as provide utility in pheromone-integrated control of invasive sea lamprey in the Great Lakes.

  2. First record of Pontian Monkey Goby, Neogobius fluviatilis (Pallas, 1814 in the Evros River (Greece; Is it an alien species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ZOGARIS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Pontian Monkey Goby,Neogobius fluviatilis (Pallas, 1814, was recorded for the first time in Greece in August 2011. Eight specimens were collected in the Greek-Turkish section of the Evros River, 65 kilometers upstream of its river-mouth. Although the species has been recently discovered in the Tundza, a tributary of the Evros in Bulgaria, it has never before been found in the Evros’ main stem.  Although the lower Evros has been poorly researched by ichthyologists, it is unlikely that a conspicuous medium-sized fish would go unnoticed in this river; and, it is therefore suggested to be a probable alien. However, since the Evros basin has had geological connections to the Marmara Sea and Black Sea in the past and it is immediately adjacent to native populations of N. fluviatilis, the species status is categorized as questionable until genetic and morphological studies are completed.

  3. A pheromone outweighs temperature in influencing migration of sea lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Cory O.; Li, Ke; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Organisms continuously acquire and process information from surrounding cues. While some cues complement one another in delivering more reliable information, others may provide conflicting information. How organisms extract and use reliable information from a multitude of cues is largely unknown. We examined movement decisions of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus L.) exposed to a conspecific and an environmental cue during pre-spawning migration. Specifically, we predicted that the mature male-released sex pheromone 3-keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS) will outweigh the locomotor inhibiting effects of cold stream temperature (less than 15°C). Using large-scale stream bioassays, we found that 3kPZS elicits an increase (more than 40%) in upstream movement of pre-spawning lampreys when the water temperatures were below 15°C. Both warming temperatures and conspecific cues increase upstream movement when the water temperature rose above 15°C. These patterns define an interaction between abiotic and conspecific cues in modulating animal decision-making, providing an example of the hierarchy of contradictory information.

  4. Management strategy evaluation of pheromone-baited trapping techniques to improve management of invasive sea lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Heather; Jones, Michael L.; Irwin, Brian J.; Johnson, Nicholas; Wagner, Michael C.; Szymanski, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    We applied a management strategy evaluation (MSE) model to examine the potential cost-effectiveness of using pheromone-baited trapping along with conventional lampricide treatment to manage invasive sea lamprey. Four pheromone-baited trapping strategies were modeled: (1) stream activation wherein pheromone was applied to existing traps to achieve 10−12 mol/L in-stream concentration, (2) stream activation plus two additional traps downstream with pheromone applied at 2.5 mg/hr (reverse-intercept approach), (3) trap activation wherein pheromone was applied at 10 mg/hr to existing traps, and (4) trap activation and reverse-intercept approach. Each new strategy was applied, with remaining funds applied to conventional lampricide control. Simulating deployment of these hybrid strategies on fourteen Lake Michigan streams resulted in increases of 17 and 11% (strategies 1 and 2) and decreases of 4 and 7% (strategies 3 and 4) of the lakewide mean abundance of adult sea lamprey relative to status quo. MSE revealed performance targets for trap efficacy to guide additional research because results indicate that combining lampricides and high efficacy trapping technologies can reduce sea lamprey abundance on average without increasing control costs.

  5. Characterization of a novel bile alcohol sulfate released by sexually mature male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Li

    Full Text Available A sulphate-conjugated bile alcohol, 3,12-diketo-4,6-petromyzonene-24-sulfate (DKPES, was identified using bioassay-guided fractionation from water conditioned with sexually mature male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus. The structure and relative stereochemistry of DKPES was established using spectroscopic data. The electro-olfactogram (EOG response threshold of DKPES was 10(-7 Molar (M and that of 3-keto petromyzonol sulfate (3 KPZS; a known component of the male sea lamprey sex pheromone was 10(-10 M. Behavioural studies indicated that DKPES can be detected at low concentrations by attracting sexually mature females to nests when combined with 3 KPZS. Nests baited with a mixture of DKPES and 3 KPZS (ratio 1∶29.8 attracted equal numbers of sexually mature females compared to an adjacent nest baited with 3 KPZS alone. When DKPES and 3 KPZS mixtures were applied at ratios of 2∶29.8 and 10∶29.8, the proportion of sexually mature females that entered baited nests increased to 73% and 70%, respectively. None of the sexually mature females released were attracted to nests baited with DKPES alone. These results indicated that DKPES is a component of the sex pheromone released by sexually mature male sea lamprey, and is the second biologically active compound identified from this pheromone. DKPES represents the first example that a minor component of a vertebrate pheromone can be combined with a major component to elicit critical sexual behaviors. DKPES holds considerable promise for increasing the effectiveness of pheromone-baited trapping as a means of sea lamprey control in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  6. Influence of body size, metabolic rate and life history stage on the uptake and excretion of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) by invasive sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Laura R; Long, Tristan A F; Wilkie, Michael P

    2018-01-01

    Invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) are controlled in the Great Lakes using the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), which is applied to streams infested with larval lamprey. However, lamprey that survive treatments (residuals) remain a challenge because they may subsequently undergo metamorphosis into parasitic juvenile animals that migrate downstream to the Great Lakes, where they feed on important sport and commercial fishes. The goal of this study was to determine if body size and life stage could potentially influence sea lamprey tolerance to TFM by influencing patterns of TFM uptake and elimination. Because mass specific rates of oxygen consumption (M˙O 2 ) are lower in larger compared to smaller lamprey, we predicted that TFM uptake would be negatively correlated to body size, suggesting that large larvae would be more tolerant to TFM exposure. Accordingly, TFM uptake and M˙O 2 were measured in larvae ranging in size from 0.2-4.2g using radio-labelled TFM ( 14 C-TFM) and static respirometry. Both were inversely proportional to wet mass (M), and could be described usingthe allometric power relationship: Y=aM b , in which M˙O 2 =1.86M 0.53 and TFM Uptake=7.24M 0.34 . We also predicted that body size would extend to rates of TFM elimination, which was measured following the administration of 14 C-TFM (via intraperitoneal injection). However, there were no differences in the half-lives of elimination of TFM (T 1/2 -TFM). There were also no differences in M˙O 2 or TFM uptake amongst size-matched larval, metamorphosing (stages 6-7), or post-metamorphic (juvenile) sea lamprey. However, the T 1/2 -TFM was significantly lower in larval than post-metamorphic lamprey (juvenile), indicating the larval lamprey cleared TFM more efficiently than juvenile lamprey. We conclude that larger larval sea lamprey are more likely to survive TFM treatments suggesting that body size might be an important variable to consider when treating streams with TFM to

  7. The sterile-male-release technique in Great Lakes sea lamprey management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohey, Michael B.; Heinrich, John W.; Seelye, James G.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Kaye, Cheryl A.; Scholefield, Ron J.; McDonald, Rodney B.; Christie, Gavin C.

    2003-01-01

    The implementation of a sterile-male-release technique from 1991 through 1999 and evaluation of its effectiveness in the Great Lakes sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) management program is reviewed. Male sea lampreys were injected with the chemosterilant bisazir (P,P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide) using a robotic device. Quality assurance testing indicated the device delivered a consistent and effective dose of bisazir. Viability of embryos in an untreated control group was 64% compared to 1% in a treatment group. A task force developed nine hypotheses to guide implementation and evaluation of the technique. An annual average of 26,000 male sea lampreys was harvested from as many as 17 Great Lakes tributaries for use in the technique. An annual average of 16,100 sterilized males was released into 33 tributaries of Lake Superior to achieve a theoretical 59% reduction in larval production during 1991 to 1996. The average number of sterile males released in the St. Marys River increased from 4,000 during 1991 to 1996 to 20,100 during 1997 to 1999. The theoretical reduc-stertion in reproduction when combined with trapping was 57% during 1991 to 1996 and 86% during 1997 to 1999. Evaluation studies demonstrated that sterilized males were competitive and reduced production of larvae in streams. Field studies and simulation models suggest reductions in reproduction will result in fewer recruits, but there is risk of periodic high recruitment events independent of sterile-male release. Strategies to reduce reproduction will be most reliable when low densities of reproducing females are achieved. Expansion of the technique is limited by access to additional males for sterilization. Sterile-male release and other alternative controls are important in delivering integrated pest management and in reducing reliance on pesticides.

  8. Retinal amino acid neurochemistry of the southern hemisphere lamprey, Geotria australis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Nivison-Smith

    Full Text Available Lampreys are one of the two surviving groups of the agnathan (jawless stages in vertebrate evolution and are thus ideal candidates for elucidating the evolution of visual systems. This study investigated the retinal amino acid neurochemistry of the southern hemisphere lamprey Geotria australis during the downstream migration of the young, recently-metamorphosed juveniles to the sea and during the upstream migration of the fully-grown and sexually-maturing adults to their spawning areas. Glutamate and taurine were distributed throughout the retina, whilst GABA and glycine were confined to neurons of the inner retina matching patterns seen in most other vertebrates. Glutamine and aspartate immunoreactivity was closely matched to Müller cell morphology. Between the migratory phases, few differences were observed in the distribution of major neurotransmitters i.e. glutamate, GABA and glycine, but changes in amino acids associated with retinal metabolism i.e. glutamine and aspartate, were evident. Taurine immunoreactivity was mostly conserved between migrant stages, consistent with its role in primary cell functions such as osmoregulation. Further investigation of glutamate signalling using the probe agmatine (AGB to map cation channel permeability revealed entry of AGB into photoreceptors and horizontal cells followed by accumulation in inner retinal neurons. Similarities in AGB profiles between upstream and downstream migrant of G. australis confirmed the conservation of glutamate neurotransmission. Finally, calcium binding proteins, calbindin and calretinin were localized to the inner retina whilst recoverin was localized to photoreceptors. Overall, conservation of major amino acid neurotransmitters and calcium-associated proteins in the lamprey retina confirms these elements as essential features of the vertebrate visual system. On the other hand, metabolic elements of the retina such as neurotransmitter precursor amino acids and Müller cells

  9. Effects of coded-wire-tagging on stream-dwelling Sea Lamprey larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Swink, William D.; Dawson, Heather A.; Jones, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of coded wire tagging Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus larvae from a known-aged stream-dwelling population were assessed. Tagged larvae were significantly shorter on average than untagged larvae from 3 to 18 months after tagging. However, 30 months after tagging, the length distribution of tagged and untagged larvae did not differ and tagged Sea Lampreys were in better condition (i.e., higher condition factor) and more likely to have undergone metamorphosis than the untagged population. The reason why tagged larvae were more likely to metamorphose is not clear, but the increased likelihood of metamorphosis could have been a compensatory response to the period of slower growth after tagging. Slower growth after tagging was consistent across larval size-classes, so handling and displacement from quality habitat during the early part of the growing season was likely the cause rather than the tag burden. The tag effects observed in this study, if caused by displacement and handling, may be minimized in future studies if tagging is conducted during autumn after growth has concluded for the year.

  10. Features of reproduction in laboratory-reared Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz, 1904 (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotraut A. G. B. Cônsoli

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Observations were made on 100 female Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz maintained individually from the first blood meal onwards and allowed one blood meal during each oviposition cycle, 5% dextrose solution been supplied throughout life. The average length of live was 49.9 ± 17.8 days; the logarithm of the mortality rate increased proportionately to physiological age. The insects took an average of 7.3 ± 3.2 blood meals and produced a mean of 7.9 ± 3.7 clutches of eggs. There was a progressive decrease, proportional to advancing physiological age, in the mean numbers of eggs laid in successive oviposition cycles, in the intervals between blood feeding oviposition, and in the numbers of larvae that hatched. Delayed oviposition, transient sterility and a total loss of fertility were also recorded.De 100 fêmeas de Aedese fluviatilis (Lutz, 1904 individualmente observadas foram obtidos 45.475 ovos em um total de 790 posturas. As médias de desovas produzidas e de repastos sangüíneos ingeridos por fêmea, foram respectivamente 7,9 ± 3,7 e 7,3 ± 3,2 e a longevidade média foi de 49,9 ± 17,8 dias. Em análise de regressão linear, foi observado um progressivo decréscimo das médias de ovos por postura, larvas eclodidas e número de dias entre repasto sangüíneo e postura, proporcional ao aumento da idade fisiológica. Foram ainda observadas ocorrências de ingestão de sangue durante o desenvolvimento dos ovos, recusa de alimentação sangüínea entre desovas sucessivas, retenção espontânea de ovos por períodos apreciáveis, esterilidade transitória e esgotamento de fecundidade.

  11. Analysis of DNA damage in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) spermatozoa by UV, hydrogen peroxide, and the toxicant bisazir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciereszko, Andrzej; Wolfe, Tobie D.; Dabrowski, Konrad

    2005-01-01

    In this study we sought to demonstrate that Comet assay can be applied to sea lamprey sperm DNA fragmentation and used to describe the relationship between sperm DNA damage and sperm fertilizing ability. We show that the assay can be used reliably and accurately, and unlike in the case of mammals, there is no need for additional steps related to improvement of efficacy of lysis and DNA decondensation. This agrees with the presence of histone proteins in lamprey sperm. An increase in DNA fragmentation was noted during short-term storage of milt on ice (0-4 days). We demonstrated genotoxic effects of UV radiation and oxidative stress (exposure to hydrogen peroxide) and found that oxidative damage to sperm DNA was likely repaired after fertilization in the embryo. Repairing capacity of the oocyte toward sperm DNA lesions caused by UV was restricted. Toxic effect of p,p-bis-(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic acid (p,p-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide), a sea lamprey chemosterilant, could not be linked to DNA fragmentation in the in vitro tests. Its genotoxicity in vivo may possibly be associated with other mechanisms of DNA degradation (oxidation or DNA-protein and DNA-DNA cross-linking). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Comet assay can be successfully applied to monitor effects of environmental disturbances and imposed injuries in sea lamprey spermatozoa and possibly other species of ancient fish with acrosomal sperm

  12. Analysis of DNA damage in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) spermatozoa by UV, hydrogen peroxide, and the toxicant bisazir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciereszko, Andrzej [School of Natural Resources, Ohio State University, 210 Kottman Hall, 2021 Coffey Rd., Columbus, OH 434210 (United States); Semen Biology Group, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, 10-747 Olsztyn (Poland); Wolfe, Tobie D. [School of Natural Resources, Ohio State University, 210 Kottman Hall, 2021 Coffey Rd., Columbus, OH 434210 (United States); Dabrowski, Konrad [School of Natural Resources, Ohio State University, 210 Kottman Hall, 2021 Coffey Rd., Columbus, OH 434210 (United States)]. E-mail: dabrowski.1@osu.edu

    2005-06-15

    In this study we sought to demonstrate that Comet assay can be applied to sea lamprey sperm DNA fragmentation and used to describe the relationship between sperm DNA damage and sperm fertilizing ability. We show that the assay can be used reliably and accurately, and unlike in the case of mammals, there is no need for additional steps related to improvement of efficacy of lysis and DNA decondensation. This agrees with the presence of histone proteins in lamprey sperm. An increase in DNA fragmentation was noted during short-term storage of milt on ice (0-4 days). We demonstrated genotoxic effects of UV radiation and oxidative stress (exposure to hydrogen peroxide) and found that oxidative damage to sperm DNA was likely repaired after fertilization in the embryo. Repairing capacity of the oocyte toward sperm DNA lesions caused by UV was restricted. Toxic effect of p,p-bis-(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic acid (p,p-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide), a sea lamprey chemosterilant, could not be linked to DNA fragmentation in the in vitro tests. Its genotoxicity in vivo may possibly be associated with other mechanisms of DNA degradation (oxidation or DNA-protein and DNA-DNA cross-linking). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Comet assay can be successfully applied to monitor effects of environmental disturbances and imposed injuries in sea lamprey spermatozoa and possibly other species of ancient fish with acrosomal sperm.

  13. Distribution of sibling species of Anopheles culicifacies s.l. and Anopheles fluviatilis s.l. and their vectorial capacity in eight different malaria endemic districts of Orissa, India

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    Asima Tripathy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken in eight endemic districts of Orissa, India, to find the members of the species complexes of Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles fluviatilis and their distribution patterns. The study area included six forested districts (Keonjhar, Angul, Dhenkanal, Ganjam, Nayagarh and Khurda and two non-forested coastal districts (Puri and Jagatsingpur studied over a period of two years (June 2007-May 2009. An. culicifacies A, B, C and D and An. fluviatilis S and T sibling species were reported. The prevalence of An. culicifacies A ranged from 4.2-8.41%, B from 54.96-76.92%, C from 23.08-33.62% and D from 1.85-5.94% (D was reported for the first time in Orissa, except for occurrences in the Khurda and Nayagarh districts. The anthropophilic indices (AI were 3.2-4.8%, 0.5-1.7%, 0.7-1.37% and 0.91-1.35% for A, B, C and D, respectively, whereas the sporozoite rates (SR were 0.49-0.54%, 0%, 0.28-0.37% and 0.41-0.46% for A, B, C and D, respectively. An. fluviatilis showed a similarly varied distribution pattern in which S was predominant (84.3% overall; its AI and SR values ranged from 60.7-90.4% and 1.2-2.32%, respectively. The study observed that the co-existence of potential vector sibling species of An. culicifacies (A, C and D and An. fluviatilis S (> 50% was responsible for the high endemicity of malaria in forested districts such as Dhenkanal, Keonjhar, Angul, Ganjam, Nayagarh and Khurda (> 5% slide positivity rate. Thus, the epidemiological scenario for malaria is dependent on the distribution of the vector sibling species and their vectorial capacity.

  14. Distribution of sibling species of Anopheles culicifacies s.l. and Anopheles fluviatilis s.l. and their vectorial capacity in eight different malaria endemic districts of Orissa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Asima; Samanta, Luna; Das, Sachidananda; Parida, Sarat Kumar; Marai, Nitisheel; Hazra, Rupenansu Kumar; Kar, Santanu Kumar; Mahapatra, Namita

    2010-12-01

    The study was undertaken in eight endemic districts of Orissa, India, to find the members of the species complexes of Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles fluviatilis and their distribution patterns. The study area included six forested districts (Keonjhar, Angul, Dhenkanal, Ganjam, Nayagarh and Khurda) and two non-forested coastal districts (Puri and Jagatsingpur) studied over a period of two years (June 2007-May 2009). An. culicifacies A, B, C and D and An. fluviatilis S and T sibling species were reported. The prevalence of An. culicifacies A ranged from 4.2-8.41%, B from 54.96-76.92%, C from 23.08-33.62% and D from 1.85-5.94% (D was reported for the first time in Orissa, except for occurrences in the Khurda and Nayagarh districts). The anthropophilic indices (AI) were 3.2-4.8%, 0.5-1.7%, 0.7-1.37% and 0.91-1.35% for A, B, C and D, respectively, whereas the sporozoite rates (SR) were 0.49-0.54%, 0%, 0.28-0.37% and 0.41-0.46% for A, B, C and D, respectively. An. fluviatilis showed a similarly varied distribution pattern in which S was predominant (84.3% overall); its AI and SR values ranged from 60.7-90.4% and 1.2-2.32%, respectively. The study observed that the co-existence of potential vector sibling species of An. culicifacies (A, C and D) and An. fluviatilis S (> 50%) was responsible for the high endemicity of malaria in forested districts such as Dhenkanal, Keonjhar, Angul, Ganjam, Nayagarh and Khurda (> 5% slide positivity rate). Thus, the epidemiological scenario for malaria is dependent on the distribution of the vector sibling species and their vectorial capacity.

  15. wFlu: characterization and evaluation of a native Wolbachia from the mosquito Aedes fluviatilis as a potential vector control agent.

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    Luke Anthony Baton

    Full Text Available There is currently considerable interest and practical progress in using the endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia as a vector control agent for human vector-borne diseases. Such vector control strategies may require the introduction of multiple, different Wolbachia strains into target vector populations, necessitating the identification and characterization of appropriate endosymbiont variants. Here, we report preliminary characterization of wFlu, a native Wolbachia from the neotropical mosquito Aedes fluviatilis, and evaluate its potential as a vector control agent by confirming its ability to cause cytoplasmic incompatibility, and measuring its effect on three parameters determining host fitness (survival, fecundity and fertility, as well as vector competence (susceptibility for pathogen infection. Using an aposymbiotic strain of Ae. fluviatilis cured of its native Wolbachia by antibiotic treatment, we show that in its natural host wFlu causes incomplete, but high levels of, unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility, has high rates of maternal transmission, and no detectable fitness costs, indicating a high capacity to rapidly spread through host populations. However, wFlu does not inhibit, and even enhances, oocyst infection with the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum. The stage- and sex-specific density of wFlu was relatively low, and with limited tissue distribution, consistent with the lack of virulence and pathogen interference/symbiont-mediated protection observed. Unexpectedly, the density of wFlu was also shown to be specifically-reduced in the ovaries after bloodfeeding Ae. fluviatilis. Overall, our observations indicate that the Wolbachia strain wFlu has the potential to be used as a vector control agent, and suggests that appreciable mutualistic coevolution has occurred between this endosymbiont and its natural host. Future work will be needed to determine whether wFlu has virulent host effects and/or exhibits pathogen

  16. Neural crest contributions to the lamprey head

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    McCauley, David W.; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    The neural crest is a vertebrate-specific cell population that contributes to the facial skeleton and other derivatives. We have performed focal DiI injection into the cranial neural tube of the developing lamprey in order to follow the migratory pathways of discrete groups of cells from origin to destination and to compare neural crest migratory pathways in a basal vertebrate to those of gnathostomes. The results show that the general pathways of cranial neural crest migration are conserved throughout the vertebrates, with cells migrating in streams analogous to the mandibular and hyoid streams. Caudal branchial neural crest cells migrate ventrally as a sheet of cells from the hindbrain and super-pharyngeal region of the neural tube and form a cylinder surrounding a core of mesoderm in each pharyngeal arch, similar to that seen in zebrafish and axolotl. In addition to these similarities, we also uncovered important differences. Migration into the presumptive caudal branchial arches of the lamprey involves both rostral and caudal movements of neural crest cells that have not been described in gnathostomes, suggesting that barriers that constrain rostrocaudal movement of cranial neural crest cells may have arisen after the agnathan/gnathostome split. Accordingly, neural crest cells from a single axial level contributed to multiple arches and there was extensive mixing between populations. There was no apparent filling of neural crest derivatives in a ventral-to-dorsal order, as has been observed in higher vertebrates, nor did we find evidence of a neural crest contribution to cranial sensory ganglia. These results suggest that migratory constraints and additional neural crest derivatives arose later in gnathostome evolution.

  17. Neither philopatric nor panmictic: microsatellite and mtDNA evidence suggests lack of natal homing but limits to dispersal in Pacific lamprey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spice, Erin K; Goodman, Damon H; Reid, Stewart B; Docker, Margaret F

    2012-06-01

    Most species with lengthy migrations display some degree of natal homing; some (e.g. migratory birds and anadromous salmonids) show spectacular feats of homing. However, studies of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) indicate that this anadromous species locates spawning habitat based on pheromonal cues from larvae rather than through philopatry. Previous genetic studies in the anadromous Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) have both supported and rejected the hypothesis of natal homing. To resolve this, we used nine microsatellite loci to examine the population structure in 965 Pacific lamprey from 20 locations from central British Columbia to southern California and supplemented this analysis with mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis on a subset of 530 lamprey. Microsatellite analysis revealed (i) relatively low but often statistically significant genetic differentiation among locations (97% pairwise F(ST) values were <0.04 but 73.7% were significant); and (ii) weak but significant isolation by distance (r(2) = 0.0565, P = 0.0450) but no geographic clustering of samples. The few moderate F(ST) values involved comparisons with sites that were geographically distant or far upstream. The mtDNA analysis--although providing less resolution among sites (only 4.7%F(ST) values were significant)--was broadly consistent with the microsatellite results: (i) the southernmost site and some sites tributary to the Salish Sea were genetically distinct; and (ii) southern sites showed higher haplotype and private haplotype richness. These results are inconsistent with philopatry, suggesting that anadromous lampreys are unusual among species with long migrations, but suggest that limited dispersal at sea precludes panmixia in this species. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Cloning, phylogeny, and regional expression of a Y5 receptor mRNA in the brain of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Fernández, Juan; Megías, Manuel; Pombal, Manuel A

    2014-04-01

    The NPY receptors known as Y receptors are classified into three subfamilies, Y1, Y2, and Y5, and are involved in different physiological functions. The Y5 receptor is the only member of the Y5 subfamily, and it is present in all vertebrate groups, except for teleosts. Both molecular and pharmacological studies show that Y5 receptor is highly conserved during vertebrate evolution. Furthermore, this receptor is widely expressed in the mammalian brain, including the hypothalamus, where it is thought to take part in feeding and homeostasis regulation. Lampreys belong to the agnathan lineage, and they are thought to have branched out between the two whole-genome duplications that occurred in vertebrates. Therefore, they are in a key position for studies on the evolution of gene families in vertebrates. Here we report the cloning, phylogeny, and brain expression pattern of the sea lamprey Y5 receptor. In phylogenetic studies, the lamprey Y5 receptor clusters in a basal position, together with Y5 receptors of other vertebrates. The mRNA of this receptor is broadly expressed in the lamprey brain, being especially abundant in hypothalamic areas. Its expression pattern is roughly similar to that reported for other vertebrates and parallels the expression pattern of the Y1 receptor subtype previously described by our group, as it occurs in mammals. Altogether, these results confirm that a Y5 receptor is present in lampreys, thus being highly conserved during the evolution of vertebrates, and suggest that it is involved in many brain functions, the only known exception being teleosts. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Survival and metamorphosis of low-density populations of larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in streams following lampricide treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Swink, William D.; Brenden, Travis O.; Slade, Jeffrey W.; Steeves, Todd B.; Fodale, Michael F.; Jones, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus control in the Great Lakes primarily involves application of lampricides to streams where larval production occurs to kill larvae prior to their metamorphosing and entering the lakes as parasites (juveniles). Because lampricides are not 100% effective, larvae that survive treatment maymetamorphose before streams are again treated. Larvae that survive treatment have not beenwidely studied, so their dynamics are notwell understood.Wetagged and released larvae in six Great Lake tributaries following lampricide treatment and estimated vital demographic rates using multistate tag-recovery models. Model-averaged larval survivals ranged from 56.8 to 57.6%. Model-averaged adult recovery rates, which were the product of juvenile survivals and adult capture probabilities, ranged from 6.8 to 9.3%. Using stochastic simulations, we estimated production of juvenile sea lampreys from a hypothetical population of treatment survivors under different growth conditions based on parameter estimates from this research. For fast-growing populations, juvenile production peaked 2 years after treatment. For slow-growing populations, juvenile production was approximately one-third that of fast-growing populations,with production not peaking until 4 years after treatment. Our results suggest that dynamics (i.e., survival, metamorphosis) of residual larval populations are very similar to those of untreated larval populations. Consequently, residual populations do not necessarily warrant special consideration for the purpose of sea lamprey control and can be ranked for treatment along with other populations. Consecutive lampricide treatments, which are under evaluation by the sea lamprey control program, would bemost effective for reducing juvenile production in large, fast-growing populations.

  20. Evolution of the vertebrate claudin gene family: insights from a basal vertebrate, the sea lamprey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukendi, Christian; Dean, Nicholas; Lala, Rushil; Smith, Jeramiah; Bronner, Marianne E; Nikitina, Natalya V

    2016-01-01

    Claudins are major constituents of tight junctions, contributing both to their intercellular sealing and selective permeability properties. While claudins and claudin-like molecules are present in some invertebrates, the association of claudins with tight junctions has been conclusively documented only in vertebrates. Here we report the sequencing, phylogenetic analysis and comprehensive spatiotemporal expression analysis of the entire claudin gene family in the basal extant vertebrate, the sea lamprey. Our results demonstrate that clear orthologues to about half of all mammalian claudins are present in the lamprey, suggesting that at least one round of whole genome duplication contributed to the diversification of this gene family. Expression analysis revealed that claudins are expressed in discrete and specific domains, many of which represent vertebrate-specific innovations, such as in cranial ectodermal placodes and the neural crest; whereas others represent structures characteristic of chordates, e.g. pronephros, notochord, somites, endostyle and pharyngeal arches. By comparing the embryonic expression of claudins in the lamprey to that of other vertebrates, we found that ancestral expression patterns were often preserved in higher vertebrates. Morpholino mediated loss of Cldn3b demonstrated a functional role for this protein in placode and pharyngeal arch morphogenesis. Taken together, our data provide novel insights into the origins and evolution of the claudin gene family and the significance of claudin proteins in the evolution of vertebrates.

  1. Temperature effects on aerobic scope and cardiac performance of European perch (Perca fluviatilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Denise Lyager; Overgaard, Johannes; Wang, Tobias; Gesser, Hans; Malte, Hans

    2017-08-01

    Several recent studies have highlighted how impaired cardiac performance at high temperatures and in hypoxia may compromise the capacity for oxygen transport. Thus, at high temperatures impaired cardiac capacity is proposed to reduce oxygen transport to a degree that lowers aerobic scope and compromises thermal tolerance (the oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis). To investigate this hypothesis, we measured aerobic and cardiac performance of a eurythermal freshwater teleost, the European perch (Perca fluviatilis). Rates of oxygen consumption were measured during rest and activity at temperatures between 5°C and 27°C, and we evaluated cardiac function by in vivo measurements of heart rate and in vitro studies to determine contractility of myocardial strips. Aerobic scope increased progressively from 5°C to 21°C, after which it levelled off. Heart rate showed a similar response. We found little difference between resting and active heart rate at high temperature suggesting that increased cardiac scope during activity is primarily related to changes in stroke volume. To examine the effects of temperature on cardiac capacity, we measured isometric force development in electrically paced myocardial preparations during different combinations of temperature, pacing frequency, oxygenation and adrenergic stimulation. The force-frequency product increased markedly upon adrenergic stimulation at 21 and 27°C (with higher effects at 21°C) and the cardiac preparations were highly sensitive to hypoxia. These findings suggest that at (critically) high temperatures, cardiac output may diminish due to a decreased effect of adrenergic stimulation and that this effect may be further exacerbated if the heart becomes hypoxic. Hence cardiac limitations may contribute to the inability to increase aerobic scope at high temperatures in the European perch (Perca fluviatilis). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reconnaissance of contaminants in larval Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) tissues and habitats in the Columbia River Basin, Oregon and Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Elena B.; Hapke, Whitney B.; McIlraith, Brian; Markovchick, Dennis J.

    2015-01-01

    Pacific lampreys (Entosphenus tridentatus) have resided in the Columbia River Basin for millennia and have great ecological and cultural importance. The role of habitat contamination in the recent decline of the species has rarely been studied and was the main objective of this effort. A wide range of contaminants (115 analytes) was measured in sediments and tissues at 27 sites across a large geographic area of diverse land use. This is the largest dataset of contaminants in habitats and tissues of Pacific lamprey in North America and the first study to compare contaminant bioburden during the larval life stage and the anadromous, adult portion of the life cycle. Bioaccumulation of pesticides, flame retardants, and mercury was observed at many sites. Based on available data, contaminants are accumulating in larval Pacific lamprey at levels that are likely detrimental to organism health and may be contributing to the decline of the species.

  3. Bacterial community composition in the gut content of Lampetra japonica revealed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yu; Xie, Wenfang; Pang, Yue; Li, Tiesong; Li, Qingwei; Li, Yingying

    2017-01-01

    The composition of the bacterial communities in the hindgut contents of Lampetrs japonica was surveyed by Illumina MiSeq of the 16S rRNA gene. An average of 32385 optimized reads was obtained from three samples. The rarefaction curve based on the operational taxonomic units tended to approach the asymptote. The rank abundance curve representing the species richness and evenness was calculated. The composition of microbe in six classification levels was also analyzed. Top 20 members in genera level were displayed as the classification tree. The abundance of microorganisms in different individuals was displayed as the pie charts at the branch nodes in the classification tree. The differences of top 50 genera in abundance between individuals of lamprey are displayed as a heatmap. The pairwise comparison of bacterial taxa abundance revealed that there are no significant differences of gut microbiota between three individuals of lamprey at a given rarefied depth. Also, the gut microbiota derived from L. japonica displays little similarity with other aquatic organism of Vertebrata after UPGMA analysis. The metabolic function of the bacterial communities was predicted through KEGG analysis. This study represents the first analysis of the bacterial community composition in the gut content of L. japonica. The investigation of the gut microbiota associated with L. japonica will broaden our understanding of this unique organism.

  4. Bacterial community composition in the gut content of Lampetra japonica revealed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

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    Yu Zuo

    Full Text Available The composition of the bacterial communities in the hindgut contents of Lampetrs japonica was surveyed by Illumina MiSeq of the 16S rRNA gene. An average of 32385 optimized reads was obtained from three samples. The rarefaction curve based on the operational taxonomic units tended to approach the asymptote. The rank abundance curve representing the species richness and evenness was calculated. The composition of microbe in six classification levels was also analyzed. Top 20 members in genera level were displayed as the classification tree. The abundance of microorganisms in different individuals was displayed as the pie charts at the branch nodes in the classification tree. The differences of top 50 genera in abundance between individuals of lamprey are displayed as a heatmap. The pairwise comparison of bacterial taxa abundance revealed that there are no significant differences of gut microbiota between three individuals of lamprey at a given rarefied depth. Also, the gut microbiota derived from L. japonica displays little similarity with other aquatic organism of Vertebrata after UPGMA analysis. The metabolic function of the bacterial communities was predicted through KEGG analysis. This study represents the first analysis of the bacterial community composition in the gut content of L. japonica. The investigation of the gut microbiota associated with L. japonica will broaden our understanding of this unique organism.

  5. Genetic models reveal historical patterns of sea lamprey population fluctuations within Lake Champlain

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    Cassidy C. D’Aloia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The origin of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus in Lake Champlain has been heavily debated over the past decade. Given the lack of historical documentation, two competing hypotheses have emerged in the literature. First, it has been argued that the relatively recent population size increase and concomitant rise in wounding rates on prey populations are indicative of an invasive population that entered the lake through the Champlain Canal. Second, recent genetic evidence suggests a post-glacial colonization at the end of the Pleistocene, approximately 11,000 years ago. One limitation to resolving the origin of sea lamprey in Lake Champlain is a lack of historical and current measures of population size. In this study, the issue of population size was explicitly addressed using nuclear (nDNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA markers to estimate historical demography with genetic models. Haplotype network analysis, mismatch analysis, and summary statistics based on mtDNA noncoding sequences for NCI (479 bp and NCII (173 bp all indicate a recent population expansion. Coalescent models based on mtDNA and nDNA identified two potential demographic events: a population decline followed by a very recent population expansion. The decline in effective population size may correlate with land-use and fishing pressure changes post-European settlement, while the recent expansion may be associated with the implementation of the salmonid stocking program in the 1970s. These results are most consistent with the hypothesis that sea lamprey are native to Lake Champlain; however, the credibility intervals around parameter estimates demonstrate that there is uncertainty regarding the magnitude and timing of past demographic events.

  6. Influence of larval and pupal products on the oviposition behavior of Aedes Fluviatilis (Lutz (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Rotraut A. G. B. Consoli

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Several larval and pupal products of Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz were tested for their influence on the oviposition behaviour of females of the same species. Significant (alfa = 0,05 atractiveness was shown by: larval water, previously containing 5 to 15 larvae/1,5 ml; larval water, preserved up to 38 days; evaporate and reconstructed larval water extracts up to 2 years after production and water filtered through fresh or dried ground larvae. hexanic larval water extracts and water filtered through fresh or dired ground pupae did not influence oviposition.Estudou-se a influência sobre o comportamento de oviposição das fêmeas de Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz de produtos derivados das formas imaturas da mesma espécie. As fêmeas foram atraídas significativamente (x=0,05 por ocasião da ovoposição por: água destilada que contivera 5 ou 15 larvas/1,5 ml, a mesma água (5 larvas/1,5 mlapós sua preservação por 38 dias; extratos evaporados e reconstituídos de água que conteve larvas, por até dois anos a sua produção, e filtrados de macerados frescos e secos de larvas. Extratos hexânicos de água que conteve larvas e filtrados de macerados descos e secos de pupas não atraíram a ovoposição das fêmeas.

  7. A thermogenic secondary sexual character in male sea lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Priess, M. Cody; Yeh, Chu-Yin; Brant, Cory O.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Li, Ke; Nanlohy, Kaben G.; Bryan, Mara B.; Brown, C. Titus; Choi, Jongeun; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Secondary sexual characters in animals are exaggerated ornaments or weapons for intrasexual competition. Unexpectedly, we found that a male secondary sexual character in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus ) is a thermogenic adipose tissue that instantly increases its heat production during sexual encounters. This secondary sexual character, developed in front of the anterior dorsal fin of mature males, is a swollen dorsal ridge known as the ‘rope’ tissue. It contains nerve bundles, multivacuolar adipocytes and interstitial cells packed with small lipid droplets and mitochondria with dense and highly organized cristae. The fatty acid composition of the rope tissue is rich in unsaturated fatty acids. The cytochrome c oxidase activity is high but the ATP concentration is very low in the mitochondria of the rope tissue compared with those of the gill and muscle tissues. The rope tissue temperature immediately rose up to 0.3°C when the male encountered a conspecific. Mature males generated more heat in the rope and muscle tissues when presented with a mature female than when presented with a male (paired t-test, P-3 more heat than the muscle in 10 min. Transcriptome analyses revealed that genes involved in fat cell differentiation are upregulated whereas those involved in oxidative-phosphorylation-coupled ATP synthesis are downregulated in the rope tissue compared with the gill and muscle tissues. Sexually mature male sea lamprey possess the only known thermogenic secondary sexual character that shows differential heat generation toward individual conspecifics.

  8. Caracteres merísticos e biologia do cascudo, Hypostomus fluviatilis (Schubart, 1964 (Osteichthyes, Loricariidae do rio Mogi-Guaçu, São Paulo, Brasil

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    Hitoshi Nomura

    1988-07-01

    Full Text Available Hypostomus fluviatilis (Schubart, 1964 é um cascudo (Loricariidae achado no rio Mogi-Guaçu, Estado de São Paulo. É espécie que pode interessar alguns criadores de peixes, por sua excelente carne. Um total de 47 exemplares (26 machos e 21 fêmeas foi analisado, capturado de março a setembro de 1975, em Emas, rio Mogi-Guaçu. Alguns caracteres merísticos e outros aspectos biológicos são fornecidos.Hypostomus fluviatilis (Schubart, 1964 is an armoured catfish (Loricariidae found in the Mogi-Guaçu river, State of São Paulo, Brazil. It is a species which may interest some fish culturists, due to is excellent meat. A total of 47 specimens (26 males and 21 females, caught from March to September 1975, at Emas Fali, Mogi-Guaçu river, was analyzed. Some meristic characters, together with biological aspects, are presented.

  9. Quantification of a male sea lamprey pheromone in tributaries of Laurentian Great Lakes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, X.; Johnson, N.S.; Brant, C.O.; Yun, S.-S.; Chambers, K.L.; Jones, A.D.; Li, W.

    2011-01-01

    We developed an assay for measuring 7α,12α,24-trihydroxy-5a-cholan-3-one-24-sulfate (3kPZS), a mating pheromone released by male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus), at low picomolar concentrations in natural waters to assess the presence of invasive populations. 3kPZS was extracted from streamwater at a rate of recovery up to 90% using a single cation-exchange and reversed-phase mixed-mode cartridge, along with [2H5]3kPZS as an internal standard, and quantified using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of detection was below 0.1 ng L–1 (210 fM), which was the lowest concentration tested. Intra- and interday coefficients of variation were between 0.3–11.6% and 4.8–9.8%, respectively, at 1 ng 3kPZS L–1 and 5 ng 3kPZS L–1. This assay was validated by repeat measurements of water samples from a stream spiked with synthesized 3kPZS to reach 4.74 ng L–1 or 0.24 ng L–1. We further verified the utility of this assay to detect spawning populations of lampreys; in the seven tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes sampled, 3kPZS concentrations were found to range between 0.15 and 2.85 ng L–1 during the spawning season in known sea lamprey infested segments and were not detectable in uninfested segments. The 3kPZS assay may be useful for the integrated management of sea lamprey, an invasive species in the Great Lakes where pheromone-based control and assessment techniques are desired.

  10. First record of Paralemanea torulosa (Roth Sheath & A.R. Sherwood and new findings of Lemanea fluviatilis (Linnaeus C. Ag. and Hildenbrandia rivularis (Liebmann J. Agardh (Rhodophyta in Serbia

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    Blagojević Ana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the first record of the freshwater red alga Paralemanea torulosa and new findings of the species Lemanea fluviatilis and Hildenbrandia rivularis in Serbia. The existence of all three species was recorded in the upper reaches of clean fast-flowing rivers and brooks belonging to the basin of the Danube River. Lemanea fluviatilis was found in the Dojkinačka River in Eastern Serbia, while Paralemanea torulosa was recorded in the Drina River and Hildenbrandia rivularis in the Cvetića Brook and Bioštanska Banja Brook in Western Serbia. These reports are important for conservation of the biodiversity of Serbia, since it is well known that freshwater red algae are endangered and rare species (taxa in many countries. In Serbia they are under strict protection of the law.

  11. The effect of turbidity and prey fish density on consumption rates of piscivorous Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene; Berg, Søren; Baktoft, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    piscivorous Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis L. This was done in outdoor mesocosm (16 m2) experiments with clear water and two levels of turbidity (25 and 105 NTU) and two prey fish densities [3.1 and 12.5 roach Rutilus rutilus (L.) individuals m–2]. Perch consumption rates were affected by visibility less...... than expected, while they were highly affected by increased prey fish density. Perch responded to high prey density in all visibility conditions, indicating that prey density is more crucial for consumption than visibility in turbid lakes...

  12. Molecular sexing of tucuxi dolphins (Sotalia guianensis and Sotalia fluviatilis using samples from biopsy darting and decomposed carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydée A. Cunha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the zinc-finger sex chromosome-linked genes Zfx/Zfy and the sex-determining region Y (Sry genes for gender determination of biopsy samples from marine and riverine tucuxi dolphins (Sotalia guianensis and S. fluviatilis. We also evaluated the performance of these genes with decomposed carcasses, for which sexing cannot rely on the direct examination of the reproductive tract. Both systems proved reliable for sexing 46 fresh and decomposed samples, making them especially useful when biopsy darting is coupled with photo-identification studies.

  13. Biochemical and ultrastructural changes in the liver of European perch (Perca fluviatilis L. in response to cyanobacterial bloom in the Gruža reservoir

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    Perendija Branka R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the biochemical and ultrastructural changes in the liver of the freshwater fish, European perch (Perca fluviatilis, in response to Aphanizomenon flos-aquae bloom in the Gruža Reservoir, Serbia. The activities of total manganese- and copper zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (Tot SOD, Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, glutathione reductase (GR and biotransformation phase II enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST, as well as concentrations of total glutathione (GSH and sulfhydryl (-SH groups were examined before and during the bloom period. Mn-SOD activity was significantly higher, while the activities of Cu/Zn-SOD, CAT and GSH-Px and the concentration of the -SH groups were significantly lower during the bloom. The ultrastructure of the liver revealed necrotic and apoptotic damage to the hepatocytes during the bloom period. Our work represents the first study to report the influences of an Aphanizomenon flos-aquae bloom in the Gruža Reservoir on antioxidant biomarkers and on histopathological alterations in the liver of the freshwater fish European perch (Perca fluviatilis.

  14. Genetic characterization and relatedness of wild and farmed Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis: Possible implications for aquaculture practices

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    Sana Ben Khadher

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture of the Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis, in recirculating systems has emerged over the past decades to become a significant way of diversification for inland areas in Europe. The development of such a production relies partly on the improvement of growth performance (i.e., reducing production costs, which requires suitable genetic management of broodstocks and the development of selective breeding programs. In this context, the present study was undertaken assessing for the first time the genetic diversity of farmed stocks of perch. Twelve microsatellite loci were used to investigate the genetic diversity of nine farmed stocks (547 individuals from two perch farms located in France and their supposedly wild founder population from Lake Geneva (394 individuals. First, the wild population displayed the lowest genetic diversity and differed genetically from all farmed populations except one, XB2. Second, genetic diversity did not decrease between farmed breeders and their potential offspring. However, in the three groups of broodstock-offspring the number of alleles decreased by 10%, 21%, and 15%, respectively. In addition, effective population size decreased in all offspring groups. A family structuring was also observed among broodstocks and their offspring, with an unequal family contribution being suspected. In the absence of parental information, these results attest to the utility of genetic tools to evaluate genetic diversity and the necessity of a monitoring program to maintain genetic variability among farmed perch. Genetic variability among farmed stocks appears to be sufficient for perch production to be sustainable and selective breeding programs to be developed. Keywords: Perca fluviatilis, Genetic diversity, Domestication, Microsatellites

  15. The influence of acclimation temperature on the lipid composition of the larval lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, depends on tissue and lipid class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yung-Hsi; Sheridan, Mark A; Holmes, John A; Youson, John H

    2010-11-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of thermal acclimation on the lipid composition of fat depot organs the liver and kidneys of larval sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. We found that 21 °C-acclimated larvae possessed lower total lipid amounts in the liver (39% lower) and kidneys (30% lower) than 13 °C-acclimated larvae. Relatively lower lipid contents in the liver and kidneys of 21 °C-acclimated lamprey primarily resulted from a reduction in stored lipid reserve, triacylglycerol, but not the structural lipid, phospholipid. Compared to 21 °C-acclimated larvae, 13 °C-acclimated larvae were found to possess fewer saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and more unsaturated fatty acids (USFAs) in renal triacylglycerol and phospholipid classes, while there were no significant differences in the SFAs and USFAs of hepatic triacylglycerol, phospholipid, cholesteryl ester, fatty acid, and monoacylglycerol classes. Fewer SFAs, found in the kidney triacylglycerol of 13 °C-acclimated lamprey, were due to lower 12:0 and 14:0 fatty acids, but those in the renal phospholipid class were characterized by fewer 14:0, 15:0, and 16:0 fatty acids. More USFAs in renal triacylglycerol, as indicated by a higher unsaturation index, primarily resulted from higher polyunsaturated fatty acids (18:2ω6, 18:3ω3, and 18:4ω3); whereas, in the renal phospholipid class, this was a result of higher monoenes (18:1, 20:1, and 22:1ω9) and ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (18:4ω3). These data suggest that the influence of thermal acclimation on the lipid composition of lamprey fat depot organs depends on tissue and lipid class.

  16. Marine spawning sites of perch Perca fluviatilis revealed by oviduct-inserted acoustic transmitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovrind, Mikkel; Christensen, Emil A.F.; Carl, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    In the 1970s, a flood-protection system dramatically changed a large part of the coastal environment of Køge Bugt, a bay in the western Baltic Sea, from open coast to a brackish lagoon habitat. An anadromous stock of European perch Perca fluviatilis seems to have benefitted from this change...... a strong proof of concept of oviduct-inserted acoustic transmitters in brackish and marine fish spawning studies. The transmitter expulsions were validated using an egg map, which was based on visual observations of perch egg-strands, and 11 of the 12 expulsed transmitters (92%) were located in areas...... with eggs. Many fish spawned in the brackish water with salinities up to 9.6 PSU. These salinities are higher than those previously observed for European perch spawning in the wild, and call for further investigations of salinity tolerance in perch eggs...

  17. Neurochemical characterization of sea lamprey taste buds and afferent gustatory fibers: presence of serotonin, calretinin, and CGRP immunoreactivity in taste bud bi-ciliated cells of the earliest vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro-Iglesias, Antón; Villar-Cerviño, Verona; Villar-Cheda, Begoña; Anadón, Ramón; Rodicio, María Celina

    2008-12-01

    Neuroactive substances such as serotonin and other monoamines have been suggested to be involved in the transmission of gustatory signals from taste bud cells to afferent fibers. Lampreys are the earliest vertebrates that possess taste buds, although these differ in structure from taste buds in jawed vertebrates, and their neurochemistry remains unknown. We used immunofluorescence methods with antibodies raised against serotonin, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), calretinin, and acetylated alpha-tubulin to characterize the neurochemistry and innervation of taste buds in the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus L. For localization of proliferative cells in taste buds we used bromodeoxyuridine labeling and proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry. Results with both markers indicate that proliferating cells are restricted to a few basal cells and that almost all cells in taste buds are nonproliferating. A large number of serotonin-, calretinin-, and CGRP-immunoreactive bi-ciliated cells were revealed in lamprey taste buds. This suggests that serotonin participates in the transmission of gustatory signals and indicates that this substance appeared early on in vertebrate evolution. The basal surface of the bi-ciliated taste bud cells was contacted by tubulin-immunoreactive fibers. Some of the fibers surrounding the taste bud were calretinin immunoreactive. Lamprey taste bud cells or afferent fibers did not exhibit TH, GABA, glutamate, or NPY immunoreactivity, which suggests that expression of these substances evolved in taste buds of some gnathostomes lines after the separation of gnathostomes and lampreys. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Lamins of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and the evolution of the vertebrate lamin protein family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilf, Paul; Peter, Annette; Hurek, Thomas; Stick, Reimer

    2014-07-01

    Lamin proteins are found in all metazoans. Most non-vertebrate genomes including those of the closest relatives of vertebrates, the cephalochordates and tunicates, encode only a single lamin. In teleosts and tetrapods the number of lamin genes has quadrupled. They can be divided into four sub-types, lmnb1, lmnb2, LIII, and lmna, each characterized by particular features and functional differentiations. Little is known when during vertebrate evolution these features have emerged. Lampreys belong to the Agnatha, the sister group of the Gnathostomata. They split off first within the vertebrate lineage. Analysis of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) lamin complement presented here, identified three functional lamin genes, one encoding a lamin LIII, indicating that the characteristic gene structure of this subtype had been established prior to the agnathan/gnathostome split. Two other genes encode lamins for which orthology to gnathostome lamins cannot be designated. Search for lamin gene sequences in all vertebrate taxa for which sufficient sequence data are available reveals the evolutionary time frame in which specific features of the vertebrate lamins were established. Structural features characteristic for A-type lamins are not found in the lamprey genome. In contrast, lmna genes are present in all gnathostome lineages suggesting that this gene evolved with the emergence of the gnathostomes. The analysis of lamin gene neighborhoods reveals noticeable similarities between the different vertebrate lamin genes supporting the hypothesis that they emerged due to two rounds of whole genome duplication and makes clear that an orthologous relationship between a particular vertebrate paralog and lamins outside the vertebrate lineage cannot be established. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Diphyllobothrium latum in Italy: plerocercoids larvae distribution in perch (Perca fluviatilis fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MariaLetizia Fioravanti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Following the diffusion of new eating habits (consumption of uncooked, undercooked, marinated or cold-smoked fish, some cases of parasitic zoonosis from freshwater fish are recently reappeared in Italy. One of these is tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum, whose final host could be human. This study aimed to individuate the position of plerocercoid larvae inside perch fillets (Perca fluviatilis caught in 4 different sites on Como lake in 2011. The fish analyzed were 390. The larvae totally isolated from 112 positive fishes were 164: 85 found in the right fillets and 79 in left ones. According to dorso-ventral disposition in fish, 144 larvae were individuated in dorsal muscles and 20 in ventral ones. Data collected confirm that plerocercoid larvae prefer the upper mass of perch muscle. Dietary education and sanitary care on fish supply are necessary to prevent the diffusion of tapeworm zoonosis in high-risk zones. European legislation establishes freezing to sanitize fish to be eaten raw, marinated or cold-smoked.

  20. Multiple functions of a multi-component mating pheromone in sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N.S.; Yun, S.-S.; Buchinger, T.J.; Li, W.

    2012-01-01

    The role of the C24 sulphate in the mating pheromone component, 7α,12α,24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-sulphate (3kPZS), to specifically induce upstream movement in ovulated female sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus was investigated. 7α,12α-dihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-oic acid (3kACA), a structurally similar bile acid released by spermiated males, but lacking the C24 sulphate ester, was tested in bioassays at concentrations between 10−11 and 10−14 molar (M). 3kACA did not induce upstream movement in females or additional reproductive behaviours. In contrast, spermiated male washings induced upstream movement, prolonged retention on a nest and induced an array of nesting behaviours. Differential extraction and elution by solid-phase extraction resins showed that components other than 3kPZS + 3kACA are necessary to retain females on nests and induce nest cleaning behaviours. All pheromone components, including components in addition to 3kPZS + 3kACA that retain females and induce nest cleaning behaviours were released from the anterior region of the males, as had been reported for 3kPZS. It is concluded that the sea lamprey male mating pheromone has multiple functions and is composed of multiple components.

  1. Relative growth, sexual dimorphism and morphometric maturity of Trichodactylus fluviatilis (Decapoda: Brachyura: Trichodactylidae from Santa Terezinha, Bahia, Brazil

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    Tiago Rozário da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater crabs are important elements in the aquatic biota of brooks, rivers, lakes and ponds, from both ecological and the socio-economic aspects. Trichodactylidae comprises 51 endemic species from the Neotropical region. Among all the species of this family, Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 has the widest geographic distribution throughout Brazil. Despite that, there are few published contributions on the biology of this species. The present study investigated the following aspects of T. fluviatilis: relative growth, mean size at onset of morphometric maturity, sexual dimorphism, laterality and heterochely. Specimens were collected monthly from September 2010 through August 2011, from the Velha Eugênia Brook, municipality of Santa Teresinha, State of Bahia. Carapace width (CW, carapace length (CL, major cheliped length (MaCL and minor cheliped length (MiCL, major cheliped height (MaCH and minor cheliped height (MiCH, and width of the fifth abdominal segment (5AB were measured to evaluate the presence of sexual dimorphism; the major difference between the sexes was in the CW vs. 5AB ratio. Heterochely was observed in males and females,with the right cheliped larger than the left in 89% of males and 81% of females. Crab size at the onset of morphometric maturity (= puberty molt was estimated based on the ratio between CL, cheliped dimensions, 5AB and CW (independent variable. Females were larger than males when they reached morphometric maturity in all studied relations. We recommend the use of chelipeds and abdominal width relationships to estimate the size at the morphometric maturity in males and females, respectively.

  2. Thyroid hormone deiodinase type 2 mRNA levels in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) are regulated during metamorphosis and in response to a thyroid challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilborn, S Salina M; Manzon, Lori A; Schauenberg, Jennifer D; Manzon, Richard G

    2013-03-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are crucial for normal vertebrate development and are the one obligate morphogen that drives amphibian metamorphosis. However, contrary to other metamorphosing vertebrates, lampreys exhibit a sharp drop in serum TH early in metamorphosis, and anti-thyroid agents such as potassium perchlorate (KClO(4)) induce metamorphosis. The type 2 deiodinase (D2) enzyme is a key regulator of TH availability during amphibian metamorphosis. We set out to determine how D2 may be involved in the regulation of lamprey metamorphosis and thyroid homeostasis. We cloned a 1.8Kb Petromyzon marinus D2 cDNA that includes the entire protein coding region and a selenocysteine (Sec) codon. Northern blotting indicated that the lamprey D2 mRNA is the longest reported to date (>9Kb). Using real-time PCR, we showed that intestinal and hepatic D2 mRNA levels were elevated prior to and during the early stages of metamorphosis and then declined dramatically to low levels that were sustained for the remainder of metamorphosis. These data are consistent with previously reported changes in serum TH levels and deiodinase activity. Treatment of larvae with either TH or KClO(4) significantly affected D2 mRNA levels in the intestine and liver. These D2 mRNA levels during metamorphosis and in response to thyroid challenges suggest that D2 may function in the regulation of TH levels during lamprey metamorphosis and the maintenance of TH homeostasis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of sex pheromones and sexual maturation on locomotor activity in female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species.

  4. Effectiveness of common fish screen materials for protecting lamprey ammocoetes—Influence of sweeping velocities and decreasing flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Weiland, Lisa K.; Christiansen, Helena E.

    2017-12-14

    In previous tests of the effectiveness of four common fish screen materials for excluding lamprey ammocoetes, we determined that woven wire (WW) allowed substantially more entrainment than perforated plate (PP), profile bar (PB), or Intralox (IL) material. These tests were simplistic because they used small vertically-oriented screens positioned perpendicular to the flow without a bypass or a sweeping velocity (SV). In the subsequent test discussed in this report, we exposed ammocoetes to much larger (2.5-m-wide) screen panels with flows up to 10 ft3 /s, a SV component, and a simulated bypass channel. The addition of a SV modestly improved protection of lamprey ammocoetes for all materials tested. A SV of 35 cm/s with an approach velocity (AV) of 12 cm/s, was able to provide protection for fish about 5–15 mm smaller than the protection provided by an AV of 12 cm/s without a SV component. The best-performing screen panels (PP, IL, and PB) provided nearly complete protection from entrainment for fish greater than 50-mm toal length, but the larger openings in the WW material only protected fish greater than 100-mm total length. Decreasing the AV and SV by 50 percent expanded the size range of protected lampreys by about 10–15 mm for those exposed to IL and WW screens, and it decreased the protective ability of PP screens by about 10 mm. Much of the improvement for IL and WW screens under the reduced flow conditions resulted from an increase in the number of lampreys swimming away from the screen. Fish of all sizes became impinged (that is, stuck on the screen surface for more than 1 s) on the screens, with the rate of impingement highest on PP (39– 72 percent) and lowest on WW (7–22 percent). Although impingements were common, injuries were rare, and 24-h post-test survival was greater than 99 percent. Our results refined the level of protection provided by these screen materials when both an AV and SV are present and confirmed our earlier recommendation that

  5. Aspectos histológicos do trato digestivo de Sotalia fluviatilis (Cetacea, Delphinidae: esôfago e estômago

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    Paulo de Tarso da C. Chaves

    1988-07-01

    Full Text Available Os esôfagos e estômagos de seis botos tucuxi, Sotalia fluviatilis (Cetacea: Delphinidae foram examinados anatômica e microscopicamente e comparados com os de botos marinhos do mesmo gênero. O esôfago é um simples tubo distensível e macroscopicamente uniforme até sua junção com o estômago. Este boto tem um estômago tricompartimentado: uma parte anterior ou muscular; uma principal, glandular; e uma pilórica. As características anatomo-funcionais de cada compartimento são descritas. Não se achou esfíncter entre o esôfago e o estômago. Em comparação com os delfinídeos marinhos, não há adaptações, por parte de Sotalia, à invasão relativamente recente do ambiente de água doce.The oesophagus and stomachs of six tucuxi dolphins, Sotalia fluviatilis (Cetacea: Delphinidae were examined anatomically and microscopically and compared with marine dolphins of the same genus. The oesophagus is a simple distendable tube and is macroscopically uniform to its junctureh with te stomach. This dolphin has a three-compartmented stomach: an anterior or muscular compartment; a principal one, which is glandular; and the pyloric part. The anatomical and functional characteristics of each compartment is described. No sphincter was found between the oesophagus and the stomach. In comparison with marine delphinids there are no adaptations specific to the relatively recent invasion of the fresh-water environment by Sotalia.

  6. Environmental management through sluice gated bed-dam: a revived strategy for the control of Anopheles fluviatilis breeding in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, S.S.; Gunasekaran, K.; Jambulingam, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Integrated vector management (IVM) emphasizes sustainable eco-friendly methods and minimal use of chemicals. In this context, the present study highlights the environmental control of breeding of Anopheles fluviatilis, the primary malaria vector, through water management in a natural stream in Koraput district, Odisha, India. Methods: The District Rural Development Agency (DRDA), Koraput, constructed two bed-dams across streams, one in Barigaon and the other in Pipalapodar village. The bed-dam in the former village was fitted with two sluice gates whereas the bed dam constructed in the latter village was without the sluice gate. The sluice gates were opened once in a week on a fixed day to flush out the water from the dam. Anopheles immatures were sampled systematically in the streams using a dipper for density measurement and species composition. Results: There was a reduction of 84.9 per cent in the proportion of positive dips for Anopheles larvae/pupae and a reduction of 98.4 per cent in immature density (number/dip) of An. fluviatilis in the experimental downstream compared to the control following opening of the sluice gates. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findins showed that opening of sluice gates of the bed-dam regularly once in a week resulted in the control of vector breeding in the downstream due to the flushing effect of the water released with a high flow from the bed-dam that stagnated water in the upstream. The outcome of the study encourages upscaling this measure to other areas, wherever feasible. PMID:25297364

  7. Amphioxus and lamprey AP-2 genes: implications for neural crest evolution and migration patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulemans, Daniel; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2002-01-01

    The neural crest is a uniquely vertebrate cell type present in the most basal vertebrates, but not in cephalochordates. We have studied differences in regulation of the neural crest marker AP-2 across two evolutionary transitions: invertebrate to vertebrate, and agnathan to gnathostome. Isolation and comparison of amphioxus, lamprey and axolotl AP-2 reveals its extensive expansion in the vertebrate dorsal neural tube and pharyngeal arches, implying co-option of AP-2 genes by neural crest cells early in vertebrate evolution. Expression in non-neural ectoderm is a conserved feature in amphioxus and vertebrates, suggesting an ancient role for AP-2 genes in this tissue. There is also common expression in subsets of ventrolateral neurons in the anterior neural tube, consistent with a primitive role in brain development. Comparison of AP-2 expression in axolotl and lamprey suggests an elaboration of cranial neural crest patterning in gnathostomes. However, migration of AP-2-expressing neural crest cells medial to the pharyngeal arch mesoderm appears to be a primitive feature retained in all vertebrates. Because AP-2 has essential roles in cranial neural crest differentiation and proliferation, the co-option of AP-2 by neural crest cells in the vertebrate lineage was a potentially crucial event in vertebrate evolution.

  8. Use of genotyping by sequencing data to develop a high-throughput and multifunctional SNP panel for conservation applications in Pacific lamprey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Jon E; Campbell, Nathan R; Docker, Margaret F; Baker, Cyndi; Jackson, Aaron; Lampman, Ralph; McIlraith, Brian; Moser, Mary L; Statler, David P; Young, William P; Wildbill, Andrew J; Narum, Shawn R

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing data can be mined for highly informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to develop high-throughput genomic assays for nonmodel organisms. However, choosing a set of SNPs to address a variety of objectives can be difficult because SNPs are often not equally informative. We developed an optimal combination of 96 high-throughput SNP assays from a total of 4439 SNPs identified in a previous study of Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) and used them to address four disparate objectives: parentage analysis, species identification and characterization of neutral and adaptive variation. Nine of these SNPs are FST outliers, and five of these outliers are localized within genes and significantly associated with geography, run-timing and dwarf life history. Two of the 96 SNPs were diagnostic for two other lamprey species that were morphologically indistinguishable at early larval stages and were sympatric in the Pacific Northwest. The majority (85) of SNPs in the panel were highly informative for parentage analysis, that is, putatively neutral with high minor allele frequency across the species' range. Results from three case studies are presented to demonstrate the broad utility of this panel of SNP markers in this species. As Pacific lamprey populations are undergoing rapid decline, these SNPs provide an important resource to address critical uncertainties associated with the conservation and recovery of this imperiled species. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Analysis of whistles produced by the Tucuxi Dolphin Sotalia fluviatilis from Sepetiba Bay, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erber Claudia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available From July 2001 to June 2002, we recorded a total of 2h55min of Tucuxi Dolphin Sotalia fluviatilis vocalizations from Sepetiba Bay, Brazil (22º35'S-44º03'W. A total of 3350 whistles were analyzed quantitative and qualitatively and were divided into 124 types, by visual inspection of sonograms. The following parameters were measured: Initial Frequency, Final Frequency, Minimum Frequency, Maximum Frequency, Duration, Number of Inflections, Frequency at the Inflection Points, Frequency at 1/2, 1/4, and 3/4 of whistle duration, Presence of Frequency Modulation and Harmonics. Ascending type whistles (N=2719 were most common, representing 82% of the total. Dolphin behavior and average group size observed during recording influenced the whistle's quantitative and qualitative parameters. The results demonstrate the great diversity of whistles emitted and indicate a functional role of these vocalizations during the observed behaviors.

  10. THE CHANGES IN THE POPULATION OF THEODOXUS FLUVIATILIS IN THE RIVER TYWA WESTERN POMERANIA (POMORZE ZACHODNIE IN THE BACKGROUND OF THE ABIOTIC HABITAT

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    Tadeusz Zamkowski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research on the concentration and biomass of the gastropod Theodoxus fluviatilis found in the river Tywa (Western Pomerania. It has been stated that the strongest influence on the size of the concentration of those species had the following elements of habitat: the kind of the bed, amount of food, depth of water, degree of its transformation. However, the interrelation between the concentration of species and their biomass has not been noticed.

  11. Population genomics of Pacific lamprey: adaptive variation in a highly dispersive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Jon E; Campbell, Nathan R; Close, David A; Docker, Margaret F; Narum, Shawn R

    2013-06-01

    Unlike most anadromous fishes that have evolved strict homing behaviour, Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) seem to lack philopatry as evidenced by minimal population structure across the species range. Yet unexplained findings of within-region population genetic heterogeneity coupled with the morphological and behavioural diversity described for the species suggest that adaptive genetic variation underlying fitness traits may be responsible. We employed restriction site-associated DNA sequencing to genotype 4439 quality filtered single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci for 518 individuals collected across a broad geographical area including British Columbia, Washington, Oregon and California. A subset of putatively neutral markers (N = 4068) identified a significant amount of variation among three broad populations: northern British Columbia, Columbia River/southern coast and 'dwarf' adults (F(CT) = 0.02, P ≪ 0.001). Additionally, 162 SNPs were identified as adaptive through outlier tests, and inclusion of these markers revealed a signal of adaptive variation related to geography and life history. The majority of the 162 adaptive SNPs were not independent and formed four groups of linked loci. Analyses with matsam software found that 42 of these outlier SNPs were significantly associated with geography, run timing and dwarf life history, and 27 of these 42 SNPs aligned with known genes or highly conserved genomic regions using the genome browser available for sea lamprey. This study provides both neutral and adaptive context for observed genetic divergence among collections and thus reconciles previous findings of population genetic heterogeneity within a species that displays extensive gene flow. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Traumatic injury induces changes in the expression of the serotonin 1A receptor in the spinal cord of lampreys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornide-Petronio, María Eugenia; Fernández-López, Blanca; Barreiro-Iglesias, Antón; Rodicio, María Celina

    2014-02-01

    After spinal cord injury (SCI) in mammals, the loss of serotonin coming from the brainstem reduces the excitability of motor neurons and leads to a compensatory overexpression of serotonin receptors. Despite the key role of the serotonin receptor 1a in the control of locomotion, little attention has been put in the study of this receptor after SCI. In contrast to mammals, lampreys recover locomotion after a complete SCI, so, studies in this specie could help to understand events that lead to recovery of function. Here, we showed that in lampreys there is an acute increase in the expression of the serotonin 1A receptor transcript (5-ht1a) after SCI and a few weeks later expression levels go back to normal rostrally and caudally to the lesion. Overexpression of the 5-ht1a in rostral levels after SCI has not been reported in mammals, suggesting that this could be part of the plastic events that lead to the recovery of function in lampreys. The analysis of changes in 5-ht1a expression by zones (periventricular region and horizontally extended grey matter) showed that they followed the same pattern of changes detected in the spinal cord as a whole, with the exception of the caudal periventricular layer, where no significant differences were observed between control and experimental animals at any time post lesion. This suggests that different molecular signals act on the periventricular cells of the rostral and caudal regions to injury site and thus affecting their response to the injury in terms of expression of the 5-ht1a.

  13. 62 years of population dynamics of European perch (Perca fluviatilis) in a mesotrophic lake tracked using angler diaries: The role of commercial fishing, predation and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Jansen, Teunis; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2017-01-01

    (abundance, mean size and record size) of European perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) in relation to the impact of three commercial fishers with different fishing strategies, pike (Esox lucius L.) predation and temperature. We found that anglers’ harvest rates of perch varied by a factor of 10 over time......, but it also underlines the need for supplementary data on biotic and abiotic factors to reach the full potential of angler diary data...

  14. Challenge studies of European stocks of redfin perch, Perca fluviatilis L., and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), with epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Jensen, Ann Britt Bang

    2009-01-01

    indicate that EHNV does not pose a high risk for wild perch and trout populations in Europe by natural exposure. Mortality appears to be primarily a function of environmental factors, with temperature playing an important role, and not just the presence of the virus in the fish.......A challenge model for comparison of the virulence of epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV) to European stock of redfin perch, Perca fluviatilis L., and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), was tested. The model investigated intraperitoneal (IP), bath and cohabitation routes at 10...

  15. Water transparency drives intra-population divergence in Eurasian Perch (Perca fluviatilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Pia; Hirsch, Philipp E; Svanbäck, Richard; Eklöv, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Trait combinations that lead to a higher efficiency in resource utilization are important drivers of divergent natural selection and adaptive radiation. However, variation in environmental features might constrain foraging in complex ways and therefore impede the exploitation of critical resources. We tested the effect of water transparency on intra-population divergence in morphology of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) across seven lakes in central Sweden. Morphological divergence between near-shore littoral and open-water pelagic perch substantially increased with increasing water transparency. Reliance on littoral resources increased strongly with increasing water transparency in littoral populations, whereas littoral reliance was not affected by water transparency in pelagic populations. Despite the similar reliance on pelagic resources in pelagic populations along the water transparency gradient, the utilization of particular pelagic prey items differed with variation in water transparency in pelagic populations. Pelagic perch utilized cladocerans in lakes with high water transparency and copepods in lakes with low water transparency. We suggest that under impaired visual conditions low utilization of littoral resources by littoral perch and utilization of evasive copepods by pelagic perch may lead to changes in morphology. Our findings indicate that visual conditions can affect population divergence in predator populations through their effects on resource utilization.

  16. Pre-spawning migration of adult Pacific lamprey, Entosphenus tridentatus, in the Willamette River, Oregon, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Benjamin J.; Mesa, Matthew G.; Magie, Robert J.; Young, Douglas A.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the migration distances and timing of the adult Pacific lamprey, Entosphenus tridentatus, in the Willamette River Basin (Oregon, U.S.A.). We conducted aerial surveys to track radio-tagged fish upstream of a major waterfall and hydropower complex en route to spawning areas. We detected 24 out of the 43 fish that passed the waterfall-hydropower complex. Of the detected fish, 17 were detected multiple times. Their maximum migration distance upstream in the mainstem Willamette approximated a normal distribution. The maximum distance migrated upstream did not significantly correlate with total body length (r = −0.186, P = 0.385) or date that the fish passed Willamette Falls (r = −0.118, P = 0.582). Fish migrated primarily during the spring to early summer period before stopping during the summer, when peak river temperatures (≥20°C). However, at least three fish continued to migrate upstream after September. Behavior ranged from relatively slow migration, followed by holding; to rapid migration, followed by slow migration further up in the basin. This study provides a basis for informing more detailed research on Pacific lamprey in the future.

  17. Surgical wound healing in radio-tagged adult Pacific lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus held on different substrata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, M.G.; Magie, R.J.; Copeland, E.S.; Christiansen, H.E.

    2011-01-01

    Radio-tagged adult Pacific lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus held in a raceway with Plexiglas-lined walls and bottom healed more slowly and retained sutures longer than fish held in an all-concrete raceway or one with Plexiglas walls and a cobble-lined bottom. On all substrata, healing depended on when sutures were lost, and fish that lost their sutures in healed faster than those that kept sutures longer. Long-term suture retention led to tissue trauma, infection and poor survival.

  18. [Experimental-morphological study of morphogenetic potencies of homogeneous aggregates of different types of cells from the freshwater sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis (L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, N S

    1977-01-01

    The morphogenetic potencies of somatic cells of the fresh-water sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis in the developing aggregates depend on their initial specialization and the number of cells in the aggregate. The aggregates of nucleolar amoebocytes consisting of 500 or more cells have the highest morphogenetic potencies. All main cell types can arise in the developing homogeneous aggregates of nucleolar amoebocytes. The fine structure of nucleolar amoebocytes at different stages of development of the homogeneous aggregates was studied by means of electron microscopy. The structural rearrangements are described which accompany the process of redifferentiation of the nucleolar amoebocytes in other cell types.

  19. Quantification of Oxidized and Unsaturated Bile Alcohols in Sea Lamprey Tissues by Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive and reliable method was developed and validated for the determination of unsaturated bile alcohols in sea lamprey tissues using liquid-liquid extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS. The liver, kidney, and intestine samples were extracted with acetonitrile and defatted by n-hexane. Gradient UHPLC separation was performed using an Acquity BEH C18 column with a mobile phase of water and methanol containing 20 mM triethylamine. Multiple reaction monitoring modes of precursor-product ion transitions for each analyte was used. This method displayed good linearity, with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99, and was validated. Precision and accuracy (RSD % were in the range of 0.31%–5.28%, while mean recoveries were between 84.3%–96.3%. With this technique, sea lamprey tissue samples were analyzed for unsaturated bile alcohol analytes. This method is practical and particularly suitable for widespread putative pheromone residue analysis.

  20. Annual sex steroid and other physiological profiles of Pacific lampreys (Entosphenus tridentatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Bayer, Jennifer M.; Bryan, Mara B.; Sower, Stacia A.

    2010-01-01

    We documented changes in plasma levels of estradiol 17-β (E2), progesterone (P), 15α-hydroxytestosterone (15α-T), thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), protein, triglycerides (TGs), and glucose in adult Pacific lampreys (Entosphenus tridentatus) held in the laboratory in two different years. Levels of E2 in both sexes ranged from 0.5 to 2 ng/mL from September to March, peaked in late April (2–4 ng/mL), and decreased in May, with levels higher in males than in females. Levels of P were low from September through April, but then increased substantially during May (2–4 ng/mL), with levels again highest in males. Levels of 15α-T in males were around 0.75 ng/mL through the winter before exceeding 1 ng/mL in April and decreasing thereafter, whereas females showed a gradual increase from 0.25 ng/mL in November to 0.5 ng/mL in April before decreasing. Thyroxine concentrations differed between fish in each year, with most having levels ranging from 0.75 to 2.5 ng/mL in the fall and winter, and only fish in 2003 showing distinct peaks (3–4 ng/mL) in early April or May. Plasma T3 was undetectable from November through mid-March before surging dramatically in April (ca. 150 ng/mL) and decreasing thereafter. Levels of protein, TGs, and glucose decreased or were stable during the fall and winter with TGs and glucose surging in late April to early May for some fish. Our study is the first to document long-term physiological changes in Pacific lampreys during overwintering and sexual maturation and increases our understanding of the life history of this unique fish.

  1. A simple, cost-effective emitter for controlled release of fish pheromones: development, testing, and application to management of the invasive sea lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Michael C.; Hanson, James E.; Meckley, Trevor D.; Johnson, Nicholas; Bals, Jason D.

    2018-01-01

    Semiochemicals that elicit species-specific attraction or repulsion have proven useful in the management of terrestrial pests and hold considerable promise for control of nuisance aquatic species, particularly invasive fishes. Because aquatic ecosystems are typically large and open, use of a semiochemical to control a spatially dispersed invader will require the development of a cost-effective emitter that is easy to produce, environmentally benign, inexpensive, and controls the release of the semiochemical without altering its structure. We examined the release properties of five polymers, and chose polyethylene glycol (PEG) as the best alternative. In a series of laboratory and field experiments, we examined the response of the invasive sea lamprey to PEG, and to a partial sex pheromone emitted from PEG that has proven effective as a trap bait to capture migrating sea lamprey prior to spawning. Our findings confirm that the sea lamprey does not behaviorally respond to PEG, and that the attractant response to the pheromone component was conserved when emitted from PEG. Further, we deployed the pheromone-PEG emitters as trap bait during typical control operations in three Great Lakes tributaries, observing similar improvements in trap performance when compared to a previous study using mechanically pumped liquid pheromone. Finally, the polymer emitters tended to dissolve unevenly in high flow conditions. We demonstrate that housing the emitter stabilizes the dissolution rate at high water velocity. We conclude the performance characteristics of PEG emitters to achieve controlled-release of a semiochemical are sufficient to recommend its use in conservation and management activities related to native and invasive aquatic organisms.

  2. Bayesian phylogeny analysis of vertebrate serpins illustrates evolutionary conservation of the intron and indels based six groups classification system from lampreys for ∼500 MY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The serpin superfamily is characterized by proteins that fold into a conserved tertiary structure and exploits a sophisticated and irreversible suicide-mechanism of inhibition. Vertebrate serpins are classified into six groups (V1–V6, based on three independent biological features—genomic organization, diagnostic amino acid sites and rare indels. However, this classification system was based on the limited number of mammalian genomes available. In this study, several non-mammalian genomes are used to validate this classification system using the powerful Bayesian phylogenetic method. This method supports the intron and indel based vertebrate classification and proves that serpins have been maintained from lampreys to humans for about 500 MY. Lampreys have fewer than 10 serpins, which expand into 36 serpins in humans. The two expanding groups V1 and V2 have SERPINB1/SERPINB6 and SERPINA8/SERPIND1 as the ancestral serpins, respectively. Large clusters of serpins are formed by local duplications of these serpins in tetrapod genomes. Interestingly, the ancestral HCII/SERPIND1 locus (nested within PIK4CA possesses group V4 serpin (A2APL1, homolog of α2-AP/SERPINF2 of lampreys; hence, pointing to the fact that group V4 might have originated from group V2. Additionally in this study, details of the phylogenetic history and genomic characteristics of vertebrate serpins are revisited.

  3. Response of larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) to pulsed DC electrical stimuli in laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Anjanette K.; Weisser, John W.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Famoye, Felix

    2003-01-01

    Four electrical factors that are used in pulsed DC electrofishing for larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) were evaluated in two laboratory studies to determine the optimal values to induce larval emergence over a range of water temperatures and conductivities. Burrowed larvae were exposed to combinations of pulsed DC electrical factors including five pulse frequencies, three pulse patterns, and two levels of duty cycle over a range of seven voltage gradients in two separate studies conducted at water temperatures of 10, 15, and 20°C and water conductivities of 25, 200, and 900 μS/cm. A four-way analysis of variance was used to determine significant (α = 0.05) influences of each electrical factor on larval emergence. Multiple comparison tests with Bonferroni adjustments were used to determine which values of each factor resulted in significantly higher emergence at each temperature and conductivity. Voltage gradient and pulse frequency significantly affected emergence according to the ANOVA model at each temperature and conductivity tested. Duty cycle and pulse pattern generally did not significantly influence the model. Findings suggest that a setting of 2.0 V/cm, 3 pulses/sec, 10% duty, and 2:2 pulse pattern seems the most promising in waters of medium conductivity and across a variety of temperatures. This information provides a basis for understanding larval response to pulsed DC electrofishing gear factors and identifies electrofisher settings that show promise to increase the efficiency of the gear during assessments for burrowed sea lamprey larvae.

  4. Estimation of vectorial capacity of Anopheles minimus Theobald & An. fluviatilis James (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malaria endemic area of Odisha State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekaran, K; Sahu, S S; Jambulingam, P

    2014-11-01

    Anopheles minimus and An. fluviatilis were incriminated as the major malaria vectors in Keonjhar district of Odisha State recently. This study was carried out to elucidate the potential role of these two vector species in transmission of malaria during different seasons, and vectorial capacity of these species was also estimated. Three hilly and forested villages of Keonjhar district were randomly selected. Vectorial capacity (C) was calculated using the Macdonald's formula as modified by Garret-Jones. The human landing density of the vector species was obtained from all night human landing collections (bait protected by bed-net). Man feeding habit was estimated by multiplying the human blood index with feeding frequency, which was obtained on daily basis from the duration of gonotrophic cycle. The probability of survival through the extrinsic incubation cycle was calculated from the probability of survival through one day and duration of sporogonic cycle. The estimated vectorial capacity of An. minimus varied between 0.014 and 1.09 for Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and between 0.1 and 1.46 for P. vivax (Pv). The C of An. minimus for both Pf and Pv was higher during rainy season than the other two seasons. The estimated C of An. fluviatilis varied between 0.04 and 1.28 for Pf and between 0.20 and 1.54 for Pv. Based on the estimated values of vectorial capacity of the two vector species, the area could be stratified and such stratification would reflect the difference in the intensity of transmission between different strata and accordingly the appropriate control strategy could be adopted for each stratum.

  5. Estimation of vectorial capacity of Anopheles minimus Theobald & An. fluviatilis James (Diptera: Culicidae in a malaria endemic area of Odisha State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Gunasekaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Anopheles minimus and An. fluviatilis were incriminated as the major malaria vectors in Keonjhar district of Odisha State recently. This study was carried out to elucidate the potential role of these two vector species in transmission of malaria during different seasons, and vectorial capacity of these species was also estimated. Methods: Three hilly and forested villages of Keonjhar district were randomly selected. Vectorial capacity (C was calculated using the Macdonald′s formula as modified by Garret-Jones. The human landing density of the vector species was obtained from all night human landing collections (bait protected by bed-net. Man feeding habit was estimated by multiplying the human blood index with feeding frequency, which was obtained on daily basis from the duration of gonotrophic cycle. The probability of survival through the extrinsic incubation cycle was calculated from the probability of survival through one day and duration of sporogonic cycle. Results: The estimated vectorial capacity of An. minimus varied between 0.014 and 1.09 for Plasmodium falciparum (Pf and between 0.1 and 1.46 for P. vivax (Pv. The C of An. minimus for both Pf and Pv was higher during rainy season than the other two seasons. The estimated C of An. fluviatilis varied between 0.04 and 1.28 for Pf and between 0.20 and 1.54 for Pv. Interpretation & conclusions: Based on the estimated values of vectorial capacity of the two vector species, the area could be stratified and such stratification would reflect the difference in the intensity of transmission between different strata and accordingly the appropriate control strategy could be adopted for each stratum.

  6. rLj-RGD3, a Novel Recombinant Toxin Protein from Lampetra japonica, Protects against Cerebral Reperfusion Injury Following Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Involving the Integrin-PI3K/Akt Pathway in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Lu

    Full Text Available The RGD-toxin protein Lj-RGD3 is a naturally occurring 118 amino acid peptide that can be obtained from the salivary gland of the Lampetra japonica fish. This unique peptide contains 3 RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp motifs in its primary structure. Lj-RGD3 is available in recombinant form (rLj-RGD3 and can be produced in large quantities using DNA recombination techniques. The pharmacology of the three RGD motif-containing peptides has not been studied. This study investigated the protective effects of rLj-RGD3, a novel polypeptide, against ischemia/reperfusion-induced damage to the brain caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO in a rat stroke model. We also explored the mechanism by which rLj-RGD3 acts by measuring protein and mRNA expression levels, with an emphasis on the FAK and integrin-PI3K/Akt anti-apoptosis pathways.rLj-RGD3 was obtained from the buccal secretions of Lampetra japonica using gene recombination technology. Sprague Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into the following seven groups: a sham group; a vehicle-treated (VT group; 100.0 μg·kg-1, 50.0 μg·kg-1 and 25.0 μg·kg-1 dose rLj-RGD3 groups; and two positive controls, including 1.5 mg·kg-1 Edaravone (ED and 100.0 μg·kg-1 Eptifibatide (EP. MCAO was induced using a model consisting of 2 h of ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion. Behavioral changes were observed in the normal and operation groups after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion was applied. In addition, behavioral scores were evaluated at 4 and 24 h after reperfusion. Brain infarct volumes were determined based on 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC staining. Pathological changes in brain tissues were observed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining. Moreover, neuronal apoptosis was detected using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL assays. We determined the expression levels of focal adhesion kinase (FAK, phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K, protein kinase B

  7. The anti-tumor effects of the recombinant toxin protein rLj-RGD3 from Lampetra japonica on pancreatic carcinoma Panc-1 cells in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Tu, Zuoyu; Dai, Yongguo; Xu, Hong; Lv, Li; Wang, Jihong

    2017-02-01

    Recombinant Lampetra japonica RGD peptide (rLj-RGD3) is a soluble toxin protein with three RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) motifs and a molecular weight of 13.5kDa. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of rLj-RGD3 on tumor growth and survival in pancreatic carcinoma Panc-1 cell-bearing mice. A Panc-1 human pancreatic carcinoma-bearing nude mouse model was successfully generated, and the animals were treated with different doses of rLj-RGD3 for 3 weeks. The volume and weight of the subcutaneous tumors, the survival of the nude mice, histopathological changes, the intratumoral MVD, the number of apoptotic Panc-1 cells, and apoptosis-related proteins and gene expressions were determined. rLj-RGD3 significantly decreased the tumor volumes and weights, and the maximum tumor volume and weight IR values were 53.2% (pPanc-1-bearing nude mice treated with rLj-RGD3 was increased by 56.3% (pPanc-1 cells in a nude mouse model, implying that rLj-RGD3 may serve as a potent clinical therapeutic agent for human pancreatic carcinoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene in Lamprey, Its Expression in the Striatum and Cellular Effects of D2 Receptor Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Brita; Huerta-Ocampo, Icnelia; Ericsson, Jesper; Stephenson-Jones, Marcus; Pérez-Fernández, Juan; Bolam, J. Paul; Diaz-Heijtz, Rochellys; Grillner, Sten

    2012-01-01

    All basal ganglia subnuclei have recently been identified in lampreys, the phylogenetically oldest group of vertebrates. Furthermore, the interconnectivity of these nuclei is similar to mammals and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (dopaminergic) fibers have been detected within the input layer, the striatum. Striatal processing is critically dependent on the interplay with the dopamine system, and we explore here whether D2 receptors are expressed in the lamprey striatum and their potential role. We have identified a cDNA encoding the dopamine D2 receptor from the lamprey brain and the deduced protein sequence showed close phylogenetic relationship with other vertebrate D2 receptors, and an almost 100% identity within the transmembrane domains containing the amino acids essential for dopamine binding. There was a strong and distinct expression of D2 receptor mRNA in a subpopulation of striatal neurons, and in the same region tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive synaptic terminals were identified at the ultrastructural level. The synaptic incidence of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive boutons was highest in a region ventrolateral to the compact layer of striatal neurons, a region where most striatal dendrites arborise. Application of a D2 receptor agonist modulates striatal neurons by causing a reduced spike discharge and a diminished post-inhibitory rebound. We conclude that the D2 receptor gene had already evolved in the earliest group of vertebrates, cyclostomes, when they diverged from the main vertebrate line of evolution (560 mya), and that it is expressed in striatum where it exerts similar cellular effects to that in other vertebrates. These results together with our previous published data (Stephenson-Jones et al. 2011, 2012) further emphasize the high degree of conservation of the basal ganglia, also with regard to the indirect loop, and its role as a basic mechanism for action selection in all vertebrates. PMID:22563388

  9. A role for tight junction-associated MARVEL proteins in larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) osmoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosov, Dennis; Bui, Phuong; Donini, Andrew; Wilkie, Mike P; Kelly, Scott P

    2017-10-15

    This study reports on tight junction-associated MARVEL proteins of larval sea lamprey ( Petromyzon marinus ) and their potential role in ammocoete osmoregulation. Two occludin isoforms (designated Ocln and Ocln-a) and a tricellulin (Tric) were identified. Transcripts encoding ocln , ocln-a and tric were broadly expressed in larval lamprey, with the greatest abundance of ocln in the gut, liver and kidney, ocln-a in the gill and skin, and tric in the kidney. Ocln and Ocln-a resolved as ∼63 kDa and ∼35 kDa MW proteins, respectively, while Tric resolved as a ∼50 kDa protein. Ocln immunolocalized to the gill vasculature and in gill mucous cells while Ocln-a localized to the gill pouch and gill epithelium. Both Ocln and Ocln-a localized in the nephron, the epidermis and the luminal side of the gut. In branchial tissue, Tric exhibited punctate localization, consistent with its presence at regions of tricellular contact. Following ion-poor water (IPW) acclimation of ammocoetes, serum [Na + ] and [Cl - ] decreased, but not [Ca 2+ ], and carcass moisture content increased. In association, Ocln abundance increased in the skin and kidney, but reduced in the gill of IPW-acclimated ammocoetes while Ocln-a abundance reduced in the kidney only. Tric abundance increased in the gill. Region-specific alterations in ocln , ocln-a and tric mRNA abundance were also observed in the gut. Data support a role for Ocln, Ocln-a and Tric in the osmoregulatory strategies of a basal vertebrate. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. A new species of Temnocephala Blanchard (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida ectosymbiont on Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille (Crustacea, Decapoda, Trichodactylidae from southern Brazil Nova espécie de Temnocephala Blanchard ectosimbionte sobre Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille (Crustacea, Decapoda, Trichodactylidae da região Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. R. Amato

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Temnocephala trapeziformis sp. nov., ectosymbiont on Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 is described from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Sixty-eight crabs were examined, of which 61 (89.7 % were positive for this species of the genus Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849. Eggs, as well as adult and young specimens, were found on the pleural areas of the carapace, in the orbital cavities, and, usually, on the fourth pair of pereiopods. The temnocephalans were always devoid of body pigmentation, although they kept the red eye pigment, undiluted in specimens fixed by hot (90ºC phosphate buffered 10% formalin. The most distinctive characters of the new species are: 1 the shape and size of the cirrus and the characteristics of its introvert section; 2 the trapezoidal shape of the dorsolateral post-tentacular 'excretory' epidermal syncytial plates, with the nephridiopore in the lower inner corner of the plate; and 3 the number, size, and distribution of the rhabdite producing glands, as observed in very young specimens.Temnocephala trapeziformis sp. nov., ectosimbionte sobre Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 é descrita para o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, região sul do Brasil. Sessenta e oito caranguejos foram examinados, sendo que 61 (89,7 % estavam positivos para esta espécie do gênero Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849. Posturas estavam localizadas, sobre as pleuras da carapaça, nas cavidades orbitais e no quarto par de pereiópodos, locais onde também foram encontrados espécimes jovens e adultos. Os temnocefalídeos sempre se apresentaram sem pigmento corporal, embora o pigmento vermelho dos olhos tenha sido preservado nos espécimes fixados em formalina 10% fosfato tamponada (90ºC. Os caracteres mais distintos da nova espécie são: 1 a forma e o tamanho do cirro e as características do 'introvert', 2 as placas sinciciais 'excretoras' trapeziformes, com o nefridióporo sempre deslocado para o canto inferior interno de

  11. Research Regarding Somatic Measurements at River Lobster Males (Astacus Fluviatilis

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    Marian Bura

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The body measurements was made on 20 males of river lobsters (Astacus fluviatilis or Astacus astacus. The lobsters on witch the study was made had an average total length of body of 12.72 cm ±0.19 cm (formed from: 6.07±0.10cm the length of cefalothorax, 4.73 ±0.10 cm the length of abdomen and 1.91 ±0.07 cm length of telson, and a body weight of 55.70±3.07 g. the males present a length of feelers of 8.53±0.34 cm, a antennas of 2.20±0.05 cm, and the stem of the eyes of 0.51±0.02 cm. The body of male present a average width of 3.35±0.07 cm at level of cefalothorax, and 2.40±0.05 cm at abdomen level. Average deepness of cefalothorax was 2.85±0.07cm, and abdomen deepness of 1.34±0.03cm. The 5 pairs of periopode had an average length of 10.91±0.42 cm, 6.06±0.22 cm, 7.21±0.21 cm, 6.57±0.16 cm and 5.85±0.15cm. The average length of pleopods was at first pear of 2.00±0.06 cm, at second pair of 2.11±0.05 cm, at third of 1.85±0.05 cm, at fourth of 1.73±0.04 cm and at fifth pair of 1.55±0.04 cm.

  12. Adult Pacific Lamprey Migration Behavior and Escapement in the Bonneville Reservoir and Lower Columbia River Monitored Using the Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS), 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    sea lions (Zalophus californicus, Eumetopias jubatus) or white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in the tailrace, moved to spawning tributaries...and management of three parasitic lampreys of North America. Fisheries 35:580-594. Close, D. A., M. Fitzpatrick, and H. Li. 2002. The ecological

  13. First isolation of a rhabdovirus from perch Perca fluviatilis in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahli, Thomas; Bellec, Laure; von Siebenthal, Beat; Cabon, Joëlle; Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Morin, Thierry

    2015-10-16

    Perca fluviatilis is a fish species of increasing interest to the Swiss fish farming industry. In recent years, recirculation systems have been specifically set up to increase production. In one of these farms, abnormal spiral swimming associated with elevated mortalities occurred in repeated batches of imported perch shortly after stocking on several occasions. No bacterial or parasitic etiology was detected, but a virus grown in bluegill fry (BF-2) cells was identified as perch rhabdovirus. Subsequent investigations of other samples suggested a viral tropism for the central nervous system (CNS). Phylogenetic analysis of the partial N and entire G gene sequences positioned this isolate in genogroup C of the species Perch rhabdovirus, with high nucleotide and amino acid (aa) sequence identities with the DK5533 strain isolated in Denmark in 1989. Comparative studies using other closely related isolates allowed the distinction of 2 serological patterns among perch rhabdoviruses and the identification of a proline substitution by a serine in position 147 of the glycoprotein potentially involved in antigenic differentiation. Even if perch imported onto the farm tested negative by virus isolation prior to transport, they may have been the origin of this outbreak since CNS tissue was not included in the samples that were analyzed. Another possibility might be a sub-clinical infection with a viral load in resident fish too low to be detected. This study reports the first isolation of a perch rhabdovirus in Switzerland, and emphasizes the necessity of optimizing diagnostic tools that facilitate better control of the risks associated with fish translocation.

  14. Female sea lamprey shift orientation toward a conspecific chemical cue to escape a sensory trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Cory O.; Johnson, Nicholas; Li, Ke; Buchinger, Tyler J.; Li, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    The sensory trap model of signal evolution hypothesizes that signalers adapt to exploit a cue used by the receiver in another context. Although exploitation of receiver biases can result in conflict between the sexes, deceptive signaling systems that are mutually beneficial drive the evolution of stable communication systems. However, female responses in the nonsexual and sexual contexts may become uncoupled if costs are associated with exhibiting a similar response to a trait in both contexts. Male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) signal with a mating pheromone, 3-keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS), which may be a match to a juvenile cue used by females during migration. Upstream movement of migratory lampreys is partially guided by 3kPZS, but females only move toward 3kPZS with proximal accuracy during spawning. Here, we use in-stream behavioral assays paired with gonad histology to document the transition of female preference for juvenile- and male-released 3kPZS that coincides with the functional shift of 3kPZS as a migratory cue to a mating pheromone. Females became increasingly biased toward the source of synthesized 3kPZS as their maturation progressed into the reproductive phase, at which point, a preference for juvenile odor (also containing 3kPZS naturally) ceased to exist. Uncoupling of female responses during migration and spawning makes the 3kPZS communication system a reliable means of synchronizing mate search. The present study offers a rare example of a transition in female responses to a chemical cue between nonsexual and sexual contexts, provides insights into the origins of stable communication signaling systems.

  15. The Effects of Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) on the Foraging Success of Eurasian Perch (Perca fluviatilis) and Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterich, Axel; Mörtl, Martin; Eckmann, Reiner

    2004-07-01

    Complex habitat structures can influence the foraging success of fish. Competition for food between fish species can therefore depend on the competitors' abilities to cope with structural complexity. In laboratory experiments, we comparatively assessed effects of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha Pall.) on the foraging success of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) and ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus (L.)). In single-species and mixed-species experiments, the fish were fed caddisfly larvae (Tinodes waeneri (L.)) over complex (mussel-covered stones) and less-complex (bare stones) substrates. With intraspecific competition, food consumption by perch and ruffe decreased significantly when the complex substrate was used. With interspecific competition, food consumption by perch and ruffe did not change with substrate complexity, but perch clearly out-competed ruffe on both substrates. Zebra mussel beds provide a refuge for macrozoobenthos against predation by ruffe and probably also by perch. (

  16. Patterns of invasion and colonization of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in North America as revealed by microsatellite genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, M B; Zalinski, D; Filcek, K B; Libants, S; Li, W; Scribner, K T

    2005-10-01

    Invasions by exotic organisms have had devastating affects on aquatic ecosystems, both ecologically and economically. One striking example of a successful invader that has dramatically affected fish community structure in freshwater lakes of North America is the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). We used eight microsatellite loci and multiple analytical techniques to examine competing hypotheses concerning the origins and colonization history of sea lamprey (n = 741). Analyses were based on replicated invasive populations from Lakes Erie, Huron, Michigan, and Superior, populations of unknown origins from Lakes Ontario, Champlain, and Cayuga, and populations of anadromous putative progenitor populations in North America and Europe. Populations in recently colonized lakes were each established by few colonists through a series of genetic bottlenecks which resulted in lower allelic diversity in more recently established populations. The spatial genetic structure of invasive populations differed from that of native populations on the Atlantic coast, reflecting founder events and connectivity of invaded habitats. Anadromous populations were found to be panmictic (theta(P) = 0.002; 95% CI = -0.003-0.006; P > 0.05). In contrast, there was significant genetic differentiation between populations in the lower and upper Great Lakes (theta(P) = 0.007; P freshwater habitats were examined using coalescent-based analyses, and demonstrated that populations likely originated from natural migrations via the St Lawrence River.

  17. Experimental infection with epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum and European perch (Perca fluviatilis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borzym Ewa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the determination of the susceptibility of Polish farmed redfin perch (Perca fluviatilis L. and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum to experimental infection with haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV. A bath challenge model was tested at two temperature ranges: 13-15°C and 20-22°C. After 7 d, the first clinical signs and mortality were observed in fish kept at these temperatures. Significantly more mortality cases were reported in the redfin perch population, reaching a maximum of 24% compared with 12% in the rainbow trout group at 20-22°C. EHNV was reisolated from redfin perch and rainbow trout tissue in cell culture and the infection was confirmed by a molecular method and histopathology during the duration of the experiment. This study revealed that fish from Polish farms can be susceptible to EHNV even at lower temperatures.

  18. Primary structure and conformational analysis of peptide methionine-tyrosine, a peptide related to neuropeptide Y and peptide YY isolated from lamprey intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conlon, J M; Bjørnholm, B; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen

    1991-01-01

    A peptide belonging to the pancreatic-polypeptide-fold family of regulatory peptides has been isolated from the intestine of an Agnathan, the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). The primary structure of the peptide (termed peptide methionine-tyrosine) was established as Met-Pro-Pro-Lys-Pro-Asp-Asn-...... in a preferred structure in which the conformation of the beta-turn between the two helical domains (residues 9-14) is appreciably different....

  19. Characterization of the neurohypophysial hormone gene loci in elephant shark and the Japanese lamprey: origin of the vertebrate neurohypophysial hormone genes

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    Brenner Sydney

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vasopressin and oxytocin are mammalian neurohypophysial hormones with distinct functions. Vasopressin is involved mainly in osmoregulation and oxytocin is involved primarily in parturition and lactation. Jawed vertebrates contain at least one homolog each of vasopressin and oxytocin, whereas only a vasopressin-family hormone, vasotocin, has been identified in jawless vertebrates. The genes encoding vasopressin and oxytocin are closely linked tail-to-tail in eutherian mammals whereas their homologs in chicken, Xenopus and coelacanth (vasotocin and mesotocin are linked tail-to-head. In contrast, their pufferfish homologs, vasotocin and isotocin, are located on the same strand of DNA with isotocin located upstream of vasotocin and separated by five genes. These differences in the arrangement of the two genes in different bony vertebrate lineages raise questions about their origin and ancestral arrangement. To trace the origin of these genes, we have sequenced BAC clones from the neurohypophysial gene loci in a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii, and in a jawless vertebrate, the Japanese lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum. We have also analyzed the neurohypophysial hormone gene locus in an invertebrate chordate, the amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae. Results The elephant shark neurohypophysial hormone genes encode vasotocin and oxytocin, and are linked tail-to-head like their homologs in coelacanth and non-eutherian tetrapods. Besides the hypothalamus, the two genes are also expressed in the ovary. In addition, the vasotocin gene is expressed in the kidney, rectal gland and intestine. These expression profiles indicate a paracrine role for the two hormones. The lamprey locus contains a single neurohypophysial hormone gene, the vasotocin. The synteny of genes in the lamprey locus is conserved in elephant shark, coelacanth and tetrapods but disrupted in teleost fishes. The amphioxus locus encodes a single

  20. Influence of a weak field of pulsed DC electricity on the behavior and incidence of injury in adult Steelhead and Pacific Lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Copeland, Elizabeth S.

    2009-01-01

    Predation by pinnipeds, such as California sea lions Zalophus californianus, Pacific harbor seals Phoca vitulina, and Stellar sea lions Eumetopias jubatus on adult Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp in the lower Columbia River has become a serious concern for fishery managers trying to conserve and restore runs of threatened and endangered fish. As a result, Smith-Root, Incorporated (SRI; Vancouver, Washington), manufacturers of electrofishing and closely-related equipment, proposed a project to evaluate the potential of an electrical barrier to deter marine mammals and reduce the amount of predation on adult salmonids (SRI 2007). The objectives of their work were to develop, deploy, and evaluate a passive, integrated sonar and electric barrier that would selectively inhibit the upstream movements of marine mammals and reduce predation, but would not injure pinnipeds or impact anadromous fish migrations. However, before such a device could be deployed in the field, concerns by regional fishery managers about the potential effects of such a device on the migratory behavior of Pacific salmon, steelhead O. mykiss, Pacific lampreys Entoshpenus tridentata, and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, needed to be addressed. In this report, we describe the results of laboratory research designed to evaluate the effects of prototype electric barriers on adult steelhead and Pacific lampreys.

  1. First evidence for postzygotic reproductive isolation between two populations of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L. within Lake Constance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlach Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolution of reproductive traits, such as hybrid incompatibility (postzygotic isolation and species recognition (prezygotic isolation, have shown their key role in speciation. Theoretical modeling has recently predicted that close linkage between genes controlling pre- and postzygotic reproductive isolation could accelerate the conditions for speciation. Postzygotic isolation could develop during the sympatric speciation process contributing to the divergence of populations. Using hybrid fitness as a measure of postzygotic reproductive isolation, we empirically studied population divergence in perch (Perca fluviatilis L. from two genetically divergent populations within a lake. Results During spawning time of perch we artificially created parental offspring and F1 hybrids of the two populations and studied fertilization rate and hatching success under laboratory conditions. The combined fitness measure (product of fertilization rate and hatching success of F1 hybrids was significantly reduced compared to offspring from within population crosses. Conclusion Our results suggest intrinsic genetic incompatibility between the two populations and indicate that population divergence between two populations of perch inhabiting the same lake may indeed be promoted by postzygotic isolation.

  2. The PR-1 domain accounts for the anti-angiogenic activity of a cysteine-rich secretory protein member from the buccal glands of Lampetra japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Dandan; Wang, Hongyan; Zhou, Rong; Jiang, Qi; Xiao, Rong

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that cysteine-rich buccal gland protein (CRBGP) from buccal glands of Lampetra japonica could suppress angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membrane models. As CRBGP is composed of a pathogenesis-related group 1 (PR-1) domain and a cysteine-rich domain (CRD), which domain accounts for the effects of CRBGP on anti-angiogenesis? In the present study, recombinant PR-1 and CRD (rL-PR-1 and rL-CRD) were obtained. MTT assays showed rL-PR-1 inhibited the proliferation of HUVECs significantly in a dose-dependent manner with an IC 50 of 2μM, while rL-CRD had no obviously inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HUVECs, suggested that PR-1 is the main function domain on the anti-angiogenic activity of CRBGP. Similar to CRBGP, rL-PR-1 induced apoptosis in HUVECs in a mitochondrial-dependent pathway by affecting the level of BAX, BCL2 and caspase 3. Also, the cytotoxic property of rL-PR-1 might be one of the factors which suppressed the proliferation of HUVECs. Furthermore, rL-PR-1 blocked the adhesion, migration, invasion and tube formation of HUVECs by disturbing the cytoskeleton arrangement and down-regulating the level of matrix metallo-peptidase 2. In summary, rL-PR-1 has the anti-angiogenic activity which would provide the information on the functions and mechanisms of cysteine-rich secretory protein family members. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus on the exotic Lepomis gibbosus and the autochthonous Perca fluviatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, G; Vanacker, M; Fox, M G; Beisel, J-N

    2015-05-01

    The effects of plerocercoids of the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus infecting the livers of native Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis and non-native pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus was investigated in 17 sites along the Moselle watershed. With a single exception, infected individuals were not observed in the main channel whether or not northern pike Esox lucius, a final host, was present. In ponds where the pike was present, the prevalence of T. nodulosus averaged 86% in Eurasian perch and 15% in pumpkinseed. The parasite was not present at all in ponds when pike were absent. Parasite load, hepatosomatic index (HSI), gonadosomatic index (GSI) and body condition index (CI) were compared between hosts in one site where parasite prevalence and fish abundance was highest. HSI in infected perch was significantly higher than in uninfected perch, whereas no differences in HSI were detected between infected and uninfected pumpkinseed. While perch were more frequently infected and had a greater average parasite load than pumpkinseed, there were no significant differences in either indicator between the two species. Furthermore, no significant differences in GSI or CI were observed between infected and uninfected fish in either species, by either gender or maturity stage. We hypothesize that pumpkinseed is more resistant to the parasite or less likely to feed upon infected copepods than perch.

  4. Effect of human chorionic gonadotropin on sexual maturation, sex steroids and thyroid hormone levels in Caspian lamprey (Caspiomyzon wagneri Kessler, 1870)

    OpenAIRE

    Abedi, M.; Mojazi Amiri, B.; Abdoli, A.; Javanshir, A.; Benam, S.; Namdarian, A.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on sexual maturation, plasma sex steroids [17β-estradiol, (E2) and 17α-hydroxy progesterone (17α_OHP)] and thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine, T3 and thyroxin, T4) levels in upstream - migrating Caspian lamprey. During the experiment, 36 fish (24 females and 12 males) in spring 2013 and 36 fish (24 females and 12 males) in fall 2013 were collected from the Shirud River estuary in Mazandaran Province,...

  5. The sea lamprey meiotic map improves resolution of ancient vertebrate genome duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeramiah J; Keinath, Melissa C

    2015-08-01

    It is generally accepted that many genes present in vertebrate genomes owe their origin to two whole-genome duplications that occurred deep in the ancestry of the vertebrate lineage. However, details regarding the timing and outcome of these duplications are not well resolved. We present high-density meiotic and comparative genomic maps for the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a representative of an ancient lineage that diverged from all other vertebrates ∼550 million years ago. Linkage analyses yielded a total of 95 linkage groups, similar to the estimated number of germline chromosomes (1n ∼ 99), spanning a total of 5570.25 cM. Comparative mapping data yield strong support for the hypothesis that a single whole-genome duplication occurred in the basal vertebrate lineage, but do not strongly support a hypothetical second event. Rather, these comparative maps reveal several evolutionarily independent segmental duplications occurring over the last 600+ million years of chordate evolution. This refined history of vertebrate genome duplication should permit more precise investigations of vertebrate evolution. © 2015 Smith and Keinath; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  6. Lamprey Prohibitin2 Arrest G2/M Phase Transition of HeLa Cells through Down-regulating Expression and Phosphorylation Level of Cell Cycle Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Guo, Sicheng; Wang, Ying; Liu, Xin; Li, Qingwei; Li, Tiesong

    2018-03-02

    Prohibitin 2(PHB2) is a member of the SFPH trans-membrane family proteins. It is a highly conserved and functionally diverse protein that plays an important role in preserving the structure and function of the mitochondria. In this study, the lamprey PHB2 gene was expressed in HeLa cells to investigate its effect on cell proliferation. The effect of Lm-PHB2 on the proliferation of HeLa cells was determined by treating the cells with pure Lm-PHB2 protein followed by MTT assay. Using the synchronization method with APC-BrdU and PI double staining revealed rLm-PHB2 treatment induced the decrease of both S phase and G0/G1 phase and then increase of G2/M phase. Similarly, cells transfected with pEGFP-N1-Lm-PHB2 also exhibited remarkable reduction in proliferation. Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR(qRT-PCR) assays suggested that Lm-PHB2 caused cell cycle arrest in HeLa cells through inhibition of CDC25C and CCNB1 expression. According to our western blot analysis, Lm-PHB2 was also found to reduce the expression level of Wee1 and PLK1 and the phosphorylation level of CCNB1, CDC25C and CDK1 in HeLa cells. Lamprey prohibitin 2 could arrest G2/M phase transition of HeLa cells through down-regulating expression and phosphorylation level of cell cycle proteins.

  7. Genetic engineering of chimeric antigen receptors using lamprey derived variable lymphocyte receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Moot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs are used to redirect effector cell specificity to selected cell surface antigens. Using CARs, antitumor activity can be initiated in patients with no prior tumor specific immunity. Although CARs have shown promising clinical results, the technology remains limited by the availability of specific cognate cell target antigens. To increase the repertoire of targetable tumor cell antigens we utilized the immune system of the sea lamprey to generate directed variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs. VLRs serve as membrane bound and soluble immune effectors analogous but not homologous to immunoglobulins. They have a fundamentally different structure than immunoglobulin (Ig-based antibodies while still demonstrating high degrees of specificity and affinity. To test the functionality of VLRs as the antigen recognition domain of CARs, two VLR-CARs were created. One contained a VLR specific for a murine B cell leukemia and the other contained a VLR specific for the human T cell surface antigen, CD5. The CAR design consisted of the VLR sequence, myc-epitope tag, CD28 transmembrane domain, and intracellular CD3ζ signaling domain. We demonstrate proof of concept, including gene transfer, biosynthesis, cell surface localization, and effector cell activation for multiple VLR-CAR designs. Therefore, VLRs provide an alternative means of CAR-based cancer recognition.

  8. Effects of the filamentous cyanobacterium Nodularia on fitness and feeding behavior of young-of-the-year (YOY) Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Karl-Johan; Stenroth, Patrik; Legrand, Catherine

    2011-06-01

    This study reveals that both cyanobacterial toxicity and turbidity have the potential to reduce the growth and energy storage of young-of-the-year (YOY) perch and thereby influence survival rates. During the 1990's a reduction in recruitment of YOY perch (Perca fluviatilis) occurred along the Swedish East coast. Concurrently, large blooms of filamentous cyanobacteria have increased in the Baltic Proper and in coastal waters. This study examined whether extended exposure to toxic and non-toxic filamentous cyanobacterium Nodularia affect YOY perch growth and feeding behavior under simulated bloom conditions (30 days at 50 μg Chl a L(-1)). Specific growth rate (SGR), the somatic condition index (SCI) and the lipid content of YOY perch (10-12 weeks old) were significantly lower in perch exposed to Nodularia compared to fed controls (no Nodularia). YOY perch exposed to non-toxic Nodularia displayed a higher attack rate than perch living in Nodularia free controls in 2 out of 3 trials. Reductions in growth and energy storage, mediated by cyanobacteria, increase the risk of starvation and predation and could locally influence recruitment of YOY perch. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Study of Phenotypic Correlations between Morphologic Characters and Body Parameters at River Male Lobsters (Astacus Fluviatilis

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    Marian Bura

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The body measurements was made on 20 males of river lobster (Astacus fluviatilis or Astacus astacus. The lobsters on witch the study was made had an average total length of body of 12.72 cm ±0.19 cm (formed from: 6.07±0.10cm the length of cefalothorax, 4.73 ±0.10 cm the length of abdomen and 1.91 ±0.07 cm length of telson, and a body weight of 55.70±3.07 g. the males present a length of antennas of 8.53±0.34 cm, a feelers of 2.20±0.05 cm, and the stems of the eyes of 0.51±0.02 cm. The body of males present a average width of 3.35±0.07 cm at level of cefalothorax, and 2.40±0.05 cm at abdomen level. Average deepness of cefalothorax was 2.85±0.07cm, and abdomen deepness of 1.34±0.03cm. The 5 pairs of periopodes had an average length of 10.91±0.42 cm, 6.06±0.22 cm, 7.21±0.21 cm, 6.57±0.16 cm and 5.85±0.15cm. The average length of pleopods was at first pears of 2.00±0.06 cm, at second pair of 2.11±0.05 cm, at third of 1.85±0.05 cm, at fourth of 1.73±0.04 cm and at fifth pair of 1.55±0.04 cm.

  10. An Integrative, Multi-Scale Computational Model of a Swimming Lamprey Fully Coupled to Its Fluid Environment and Incorporating Proprioceptive Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, C. L.; Hoffman, K.; Fauci, L.; Tytell, E.

    2016-02-01

    The lamprey is a model organism for both neurophysiology and locomotion studies. To study the role of sensory feedback as an organism moves through its environment, a 2D, integrative, multi-scale model of an anguilliform swimmer driven by neural activation from a central pattern generator (CPG) is constructed. The CPG in turn drives muscle kinematics and is fully coupled to the surrounding fluid. The system is numerically evolved in time using an immersed boundary framework producing an emergent swimming mode. Proprioceptive feedback to the CPG based on experimental observations adjust the activation signal as the organism interacts with its environment. Effects on the speed, stability and cost (metabolic work) of swimming due to nonlinear dependencies associated with muscle force development combined with proprioceptive feedback to neural activation are estimated and examined.

  11. Observing the Behavior of Larval Sea Lamprey in the St Clair River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M.

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to use student-built underwater water quality monitoring systems to monitor the behavior of larval sea lamprey during a lampricide treatment in the St Clair River, MI. In addition, the monitoring systems were used to gather video evidence to show that lampricide does not affect the surrounding wildlife. This camera system was an addition to the Great Lakes Fisheries Commission's (GLFC) study because they previously did not have video recording capabilities. To collect the needed video data, we lined eight cameras down each side of a 25 by 20 meter lampricide plot in the middle channel of the St Clair River, which was approximately 1 to 5 meters deep. This setup allowed us to collect 8 hours worth of video after a 24 hour delay, which was then saved as a MP4 format for easy access by the GLFC scientists. After retrieving the systems from the study plot, we had found mussels growing on the monitoring systems' housings. When analyzing the cameras' data, we also saw regular wildlife activity, such as groups of fish swimming normally past the cameras. We know that the wildlife's behavior was not affected, because in the videos that were captured during the application of this lampricide treatment showed no abnormal wildlife behavior. Through this study, we learned that the Bayluscide 70% wettable powder did not affect fish, aquatic plants, or any other sea life in the treatment area. Our water quality monitoring systems were an impact in the GLFC's lampricide study, because they provided evidence that lampricide does not affect any other wildlife in the treatment area.

  12. Monitoring sea lamprey pheromones and their degradation using rapid stream-side extraction coupled with UPLC-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiyong; Johnson, Nicholas; Bernardy, Jeffrey; Hubert, Terry; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Pheromones guide adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) to suitable spawning streams and mates, and therefore, when quantified, can be used to assess population size and guide management. Here, we present an efficient sample preparation method where 100 mL of river water was spiked with deuterated pheromone as an internal standard and underwent rapid field-based SPE and elution in the field. The combination of field extraction with laboratory UPLC-MS/MS reduced the sample consumption from 1 to 0.1 L, decreased the sample process time from more than 1 h to 10 min, and increased the precision and accuracy. The sensitivity was improved more than one order of magnitude compared with the previous method. The influences of experimental conditions were assessed to optimize the separation and peak shapes. The analytical method has been validated by studies of stability, selectivity, precision, and linearity and by the determination of the limits of detection and quantification. The method was used to quantify pheromone concentration from five streams tributary to Lake Ontario and to estimate that the environmental half-life of 3kPZS is about 26 h.

  13. Integrated assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent estrogenicity in the Upper Murray River, Australia, using the native Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, Alan M.; Kumar, Anupama; Woods, Marianne; Williams, Mike; Doan, Hai; Tolsher, Peter; Kookana, Rai S.; Barber, Larry B.

    2016-01-01

    The contamination of major continental river systems by endocrine-active chemicals (EACs) derived from the discharge of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can affect human and ecosystem health. As part of a long-term effort to develop a native fish model organism for assessment of endocrine disruption in Australia's largest watershed, the Murray-Darling River Basin, the present study evaluated endocrine disruption in adult males of the native Australian Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) exposed to effluent from an activated sludge WWTP and water from the Murray River during a 28-d, continuous-flow, on-site experiment. Analysis of the WWTP effluent and river water detected estrone and 17β-estradiol at concentrations up to approximately 25 ng L−1. Anti-estrogenicity of effluent samples was detected in vitro using yeast-based bioassays (yeast estrogen screen) throughout the experiment, but estrogenicity was limited to the first week of the experiment. Histological evaluation of the testes indicated significant suppression of spermatogenesis by WWTP effluent after 28 d of exposure. Plasma vitellogenin concentrations and expression of vitellogenin messenger RNA in liver were not significantly affected by exposure to WWTP effluent. The combination of low contaminant concentrations in the WWTP effluent, limited endocrine disrupting effects in the Murray rainbowfish, and high in-stream dilution factors (>99%) suggest minimal endocrine disruption impacts on native Australian fish in the Murray River downstream from the WWTP outfall. 

  14. Descending brain neurons in larval lamprey: Spinal projection patterns and initiation of locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Albert C.; Jackson, Adam W.; Holmes, Tamra; Thurman, Suzie; Davis, G.R.; McClellan, Andrew D.

    2010-01-01

    In larval lamprey, partial lesions were made in the rostral spinal cord to determine which spinal tracts are important for descending activation of locomotion and to identify descending brain neurons that project in these tracts. In whole animals and in vitro brain/spinal cord preparations, brain-initiated spinal locomotor activity was present when the lateral or intermediate spinal tracts were spared but usually was abolished when the medial tracts were spared. We previously showed that descending brain neurons are located in eleven cell groups, including reticulospinal (RS) neurons in the mesenecephalic reticular nucleus (MRN) as well as the anterior (ARRN), middle (MRRN), and posterior (PRRN) rhombencephalic reticular nuclei. Other descending brain neurons are located in the diencephalic (Di) as well as the anterolateral (ALV), dorsolateral (DLV), and posterolateral (PLV) vagal groups. In the present study, the Mauthner and auxillary Mauthner cells, most neurons in the Di, ALV, DLV, and PLV cell groups, and some neurons in the ARRN and PRRN had crossed descending axons. The majority of neurons projecting in medial spinal tracts included large identified Müller cells and neurons in the Di, MRN, ALV, and DLV. Axons of individual descending brain neurons usually did not switch spinal tracts, have branches in multiple tracts, or cross the midline within the rostral cord. Most neurons that projected in the lateral/intermediate spinal tracts were in the ARRN, MRRN, and PRRN. Thus, output neurons of the locomotor command system are distributed in several reticular nuclei, whose neurons project in relatively wide areas of the cord. PMID:20510243

  15. Impact of two telemetry transmitter implantation incision suturing methods on the physiological state and condition of perch (Perca fluviatilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rożyński Maciej

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the impact on European perch, Perca fluviatilis L. (mean body weight – 78.33 g of the intraperitoneal implantation of telemetry transmitters using different suturing methods. In the first experiment silk sutures were used (experiment I – group ST, while in the second tissue adhesive was used (experiment II – group GT. Following the procedure, the fish were kept for 42 days in a recirculating system. Differences in growth and condition parameters were only noted in the first week of the experiment. Specimens from group GT had lower values for DGR (daily growth rate and SGR (specific growth rate, but a higher value for FCR (feed conversion ratio values. For the hematological parameters, lower values of MCV (mean corpuscular volume and PLT (blood platelets were noted in group GT, while for the biochemical parameters, lowered ALP (alkaline phosphatase activity and Mg (magnesium concentrations were noted in group ST. In group ST, 33.3% of the specimens loss their tags, while in group GT 77.8% did so. Differences in incision healing were only noted in the second week, when specimens in group ST were observed to have fully closed incisions, while in group GT 50% of the incisions were open. Despite the high percentage of implantation incision healing in both groups, because of the high values of tag loss rate, neither method can be recommended for perch. It might be more effective to use tag with external antennae in this species. The method use for closing implantation incisions also must be improved to eliminate tag shedding.

  16. Introduced northern pike predation on salmonids in southcentral Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam J.; Rutz, David S.; Ivey, Sam S.; Dunker, Kristine J.; Gross, Jackson A.

    2013-01-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius) are opportunistic predators that can switch to alternative prey species after preferred prey have declined. This trophic adaptability allows invasive pike to have negative effects on aquatic food webs. In Southcentral Alaska, invasive pike are a substantial concern because they have spread to important spawning and rearing habitat for salmonids and are hypothesised to be responsible for recent salmonid declines. We described the relative importance of salmonids and other prey species to pike diets in the Deshka River and Alexander Creek in Southcentral Alaska. Salmonids were once abundant in both rivers, but they are now rare in Alexander Creek. In the Deshka River, we found that juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) dominated pike diets and that small pike consumed more of these salmonids than large pike. In Alexander Creek, pike diets reflected the distribution of spawning salmonids, which decrease with distance upstream. Although salmonids dominated pike diets in the lowest reach of the stream, Arctic lamprey (Lampetra camtschatica) and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) dominated pike diets in the middle and upper reaches. In both rivers, pike density did not influence diet and pike consumed smaller prey items than predicted by their gape-width. Our data suggest that (1) juvenile salmonids are a dominant prey item for pike, (2) small pike are the primary consumers of juvenile salmonids and (3) pike consume other native fish species when juvenile salmonids are less abundant. Implications of this trophic adaptability are that invasive pike can continue to increase while driving multiple species to low abundance.

  17. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of natural steroid hormones in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) plasma and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiyong; Bussy, Ugo; Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Li, Weiming

    2016-01-15

    This study aims to provide a rapid, sensitive and precise UPLC-MS/MS method for target steroid quantitation in biological matrices. We developed and validated an UPLC-MS/MS method to simultaneously determine 16 steroids in plasma and tissue samples. Ionization sources of Electrospray Ionization (ESI) and Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization (APCI) were compared in this study by testing their spectrometry performances at the same chromatographic conditions, and the ESI source was found up to five times more sensitive than the APCI. Different sample preparation techniques were investigated for an optimal extraction of steroids from the biological matrices. The developed method exhibited excellent linearity for all analytes with regression coefficients higher than 0.99 in broad concentration ranges. The limit of detection (LOD) was from 0.003 to 0.1ng/mL. The method was validated according to FDA guidance and applied to determine steroids in sea lamprey plasma and tissues (fat and testes) by the developed method. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Spatially explicit genetic structure in the freshwater sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis (Linnaeus, 1759 within the framework of the monopolisation hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Lucentini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An apparent paradox is known for crustaceans, rotifers and bryozoans living in inland small water bodies: a potential for wide distribution due to the presence of resting stages is coupled with marked genetic differences between nearby water bodies, with enclave distributions masking clear phylogeographic patterns. According to the monopolisation hypothesis, this is due to the accumulation of resting stages, monopolising each water body. Freshwater sponges could represent a useful system to assess the generality of the mo- nopolisation hypothesis: these organisms i live in the same habitats as crustaceans, rotifers and bryozoans, ii produce resting stages that can accumulate, and iii have indeed a wide distribution. Currently, no studies on spatially explicit genetic differentiation on fresh- water sponges are available. The aim of the present study is to provide additional empirical evidence in support of the generality of the scenario for small aquatic animals with resting stages by analysing genetic diversity at different spatial scales for an additional model system, the freshwater sponge ephydatia fluviatilis (Linnaeus, 1759. We expected that system genetic variability would follow enclave distributions, no clear phylogeographical patterns would be present, and nearby unconnected water bodies would show markedly different populations for this new model too. We analysed the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions 5.8S-ITS2-28S, the D3 domain of 28S subunit, the mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase I (COI and ten specific microsatellite markers of nine Italian and one Hungarian populations. Mitochondrial and nuclear sequences showed no or very low genetic polymorphism, whereas high levels of differentiation among populations and a significant polymorphism were observed using microsatellites. Microsatellite loci also showed a high proportion of private alleles for each population and an overall correlation between geographic and genetic

  19. Interactions between internal forces, body stiffness, and fluid environment in a neuromechanical model of lamprey swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytell, Eric D; Hsu, Chia-Yu; Williams, Thelma L; Cohen, Avis H; Fauci, Lisa J

    2010-11-16

    Animal movements result from a complex balance of many different forces. Muscles produce force to move the body; the body has inertial, elastic, and damping properties that may aid or oppose the muscle force; and the environment produces reaction forces back on the body. The actual motion is an emergent property of these interactions. To examine the roles of body stiffness, muscle activation, and fluid environment for swimming animals, a computational model of a lamprey was developed. The model uses an immersed boundary framework that fully couples the Navier-Stokes equations of fluid dynamics with an actuated, elastic body model. This is the first model at a Reynolds number appropriate for a swimming fish that captures the complete fluid-structure interaction, in which the body deforms according to both internal muscular forces and external fluid forces. Results indicate that identical muscle activation patterns can produce different kinematics depending on body stiffness, and the optimal value of stiffness for maximum acceleration is different from that for maximum steady swimming speed. Additionally, negative muscle work, observed in many fishes, emerges at higher tail beat frequencies without sensory input and may contribute to energy efficiency. Swimming fishes that can tune their body stiffness by appropriately timed muscle contractions may therefore be able to optimize the passive dynamics of their bodies to maximize peak acceleration or swimming speed.

  20. Evaluating potential artefacts of photo-reversal on behavioral studies with nocturnal invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Matthew; Imre, Istvan; Wagner, Michael C.; Di Rocco, Richard T.; Johnson, Nicholas; Brown, Grant E.

    2016-01-01

    Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus L., 1758) are nocturnal, so experiments evaluating their behaviour to chemosensory cues have typically been conducted at night. However, given the brief timeframe each year that adult P. marinus are available for experimentation, we investigated whether P. marinus exposed to a 12 h shifted diurnal cycle (reversed photoperiod) could be tested in a darkened arena during the day and show the same response to chemosensory cues as natural photoperiod P. marinus that were tested during the night. Ten replicates of 10 P. marinus, from each photoperiod, were exposed to deionized water (negative control), 2-phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PEA HCl, putative predator cue), or P. marinus whole-body extract (conspecific alarm cue). All P. marinus demonstrated a significant avoidance response to both cues. No significant differences were found in avoidance to PEA HCl between photoperiods. Avoidance of P. marinus whole-body extract was significantly stronger in natural compared with reversed photoperiod P. marinus. The use of reversed photoperiod subjects is suitable for examining the presence or absence of avoidance in response to novel chemosensory alarm cues, or the change in the magnitude of antipredator response. Studies investigating the natural magnitude of antipredator response should use natural photoperiod experimental subjects.

  1. Ligophorus spp. (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) parasitizing mullets (Teleostei: Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) occurring in the fresh and brackish waters of the Shatt Al-Arab River and Estuary in southern Iraq, with the description of Ligophorus sagmarius sp. n. from the greenback mullet Chelon subviridis (Valenciennes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, Delane C; Khamees, Najim R; Ali, Atheer H

    2013-12-01

    The gills of three of five species of mullets (Teleostei: Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) collected from the brackish and fresh waters of southern Iraq were infected with species of Ligophorus (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) as follows: greenback mullet Chelon subviridis (Valenciennes) infected with Ligophorus lebedevi Dmitrieva, Gerasev, Gibson, Pronkina and Galli, 2012, Ligophorus bantingensis Soo and Lim, 2012, Ligophorus sagmarius n. sp., and Ligophorus fluviatilis (Bychowsky, 1949) Dmitrieva, Gerasev, Gibson, Pronkina, and Galli, 2012; Klunzinger’s mullet Liza klunzingeri (Day) with L. bantingensis, L. fluviatilis, and an apparently undescribed species of Ligophorus; and abu mullet Liza abu (Heckel) with L. bantingensis and L. fluviatilis. The keeled mullet Liza carinata (Valenciennes) and Speigler’s mullet Valamugil speigleri (Bleeker) were uninfected. L. sagmarius n. sp. is described, and L. lebedevi and L. bantingensis are redescribed. Available specimens of L. fluviatilis and the undescribed species of Ligophorus from Klunzinger’s mullet were insufficient for description.

  2. Perch, Perca fluviatilis show a directional preference for, but do not increase attacks toward, prey in response to water-borne cortisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay J. Henderson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In freshwater environments, chemosensory cues play an important role in predator-prey interactions. Prey use a variety of chemosensory cues to detect and avoid predators. However, whether predators use the chemical cues released by disturbed or stressed prey has received less attention. Here we tested the hypothesis that the disturbance cue cortisol, in conjunction with visual cues of prey, elevates predatory behavior. We presented predators (perch, Perca fluviatilis with three chemosensory choice tests and recorded their location, orientation, and aggressive behavior. We compared the responses of predators when provided with (i visual cues of prey only (two adjacent tanks containing sticklebacks; (ii visual and natural chemical cues of prey vs. visual cues only; and (iii visual cues of prey with cortisol vs. visual cues only. Perch spent a significantly higher proportion of time in proximity to prey, and orientated toward prey more, when presented with a cortisol stimulus plus visual cues, relative to presentations of visual and natural chemical cues of prey, or visual cues of prey only. There was a trend that perch directed a higher proportion of predatory behaviors (number of lunges toward sticklebacks when presented with a cortisol stimulus plus visual cues, relative to the other chemosensory conditions. But they did not show a significant increase in total predatory behavior in response to cortisol. Therefore, it is not clear whether water-borne cortisol, in conjunction with visual cues of prey, affects predatory behavior. Our results provide evidence that cortisol could be a source of public information about prey state and/or disturbance, but further work is required to confirm this.

  3. Relative contributions of sampling effort, measuring, and weighing to precision of larval sea lamprey biomass estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Jeffrey W.; Adams, Jean V.; Cuddy, Douglas W.; Neave, Fraser B.; Sullivan, W. Paul; Young, Robert J.; Fodale, Michael F.; Jones, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    We developed two weight-length models from 231 populations of larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) collected from tributaries of the Great Lakes: Lake Ontario (21), Lake Erie (6), Lake Huron (67), Lake Michigan (76), and Lake Superior (61). Both models were mixed models, which used population as a random effect and additional environmental factors as fixed effects. We resampled weights and lengths 1,000 times from data collected in each of 14 other populations not used to develop the models, obtaining a weight and length distribution from reach resampling. To test model performance, we applied the two weight-length models to the resampled length distributions and calculated the predicted mean weights. We also calculated the observed mean weight for each resampling and for each of the original 14 data sets. When the average of predicted means was compared to means from the original data in each stream, inclusion of environmental factors did not consistently improve the performance of the weight-length model. We estimated the variance associated with measures of abundance and mean weight for each of the 14 selected populations and determined that a conservative estimate of the proportional contribution to variance associated with estimating abundance accounted for 32% to 95% of the variance (mean = 66%). Variability in the biomass estimate appears more affected by variability in estimating abundance than in converting length to weight. Hence, efforts to improve the precision of biomass estimates would be aided most by reducing the variability associated with estimating abundance.

  4. β-arrestin functionally regulates the non-bleaching pigment parapinopsin in lamprey pineal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emi Kawano-Yamashita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The light response of vertebrate visual cells is achieved by light-sensing proteins such as opsin-based pigments as well as signal transduction proteins, including visual arrestin. Previous studies have indicated that the pineal pigment parapinopsin has evolutionally and physiologically important characteristics. Parapinopsin is phylogenetically related to vertebrate visual pigments. However, unlike the photoproduct of the visual pigment rhodopsin, which is unstable, dissociating from its chromophore and bleaching, the parapinopsin photoproduct is stable and does not release its chromophore. Here, we investigated arrestin, which regulates parapinopsin signaling, in the lamprey pineal organ, where parapinopsin and rhodopsin are localized to distinct photoreceptor cells. We found that beta-arrestin, which binds to stimulated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs other than opsin-based pigments, was localized to parapinopsin-containing cells. This result stands in contrast to the localization of visual arrestin in rhodopsin-containing cells. Beta-arrestin bound to cultured cell membranes containing parapinopsin light-dependently and translocated to the outer segments of pineal parapinopsin-containing cells, suggesting that beta-arrestin binds to parapinopsin to arrest parapinopsin signaling. Interestingly, beta-arrestin colocalized with parapinopsin in the granules of the parapinopsin-expressing cell bodies under light illumination. Because beta-arrestin, which is a mediator of clathrin-mediated GPCR internalization, also served as a mediator of parapinopsin internalization in cultured cells, these results suggest that the granules were generated light-dependently by beta-arrestin-mediated internalization of parapinopsins from the outer segments. Therefore, our findings imply that beta-arrestin-mediated internalization is responsible for eliminating the stable photoproduct and restoring cell conditions to the original dark state. Taken together with a

  5. Multilevel eEmpirical Bayes modeling for improved estimation of toxicant formulations tosuppress parasitic sea lamprey in the Upper Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Laura A.; Gutreuter, Steve; Boogaard, Michael A.; Carlin, Bradley P.

    2011-01-01

    Estimation of extreme quantal-response statistics, such as the concentration required to kill 99.9% of test subjects (LC99.9), remains a challenge in the presence of multiple covariates and complex study designs. Accurate and precise estimates of the LC99.9 for mixtures of toxicants are critical to ongoing control of a parasitic invasive species, the sea lamprey, in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. The toxicity of those chemicals is affected by local and temporal variations in water chemistry, which must be incorporated into the modeling. We develop multilevel empirical Bayes models for data from multiple laboratory studies. Our approach yields more accurate and precise estimation of the LC99.9 compared to alternative models considered. This study demonstrates that properly incorporating hierarchical structure in laboratory data yields better estimates of LC99.9 stream treatment values that are critical to larvae control in the field. In addition, out-of-sample prediction of the results of in situ tests reveals the presence of a latent seasonal effect not manifest in the laboratory studies, suggesting avenues for future study and illustrating the importance of dual consideration of both experimental and observational data.

  6. Video-Based Electroshocking Platform to Identify Lamprey Ammocoete Habitats: Field Validation and New Discoveries in the Columbia River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Mueller, Robert P.

    2017-05-04

    A deep water electroshocking platform (DEP), developed to characterize larval lampreys (ammocoetes) and associated habitat in depths up to 15 m, was recently tested in the field. The DEP samples 0.55 m2∙min-1 without requiring ammocoete transport to the surface. Searches were conducted at a known rearing location (mouth of the Wind River, WA) and at locations on the Cowlitz River, WA, where ammocoetes had not previously been found. At the mouth of the Wind River, video imaged ammocoetes ranged from 50 to 150 mm in water depths between 1.5 m and 4.5 m and were more common in sediments containing organic silt. Ammocoetes (n=137) were detected at 61% of locations sampled (summer) and 50% of the locations sampled (winter). Following the field verification, the DEP was used on the lower 11.7 km of the Cowlitz River, WA. Ammocoetes (n=41) were found with a detection rate of 26% at specific search locations. Cowlitz River sediment containing ammocoetes was also dominated by silt with organic material, often downstream of alluvial bars in water depths from 0.8 to 1.7 m. Test results indicated a high sampling efficiency, favorable detection rates, and little or no impact to ammocoetes and their surrounding benthic environments.

  7. Phylogenetic distribution of a male pheromone that may exploit a nonsexual preference in lampreys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchinger, T J; Bussy, U; Li, K; Wang, H; Huertas, M; Baker, C F; Jia, L; Hayes, M C; Li, W; Johnson, N S

    2017-12-01

    Pheromones are among the most important sexual signals used by organisms throughout the animal kingdom. However, few are identified in vertebrates, leaving the evolutionary mechanisms underlying vertebrate pheromones poorly understood. Pre-existing biases in receivers' perceptual systems shape visual and auditory signalling systems, but studies on how receiver biases influence the evolution of pheromone communication remain sparse. The lamprey Petromyzon marinus uses a relatively well-understood suite of pheromones and offers a unique opportunity to study the evolution of vertebrate pheromone communication. Previous studies indicate that male signalling with the mating pheromone 3-keto petromyzonol sulphate (3kPZS) may exploit a nonsexual attraction to juvenile-released 3kPZS that guides migration into productive rearing habitat. Here, we infer the distribution of male signalling with 3kPZS using a phylogenetic comparison comprising six of 10 genera and two of three families. Our results indicate that only P. marinus and Ichthyomyzon castaneus release 3kPZS at high rates. Olfactory and behavioural assays with P. marinus, I. castaneus and a subset of three other species that do not use 3kPZS as a sexual signal indicate that male signalling might have driven the evolution of female adaptations to detect 3kPZS with specific olfactory mechanisms and respond to 3kPZS with targeted attraction relevant during mate search. We postulate that 3kPZS communication evolved independently in I. castaneus and P. marinus, but cannot eliminate the alternative that other species lost 3kPZS communication. Regardless, our results represent a rare macroevolutionary investigation of a vertebrate pheromone and provide insight into the evolutionary mechanisms underlying pheromone communication. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  8. Comparative morphological studies of the neurocranium and the gills of two species of blennies living in different habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrito, Venera; Mauceri, Angela; Minniti, Franco; Isaja, Manuela; Maisano, Maria; Tigano, Concetta

    2007-01-01

    Two species of Blennies--Salaria fluviatilis, which lives in freshwaters, and Salaria pavo, which lives in the sea--are considered to be phylogenetically related. Due to the interesting feature of one species having a freshwater and one having a marine habitat, and because of the paucity of studies on the intraspecific and interspecific variability of skeletal characters, in the study reported here, several populations of S. fluviatilis and S. pavo were compared. The intraspecific and interspecific morphology of the cranial characteristics, as well as the branchial epithelium, was studied in relationship to the adaptation of the two species to different environments. Osteological results confirmed the intraspecific variability already found in S. fluviatilis and showed a notable interspecific differentiation between S. pavo and S. fluviatilis. Histological studies indicate that the two species have morphological differences, which are the result of the diversity of the environments in which they live. The results from the two approaches, taken together, are in agreement with the hypothesis of the origin of these two species being from a common marine ancestor.

  9. Multilevel Empirical Bayes Modeling for Improved Estimation of Toxicant Formulations to Suppress Parasitic Sea Lamprey in the Upper Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, L.A.; Gutreuter, S.; Boogaard, M.A.; Carlin, B.P.

    2011-01-01

    Estimation of extreme quantal-response statistics, such as the concentration required to kill 99.9% of test subjects (LC99.9), remains a challenge in the presence of multiple covariates and complex study designs. Accurate and precise estimates of the LC99.9 for mixtures of toxicants are critical to ongoing control of a parasitic invasive species, the sea lamprey, in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. The toxicity of those chemicals is affected by local and temporal variations in water chemistry, which must be incorporated into the modeling. We develop multilevel empirical Bayes models for data from multiple laboratory studies. Our approach yields more accurate and precise estimation of the LC99.9 compared to alternative models considered. This study demonstrates that properly incorporating hierarchical structure in laboratory data yields better estimates of LC99.9 stream treatment values that are critical to larvae control in the field. In addition, out-of-sample prediction of the results of in situ tests reveals the presence of a latent seasonal effect not manifest in the laboratory studies, suggesting avenues for future study and illustrating the importance of dual consideration of both experimental and observational data. ?? 2011, The International Biometric Society.

  10. Gonad development and plasma steroid profiles by HRGC/HRMS during one reproductive cycle in reference and leachate-exposed female perch (Perca fluviatilis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noaksson, Erik; Gustavsson, Bodil; Linderoth, Maria; Zebuehr, Yngve; Broman, Dag; Balk, Lennart

    2004-01-01

    Endocrine processes were studied in reference female perch (Perca fluviatilis) from Lake Djursjoen and in leachate-exposed females from Lake Molnbyggen during one reproductive cycle. A high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) technique enabled the analysis of circulating sex steroids [progesterone (P), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OHP), androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), estrone (E1), and 17β-estradiol (E2)], the maturation-inducing hormone (MIH) 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17α,20β-P), and glucocorticoids [11-deoxycortisol (11-DC) and cortisol]. Body and organ measurements, ratio of sexually mature (SM) females, and frequencies of body lesions, were also recorded. High frequencies of body lesions and a low ratio of SM females were generally found in Molnbyggen. These females also had lower gonadosomatic index (GSI) and liver-somatic index (LSI) in the early stages of vitellogenesis, indicating either a delayed onset of oogenesis or an impaired vitellogenesis. Non-reproducing females from both lakes showed a similar LSI cycle as SM females. Increasing T and A levels in SM females from Djursjoen coincided with the GSI peak at the time of spawning. These two androgens were on several occasions lower in SM females from Molnbyggen, possibly the result of a disrupted 17,20-lyase activity of the P450 17α enzyme because only minor effects were observed on circulating P and 17α-OHP levels. E2 and E1 levels increased during vitellogenesis in females from both lakes, with E1 levels more closely resembling the peaks of A and GSI. Peak levels of 17α,20β-P at the time of spawning confirmed its function as the MIH in perch, while the simultaneous peak of 11-DC suggests that it also may be involved in final maturation of the oocytes

  11. Variation and accumulation patterns of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in European perch (Perca fluviatilis) across a gradient of pristine Swedish lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerblom, Staffan; Negm, Nesrin; Wu, Pianpian; Bishop, Kevin; Ahrens, Lutz

    2017-12-01

    This study assessed variations in the concentrations of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in European perch (Perca fluviatilis) in Swedish lakes and the extent to which fish size, age and indicators of fish trophic ecology (δ 15 N and δ 13 C) correlate with the sum of individual PFAS concentrations (ΣPFAS). Fish muscle tissue samples (n=80) were taken from six lakes across Sweden and analysed using solid-liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). PFAS levels in the lakes were affected by atmospheric deposition in relatively pristine areas with no direct point source of PFAS in the catchment. PFTeDA, PFUnDA, PFTriDA, PFDoDA, PFDA, PFOS and 6:2 FTSA were detected with a frequency between 68% and 99% and were included in the statistical evaluation. ΣPFAS differed between lakes (ANOVA: F=50.6, pPFAS, with a maximum ΣPFAS of 3.4ng g -1 wet weight (ww) (mean±SD: 0.99±0.63ng g -1 ww), while the lowest levels were found in lake Björntjärn (0.31±0.08ng g -1 ww) in northern Sweden (63°54'N, 18°51'E). PFOS was most abundant in perch from south-western Sweden, while other long-chain perfluorocarbons (>10 carbon atoms) were relatively more abundant in lakes in northern Sweden. Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that concentrations of PFAS in perch did not show any relation to fish size or age and were negatively correlated with trophic position of the fish (δ 15 N). It was also found that ΣPFAS were negatively correlated with both latitude and altitude. The PFAS data in this study represent national background concentrations in freshwater fish across Swedish lakes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of the risk of drowning at low-head dams used as sea lamprey barriers in Ontario[Includes the CSCE forum on professional practice and career development : 1. international engineering mechanics and materials specialty conference : 1. international/3. coastal, estuarine and offshore engineering specialty conference : 2. international/8. construction specialty conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurek, K.A.; Thomson, J.; Amos, M. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Geological Engineering; Hallett, A. [A. Hallett, Sault Ste. Marie, ON (Canada); Aktar, A. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Kanpur (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Katopodis, C. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Freshwater Inst.

    2009-07-01

    In 2003, there were 54 fixed-crest lamprey barriers used in the Great Lakes region, with more construction planned. Although the barriers are relatively small structures of about 1-2 m in height, they present a drowning hazard. On the downstream side of the structure, a submerged hydraulic jump creates a strong vortex flow that even an experienced swimmer cannot escape. This study developed a method to assess the risk of hazardous flows at the barrier sites to enable dam owners to decide whether or not mitigative measures need to be undertaken at their sites. This hazard assessment was demonstrated for 2 existing lamprey barriers in Ontario, namely the Duffins Creek Barrier at Ajax and the Little Otter Creek Barrier near Straffordville. However, the work can be applied to the dam safety assessment and the development of potential mitigative strategies for drowning at other low-head dams and weirs. A flow-duration curves was developed for each site in order to determine the risk of having a drowning hazard at the barrier sites. In the flow-duration analysis, the percentage time, or probability, that a given flow rate was equalled or exceeded was calculated directly from observations of the average daily discharge in the channel. 18 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  13. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF MONKEY GOBY (NEOGOBIUS FLUVIATILIS PALLAS OF FRESH AND SALINE WATER RESERVOIRS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onoprienko V.

    2014-04-01

    physiological processes. The result of this effect is the difference in weight, size and body parts. To clarify, as our model species was taken Cottus Sandpiper (Neogobius fluviatilis Pallas. The reason for this was the fact that this species, along with other Ponto- Caspian solonovato - freshwater gobies, the International Union for Conservation of Nature classified as species biology are poorly understood and require further research. This fact that deepened interest of ichthyologists in this group of fish, in this regard appeared in the literature as material for the bulls and in Sandpiper. Based on the above, the purpose of this paper is a comparative morphometric parameters characteristic of individuals of this species of fresh and salt water bodies of Ukraine. All this affects the absolute morphometric parameters, which decrease in the direction from sea to the river. However, it should be noted that in rivers with rich feeding grounds sheer size of some individuals close to the size and species of sea Kakhovskoe reservoir. This situation is observed in the Sandpiper Grouse River. Here are some specimens reach a length (TL 118-148 mm and a weight of 15-36 g, Kakhovskoe Reservoir: 106-150 mm 11-38 g, in the Sea of Azov: 115-174 mm 17-58 g. For relative parameters Sandpiper with these reservoirs are more similar, however, for some of them, there are differences. Among the latter is most clearly distinguished the ratio SL / N. This indicator podovzhenist (prohonystist body. As pointed out by VP Mitrofanov (1977, this indicator shows the hydrodynamic qualities of fish: the larger the index, the more active lifestyle is individual. When compared with individuals with a little water and a large stream, in the latter case, individuals are more elongated. This is confirmed by our material: the ratio SL / L for the smallest species of sea of Azov (4.96, slightly more for Kakhovsky reservoir (5.52 and even more for rivers Grouse, Trubizh, Desna, Ros (respectively 5, 86, 6.22 , 6

  14. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF MONKEY GOBY (NEOGOBIUS FLUVIATILIS PALLAS OF FRESH AND SALINE WATER RESERVOIRS IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Onoprienko

    2014-04-01

    physiological processes. The result of this effect is the difference in weight, size and body parts. To clarify, as our model species was taken Cottus Sandpiper (Neogobius fluviatilis Pallas. The reason for this was the fact that this species, along with other Ponto- Caspian solonovato - freshwater gobies, the International Union for Conservation of Nature classified as species biology are poorly understood and require further research. This fact that deepened interest of ichthyologists in this group of fish, in this regard appeared in the literature as material for the bulls and in Sandpiper. Based on the above, the purpose of this paper is a comparative morphometric parameters characteristic of individuals of this species of fresh and salt water bodies of Ukraine. All this affects the absolute morphometric parameters, which decrease in the direction from sea to the river. However, it should be noted that in rivers with rich feeding grounds sheer size of some individuals close to the size and species of sea Kakhovskoe reservoir. This situation is observed in the Sandpiper Grouse River. Here are some specimens reach a length (TL 118-148 mm and a weight of 15-36 g, Kakhovskoe Reservoir: 106-150 mm 11-38 g, in the Sea of ​​Azov: 115-174 mm 17-58 g. For relative parameters Sandpiper with these reservoirs are more similar, however, for some of them, there are differences. Among the latter is most clearly distinguished the ratio SL / N. This indicator podovzhenist (prohonystist body. As pointed out by VP Mitrofanov (1977, this indicator shows the hydrodynamic qualities of fish: the larger the index, the more active lifestyle is individual. When compared with individuals with a little water and a large stream, in the latter case, individuals are more elongated. This is confirmed by our material: the ratio SL / L for the smallest species of sea of ​​Azov (4.96, slightly more for Kakhovsky reservoir (5.52 and even more for rivers Grouse, Trubizh, Desna, Ros (respectively 5, 86

  15. Fluktuationen der Fischfauna im Elbe-Ästuar als Indikator für ein gestörtes Ökosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Angela

    1981-09-01

    During 1978, 22 fish species (in particular Anguilla anguilla L., Platichthys flesus L., Osmerus eperlanus L., Gasterosteus aculeatus L., Lampetra fluviatilis L., Alosa fallax [Lacepede], Gymnocephalus cernua L., Clupea harengus L. and Sprattus sprattus L.), sampled at the intake of the cooling system in the nuclear power plant at Brunsbüttel (Elbe estuary), were analyzed for quantities and size distribution. The data obtained were correlated to abiotic factors, such as water temperature, water outflow from the upper Elbe river, salinity and oxygen content. Spawning times and seasonal migrations of the fish species investigated corresponded to appropriate temperatures of the Elbe water. The diversity of fish species from the cooling water proved to be representative for the ichthyo-fauna of this particular estuarine area. At least 190 tons of fish per year were estimated to be annihilated by the suction of cooling water into the nuclear power plant. In spite of the progressive development of regional industries and the increasing discharges of cooling water, temperature in the estuary has remained largely unaffected up till now. The oxygen content of the heavily polluted lower Elbe river, however, has become mainly dependent on the amount of fresh water flowing from the upper Elbe river. Up to 1978, oxygen levels of 80 90 % were recorded only in the mouth of the Elbe, thus meeting the requirements for the continuous occurrence of fish species typical for this estuarine area. Varying oxygen concentrations downstream of Hamburg and at Brunsbüttel are considered to be responsible for migrations of certain fish species (mainly flounder and smelt) between the Brunsbüttel region and their habitats further upstream which were occupied before the process of industrialisation initiated. This was reflected by the size of the samples taken from various fishes. During an eventual hazard of the industrial filter plants at Brunsbüttel in May 1978 an extreme oxygen depletion

  16. Relative Abundance and Plasmodium Infection Rates of Malaria Vectors in and around Jabalpur, a Malaria Endemic Region in Madhya Pradesh State, Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neeru; Mishra, Ashok K; Chand, Sunil K; Bharti, Praveen K; Singh, Mrigendra P; Nanda, Nutan; Singh, Om P; Sodagiri, Kranti; Udhyakumar, Venkatachalam

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken in two Primary Health Centers (PHCs) of malaria endemic district Jabalpur in Madhya Pradesh (Central India). In this study we had investigated the relative frequencies of the different anopheline species collected within the study areas by using indoor resting catches, CDC light trap and human landing methods. Sibling species of malaria vectors were identified by cytogenetic and molecular techniques. The role of each vector and its sibling species in the transmission of the different Plasmodium species was ascertained by using sporozoite ELISA. A total of 52,857 specimens comprising of 17 anopheline species were collected by three different methods (39,964 by indoor resting collections, 1059 by human landing and 11,834 by CDC light trap). Anopheles culicifacies was most predominant species in all collections (55, 71 and 32% in indoor resting, human landing and light trap collections respectively) followed by An. subpictus and An. annularis. All five sibling species of An. culicifacies viz. species A, B, C, D and E were found while only species T and S of An. fluviatilis were collected. The overall sporozoite rate in An. culicifacies and An. fluviatilis were 0.42% (0.25% for P. falciparum and 0.17% for P. vivax) and 0.90% (0.45% for P. falciparum and 0.45% for P. vivax) respectively. An. culicifacies and An. fluviatilis were found harbouring both P. vivax variants VK-210 and VK-247, and P. falciparum. An. culicifacies sibling species C and D were incriminated as vectors during most part of the year while sibling species T of An. fluviatilis was identified as potential vector in monsoon and post monsoon season. An. culicifacies species C (59%) was the most abundant species followed by An. culicifacies D (24%), B (8.7%), E (6.7%) and A (1.5%). Among An. fluviatilis sibling species, species T was common (99%) and only few specimens of S were found. Our study provides crucial information on the prevalence of An. culicifacies and An. fluviatilis

  17. Relative Abundance and Plasmodium Infection Rates of Malaria Vectors in and around Jabalpur, a Malaria Endemic Region in Madhya Pradesh State, Central India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeru Singh

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken in two Primary Health Centers (PHCs of malaria endemic district Jabalpur in Madhya Pradesh (Central India.In this study we had investigated the relative frequencies of the different anopheline species collected within the study areas by using indoor resting catches, CDC light trap and human landing methods. Sibling species of malaria vectors were identified by cytogenetic and molecular techniques. The role of each vector and its sibling species in the transmission of the different Plasmodium species was ascertained by using sporozoite ELISA.A total of 52,857 specimens comprising of 17 anopheline species were collected by three different methods (39,964 by indoor resting collections, 1059 by human landing and 11,834 by CDC light trap. Anopheles culicifacies was most predominant species in all collections (55, 71 and 32% in indoor resting, human landing and light trap collections respectively followed by An. subpictus and An. annularis. All five sibling species of An. culicifacies viz. species A, B, C, D and E were found while only species T and S of An. fluviatilis were collected. The overall sporozoite rate in An. culicifacies and An. fluviatilis were 0.42% (0.25% for P. falciparum and 0.17% for P. vivax and 0.90% (0.45% for P. falciparum and 0.45% for P. vivax respectively. An. culicifacies and An. fluviatilis were found harbouring both P. vivax variants VK-210 and VK-247, and P. falciparum. An. culicifacies sibling species C and D were incriminated as vectors during most part of the year while sibling species T of An. fluviatilis was identified as potential vector in monsoon and post monsoon season.An. culicifacies species C (59% was the most abundant species followed by An. culicifacies D (24%, B (8.7%, E (6.7% and A (1.5%. Among An. fluviatilis sibling species, species T was common (99% and only few specimens of S were found. Our study provides crucial information on the prevalence of An. culicifacies and An

  18. Minimizing opportunity costs to aquatic connectivity restoration while controlling an invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milt, Austin W; Diebel, Matthew W; Doran, Patrick J; Ferris, Michael C; Herbert, Matthew; Khoury, Mary L; Moody, Allison T; Neeson, Thomas M; Ross, Jared; Treska, Ted; O'Hanley, Jesse R; Walter, Lisa; Wangen, Steven R; Yacobson, Eugene; McIntyre, Peter B

    2018-03-08

    Controlling invasive species is critical for conservation but can have unintended consequences for native species and divert resources away from other efforts. This dilemma occurs on a grand scale in the North American Great Lakes, where dams and culverts block tributary access to habitat of desirable fish species and are a lynchpin of long-standing efforts to limit ecological damage inflicted by the invasive, parasitic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Habitat restoration and sea-lamprey control create conflicting goals for managing aging infrastructure. We used optimization to minimize opportunity costs of habitat gains for 37 desirable migratory fishes that arose from restricting sea lamprey access (0-25% increase) when selecting barriers for removal under a limited budget (US$1-105 million). Imposing limits on sea lamprey habitat reduced gains in tributary access for desirable species by 15-50% relative to an unconstrained scenario. Additional investment to offset the effect of limiting sea-lamprey access resulted in high opportunity costs for 30 of 37 species (e.g., an additional US$20-80 million for lake sturgeon [Acipenser fulvescens]) and often required ≥5% increase in sea-lamprey access to identify barrier-removal solutions adhering to the budget and limiting access. Narrowly distributed species exhibited the highest opportunity costs but benefited more at less cost when small increases in sea-lamprey access were allowed. Our results illustrate the value of optimization in limiting opportunity costs when balancing invasion control against restoration benefits for diverse desirable species. Such trade-off analyses are essential to the restoration of connectivity within fragmented rivers without unleashing invaders. © 2018 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Circuits regulating pleasure and happiness:the evolution of reward-seeking and misery-fleeing behavioral mechanisms in vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton J.M. Loonen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The very first free-moving animals in the oceans over 540 million years ago must have been able to obtain food, territory and shelter, as well as reproduce. Therefore, they would have needed regulatory mechanisms to induce movements enabling achievement of these prerequisites for survival. It can be useful to consider these mechanisms in primitive chordates, which represent our earliest ancestors, to develop hypotheses addressing how these essential parts of human behavior are regulated and relate to more sophisticated behavioral manifestations such as mood. An animal comparable to lampreys was the earliest known vertebrate with a modern forebrain consisting of old and new cortical parts. Lampreys have a separate dorsal pallium, the forerunner of the most recently developed part of the cerebral cortex. In addition, the lamprey extrapyramidal system, which regulates movement, is modern. However, in lampreys and their putative forerunners, the hagfishes, the striatum, which is the input part of this extrapyramidal system, probably corresponds to the human centromedial amygdala, which in higher vertebrates is part of a system mediating fear and anxiety. Both animals have well-developed nuclear habenulae, which are involved in several critical behaviors; in lampreys this system regulates the reward system that reinforces appetitive-seeking behavior or the avoidance system that reinforces flight behavior resulting from negative inputs. Lampreys also have a distinct glutamatergic nucleus, the so-called habenula-projection globus pallidus, which receives input from glutamatergic and GABAergic signals and gives output to the lateral habenula. Via this route, this nucleus influences midbrain monoaminergic nuclei and regulates the food acquisition system. These various structures involved in motor regulation in the lampreys may be conserved in humans and include two complementary mechanisms for reward reinforcement and avoidance behaviors. The first

  20. Circuits regulating pleasure and happiness: the evolution of reward-seeking and misery-fleeing behavioral mechanisms in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loonen, Anton J M; Ivanova, Svetlana A

    2015-01-01

    The very first free-moving animals in the oceans over 540 million years ago must have been able to obtain food, territory, and shelter, as well as reproduce. Therefore, they would have needed regulatory mechanisms to induce movements enabling achievement of these prerequisites for survival. It can be useful to consider these mechanisms in primitive chordates, which represent our earliest ancestors, to develop hypotheses addressing how these essential parts of human behavior are regulated and relate to more sophisticated behavioral manifestations such as mood. An animal comparable to lampreys was the earliest known vertebrate with a modern forebrain consisting of old and new cortical parts. Lampreys have a separate dorsal pallium, the forerunner of the most recently developed part of the cerebral cortex. In addition, the lamprey extrapyramidal system (EPS), which regulates movement, is modern. However, in lampreys and their putative forerunners, the hagfishes, the striatum, which is the input part of this EPS, probably corresponds to the human centromedial amygdala, which in higher vertebrates is part of a system mediating fear and anxiety. Both animals have well-developed nuclear habenulae, which are involved in several critical behaviors; in lampreys this system regulates the reward system that reinforces appetitive-seeking behavior or the avoidance system that reinforces flight behavior resulting from negative inputs. Lampreys also have a distinct glutamatergic nucleus, the so-called habenula-projection globus pallidus, which receives input from glutamatergic and GABAergic signals and gives output to the lateral habenula. Via this route, this nucleus influences midbrain monoaminergic nuclei and regulates the food acquisition system. These various structures involved in motor regulation in the lampreys may be conserved in humans and include two complementary mechanisms for reward reinforcement and avoidance behaviors. The first system is associated with

  1. 3D MRI Modeling of Thin and Spatially Complex Soft Tissue Structures without Shrinkage: Lamprey Myosepta as an Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Bradley M; Jia, Guang; Carmichael, Owen; McKlveen, Kevin; Homberger, Dominique G

    2018-05-12

    3D imaging techniques enable the non-destructive analysis and modeling of complex structures. Among these, MRI exhibits good soft tissue contrast, but is currently less commonly used for non-clinical research than x-ray CT, even though the latter requires contrast-staining that shrinks and distorts soft tissues. When the objective is the creation of a realistic and complete 3D model of soft tissue structures, MRI data are more demanding to acquire and visualize and require extensive post-processing because they comprise non-cubic voxels with dimensions that represent a trade-off between tissue contrast and image resolution. Therefore, thin soft tissue structures with complex spatial configurations are not always visible in a single MRI dataset, so that standard segmentation techniques are not sufficient for their complete visualization. By using the example of the thin and spatially complex connective tissue myosepta in lampreys, we developed a workflow protocol for the selection of the appropriate parameters for the acquisition of MRI data and for the visualization and 3D modeling of soft tissue structures. This protocol includes a novel recursive segmentation technique for supplementing missing data in one dataset with data from another dataset to produce realistic and complete 3D models. Such 3D models are needed for the modeling of dynamic processes, such as the biomechanics of fish locomotion. However, our methodology is applicable to the visualization of any thin soft tissue structures with complex spatial configurations, such as fasciae, aponeuroses, and small blood vessels and nerves, for clinical research and the further exploration of tensegrity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A semelparous fish continues upstream migration when exposed to alarm cue, but adjusts movement speed and timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhring, Thomas M; Meckley, Trevor D.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Siefkes, Michael J.; Hume, John B.; Wagner, C. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Animals make trade-offs between predation risk and pursuit of opportunities such as foraging and reproduction. Trade-offs between antipredator behaviours and foraging are well suited to manipulation in laboratory and field settings and have generated a vast compendium of knowledge. However, much less is known about how animals manage trade-offs between predation risk and pursuit of reproductive opportunities in the absence of the confounding effects of foraging. In the present study, we investigated how the nonfeeding migratory life stage of sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, responds to odour from dead conspecifics (a cue that induces avoidance behaviours in laboratory and field studies). We released groups of PIT-tagged sea lamprey 65 m from the shore of Lake Michigan or 287 m upstream in Carp Lake River and used antennas to detect their movements in the river. As the breeding season progressed, sea lamprey initiated upstream movement earlier and were more likely to enter the river. Sea lamprey that began the night in Lake Michigan entered Carp Lake River at higher rates and accelerated upstream when exposed to high concentrations of alarm cue, consistent with animals attempting to minimize time spent in risky areas. Sea lampreys that began the night in the river delayed upstream movement when exposed to alarm cue, consistent with animals sheltering and gathering information about a source of risk. We attribute this context-specific reaction to alarm cue to differences in perceived vulnerability to predation in sheltered positions in the river versus exposed positions in the lake. Once in the river, the vast majority of sea lamprey moved upstream independent of alarm cue or Julian date. Although life-history-induced time and energy budgets place rigid constraints on the direction of migration, sea lamprey attend to predation risk by modifying movement timing and speed.

  3. Distribution of mammalian-like melanopsin in cyclostome retinas exhibiting a different extent of visual functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanfang Sun

    Full Text Available Mammals contain 1 melanopsin (Opn4 gene that is expressed in a subset of retinal ganglion cells to serve as a photopigment involved in non-image-forming vision such as photoentrainment of circadian rhythms. In contrast, most nonmammalian vertebrates possess multiple melanopsins that are distributed in various types of retinal cells; however, their functions remain unclear. We previously found that the lamprey has only 1 type of mammalian-like melanopsin gene, which is similar to that observed in mammals. Here we investigated the molecular properties and localization of melanopsin in the lamprey and other cyclostome hagfish retinas, which contribute to visual functions including image-forming vision and mainly to non-image-forming vision, respectively. We isolated 1 type of mammalian-like melanopsin cDNA from the eyes of each species. We showed that the recombinant lamprey melanopsin was a blue light-sensitive pigment and that both the lamprey and hagfish melanopsins caused light-dependent increases in calcium ion concentration in cultured cells in a manner that was similar to that observed for mammalian melanopsins. We observed that melanopsin was distributed in several types of retinal cells, including horizontal cells and ganglion cells, in the lamprey retina, despite the existence of only 1 melanopsin gene in the lamprey. In contrast, melanopsin was almost specifically distributed to retinal ganglion cells in the hagfish retina. Furthermore, we found that the melanopsin-expressing horizontal cells connected to the rhodopsin-containing short photoreceptor cells in the lamprey. Taken together, our findings suggest that in cyclostomes, the global distribution of melanopsin in retinal cells might not be related to the melanopsin gene number but to the extent of retinal contribution to visual function.

  4. Assessing the potential for trace organic contaminants commonly found in Australian rivers to induce vitellogenin in the native rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) and the introduced mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Philip D. [Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland, 4222 (Australia); Coleman, Heather M. [School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science, Ulster University, Coleraine, BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Colville, Anne; Lim, Richard [School of Life Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway, New South Wales, 2007 (Australia); Matthews, Benjamin [Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland, 4222 (Australia); McDonald, James A. [School of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, New South Wales, 2052 (Australia); Miranda, Ana [School of Applied Sciences, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria, 3083 (Australia); Neale, Peta A. [Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland, 4222 (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [School of Applied Sciences, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria, 3083 (Australia); Tremblay, Louis A. [Cawthron Institute, 98 Halifax St. East, Nelson 7042 (New Zealand); School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, PO Box 92019, Auckland, 1142 (New Zealand); Leusch, Frederic D.L., E-mail: f.leusch@griffith.edu.au [Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland, 4222 (Australia)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Mosquitofish and rainbowfish exposed in the lab to trace organic compounds. • Vitellogenin protein and mRNA monitored as biomarker of estrogenicity. • Minimal response in both species to environmentally relevant concentrations. • Native rainbowfish was slightly more sensitive than the invasive mosquitofish. • Results suggest that risk of estrogenic disruption in Australian rivers is low. - Abstract: In Australia, trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) and endocrine active compounds (EACs) have been detected in rivers impacted by sewage effluent, urban stormwater, agricultural and industrial inputs. It is unclear whether these chemicals are at concentrations that can elicit endocrine disruption in Australian fish species. In this study, native rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) and introduced invasive (but prevalent) mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) were exposed to the individual compounds atrazine, estrone, bisphenol A, propylparaben and pyrimethanil, and mixtures of compounds including hormones and personal care products, industrial compounds, and pesticides at environmentally relevant concentrations. Vitellogenin (Vtg) protein and liver Vtg mRNA induction were used to assess the estrogenic potential of these compounds. Vtg expression was significantly affected in both species exposed to estrone at concentrations that leave little margin for safety (p < 0.001). Propylparaben caused a small but statistically significant 3× increase in Vtg protein levels (p = 0.035) in rainbowfish but at a concentration 40× higher than that measured in the environment, therefore propylparaben poses a low risk of inducing endocrine disruption in fish. Mixtures of pesticides and a mixture of hormones, pharmaceuticals, industrial compounds and pesticides induced a small but statistically significant increase in plasma Vtg in rainbowfish, but did not affect mosquitofish Vtg protein or mRNA expression. These results suggest that estrogenic activity represents a

  5. Perca fluviatilis L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    Le renouvellement de l'eau dans les quatre bacs d'élevage a été assuré de façon continue, en circuit fermé, à l'aide d'une pompe de refoulement qui draine l'eau décantée et biologiquement filtrée à travers un réseau de tuyaux flexibles en amont duquel se trouve une lampe de désinfection uv. Le bac de décantation.

  6. Does anti-androgen, flutamide cancel out the in vivo effects of the androgen, dihydrotestosterone on sexual development in juvenile Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Harpreet; Kumar, Anupama

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if the effects of the androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the sexual development in juvenile Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) are canceled out by the anti-androgen, flutamide. Fish (60 days post hatch) were exposed to 250ng/L of DHT, 25μg/L of flutamide (Flu-low), 250μg/L of flutamide (Flu-high), DHT+Flu low and DHT+Flu high. After 35 days of exposure, lengths and weights of the fish were measured and the condition factor (CF) calculated; vitellogenin (VTG) concentrations were measured in tail tissue; sex steroid hormones (17β-estradiol [E2] and 11-keto testosterone [11-KT]) were measured in the head tissue and abdominal regions were used in histological investigation of the gonads. Treatment with DHT reduced the body-length of both male and female fish, an effect which was canceled out by low and high concentrations of flutamide. However, flutamide (low or high) could not nullify the DHT-induced reduction in the CF in either sex. The E2 levels were reduced only in female fish after exposure to DHT but returned to normal after treatment with Flu-high. DHT increased the levels of 11-KT and decreased the E2/11-KT ratio in both sexes. Flu-high, but not Flu-low, could nullify these effects. Both DHT and flutamide (low or high) induced VTG production and this effect persisted when both chemicals were co-administered. Treatment with DHT did not affect gonadal cell development in the testes. However, the female fish treated with DHT contained ovaries in early-vitellogenic stage in comparison to the pre-vitellogenic ovaries in control fish. Co-treatment with flutamide (low or high) resulted in oocyte atresia. The results from the present study suggest that treatment with Flu-high could cancel out DHT-induced effects only on the hormonal profile and body-length in both male and female fish. Juvenile fish co-treated with DHT and flutamide (low or high) had high VTG levels and low CF. In addition, the ovaries

  7. A review of the literature on the use of Bayluscide in fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Sandra E.

    1974-01-01

    In the United States Bayluscide has had multiple uses. The 70% wettable powder has been used in Puerto Rico for snail control and the 5% granular formulation has been tested in Michigan and Wisconsin against freshwater snails serving as inter mediate hosts of the trematode causing swimmers' itch. Bayluscide has also been used in field trials as a fish toxicant. Its most important use in North America, however, has been to control sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus, in the Great Lakes, a necessary prerequisite for the restoration of Great Lakes sport and commercial fisheries. Since 1966 the 5% granular formulation has been used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Canadian Department of Environment as a toxicant to survey populations of larval sea lampreys in Great Lakes estuaries and deepwater tributaries. The Canadian Government also uses Bayluscide to control sea lampreys, but in the United States the present registration restricts use to population surveys only. Literature on the mixtures of Bayluscide and the selective lamprey toxicant, TFM, used since 1964 by both the U.S. and Canadian agencies to control larval sea lampreys in the Great Lakes, has been reviewed elsewhere and is not included in this review.

  8. Fish species of greatest conservation need in wadeable Iowa streams: current status and effectiveness of Aquatic Gap Program distribution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindt, Anthony R.; Pierce, Clay; Quist, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Effective conservation of fish species of greatest conservation need (SGCN) requires an understanding of species–habitat relationships and distributional trends. Thus, modeling the distribution of fish species across large spatial scales may be a valuable tool for conservation planning. Our goals were to evaluate the status of 10 fish SGCN in wadeable Iowa streams and to test the effectiveness of Iowa Aquatic Gap Analysis Project (IAGAP) species distribution models. We sampled fish assemblages from 86 wadeable stream segments in the Mississippi River drainage of Iowa during 2009 and 2010 to provide contemporary, independent fish species presence–absence data. The frequencies of occurrence in stream segments where species were historically documented varied from 0.0% for redfin shiner Lythrurus umbratilis to 100.0% for American brook lampreyLampetra appendix, with a mean of 53.0%, suggesting that the status of Iowa fish SGCN is highly variable. Cohen's kappa values and other model performance measures were calculated by comparing field-collected presence–absence data with IAGAP model–predicted presences and absences for 12 fish SGCN. Kappa values varied from 0.00 to 0.50, with a mean of 0.15. The models only predicted the occurrences of banded darterEtheostoma zonale, southern redbelly dace Phoxinus erythrogaster, and longnose daceRhinichthys cataractae more accurately than would be expected by chance. Overall, the accuracy of the twelve models was low, with a mean correct classification rate of 58.3%. Poor model performance probably reflects the difficulties associated with modeling the distribution of rare species and the inability of the large-scale habitat variables used in IAGAP models to explain the variation in fish species occurrences. Our results highlight the importance of quantifying the confidence in species distribution model predictions with an independent data set and the need for long-term monitoring to better understand the

  9. Concentrations of 17 elements in the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), in different tissues of perch (Perca fluviatilis), and in perch intestinal parasites (Acanthocephalus lucii) from the subalpine lake Mondsee, Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sures, B.; Steiner, W.; Rydlo, M.; Taraschewski, H.

    1999-11-01

    Concentrations of the elements Al, Ag, Ba, ca, Cd, Co, Cr, cu, Fe, Ga, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Tl, and Zn were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus lucii (Mueller); in its host, Perca fluviatilis (L.), and in the soft tissue of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas). All animals were collected from the same sampling site in a subalpine lake, Mondsee, in Austria. Most of the elements were found at significantly higher concentrations in the acanthocephalan than in different tissues (muscle, liver, and intestinal wall) of its perch host. Only Co was concentrated in the liver of perch to a level that was significantly higher than that found in the parasite. Most of the analyzed elements were also present at significantly higher concentrations in A. lucii than in D. polymorpha. Barium and Cr were the only elements recorded at higher concentrations in the mussel compared with the acanthocephalan. Thus, when comparing the accumulation of elements, the acanthocephalans appear to be even more suitable than the zebra mussels in terms of their use in the detection of metal contamination within aquatic biotopes. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that the concentrations of several elements within the parasites decreased with increasing infrapopulation. Furthermore, the levels of some elements in the perch liver were negatively correlated with the weight of A. lucii in the intestine. Thus, it emerged that not only is there competition for elements between acanthocephalans inside the gut but there is also competition for these elements between the host and the parasites. The elevated element concentrations demonstrated here in the parasitic worm A. lucii provide support for further investigations of these common helminthes and of their accumulation properties.

  10. Light adaptation and the evolution of vertebrate photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshedian, Ala; Fain, Gordon L

    2017-07-15

    Lamprey are cyclostomes, a group of vertebrates that diverged from lines leading to jawed vertebrates (including mammals) in the late Cambrian, 500 million years ago. It may therefore be possible to infer properties of photoreceptors in early vertebrate progenitors by comparing lamprey to other vertebrates. We show that lamprey rods and cones respond to light much like rods and cones in amphibians and mammals. They operate over a similar range of light intensities and adapt to backgrounds and bleaches nearly identically. These correspondences are pervasive and detailed; they argue for the presence of rods and cones very early in the evolution of vertebrates with properties much like those of rods and cones in existing vertebrate species. The earliest vertebrates were agnathans - fish-like organisms without jaws, which first appeared near the end of the Cambrian radiation. One group of agnathans became cyclostomes, which include lamprey and hagfish. Other agnathans gave rise to jawed vertebrates or gnathostomes, the group including all other existing vertebrate species. Because cyclostomes diverged from other vertebrates 500 million years ago, it may be possible to infer some of the properties of the retina of early vertebrate progenitors by comparing lamprey to other vertebrates. We have previously shown that rods and cones in lamprey respond to light much like photoreceptors in other vertebrates and have a similar sensitivity. We now show that these affinities are even closer. Both rods and cones adapt to background light and to bleaches in a manner almost identical to other vertebrate photoreceptors. The operating range in darkness is nearly the same in lamprey and in amphibian or mammalian rods and cones; moreover background light shifts response-intensity curves downward and to the right over a similar range of ambient intensities. Rods show increment saturation at about the same intensity as mammalian rods, and cones never saturate. Bleaches decrease

  11. Assessment of Fluctuating Reservoir Elevations Using Hydraulic Models and Impacts to Larval Pacific Lamprey Rearing Habitat in the Bonneville Pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Robert P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rakowski, Cynthia L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Perkins, William A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richmond, Marshall C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-24

    This report presents the results of a modeling assessment of likely lamprey larval habitat that may be impacted by dewatering of the major tributary delta regions in the Bonneville Pool of the Columbia River. This assessment was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District (CENWP). The goal of the study was to provide baseline data about how the regions of interest would potentially be impacted at three river flows (10, 50, and 90 percent exceedance flow) for four different forebay elevations at Bonneville Dam. Impacts of unsteady flows at The Dalles Dam and changing forebay elevation at Bonneville Dam for a 2-week period were also assessed. The area of dewatered regions was calculated by importing modeled data outputs into a GIS and then calculating the change in inundated area near tributary deltas for the four Bonneville forebay surface elevations. From the modeled output we determined that the overall change in area is less sensitive to elevations changes during higher river discharges. Changing the forebay elevation at Bonneville and the resulting impact to total dewatered regions was greater at the lowest modeled river flow (97 kcfs) and showed the greatest variation at the White Salmon/Hood River delta regions followed by the Wind, Klickitat and the Little White Salmon rivers. To understand how inundation might change on a daily and hourly basis. Unsteady flow models were run for a 2-week period in 2002 and compared to 2014. The water surface elevation in the upstream pool closely follows that of the Bonneville Dam forebay with rapid changes of 1 to 2-ft possible. The data shows that 2.5-ft variation in water surface elevation occurred during this period in 2002 and a 3.7-ft change occurred in 2014. The duration of these changes were highly variable and generally did not stay constant for more than a 5-hr period.

  12. The Lesioned Spinal Cord Is a “New” Spinal Cord: Evidence from Functional Changes after Spinal Injury in Lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David

    2017-01-01

    Finding a treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI) focuses on reconnecting the spinal cord by promoting regeneration across the lesion site. However, while regeneration is necessary for recovery, on its own it may not be sufficient. This presumably reflects the requirement for regenerated inputs to interact appropriately with the spinal cord, making sub-lesion network properties an additional influence on recovery. This review summarizes work we have done in the lamprey, a model system for SCI research. We have compared locomotor behavior (swimming) and the properties of descending inputs, locomotor networks, and sensory inputs in unlesioned animals and animals that have received complete spinal cord lesions. In the majority (∼90%) of animals swimming parameters after lesioning recovered to match those in unlesioned animals. Synaptic inputs from individual regenerated axons also matched the properties in unlesioned animals, although this was associated with changes in release parameters. This suggests against any compensation at these synapses for the reduced descending drive that will occur given that regeneration is always incomplete. Compensation instead seems to occur through diverse changes in cellular and synaptic properties in locomotor networks and proprioceptive systems below, but also above, the lesion site. Recovery of locomotor performance is thus not simply the reconnection of the two sides of the spinal cord, but reflects a distributed and varied range of spinal cord changes. While locomotor network changes are insufficient on their own for recovery, they may facilitate locomotor outputs by compensating for the reduction in descending drive. Potentiated sensory feedback may in turn be a necessary adaptation that monitors and adjusts the output from the “new” locomotor network. Rather than a single aspect, changes in different components of the motor system and their interactions may be needed after SCI. If these are general features, and where

  13. Seasonal Abundance and Host-Feeding Patterns of Anopheline Vectors in Malaria Endemic Area of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Basseri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal abundance and tendency to feed on humans are important parameters to measure for effective control of malaria vectors. The objective of this study was to describe relation between feeding pattern, abundance, and resting behavior of four malaria vectors in southern Iran. This study was conducted in ten indicator villages (based on malaria incidence and entomological indices in mountainous/hilly and plain regions situated south and southeastern Iran. Mosquito vectors were collected from indoor as well as outdoor shelters and the blood meals were examined by ELISA test. Over all 7654 female Anopheles spp. were captured, the most common species were Anopheles stephensi, An. culicifacies, An. fluviatilis, and An. d'thali. The overall human blood index was 37.50%, 19.83%, 16.4%, and 30.1% for An. fluviatilis, An. stephensi, An. culicifacies, and An. d'thali, respectively. In addition, An. fluviatilis fed on human blood during the entire year but the feeding behavior of An. stephensi and An. culicifacies varied according to seasons. Overall, the abundance of the female mosquito positive to human blood was 4.25% per human shelter versus 17.5% per animal shelter. This result indicates that the vectors had tendency to rest in animal shelters after feeding on human. Therefore, vector control measure should be planned based on such as feeding pattern, abundance, and resting behavior of these vectors in the area.

  14. Summer co-existence of small-sized cyprinid and percid individuals in natural and impounded stretches of a lowland river: food niche partitioning among fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lik, J; Dukowska, M; Grzybkowska, M; Leszczyńska, J

    2017-04-01

    Due to changes of discharge regime downstream of a dam reservoir, an alluvial natural stretch of the Warta River changed to a macrophyte-dominated ecosystem. Large patches of submersed, aquatic macrophytes appeared in summer and their effect is analysed in this study. These patches contained enriched macroinvertebrate assemblages (epiphyton and benthos) and they were refuge for both zooplankton and young fishes released from the reservoir. Despite these altered conditions in this stretch, roach Rutilus rutilus, perch Perca fluviatilis and ruffe Gymnocephalus cernua dominated, as they did in the natural backwater. Fishes were sampled every 2 weeks from June to August, together with their food resources to assess the partitioning of the diet among small individuals of the three species in both stretches (the natural and affected ones). The aim of the analysis was to answer how animal food associated with water plants was partitioned between the species. In both stretches, G. cernua were primarily benthivorous, but epiphytic fauna, zooplankton and large-sized benthic chironomid larvae replaced lack of many large, benthic insects in the tailwater. Levins' food breath index decreased from 0·36 in the backwater to 0·29 in the tailwater. An opposite trend was observed for P. fluviatilis occurring among macrophytes. Perca fluviatilis were competitors of R. rutilus and took food not only in or on the river bed, but also in the water column. They ate zooplankton and epiphytic fauna and Levins' index increased from 0·32 to 0·44 in the tailwater. Rutilus rutilus fed on adult insects, algae and plant fragments in the natural stretch. In the tailwater, these food types were chiefly complemented by zooplankton. Despite this, the niche breadth of R. rutilus was similar at the two sites. Abundance of food associated with the macrophytes appeared to facilitate cohabitation in the abundant fish populations, but P. fluviatilis appeared to benefit the most in the altered river

  15. Heavy metal levels in the liver and muscle tissues of the four commercial fishes from Lake Balik, Kızılırmak Delta (Samsun, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Bat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the levels of some heavy metals in the liver and edible tissues of four fish species [Mugil cephalus L., 1758 (M. cephalus, Cyprinus carpio L., 1758 (C. carpio, Perca fluviatilis L., 1758 (P. fluviatilis and Stizostedion lucioperca L., 1758 (S. lucioperca] collected from Lake Balik, Kizilirmak Delta (Samsun for analysis of Cu, Co, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn, Ni and Fe. These metals were chosen because at higher concentrations there might be toxic to the fish and by extension humans that depends on such fish as food. Methods: The concentrations of the metals were carried out by the flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (UNICAM 929. Results: Large differences in heavy metal levels were observed between liver and muscle tissues within each fish. The results showed that the Fe concentrations were the highest and Cd concentrations were the lowest in livers and edible tissues of the four species. The muscles of C. carpio accumulated significant higher levels of Co, Zn and Ni than other species. Cu was higher in the muscles of S. lucioperca than those in other species, while M. cephalus showed more of Mn and Fe levels. The muscles of P. fluviatilis accumulated significant higher levels of Pb and Cd than other species. However, the liver of M. cephalus accumulated significant higher levels of Co, Mn and Fe than other species. The level of Cd was the highest in the liver of P. fluviatilis, while S. lucioperca showed more of Cu and Pb, and the higher levels of Zn and Ni was measured in the liver of C. carpio. Conclusions: The metal levels obtained were compared with the maximum permitted levels in food of the Turkish Food Codex and Commission Regulation (EC. The results of this study showed that estimated daily and weekly intakes of selected metals via consumption of fish were below the permissible tolerable daily intake and provisional tolerable weekly intake values established by Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health

  16. Functional evolution of the vitamin D and pregnane X receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ou Junhai

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vitamin D receptor (VDR and pregnane X receptor (PXR are nuclear hormone receptors of the NR1I subfamily that show contrasting patterns of cross-species variation. VDR and PXR are thought to have arisen from duplication of an ancestral gene, evident now as a single gene in the genome of the chordate invertebrate Ciona intestinalis (sea squirt. VDR genes have been detected in a wide range of vertebrates including jawless fish. To date, PXR genes have not been found in cartilaginous fish. In this study, the ligand selectivities of VDRs were compared in detail across a range of vertebrate species and compared with those of the Ciona VDR/PXR. In addition, several assays were used to search for evidence of PXR-mediated hepatic effects in three model non-mammalian species: sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus, zebrafish (Danio rerio, and African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis. Results Human, mouse, frog, zebrafish, and lamprey VDRs were found to have similar ligand selectivities for vitamin D derivatives. In contrast, using cultured primary hepatocytes, only zebrafish showed evidence of PXR-mediated induction of enzyme expression, with increases in testosterone 6β-hydroxylation activity (a measure of cytochrome P450 3A activity in other species and flurbiprofen 4-hydroxylation activity (measure of cytochrome P450 2C activity following exposure to known PXR activators. A separate assay in vivo using zebrafish demonstrated increased hepatic transcription of another PXR target, multidrug resistance gene (ABCB5, following injection of the major zebrafish bile salt, 5α-cyprinol 27-sulfate. The PXR target function, testosterone hydroxylation, was detected in frog and sea lamprey primary hepatocytes, but was not inducible in these two species by a wide range of PXR activators in other animals. Analysis of the sea lamprey draft genome also did not show evidence of a PXR gene. Conclusion Our results show tight conservation of ligand

  17. Columbia River system operation review. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix C of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on andromous fish and juvenile fish transportation. The principal andromous fish in the Columbia basin include salmonid species (Chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead) and nonsalmoinid andromous species (sturgeon, lamprey, and shad). Major sections in this document include the following: background, scope and process; affected environment for salmon and steelhead, shaded, lamprey, sturgeon; study methods; description of alternatives: qualitative and quantitative findings

  18. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix C: Anadromous Fish and Juvenile Fish Transportation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix C of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System discusses impacts on andromous fish and juvenile fish transportation. The principal andromous fish in the Columbia basin include salmonid species (Chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead) and nonsalmoinid andromous species (sturgeon, lamprey, and shad). Major sections in this document include the following: background, scope and process; affected environment for salmon and steelhead, shaded, lamprey, sturgeon; study methods; description of alternatives: qualitative and quantitative findings.

  19. The Effect of Parasite Infection on Stable Isotope Turnover Rates of δ15N, δ13C and δ34S in Multiple Tissues of Eurasian Perch Perca fluviatilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Yohannes

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis of commercially and ecologically important fish can improve understanding of life-history and trophic ecology. However, accurate interpretation of stable isotope values requires knowledge of tissue-specific isotopic turnover that will help to describe differences in the isotopic composition of tissues and diet. We performed a diet-switch experiment using captive-reared parasite-free Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis and wild caught specimens of the same species, infected with the pike tapeworm Triaenophorus nodulosus living in host liver tissue. We hypothesize that metabolic processes related to infection status play a major role in isotopic turnover and examined the influence of parasite infection on isotopic turn-over rate of carbon (δ13C, nitrogen (δ15N and sulphur (δ34S in liver, blood and muscle. The δ15N and δ13C turnovers were fastest in liver tissues, followed by blood and muscle. In infected fish, liver and blood δ15N and δ13C turnover rates were similar. However, in infected fish, liver and blood δ13C turnover was faster than that of δ15N. Moreover, in infected subjects, liver δ15N and δ13C turnover rates were three to five times faster than in livers of uninfected subjects (isotopic half-life of ca.3-4 days compared to 16 and 10 days, respectively. Blood δ34S turnover rate were about twice faster in non-infected individuals implying that parasite infection could retard the turnover rate of δ34S and sulphur containing amino acids. Slower turnover rate of essential amino acid could probably decrease individual immune function. These indicate potential hidden costs of chronic and persistent infections that may have accumulated adverse effects and might eventually impair life-history fitness. For the first time, we were able to shift the isotope values of parasites encapsulated in the liver by changing the dietary source of the host. We also report variability in isotopic turnover rates between tissues

  20. Corresponding long-term shifts in stream temperature and invasive fish migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Erin L.; Johnson, Nicholas; Pangle, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    By investigating historic trapping records of invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) throughout tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes, we found that upstream spawning migration timing was highly correlated with stream temperatures over large spatial and temporal scales. Furthermore, several streams in our study exceeded a critical spring thermal threshold (i.e., 15°C) and experienced peak spawning migration up to 30 days earlier since the 1980s, whereas others were relatively unchanged. Streams exhibiting warming trends and earlier migration were spatially clustered and generally found on the leeward side of the Great Lakes where the lakes most affect local climate. These findings highlight that all streams are not equally impacted by climate change and represent, to our knowledge, the first observation linking long-term changes in stream temperatures to shifts in migration timing of an invasive fish. Earlier sea lamprey migration in Great Lakes tributaries may improve young of the year growth and survival, but not limit their spatial distribution, making sea lamprey control more challenging.

  1. Fulltext PDF - Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    On the conspecificity of Anopheles fluviatilis species S with. Anopheles minimus species .... plexes in eubacteria: a new role of initiation factor 3. 281. ELISA ..... RT-PCR. Coat protein sequence shows that Cucumber mosaic virus iso- late from ...

  2. The Geology of Burma (Myanmar): An Annotated Bibliography of Burma’s Geology, Geography and Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Eichornia-Crassipes; Ephydatia-Fluviatilis; Hydrilla; Imperata ; Inle; Intha; Shan; Utricularia. Abstract: cultural data on the people and a bibliography...characterized by dipterocarpus Bibliography of Burman Earth Science September 2008 71 tuberculatus and associated plants; the other by imperata . The

  3. The use of artificial spawning substrates in order to understand the factors influencing the spawning site selection, depth of egg strands deposition and hatching time of perch (Perca fluviatilis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kubečka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of egg strands of perch Perca fluviatilis and factors affecting this distribution, in terms of spawning sites and spawning depths used, was studied in spring 2010 in Chabařovice Lake, Czech Republic, using areas with an artificial spawning substrate (A.S.S. and control areas outside the A.S.S. Perch significantly preferred a calm shore instead of a windward shore for spawning. The depths at which perch egg strands were found increased significantly during the spawning period in both A.S.S. areas and in areas outside the A.S.S. (on average from 4.9 m at the beginning to 12.3 m at the end of the spawning period. With increasing depth of deposition the size of the egg strands decreased significantly. The mean depth of egg strands on individual dates corresponded to the position of 10-12°C water layers. From the third week onward, however, egg strands were deposited in much deeper and colder water. A strong relationship was found between the depth at which egg strands were deposited and the duration of the daylight period, indicating that, at the end of the spawning season, perch do not react to the actual temperature of the water column but that they follow their inner clock, assuming that "normally" the shallower depth layers are too warm for successful embryo development. Factors influencing the depth distribution of egg strands were identified as waves, temperature and duration of the daylight period. Factors influencing the selection of spawning sites were identified as wind inducing current, internal seiches and temperature instability of the water column. The first perch larvae were present in the open water of Chabařovice Lake before mid-May, and the latest larvae not earlier than the beginning of July, since warming of the water in deeper layers was very slow. It appears that with prolonged spawning and hatching periods and with spawning occurring at various depths and temperatures, perch have evolved a powerful

  4. Malaria epidemiology in an area of stable transmission in tribal population of Jharkhand, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Manoj K; Prajapati, Brijesh K; Tiendrebeogo, Régis W

    2017-01-01

    and density levels in the study population showed a gradual decrease with increasing age. This finding is consistent with the phenomenon of naturally acquired immunity against malaria. Three vector species were detected: Anopheles fluviatilis, Anopheles annularis, and Anopheles culicifacies. The incoherence...

  5. Descending propriospinal neurons mediate restoration of locomotor function following spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthall, Katelyn N.; Hough, Ryan A.

    2016-01-01

    Following spinal cord injury (SCI) in the lamprey, there is virtually complete recovery of locomotion within a few weeks, but interestingly, axonal regeneration of reticulospinal (RS) neurons is mostly limited to short distances caudal to the injury site. To explain this situation, we hypothesize that descending propriospinal (PS) neurons relay descending drive from RS neurons to indirectly activate spinal central pattern generators (CPGs). In the present study, the contributions of PS neurons to locomotor recovery were tested in the lamprey following SCI. First, long RS neuron projections were interrupted by staggered spinal hemitransections on the right side at 10% body length (BL; normalized from the tip of the oral hood) and on the left side at 30% BL. For acute recovery conditions (≤1 wk) and before axonal regeneration, swimming muscle burst activity was relatively normal, but with some deficits in coordination. Second, lampreys received two spaced complete spinal transections, one at 10% BL and one at 30% BL, to interrupt long-axon RS neuron projections. At short recovery times (3–5 wk), RS and PS neurons will have regenerated their axons for short distances and potentially established a polysynaptic descending command pathway. At these short recovery times, swimming muscle burst activity had only minor coordination deficits. A computer model that incorporated either of the two spinal lesions could mimic many aspects of the experimental data. In conclusion, descending PS neurons are a viable mechanism for indirect activation of spinal locomotor CPGs, although there can be coordination deficits of locomotor activity. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In the lamprey following spinal lesion-mediated interruption of long axonal projections of reticulospinal (RS) neurons, sensory stimulation still elicited relatively normal locomotor muscle burst activity, but with some coordination deficits. Computer models incorporating the spinal lesions could mimic many aspects of the

  6. Descending propriospinal neurons mediate restoration of locomotor function following spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthall, Katelyn N; Hough, Ryan A; McClellan, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    Following spinal cord injury (SCI) in the lamprey, there is virtually complete recovery of locomotion within a few weeks, but interestingly, axonal regeneration of reticulospinal (RS) neurons is mostly limited to short distances caudal to the injury site. To explain this situation, we hypothesize that descending propriospinal (PS) neurons relay descending drive from RS neurons to indirectly activate spinal central pattern generators (CPGs). In the present study, the contributions of PS neurons to locomotor recovery were tested in the lamprey following SCI. First, long RS neuron projections were interrupted by staggered spinal hemitransections on the right side at 10% body length (BL; normalized from the tip of the oral hood) and on the left side at 30% BL. For acute recovery conditions (≤1 wk) and before axonal regeneration, swimming muscle burst activity was relatively normal, but with some deficits in coordination. Second, lampreys received two spaced complete spinal transections, one at 10% BL and one at 30% BL, to interrupt long-axon RS neuron projections. At short recovery times (3-5 wk), RS and PS neurons will have regenerated their axons for short distances and potentially established a polysynaptic descending command pathway. At these short recovery times, swimming muscle burst activity had only minor coordination deficits. A computer model that incorporated either of the two spinal lesions could mimic many aspects of the experimental data. In conclusion, descending PS neurons are a viable mechanism for indirect activation of spinal locomotor CPGs, although there can be coordination deficits of locomotor activity. In the lamprey following spinal lesion-mediated interruption of long axonal projections of reticulospinal (RS) neurons, sensory stimulation still elicited relatively normal locomotor muscle burst activity, but with some coordination deficits. Computer models incorporating the spinal lesions could mimic many aspects of the experimental results

  7. Altered steroid metabolism in several teleost species exposed to endocrine disrupting substances in refuse dump leachate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noaksson, E.; Linderoth, M.; Bosveld, A.T.C.; Balk, L.

    2003-01-01

    Endocrine disruption associated with reproductive failure has been reported previously in female perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) from Lake Molnbyggen in Sweden and in female brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) from Vadbäcken, a stream emptying into Molnbyggen. Both Molnbyggen

  8. Tetrodotoxin Sensitivity of the Vertebrate Cardiac Na+ Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaakko Haverinen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary origin and physiological significance of the tetrodotoxin (TTX resistance of the vertebrate cardiac Na+ current (INa is still unresolved. To this end, TTX sensitivity of the cardiac INa was examined in cardiac myocytes of a cyclostome (lamprey, three teleost fishes (crucian carp, burbot and rainbow trout, a clawed frog, a snake (viper and a bird (quail. In lamprey, teleost fishes, frog and bird the cardiac INa was highly TTX-sensitive with EC50-values between 1.4 and 6.6 nmol·L−1. In the snake heart, about 80% of the INa was TTX-resistant with EC50 value of 0.65 μmol·L−1, the rest being TTX-sensitive (EC50 = 0.5 nmol·L−1. Although TTX-resistance of the cardiac INa appears to be limited to mammals and reptiles, the presence of TTX-resistant isoform of Na+ channel in the lamprey heart suggest an early evolutionary origin of the TTX-resistance, perhaps in the common ancestor of all vertebrates.

  9. Relatively rapid loss of lampricide residues from fillet tissue of fish after routine treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vue, C.; Bernardy, J.A.; Hubert, T.D.; Gingerich, W.H.; Stehly, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    The selective sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) larvicide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) is currently used to control parasitic sea lampreys in tributaries to the Great Lakes basin. The concentration and persistence of TFM and its major metabolite, TFM glucuronide (TFM-glu), was determined in fillet tissue of fish after a typical stream application. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were exposed to a nominal concentration of 12.6 nmol/mL TFM for about 12 h during a sea lamprey control treatment of the Ford River in Michigan. Concentrations of TFM and TFM-glu were greatest in the fillet tissues during the exposure period, with greater residues in channel catfish (wet wt; mean, 6.95 nmol/g TFM; mean, 2.40 nmol/g TFM-glu) than in rainbow trout (wet wt; mean, 1.45 nmol/g TFM; mean, 0.93 nmol/g TFM-glu). After the exposure period, residues in both species decreased by 90-99% within 6-12 h and were less than the quantitation limit (<0.03 nmol/g) within 36 h.

  10. Differences in haematology and respiratory system morphology at three neogobiid species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halačka, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2015), s. 514-520 ISSN 2391-5412 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1768 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : invasive species * goblet cells * oxygen transport * Neogobius melanostomus * Neogobius fluviatilis * Neogobius kessleri Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  11. 2652-IJBCS-Article-Claudine Tiogue Tekou

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    article. 11 de la loi No 94 /01 du 20 janvier 1994. (Djeukam, 2012) et se résume à l' ..... The length-weight relationship and seasonal cycle in gonad weight and condition in perch. (Perca fluviatilis). Journal of Animal. Ecology, 20 (2): 201-219.

  12. Origin of serpin-mediated regulation of coagulation and blood pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjie Wang

    Full Text Available Vertebrates evolved an endothelium-lined hemostatic system and a pump-driven pressurized circulation with a finely-balanced coagulation cascade and elaborate blood pressure control over the past 500 million years. Genome analyses have identified principal components of the ancestral coagulation system, however, how this complex trait was originally regulated is largely unknown. Likewise, little is known about the roots of blood pressure control in vertebrates. Here we studied three members of the serpin superfamily that interfere with procoagulant activity and blood pressure of lampreys, a group of basal vertebrates. Angiotensinogen from these jawless fish was found to fulfill a dual role by operating as a highly selective thrombin inhibitor that is activated by heparin-related glycosaminoglycans, and concurrently by serving as source of effector peptides that activate type 1 angiotensin receptors. Lampreys, uniquely among vertebrates, thus use angiotensinogen for interference with both coagulation and osmo- and pressure regulation. Heparin cofactor II from lampreys, in contrast to its paralogue angiotensinogen, is preferentially activated by dermatan sulfate, suggesting that these two serpins affect different facets of thrombin's multiple roles. Lampreys also express a lineage-specific serpin with anti-factor Xa activity, which demonstrates that another important procoagulant enzyme is under inhibitory control. Comparative genomics suggests that orthologues of these three serpins were key components of the ancestral hemostatic system. It appears that, early in vertebrate evolution, coagulation and osmo- and pressure regulation crosstalked through antiproteolytically active angiotensinogen, a feature that was lost during vertebrate radiation, though in gnathostomes interplay between these traits is effective.

  13. Stimulatory activity of four green freshwater sponges on aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of green sponges on the abundance of aquatic mycotal species is caused by dissolved organic matter produced during photosynthesis by symbiotic zoochlorellae, a symbionts of green sponges and excreted into the water environment (S. fluviatilis excreted mean 12.8% of carbon fixation). Those excreted organic ...

  14. Cannibalism in a size-structured population: energy extraction and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persson, L.; Claessen, D.; de Roos, A.M.; Byström, P.; Sjögren, S.; Svanbäck, R.; Wahlström, E.; Westman, E.

    2004-01-01

    Recent size-structured cannibalistic models point to the importance of the energy gain by cannibals and also show that this gain may result in the emergence of giant individuals. We use a combination of a 10-year field study of a perch (Perca fluviatilis) population and quantitative within-season

  15. Cannibalism in a size-structured population: Enery extraction and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persson, L.; Claessen, D.; de Roos, A.M.; Bystrom, P.; Sjogren, S.; Svanback, R.; Wahlstrom, E.; Westman, E.

    2004-01-01

    Recent size-structured cannibalistic models point to the importance of the energy gain by cannibals and also show that this gain may result in the emergence of giant individuals. We use a combination of a 10-year field study of a perch (Perca fluviatilis) population and quantitative within-season

  16. Nitrogen Saturation in Highly Retentive Watersheds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, M. L.; McDowell, W. H.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed managers are often concerned with minimizing the amount of N delivered to N-limited estuaries and coastal zones. A major concern is that watersheds might reach N saturation, in which N delivered to coastal zones increases due to declines in the efficiency of N retention despite constant or even reduced N inputs. We have quantified long-term changes in N inputs (atmospheric deposition, imported food and agricultural fertilizers), outputs (N concentration and export) and retention in the urbanizing Lamprey River watershed in coastal NH. Overall, the Lamprey watershed is 70% forested, receives about 13.5 kg N/ha/yr and has a high rate of annual N retention (85%). Atmospheric deposition (8.7 kg/ha/yr) is the largest N input to the watershed. Of the 2.2 kg N/ha/yr exported in the Lamprey River, dissolved organic N (DON) is the dominant form (50% of total) and it varies spatially throughout the watershed with wetland cover. Nitrate accounts for 30% of the N exported, shows a statistically significant increase from 1999 to 2009, and its spatial variability in both concentration and export is related to human population density. In sub-basins throughout the Lamprey, inorganic N retention is high (85-99%), but the efficiency of N retention declines sharply with increased human population density and associated anthropogenic N inputs. N assimilation in the vegetation, denitrification to the atmosphere and storage in the groundwater pool could all be important contributors to the current high rates of N retention. The temporal and spatial patterns that we have observed in nitrate concentration and export are driven by increases in N inputs and impervious surfaces over time, but the declining efficiency of N retention suggests that the watershed may also be reaching N saturation. The downstream receiving estuary, Great Bay, already suffers from low dissolved oxygen levels and eelgrass loss in part due to N loading from the Lamprey watershed. Targeting and reducing

  17. Expression of UV-sensitive parapinopsin in the iguana parietal eyes and its implication in UV-sensitivity in vertebrate pineal-related organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Seiji; Kawano-Yamashita, Emi; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Terakita, Akihisa

    2012-01-01

    The pineal-related organs of lower vertebrates have the ability to discriminate different wavelengths of light. This wavelength discrimination is achieved through antagonistic light responses to UV or blue and visible light. Previously, we demonstrated that parapinopsin underlies the UV reception in the lamprey pineal organ and identified parapinopsin genes in teleosts and frogs of which the pineal-related organs were reported to discriminate light. In this study, we report the first identification of parapinopsin in the reptile lineage and show its expression in the parietal eye of the green iguana. Spectroscopic analysis revealed that iguana parapinopsin is a UV-sensitive pigment, similar to lamprey parapinopsin. Interestingly, immunohistochemical analyses using antibodies specific to parapinopsin and parietopsin, a parietal eye green-sensitive pigment, revealed that parapinopsin and parietopsin are colocalized in the outer segments of the parietal eye photoreceptor cells in iguanas. These results strongly suggest that parapinopsin underlies the wavelength discrimination involving UV reception in the iguana parietal eye. The current findings support the idea that parapinopsin is a common photopigment underlying the UV-sensitivity in wavelength discrimination of the pineal-related organs found from lampreys to reptiles.

  18. The current threat level of fish in river network of individual sea-drainage areas in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusk Stanislav

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of changes in the population spread of individual ichthyofauna species (lampreys and fishes as well as the identification of unfavourable impacts is the necessary prerequisite for the correct selection of corrective measures. The river network in the Czech Republic belongs to the three sea-drainage areas (North Sea, Baltic Sea, and Black Sea. The species composition of the original ichthyofauna and the extent of the threat to some species differs in the individual sea-drainage areas. The original ichthyofauna in the Czech Republic consists of 4 lamprey species and 55 fish species. Out of this, only one lamprey species and 31 fish species originate in all three sea-drainage areas. There are 37 fish species considered as the original ones in the North Sea drainage area, there of 4 species are EX, 1 species EW, and 11 species (29.7% are threatened. In the Baltic Sea drainage area, there are 4 species EX, 1 species EW, and 8 species (22.8% threatened out of the total 35 assessed species. Out of 49 species in the Black Sea drainage area, there are 4 species EX and 23 species (46.9 % threatened.

  19. Expression of UV-Sensitive Parapinopsin in the Iguana Parietal Eyes and Its Implication in UV-Sensitivity in Vertebrate Pineal-Related Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Seiji; Kawano-Yamashita, Emi; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Terakita, Akihisa

    2012-01-01

    The pineal-related organs of lower vertebrates have the ability to discriminate different wavelengths of light. This wavelength discrimination is achieved through antagonistic light responses to UV or blue and visible light. Previously, we demonstrated that parapinopsin underlies the UV reception in the lamprey pineal organ and identified parapinopsin genes in teleosts and frogs of which the pineal-related organs were reported to discriminate light. In this study, we report the first identification of parapinopsin in the reptile lineage and show its expression in the parietal eye of the green iguana. Spectroscopic analysis revealed that iguana parapinopsin is a UV-sensitive pigment, similar to lamprey parapinopsin. Interestingly, immunohistochemical analyses using antibodies specific to parapinopsin and parietopsin, a parietal eye green-sensitive pigment, revealed that parapinopsin and parietopsin are colocalized in the outer segments of the parietal eye photoreceptor cells in iguanas. These results strongly suggest that parapinopsin underlies the wavelength discrimination involving UV reception in the iguana parietal eye. The current findings support the idea that parapinopsin is a common photopigment underlying the UV-sensitivity in wavelength discrimination of the pineal-related organs found from lampreys to reptiles. PMID:22720013

  20. Expression of UV-sensitive parapinopsin in the iguana parietal eyes and its implication in UV-sensitivity in vertebrate pineal-related organs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Wada

    Full Text Available The pineal-related organs of lower vertebrates have the ability to discriminate different wavelengths of light. This wavelength discrimination is achieved through antagonistic light responses to UV or blue and visible light. Previously, we demonstrated that parapinopsin underlies the UV reception in the lamprey pineal organ and identified parapinopsin genes in teleosts and frogs of which the pineal-related organs were reported to discriminate light. In this study, we report the first identification of parapinopsin in the reptile lineage and show its expression in the parietal eye of the green iguana. Spectroscopic analysis revealed that iguana parapinopsin is a UV-sensitive pigment, similar to lamprey parapinopsin. Interestingly, immunohistochemical analyses using antibodies specific to parapinopsin and parietopsin, a parietal eye green-sensitive pigment, revealed that parapinopsin and parietopsin are colocalized in the outer segments of the parietal eye photoreceptor cells in iguanas. These results strongly suggest that parapinopsin underlies the wavelength discrimination involving UV reception in the iguana parietal eye. The current findings support the idea that parapinopsin is a common photopigment underlying the UV-sensitivity in wavelength discrimination of the pineal-related organs found from lampreys to reptiles.

  1. Fish assemblages in coastal lagoons in land-uplift succession: The relative importance of local and regional environmental gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snickars, Martin; Sandström, Alfred; Lappalainen, Antti; Mattila, Johanna; Rosqvist, Kajsa; Urho, Lauri

    2009-01-01

    The assemblages of young-of-the-year fish were studied in coastal lagoons in an archipelago with post-glacial land-uplift, which affects environmental gradients at local and regional scale, i.e. lagoon habitat isolation and archipelago position, respectively. The categorisation of 40 undisturbed lagoons into nine habitat types based on habitat isolation and archipelago position was supported by clear relationships with spring temperature and total fish abundance. Rutilus rutilus, breams ( Abramis/Blicca sp.) and Perca fluviatilis were the most abundant and frequently occurring species. The fish assemblage differed among the nine habitat types. Rutilus rutilus, P. fluviatilis and breams were discriminating species in the majority of habitat types with low physical harshness, whereas Alburnus alburnus and Gasterosteus aculeatus increased their contributions in habitat types with high physical harshness. Rutilus rutilus and breams were thus common in lagoons with high habitat isolation situated in the inner archipelago. These lagoons were characterised by warm water and high vegetation coverage. Gasterosteus aculeatus was restricted to lagoons with low habitat isolation and exposure and low vegetation coverage, situated in the outer archipelago. Perca fluviatilis had the widest distribution of all species. The coverage of two macrophytes, Potamogeton perfoliatus and Zannichellia palustris, and salinity matched best the distance among habitat types. These habitat characteristics, as well as the fish abundances and assemblages differed most across the habitat types in the outer and mid archipelago zones and in the lowest habitat isolation. These patterns suggest that the structuring effect of habitat isolation increases along the archipelago gradient as differences between local and regional conditions increase. In the inner archipelago, overall low physical harshness induces homogeneous conditions and the habitat isolation is less important here than in the other zones

  2. Structure and development of the saccular sensory epithelium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structure and development of the saccular sensory epithelium in relation to otolith growth in the perch Perca fluviatilis (Telostei) ... Electron microscopy indicated: 1) The apical surface of each hair cell is covered with a ciliary bundle which varies in length in different epithelial regions. Each bundle is formed from a long ...

  3. The diet of reservoir perch before, during and after establishment of non-native tubenose goby

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Všetičková, Lucie; Mikl, Libor; Adámek, Zdeněk; Prášek, Václav; Roche, Kevin Francis; Jurajda, Pavel

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 419, č. 419 (2018), č. článku 4. ISSN 1961-9502 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : dietary shift * food preference * Gobiidae * invasive species * Perca fluviatilis * piscivore diet Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.217, year: 2016

  4. Observations of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L. post-larvae growth performances reared in an illuminated floating cage in Varese lake (N-W Italy over a two years period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaela Antonini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Eurasian perch (P. fluviatilis is a very important fish species in Varese lake (N-W Italy. Since the second half of 20th century, perch catches in the lake have steadily decreased and by the end of the ‘80s the species resulted clearly endangered. The purpose of this study was to investigate growth, mortality and feeding conditions of perch postlarvae, reared in illuminated floating cage in Varese lake, to obtain fingerlings for a restocking program. In June 2006 and 2007, groups of 280 and 300 pre-weaned post-larvae (average body weight 0.64±0.09 g and 0.25±0.08 g respectively P<0.01 were held in an illuminated net cage for 90 days. The cage was illuminated inside from 20:30 p.m. to 6:30 a.m. During the trial, the nightly zooplankton accumulation inside the cage was assessed weekly. At night time the zooplankton biomass, which resulted dominated by Cladocera family, was higher inside the cage than in the lake. In 2006, 322±36 zooplankters L–1 were observed, compared to 945±600 observed in 2007 (P<0.05. In the lake, the number of zooplankters per litre was similar in both years, resulting in 63.3±50.30 and 61.10±45 zooplankters L–1, respectively on 2006 and 2007. In order to assess perch growth performances, 25 fishes were sampled from the cage every 15-20 days and length (cm and weight (g were assessed for each sample. At the end of September, specific growth rate (SGR and survival rate were assessed. In 2006 the final mean body weight of the perch fry was 4.65±1.47 g and that results significantly lower (P<0.05 than of 2007 (6.3±1.69 g. The SGR was 2.04% and 3.42%, respectively. The higher growth rate observed in 2007 was influenced by a higher zooplankton accumulation in the cage due to an improved cage management. In order to assess the cage efficiency, in September 2006 and 2007, the weight of young-of-year perch (n=50 captured in the lake were compared to those of reared fish. Wild fry showed a mean body weight significantly

  5. Persistent organic pollutants in selected fishes of the Gulf of Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järv, Leili; Kiviranta, Hannu; Koponen, Jani; Rantakokko, Panu; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Radin, Maia; Raid, Tiit; Roots, Ott; Simm, Mart

    2017-07-01

    Fish samples of Baltic herring, sprat, flounder, perch, salmon, and river lamprey were collected from the Gulf of Finland in 2013 and 2014 with the aim to get an overview of the occurrence of pollutants in fish caught in Estonian waters. The content of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (ndl PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organic tin (OT) and perfluorocompounds (PFAS) are examined and discussed in the study. The results revealed that potentially higher content of organo-tin compounds, perfluorocompounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Baltic herring, salmon and river lamprey may cause concern regarding human exposure. It is important to link pollutant content to lipid content of fish taking into account their seasonal variation in different age classes.

  6. Evaluation of the short term 12 hour toxicity of 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) to multiple life stages of Venustaconcha ellipsiformis and Epioblasma triquetra and its host fish (Percina caprodes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaard, Michael A; Newton, Teresa J; Hubert, Terrance D; Kaye, Cheryl A; Barnhart, M Christopher

    2015-07-01

    The present study evaluated the risk of 12-h exposures of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) to multiple life stages of the federally endangered snuffbox (Epioblasma triquetra) and its primary host fish the common logperch (Percina caprodes) as well as a surrogate to the snuffbox, the ellipse (Venustaconcha ellipsiformis). Life stages examined included free glochidia, 1-wk juveniles, and adults of the ellipse; free glochidia, glochidia on host fish, and 1-wk juveniles of the snuffbox; and adult logperch. Larval sea lampreys were also tested alongside adult ellipse and logperch for direct comparison. Survival exceeded 82% among all life stages in both mussel species at levels up to 1.8 times what would be applied during treatments, suggesting that routine sea lamprey control operations would not adversely affect mussels. However, substantial mortality of adult logperch was observed at TFM concentrations typically applied to streams, and loss of host fish could adversely affect snuffbox reproduction. In addition, TFM had no significant effect on the number of glochidia that metamorphosed on adult logperch. Although the snuffbox is not likely to be acutely affected from sea lamprey control operations, mitigation efforts to minimize impacts to the host fish should be considered. © 2015 SETAC.

  7. Immunity's ancient arms

    OpenAIRE

    Litman, Gary W.; Cannon, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Diverse receptors on two types of cell mediate adaptive immunity in jawed vertebrates. In the lamprey, a jawless vertebrate, immunity is likewise compartmentalized but the molecular mechanics are very different.

  8. A novel autonomous, bioinspired swimming robot developed by neuroscientists and bioengineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanini, C; Orofino, S; Manfredi, L; Mintchev, S; Marrazza, S; Capantini, L; Dario, P; Assaf, T; Sinibaldi, E; Grillner, S; Wallén, P

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a new biorobotic platform inspired by the lamprey. Design, fabrication and implemented control are all based on biomechanical and neuroscientific findings on this eel-like fish. The lamprey model has been extensively studied and characterized in recent years because it possesses all basic functions and control mechanisms of higher vertebrates, while at the same time having fewer neurons and simplified neural structures. The untethered robot has a flexible body driven by compliant actuators with proprioceptive feedback. It also has binocular vision for vision-based navigation. The platform has been successfully and extensively experimentally tested in aquatic environments, has high energy efficiency and is ready to be used as investigation tool for high level motor tasks. (paper)

  9. A new species of the genus Salaria Forsskål, 1775 (Actinopterygii, Blennidae in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahyaoui, A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The North African freshwater fish fauna is scarce compared to other regions of the world, probably due to historical and climatic factors. The western part of North Africa is more diverse than central or eastern areas. Populations of freshwater blennids that have been traditionally ascribed to the species Salaria fluviatilis nowadays inhabit the Sebou basin in Morocco. In this study we demonstrated morphologically and molecularly that these Moroccan populations constitute a new species, for which we provide a formal description. The following diagnostic characters distinguish the newly described species from other freshwater blennids: head without diagonal rows of dark dots or blotches on cheeks; supra-ocular tentacle thick and simple (not branched; 13-15 teeth on the upper jaw and 14-16 on the lower jaw; 16-17 soft anal fin rays; short pre-orbital distance (cephalic index: 2.9-3.8; height of the anterior (spiny part of the dorsal fin short (dorsal fin index: 0.8-1.3 and 34 vertebrae. Mitochondrial and nuclear genetic distances between the new Salaria species and either S. economidisi or S. fluviatilis are high, especially in the mitochondrial control region (18%, while these genetic distances range from 2 to 3% when the nuclear S7 marker is compared. These morphological and molecular characters differentiate the new species from the remaining freshwater species of the genus (Salaria economidisi and S. fluviatilis. The new species is confined to a small restricted area of the Sebou basin in Morocco and should be considered endangered (EN according to the IUCN Red List.La fauna de peces de agua dulce del norte de África es escasa comparada con otras regiones del mundo debido fundamentalmente a factores históricos y climáticos. El oeste del norte de África es más diverso que las regiones del centro y del este. En la cuenca del río Sebou habitan actualmente poblaciones de blenios de agua dulce que han sido tradicionalmente adscritas a la

  10. DOC:NO3- ratios and NO3- uptake in forested headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cardona, Bianca; Wymore, Adam S.; McDowell, William H.

    2016-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms driving the coupled interactions between inorganic nitrogen uptake and dissolved organic matter are not well understood, particularly in surface waters. To determine the relationship between dissolved organic carbon (DOC) quantity and nitrate (NO3-) uptake kinetics in streams, we performed a series of NO3- Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization experiments in four streams within the Lamprey River Watershed, New Hampshire, across a range in background DOC concentrations (1-8 mg C/L). Experiments were performed throughout the 2013 and 2014 growing seasons. Across streams and experimental dates, ambient uptake velocity (Vf) correlated positively with increasing DOC concentrations and DOC:NO3- ratios but was only weakly negatively associated with NO3- concentrations. Ambient NO3- Vf was unrelated to pH, light, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and Specific Ultraviolet Absorbance at 254 nm. Although there were general tendencies across the entire Lamprey River Watershed, individual sites behaved differently in their uptake kinetics. NO3- uptake dynamics in the Lamprey River Watershed are most strongly influenced by DOC concentrations rather than NO3- concentrations or physicochemical parameters, which have been identified as regional- to continental-scale drivers in previous research. Understanding the fundamental relationships between dissolved organic matter and inorganic nutrients will be important as global and climatic changes influence the delivery and production of DOC and NO3- in aquatic ecosystems.

  11. Acute Toxicity of the Lampricides TFM and Niclosamide to Three Species of Unionid Mussels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boogaard, Michael A

    2006-01-01

    .... The lampricides 3 trifluoromethyl 4 nitrophenol (TFM) and 2 5 dichloro 4 nitrosalicylanilide (niclosamide) have been used to control larval sea lampreys in tributaries of the Great Lakes since the early 1960s...

  12. Review: evolution of GnIH and related peptides structure and function in the chordates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osugi, Tomohiro; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Discovery of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) in the Japanese quail in 2000 was the first to demonstrate the existence of a hypothalamic neuropeptide inhibiting gonadotropin release. We now know that GnIH regulates reproduction by inhibiting gonadotropin synthesis and release via action on the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) system and the gonadotrope in various vertebrates. GnIH peptides identified in birds and mammals have a common LPXRF-amide (X = L or Q) motif at the C-terminus and inhibit pituitary gonadotropin secretion. However, the function and structure of GnIH peptides are diverse in fish. Goldfish GnIHs possessing a C-terminal LPXRF-amide motif have both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on gonadotropin synthesis or release. The C-terminal sequence of grass puffer and medaka GnIHs are MPQRF-amide. To investigate the evolutionary origin of GnIH and its ancestral structure and function, we searched for GnIH in agnathans, the most ancient lineage of vertebrates. We identified GnIH precursor gene and mature GnIH peptides with C-terminal QPQRF-amide or RPQRF-amide from the brain of sea lamprey. Lamprey GnIH fibers were in close proximity to GnRH-III neurons. Further, one of lamprey GnIHs stimulated the expression of lamprey GnRH-III peptide in the hypothalamus and gonadotropic hormone β mRNA expression in the pituitary. We further identified the ancestral form of GnIH, which had a C-terminal RPQRF-amide, and its receptors in amphioxus, the most basal chordate species. The amphioxus GnIH inhibited cAMP signaling in vitro. In sum, the original forms of GnIH may date back to the time of the emergence of early chordates. GnIH peptides may have had various C-terminal structures slightly different from LPXRF-amide in basal chordates, which had stimulatory and/or inhibitory functions on reproduction. The C-terminal LPXRF-amide structure and its inhibitory function on reproduction may be selected in later-evolved vertebrates, such as birds and mammals.

  13. An evolutionary scenario for gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone in chordates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osugi, T; Ubuka, T; Tsutsui, K

    2015-06-01

    In 2000, we discovered a novel hypothalamic neuropeptide that actively inhibits gonadotrophin release in quail and termed it gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH). GnIH peptides have subsequently been identified in most representative species of gnathostomes. They all share a C-terminal LPXRFamide (X = L or Q) motif. GnIH can inhibit gonadotrophin synthesis and release by decreasing the activity of GnRH neuroes, as well as by directly inhibiting pituitary gonadotrophin secretion in birds and mammals. To investigate the evolutionary origin of GnIH and its ancestral function, we identified a GnIH precursor gene encoding GnIHs from the brain of sea lamprey, the most ancient lineage of vertebrates. Lamprey GnIHs possess a C-terminal PQRFamide motif. In vivo administration of one of lamprey GnIHs stimulated the expression of lamprey GnRH in the hypothalamus and gonadotophin β mRNA in the pituitary. Thus, GnIH may have emerged in agnathans as a stimulatory neuropeptide that subsequently diverged to an inhibitory neuropeptide during the course of evolution from basal vertebrates to later-evolved vertebrates, such as birds and mammals. From a structural point of view, pain modulatory neuropeptides, such as neuropeptide FF (NPFF) and neuropeptide AF, share a C-terminal PQRFamide motif. Because agnathans possess both GnIH and NPFF genes, the origin of GnIH and NPFF genes may date back before the emergence of agnathans. More recently, we identified a novel gene encoding RFamide peptides in the amphioxus. Molecular phylogenetic analysis and synteny analysis indicated that this gene is closely related to the genes of GnIH and NPFF of vertebrates. The results suggest that the identified protochordate gene is similar to the common ancestor of GnIH and NPFF genes, indicating that the origin of GnIH and NPFF may date back to the time of the emergence of early chordates. The GnIH and NPFF genes may have diverged by whole-genome duplication during the course of vertebrate

  14. Origin and evolution of retinoid isomerization machinery in vertebrate visual cycle: hint from jawless vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliakov, Eugenia; Gubin, Alexander N; Stearn, Olivia; Li, Yan; Campos, Maria Mercedes; Gentleman, Susan; Rogozin, Igor B; Redmond, T Michael

    2012-01-01

    In order to maintain visual sensitivity at all light levels, the vertebrate eye possesses a mechanism to regenerate the visual pigment chromophore 11-cis retinal in the dark enzymatically, unlike in all other taxa, which rely on photoisomerization. This mechanism is termed the visual cycle and is localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a support layer of the neural retina. Speculation has long revolved around whether more primitive chordates, such as tunicates and cephalochordates, anticipated this feature. The two key enzymes of the visual cycle are RPE65, the visual cycle all-trans retinyl ester isomerohydrolase, and lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), which generates RPE65's substrate. We hypothesized that the origin of the vertebrate visual cycle is directly connected to an ancestral carotenoid oxygenase acquiring a new retinyl ester isomerohydrolase function. Our phylogenetic analyses of the RPE65/BCMO and N1pC/P60 (LRAT) superfamilies show that neither RPE65 nor LRAT orthologs occur in tunicates (Ciona) or cephalochordates (Branchiostoma), but occur in Petromyzon marinus (Sea Lamprey), a jawless vertebrate. The closest homologs to RPE65 in Ciona and Branchiostoma lacked predicted functionally diverged residues found in all authentic RPE65s, but lamprey RPE65 contained all of them. We cloned RPE65 and LRATb cDNAs from lamprey RPE and demonstrated appropriate enzymatic activities. We show that Ciona ß-carotene monooxygenase a (BCMOa) (previously annotated as an RPE65) has carotenoid oxygenase cleavage activity but not RPE65 activity. We verified the presence of RPE65 in lamprey RPE by immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot and mass spectrometry. On the basis of these data we conclude that the crucial transition from the typical carotenoid double bond cleavage functionality (BCMO) to the isomerohydrolase functionality (RPE65), coupled with the origin of LRAT, occurred subsequent to divergence of the more primitive chordates (tunicates, etc

  15. Review: Evolution of GnIH structure and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro eOsugi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH in the Japanese quail in 2000 was the first to demonstrate the existence of a hypothalamic neuropeptide inhibiting gonadotropin release. We now know that GnIH regulates reproduction by inhibiting gonadotropin synthesis and release via action on the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH system and the gonadotrope in various vertebrates. GnIH peptides identified in birds and mammals have a common LPXRF-amide (X = L or Q motif at the C-terminus and inhibits pituitary gonadotropin secretion. However, the function and structure of GnIH peptides were diverse in fish. Goldfish GnIHs possessing a C-terminal LPXRF-amide motif had both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on gonadotropin synthesis or release. The C-terminal sequence of grass puffer and medaka GnIHs were MPQRF-amide. To investigate the evolutionary origin of GnIH and its ancestral structure and function, we searched for GnIH in agnathans, the most ancient lineage of vertebrates. We identified GnIH precursor gene and mature GnIH peptides with C-terminal QPQRF-amide or RPQRF-amide from the brain of sea lamprey. Lamprey GnIH fibers were in close proximity to GnRH-III neurons. Further, one of lamprey GnIHs stimulated the expression of lamprey GnRH-III peptide in the hypothalamus and gonadotropic hormone β mRNA expression in the pituitary. We further identified the ancestral form of GnIH, which had a C-terminal RPQRF-amide, and its receptors in amphioxus, the most basal chordate species. The amphioxus GnIH inhibited cAMP signaling in vitro. In sum, the original forms of GnIH may date back to the time of the emergence of early chordates. GnIH peptides may have had various C-terminal structures slightly different from LPXRF-amide in basal chordates, which had stimulatory and/or inhibitory functions on reproduction. The C-terminal LPXRF-amide structure and its inhibitory function on reproduction may be selected in later-evolved vertebrates, such as

  16. Diel vertical migrations of age 0+ percids in a shallow, well-mixed reservoir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvíl, M.; Čech, Martin; Vašek, Mojmír; Kubečka, Jan; Hejzlar, Josef; Matěna, Josef; Peterka, Jiří; Macháček, Jiří; Seďa, Jaromír

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 2 (2010), s. 305-310 ISSN 1129-5767 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/06/1371; GA ČR(CZ) GP206/09/P266; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS600170504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : Perca fluviatilis * Sander lucioperca * DVM * juvenile Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2010

  17. Je mihule ukrajinská ještě součástí naší fauny?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanel, L.; Lusk, Stanislav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 6 (2013), s. 279-281 ISSN 0044-4812 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : lamprey Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://ziva.avcr.cz/2013-6/je-mihule-ukrajinska-jeste-soucasti-nasi-fauny.html

  18. Macrophytes shape trophic niche variation among generalist fishes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vejříková, Ivana; Eloranta, A. P.; Vejřík, Lukáš; Šmejkal, Marek; Čech, Martin; Sajdlová, Zuzana; Frouzová, Jaroslava; Kiljunen, M.; Peterka, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 5 (2017), č. článku e0177114. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0204; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14316; GA MŠk LM2015075 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : roach Rutilus rutilus * perch Perca fluviatilis * Scardinius erythrophthalmus * stable-isotopes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  19. Impact of flood on distribution of bathypelagic perch fry layer along the longitudinal profile of large canyon-shaped reservoir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čech, Martin; Kubečka, Jan; Frouzová, Jaroslava; Draštík, Vladislav; Kratochvíl, Michal; Jarošík, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 4 (2007), s. 1109-1119 ISSN 0022-1112. [Annual Meeting of the American Fisheries Society /136/. Lake Placid, 10.09.2006-14.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/06/1371 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : Orlík Reservoir * shoaling * echosounder * cyprinids * Perca fluviatilis * Sander lucioperca Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.404, year: 2007

  20. Bathypelagic percid fry, a strongly predominating fry community in a deep European reservoir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sajdlová, Zuzana; Jůza, Tomáš; Frouzová, Jaroslava; Seďa, Jaromír; Čech, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 787, č. 1 (2017), s. 341-352 ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/09/P266; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0204; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14316 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : echosounder * fry trawling * Gymnocephalus cernua * Perca fluviatilis * Sander lucioperca * shoals Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.056, year: 2016

  1. Methodological issues affecting the study of fish parasites. III. Effect of fish preservation method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvach, Yuriy; Ondračková, Markéta; Janáč, Michal; Jurajda, Pavel

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 3 (2018), s. 213-224 ISSN 0177-5103 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : flounder Paralichthys-olivaceus * Neoheterobothrium-hirame * community structure * infection levels * Baltic sea * Odontobutidae * ectoparasites * Perciformes * collection * ecology * Parasite community * Preservation methods * Perca fluviatilis * Rhodeus amarus * Methodology * Parasitological examination Subject RIV: GL - Fish ing OBOR OECD: Fish ery Impact factor: 1.549, year: 2016

  2. Forestry practices and aquatic biodiversity: Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresswell, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    ). Native non-game fishes have rarely been monitored, but populations of species such as large-scale suckers (Catostomus macrocheilus), squawfish (Ptychocheilus umpquae), and Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) also are declining in some drainages (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, unpublished data).

  3. Growth of microalgae in autotrophic stationary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cunha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we evaluate the growth of nine marine microalgae species (Nannochloropsis oculata, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Isochrysis galbana, Tetraselmis suecica, Tetraselmis chuii, Chaetoceros muelleri, Thalassiosira fluviatilis and Isochrysis sp. and one freshwater species (Chlorella vulgaris under stationary autotrophy conditions, using erlenmeyers fl asks with 800mL of culture medium exposed to constant light intensities providing a photon flux density of about 150μmol.m-2.s-1 and 25±2oC temperature and constant air flow. The experiment was carried out in a controlled environment considering a block delineating randomized over time with three replicates. The Nannochloropsis oculata showed the highest value of maximum cellular density, but with a longer period of time and a lower growth rate. This was probably due to its tiny cell size, demanding a large number of cells per volume to attain its optimum conditions for light, nutrients, water and atmospheric carbon dioxide. In addition, in spite of showing one of the lowest values of maximum cellular density, Thalassiosira fluviatilis was the species that reached its maximum in a short period of time at the highest growth rate. Chlorella vulgaris was the only freshwater species tested and it showed the poorest performance for all the variables analyzed in the current study.

  4. Evolution and development of ventricular septation in the amniote heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelmann, Robert E.; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C.; Vicente-Steijn, Rebecca; Wisse, Lambertus J.; Bartelings, Margot M.; Everts, Sonja; Hoppenbrouwers, Tamara; Kruithof, Boudewijn P. T.; Jensen, Bjarke; de Bruin, Paul W.; Hirasawa, Tatsuya; Kuratani, Shigeru; Vonk, Freek; van de Put, Jeanne M. M. S.; de Bakker, Merijn A.; Richardson, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    During cardiogenesis the epicardium, covering the surface of the myocardial tube, has been ascribed several functions essential for normal heart development of vertebrates from lampreys to mammals. We investigated a novel function of the epicardium in ventricular development in species with partial

  5. Medical Entomology Studies - XIII. The Myzomyia Series of Anopheles (Cellia) in Thailand, with Emphasis on Intra-Interspecific Variations (Diptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 17, Number 4, 1980)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    pinpoint the collection site as Fang District, Chiang Mai Province in June 1952. However, no specimens confirming the record have been found in the...members of the Myzomyia Series in Thailand were in Barnes (1923a, b), who recorded aconitus from Bangkok and Chiang Mai , culicifacies from Chiang Mai , fluviatilis...as funestus Giles, = listoni Liston) from Bangkok and Chiang Mai and minimus from Bangkok. Barnes (1923b) also contained a key to the

  6. Mercury in various tissues of fish caught downstream of a wood pulp factory in the Kammerfoss River, South Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinnes, E.; Haastein, T.; Norheim, G.; Froeslie, A.

    1976-01-01

    The mercury content of perch (Perca fluviatilis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) was studied during a 5-year period after the ban on phenyl mercury in 1970. Muscular concentrations of about 1μg Hg/g were found, compared with 3-6μg Hg/g found in 1968. Organ distribution studies indicated that high concentrations of mercury may be found in the liver and kidney of fish exposed to high mercury pollution. (author)

  7. Consumption of plant material by perch (Perca fluviatilis)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, T.; Adámek, Zdeněk; Jurajda, Pavel; Roche, Kevin Francis; Všetičková, Lucie; Mareš, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 2 (2016), s. 95-97 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : dietary preference * diet breadth * biomanipulation * accidental feeding Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.739, year: 2016

  8. Impaired recycling of synaptic vesicles after acute perturbation of the presynaptic actin cytoskeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shupliakov, Oleg; Bloom, Ona; Gustafsson, Jenny S

    2002-01-01

    Actin is an abundant component of nerve terminals that has been implicated at multiple steps of the synaptic vesicle cycle, including reversible anchoring, exocytosis, and recycling of synaptic vesicles. In the present study we used the lamprey reticulospinal synapse to examine the role of actin ...

  9. Offshore Fish Community: Ecological Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The offshore (>80 m) fish community of Lake Superior is made up of predominately native species. The most prominent species are deepwater sculpin, kiyi, cisco, siscowet lake trout, burbot, and the exotic sea lamprey. Bloater and shortjaw cisco are also found in the offshore zone...

  10. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SKIN SECRETIONS IN THE PERCIDAE FAMILY OF FISH WITH REGARD TO ERYSIPELOTHRIX RHUSIOPATHIAE BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Нulaі

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the effect of skin secretions in Percidae family of fish (Sander lucioperca, Perca fluviatilis on the cultures of pathogenic E. rhusiopathiae bacteria. Methodology. Filter paper was placed on the skin of live fish; after 1 minute it was removed, and the extraction of water-soluble components in the rate of 0.1 cm3 of water per 1 cm2 area of the paper was carried out. The resulting solutions of the secretions of fish skin glands were sterilized by vacuum filtration through the filters with a pore diameter The test samples contained E. rhusiopathiae cultures and fish skin secretions in 1:10, 1:100, 1:1000 and 1:10000 dilutions. The control samples contained a similar ratio of sterile water and cultures of the experimental bacteria type. The content of E. rhusiopathiae cells in the experimental and control samples was determined after 48 hours, the samples were stored at a temperature of +18... +20 °C. Findings. The presence of water-soluble extracts of skin secretions obtained from Percidae family of freshwater fish in the environment causes an increase in the density of E. rhusiopathiae bacteria cultures. The degree of the detected stimulating effect of E. rhusiopathiae directly depend on the concentration of the secretions of fish skin glands in the experimental samples. Under the conditions of freshwater ecosystems, such fish as S. lucioperca and P. fluviatilis and E. rhusiopathiae bacteria may form biocenotical relations of the trophic, topical and phoric types. Originality. The quantitative data proving the biological activity of skin secretions in Percidae family of fish with regard to E. rhusiopathiae pathogenic bacteria have been obtained for the first time. Practical Value. One of the factors contributing to E. rhusiopathiae bacteria staying in freshwater conditions for a long time can be their biocenotical relations with the components of freshwater biocenoses, including such fish as S. lucioperca and P

  11. Small fish use the hypoxic pelagic zone as a refuge from predators.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vejřík, Lukáš; Matějíčková, Ivana; Jůza, Tomáš; Frouzová, Jaroslava; Seďa, Jaromír; Blabolil, Petr; Ricard, Daniel; Vašek, Mojmír; Kubečka, Jan; Říha, Milan; Čech, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 6 (2016), s. 899-913 ISSN 0046-5070 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0204; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14316; GA ČR GP206/09/P266; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-24309S; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : hypoxia * Perca fluviatilis * perch * predator avoidance * zooplankton Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 3.255, year: 2016

  12. Nuevos registros con notas ecológicas y taxonómicas de esponjas dulceacuícolas (Porifera, Spongillidae) en la cuenca del Duero

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Javier; Negro, Ana Isabel

    2015-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the knowledge of freshwater sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae, Spongillidae) of the Douro River watershed. Specimens were found in 24 of 32 transects in 16 sampling stations. Distribution and several ecological data were obtained in 25 wadeable river transects (20+/5−) and 7 deep lakes (4+/3−) of six sub-basins of the northern Iberian plateau. Four species (Ephydatia fluviatilis, E. muelleri, Heteromeyenia baileyi and Spongilla lacustris) were recorded throughout ...

  13. Sampling of deep benthic perch fry: insight into the diel vertical migrations.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čech, Martin; Frouzová, Jaroslava; Peterka, Jiří; Jůza, Tomáš; Draštík, Vladislav; Vašek, Mojmír; Kubečka, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 784, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-8 ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/1371; GA ČR GP206/09/P266; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0204; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14316 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bathypelagic perch fry * Breder trap * Fulton's condition factor * Perca fluviatilis * Římov Reservoir * SCUBA diving Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.056, year: 2016

  14. Flebotomíneo em fragmentos de Mata Atlântica na Região Metropolitana do Recife, PE

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Dílvia Ferreira; Vasconcelos,Simão Dias

    2005-01-01

    Foi realizada uma investigação sobre a distribuição da fauna flebotomínica em 4 fragmentos da Mata Atlântica na Região Metropolitana do Recife. Consistiu na captura de insetos adultos com auxilio de armadilhas luminosas CDC. 1.173 espécimes distribuídos em 11 espécies de Lutzomyia: Lutzomyia evandroi, Lutzomyia choti, Lutzomyia walkeri, Lutzomyia umbratilis, Lutzomyia brasiliensis, Lutzomyia sordellii, Lutzomyia claustrei, Lutzomyia wellcomei, Lutzomyia fluviatilis, Lutzomyia furcata e Lutzom...

  15. Phlebotomine sandflies in fragments of rain forest in Recife, Pernambuco State

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Dílvia Ferreira; Vasconcelos, Simão Dias

    2005-01-01

    Foi realizada uma investigação sobre a distribuição da fauna flebotomínica em 4 fragmentos da Mata Atlântica na Região Metropolitana do Recife. Consistiu na captura de insetos adultos com auxilio de armadilhas luminosas CDC. 1.173 espécimes distribuídos em 11 espécies de Lutzomyia: Lutzomyia evandroi, Lutzomyia choti, Lutzomyia walkeri, Lutzomyia umbratilis, Lutzomyia brasiliensis, Lutzomyia sordellii, Lutzomyia claustrei, Lutzomyia wellcomei, Lutzomyia fluviatilis, Lutzomyia furcata e Lutzom...

  16. On the conspecificity of Anopheles fluviatilis species S with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    to be extended from Yemen to Taiwan (Knight and Stone. 1977) but their ... 3 and A P DASH. National Institute of Malaria Research, 22 Sham Nath Marg, Delhi 110 054, India ..... Financial assistance for this study was provided by the Indian ...

  17. Cambrian origin of the CYP27C1-mediated vitamin A1-to-A2 switch, a key mechanism of vertebrate sensory plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshedian, Ala; Toomery, Matthew B.; Pollock, Gabriel E.; Frederiksen, Rikard; Enright, Jennifer; McCormick, Stephen; Cornwall, M. Carter; Fain, Gordon L.; Corbo, Joseph C.

    2017-01-01

    The spectral composition of ambient light varies across both space and time. Many species of jawed vertebrates adapt to this variation by tuning the sensitivity of their photoreceptors via the expression of CYP27C1, an enzyme that converts vitamin A1 into vitamin A2, thereby shifting the ratio of vitamin A1-based rhodopsin to red-shifted vitamin A2-based porphyropsin in the eye. Here, we show that the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a jawless vertebrate that diverged from jawed vertebrates during the Cambrian period (approx. 500 Ma), dynamically shifts its photoreceptor spectral sensitivity via vitamin A1-to-A2 chromophore exchange as it transitions between photically divergent aquatic habitats. We further show that this shift correlates with high-level expression of the lamprey orthologue of CYP27C1, specifically in the retinal pigment epithelium as in jawed vertebrates. Our results suggest that the CYP27C1-mediated vitamin A1-to-A2 switch is an evolutionarily ancient mechanism of sensory plasticity that appeared not long after the origin of vertebrates.

  18. Biologically Based Undulatory Lamprey Auv Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    flexibility of a fish body depends on the axial skeleton which in some fish con- sists of the bony vertebra column whereas in others it consists of notochord ...undulations and peristaltics to the almost hydrostatic notochord of amphioxus. The latter can change its stiffness by the activation of muscle fibers...paramyosine) lying inside the notochord . The notochord lies along the central axis of the body, contains no bone, and takes up approximately 7% - 10

  19. NHE-1 sequence and expression in toad, snake and fish red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steffen Nyegaard; Wang, Tobias; Kristensen, Torsten

    Red blood cells (RBC) from reptiles appear not to express regulatory volume increase (RVI) upon shrinkage (Kristensen et al., 2008). In other vertebrates, the RVI response is primarily mediated by activation of the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE-1) and we, therefore decided to investigate whether red cells...... of reptiles express a different NHE-1 that responds less to volume activation compared to other vertebrates or simply lack the Na+/H+ exchanger. Using various tissues from the ball python (Python regius), Cane toad (Bufo marinus) and European perch (Perca fluviatilis), cDNA libraries were created...

  20. Comparison of the radiosensitivity of dry dormant eggs, gemmules, and statoblasts of three invertebrate forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Atsuko; Egami, Nobuo

    1985-01-01

    Radiosensitivities of the special structures (reproductive organs) of various invertebrate animals were examined. The doses of 50 % hatch were about 5 kR for staboblasts of the bryozoa, Pectinatella magnifica; 70 kR for gemmules of the freshwater sponge, Eunapius fragilis; 130 kR for gemmuls of the freshwater sponge, Ephydatia fluviatilis; 180 kR for dry eggs of the rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis, and 350 kR for dry eggs of Artemia salina. The results showed that Artemia eggs were the most radioresistant reproductive organ among the materials examined. (author)

  1. The aquatic habit and host plants of Paracles klagesi (Rothschild (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélio R. Meneses

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic habit and host plants of Paracles klagesi (Rothschild (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae in Brazil. The aquatic caterpillar Paracles klagesi (Rothschild, 1910 was collected from the headwaters of a stream in an ecotone between Cerrado and Babaçu forest in northeastern Brazil. The single caterpillar found was observed feeding on the macrophyte Tonina fluviatilis Aubl. (Eriocaulaceae and other aquatic plants of the family Nymphaeaceae present in the area, but also accepted as food Elodea canadensis Michx. (Hydrocharitaceae and Cabomba sp. (Cabombaceae under laboratory conditions.

  2. Příspěvek k poznání vodních měkkýšů severní části CHKO Orlické hory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Beran

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings a review of a malacological survey of the northern part of the Orlické Hory Protected Landscape Area, situated in northwestern part of Bohemia (Czech Republic near boundary between the Czech Republic and Poland. Altogether, only 12 common species of aquatic molluscs (8 gastropods, 4 bivalves were found. Galba truncatula, Radix peregra, Ancylus fluviatilis, Pisidium personatum, and P. casertanum belong to the most frequent molluscs found during this research. Occurrence of vulnerable or endangered molluscs as well as non-native molluscs was not documented in this area.

  3. P123

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Matiunina

    2015-11-01

    We used a sample of genes, which were activated in inducible krasV12 transgenic zebrafish tumors according to the results of RNASeq data. Genes from our sample were expressed after HCC regression upon kras inactivation. The search of orthologs by different tools, such as blastx and psiblast, with e-value cut off not less than 10–3 and query coverage more than 50%, discovered that considerable proportion of tumor-specifically expressed genes are evolutionary novel, i.e. their orthologs are not found in Lamprey. Nine tenths of these novel genes have orthologs in humans. Gene ontology (GO data were used to analyze their functions. According to the results of GO, some of the genes have functions not characteristic to fish. Among known functions of the human orthologues of evolutionary novel genes of zebrafish (vs. Lamprey there are some important morphogenetic functions. For example, genes ccdc40, lmx1ba and lepa acquired functions in lung, embryonic utera and placenta, i.e. organs originated in taxa higher than fish. A large proportion of genes from our sample are connected with retina type eye, heart and brain development.

  4. Activation of Transducin by Bistable Pigment Parapinopsin in the Pineal Organ of Lower Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano-Yamashita, Emi; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Wada, Seiji; Tsukamoto, Hisao; Nagata, Takashi; Terakita, Akihisa

    2015-01-01

    Pineal organs of lower vertebrates contain several kinds of photosensitive molecules, opsins that are suggested to be involved in different light-regulated physiological functions. We previously reported that parapinopsin is an ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive opsin that underlies hyperpolarization of the pineal photoreceptor cells of lower vertebrates to achieve pineal wavelength discrimination. Although, parapinopsin is phylogenetically close to vertebrate visual opsins, it exhibits a property similar to invertebrate visual opsins and melanopsin: the photoproduct of parapinopsin is stable and reverts to the original dark states, demonstrating the nature of bistable pigments. Therefore, it is of evolutionary interest to identify a phototransduction cascade driven by parapinopsin and to compare it with that in vertebrate visual cells. Here, we showed that parapinopsin is coupled to vertebrate visual G protein transducin in the pufferfish, zebrafish, and lamprey pineal organs. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that parapinopsins activated transducin in vitro in a light-dependent manner, similar to vertebrate visual opsins. Interestingly, transducin activation by parapinopsin was provoked and terminated by UV- and subsequent orange-lights irradiations, respectively, due to the bistable nature of parapinopsin, which could contribute to a wavelength-dependent control of a second messenger level in the cell as a unique optogenetic tool. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that parapinopsin was colocalized with Gt2 in the teleost, which possesses rod and cone types of transducin, Gt1, and Gt2. On the other hand, in the lamprey, which does not possess the Gt2 gene, in situ hybridization suggested that parapinopsin-expressing photoreceptor cells contained Gt1 type transducin GtS, indicating that lamprey parapinopsin may use GtS in place of Gt2. Because it is widely accepted that vertebrate visual opsins having a bleaching nature have evolved from non-bleaching opsins

  5. Ecosystem transformations of the Laurentian Great Lake Michigan by nonindigenous biological invaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuhel, Russell L; Aguilar, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Lake Michigan, a 58,000-km(2) freshwater inland sea, is large enough to have persistent basin-scale circulation yet small enough to enable development of approximately balanced budgets for water, energy, and elements including carbon and silicon. Introduction of nonindigenous species-whether through invasion, intentional stocking, or accidental transplantation-has transformed the lake's ecosystem function and habitat structure. Of the 79 nonindigenous species known to have established reproductive populations in the lake, only a few have brought considerable ecological pressure to bear. Four of these were chosen for this review to exemplify top-down (sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus), middle-out (alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus), and bottom-up (the dreissenid zebra and quagga mussels, Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, respectively) transformations of Lake Michigan ecology, habitability, and ultimately physical environment. Lampreys attacked and extirpated indigenous lake trout, the top predator. Alewives outcompeted native planktivorous fish and curtailed invertebrate populations. Dreissenid mussels-especially quagga mussels, which have had a much greater impact than the preceding zebra mussels-moved ecosystem metabolism basin-wide from water column to bottom dominance and engineered structures throughout the lake. Each of these non indigenous species exerted devastating effects on commercial and sport fisheries through ecosystem structure modification.

  6. Evolutionary origins of taste buds: phylogenetic analysis of purinergic neurotransmission in epithelial chemosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirino, Masato; Parnes, Jason; Hansen, Anne; Kiyohara, Sadao; Finger, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Taste buds are gustatory endorgans which use an uncommon purinergic signalling system to transmit information to afferent gustatory nerve fibres. In mammals, ATP is a crucial neurotransmitter released by the taste cells to activate the afferent nerve fibres. Taste buds in mammals display a characteristic, highly specific ecto-ATPase (NTPDase2) activity, suggesting a role in inactivation of the neurotransmitter. The purpose of this study was to test whether the presence of markers of purinergic signalling characterize taste buds in anamniote vertebrates and to test whether similar purinergic systems are employed by other exteroceptive chemosensory systems. The species examined include several teleosts, elasmobranchs, lampreys and hagfish, the last of which lacks vertebrate-type taste buds. For comparison, Schreiner organs of hagfish and solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) of teleosts, both of which are epidermal chemosensory end organs, were also examined because they might be evolutionarily related to taste buds. Ecto-ATPase activity was evident in elongate cells in all fish taste buds, including teleosts, elasmobranchs and lampreys. Neither SCCs nor Schreiner organs show specific ecto-ATPase activity, suggesting that purinergic signalling is not crucial in those systems as it is for taste buds. These findings suggest that the taste system did not originate from SCCs but arose independently in early vertebrates. PMID:23466675

  7. Re-evaluation of the immunological Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flajnik, Martin F

    2014-11-03

    Classically the immunological 'Big Bang' of adaptive immunity was believed to have resulted from the insertion of a transposon into an immunoglobulin superfamily gene member, initiating antigen receptor gene rearrangement via the RAG recombinase in an ancestor of jawed vertebrates. However, the discovery of a second, convergent adaptive immune system in jawless fish, focused on the so-called variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs), was arguably the most exciting finding of the past decade in immunology and has drastically changed the view of immune origins. The recent report of a new lymphocyte lineage in lampreys, defined by the antigen receptor VLRC, suggests that there were three lymphocyte lineages in the common ancestor of jawless and jawed vertebrates that co-opted different antigen receptor supertypes. The transcriptional control of these lineages during development is predicted to be remarkably similar in both the jawless (agnathan) and jawed (gnathostome) vertebrates, suggesting that an early 'division of labor' among lymphocytes was a driving force in the emergence of adaptive immunity. The recent cartilaginous fish genome project suggests that most effector cytokines and chemokines were also present in these fish, and further studies of the lamprey and hagfish genomes will determine just how explosive the Big Bang actually was. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A novel neural substrate for the transformation of olfactory inputs into motor output.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Derjean

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that animals respond to odors by generating or modulating specific motor behaviors. These reactions are important for daily activities, reproduction, and survival. In the sea lamprey, mating occurs after ovulated females are attracted to spawning sites by male sex pheromones. The ubiquity and reliability of olfactory-motor behavioral responses in vertebrates suggest tight coupling between the olfactory system and brain areas controlling movements. However, the circuitry and the underlying cellular neural mechanisms remain largely unknown. Using lamprey brain preparations, and electrophysiology, calcium imaging, and tract tracing experiments, we describe the neural substrate responsible for transforming an olfactory input into a locomotor output. We found that olfactory stimulation with naturally occurring odors and pheromones induced large excitatory responses in reticulospinal cells, the command neurons for locomotion. We have also identified the anatomy and physiology of this circuit. The olfactory input was relayed in the medial part of the olfactory bulb, in the posterior tuberculum, in the mesencephalic locomotor region, to finally reach reticulospinal cells in the hindbrain. Activation of this olfactory-motor pathway generated rhythmic ventral root discharges and swimming movements. Our study bridges the gap between behavior and cellular neural mechanisms in vertebrates, identifying a specific subsystem within the CNS, dedicated to producing motor responses to olfactory inputs.

  9. Evolutionary origins of taste buds: phylogenetic analysis of purinergic neurotransmission in epithelial chemosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirino, Masato; Parnes, Jason; Hansen, Anne; Kiyohara, Sadao; Finger, Thomas E

    2013-03-06

    Taste buds are gustatory endorgans which use an uncommon purinergic signalling system to transmit information to afferent gustatory nerve fibres. In mammals, ATP is a crucial neurotransmitter released by the taste cells to activate the afferent nerve fibres. Taste buds in mammals display a characteristic, highly specific ecto-ATPase (NTPDase2) activity, suggesting a role in inactivation of the neurotransmitter. The purpose of this study was to test whether the presence of markers of purinergic signalling characterize taste buds in anamniote vertebrates and to test whether similar purinergic systems are employed by other exteroceptive chemosensory systems. The species examined include several teleosts, elasmobranchs, lampreys and hagfish, the last of which lacks vertebrate-type taste buds. For comparison, Schreiner organs of hagfish and solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) of teleosts, both of which are epidermal chemosensory end organs, were also examined because they might be evolutionarily related to taste buds. Ecto-ATPase activity was evident in elongate cells in all fish taste buds, including teleosts, elasmobranchs and lampreys. Neither SCCs nor Schreiner organs show specific ecto-ATPase activity, suggesting that purinergic signalling is not crucial in those systems as it is for taste buds. These findings suggest that the taste system did not originate from SCCs but arose independently in early vertebrates.

  10. The effect of salinity on resting metabolism in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviathlis L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ern, R.; Cong, N.; Houng, D.

    2008-01-01

    to properly maintain ion balance even with minor increases in the environmental salinity. The elevated resting VO2 in 10 ppt is equivalent to an increased energy consumption of 975 extra calories per day, and since food intake was unaffected, it is reasonable to assume that the reduced growth seen...... in a freshwater population of P. fluviatilis. Food intake was unaffected and we, therefore, measured resting oxygen uptake (VO2) in fish maintained for 21 days in either fresh or brackish (10 ppt) water using intermittent closed respirometry. VO2 of all fish reached stable levels within 5 h of entering...

  11. Variation in the Helical Structure of Native Collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-24

    notochord were obtained in previous studies [4,10,20–22]. The scaled amplitudes of the central, meridional section of each data set were used to...including helical, structure) from rat tail tendon (collagen type I) and lamprey notochord (collagen type II) show several common features (Figure 5). Of...also a possible consequence of the type II collagen notochord samples being stretched, perhaps to a greater extant then the type I tendon samples to aid

  12. Mosquitos no Parque Nacional da Serra dos Orgãos, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: II. Distribuição vertical Mosquitoes in the National Park of Serra dos Orgãos, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: II. Vertical distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Erico Guimarães

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Em prosseguimento aos estudos sobre a ecologia de culicídeos que vimos realizando no Parque Nacional da Serra dos Orgãos (PNSO, apresentamos nesta oportunidade a sua distribuição vertical. Por meio de capturas feitas em isca humana concomitantemente ao nível do solo e nas imediações da copa das árvores, estabelecemos as tendências das espécies que ali ocorreram de março de 1981 a fevereiro de 1982, por se alimentarem de sangue na copa da floresta ou junto ao solo. A distribuição é analisada comparativamente em ambos os níveis levando-se em consideração as variações de temperatura, umidade, precipitações pluviométricas e estações do ano. Dentre as espécies com nítida preferência à acrodendrofilia encontramos alguns importantes transmissores de doenças: Anopheles cruzii - malária humana e simiana; Culex nigripalpus - encefalite de São Luis (SLE; Haemagogus leucocelaenus e Haemagogus capricornii - febre amarela silvestre, todas também sendo obtidas, embora em menor número, a nível do solo. Os sabetíneos - Wyeomyia Knabi, Phoniomyia theobaldi, Sabethes tarsopus, Sabethes quasicyaneus, Sabethes chloropterus - completam a relação das principais espécies que preferem a copa. Por outro lado, Aedes fluviatilis, Trichoprosopon digitatum, Tr. similis, Tr. frontosus, Tr. theobaldi, Wy, arthrostigma, Wy. aporonoma, Wy. personata, Wy undulata, Wy. mystes, Limatus durhami, Li. pseudomethisticus, Sa. identicus e Sa. undosus foram capturados em grande maioria próximo ao solo.In this paper we deal with the vertical distribution of the mosquitoes which we have been studying at the National Park of Serra dos Órgãos, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We have established, for a whole year, by means of concomitant weekly captures on human baits the preferences of the various species for feeding. A comparative analysis of the monthly vertical distribution is made, taking into account variations of temperature, humidity, rainfall

  13. Endoparasites of European perch Perca fluviatilis fry: role of spatial segregation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuchta, Roman; Čech, Martin; Scholz, Tomáš; Soldánová, Miroslava; Levron, Céline; Škoríková, Blanka

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 1 (2009), s. 87-91 ISSN 0177-5103 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/08/0885; GA ČR GA206/06/1371; GA ČR GP206/09/P266; GA AV ČR KJB600960902; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : Acanthocephala * Cestoda * Nematoda Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.687, year: 2009

  14. Sex differences in contaminant concentrations of fish: a synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Rediske, Richard R.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Stapanian, Martin A.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and total mercury (Hg) concentrations in mature males with those in mature females may provide insights into sex differences in behavior, metabolism, and other physiological processes. In eight species of fish, we observed that males exceeded females in whole-fish PCB concentration by 17 to 43%. Based on results from hypothesis testing, we concluded that these sex differences were most likely primarily driven by a higher rate of energy expenditure, stemming from higher resting metabolic rate (or standard metabolic rate (SMR)) and higher swimming activity, in males compared with females. A higher rate of energy expenditure led to a higher rate of food consumption, which, in turn, resulted in a higher rate of PCB accumulation. For two fish species, the growth dilution effect also made a substantial contribution to the sex difference in PCB concentrations, although the higher energy expenditure rate for males was still the primary driver. Hg concentration data were available for five of the eight species. For four of these five species, the ratio of PCB concentration in males to PCB concentration in females was substantially greater than the ratio of Hg concentration in males to Hg concentration in females. In sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a very primitive fish, the two ratios were nearly identical. The most plausible explanation for this pattern was that certain androgens, such as testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone, enhanced Hg-elimination rate in males. In contrast, long-term elimination of PCBs is negligible for both sexes. According to this explanation, males ingest Hg at a higher rate than females, but also eliminate Hg at a higher rate than females, in fish species other than sea lamprey. Male sea lamprey do not possess either of the above-specified androgens. These apparent sex differences in SMRs, activities, and Hg-elimination rates in teleost fishes may also apply, to some degree, to higher

  15. Functional feeding traits as predictors of invasive success of alien freshwater fish species using a food-fish model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopold A J Nagelkerke

    Full Text Available Invasions of Ponto-Caspian fish species into north-western European river basins accelerated since the opening of the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal in 1992. Since 2002, at least five Ponto-Caspian alien fish species have arrived in The Netherlands. Four species belong to the Gobiidae family (Neogobius fluviatilis, Neogobius melanostomus, Ponticola kessleri, and Proterorhinus semilunaris and one to the Cyprinidae family (Romanogobio belingi. These species are expected to be potentially deleterious for the populations of four native benthic fish species: Gobio gobio (Cyprinidae, Barbatula barbatula (Nemacheilidae, Cottus perifretum, and C. rhenanus (Cottidae. Invasion success may be dependent on competitive trophic interactions with native species, which are enabled and/or constrained by feeding-related morphological traits. Twenty-two functional feeding traits were measured in nine species (in total 90 specimens. These traits were quantitatively linked to the mechanical, chemical and behavioral properties of a range of aquatic resource categories, using a previously developed food-fish model (FFM. The FFM was used to predict the trophic profile (TP of each fish: the combined capacities to feed on each of the resource types. The most extreme TPs belonged to three alien species, indicating that they were most specialized among the studied species. Of these three, only P. kessleri overlapped with the two native Cottus species, indicating potential trophic competition. N. fluviatilis and R. belingi did not show any overlap, indicating that there is low trophic competition. The two remaining alien goby species (N. melanostomus and P. semilunaris had average TPs and could be considered generalist feeders. They overlapped with each other and with G. gobio and B. barbatula, indicating potential trophic competition. This study suggests that both generalist and specialist species can be successful invaders. Since the FFM predicts potential interactions between

  16. Functional feeding traits as predictors of invasive success of alien freshwater fish species using a food-fish model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelkerke, Leopold A J; van Onselen, Eline; van Kessel, Nils; Leuven, Rob S E W

    2018-01-01

    Invasions of Ponto-Caspian fish species into north-western European river basins accelerated since the opening of the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal in 1992. Since 2002, at least five Ponto-Caspian alien fish species have arrived in The Netherlands. Four species belong to the Gobiidae family (Neogobius fluviatilis, Neogobius melanostomus, Ponticola kessleri, and Proterorhinus semilunaris) and one to the Cyprinidae family (Romanogobio belingi). These species are expected to be potentially deleterious for the populations of four native benthic fish species: Gobio gobio (Cyprinidae), Barbatula barbatula (Nemacheilidae), Cottus perifretum, and C. rhenanus (Cottidae). Invasion success may be dependent on competitive trophic interactions with native species, which are enabled and/or constrained by feeding-related morphological traits. Twenty-two functional feeding traits were measured in nine species (in total 90 specimens). These traits were quantitatively linked to the mechanical, chemical and behavioral properties of a range of aquatic resource categories, using a previously developed food-fish model (FFM). The FFM was used to predict the trophic profile (TP) of each fish: the combined capacities to feed on each of the resource types. The most extreme TPs belonged to three alien species, indicating that they were most specialized among the studied species. Of these three, only P. kessleri overlapped with the two native Cottus species, indicating potential trophic competition. N. fluviatilis and R. belingi did not show any overlap, indicating that there is low trophic competition. The two remaining alien goby species (N. melanostomus and P. semilunaris) had average TPs and could be considered generalist feeders. They overlapped with each other and with G. gobio and B. barbatula, indicating potential trophic competition. This study suggests that both generalist and specialist species can be successful invaders. Since the FFM predicts potential interactions between species, it

  17. Dynamics of forest malaria transmission in Balaghat district, Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeru Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An epidemiological and entomological study was carried out in Balaghat district, Madhya Pradesh, India to understand the dynamics of forest malaria transmission in a difficult and hard to reach area where indoor residual spray and insecticide treated nets were used for vector control. METHODS: This community based cross-sectional study was undertaken from January 2010 to December 2012 in Baihar and Birsa Community Health Centres of district Balaghat for screening malaria cases. Entomological surveillance included indoor resting collections, pyrethrum spray catches and light trap catches. Anophelines were assayed by ELISA for detection of Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein. FINDINGS: Plasmodium falciparum infection accounted for >80% of all infections. P. vivax 16.5%, P. malariae 0.75% and remaining were mixed infections of P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. malariae. More than, 30% infections were found in infants under 6 months of age. Overall, an increasing trend in malaria positivity was observed from 2010 to 2012 (chi-square for trend  =  663.55; P<0.0001. Twenty five Anopheles culicifacies (sibling species C, D and E were positive for circumsporozoite protein of P. falciparum (44% and P. vivax (56%. Additionally, 2 An. fluviatilis, were found positive for P. falciparum and 1 for P. vivax (sibling species S and T. An. fluviatilis sibling species T was found as vector in forest villages for the first time in India. CONCLUSION: These results showed that the study villages are experiencing almost perennial malaria transmission inspite of indoor residual spray and insecticide treated nets. Therefore, there is a need for new indoor residual insecticides which has longer residual life or complete coverage of population with long lasting insecticide treated nets or both indoor residual spray and long lasting bed nets for effective vector control. There is a need to undertake a well designed case control study to evaluate the efficacy

  18. Convergent evolution of hemoglobin switching in jawed and jawless vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, Kim; Stuhlmann, Friederike; Docker, Margaret F; Burmester, Thorsten

    2016-02-01

    During development, humans and other jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata) express distinct hemoglobin genes, resulting in different hemoglobin tetramers. Embryonic and fetal hemoglobin have higher oxygen affinities than the adult hemoglobin, sustaining the oxygen demand of the developing organism. Little is known about the expression of hemoglobins during development of jawless vertebrates (Agnatha). We identified three hemoglobin switches in the life cycle of the sea lamprey. Three hemoglobin genes are specifically expressed in the embryo, four genes in the filter feeding larva (ammocoete), and nine genes correspond to the adult hemoglobin chains. During the development from the parasitic to the reproductive adult, the composition of hemoglobin changes again, with a massive increase of chain aHb1. A single hemoglobin chain is expressed constitutively in all stages. We further showed the differential expression of other globin genes: Myoglobin 1 is most highly expressed in the reproductive adult, myoglobin 2 expression peaks in the larva. Globin X1 is restricted to the embryo; globin X2 was only found in the reproductive adult. Cytoglobin is expressed at low levels throughout the life cycle. Because the hemoglobins of jawed and jawless vertebrates evolved independently from a common globin ancestor, hemoglobin switching must also have evolved convergently in these taxa. Notably, the ontogeny of sea lamprey hemoglobins essentially recapitulates their phylogeny, with the embryonic hemoglobins emerging first, followed by the evolution of larval and adult hemoglobins.

  19. Evolution of hematopoiesis: Three members of the PU.1 transcription factor family in a cartilaginous fish, Raja eglanteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M. K.; Sun, X.; Miracle, A. L.; Litman, G. W.; Rothenberg, E. V.

    2001-01-01

    T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes are present in jawed vertebrates, including cartilaginous fishes, but not in jawless vertebrates or invertebrates. The origins of these lineages may be understood in terms of evolutionary changes in the structure and regulation of transcription factors that control lymphocyte development, such as PU.1. The identification and characterization of three members of the PU.1 family of transcription factors in a cartilaginous fish, Raja eglanteria, are described here. Two of these genes are orthologs of mammalian PU.1 and Spi-C, respectively, whereas the third gene, Spi-D, is a different family member. In addition, a PU.1-like gene has been identified in a jawless vertebrate, Petromyzon marinus (sea lamprey). Both DNA-binding and transactivation domains are highly conserved between mammalian and skate PU.1, in marked contrast to lamprey Spi, in which similarity is evident only in the DNA-binding domain. Phylogenetic analysis of sequence data suggests that the appearance of Spi-C may predate the divergence of the jawed and jawless vertebrates and that Spi-D arose before the divergence of the cartilaginous fish from the lineage leading to the mammals. The tissue-specific expression patterns of skate PU.1 and Spi-C suggest that these genes share regulatory as well as structural properties with their mammalian orthologs.

  20. Liquid chromatographic method for determining the concentration of bisazir in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholefield, Ronald J.; Slaght, Karen S.; Allen, John L.

    1997-01-01

    Barrier dams, traps, and lampricides are the techniques currently used by the Great Lakes Fishery Commission to control sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes. To augment these control techniques, a sterile-male-release research program was initiated at the Lake Huron Biological Station. Male sea lampreys were sterilized by intraperitoneal injection of the chemical sterilant P,P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide (bisazir). An analytical method was needed to quantitate the concentration of bisazir in water and to routinely verify that bisazir (>25 μg/L) does not persist in the treated effluent discharged from the sterilization facility to Lake Huron. A rapid, accurate, and sensitive liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed for determining bisazir in water. Bisazir was dissolved in Lake Huron water; extracted and concentrated on a C18 solid-phase extraction column; eluted with methanol; and quantitated by reversed-phase LC using a C18 column, a mobile phase of 70% water and 30% methanol (v/v), and UV detection (205 nm). Bisazir retention time was 7-8 min; total run time was about 20 min. Method detection limit for bisazir dissolved in Lake Huron water was about 15 μg/L. Recovery from Lake Huron water fortified with bisazir at 100 μg/L was 94% (95% confidence interval, 90.2-98.2%).

  1. Effects of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) on pH, net oxygen production, and respiration by algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholefield, Ronald J.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Slaght, Karen S.; Seelye, James G.

    1999-01-01

    The lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) has been used in the United States and Canada for more than 35 years to control larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) in tributaries of the Great Lakes. Occasionally, during stream treatments with TFM, nontarget-fish mortality reaches unacceptable levels. These losses could be due to the presence of sensitive fish species, excess TFM, or a combination of factors that influence the toxicity of TFM, such as delays in daily stream reaeration by algae resulting in extended periods of low pH and low dissolved oxygen (DO). We determined the effects of a broad range of TFM concentrations on net DO production and respiration by two species of algae, in two culture media (high alkalinity and low alkalinity). The pH and DO in cultures of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Selenastrum capricornutum were recorded at time zero and again after a 9-h exposure to TFM under either lighted or dark conditions. Algal cultures exposed to TFM concentrations typical of those used to control sea lampreys in streams showed only small changes in pH (<0.1) and small reductions in DO (about 8% in lighted conditions and 11% in dark conditions). Changes in pH and DO of this magnitude probably do not change the efficacy of TFM or cause nontarget fish mortality if algae are the predominant photosynthetic organisms in the stream.

  2. Sequence analysis of serum albumins reveals the molecular evolution of ligand recognition properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanali, Gabriella; Ascenzi, Paolo; Bernardi, Giorgio; Fasano, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Serum albumin (SA) is a circulating protein providing a depot and carrier for many endogenous and exogenous compounds. At least seven major binding sites have been identified by structural and functional investigations mainly in human SA. SA is conserved in vertebrates, with at least 49 entries in protein sequence databases. The multiple sequence analysis of this set of entries leads to the definition of a cladistic tree for the molecular evolution of SA orthologs in vertebrates, thus showing the clustering of the considered species, with lamprey SAs (Lethenteron japonicum and Petromyzon marinus) in a separate outgroup. Sequence analysis aimed at searching conserved domains revealed that most SA sequences are made up by three repeated domains (about 600 residues), as extensively characterized for human SA. On the contrary, lamprey SAs are giant proteins (about 1400 residues) comprising seven repeated domains. The phylogenetic analysis of the SA family reveals a stringent correlation with the taxonomic classification of the species available in sequence databases. A focused inspection of the sequences of ligand binding sites in SA revealed that in all sites most residues involved in ligand binding are conserved, although the versatility towards different ligands could be peculiar of higher organisms. Moreover, the analysis of molecular links between the different sites suggests that allosteric modulation mechanisms could be restricted to higher vertebrates.

  3. The first isolation of a rhabdovirus from perch (Perca fluviatilis) in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannevig, B.H.; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Jentoft, S.

    2001-01-01

    was stained in IF with rabbit antisera against perch rhabdovirus, pike rhabdovirus and lake trout rhabdovirus and neutralised by anti perch rhabdovirus indicating. that the Norwegian perch virus is closely related to these viruses belonging to the Vesiculovirus genus of the family Rhabdoviridae...

  4. The first isolation of a rhabdovirus from perch (Perca fluviatilis) in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannevig, B.H.; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Jentoft, S.

    2001-01-01

    was stained in IF with rabbit antisera against perch rhabdovirus, pike rhabdovirus and lake trout rhabdovirus and neutralised by anti perch rhabdovirus indicating that the Norwegian perch virus is closely related to these viruses belonging to the Vesiculovirus genus of the family Rhabdoviridae...

  5. Feeding under predation risk: potential sex-specific response of perch (Perca fluviatilis).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Estlander, Satu; Nurminen, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 3 (2014), s. 478-480 ISSN 0906-6691 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : foraging * sexual size dimorphism * predation * perch * pike Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.701, year: 2014

  6. The energy requirements of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) in intensive culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, A.; Overton, Julia Lynne; Alanara, A.

    2011-01-01

    requirements of this species. The aim of this study was to develop an energy requirement model for intensive culture of Eurasian perch reared at rational temperatures. Data on growth (the thermal unit growth coefficient, TGC, 3√g ‧ (℃ ‧ days)-1) and digestible energy need (DEN, kJ DE ‧ g -1) of Eurasian perch...... at a size range of 20–180 g and at temperatures of 17–23 ℃ were used. Regression analysis revealed that both TGC and DEN were affected significantly by fish size (P 0.05). Two models including body size of the fish were developed: (i) an inverse TGC model for evaluation...

  7. Evidence for selective bacterial community structuring in the freshwater sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, Rodrigo; Keller-Costa, Tina; Gomes, Newton C. M.; Nunes da Rocha, Ulisses; van Overbeek, Leo; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    To understand the functioning of sponges, knowledge of the structure of their associated microbial communities is necessary. However, our perception of sponge-associated microbiomes remains mainly restricted to marine ecosystems. Here, we report on the molecular diversity and composition of bacteria

  8. Evidence for selective bacterial community structuring in the freshwater sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, R.; Keller-Costa, T.; Gomes, N.C.M.; Nunes da Rocha, U.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Elsas, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    To understand the functioning of sponges, knowledge of the structure of their associated microbial communities is necessary. However, our perception of sponge-associated microbiomes remains mainly restricted to marine ecosystems. Here, we report on the molecular diversity and composition of bacteria

  9. Bioaccumulation of organochlorine pollutants in the fish community in Lake Arungen, Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Chhatra Mani; Rosseland, Bjorn Olav; Almvik, Marit; Eklo, Ole Martin

    2009-01-01

    Organochlorine pollutants in the major fish species (pike Esox lucius, perch Perca fluviatilis, and roach Rutilus rutilus) of Lake Arungen, Norway, were investigated after an extensive removal of large pike in 2004. The organochlorine pollutants detected in fish liver samples in 2005 were dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and heptachlor epoxide (HCE). DDTs were the dominant among all analyzed OCs. ΣPCB and HCB, detected in fish from two clearly distinct trophic levels (prey and predators), give an indication of biomagnification. All OC concentrations in female pike were significantly lower compared to males, which might be due to the removal of high concentrations of pollutants in roe during spawning. - Organochlorine pollutants in fish tissues tend to magnify up the food chain

  10. Identification of a novel Gig2 gene family specific to non-amniote vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Bing Zhang

    Full Text Available Gig2 (grass carp reovirus (GCRV-induced gene 2 is first identified as a novel fish interferon (IFN-stimulated gene (ISG. Overexpression of a zebrafish Gig2 gene can protect cultured fish cells from virus infection. In the present study, we identify a novel gene family that is comprised of genes homologous to the previously characterized Gig2. EST/GSS search and in silico cloning identify 190 Gig2 homologous genes in 51 vertebrate species ranged from lampreys to amphibians. Further large-scale search of vertebrate and invertebrate genome databases indicate that Gig2 gene family is specific to non-amniotes including lampreys, sharks/rays, ray-finned fishes and amphibians. Phylogenetic analysis and synteny analysis reveal lineage-specific expansion of Gig2 gene family and also provide valuable evidence for the fish-specific genome duplication (FSGD hypothesis. Although Gig2 family proteins exhibit no significant sequence similarity to any known proteins, a typical Gig2 protein appears to consist of two conserved parts: an N-terminus that bears very low homology to the catalytic domains of poly(ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs, and a novel C-terminal domain that is unique to this gene family. Expression profiling of zebrafish Gig2 family genes shows that some duplicate pairs have diverged in function via acquisition of novel spatial and/or temporal expression under stresses. The specificity of this gene family to non-amniotes might contribute to a large extent to distinct physiology in non-amniote vertebrates.

  11. Oxygen infrared spectra of oxyhemoglobins and oxymyoglobins. Evidence of two major liganded O2 structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, W.T.; Tucker, M.P.; Houtchens, R.A.; Caughey, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    The dioxygen stretch bands in infrared spectra for solutions of oxy species of human hemoglobin A and its separated subunits, human mutant hemoglobin Zurich (β63His to Arg), rabbit hemoglobin, lamprey, hemoglobin, sperm whale myoglobin, bovine myoglobin, and a sea worm chlorocruorin are examined. Each protein exhibits multiple isotope-sensitive bands between 1160 and 1060 cm -1 for the liganded 16 O 2 , 17 O 2 , and 18 O 2 . The O-O stretch bands for each of the mammalian myoglobins and hemoglobins are similar, with frequencies that differ between proteins by only 3-5 cm -1 . The spectra for the lamprey and sea worm hemoglobins exhibit greater diversity. For all proteins an O-O stretch band expected to occur near 1125 cm -1 for 16 O 2 and 17 O 2 , but not 18 O 2 , appears split by ∼25 cm -1 due to an unidentified perturbation. The spectrum for each dioxygen isotope, if unperturbed, would contain two strong bands for the mammalian myoglobins (1150 and 1120 cm -1 ) and hemoglobins (1155 and 1125 cm -1 ). Two strong bands separated by ∼30 cm -1 for each oxy heme protein subunit indicate that two major protein conformations (structure) that differ substantially in O 2 bonding are present. The two dioxygen structures can result from a combination of dynamic distal and proximal effects upon the O 2 ligand bound in a bent-end-on stereochemistry

  12. The trace element analysis in freshwater fish species, water and sediment in Iyidere stream (Rize-Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verep, Bulent; Mutlu, Cengiz; Apaydin, Gokhan; Cevik, Ugur

    2012-07-15

    Many environmental problems like dam construction, agricultural debris, flooding and industrial establishments threaten Iyidere stream (Rize, Turkey) on the southeastern coast of the Black Sea (Turkey). The trace element concentrations in water, fish and sediments in lyidere stream (Rize, Turkey) were investigated in this study. The concentration of six different elements in ten freshwater fish species and sediment was determined using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence method. A radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence analysis using the method of multiple standard addition is applied for the elemental analysis of fish and sediments. Water samples for trace metals were analyzed using standard spectrophotometry methods. A qualitative analysis of spectral peaks showed that ten different freshwater fish samples (Chondrostoma colchicum, Chalcalburnus chalcoides, Salmo trutta labrax, Alburnoides bipunctatus, Leuciscus cephalus, Barbus taurus escherichia, Capoeta tinca, Neogobius kessleri, Rutilus frisii, Lampetra lanceolata) and sediment contained phosphorus (P), sulphur (S), chlorine (Cl), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and titanium (Ti). Heavy metals as toxic elements for biota (Pb, Cd, Hg, Zn and Mn etc.) were not detected in fish, water and sediments. Thus, It can be declared that freshwater fish of Iyidere does not contains health risks for consumers in terms of metal pollution.

  13. Effect of boat noise and angling on lake fish behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene; Baktoft, Henrik; Jepsen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    or (2) boating in short intervals combined with angling with artificial lures between engine runs. The response of the fish species was evaluated by high-resolution tracking using an automatic acoustic telemetry system and transmitters with sub-minute burst rates. Rutilus rutilus swimming speed......The effects of disturbances from recreational activities on the swimming speed and habitat use of roach Rutilus rutilus, perch Perca fluviatilis and pike Esox lucius were explored. Disturbances were applied for 4h as (1) boating in short intervals with a small outboard internal combustion engine...... the two types of disturbances (boating with and without angling), indicating that boating was the primary source of disturbance. This study highlights species-specific responses to recreational boating and may have implications for management of human recreational activities in lakes...

  14. Occurrence of Flavobacterium psychrophilum in fish-farming environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madetoja, J.; Dalsgaard, Inger; Wiklund, T.

    2002-01-01

    Occurrence of Flavobacterium psychrophilum in fish farms and fish-farming environments was studied using agar plate cultivation,the immunoflourescence antibody technique (IFAT) and nested PCR. Characteristics of 64 F. psychrophilum isolates from rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, fish farm rearing....... F. psychrophilum was detected and isolated from skin mucus, skin lesions and internal organs of diseased rainbow trout and from fish without clinical disease. The pathogen was also present in wild perch Perca fluviatilis, roach Rutilus rutilus, and ovarian fluids of farmed rainbow trout brood fish...... ribopatterns), ribotype A was the most dominant. Farmed rainbow trout brood fish carried a broad-spectrum of serologically and genetically different F. psychrophilum in ovarian fluids. Virulence of the tested isolates in rainbow trout varied and naturally infected rainbow trout shed 104 to 108 cells fish-1 h-1...

  15. The Sabethines of Northern Andean Coffee-Growing Regions of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaza-Vasco, Juan; López-Rubio, Andrés; Galeano, Juan; Uribe, Sandra; Vélez, Iván; Porter, Charles

    2015-06-01

    Sampling for sabethine mosquitoes occurred intermittently from September 2007 to April 2013 in 17 municipalities, located in 5 departments (divisions) in the northern Andean coffee-growing regions of Colombia. Of the 9 genera within the Sabethini tribe known to occur in the Neotropical region, 6 were encountered including 15 species: Jonhbelkinia ulopus, Limatus durhamii, Sabethes ignotus, Sa. luxodens, Sa. undosus, Shannoniana fluviatilis, Trichoprosopon compressum, Tr. digitatum, Tr. evansae, Tr. pallidiventer s.l., Tr. pallidiventer s.s., Wyeomyia arthrostigma, Wy. oblita, Wy. ulocoma, and Wy. undulata. The species Sa. luxodens and Wy. undulata constitute new records for Colombia. These records broaden the knowledge of this important group that includes some important species related to the arbovirus transmission. Records are from the northern Colombian Andes, a region noted for coffee cultivation and ecotourism.

  16. Determination of niclosamide residues in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fillet tissue by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Theresa M.; Dawson, V.K.; Cho, Yirang; Spanjers, N.J.; Boogaard, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Bayluscide [the ethanolamine salt of niclosamide (NIC)] is a registered piscicide used in combination with 3-(trifluoromethyl)-4-nitrophenol (TFM) to control sea lamprey populations in streams tributary to the Great Lakes. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of NIC residues in muscle fillet tissues of fish exposed to NIC and TFM during sea lamprey control treatments. NIC was extracted from fortified channel catfish and rainbow trout fillet tissue with a series of acetone extractions and cleaned up on C-18 solid-phase extraction cartridges. NIC concentrations were determined by HPLC with detection at 360 and 335 nm for rainbow trout and catfish, respectively. Recovery of NIC from rainbow trout (n = 7) fortified at 0.04 mu g/g was 77 +/- 6.5% and from channel catfish (n = 7) fortified at 0.02 mu g/g was 113 +/- 11%. NIC detection limit was 0.0107 mu g/g for rainbow trout and 0.0063 mu g/g for catfish. Percent recovery of incurred radioactive residues by this method from catfish exposed to [C-14]NIC was 89.3 +/- 4.1%. Percent recoveries of NIC from fortified storage stability tissue samples for rainbow trout (n = 3) analyzed at 5 and 7.5 month periods were 78 +/- 5.1 and 68 +/- 2.4%, respectively. Percent recoveries of NIC from fortified storage stability tissue samples for channel catfish (n = 3) analyzed at 5 and 7.5 month periods were 88 +/- 13 and 76 +/- 21%, respectively.

  17. V-SINEs: A New Superfamily of Vertebrate SINEs That Are Widespread in Vertebrate Genomes and Retain a Strongly Conserved Segment within Each Repetitive Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiwara, Ikuo; Miya, Masaki; Ohshima, Kazuhiko; Okada, Norihiro

    2002-01-01

    We have identified a new superfamily of vertebrate short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs), designated V-SINEs, that are widespread in fishes and frogs. Each V-SINE includes a central conserved domain preceded by a 5′-end tRNA-related region and followed by a potentially recombinogenic (TG)n tract, with a 3′ tail derived from the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of the corresponding partner long interspersed repetitive element (LINE) that encodes a functional reverse transcriptase. The central domain is strongly conserved and is even found in SINEs in the lamprey genome, suggesting that V-SINEs might be ∼550 Myr old or older in view of the timing of divergence of the lamprey lineage from the bony fish lineage. The central conserved domain might have been subject to some form of positive selection. Although the contemporary 3′ tails of V-SINEs differ from one another, it is possible that the original 3′ tail might have been replaced, via recombination, by the 3′ tails of more active partner LINEs, thereby retaining retropositional activity and the ability to survive for long periods on the evolutionary time scale. It seems plausible that V-SINEs may have some function(s) that have been maintained by the coevolution of SINEs and LINEs during the evolution of vertebrates. [The sequences reported in this paper have been deposited in the DDBJ/GenBank database under accession nos. AB072981–AB073004. Supplemental figures are available online at http://www.genome.org.] PMID:11827951

  18. Cormorant predation on PIT-tagged lake fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Jepsen, Niels; Baktoft, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The present study use data from recovered PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder) tags to explore species-and size-specific annual predation rates by cormorants on three common lacustrine fishes (size range 120-367 mm) in a European lake; roach (Rutilus rutilus), common bream (Abramis brama) and perch...... (Perca fluviatilis). In addition, we quantify the level of age/size truncation that cormorant predation could introduce in a population of perch, an important fish for recreational angling as well as for trophic interactions and ecosystem function in European lakes. Based on three years of PIT tagging...... of fish in Lake Viborg and subsequent recoveries of PIT tags from nearby cormorant roosting and breeding sites, we show that cormorants are major predators of roach, bream and perch within the size groups we investigated and for all species larger individuals had higher predation rates. Perch appear...

  19. Physiological and ecological factors influencing the radiocaesium contamination of fish species from Kiev reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koulikov, A.O. [A.N. Severtzov Institute of Evolutionary Morphology and Ecology of Animals, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-11-23

    The monitoring of {sup 137}Cs contamination of fish from the northern part of the Kiev reservoir between 1987 and 1992 indicated systematic differences in the long-term average contamination levels of different species, which are closely related to their trophic levels. The average contamination of the predatory species: perch (Perca fluviatilis) and pike (Esox lucius) were roughly factors of 6.3 and 4.4 respectively, higher than those of the nonpredatory species: bream (Abramis brama), silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna) and rudd (Scardinius erythrophothalmus). For tench (Tinca tinca) and goldfish (Carassius sp.), this factor is 2. The solution of the caesium balance equation in fish obtained for equilibrium conditions, which is applicable to the long-term contamination, provides some explanations for these accumulation differences between the species with respect to influences by different ecological and physiological factors.

  20. The 'Tully monster' is a vertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Victoria E; Saupe, Erin E; Lamsdell, James C; Tarhan, Lidya G; McMahon, Sean; Lidgard, Scott; Mayer, Paul; Whalen, Christopher D; Soriano, Carmen; Finney, Lydia; Vogt, Stefan; Clark, Elizabeth G; Anderson, Ross P; Petermann, Holger; Locatelli, Emma R; Briggs, Derek E G

    2016-04-28

    Problematic fossils, extinct taxa of enigmatic morphology that cannot be assigned to a known major group, were once a major issue in palaeontology. A long-favoured solution to the 'problem of the problematica', particularly the 'weird wonders' of the Cambrian Burgess Shale, was to consider them representatives of extinct phyla. A combination of new evidence and modern approaches to phylogenetic analysis has now resolved the affinities of most of these forms. Perhaps the most notable exception is Tullimonstrum gregarium, popularly known as the Tully monster, a large soft-bodied organism from the late Carboniferous Mazon Creek biota (approximately 309-307 million years ago) of Illinois, USA, which was designated the official state fossil of Illinois in 1989. Its phylogenetic position has remained uncertain and it has been compared with nemerteans, polychaetes, gastropods, conodonts, and the stem arthropod Opabinia. Here we review the morphology of Tullimonstrum based on an analysis of more than 1,200 specimens. We find that the anterior proboscis ends in a buccal apparatus containing teeth, the eyes project laterally on a long rigid bar, and the elongate segmented body bears a caudal fin with dorsal and ventral lobes. We describe new evidence for a notochord, cartilaginous arcualia, gill pouches, articulations within the proboscis, and multiple tooth rows adjacent to the mouth. This combination of characters, supported by phylogenetic analysis, identifies Tullimonstrum as a vertebrate, and places it on the stem lineage to lampreys (Petromyzontida). In addition to increasing the known morphological disparity of extinct lampreys, a chordate affinity for T. gregarium resolves the nature of a soft-bodied fossil which has been debated for more than 50 years.

  1. The ‘Tully monster’ is a vertebrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Victoria E.; Saupe, Erin E.; Lamsdell, James C.; Tarhan, Lidya G.; McMahon, Sean; Lidgard, Scott; Mayer, Paul; Whalen, Christopher D.; Soriano, Carmen; Finney, Lydia; Vogt, Stefan; Clark, Elizabeth G.; Anderson, Ross P.; Petermann, Holger; Locatelli, Emma R.; Briggs, Derek E. G.

    2016-04-01

    Problematic fossils, extinct taxa of enigmatic morphology that cannot be assigned to a known major group, were once a major issue in palaeontology. A long-favoured solution to the ‘problem of the problematica’, particularly the ‘weird wonders’ of the Cambrian Burgess Shale, was to consider them representatives of extinct phyla. A combination of new evidence and modern approaches to phylogenetic analysis has now resolved the affinities of most of these forms. Perhaps the most notable exception is Tullimonstrum gregarium, popularly known as the Tully monster, a large soft-bodied organism from the late Carboniferous Mazon Creek biota (approximately 309-307 million years ago) of Illinois, USA, which was designated the official state fossil of Illinois in 1989. Its phylogenetic position has remained uncertain and it has been compared with nemerteans, polychaetes, gastropods, conodonts, and the stem arthropod Opabinia. Here we review the morphology of Tullimonstrum based on an analysis of more than 1,200 specimens. We find that the anterior proboscis ends in a buccal apparatus containing teeth, the eyes project laterally on a long rigid bar, and the elongate segmented body bears a caudal fin with dorsal and ventral lobes. We describe new evidence for a notochord, cartilaginous arcualia, gill pouches, articulations within the proboscis, and multiple tooth rows adjacent to the mouth. This combination of characters, supported by phylogenetic analysis, identifies Tullimonstrum as a vertebrate, and places it on the stem lineage to lampreys (Petromyzontida). In addition to increasing the known morphological disparity of extinct lampreys, a chordate affinity for T. gregarium resolves the nature of a soft-bodied fossil which has been debated for more than 50 years.

  2. Coastal fisheries in the Eastern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland and its basin from the 15 to the Early 20th centuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Lajus

    Full Text Available The paper describes and analyzes original data, extracted from historical documents and scientific surveys, related to Russian fisheries in the southeastern part of the Gulf of Finland and its inflowing rivers during the 15- early 20(th centuries. The data allow tracing key trends in fisheries development and in the abundance of major commercial species. In particular, results showed that, over time, the main fishing areas moved from the middle part of rivers downstream towards and onto the coastal sea. Changes in fishing patterns were closely interrelated with changes in the abundance of exploited fish. Anadromous species, such as Atlantic sturgeon, Atlantic salmon, brown trout, whitefish, vimba bream, smelt, lamprey, and catadromous eel were the most important commercial fish in the area because they were abundant, had high commercial value and were easily available for fishing in rivers. Due to intensive exploitation and other human-induced factors, populations of most of these species had declined notably by the early 20(th century and have now lost commercial significance. The last sturgeon was caught in 1996, and today only smelt and lamprey support small commercial fisheries. According to historical sources, catches of freshwater species such as roach, ide, pike, perch, ruffe and burbot regularly occurred, in some areas exceeding half of the total catch, but they were not as important as migrating fish and no clear trends in abundance are apparent. Of documented marine catch, Baltic herring appeared in the 16(th century, but did not become commercially significant until the 19(th century. From then until now herring have been the dominant catch.

  3. Fishing activity in Northern Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil and its relation with small cetaceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Madeira Di Beneditto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on fishing activity at Atafona village, in Northern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (21°35'S, was carried out between 1987-96 for the purpose of relating it to the accidental capture of small cetaceans and of estimating the relationship between fishing activity and the diet of small cetaceans. Data on fishing operations were obtained at the cold storage plants management, from interviews with fishermen and personal observations. The most representative fishing resources were Xyphopenaeus kroyeri, Micropogonias furnieri, Carcharhinus plumbeus, C. acronotus,and Rhizoprionodon porosus. Gillnets are responsible for the accidental capture of small cetaceans in the region, mainly Pontoporia blainvillei and Sotalia fluviatilis (marine form. Four types of gillnets that are used on the region ("minjuada", "sarda", "caçoá" and "pescadinha" were dangerous to these species because they are placed in their preferred habitat. There is no competition between fishermen and small cetaceans due to the selection in the capture of commercialized fishesInvestigação sobre a atividade pesqueira na localidade de Atafona, Norte do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (21º25`S, foi conduzida entre 1987-96 com o objetivo de relacioná-la com a captura acidental e a dieta dos pequenos cetáceos. Dados sobre as operações pesqueiras foram obtidos na administração dos entrepostos de pesca, através de entrevistas com pescadores e observações pessoais. Os recursos pesqueiros mais representativos foram Xyphopenaeus kroyeri, Micropogonias furnieri, Carcharhinus plumbeus, C. acronotus, and Rhizoprionodon porosus. As redes de espera são responsáveis pela captura acidental de pequenos cetáceos na região, principalmente de Pontoporia blainvillei e Sotalia fluviatilis (forma marinha. Quatro tipos de redes de espera que são usadas na região ("minjuada", "sarda", "caçoá" and "pescadinha" foram mais perigosas para essas espécies pois são colocadas no seu hábitat preferencial

  4. Temnocephala lutzi Monticelli (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida ectosymbiont on two species of Trichodactylus Latreille (Crustacea, Decapoda, Trichodactylidae from southern Brazil Temnocephala lutzi Monticelli (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida ectosimbionte sobre duas espécies de Trichodactylus Latreille (Crustacea, Decapoda, Trichodactylidae da região sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. R. Amato

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Temnocephala lutzi Monticelli, 1913, ectosymbiont on brachyuran freshwater crabs of the genus Trichodactylus Latreille, 1828 is recorded for the first time in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Two hundred and seventy-nine crabs of two species were examined: 211 Trichodactylus panoplus (von Martens, 1869 and 68 Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 of which 51 (24.17% and 28 (41.17% were positive for T. lutzi, respectively. Crabs of both species carried eggs fixed, exclusively, on the floor of the branchial chambers and/or on the lower side of the gills. Adult as well as young specimens were found inside and outside the branchial chambers. The temnocephalans were always devoid of body pigmentation, although they kept the red eye pigment undiluted in specimens fixed by formalin. The cirrus of T. lutzi showed the typical shape for the species, while the dorsolateral, post tentacular 'excretory' syncytial plates, demonstrated by two special techniques (silver nitrate staining and SEM, appeared with an elliptical shape and a central nephridiopore.Temnocephala lutzi Monticelli, 1913, ectosimbionte sobre caranguejos braquiúros de água doce do gênero Trichodactylus Latreille, 1828, é assinalada pela primeira vez no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, região sul do Brasil. Duzentos e setenta e nove caranguejos foram examinados: 211 de Trichodactylus panoplus (von Martens, 1869 e 68 de Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828, dos quais 51 (24,17% e 28 (41,17% estavam positivos para T. lutzi, respectivamente. Caranguejos das duas espécies apresentaram posturas de T. lutzi com os ovos fixados, exclusivamente, no interior das câmaras branquiais, sobre o assoalho e/ou na face interna das brânquias. Espécimes juvenis e adultos foram encontrados dentro e fora das câmaras branquiais. Os temnocefalídeos sempre se apresentaram sem pigmento corporal, embora o pigmento vermelho dos olhos tenha sido preservado nos espécimes fixados em

  5. Records of new localities and hosts for crustacean parasites in fish from the eastern Amazon in northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marcos Sidney Brito; Corrêa, Lincoln Lima; Oliveira Ferreira, Drielly; Neves, Lígia Rigor; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate parasites crustacean fauna in Arapaima gigas , Cichla monoculus , Cichla ocellaris , Cichla jariina , Satanoperca jurupari , Leporinus friderici , Leporinus fasciatus , Hoplias malabaricus , Phractocephalus hemioliopterus , Serrasalmus altispinis , Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum and Potamotrygon motoro of the State Amapá and Pará, in northern Brazil. A total of 242 parasites, including Argulus elongatus , Argulus multicolor, Argulus juparanaensis , Argulus nattereri , Dolops discoidalis , Dolops longicauda , Braga patagonica , Braga fluviatilis , Livoneca guianensis and undetermined Lernaeidae, were collected from these hosts. The Argulus species had the greatest richness among the community of parasitic crustaceans. There was a low abundance of parasites among the hosts, other than D. discoidalis , was most abundant in the integument of A. gigas and P. tigrinum . Finally, the present study reported nine new hosts for the crustacean parasite species and expanded knowledge of the occurrence of some parasite species in the Jari River basin, in eastern Amazon.

  6. The ‘Tully monster’ is a vertebrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, Victoria E.; Saupe, Erin E.; Lamsdell, James C.; Tarhan, Lidya G.; McMahon, Sean; Lidgard, Scott; Mayer, Paul; Whalen, Christopher D.; Soriano, Carmen; Finney, Lydia; Vogt, Stefan; Clark, Elizabeth G.; Anderson, Ross P.; Petermann, Holger; Locatelli, Emma R.; Briggs, Derek E. G.

    2016-03-16

    Abstract Problematic fossils, extinct taxa of enigmatic morphology that cannot be assigned to a known major group, were once a major issue in palaeontology. A long-favoured solution to the 'problem of the problematica'(1), particularly the 'weird wonders'(2) of the Cambrian Burgess Shale, was to consider them representatives of extinct phyla. A combination of new evidence and modern approaches to phylogenetic analysis has now resolved the affinities of most of these forms. Perhaps the most notable exception is Tullimonstrum gregarium(3), popularly known as the Tully monster, a large soft-bodied organism from the late Carboniferous Mazon Creek biota (approximately 309-307 million years ago) of Illinois, USA, which was designated the official state fossil of Illinois in 1989. Its phylogenetic position has remained uncertain and it has been compared with nemerteans(4,5), polychaetes(4), gastropods(4), conodonts(6), and the stem arthropod Opabinia(4). Here we review the morphology of Tullimonstrum based on an analysis of more than 1,200 specimens. We find that the anterior proboscis ends in a buccal apparatus containing teeth, the eyes project laterally on a long rigid bar, and the elongate segmented body bears a caudal fin with dorsal and ventral lobes(3-6). We describe new evidence for a notochord, cartilaginous arcualia, gill pouches, articulations within the proboscis, and multiple tooth rows adjacent to the mouth. This combination of characters, supported by phylogenetic analysis, identifies Tullimonstrum as a vertebrate, and places it on the stem lineage to lampreys (Petromyzontida). In addition to increasing the known morphological disparity of extinct lampreys(7-9), a chordate affinity for T. gregarium resolves the nature of a soft-bodied fossil which has been debated for more than 50 years

  7. Molecular phylogeny of C1 inhibitor depicts two immunoglobulin-like domains fusion in fishes and ray-finned fishes specific intron insertion after separation from zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Bhandari, Anita; Sarde, Sandeep J.; Goswami, Chandan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • C1 inhibitors of fishes have two Ig domains fused in the N-terminal end. • Spliceosomal introns gain in two Ig domains of selected ray-finned fishes. • C1 inhibitors gene is maintained from 450 MY on the same locus. • C1 inhibitors gene is missing in frog and lampreys. • C1 inhibitors of tetrapod and fishes differ in the RCL region. - Abstract: C1 inhibitor (C1IN) is a multi-facet serine protease inhibitor in the plasma cascades, inhibiting several proteases, notably, regulates both complement and contact system activation. Despite huge advancements in the understanding of C1IN based on biochemical properties and its roles in the plasma cascades, the phylogenetic history of C1IN remains uncharacterized. To date, there is no comprehensive study illustrating the phylogenetic history of C1IN. Herein, we explored phylogenetic history of C1IN gene in vertebrates. Fishes have C1IN with two immunoglobulin like domains attached in the N-terminal region. The RCL regions of CIIN from fishes and tetrapod genomes have variations at the positions P2 and P1′. Gene structures of C1IN gene from selected ray-finned fishes varied in the Ig domain region with creation of novel intron splitting exon Im2 into Im2a and Im2b. This intron is limited to ray-finned fishes with genome size reduced below 1 Gb. Hence, we suggest that genome compaction and associated double-strand break repairs are behind this intron gain. This study reveals the evolutionary history of C1IN and confirmed that this gene remains the same locus for ∼450 MY in 52 vertebrates analysed, but it is not found in frogs and lampreys

  8. Effectiveness of a refuge for Lake Trout in Western Lake Superior II: Simulation of future performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akins, Andrea L; Hansen, Michael J.; Seider, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, Lake Superior supported one of the largest and most diverse Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush fisheries in the Laurentian Great Lakes, but Lake Trout stocks collapsed due to excessive fishery exploitation and predation by Sea Lampreys Petromyzon marinus. Lake Trout stocking, Sea Lamprey control, and fishery regulations, including a refuge encompassing Gull Island Shoal (Apostle Islands region), were used to enable recovery of Lake Trout stocks that used this historically important spawning shoal. Our objective was to determine whether future sustainability of Lake Trout stocks will depend on the presence of the Gull Island Shoal Refuge. We constructed a stochastic age-structured simulation model to assess the effect of maintaining the refuge as a harvest management tool versus removing the refuge. In general, median abundances of age-4, age-4 and older (age-4+), and age-8+ fish collapsed at lower instantaneous fishing mortality rates (F) when the refuge was removed than when the refuge was maintained. With the refuge in place, the F that resulted in collapse depended on the rate of movement into and out of the refuge. Too many fish stayed in the refuge when movement was low (0–2%), and too many fish became vulnerable to fishing when movement was high (≥22%); thus, the refuge was more effective at intermediate rates of movement (10–11%). With the refuge in place, extinction did not occur at any simulated level of F, whereas refuge removal led to extinction at all combinations of commercial F and recreational F. Our results indicate that the Lake Trout population would be sustained by the refuge at all simulated F-values, whereas removal of the refuge would risk population collapse at much lower F (0.700–0.744). Therefore, the Gull Island Shoal Refuge is needed to sustain the Lake Trout population in eastern Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior.

  9. Molecular phylogeny of C1 inhibitor depicts two immunoglobulin-like domains fusion in fishes and ray-finned fishes specific intron insertion after separation from zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Abhishek, E-mail: akumar@bot.uni-kiel.de [Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology in Botany, Institute of Botany, Christian-Albrechts-University at Kiel, Kiel (Germany); Bhandari, Anita [Molecular Physiology, Zoological Institute, Christian-Albrechts-University at Kiel, Kiel (Germany); Sarde, Sandeep J. [Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology in Botany, Institute of Botany, Christian-Albrechts-University at Kiel, Kiel (Germany); Goswami, Chandan [National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar, Orissa (India)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • C1 inhibitors of fishes have two Ig domains fused in the N-terminal end. • Spliceosomal introns gain in two Ig domains of selected ray-finned fishes. • C1 inhibitors gene is maintained from 450 MY on the same locus. • C1 inhibitors gene is missing in frog and lampreys. • C1 inhibitors of tetrapod and fishes differ in the RCL region. - Abstract: C1 inhibitor (C1IN) is a multi-facet serine protease inhibitor in the plasma cascades, inhibiting several proteases, notably, regulates both complement and contact system activation. Despite huge advancements in the understanding of C1IN based on biochemical properties and its roles in the plasma cascades, the phylogenetic history of C1IN remains uncharacterized. To date, there is no comprehensive study illustrating the phylogenetic history of C1IN. Herein, we explored phylogenetic history of C1IN gene in vertebrates. Fishes have C1IN with two immunoglobulin like domains attached in the N-terminal region. The RCL regions of CIIN from fishes and tetrapod genomes have variations at the positions P2 and P1′. Gene structures of C1IN gene from selected ray-finned fishes varied in the Ig domain region with creation of novel intron splitting exon Im2 into Im2a and Im2b. This intron is limited to ray-finned fishes with genome size reduced below 1 Gb. Hence, we suggest that genome compaction and associated double-strand break repairs are behind this intron gain. This study reveals the evolutionary history of C1IN and confirmed that this gene remains the same locus for ∼450 MY in 52 vertebrates analysed, but it is not found in frogs and lampreys.

  10. Theory and application of semiochemicals in nuisance fish control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Peter W.; Johnson, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Controlling unwanted, or nuisance, fishes is becoming an increasingly urgent issue with few obvious solutions. Because fish rely heavily on semiochemicals, or chemical compounds that convey information between and within species, to mediate aspects of their life histories, these compounds are increasingly being considered as an option to help control wild fish. Possible uses of semiochemicals include measuring their presence in water to estimate population size, adding them to traps to count or remove specific species of fish, adding them to waterways to manipulate large-scale movement patterns, and saturating the environment with synthesized semiochemicals to disrupt responses to the natural cue. These applications may be especially appropriate for pheromones, chemical signals that pass between members of same species and which also have extreme specificity and potency. Alarm cues, compounds released by injured fish, and cues released by potential predators also could function as repellents and be especially useful if paired with pheromonal attractants in “push-pull” configurations. Approximately half a dozen attractive pheromones now have been partially identified in fish, and those for the sea lamprey and the common carp have been tested in the field with modest success. Alarm and predator cues for sea lamprey also have been tested in the laboratory and field with some success. Success has been hampered by our incomplete understanding of chemical identity, a lack of synthesized compounds, the fact that laboratory bioassays do not always reflect natural environments, and the relative difficulty of conducting trials on wild fishes because of short field seasons and regulatory requirements. Nevertheless, workers continue efforts to identify pheromones because of the great potential elucidated by insect control and the fact that few tools are available to control nuisance fish. Approaches developed for nuisance fish also could be applied to valued fishes, which

  11. Origin and loss of nested LRRTM/α-catenin genes during vertebrate evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Uvarov

    Full Text Available Leucine-rich repeat transmembrane neuronal proteins (LRRTMs form in mammals a family of four postsynaptic adhesion proteins, which have been shown to bind neurexins and heparan sulphate proteoglycan (HSPG glypican on the presynaptic side. Mutations in the genes encoding LRRTMs and neurexins are implicated in human cognitive disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. Our analysis shows that in most jawed vertebrates, lrrtm1, lrrtm2, and lrrtm3 genes are nested on opposite strands of large conserved intron of α-catenin genes ctnna2, ctnna1, and ctnna3, respectively. No lrrtm genes could be found in tunicates or lancelets, while two lrrtm genes are found in the lamprey genome, one of which is adjacent to a single ctnna homolog. Based on similar highly positive net charge of lamprey LRRTMs and the HSPG-binding LRRTM3 and LRRTM4 proteins, we speculate that the ancestral LRRTM might have bound HSPG before acquiring neurexins as binding partners. Our model suggests that lrrtm gene translocated into the large ctnna intron in early vertebrates, and that subsequent duplications resulted in three lrrtm/ctnna gene pairs present in most jawed vertebrates. However, we detected three prominent exceptions: (1 the lrrtm3/ctnna3 gene structure is absent in the ray-finned fish genomes, (2 the genomes of clawed frogs contain ctnna1 but lack the corresponding nested (lrrtm2 gene, and (3 contain lrrtm3 gene in the syntenic position but lack the corresponding host (ctnna3 gene. We identified several other protein-coding nested gene structures of which either the host or the nested gene has presumably been lost in the frog or chicken lineages. Interestingly, majority of these nested genes comprise LRR domains.

  12. Sanctuaries for lake trout in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jon G.; Eshenroder, Randy L.; Hartman, Wilbur L.

    1987-01-01

    Populations of lake trout, severely depleted in Lake Superior and virtually extirpated from the other Great Lakes because of sea lamprey predation and intense fishing, are now maintained by annual plantings of hatchery-reared fish in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario and parts of Lake Superior. The extensive coastal areas of the Great Lakes and proximity to large populations resulted in fishing pressure on planted lake trout heavy enough to push annual mortality associated with sport and commercial fisheries well above the critical level needed to reestablish self-sustaining stocks. The interagency, international program for rehabilitating lake trout includes controlling sea lamprey abundance, stocking hatchery-reared lake trout, managing the catch, and establishing sanctuaries where harvest is prohibited. Three lake trout sanctuaries have been established in Lake Michigan: the Fox Island Sanctuary of 121, 500 ha, in the Chippewa-Ottawa Treaty fishing zone in the northern region of the lake; the Milwaukee Reef Sanctuary of 160, 000 ha in midlake, in boundary waters of Michigan and Wisconsin; and Julian's Reef Sanctuary of 6, 500 ha, in Illinois waters. In northern Lake Huron, Drummond Island Sanctuary of 55, 000 ha is two thirds in Indian treaty-ceded waters in Michigan and one third in Ontario waters of Canada. A second sanctuary, Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef Sanctuary, in central Lake Huron contains 168, 000 ha. Sanctuary status for the Canadian areas remains to be approved by the Provincial government. In Lake Superior, sanctuaries protect the spawning grounds of Gull Island Shoal (70, 000 ha) and Devils Island Shoal (44, 000 ha) in Wisconsin's Apostle Island area. These seven sanctuaries, established by the several States and agreed upon by the States, Indian tribes, the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Province of Ontario, contribute toward solving an interjurisdictional fishery problem.

  13. The Review of Ecological and Genetic Research of Ponto-Caspian Gobies (Pisces, Gobiidae in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Goran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive Ponto-Caspian gobies (monkey goby Neogobius fluviatilis, round goby Neogobius melanostomus and bighead goby Ponticola kessleri have recently caused dramatic changes in fish assemblage structure throughout European river systems. This review provides summary of recent research on their dietary habits, age and growth, phylogenetic lineages and gene diversity. The principal food of all three species is invertebrates, and more rarely fish, which depends on the type of habitat, part of the year, as well as the morphological characteristics of species. According to the von Bertalanffy growth model, size at age is specific for the region, but due to its disadvantages it is necessary to test other growth models. Phylogenetic analysis of monkey goby and round goby indicates separation between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea haplotypes. The greatest genetic diversity is found among populations of the Black Sea, and the lowest among European invaders. The lack of molecular research on bighead goby requires further studies.

  14. Strontium and zinc concentrations in otoliths of common fish species in the northern Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lill, J.-O., E-mail: jlill@abo.fi [Accelerator Laboratory, Turku PET Centre, Åbo Akademi University, Porthansgatan 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Himberg, M. [Laboratory of Aquatic Pathobiology, Husö Biological Station, Environmental and Marine Biology, Department of Biosciences, Åbo Akademi University, Artillerigatan 6, FI-20520 Turku (Finland); Harju, L.; Ek, P. [Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering, Åbo Akademi University, Biskopsgatan 8, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Lindroos, A. [Geology and Mineralogy, Department of Natural Sciences, Åbo Akademi University, Domkyrkotorget, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Wiklund, T. [Laboratory of Aquatic Pathobiology, Husö Biological Station, Environmental and Marine Biology, Department of Biosciences, Åbo Akademi University, Artillerigatan 6, FI-20520 Turku (Finland); Gunnelius, K.; Smått, J.-H. [Physical Chemistry, Department of Natural Sciences, Åbo Akademi University, Porthansgatan 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Heselius, S.-J. [Accelerator Laboratory, Turku PET Centre, Åbo Akademi University, Porthansgatan 3, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Hägerstrand, H. [Laboratory of Aquatic Pathobiology, Husö Biological Station, Environmental and Marine Biology, Department of Biosciences, Åbo Akademi University, Artillerigatan 6, FI-20520 Turku (Finland)

    2014-01-01

    Otoliths of perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius) and European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) caught at different locations in the northern Baltic Sea along the Finnish west coast and at some rivers and lakes were subjected to elemental analyses with particle induced X-ray emission and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The strontium concentration in otoliths from whitefish (∼3300 μg/g) was 2–3 times higher than that of perch and pike (∼1400 μg/g), while within species the strontium concentration of otoliths from fish caught at different locations was in the same range. The strontium concentrations were lowest in fish from the lakes (∼450 μg/g). Whitefish otoliths contained more zinc (∼60 μg/g) than those of pike (∼30 μg/g), while the zinc concentration in perch otoliths were below the detection limit. No spatial intraspecies variations in zinc concentrations were observed. X-ray diffraction showed that the otoliths consisted of aragonite solely.

  15. Strontium and zinc concentrations in otoliths of common fish species in the northern Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lill, J.-O.; Himberg, M.; Harju, L.; Ek, P.; Lindroos, A.; Wiklund, T.; Gunnelius, K.; Smått, J.-H.; Heselius, S.-J.; Hägerstrand, H.

    2014-01-01

    Otoliths of perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius) and European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) caught at different locations in the northern Baltic Sea along the Finnish west coast and at some rivers and lakes were subjected to elemental analyses with particle induced X-ray emission and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The strontium concentration in otoliths from whitefish (∼3300 μg/g) was 2–3 times higher than that of perch and pike (∼1400 μg/g), while within species the strontium concentration of otoliths from fish caught at different locations was in the same range. The strontium concentrations were lowest in fish from the lakes (∼450 μg/g). Whitefish otoliths contained more zinc (∼60 μg/g) than those of pike (∼30 μg/g), while the zinc concentration in perch otoliths were below the detection limit. No spatial intraspecies variations in zinc concentrations were observed. X-ray diffraction showed that the otoliths consisted of aragonite solely

  16. Long lasting fish contamination with 90Sr of Ignalina NPP water cooling basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusauskiene-Duz, R.; Gudeliene, I.

    2003-01-01

    Between the nourishment chains in hydro ecosystem the main role have chain water-fish-man, because amount of 90 Sr in fish muscle is limited. 90 Sr accumulation and distribution between the fish organs and tissues was studied. It was found that the main way of 90 Sr enter to the Ignalina NPP water cooling basin fish is adsorption processes which is more active than that of absorption. Established regularities of distribution between the fish organs and tissues, which depends on the fish nourishment type and their species. We determined that 90 Sr activity in fish muscles increase from spring to autumn: in Rutilus rutilus - 8, Abramis brama - 6, Perca fluviatilis - 2,7 and Esox lucius - 22,3 times. We determined that 90 Sr activity in fish muscles is 24 times lower than permissible' standard. It was determined that 90 Sr activity in fish gonads is 2 times higher than that in muscles and depends on fish species. (author)

  17. Hatching success in brackish water of Perca fluviatilis eggs obtained from the western Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Emil Aputsiaq Flindt; Skovrind, Mikkel; Olsen, Morten Tange

    2016-01-01

    tolerance of the eggs in vivo, and the salinities at which some populations spawn in situ (7 vs. 9.6 ‰). In the present study, hatching success of perch was determined in vivo for a Danish, western Baltic, brackish water population at salinities of 4, 7, 10 and 12 ‰. Furthermore, in order to place...... the population genetically among other European perch populations, individual egg samples were sequenced for a 390 base pair fragment of the mtDNA Dloop region. Hatching occurred at all four salinities, with no statistical differences among treatments. Successful hatching at 12 ‰ is well above salinities of 7......‰, which has previously been the highest reported from in vivo studies. This discrepancy is likely to be a result of methodological differences (e.g. different temperature) or perhaps interspecific variability in egg hatching abilities among perch populations. The perch from the present study consisted...

  18. AID/APOBEC cytosine deaminase induces genome-wide kataegis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lada Artem G

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Clusters of localized hypermutation in human breast cancer genomes, named “kataegis” (from the Greek for thunderstorm, are hypothesized to result from multiple cytosine deaminations catalyzed by AID/APOBEC proteins. However, a direct link between APOBECs and kataegis is still lacking. We have sequenced the genomes of yeast mutants induced in diploids by expression of the gene for PmCDA1, a hypermutagenic deaminase from sea lamprey. Analysis of the distribution of 5,138 induced mutations revealed localized clusters very similar to those found in tumors. Our data provide evidence that unleashed cytosine deaminase activity is an evolutionary conserved, prominent source of genome-wide kataegis events. Reviewers This article was reviewed by: Professor Sandor Pongor, Professor Shamil R. Sunyaev, and Dr Vladimir Kuznetsov.

  19. Organization of left-right coordination in the mammalian locomotor network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butt, S. J B; Lebret, James M.; Kiehn, Ole

    2002-01-01

    in the spinal cords of a number of aquatic vertebrates including the Xenopus tadpole and the lamprey. However, their function in left-right coordination of limb movements in mammals is poorly understood. In this review we describe the present understanding of commissural pathways in the functioning of spinal......Neuronal circuits involved in left-right coordination are a fundamental feature of rhythmic locomotor movements. These circuits necessarily include commissural interneurons (CINs) that have axons crossing the midline of the spinal cord. The properties of CINs have been described in some detail....... Spinal CINs play an important role in the generation of locomotor output. Increased knowledge as to their function in producing locomotion is likely to provide valuable insights into the spinal networks required for postural control and walking....

  20. Evolution of endothelin receptors in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braasch, Ingo; Schartl, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    Endothelin receptors are G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) of the β-group of rhodopsin receptors that bind to endothelin ligands, which are 21 amino acid long peptides derived from longer prepro-endothelin precursors. The most basal Ednr-like GPCR is found outside vertebrates in the cephalochordate amphioxus, but endothelin ligands are only present among vertebrates, including the lineages of jawless vertebrates (lampreys and hagfishes), cartilaginous vertebrates (sharks, rays, and chimaeras), and bony vertebrates (ray-finned fishes and lobe-finned vertebrates including tetrapods). A bona fide endothelin system is thus a vertebrate-specific innovation with important roles for regulating the cardiovascular system, renal and pulmonary processes, as well as for the development of the vertebrate-specific neural crest cell population and its derivatives. Expectedly, dysregulation of endothelin receptors and the endothelin system leads to a multitude of human diseases. Despite the importance of different types of endothelin receptors for vertebrate development and physiology, current knowledge on endothelin ligand-receptor interactions, on the expression of endothelin receptors and their ligands, and on the functional roles of the endothelin system for embryonic development and in adult vertebrates is very much biased towards amniote vertebrates. Recent analyses from a variety of vertebrate lineages, however, have shown that the endothelin system in lineages such as teleost fish and lampreys is more diverse and is divergent from the mammalian endothelin system. This diversity is mainly based on differential evolution of numerous endothelin system components among vertebrate lineages generated by two rounds of whole genome duplication (three in teleosts) during vertebrate evolution. Here we review current understanding of the evolutionary history of the endothelin receptor family in vertebrates supplemented with surveys on the endothelin receptor gene complement of

  1. Planktonic or non-planktonic food in young-of-the-year European perch Perca fluviatilis in ponds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bláha, M.; Šetlíková, I.; Peterka, Jiří; Musil, J.; Policar, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 2 (2014), s. 509-515 ISSN 0022-1112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : aquatic macrophytes * phytophilous zoobenthos * sediment zoobenthos * semi-intensive fish Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 1.658, year: 2014

  2. Food selectivity of perch (Perca fluviatilis L. ) in acidified lakes on the west coast of Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, B

    1972-01-01

    The objective of the present paper was to examine presumed changes in the food composition of perch in lakes subjected to recent acidification, which emanates from sulfuric acid in the precipitation. The material analyzed (825 preserved specimens from 49 different lakes) was collected by the Fishery Board. These lakes represent a great variability in terms of pH. The perch were divided into four size groups and the stomach contents of each specimen was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The results indicate that fish, which make up the bulk of food for adult perch, are replaced by various invertebrates at a decreasing pH. With a moderate decrease the water hog-louse (Asellus aquaticus) appears of major importance, whereas its place is taken by Corixa bugs in the most acidified lakes. These latter invertebrates are normally absent in the food of adult perch. Also, plankton accounts for a substantial share of the stomach contents. The reasons for these changes are manifold, but two factors are primarily discussed in this paper, viz. the effect of the acidification on the prey populations and the elimination of certain species by selective predation in a normal lake.

  3. Changes in marine fish community under influence of Leningrad nuclear power plant and another human activities in the watershed of Koporskaya Bay (Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimin, V.L.

    1999-01-01

    The long-time observations (1978-1997) in the Leningrad nuclear power plant cooling water-body (Koporskaya Bay) in the frame of the Regional Ecological Monitoring Program provided reliable data on the local fish community state. Regular observations allow us to trace structural changes in fish community, because they follow changes on physiological and population levels in this community. 45 species of fishes and lamprey were recorded during all investigation period. However, the species diversity is very poor. Wittaker dominance-diversity curves reflect degradation in the coastal fish community being under influence of the complex industrial and agricultural factors. The fish community is now dominated by only 2-3 species, especially threespined stickleback and ninespined stickleback; while the first species more abundant then the second one as far as ∼10 times

  4. A simple mechanical system for studying adaptive oscillatory neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Guillaume; Jouffroy, Jerome

    Central Pattern Generators (CPG) are oscillatory systems that are responsible for generating rhythmic patterns at the origin of many biological activities such as for example locomotion or digestion. These systems are generally modelled as recurrent neural networks whose parameters are tuned so...... that the network oscillates in a suitable way, this tuning being a non trivial task. It also appears that the link with the physical body that these oscillatory entities control has a fundamental importance, and it seems that most bodies used for experimental validation in the literature (walking robots, lamprey...... a brief description of the Roller-Racer, we present as a preliminary study an RNN-based feed-forward controller whose parameters are obtained through the well-known teacher forcing learning algorithm, extended to learn signals with a continuous component....

  5. Cysteine-rich buccal gland protein suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of hela cells through akt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jianmei; Liu, Yu; Jiang, Qi; Xiao, Rong

    2017-11-01

    Cysteine-rich buccal gland protein (CRBGP) as a member of cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) superfamily was isolated from the buccal glands of Lampetra japonica, the blood suckers in the marine. Previous studies showed CRBGP could suppress angiogenesis probably due to its ion channel blocking activity. Whether CRBGP could also affect the activity of tumor cells has not been reported yet. In this study, CRBGP suppressed the proliferation of Hela cells with an IC 50 of 6.7 μM by inducing apoptosis. Both microscopic observation and Western blot indicated that CRBGP was able to induce the nuclei shrinking, downregulate the protein level of BCL2 and caspase 3 as well as upregulate the level of BAX in Hela cells, suggested that CRBGP might induce apoptosis of Hela cells in a mitochondrial-dependent pathway. Furthermore, CRBGP could disturb F-actin organization, which would finally cause the Hela cells to lose their shape and to lessen their abilities on adhesion, migration and invasion. Finally, CRBGP was shown to reduce the phosphorylation level of Akt, which indicated that CRBGP might inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of Hela cells through Akt pathway. CRBGP, as a voltage-gated sodium channel blocker, also possesses the anti-tumor abilities which provided information on the effects and action manner of the other CRISPs. © 2017 IUBMB Life, 69(11):856-866, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  6. Braga nasuta (Cymothoidae: an ectoparasite of the Giant Amazonian fish Arapaima gigas (Osteoglossidae fingerlings cultured in the Amazon region in Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elson Cardoso de Jesus

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Isopods Cymothoidae are organisms that parasitize several fish species, both marine and freshwater, provoking important physiological alterations and secondary infections. The genus Braga was proposed to harbor three species of parasitic isopods in freshwater fish from South America: B. brasiliensis, B. cichlae and B. nasuta. Posteriorly, other four species were included: B. patagonica, B. amapaensis, B. fluviatilis and B. bachmanni. Regarding the geographical distribution of the genus, there are registers in Brazil, Argentina, Suriname and Paraguay. In this study, 3,625 fingerlings of pirarucu Arapaima gigas were examined from a commercial fish farm in the Amazon region, Pará State, to observe and identify possible parasites. A total of eleven ectoparasitic isopods were carefully removed from the body surface of the hosts and fixed in alcohol 70%. They were processed and identified as Braga nasuta. Parasitological indexes were prevalence of 0.303%, mean intensity of 1.000±0.000 and mean abundance of 0.003±0.055. This is the first report of B. nasuta in pirarucu fingerlings.

  7. Environmental fate and effects of the lampricide TFM: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, T.D.

    2003-01-01

    Use of 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) is limited geographically to the Great Lakes basin where it is the principal agent used in control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). It is clear from available data that TFM has effects on the environment, but the effects reported are transient. Individual organisms and aquatic communities return to pretreatment conditions after lampricide treatments have concluded. TFM is not persistent, is detoxified, and presents minimal long-term toxicological risk. TFM is relatively nontoxic to mammals. Treatment levels do not pose a threat to wildlife. However, TFM is an estrogen agonist and additional testing to define the nature and magnitude of this effect will likely be required. Because stream treatments are done on 3 to 5 year cycles, and exposures are limited to approximately 12 h, minimal risk to aquatic organisms is expected.

  8. Evolution of lung breathing from a lungless primitive vertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, M; Taylor, B E; Harris, M B

    2016-04-01

    Air breathing was critical to the terrestrial radiation and evolution of tetrapods and arose in fish. The vertebrate lung originated from a progenitor structure present in primitive boney fish. The origin of the neural substrates, which are sensitive to metabolically produced CO2 and which rhythmically activate respiratory muscles to match lung ventilation to metabolic demand, is enigmatic. We have found that a distinct periodic centrally generated rhythm, described as "cough" and occurring in lamprey in vivo and in vitro, is modulated by central sensitivity to CO2. This suggests that elements critical for the evolution of breathing in tetrapods, were present in the most basal vertebrate ancestors prior to the evolution of the lung. We propose that the evolution of breathing in all vertebrates occurred through exaptations derived from these critical basal elements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Inference of the ancestral vertebrate phenotype through vestiges of the whole-genome duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onimaru, Koh; Kuraku, Shigehiro

    2018-03-16

    Inferring the phenotype of the last common ancestor of living vertebrates is a challenging problem because of several unresolvable factors. They include the lack of reliable out-groups of living vertebrates, poor information about less fossilizable organs and specialized traits of phylogenetically important species, such as lampreys and hagfishes (e.g. secondary loss of vertebrae in adult hagfishes). These factors undermine the reliability of ancestral reconstruction by traditional character mapping approaches based on maximum parsimony. In this article, we formulate an approach to hypothesizing ancestral vertebrate phenotypes using information from the phylogenetic and functional properties of genes duplicated by genome expansions in early vertebrate evolution. We named the conjecture as 'chronological reconstruction of ohnolog functions (CHROF)'. This CHROF conjecture raises the possibility that the last common ancestor of living vertebrates may have had more complex traits than currently thought.

  10. Otoconia biogenesis, phylogeny, composition and functional attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermin, C. D.; Lychakov, D.; Campos, A.; Hara, H.; Sondag, E.; Jones, T.; Jones, S.; Taylor, M.; Meza-Ruiz, G.; Martin, D. S.

    1998-01-01

    This work consolidates data about these interesting organic crystals of vertebrate inner ears. It addresses 5 aspects of inner ear otoliths not completely understood to date: 1) embryological data that explains the formation of the crystals, 2) the significance of the organic and the inorganic phase of the otolith and the changing patterns of otoconia formation along the evolutionary tree, 3) otoliths contribution for detecting linear acceleration, 4) the effect that altered gravity and aminoglycosides have on the development and adult shape of the crystals, and the evolutionary significance of a changing shape of the crystals from primitive forms (lamprey) to high vertebrate birds and mammals is discussed, 5) functional attributes of the otolithic organs and morphological modifications of the otoliths by physical and chemical insults are presented with an extensive discussion of the most relevant literature published and available to us.

  11. Lamprey VLRB response to influenza virus supports universal rules of immunogenicity and antigenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Altman, Meghan O; Bennink, Jack R; Yewdell, Jonathan W; Herrin, Brantley R

    2015-01-01

    eLife digest Influenza viruses infect ten of millions of people each year. To conquer a flu infection, the human immune system develops antibodies that hasten recovery and prevent future flu infections. Unfortunately, flu is constantly changing in response to the human immune response, and antibodies induced by previous infection or vaccination provide partial protection, at best, against new strains. An ideal flu vaccine would stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies that protect ag...

  12. The evolution of farnesoid X, vitamin D, and pregnane X receptors: insights from the green-spotted pufferfish (Tetraodon nigriviridis and other non-mammalian species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kullman Seth W

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The farnesoid X receptor (FXR, pregnane X receptor (PXR, and vitamin D receptor (VDR are three closely related nuclear hormone receptors in the NR1H and 1I subfamilies that share the property of being activated by bile salts. Bile salts vary significantly in structure across vertebrate species, suggesting that receptors binding these molecules may show adaptive evolutionary changes in response. We have previously shown that FXRs from the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus and zebrafish (Danio rerio are activated by planar bile alcohols found in these two species. In this report, we characterize FXR, PXR, and VDR from the green-spotted pufferfish (Tetraodon nigriviridis, an actinopterygian fish that unlike the zebrafish has a bile salt profile similar to humans. We utilize homology modelling, docking, and pharmacophore studies to understand the structural features of the Tetraodon receptors. Results Tetraodon FXR has a ligand selectivity profile very similar to human FXR, with strong activation by the synthetic ligand GW4064 and by the primary bile acid chenodeoxycholic acid. Homology modelling and docking studies suggest a ligand-binding pocket architecture more similar to human and rat FXRs than to lamprey or zebrafish FXRs. Tetraodon PXR was activated by a variety of bile acids and steroids, although not by the larger synthetic ligands that activate human PXR such as rifampicin. Homology modelling predicts a larger ligand-binding cavity than zebrafish PXR. We also demonstrate that VDRs from the pufferfish and Japanese medaka were activated by small secondary bile acids such as lithocholic acid, whereas the African clawed frog VDR was not. Conclusions Our studies provide further evidence of the relationship between both FXR, PXR, and VDR ligand selectivity and cross-species variation in bile salt profiles. Zebrafish and green-spotted pufferfish provide a clear contrast in having markedly different primary bile salt profiles

  13. Spatial coordination of compensatory eye movements in vertebrates: form and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, W

    1988-01-01

    The semicircular canals of the labyrinth of vertebrates provide one way of motion detection in three-dimensional space. The fully developed form of the vertebrate labyrinth consists of six semicircular canals, three on each side of the head, whose spatial arrangement (vertical canals are placed diagonally in the head, horizontal canals are oriented earth horizontally) follows three interconnected principles: 1) bilateral symmetry, 2) push-pull operational mode, and 3) mutual orthogonality. Other sensory and motor systems related to vestibular reflexes, such as the extraocular muscles or the "optokinetic" coordinate axes encoded in the activity of the visually driven cells of the accessory optic system, share the same geometrical framework. This framework is also reflected in the anatomical networks mediating compensatory eye movements, linking each of the semicircular canals to a particular set of extraocular muscles (so-called principal vestibuloocular reflex connections to yoke muscles). These classical vestibulo-oculomotor relationships have been verified at many levels of the vertebrate hierarchy, including lateral- and frontal-eyed animals. The particular spatial orientation of the semicircular canals requires further comment and phylogenetic evaluation. The spatial arrangement of the vertical canals is already present in fossil ostracoderms, and is also exemplified in lampreys, the modern forms of once abundant agnathan species that populated the Silurian and Devonian oceans. The lampreys and ostracoderms lack horizontal canals, which appear later in all descendent vertebrates. The fully developed vertebrate labyrinth with its six semicircular canals displays distinct differences that are obvious when comparing distant taxa (e.g. elasmobranchs versus other vertebrates). Whereas the common crus of the semicircular canals in teleosts through mammals is formed between the anterior and the posterior semicircular canal, it occurs between the anterior and the

  14. Connectivity and conditional models of access and abundance of species in stream networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelgren, Nathan D; Dunham, Jason B

    2015-07-01

    Barriers to passage of aquatic organisms at stream road crossings are a major cause of habitat fragmentation in stream networks. Accordingly, large investments have been made to restore passage at these crossings, but often without estimation of population-level benefits. Here, we describe a broad-scale approach to quantifying the effectiveness of passage restoration in terms interpretable at population levels, namely numbers of fish and length of stream gained through restoration, by sampling abundance in a study design that accounts for variable biogeographic species pools, variable stream and barrier configurations, and variable probabilities of capture and detectability for multiple species. We modified an existing zero-inflated negative-binomial model to estimate the probability of site access, abundance conditional on access, and capture probability of individual fish. Therein, we modeled probability of access as a function of gradient, stream road-crossing type, and downstream access by fish simultaneously with a predictive model for abundance at sites accessible to fish. Results indicated that replacement of barriers with new crossing designs intended to allow for greater movement was associated with dramatically higher probability of access for all fishes, including migratory Pacific salmon, trout, sculpin, and lamprey. Conversely, existing non-replaced crossings negatively impacted fish distributions. Assuming no downstream constraints on access, we estimated the potential length of stream restored by the program ranged between 7.33 (lamprey) and 15.28 km (small coastal cutthroat and rainbow trout). These contributions represented a fraction of the total length available upstream (187 km) of replaced crossings. When limited ranges of species were considered, the estimated contributions of culvert replacement were reduced (1.65-km range, for longnose dace to 12.31 km for small coastal cutthroat and rainbow trout). Numbers of fish contributed ranged from

  15. The vertebrate ancestral repertoire of visual opsins, transducin alpha subunits and oxytocin/vasopressin receptors was established by duplication of their shared genomic region in the two rounds of early vertebrate genome duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagman, David; Ocampo Daza, Daniel; Widmark, Jenny; Abalo, Xesús M; Sundström, Görel; Larhammar, Dan

    2013-11-02

    other neuronal and neuroendocrine functions exerted by the proteins encoded by these gene families. In pouched lamprey all five visual opsin genes have previously been identified, suggesting that lampreys diverged from the jawed vertebrates after 2R.

  16. Early vertebrate origin and diversification of small transmembrane regulators of cellular ion transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkmajer, Sergej; Kirchner, Henriette; Lundell, Leonidas S; Zelenin, Pavel V; Zierath, Juleen R; Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Chibalin, Alexander V

    2017-07-15

    Small transmembrane proteins such as FXYDs, which interact with Na + ,K + -ATPase, and the micropeptides that interact with sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase play fundamental roles in regulation of ion transport in vertebrates. Uncertain evolutionary origins and phylogenetic relationships among these regulators of ion transport have led to inconsistencies in their classification across vertebrate species, thus hampering comparative studies of their functions. We discovered the first FXYD homologue in sea lamprey, a basal jawless vertebrate, which suggests small transmembrane regulators of ion transport emerged early in the vertebrate lineage. We also identified 13 gene subfamilies of FXYDs and propose a revised, phylogeny-based FXYD classification that is consistent across vertebrate species. These findings provide an improved framework for investigating physiological and pathophysiological functions of small transmembrane regulators of ion transport. Small transmembrane proteins are important for regulation of cellular ion transport. The most prominent among these are members of the FXYD family (FXYD1-12), which regulate Na + ,K + -ATPase, and phospholamban, sarcolipin, myoregulin and DWORF, which regulate the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase (SERCA). FXYDs and regulators of SERCA are present in fishes, as well as terrestrial vertebrates; however, their evolutionary origins and phylogenetic relationships are obscure, thus hampering comparative physiological studies. Here we discovered that sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a representative of extant jawless vertebrates (Cyclostomata), expresses an FXYD homologue, which strongly suggests that FXYDs predate the emergence of fishes and other jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata). Using a combination of sequence-based phylogenetic analysis and conservation of local chromosome context, we determined that FXYDs markedly diversified in the lineages leading to cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes) and bony

  17. Accumulation of Vesicle-Associated Human Tau in Distal Dendrites Drives Degeneration and Tau Secretion in an In Situ Cellular Tauopathy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmook Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a nontransgenic cellular tauopathy model in which individual giant neurons in the lamprey CNS (ABCs overexpress human tau isoforms cell autonomously to characterize the still poorly understood consequences of disease-associated tau processing in situ. In this model, tau colocalizes with endogenous microtubules and is nontoxic when expressed at low levels, but is misprocessed by a toxicity-associated alternative pathway when expressed above levels that saturate dendritic microtubules, causing abnormally phosphorylated, vesicle-associated tau to accumulate in ABC distal dendrites. This causes localized microtubule loss and eventually dendritic degeneration, which is preceded by tau secretion to the extracellular space. This sequence is reiterated at successively more proximal dendritic locations over time, suggesting that tau-induced dendritic degeneration is driven by distal dendritic accumulation of hyperphosphorylated, vesicle-associated tau perpetuated by localized microtubule loss. The implications for the diagnosis and treatment of human disease are discussed.

  18. Calcium and Strontium in Swedish Waters and Fish, and Accumulation of Strontium-90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnedal, P O

    1966-04-15

    The purpose of this study has been to investigate the correlation between calcium and strontium in fish in relation to the concentration of these elements in the water. An investigation of the uptake of strontium-90 has also been made and permissible levels of strontium-90 in the water is calculated based upon the uptake in fish muscle tissues. Lakes with calcium concentrations between 2 - 63 mg/l have been studied and samples from the Baltic coastal water are also included. Three fish species are studied, viz. pike (Esox lucius (L.)), perch (Perca fluviatilis (L.)) and roach (Leuciscus rutilus (L.)). Bones, muscle tissues and skin + scales have been analysed. Strontium-90 measurements have been made showing an increase in both water and fish. Calculations show that in water with about 2 mg Ca/l a 10-fold increase of the existing strontium-90 level might give strontium-90 concentrations in fish muscle tissues close to what is permissible. In lakes with calcium concentrations 20 - 40 mg/l the permissible levels for drinking water will be exceeded before the fish consumption would have to be restricted.

  19. Stickleback Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrika Candolin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-induced eutrophication has increased offspring production in a population of threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus in the Baltic Sea. Here, we experimentally investigated the effects of an increased density of juveniles on behaviours that influence survival and dispersal, and, hence, population growth—habitat choice, risk taking, and foraging rate. Juveniles were allowed to choose between two habitats that differed in structural complexity, in the absence and presence of predators and conspecific juveniles. In the absence of predators or conspecifics, juveniles preferred the more complex habitat. The preference was further enhanced in the presence of a natural predator, a perch Perca fluviatilis (behind a transparent Plexiglas wall. However, an increased density of conspecifics relaxed the predator-enhanced preference for the complex habitat and increased the use of the open, more predator-exposed habitat. Foraging rate was reduced under increased perceived predation risk. These results suggest that density-dependent behaviours can cause individuals to choose suboptimal habitats where predation risk is high and foraging rate low. This could contribute to the regulation of population growth in eutrophicated areas where offspring production is high.

  20. Fish mercury levels in lakes - adjusting for Hg and fish-size covariation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonesten, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Fish-size covariation can be circumvented by regression intercepts of Hg vs. fish length as lake-specific Hg levels. - Accurate estimates of lake-specific mercury levels are vital in assessing the environmental impact on the mercury content in fish. The intercepts of lake-specific regressions of Hg concentration in fish vs. fish length provide accurate estimates when there is a prominent Hg and fish-size covariation. Commonly used regression methods, such as analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and various standardization techniques are less suitable, since they do not completely remove the fish-size covariation when regression slopes are not parallel. Partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis reveals that catchment area and water chemistry have the strongest influence on the Hg level in fish in circumneutral lakes. PLS is a multivariate projection method that allows biased linear regression analysis of multicollinear data. The method is applicable to statistical and visual exploration of large data sets, even if there are more variables than observations. Environmental descriptors have no significant impact on the slopes of linear regressions of the Hg concentration in perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) vs. fish length, suggesting that the slopes mainly reflect ontogenetic dietary shifts during the perch life span

  1. Metal contamination in harbours impacts life-history traits and metallothionein levels in snails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alexandra Bighiu

    Full Text Available Harbours with limited water exchange are hotspots of contaminant accumulation. Antifouling paints (AF contribute to this accumulation by leaching biocides that may affect non-target species. In several leisure boat harbours and reference areas in the Baltic Sea, chronic exposure effects were evaluated using caging experiments with the snail Theodoxus fluviatilis. We analysed variations in ecologically relevant endpoints (mortality, growth and reproduction in concert with variation in metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP levels. The latter is a biomarker of exposure to metals, such as copper (Cu and zinc (Zn, which are used in AF paints as active ingredient and stabilizer, respectively. In addition, environmental samples (water, sediment were analysed for metal (Cu and Zn and nutrient (total phosphorous and nitrogen concentrations. All life-history endpoints were negatively affected by the exposure, with higher mortality, reduced growth and lower fecundity in the harbours compared to the reference sites. Metal concentrations were the key explanatory variables for all observed adverse effects, suggesting that metal-driven toxicity, which is likely to stem from AF paints, is a source of anthropogenic stress for biota in the harbours.

  2. Calcium and Strontium in Swedish Waters and Fish, and Accumulation of Strontium-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnedal, P.O.

    1966-04-01

    The purpose of this study has been to investigate the correlation between calcium and strontium in fish in relation to the concentration of these elements in the water. An investigation of the uptake of strontium-90 has also been made and permissible levels of strontium-90 in the water is calculated based upon the uptake in fish muscle tissues. Lakes with calcium concentrations between 2 - 63 mg/l have been studied and samples from the Baltic coastal water are also included. Three fish species are studied, viz. pike (Esox lucius (L.)), perch (Perca fluviatilis (L.)) and roach (Leuciscus rutilus (L.)). Bones, muscle tissues and skin + scales have been analysed. Strontium-90 measurements have been made showing an increase in both water and fish. Calculations show that in water with about 2 mg Ca/l a 10-fold increase of the existing strontium-90 level might give strontium-90 concentrations in fish muscle tissues close to what is permissible. In lakes with calcium concentrations 20 - 40 mg/l the permissible levels for drinking water will be exceeded before the fish consumption would have to be restricted

  3. The diet of reservoir perch before, during and after establishment of non-native tubenose goby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Všetičková Lucie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, gobiid species have increased their distribution throughout Europe and now often represent the dominant genus along many rivers and canals. In this study, we assessed the role of tubenose goby (Proterorhinus semilunaris as a prey species of native perch (Perca fluviatilis in a lowland reservoir soon after their initial introduction in 1994 (sampling started 1998 and 17 years after establishment (2011–2012. We compare these data with perch diet composition from before introduction (1981–1982. Our data indicate that tubenose gobies quickly became the dominant species along the reservoir bankside, making them an attractive prey for ≥1 + perch. There was a clear increasing trend in the numbers of larger perch caught along the rip-rap, with the largest fish clearly specialising on gobies. As such, introduction of tubenose gobies has had a pronounced effect on food web and population dynamics along the littoral zone. While goby numbers appear to have dropped significantly in recent years, apparently due to predation pressure, further studies are needed to assess whether such changes have had any general impact on population and food web dynamics within the reservoir.

  4. Occurrence of parasites of the genus Eustrongylides spp. (Nematoda: Dioctophymatidae in fish caught in Trasimeno lake, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Branciari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Eustrongylides spp. is considered a freshwater fish zoonotic nematode. In the present study, the prevalence of Eustrongylides spp. in six edible fish (European perch - Perca fluviatilis, goldfish - Carassius auratus, largemouth black bass - Micropterus salmoides, tench- Tinca tinca, carp - Cyprinus carpio and sand smelt - Atherina boyeri of Trasimeno lake was surveyed. The investigations were conducted from October 2014 to September 2015 and 384 specimens per species for each season were caught in Trasimeno lake and examined for the presence of larvae in the abdominal cavity and muscle. The presence of nematodes in the abdominal cavity and musculature was revealed in three fish species. The prevalence of Eustrongylides spp. infection was 6.84, 1.89 and 0.13% in perch, largemouth black bass and sand smelt, respectively. The number of parasites per fish was only one in largemouth black bass and sand smelt and ranged from one up to three in perch. This study states that the European perch, largemouth black bass and sand smelt of Trasimeno lake are infected with zoonotic parasites; therefore, food business operators have to take appropriate measures to guarantee the health of consumers.

  5. Effects of habitat type on short- and long-term growth parameters of the European perch (Perca fluviatilis L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrtýl, M.; Kalous, L.; Frouzová, Jaroslava; Čech, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 1 (2015), s. 13-20 ISSN 1434-2944 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/06/1371; GA ČR(CZ) GP206/09/P266; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0204 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : diel vertical migrations * RNA/DNA ratio * bathypelagic perch fry * growth rate * fish larvae * Římov Reservoir Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 1.459, year: 2015

  6. Activity and food choice of piscivorous perch ( Perca fluviatilis ) in a eutrophic shallow lake: a radio-telemetry study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene; Berg, Søren; Broberg, M.

    2002-01-01

    in midsummer. The general lack of activity at night supports the idea that perch is a visually oriented forager. 4. There was no significant relationship between daytime activity during the year and temperature or day length, but nighttime activity was correlated with temperature. In contrast with previous......+ planktivorous fish in lakes and has potential implications for pelagic food web structure and lake management by biomanipulation...

  7. Effect of habitat conditions on parasite infection in 0+juvenile perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) in two Czech reservoirs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Francová, K.; Ondračková, Markéta

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 721, č. 1 (2014), s. 57-66 ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Parasite * Intermediate host * Food availability * Habitat conditions * Lentic * Littoral Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.275, year: 2014

  8. The offshore benthic fish community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantry, Brian F.; Lantry, Jana R.; Weidel, Brian C.; Walsh, Maureen; Hoyle, James A.; Schaner, Teodore; Neave, Fraser B.; Keir, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Lake Ontario’s offshore benthic fish community includes primarily slimy sculpin, lake whitefish, rainbow smelt, lake trout, burbot, and sea lamprey. Of these, lake trout have been the focus of an international restoration effort for more than three decades (Elrod et al. 1995; Lantry and Lantry 2008). The deepwater sculpin and three species of deepwater ciscoes (Coregonus spp.) that were historically important in the offshore benthic zone became rare or were extirpated by the 1960s (Christie 1973; Owens et al. 2003; Lantry et al. 2007b; Roth et al. 2013). Ecosystem changes continue to influence the offshore benthic fish community, including the effects of dreissenid mussels, the near disappearance of burrowing amphipods (Diporeia spp.) (Dermott et al. 2005; Watkins et al. 2007), and the increased abundance and expanded geographic distribution of round goby (see Nearshore Fish Community chapter) (Lantry et al. 2007b). The fish-community objectives for the offshore benthic fish community, as described by Stewart et al. (1999), are:

  9. Developmental Mechanism of Limb Field Specification along the Anterior–Posterior Axis during Vertebrate Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikiko Tanaka

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In gnathostomes, limb buds arise from the lateral plate mesoderm at discrete positions along the body axis. Specification of these limb-forming fields can be subdivided into several steps. The lateral plate mesoderm is regionalized into the anterior lateral plate mesoderm (ALPM; cardiac mesoderm and the posterior lateral plate mesoderm (PLPM. Subsequently, Hox genes appear in a nested fashion in the PLPM and provide positional information along the body axis. The lateral plate mesoderm then splits into the somatic and splanchnic layers. In the somatic layer of the PLPM, the expression of limb initiation genes appears in the limb-forming region, leading to limb bud initiation. Furthermore, past and current work in limbless amphioxus and lampreys suggests that evolutionary changes in developmental programs occurred during the acquisition of paired fins during vertebrate evolution. This review presents these recent advances and discusses the mechanisms of limb field specification during development and evolution, with a focus on the role of Hox genes in this process.

  10. Aquatic Nuisance Species Locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data in this map has been collected by the United States Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species program located in Gainesville, Florida (http://nas.er.usgs.gov/default.aspx). This dataset may have some inaccuracies and is only current to June 15, 2012. The species identified in this dataset are not inclusive of all aquatic nuisance species, but rather a subset identified to be at risk for transport by recreational activities such as boating and angling. Additionally, the locations where organisims have been identified are also not inclusive and should be treated as a guide. Organisms are limited to the following: American bullfrog, Asian clam, Asian shore crab, Asian tunicate, Australian spotted jellyfish, Chinese mitten crab, New Zealand mudsnail, Colonial sea squirt, Alewife, Bighead carp, Black carp, Flathead catfish, Grass carp, Green crab, Lionfish, Northern snakehead, Quagga mussel, Round Goby, Ruffe, Rusty crayfish, Sea lamprey, Silver carp, Spiny water flea, Veined rapa whelk, Zebra mussel

  11. A Specific Population of Reticulospinal Neurons Controls the Termination of Locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvin, Laurent; Grätsch, Swantje; Trillaud-Doppia, Emilie; Gariépy, Jean-François; Büschges, Ansgar; Dubuc, Réjean

    2016-06-14

    Locomotion requires the proper sequencing of neural activity to start, maintain, and stop it. Recently, brainstem neurons were shown to specifically stop locomotion in mammals. However, the cellular properties of these neurons and their activity during locomotion are still unknown. Here, we took advantage of the lamprey model to characterize the activity of a cell population that we now show to be involved in stopping locomotion. We find that these neurons display a burst of spikes that coincides with the end of swimming activity. Their pharmacological activation ends ongoing swimming, whereas the inactivation of these neurons dramatically impairs the rapid termination of swimming. These neurons are henceforth referred to as stop cells, because they play a crucial role in the termination of locomotion. Our findings contribute to the fundamental understanding of motor control and provide important details about the cellular mechanisms involved in locomotor termination. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The emotional fundamentals of personality and the higher affective polarities of mind. Comment on "Personality from a cognitive-biological perspective" by Y. Neuman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panksepp, Jaak; Davis, Ken

    2014-12-01

    In brain-based personality theory, two things seem certain: i) the evolved functional organization of our subcortical affective mind, and ii) the diverse potentials for developmental programming of our high cognitive minds (i.e., our initially empty - tabula rasa like - neocortical spaces are largely developmentally programed to manifest higher mental abilities). In considering these two global aspects of brain-mind functions, we can be confident that primal subcortical functions (e.g., the capacity for raw emotions/affects, evident in all vertebrate species) evolved. Indeed, ancient creatures such as lamprey eels, with whom we shared ancestry 560 million years ago, still posses most neural systems that are homologous to those that constitute our own primal affective capacities [1]. Considering that primal emotional affects arise from such systems, there appears to be some remarkable continuity in our primal mental origins. The neural foundations of human emotional feelings, long neglected by academic psychology (for lack of empirical accessibility), may contain the rudimentary neuro-affective substrates of personality [2].

  13. The vertebrate Hox gene regulatory network for hindbrain segmentation: Evolution and diversification: Coupling of a Hox gene regulatory network to hindbrain segmentation is an ancient trait originating at the base of vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Hugo J; Bronner, Marianne E; Krumlauf, Robb

    2016-06-01

    Hindbrain development is orchestrated by a vertebrate gene regulatory network that generates segmental patterning along the anterior-posterior axis via Hox genes. Here, we review analyses of vertebrate and invertebrate chordate models that inform upon the evolutionary origin and diversification of this network. Evidence from the sea lamprey reveals that the hindbrain regulatory network generates rhombomeric compartments with segmental Hox expression and an underlying Hox code. We infer that this basal feature was present in ancestral vertebrates and, as an evolutionarily constrained developmental state, is fundamentally important for patterning of the vertebrate hindbrain across diverse lineages. Despite the common ground plan, vertebrates exhibit neuroanatomical diversity in lineage-specific patterns, with different vertebrates revealing variations of Hox expression in the hindbrain that could underlie this diversification. Invertebrate chordates lack hindbrain segmentation but exhibit some conserved aspects of this network, with retinoic acid signaling playing a role in establishing nested domains of Hox expression. © 2016 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Handed behavior in hagfish--an ancient vertebrate lineage--and a survey of lateralized behaviors in other invertebrate chordates and elongate vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Tetsuto; Palmer, A Richard

    2014-04-01

    Hagfish represent an ancient lineage of boneless and jawless vertebrates. Among several curious behaviors they exhibit, solitary individuals in one dominant genus of hagfish (Eptatretus spp.) regularly rest in a tightly coiled posture. We present the first systematic treatment of this distinctive behavior. Individual northeastern Pacific hagfish (E. stoutii) exhibited significant handedness (preferred orientation of coiling). However, right-coiling and left-coiling individuals were equally common in the population. Individual hagfish likely develop a preference for one direction by repeating the preceding coiling direction. We also revisit classical accounts of chordate natural history and compare the coiling behavior of Eptatretus with other handed or lateralized behaviors in non-vertebrate chordates, lampreys, and derived vertebrates with elongate bodies. Handed behaviors occur in many of these groups, but they likely evolved independently. In contrast to vertebrates, morphological asymmetries may bias lateralized larval behaviors toward one side in cephalochordates and tunicates. As a consequence, no known handed behavior can be inferred to have existed in the common ancestor of vertebrates.

  15. Evolution and development of the building plan of the vertebrate heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bjarke; Wang, Tobias; Christoffels, Vincent M; Moorman, Antoon F M

    2013-04-01

    Early cardiac development involves the formation of a heart tube, looping of the tube and formation of chambers. These processes are highly similar among all vertebrates, which suggest the existence of evolutionary conservation of the building plan of the heart. From the jawless lampreys to man, T-box transcription factors like Tbx5 and Tbx20 are fundamental for heart formation, whereas Tbx2 and Tbx3 repress chamber formation on the sinu-atrial and atrioventricular borders. Also, electrocardiograms from different vertebrates are alike, even though the fish heart only has two chambers whereas the mammalian heart has four chambers divided by septa and in addition has much higher heart rates. We conclude that most features of the high-performance hearts of mammals and birds can be traced back to less developed traits in the hearts of ectothermic vertebrates. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte biology: Cardiac pathways of differentiation, metabolism and contraction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Diversification of non-visual photopigment parapinopsin in spectral sensitivity for diverse pineal functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Wada, Seiji; Kawano-Yamashita, Emi; Hara, Yuichiro; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Kosaka, Shigeaki; Kawakami, Koichi; Tamotsu, Satoshi; Tsukamoto, Hisao; Shichida, Yoshinori; Terakita, Akihisa

    2015-09-15

    Recent genome projects of various animals have uncovered an unexpectedly large number of opsin genes, which encode protein moieties of photoreceptor molecules, in most animals. In visual systems, the biological meanings of this diversification are clear; multiple types of visual opsins with different spectral sensitivities are responsible for color vision. However, the significance of the diversification of non-visual opsins remains uncertain, in spite of the importance of understanding the molecular mechanism and evolution of varied non-visual photoreceptions. Here, we investigated the diversification of the pineal photopigment parapinopsin, which serves as the UV-sensitive photopigment for the pineal wavelength discrimination in the lamprey, linking it with other pineal photoreception. Spectroscopic analyses of the recombinant pigments of the two teleost parapinopsins PP1 and PP2 revealed that PP1 is a UV-sensitive pigment, similar to lamprey parapinopsin, but PP2 is a blue-sensitive pigment, with an absorption maximum at 460-480 nm, showing the diversification of non-visual pigment with respect to spectral sensitivity. We also found that PP1 and PP2 exhibit mutually exclusive expressions in the pineal organs of three teleost species. By using transgenic zebrafish in which these parapinopsin-expressing cells are labeled, we found that PP1-expressing cells basically possess neuronal processes, which is consistent with their involvement in wavelength discrimination. Interestingly, however, PP2-expressing cells rarely possess neuronal processes, raising the possibility that PP2 could be involved in non-neural responses rather than neural responses. Furthermore, we found that PP2-expressing cells contain serotonin and aanat2, the key enzyme involved in melatonin synthesis from serotonin, whereas PP1-expressing cells do not contain either, suggesting that blue-sensitive PP2 is instead involved in light-regulation of melatonin secretion. In this paper, we have clearly

  17. Fish but Not Macroinvertebrates Promote Trophic Cascading Effects in High Density Submersed Plant Experimental Lake Food Webs in Two Contrasting Climate Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Iglesias

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Predators play a key role in the functioning of shallow lakes. Differences between the response of temperate and subtropical systems to fish predation have been proposed, but experimental evidence is scarce. To elucidate cascading effects produced by predators in contrasting climatic zones, we conducted a mesocosm experiment in three pairs of lakes in Uruguay and Denmark. We used two typical planktivorous-omnivorous fish species (Jenynsia multidentata + Cnesterodon decemmaculatus and Gasterosteus aculeatus + Perca fluviatilis and one littoral omnivorous-predatory macroinvertebrate (Palaemonetes argentinus and Gammarus lacustris, alone and combined, in numbers resembling natural densities. Fish predation on zooplankton increased phytoplankton biomass in both climate zones, whereas the effects of predatory macroinvertebrates on zooplankton and phytoplankton were not significant in either climate zone. Macroinvertebrates (that freely colonized the sampling devices were diminished by fish in both climate areas; however, periphyton biomass did not vary among treatments. Our experiments demonstrated that fish affected the structure of both planktonic and littoral herbivorous communities in both climate regions, with a visible positive cascading effect on phytoplankton biomass, but no effects on periphyton. Altogether, fish impacts appeared to be a strong driver of turbid water conditions in shallow lakes regardless of climatic zone by indirectly contributing to increasing phytoplankton biomass.

  18. Entomological surveillance, spatial distribution, and diversity of Culicidae (Diptera) immatures in a rural area of the Atlantic Forest biome, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovezan, Rafael; Rosa, Stéfany Larissa; Rocha, Matheus Luca; de Azevedo, Thiago Salomão; Von Zuben, Cláudio José

    2013-12-01

    Because of the high adaptive capacity of mosquitoes, studies that focus on transitional environments become very important, such as those in rural areas, which are considered as bridges between wild diseases and human populations of urban areas. In this study, a survey of the existing species of mosquitoes was performed in an Atlantic Forest area of the city of Santa Bárbara d'Oeste, São Paulo state, Brazil, using traps for immatures and analyzing the frequency and distribution of these insects over the sampling months. Five mosquito species were found: Aedes albopictus (the most frequent species), Aedes aegypti, Aedes fluviatilis, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Toxorhynchites theobaldi. The 4,524 eggs collected in ovitraps showed the presence of the tribe Aedini. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were identified after larval hatching in the laboratory, with different spatial distributions: the first of which coincides with the area of greatest diversity calculated using the Simpson index, while the second does not. The association of ecological analysis of spatial diversity with simple methods of data collection enables the identification of possible epidemiological risk situations and is a strategy that may be implemented to monitor ecological processes resulting from the interaction among different species of mosquitoes. © 2013 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  19. Can species-specific prey responses to chemical cues explain prey susceptibility to predation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmejkal, Marek; Ricard, Daniel; Sajdlová, Zuzana; Čech, Martin; Vejřík, Lukáš; Blabolil, Petr; Vejříková, Ivana; Prchalová, Marie; Vašek, Mojmír; Souza, Allan T; Brönmark, Christer; Peterka, Jiří

    2018-05-01

    The perception of danger represents an essential ability of prey for gaining an informational advantage over their natural enemies. Especially in complex environments or at night, animals strongly rely on chemoreception to avoid predators. The ability to recognize danger by chemical cues and subsequent adaptive responses to predation threats should generally increase prey survival. Recent findings suggest that European catfish ( Silurus glanis ) introduction induce changes in fish community and we tested whether the direction of change can be attributed to differences in chemical cue perception. We tested behavioral response to chemical cues using three species of freshwater fish common in European water: rudd ( Scardinius erythrophthalmus ), roach ( Rutilus rutilus ), and perch ( Perca fluviatilis ). Further, we conducted a prey selectivity experiment to evaluate the prey preferences of the European catfish. Roach exhibited the strongest reaction to chemical cues, rudd decreased use of refuge and perch did not alter any behavior in the experiment. These findings suggest that chemical cue perception might be behind community data change and we encourage collecting more community data of tested prey species before and after European catfish introduction to test the hypothesis. We conclude that used prey species can be used as a model species to verify whether chemical cue perception enhances prey survival.

  20. Determination of 90Sr and 210Pb in freshwater fish in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudia Landstetter; Merita Sinojmeri; Christian Katzlberger; Arno Achatz

    2014-01-01

    A method for the determination of 90 Sr and 210 Pb in freshwater fish was developed. The determinations were conducted within a project on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health. The aim of this project was to get an overview of the activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides in freshwater fish in different lakes in Austria. For sampling the Neusiedler See in Burgenland, two lakes in Styria the Grundlsee and the Toplitz See, and the Zeller See in Salzburg were chosen. Chub (Leuciscus cephalus), pike (Esox lucius), perch (Perca fluviatilis), carp (Cyprinus carpio), catfish (Silurus glanis), pike-perch (Sander lucioperca) and burbot (Lota lota) were analysed. The samples were analysed using strontium specific extraction columns (Eichrom Industries Inc., TrisKem International) and liquid scintillation counting. In the edible parts of the fish samples (no fishbone) values of the activity concentration for 210 Pb varied between 0.009 ± 0.003 and 0.16 ± 0.04 Bq kg freshweight -1 and for 90 Sr between 0.010 ± 0.002 and 0.11 ± 0.02 Bq kg freshweight -1 . In this paper the method for the determination of 90 Sr and 210 Pb is described and the results are discussed. (author)

  1. Spotlight on fish: light pollution affects circadian rhythms of European perch but does not cause stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüning, Anika; Hölker, Franz; Franke, Steffen; Preuer, Torsten; Kloas, Werner

    2015-04-01

    Flora and fauna evolved under natural day and night cycles. However, natural light is now enhanced by artificial light at night, particularly in urban areas. This alteration of natural light environments during the night is hypothesised to alter biological rhythms in fish, by effecting night-time production of the hormone melatonin. Artificial light at night is also expected to increase the stress level of fish, resulting in higher cortisol production. In laboratory experiments, European perch (Perca fluviatilis) were exposed to four different light intensities during the night, 0 lx (control), 1 lx (potential light level in urban waters), 10 lx (typical street lighting at night) and 100 lx. Melatonin and cortisol concentrations were measured from water samples every 3h during a 24 hour period. This study revealed that the nocturnal increase in melatonin production was inhibited even at the lowest light level of 1 lx. However, cortisol levels did not differ between control and treatment illumination levels. We conclude that artificial light at night at very low intensities may disturb biological rhythms in fish since nocturnal light levels around 1 lx are already found in urban waters. However, enhanced stress induction could not be demonstrated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Population structure, condition, and reproduction characteristics of native monkey goby, Neogobius fluviatilis (Actinopterygii: Perciformes Gobiidae), in the Bulgarian Danube

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečná, Markéta; Jurajda, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 4 (2012), s. 321-327 ISSN 0137-1592 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1768 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : monkey goby * invasion * Bulgaria * Danube, condition * GSI * ovary structure Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.606, year: 2012

  3. Fish hemoglobins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt to the changing environmental gas availability. Structurally, most fish hemoglobins are tetrameric; however, those from some species such as lamprey and hagfish dissociate, being monomeric when oxygenated and oligomeric when deoxygenated. Fish blood frequently possesses several hemoglobins; the primary origin of this finding lies in the polymorphism that occurs in the globin loci, an aspect that may occasionally confer advantages to its carriers or even be a harmless evolutionary remnant. On the other hand, the functional properties exhibit different behaviors, ranging from a total absence of responses to allosteric regulation to drastic ones, such as the Root effect.

  4. Evolution of vertebrate adaptive immunity: immune cells and tissues, and AID/APOBEC cytidine deaminases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Masayuki

    2015-08-01

    All surviving jawed vertebrate representatives achieve diversity in immunoglobulin-based B and T cell receptors for antigen recognition through recombinatorial rearrangement of V(D)J segments. However, the extant jawless vertebrates, lampreys and hagfish, instead generate three types of variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) through a template-mediated combinatorial assembly of different leucine-rich repeat (LRR) sequences. The clonally diverse VLRB receptors are expressed by B-like lymphocytes, while the VLRA and VLRC receptors are expressed by lymphocyte lineages that resemble αβ and γδ T lymphocytes, respectively. These findings suggest that three basic types of lymphocytes, one B-like and two T-like, are an essential feature of vertebrate adaptive immunity. Around 500 million years ago, a common ancestor of jawed and jawless vertebrates evolved a genetic program for the development of prototypic lymphoid cells as a foundation for an adaptive immune system. This acquisition preceded the convergent evolution of alternative types of clonally diverse receptors for antigens in all vertebrates, as reviewed in this article. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Offshore Fish Community: Ecological Interactions | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The offshore (>80 m) fish community of Lake Superior is made up of predominately native species. The most prominent species are deepwater sculpin, kiyi, cisco, siscowet lake trout, burbot, and the exotic sea lamprey. Bloater and shortjaw cisco are also found in the offshore zone. Bloater is abundant in the offshore zone but appears restricted to depths shallower than 150 m (Selgeby and Hoff 1996; Stockwell et al. 2010), although it occuppied greater depths several decades ago (Dryer 1966; Peck 1977). Shortjaw is relatively rare in the offshore zone (Hoff and Todd 2004; Gorman and Hoff 2009; Gorman and Todd 2007). Lake whitefish is also known to frequent bathymetric depths >100 m (Yule et al. 2008b). In this chapter, we develop a conceptual model of the offshore food web based on data collected during 2001-2005 and on inferences from species interactions known for the nearshore fish community. We then develop a framework for examination of energy and nutrient movements within the pelagic and benthic habitats of the offshore zone and across the offshore and nearshore zones. To document research results.

  6. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, naphthalenes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the edible fish caught from the Baltic Sea and lakes in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isosaari, Pirjo; Hallikainen, Anja; Kiviranta, Hannu; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Parmanne, Raimo; Koistinen, Jaana; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2006-01-01

    A total of 156 fish composite samples were collected from five areas of the Baltic Sea and from three lakes and analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The European Union's maximum permissible level for PCDD/Fs, 4 pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight (fw), was exceeded in salmon, river lamprey and Baltic herring. In other species from the Baltic Sea, the 90th percentile was 3.42 pg WHO PCDD/F -TEQ/g fw. In the lake fish, the concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PCNs were only 29-46% of those in the same species caught from the Baltic Sea, whereas the concentrations of PBDEs in the lake fish were as high as in the Baltic Sea fish. Dioxin-like PCBs contributed to the total dioxin-like toxicity of PCBs and PCDD/Fs by 49 ± 12% in all the analysed samples. - Lake fish is less contaminated with dioxins, PCBs and chloronaphthalenes than Baltic Sea fish but similarly contaminated with polybrominated diphenyl ethers

  7. Salinity tolerance of cultured Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis L.: Effects on growth and on survival as a function of temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overton, Julia Lynne; Bayley, M.; Paulsen, Helge

    2008-01-01

    Eurasian perch is generally only considered to be a candidate for freshwater aquaculture even though wild populations are found in estuarine and brackish water habitats. Little knowledge exists on two issues a) the effect of temperature on the salinity tolerance of perch and b) the long-term effe...

  8. Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae em criadouros naturais e artificiais de área rural do norte do Parana, Brasil: II. Coletas com isca humana Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae in natural and artificial breeding sites of the rural area in north Paraná, Brazil: II. Capture of human bait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lopes

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available With then purpose of knowing the species of mosquitos that colonize an anthropogenic area in the North of Paraná, Brazil. 1496 specimens were captured by the humam bait method, accountig 23 species among them the following were predominam: Anopheles strodei Root, 1926; An. evansae Brethes, 1926; An. galvaoi Causey, Deane & Deane, 1943; An. albitarsis Lynch Arribalzaga, 1878; Coquillettidea juxtamansonia Chagas, 1907; Co. venezuelensis Theobaldi, 1912; Culex (Melanoconion sp. e Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz, 1904 and showed shong anthopophilia and a high degree of adaptation to humam environment. On the cantray, the species that showed lilth adaptation to such ambients or to the geoclimatic conditions of the region were: Anopheles triannulatus (Neiva & Pinto, 1922; An. parvus (Chagas, 1907; An. lutzii Cruzi, 1901, Culex amazonensis (Lutz, 1905; Cx. chidesteri; Psorophora confinnis (Linch Arribalzaga, 1891; Ps. discrucians (Walker, 1856; Ps. cingulata (Fabricius, 1805 e Aedes scapularis. Although Anopheles argyritarsis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1827; Culex coronator Dyar & Knab, 1906; Cx. mollis Dyar & Knab, 1906 and Cx. quinquefasciatus Say, 1823, were captured in little numbers, it is knowntht they an mosquito of human surroundings. These mosquitos showed a plak of feeding activity directly related to sunset bat did not have a bimodal behaviour. Anophelinae were in general more active in spring while Culex Linnaeus, 1758; Coquillettidia Dyar, 1905; Aedes Meigen, 1818; Mansonia Blanchard, 1901 e Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy, 1827 were more active in summer.

  9. Influence of artificially induced light pollution on the hormone system of two common fish species, perch and roach, in a rural habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüning, Anika; Kloas, Werner; Preuer, Torsten; Hölker, Franz

    2018-01-01

    Almost all life on earth has adapted to natural cycles of light and dark by evolving circadian and circannual rhythms to synchronize behavioural and physiological processes with the environment. Artificial light at night (ALAN) is suspected to interfere with these rhythms. In this study we examined the influence of ALAN on nocturnal melatonin and sex steroid blood concentrations and mRNA expression of gonadotropins in the pituitary of European perch ( Perca fluviatilis ) and roach ( Rutilus rutilus ). In a rural experimental setting, fish were held in net cages in drainage channels experiencing either additional ALAN of ~15 lx at the water surface or natural light conditions at half-moon. No differences in melatonin concentrations between ALAN and natural conditions were detected. However, blood concentration of sex steroids (17β-estradiol; 11-ketotestosterone) as well as mRNA expression of gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone) was reduced in both fish species. We conclude that ALAN can disturb biological rhythms in fish in urban waters. However, impacts on melatonin rhythm might have been blurred by individual differences, sampling methods and moonlight. The effect of ALAN on biomarkers of reproduction suggests a photo-labile period around the onset of gonadogenesis, including the experimental period (August). Light pollution therefore has a great potential to influence crucial life history traits with unpredictable outcome for fish population dynamics.

  10. Water quality assessment and flora study of desert thar and nagarparkar district tharparkar, sindh Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leghari, S.M.; Mahar, M.A.; Khuhawar, M.Y.; Jahangir, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    A number of water samples (24) were collected from wells, water pumps, natural and artificial depressions from Naukot, Vajuto, Mithi, Islamkot, Virawah and Nagarparkar area and analyzed on the site and at the laboratories for 18 different parameters. There was a wide variation in water quality; conductivity 157 to 41400 micro S/m and total dissolved solids 100 to 26500 mg/L. The highest values were observed at Virawah area and lowest at an artificial depression of rainwater within Nagarparkar town. The higher vegetation of Thar region consists mainly of thorny or prickly shrubs and perennial herbs capable of drought resistance as Calligonum polygonoides, Aerva javanica, Salvadora oleoides, Acacia senegal, Capparis decidua, Tamarix aphylla, Prosopis spicigera, Leptadenia pyrotechnica and Zizyphus nummularia. During rainy season when dunes are covered with grasses and other herbs Salvadora oleoides, Capparis decidua, and Tamarix aphylla were found scattered in Thar area. Acacia leucophloea, Acacia senegal, Salvadora oleoides, Commiphora mukul, Barleria prionitis, Blepharis sindica, Euphorbia caudicifolia were found on dry and rocky area. Rainwater pools contain total 83 algal sp; 37 sp belonging to Cyanophyta; 23 sp Volocothyta; 10 sp Chlorophyta; 3 sp Charophyta; 10 sp Bacillarophyta; some algal species found epiphytic on aquatic plants such as Chaetophora pisiformis, Stigeoclonium subsecundum, Oedogonium sp. Spirogyra rhizobrachialis, S. fluviatilis and Gloeotrichia natans attached to Najas minor, Nymphaea stellata, and Typha domingensis. (author)

  11. Seasonal Variations in the Use of Profundal Habitat among Freshwater Fishes in Lake Norsjø, Southern Norway, and Subsequent Effects on Fish Mercury Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Robin Olk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is based on monthly sampling of fish from grates mounted at an industrial water intake, located at a depth of 50 m in Lake Norsjø (Southern Norway during the year 2014, to investigate seasonal variations in the use of the profundal habitat and subsequent variations in total Hg-concentrations in profundal fish. Data on various fish present in a cold and dark hypolimnion of a large, deep, dimictic lake within the upper temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere are rare. While predominant species such as A. charr (Salvelinus alpinus and E. smelt (Osmerus eperlanus were continuously present in this habitat, whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus occupied this habitat primarily during wintertime, while other common species like brown trout (Salmo trutta, perch (Perca fluviatilis and northern pike (Esox lucius were almost absent. Besides stomach analyses (diet and biometry, stable isotope analyses (δ15N and δ13C and total mercury (Tot-Hg analyses were carried out on the caught fish. The δ13C signature and stomach analyses revealed a combined profundal-pelagic diet for all three species, A. charr with the most profundal-based diet. Length was the strongest predictor for Hg in whitefish and A. charr, while age was the strongest explanatory variable for Hg in E. smelt. A. charr was the only species exhibiting seasonal variation in Hg, highest during winter and spring.

  12. Fish community status in Norwegian lakes in relation to acidification: a comparison between interviews and actual catches by test fishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesthagen, T.; Berger, H.M.; Larsen, B.M. (Norwegian Inst. for Nature Research, Trondheim (Norway)); Rosseland, B.O. (Norwegian Inst. for Water Research, Oslo (Norway))

    1993-01-01

    Inquiries are used to obtain information on fish community status in terms of unchanged, reduced and lost communities, to assess the effects of acidification in lakes. The aim of this paper was to investigate the validity of this method by comparing fish status with actual catches on standard gill net series (CPUE). Data from 230 test fishing incidents comprising 357 stocks of 7 different fish species are presented. We found significant differences in CPUE between perceived fish status categories for brown trout (Salmo trutta), arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and perch (Perca fluviatilis), for which sufficient data were available. A discriminant analysis revealed that for stocks reported as unchanged and lost, the predicted membership ranged between 60.0-72.1 % respectively. However, a dominant fraction (50.0-66.7 %) of stocks reported as reduced were assigned as lost. Stocks which have been declining for less than 10 years, had a significantly higher CPUE than stocks which have declined for a longer period of time. Another apparent change in population characteristics was an acidification induced increase in mean weight for fish affected stocks. It is suggested that interviews tend to overestimate the current fish status. This is discussed in relation to a time lag between the damage and the time when it became apparent to fishermen, and rapid decline in population numbers. 26 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  13. Assessing Potential Vulnerability and Response of Fish to Simulated Avian Predation after Exposure to Psychotropic Pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie L. Hedgespeth

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychotropic pharmaceuticals present in the environment may impact organisms both directly and via interaction strengths with other organisms, including predators; therefore, this study examined the potential effects of pharmaceuticals on behavioral responses of fish to avian predators. Wild-caught juvenile perch (Perca fluviatilis were assayed using a striking bird model after a seven-day exposure to psychotropic pharmaceuticals (the antidepressants fluoxetine or sertraline, or the β-blocker propranolol under the hypotheses that exposure would increase vulnerability to avian predation via increasing the probability of predator encounter as well as degrading evasive behaviors upon encounter. None of the substances significantly affected swimming activity of the fish, nor did they increase vulnerability by affecting encounter probability or evasive endpoints compared to control treatments. Counter to our expectations, fish exposed to 100 μg/L fluoxetine (but no other concentrations or pharmaceuticals were less likely to enter the open area of the arena, i.e., less likely to engage in risky behavior that could lead to predator encounters. Additionally, all fish exposed to environmentally relevant, low concentrations of sertraline (0.12 μg/L and propranolol (0.1 μg/L sought refuge after the simulated attack. Our unexpected results warrant further research as they have interesting implications on how these psychotropic pharmaceuticals may affect predator-prey interactions spanning the terrestrial-aquatic interface.

  14. The influence of environmental abiotic factors on the qualitative and quantitative structure of ichthyofauna from predeltaic Danube area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Georgiana Calin Sandu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper  is to analyse the influence of environmental factors on the capture and fish communities structure from Danube, between Siret River and Prut River mouth. Fish were collected from April to December 2012 in four fishing areas. During the year, 4910 kg, respectively 7121 fish of 31 species were collected. Cyprinidae, the dominant family, 54.84% in term of number of species, was represented by 17 species (Cyprinus carpio, Carassius gibelio, Barbus barbus, Abramis brama, Abramis sapa, Blicca bjoerkna, Leuciscus idus, Vimba vimba, Aspius aspius, Pelecus cultratus, Chondrostoma nasus, Ctenopharingodon idella, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Rutilus rutilus, Alburnus alburnus. Other families had the following structure: Percidae (16.13% with 5 species (Sander lucioperca, Zingel zingel, Zingel streber, Perca fluviatilis, Gymnocephalus schraetzer, Acipenseridae (12.90% with 4 species (Huso huso, Acipenser stellatus, Acipenser ruthenus, Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, Clupeidae (6.45% with two species (Alosa immaculata, Alosa tanaica, Siluridae (3.23% with one species (Silurus glanis, Esocidae (3.23% with one species (Esox lucius  and Salmonidae (3.23% with one species also (Salmo labrax. The highest capture was 2977.93 kg (60.65%, during the spring season (April-May, followed by autumn season (September–November, with 992.39 kg (20.21%. The water level and water flow showed high correlation with both number and total catch, respectively.

  15. Physiological Trade-Offs Along a Fast-Slow Lifestyle Continuum in Fishes: What Do They Tell Us about Resistance and Resilience to Hypoxia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffels, Rick J

    2015-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that general rules of change in ecological communities might be found through the development of functional relationships between species traits and performance. The physiological, behavioural and life-history traits of fishes are often organised along a fast-slow lifestyle continuum (FSLC). With respect to resistance (capacity for population to resist change) and resilience (capacity for population to recover from change) to environmental hypoxia, the literature suggests that traits enhancing resilience may come at the expense of traits promoting resistance to hypoxia; a trade-off may exist. Here I test whether three fishes occupying different positions along the FSLC trade-off resistance and resilience to environmental hypoxia. Static respirometry experiments were used to determine resistance, as measured by critical oxygen tension (Pcrit), and capacity for (RC) and magnitude of metabolic reduction (RM). Swimming respirometry experiments were used to determine aspects of resilience: critical (Ucrit) and optimal swimming speed (Uopt), and optimal cost of transport (COTopt). Results pertaining to metabolic reduction suggest a resistance gradient across species described by the inequality Melanotaenia fluviatilis (fast lifestyle) fishes occupying different positions on the FSLC trade-off resistance and resilience to hypoxia. However, the scope of inferences that can be drawn from an individual study is narrow, and so steps towards general, trait-based rules of fish community change along environmental gradients are discussed.

  16. Zajímavý nález mihule potoční (Lampetra planeri, Cephalaspidomorphi: Petromyzontiformes: Petromyzontidae) v Českých Budějovicích

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Muška, Milan; Blabolil, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 57 (2017), s. 127-130 ISSN 0139-8172 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : new records * regulated river * threatened species * water quality Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology

  17. Produção de biomassa e teores de carbono, hidrogênio, nitrogênio e proteína em microalgas Production of biomass and carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and protein contents in microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Ohse

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O aumento da emissão de CO2 e de outros gases efeito estufa tem gerado debates em nível mundial sobre alterações climáticas e estimulado o desenvolvimento de estratégias mitigadoras. Trabalhos nessa área incluem sequestro de CO2 por meio da produção de microalgas aquáticas. Por essa razão, desenvolveu-se um estudo visando determinar os teores de carbono, hidrogênio, nitrogênio e proteína e a produção de biomassa seca de nove espécies de microalgas marinhas (Nannochloropsis oculata, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Isochrysis galbana, Tetraselmis suecica, Tetraselmis chuii Chaetoceros muelleri, Thalassiosira fluviatilis e Isochrysis sp. e uma de água doce (Chlorella vulgaris, em cultivo autotrófico estacionário com objetivo de identificar as mais produtivas e com maior capacidade de fixação de carbono. O experimento foi desenvolvido em sala de cultivo, na Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, com iluminação contínua e radiação em torno de 150µmol m-2 s-1, temperatura de 25±2°C, suplementação de ar constante, sendo utilizados erlenmeyers com 800mL de meio de cultura. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados no tempo com três repetições. As espécies C. vulgaris e T. suecica são menos produtivas. Quando se visa à suplementação alimentar, as espécies C. vulgaris e T. Chuii são consideradas interessantes, uma vez que apresentam altos teores de C, N, H e proteína. As espécies N. Oculata, T. pseudonana e C. vulgaris apresentam altos teores de C, demonstrando alta capacidade de fixação de carbono.The increase of CO2 emission and other gases greenhouse effect, caused global debates about climatic alterations and stimulated the development of mitigative strategies. Researches in this area includes CO2 kidnapping through the aquatic microalgae production. For this reason, a study was developed aiming to determine the production of dry biomass, carbon content, hydrogen

  18. Feeding behaviour determining differential capture success of evasive prey in underyearling European perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) and roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.))

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peterka, Jiří; Matěna, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 661, č. 1 (2011), s. 113-121 ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600170502; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB600960810 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : feeding efficiency * attack-distance * repeated strikes * schooling * Daphnia * Cyclops Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.784, year: 2011

  19. 15ŕ-Hydroxytestosterone produced in vitro and in vivo in the sea lamprey, .I.Petromyzon marinus./I..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryan, M. B.; Scott, A. P.; Černý, Ivan; Yun, S. S.; Li, W.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 132, - (2003), s. 418-426 ISSN 0016-6480 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : steroid * androgen * endocrinology Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.736, year: 2003

  20. 75 FR 54163 - Office of the Secretary: Renewal of the Lake Champlain Sea Lamprey Control Alternatives Workgroup

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... (Workgroup) for 2 years. The Workgroup provides an opportunity for stakeholders to give policy and technical... Lake Champlain. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dave Tilton, Fish and Wildlife Service, Western New... copy of the Working Group's charter with the Committee Management Secretariat, General Services...

  1. Lake Ontario: Food web dynamics in a changing ecosystem (1970-2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, E.L.; Casselman, J.M.; Dermott, R.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Gal, G.; Holeck, K. T.; Hoyle, J.A.; Johannsson, O.E.; Lantry, B.F.; Makarewicz, J.C.; Millard, E.S.; Munawar, I.F.; Munawar, M.; O'Gorman, R.; Owens, R.W.; Rudstam, L. G.; Schaner, T.; Stewart, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    We examined stressors that have led to profound ecological changes in the Lake Ontario ecosystem and its fish community since 1970. The most notable changes have been reductions in phosphorus loading, invasion by Dreissena spp., fisheries management through stocking of exotic salmonids and control of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), and fish harvest by anglers and double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus). The response to these stressors has led to (i) declines in both algal photosynthesis and epilimnetic zooplankton production, (ii) decreases in alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) abundance, (iii) declines in native Diporeia and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), (iv) behavioral shifts in alewife spatial distribution benefitting native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), and emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides) populations, (v) dramatic increases in water clarity, (vi) predation impacts by cormorants on select fish species, and (vii) lake trout recruitment bottlenecks associated with alewife-induced thiamine deficiency. We expect stressor responses associated with anthropogenic forces like exotic species invasions and global climate warming to continue to impact the Lake Ontario ecosystem in the future and recommend continuous long-term ecological studies to enhance scientific understanding and management of this important resource.

  2. The offshore fish community in southern Lake Ontario, 1972-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Randall W.; O'Gorman, Robert; Eckert, Thomas H.; Lantry, Brian F.; Munawar, M.

    2003-01-01

    The authors document the status of Lake Ontario's open-water fish community in 1972, near the beginning of an era of massive fish stocking and when phosphorus levels in the lake from anthropogenic inputs, were near their peak. They then describe changes that occurred in the fish community in 1978-98. This was a period when large numbers of young salmonid piscivores were released annually, sea lamprey control continued to improve, and phosphorus levels were declining due to successful nutrient abatement programs. Coincident with the above, the lower food web was changed by the addition of new exotic invertebrates, the zooplankter Bythotrephes cederstroemi and particularly the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, and quagga mussel, D. bugensis. The picture of the fish community structure is drawn from records of catches in bottom trawls and gill nets during surveys of southern Lake Ontario conducted the the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the New York Department of Environmental Conservation (NYDEC), from records of fish stocked in Lake Ontario by the NYDEC, and from a creel census of boat anglers returning to southern Lake Ontario ports conducted by the NYDEC.

  3. Impacts of aquatic nonindigenous invasive species on the Lake Erie ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, Madeline J.W.; Ciborowski, Jan J.H.; Corkum, Lynda D.; Johnson, Tim B.; MacIsaac, Hugh J.; Metcalfe-Smith, Janice L.; Schloesser, Donald W.; George, Sandra E.

    2002-01-01

    Lake Erie is particularly vulnerable to the introduction and establishment of aquatic nonindigenous invasive species (NIS) populations. A minimum of 144 aquatic NIS have been recorded in the Lake Erie basin including several species [e.g., Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum); zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha); quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis); an amphipod (Echinogammarus ischnus); round goby (Neogobius melanostomus); and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)] that have had discernible impacts on the lake's ecology. NIS pose threats to the Lake Erie ecosystem for a variety of reasons including their ability to proliferate quickly, compete with native species, and transfer contaminants (e.g., PCBs) and disease through the food web. Six of the 14 beneficial use impairments listed in Annex 2 of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement are impaired in Lake Erie, in part as a result of the introduction of NIS. The Lake Erie Lakewide Management Plan (LaMP) has adopted an ecosystem approach to restore beneficial use impairments in the lake. Furthermore, a research consortium, known as the Lake Erie Millennium Network, is working alongside the LaMP, to address research problems regarding NIS, the loss of habitat, and the role of contaminants in the Lake Erie ecosystem.

  4. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Erie: a case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Floyd C.; Muth, Kenneth M.; Kenyon, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) once thrived in the deep waters of eastern Lake Erie. The impact of nearly 70 years of unregulated exploitation and over 100 years of progressively severe cultural eutrophication resulted in the elimination of lake trout stocks by 1950. Early attempts to restore lake trout by stocking were unsuccessful in establishing a self-sustaining population. In the early 1980s, New York's Department of Environmental Conservation, Pennsylvania's Fish and Boat Commission, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service entered into a cooperative program to rehabilitate lake trout in the eastern basin of Lake Erie. After 11 years of stocking selected strains of lake trout in U.S. waters, followed by effective sea lamprey control, lake trout appear to be successfully recolonizing their native habitat. Adult stocks have built up significantly and are expanding their range in the lake. Preliminary investigations suggest that lake trout reproductive habitat is still adequate for natural reproduction, but natural recruitment has not been documented. Future assessments will be directed toward evaluation of spawning success and tracking age-class cohorts as they move through the fishery.

  5. Conflicts between river dolphins (Cetacea: Odontoceti and fisheries in the Central Amazon: a path toward tragedy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Cláudio Pinto de Sá Alves

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Dolphin interactions with fishermen have increased significantly and pose potential risks to the boto, Inia geoffrensis (Blainville, 1817, and the tucuxi, Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais & Deville, 1853. The main objective of the present paper was to describe the existing conflicts between river dolphins and fishermen in the municipality of Manacapuru region. Sixteen fishermen were interviewed in Manacapuru, state of Amazonas, Brazil who described a situation of ongoing conflict that may be unsustainable. Two merchants from Manacapuru made unconfirmed reports on a boto carcass trade. Data collection for this study occurred between April 20th and April 25th, 2009, but the first author had been conducting research on river dolphins and fisheries in Manacapuru and nearby cities since the beginning of 2008, in order to gain the trust of the fishermen interviewed. The hunting and deliberate killing of the species is probably more threatening to botos than their incidental capture in fishing gears in the Manacapuru region. This practice may result from the fact that dolphins are prone to damaging fishing equipment, and stealing (and possibly damaging fish from the nets. They are portrayed negatively in numerous myths and superstitions of traditional Amazonian folklore, making them extremely undesired or even hated, seen as pests, and used in the piracatinga, Calophysus macropterus (Lichtenstein, 1819 fishery as bait. For tucuxis, incidental capture still represents the major threat to their conservation in the region evaluated here.

  6. A functional food: a traditional Tarhana fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merih KIVANÇ

    Full Text Available Abstract White wheat flour, concentrated full fat yoghurt, tomato paste, onion, red and green paprika, and mint and salt are used in the preparation of Tarhana. During the 7-day Tarhana fermentation period, the acidity increased from 1.10% to 3.25%, the pH decreased from 5.22 to 4.13, and the moisture decreased from 70.12% to 26.15%. The chemical composition of the Tarhana at the end of fermentation was determined as: moisture 9.55%, protein 12.05%, total ash 5.65%, salt 5.65%, and fat 4.88%. During the fermentation, the lactic acid bacteria count of increased from 1.32 X 102 to 4.20 X 104 CFU/g, the total mesophilic aerobe bacteria count increased from 1.75 X 101 to 2.28 X 102 CFU/g, the yeast count increased from 3.45 X 10 1 to 2.40 X 105 CFU/g, the mould count from 1.55 X 10 1 to 2.45 X 104 CFU/g, in the content of Tarhana dough. It was observed that Lactococcus lactis spp. lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus durans, Pediococcus spp., Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis and Lactobacillus paracasei bacteria played a role during the fermentation of Tarhana dough. Kluyveromyces marxianus, Yarrowia lipolytica, Pichia membranaefaciens, Pichia mexicana, Pichia angusta, Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida sorboxylosa, Candida fluviatilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified during the Tarhana fermentation.

  7. Mercury, Fatty Acids Content and Lipid Quality Indexes in Muscles of Freshwater and Marine Fish on the Polish Market. Risk Assessment of Fish Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczyńska, Joanna; Paszczyk, Beata; Nowosad, Joanna; Łuczyński, Marek Jan

    2017-09-25

    Mercury content and fatty acids in muscles of Perca fluviatilis L. (European perch), Leuciscus idus L. (ide), Cyprinus carpio L. (European or common carp), Oncorhynchus mykiss Walb. (rainbow trout), Platichthys flesus L. (European flounder). and Clupea harengus L. (bream) from the Polish market were investigated. The total mercury was processed with AAS. The fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography. The concentration of mercury in muscles varied from 0.006 to 0.138 mg/kg and decreased as follows: perch ≈ ide > flounder > herring ≈ bream ≈ rainbow trout > carp ( p ≤ 0.05). There were only significant positive correlations between body weight and mercury content in muscle tissue of carp (r = 0.878), flounder (r = 0.925) and herring (r = 0.982) ( p ≤ 0.05). The atherogenic index (AI), thrombogenicity index (TI) and flesh-lipid quality index (FLQ) were calculated as follows 0.33-0.70 (IA), 0.16-0.31 (IT) and 13.01-33.22 (FLQ). Hypocholesterolemic (OFA) and hypercholesterolemic fatty acids (DFA) in muscles of fish ranged from 18.26 to 23.01 and from 73.91 to 78.46, respectively. In most cases, there were not significant correlations between size (body weight and total length) and fatty acids in the muscles of the examined fish ( p > 0.05). The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) values were below 1, which shows that there is no non-carcinogenic health risk to the consumer by consuming the examined fish.

  8. Mercury, Fatty Acids Content and Lipid Quality Indexes in Muscles of Freshwater and Marine Fish on the Polish Market. Risk Assessment of Fish Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Łuczyńska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury content and fatty acids in muscles of Perca fluviatilis L. (European perch, Leuciscus idus L. (ide, Cyprinus carpio L. (European or common carp, Oncorhynchus mykiss Walb. (rainbow trout, Platichthys flesus L. (European flounder. and Clupea harengus L. (bream from the Polish market were investigated. The total mercury was processed with AAS. The fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography. The concentration of mercury in muscles varied from 0.006 to 0.138 mg/kg and decreased as follows: perch ≈ ide > flounder > herring ≈ bream ≈ rainbow trout > carp (p ≤ 0.05. There were only significant positive correlations between body weight and mercury content in muscle tissue of carp (r = 0.878, flounder (r = 0.925 and herring (r = 0.982 (p ≤ 0.05. The atherogenic index (AI, thrombogenicity index (TI and flesh-lipid quality index (FLQ were calculated as follows 0.33–0.70 (IA, 0.16–0.31 (IT and 13.01–33.22 (FLQ. Hypocholesterolemic (OFA and hypercholesterolemic fatty acids (DFA in muscles of fish ranged from 18.26 to 23.01 and from 73.91 to 78.46, respectively. In most cases, there were not significant correlations between size (body weight and total length and fatty acids in the muscles of the examined fish (p > 0.05. The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ values were below 1, which shows that there is no non-carcinogenic health risk to the consumer by consuming the examined fish.

  9. Selective exploitation of large pike Esox lucius-Effects on mercury concentrations in fish populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Chhatra Mani; Borgstrom, Reidar; Huitfeldt, Jorgen Sinkaberg; Rosseland, Bjorn Olav

    2008-01-01

    The present study outlines two main trends of mercury transfer patterns through the fish community: 1) the Hg concentrations increase with increase in the trophic level, with top predators having the highest concentrations, and 2) a fast growth rate may dilute the concentrations of Hg in fish muscle tissue (growth biodilution). In 2004, an extensive reduction in number of large pike (Esox lucius L.), was initiated by selective gillnet fishing in Lake Arungen, Norway, in order to increase the pike recruitment due to an expected reduction in cannibalism. In this connection, total mercury (THg) concentrations in the fish community were studied both before (2003) and after (2005) the removal of large pike. The δ 15 N signatures and stomach content analyses indicated that pike and perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) occupied the highest trophic position, while roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)) was at the lower level, and rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus L.) at the lowest. The piscivores, pike and perch, had the highest concentrations of THg. The biomagnification rate of THg through the food web in the fish community was 0.163 ( per milleδ 15 N), with the highest uptake rate (0.232) in perch. A significant decrease in THg concentrations was found in all fish species in 2005 compared to 2003. Removal of the top predators in an Hg contaminated lake might thus be an important management tool for reducing Hg levels in fish, thereby reducing health risk to humans

  10. [A new method of therapy for branchiobdellosis in crayfish].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohniský, K

    1979-02-01

    Crayfish (Astacus fluviatilis Fabricius, 1793) were treated three times with a bath of diluted ammonia water and proflavine for four and six minutes at a temperature of 18 degrees C to get rid of the ectoparasitic worms of Branchiobdella parasita Henle, 1835; the hatching ability of the Branchiobdella parasita eggs was stopped after the treatment. No lethal effect of the bath on the crayfish of 5 to 14 cm was observed, the lethal effect on the young crayfish borne on the uropods of the female crayfish cannot be eliminated: during the baths the young crayfish died (the death rate was approximately 6% of the average fertility of crayfish); the young crayfish may have been damaged during the treatment operations with the crayfish. The bath of diluted ammonia water and proflavine may be recommended for the treatment of branchiobdellosis in crayfish to be planted, or after several-hour storage of crayfish supplied to the market. One replication of the above cycle is sufficient according to the results obtained. The ammonia content in the ammonia water depends also on the duration of storage and on the storage temperature--it can drop during the storage. Therefore the ammonia water should be used as soon as possible after the despatchment from the place of production; the ammonia content should be determined by means of titration before preparing the bath, and according to this content the dilution ratio should be adjusted.

  11. Inter- and intra-specific variability in δ13C and δ18O values of freshwater gastropod shells from Lake Lednica, western Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinarska, Karina; Pełechaty, Mariusz

    2017-09-01

    This study focuses on the inter- and intra-specific variability in δ13C and δ18O values of shells and opercula of gastropods sampled live from the littoral zone of Lake Lednica, western Poland. The δ13C and δ18O values were measured in individual opercula of Bithynia tentaculata and in shells of Bithynia tentaculata, Gyraulus albus, Gyraulus crista, Lymnaea sp., Physa fontinalis, Radix auricularia, Theodoxus fluviatilis and Valvata cristata. The gastropods selected for the study are among the species most commonly found in European Quaternary lacustrine sediments. The carbon isotope composition of the gastropod shells was species-specific and the same order of species from the most to the least 13C-depleted was observed at all sites sampled. Differences in shell δ13C values between species were similar at all sampling sites, thus the factors influencing shell isotopic composition were interpreted as species-specific. The δ18O values of shells were similar in all the species investigated. Significant intra-specific variability in shell δ13C and δ18O values was observed not only within the populations of Lake Lednica, which can be explained by heterogeneity of δ13C DIC, δ18O water and water temperature between the sites where macrophytes with snails attached were sampled, but also between individuals sampled from restricted areas of the lake's bottom. The latter points to the importance of factors related to the ontogeny of individual gastropods.

  12. Schools as Potential Risk Sites for Vector-Borne Disease Transmission: Mosquito Vectors in Rural Schools in Two Municipalities in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olano, Víctor Alberto; Matiz, María Inés; Lenhart, Audrey; Cabezas, Laura; Vargas, Sandra Lucía; Jaramillo, Juan Felipe; Sarmiento, Diana; Alexander, Neal; Stenström, Thor Axel; Overgaard, Hans J

    2015-09-01

    Dengue and other vector-borne diseases are of great public health importance in Colombia. Vector surveillance and control activities are often focused at the household level. Little is known about the importance of nonhousehold sites, including schools, in maintaining vector-borne disease transmission. The objectives of this paper were to determine the mosquito species composition in rural schools in 2 municipalities in Colombia and to assess the potential risk of vector-borne disease transmission in school settings. Entomological surveys were carried out in rural schools during the dry and rainy seasons of 2011. A total of 12 mosquito species were found: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, Culex coronator, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Limatus durhamii in both immature and adult forms; Ae. fluviatilis, Cx. nigripalpus, Cx. corniger, and Psorophora ferox in immature forms only; and Ae. angustivittatus, Haemagogus equinus, and Trichoprosopon lampropus in adult forms only. The most common mosquito species was Cx. quinquefasciatus. Classrooms contained the greatest abundance of adult female Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The most common Ae. aegypti breeding sites were containers classified as "others" (e.g., cans), followed by containers used for water storage. A high level of Ae. aegypti infestation was found during the wet season. Our results suggest that rural schools are potentially important foci for the transmission of dengue and other mosquito-borne diseases. We propose that public health programs should be implemented in rural schools to prevent vector-borne diseases.

  13. Composition of Anopheles Species Collected from Selected Malarious Areas of Afghanistan and Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Hoosh-Deghati

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malarious areas in Iran are close to Afghanistan and Pakistan that urge the researchers to extend their knowledge on malaria epidemiology to the neighboring countries as well. Vectorial capacity differs at species or even at population level, the first essential step is accurate identification of vectors. This study aimed to identify Anopheles species composition in selected malarious areas of Afghanistan and Iran, providing further applied data for other research in two countries.Methods: Adults Anopheles spp. were collected from four provinces in Afghanistan (Badakhshan, Herat, Kunduz, Nangarhar by pyrethrum spray catch, hand collection methods through WHO/EMRO coordination and from Chaba­har County in Iran by pyrethrum spray catch method. Identification was performed using reliable identification key.Results: Totally, 800 female Anopheles mosquitos, 400 from each country were identified at species level. Anophe­les composition in Afghanistan was An. superpictus, An. stephensi and An. hyrcanus. Most prevalent species in Ba­dakhshan and Kunduz were An. superpictus, whereas An. stephensi and An. hyrcanus were respectively found in Nangarhar and Heart. Anopheles species in Chabahar County of Iran were An. stephensi, An. fluviatilis, An. culicifa­cies and An. sergentii. The most prevalent species was An. stephensi.Conclusion: Current study provides a basis for future research such as detection of Plasmodium infection in col­lected samples which is on process by the authors, also for effective implementation of evidence-based malaria vec­tor intervention strategies.

  14. Assessment of Kerch Bay environmental pollution using neuroglial proteins of ground fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. V. Sukharenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The modern ecology situation in waters of the Kerch Strait requires assessment of disturbances in biotopes and monitoring of the degree of impact of industrial pollutants on ecosystem. Deposit of oil products after the 2007 year ships’ accidents might have considerable impact on the water biocenosis area. The investigation of cytoskeleton marker of astrocytes glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP in brain of the bullhead (Neogobius fluviatilis, which is the typical representative of the commercial ground fish of the Kerch Strait, has been carried out. The results of comparative analysis of GFAP content in the brain of fish from the Kerch Bay near-shore waters and fish from conditionally clear area of Vorskla river shows the reliable (2.18 times increasing of GFAP in the area of industrial pollution. Rising GFAP content indicates the astrogliosis development as a result of metabolic disturbances which can be induced by higher content of oil products in the near-bottom biotopes of the Kerch Bay. Increase in lipid peroxidation level was observed in the brain of fish from the Kerch Bay. The results provided with regard to violations of the state of astrocyte cytoskeleton and oxidative stress in the brain of bullhead from the Kerch Bay prove the sublethal biology effect of industrial pollutants in hydrobionts from this area. Results of this investigation also indicate the necessity of continuous ecology monitoring and comprehensive study of hydrobiont populations in the industrial regions and ecological disaster zones.

  15. Differences in spatial communities of European perch (Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus, 1758) fry in a canyon-shaped reservoir are not attributable to genetics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalous, L.; Kuříková, P.; Kohout, J.; Rylková, K.; Petrtýl, M.; Čech, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 2 (2017), s. 306-313 ISSN 0175-8659. [European Congress of Ichthyology /15./. Porto, 07.09.2015-11.09.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/1371; GA ČR GP206/09/P266; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14316 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : diel vertical migration * cross-species amplification * dna-sequence data * postglacial colonization * microsatellite loci Subject RIV: GL - Fishing OBOR OECD: Marine biology, freshwater biology, limnology Impact factor: 0.845, year: 2016

  16. Isopods (Isopoda: Aegidae, Cymothoidae, Gnathiidae associated with Venezuelan marine fishes (Elasmobranchii, Actinopterygii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Bunkley-Williams

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The parasitic isopod fauna of fishes in the southern Caribbean is poorly known. In examinations of 12 639 specimens of 187 species of Venezuelan fishes, the authors found 10 species in three families of isopods (Gnathiids, Gnathia spp. from Diplectrum radiale *, Heteropriacanthus cruentatus *, Orthopristis ruber * and Trachinotus carolinus *; two aegids, Rocinela signata from Dasyatis guttata *, H. cruentatus *, Haemulon aurolineatum *, H. steindachneri * and O. ruber ; and Rocinela sp. from Epinephelus flavolimbatus *; five cymothoids: Anilocra haemuli from Haemulon boschmae *, H. flavolineatum * and H. steindachneri *; Anilocra cf haemuli from Heteropriacanthus cruentatus *; Haemulon bonariense*, O. ruber*, Cymothoa excisa in H. cruentatus *; Cymothoa oestrum in Chloroscombrus chrysurus, H. cruentatus* and Priacanthus arenatus ; Cymothoa sp. in O. ruber; Livoneca sp. from H. cruentatus *; and Nerocila fluviatilis from H. cruentatus * and P. arenatus *. The Rocinela sp. and A. cf haemuli in the southern Caribbean could represent new species. The abundance of A. cf haemuli appears to have drastically reduced from 1994 to 1999 in the Gulf of Cariaco. The Cymothoa sp. represents an undescribed species that is apparently host specific to O. ruber . It does not occur in the Gulf of Cariaco, but is relatively abundant on the Caribbean coast of Sucre State, Venezuela. The Livoneca sp. is an undescribed species host specific to Diapterus rhombeus, Cymothoa excisa and C. oestrum were thought to have distinct host preferences, but both infected the Heteropriacanthus cruentatus in the present study.Gnathia spp. are reported from Venezuelan waters for the first time. Twenty new host records* are noted. The fish-associated isopod fauna is much more extensive and important than has previously been suspected. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (Suppl. 3: 175-188. Epub 2007 Jan. 15.Se conoce muy poco acerca de la fauna de isópodos parásitos de peces en el Caribe Sur. Tras

  17. A semi-automated method of monitoring dam passage of American Eels Anguilla rostrata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Stuart A.; Aldinger, Joni L.

    2014-01-01

    Fish passage facilities at dams have become an important focus of fishery management in riverine systems. Given the personnel and travel costs associated with physical monitoring programs, automated or semi-automated systems are an attractive alternative for monitoring fish passage facilities. We designed and tested a semi-automated system for eel ladder monitoring at Millville Dam on the lower Shenandoah River, West Virginia. A motion-activated eel ladder camera (ELC) photographed each yellow-phase American Eel Anguilla rostrata that passed through the ladder. Digital images (with date and time stamps) of American Eels allowed for total daily counts and measurements of eel TL using photogrammetric methods with digital imaging software. We compared physical counts of American Eels with camera-based counts; TLs obtained with a measuring board were compared with TLs derived from photogrammetric methods. Data from the ELC were consistent with data obtained by physical methods, thus supporting the semi-automated camera system as a viable option for monitoring American Eel passage. Time stamps on digital images allowed for the documentation of eel passage time—data that were not obtainable from physical monitoring efforts. The ELC has application to eel ladder facilities but can also be used to monitor dam passage of other taxa, such as crayfishes, lampreys, and water snakes.

  18. Separability of drag and thrust in undulatory animals and machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Rahul; Shirgaonkar, Anup A.; Neveln, Izaak D.; Bhalla, Amneet Pal Singh; Maciver, Malcolm A.; Patankar, Neelesh A.

    2014-12-01

    For nearly a century, researchers have tried to understand the swimming of aquatic animals in terms of a balance between the forward thrust from swimming movements and drag on the body. Prior approaches have failed to provide a separation of these two forces for undulatory swimmers such as lamprey and eels, where most parts of the body are simultaneously generating drag and thrust. We nonetheless show that this separation is possible, and delineate its fundamental basis in undulatory swimmers. Our approach unifies a vast diversity of undulatory aquatic animals (anguilliform, sub-carangiform, gymnotiform, bal-istiform, rajiform) and provides design principles for highly agile bioinspired underwater vehicles. This approach has practical utility within biology as well as engineering. It is a predictive tool for use in understanding the role of the mechanics of movement in the evolutionary emergence of morphological features relating to locomotion. For example, we demonstrate that the drag-thrust separation framework helps to predict the observed height of the ribbon fin of electric knifefish, a diverse group of neotropical fish which are an important model system in sensory neurobiology. We also show how drag-thrust separation leads to models that can predict the swimming velocity of an organism or a robotic vehicle.

  19. Extremely shallow spawning of perch (Perca fluviatilis L.): the roles of sheltered bays, dense semi-terrestrial vegetation and low visibility in deeper water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čech, Martin; Peterka, Jiří; Říha, Milan; Vejřík, Lukáš; Jůza, Tomáš; Kratochvíl, Michal; Draštík, Vladislav; Muška, Milan; Znachor, Petr; Kubečka, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 406, December (2012), 09p1-09p12 ISSN 1961-9502 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/06/1371; GA ČR(CZ) GP206/09/P266; GA MZe(CZ) QH81046 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Římov Reservoir * Chabařovice Lake * SCUBA diving * Reed Canarygrass Phalaris arudinacea * Goat Willow Salix caprea * egg strands Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.467, year: 2012

  20. First evidence of the possible implication of the 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) in immune activity of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis, L.): comparison with cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Cédric; Milla, Sylvain; Mandiki, S N M; Douxfils, Jessica; Douny, Caroline; Scippo, Marie-Louise; De Pauw, Edwin; Kestemont, Patrick

    2013-06-01

    Cortisol, the main corticosteroid in fish, is frequently described as a modulator of fish immune system. Moreover, 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) was shown to bind and transcriptionally activate the mineralocorticoid receptor and may act as a mineralocorticoid in fish. Immune modulations induced by intraperitoneal injections of these two corticosteroids were assessed in Eurasian perch juveniles. Cortisol and DOC were injected at 0.8 mg kg(-1) and 0.08 mg kg(-1) body weight respectively. Cortisol increased plasma lysozyme activity 72 h post-injection, C-type lysozyme expression in spleen from 1 to 72 h post-injection, and favoured blood neutrophils at the expense of a mixture of lymphocytes and thrombocytes. Moreover, 6 h after injection, cortisol reduced expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in spleen. DOC had no effects on the immune variables measured in plasma, but increased expression levels of C-type lysozyme and apolipoprotein A1 mRNA in both gills and spleen. Meanwhile, DOC stimulated its putative signalling pathway by increasing expression of mineralocorticoid receptor and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 in spleen. These results confirmed the role of cortisol as an innate, short term immune stimulator. For the first time, DOC is described as a possible immune stimulator in fish. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.