WorldWideScience

Sample records for lakes pilotage rates 2011

  1. 76 FR 24505 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory..., 2011, from 10 a.m. to 11 a.m., and speakers ] are requested to limit their comments to 5 minutes...

  2. 76 FR 61370 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory... comment period will be held during the meeting on October 18, 2011, from 10 a.m. to 11 a.m., and speakers...

  3. 76 FR 6351 - Great Lakes Pilotage: 2011 Annual Review and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... vessels operated by American Steamship Co. and Mittal Steel USA, Inc. Both Agreement A and Agreement B... Agreement Company Agreement A Agreement B American Steamship Company 815,600 Mittal Steel USA, Inc 38,826... River. --Maximum rate, through trip $3,767 $134.48 $3,901 Area 2: 3.77(1.0377) --6-hr. period $861 $32...

  4. 76 FR 47095 - 2012 Rates for Pilotage on the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... applies to all vessels operated by American Steamship Co. and Mittal Steel USA, Inc. Agreements A and B... American Steamship Company 815,600 Mittal Steel USA, Inc 38,826 Key Lakes, Inc 361,385 Total tonnage, each... Minimum basic rate, St. Lawrence River 889 x 0.983 = 874 Maximum rate, through trip 3,901 x 0.983 = 3,833...

  5. 75 FR 7958 - 2010 Rates for Pilotage on the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... applies to all vessels operated by American Steamship Co. and Mittal Steel USA, Inc. Both Agreement A and... Steamship Company 815,600 Mittal Steel USA, Inc 38,826 ] Key Lakes, Inc 361,385 Total tonnage, each... rate, St. Lawrence River. 820.04 38.09 858 --Maximum rate, through trip 3,599.58 167.20 3,767 Area 2: 5...

  6. 77 FR 11752 - 2012 Rates for Pilotage on the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... symbol U.S.C. United States Code II. Regulatory History On August 4, 2011, we published a notice of... recognition of projected 2012 traffic levels for Areas 1 and 2 that are 62 percent and 50 percent higher... accountant (CPA). The association said we should adjust the 2012 rates in recognition that several unusual...

  7. 78 FR 38725 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory... completes its work on the agenda given under SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. Speakers are requested to limit...

  8. 77 FR 24729 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory... given under SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. Speakers are requested to limit their comments to 5 minutes...

  9. 78 FR 48374 - Great Lakes Pilotage Rates-2014 Annual Review and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... investment Sec. Section symbol U.S.C. United States Code III. Basis and Purpose The basis of this NPRM is the... exercise the discretion outlined in Step 7 and increase rates by 2.5 percent to match the Canadian Great... total due to rounding. Step 4: Calculation of Investment Base. In this step, we calculate each...

  10. 46 CFR 401.405 - Basic rates and charges on the St. Lawrence River and Lake Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Lake Ontario. 401.405 Section 401.405 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF... § 401.405 Basic rates and charges on the St. Lawrence River and Lake Ontario. Except as provided in.... registered pilots in the St. Lawrence River and Lake Ontario. (a) Area 1 (Designated Waters): Service...

  11. Biota - 2011 Vegetation Inventory - Marsh Lake, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2011 Vegetation Classification for Marsh Lake, MN Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory. Marsh Lake is located on the...

  12. 77 FR 45539 - Great Lakes Pilotage Rates-2013 Annual Review and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... rulemaking OMB Office of Management and Budget ROI Return on Investment Sec. Section symbol U.S.C. United... accountant also reviewed which reported expenses should be adjusted prior to recognition, or if they should...

  13. Biota - 2011 Vegetation Inventory - Mud Lake, MN/SD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2011 Vegetation Classification for Mud Lake, MN/SD Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory. Mud Lake, located on the Minnesota...

  14. Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Hunt Evaluation for 2011.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the activities and results of the annual deer hunt on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge for fall 2011. Topics covered include hunt...

  15. Lake Michigan Fish Acoustic Data from 2011 to 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Each line in the file “Lake Michigan fish acoustic data from 2011 to 2016.csv” represents the acoustic data and estimated fish density for a single depth layer...

  16. Water-quality and lake-stage data for Wisconsin lakes, water years 2008−2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteufel, S. Bridgett; Olson, Daniel L.; Robertson, Dale M.; Goddard, Gerald L.

    2016-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a data base for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. To make these data available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series.The purpose of this report is to provide information about the chemical and physical characteristics of Wisconsin lakes during water years 2008–2011. A water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. It is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Thus, the period October 1, 2007 through September 30, 2008 is called "water year 2008." Data that have been collected at specific lakes, and information to aid in the interpretation of those data, are presented in this report for water years from 2008–2011. Data collected include measurements of in-lake water quality and lake stage. Time series of Secchi depths, surface total phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations collected during non-frozen periods are included for all lakes. Graphs of vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance are included for sites where these parameters were measured. Descriptive information for each lake includes: location of the lake, area of the lake’s watershed, period for which data are available, revisions to previously published records, and pertinent remarks. Additional data, such as streamflow and water quality in tributary and outlet streams of some of the lakes, are available via the "USGS Annual Water Data Report" Web site: http://wdr.water.usgs.gov/.

  17. 76 FR 24496 - Reimbursement Rates for Calendar Year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... Rate Calendar Year 2011 Lower 48 States 443 Alaska 756 Outpatient Surgery Rate (Medicare) Established Medicare rates for freestanding Ambulatory Surgery Centers. Effective Date for Calendar Year 2011...

  18. Le pilotage macro-budgétaire des finances locales

    OpenAIRE

    Husson, Jean-François; Steckel, Marie-Christine

    2009-01-01

    Ce bref article présente les justifications et modalités de mise en oeuvre du pilotage macro-budgétaire des finances locales, c.-à-d. de leur intégration dans le pilotage global du secteur des administrations publiques tant en termes de solde de financement que de dette.

  19. Growth rates of alien Oreochromis niloticus and indigenous Oreochromis mortimeri in Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chifamba, P. C.; Videler, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Growth rates of indigenous Oreochromis mortimeri and alien Oreochromis niloticus from Lake Kariba were estimated from samples collected in 1997-2000, 2003-2005 and 2010-2011. Growth zones on scales and otoliths of O. niloticus and on the otoliths and opercula of O. mortimeri were deposited annually.

  20. 2010-2011 Hydrologic Survey of Franklin D. Roosevelt Reservoir (Lake Roosevelt)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — Reclamation's survey of Franklin D. Roosevelt Reservoir (Lake Roosevelt) began in October 2010 and continued during portions of June, July, and August of 2011. The...

  1. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Lakes in Nam Co Basin, 1991-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Wang; Aiguo Zhou; Ziyong Sun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Lakes in Tibet Plateau with little effects of human activities serve as important indicators of climate change. This study analysed remote sensing data and long term climate variables to examine the hydrological response of lakes in Nam Co Basin. The area changes of lakes were extracted by Landsat TM/ETM+and analysed by SRTM 3 DEM. And the ICESat elevation data between 2003 and 2009 were used to observe the lake level of the Nam Co Lake. The results show that the number of new formed glacier lakes increased by 36% and the area of glacier lakes increased by 36.7% (0.97 km2) from 1991 to 2011. At the same time, the surface area of the Nam Co Lake expanded by 3.71%(72.64 km2) of the original size in 1991, with a tendency value of 3.63 km2 per year. The lake level of the Nam Co Lake shows an increase tendency of 0.24 m per year during 2003–2009. These variations appear to be related to an increase in mean annual temperature of 0.06 ºC per year, and an increase in annual precipitation of 2.1 mm per year in summer in the last two decades. The increased number of lakes and increased area of glacial lakes reached a peak at an altitude of 5 500–5 600 m a.s.l.. The number of new formed glacier lakes and the area of glacier lakes tend to higher altitudes. Climate change has an im-portant impact on the variation of the glacier lakes and the Nam Co Lake.

  2. VT Impervious Surfaces for the Lake Champlain Basin - 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) High-resolution impervious surfaces dataset for the Lake Champlain Basin, Vermont and New York. Two impervious classes were mapped: (1)...

  3. Statistical analysis of interaction between lake seepage rates and groundwater and lake levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-aho, P.; Rossi, P. M.; Klöve, B.

    2012-04-01

    In Finland, the main sources of groundwater are the esker deposits from the last ice age. Small lakes imbedded in the aquifer with no outlets or inlets are typically found in eskers. Some lakes at Rokua esker, in Northern Finland, have been suffering from changes in water stage and quality. A possible permanent decline of water level has raised considerable concern as the area is also used for recreation and tourism. Rare biotypes supported by the oligotrophic lakes can also be endangered by the level decline. Drainage of peatlands located in the discharge zone of the aquifer is a possible threat for the lakes and the whole aquifer. Drainage can potentially lower the aquifer water table which can have an effect on the groundwater-lake interaction. The aim of this study was to understand in more detail the interaction of the aquifer and the lake systems so potential causes for the lake level variations could be better understood and managed. In-depth understanding of hydrogeological system provides foundation to study the nutrient input to lakes affecting lake ecosystems. A small lake imbedded the Rokua esker aquifer was studied in detail. Direct measurements of seepage rate between the lake and the aquifer were carried out using seepage meters. Seepage was measured from six locations for eight times during May 2010 - November 2010. Precipitation was recorded with a tipping bucket rain gauge adjacent to the lake. Lake stage and groundwater levels from three piezometers were registered on an hourly interval using pressure probes. Statistical methods were applied to examine relationship between seepage measurements and levels of lake and groundwater and amount of precipitation. Distinct areas of inseepage and outseepage of the lake were distinguished with seepage meter measurements. Seepage rates showed only little variation within individual measurement locations. Nevertheless analysis revealed statistically significant correlation of seepage rate variation in four

  4. Groundwater and surface-water interactions near White Bear Lake, Minnesota, through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Jackson, P. Ryan; Bode, Jenifer A.; O'Grady, Ryan M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the White Bear Lake Conservation District, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, and other State, county, municipal, and regional planning agencies, watershed organizations, and private organizations, conducted a study to characterize groundwater and surface-water interactions near White Bear Lake through 2011. During 2010 and 2011, White Bear Lake and other lakes in the northeastern part of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area were at historically low levels. Previous periods of lower water levels in White Bear Lake correlate with periods of lower precipitation; however, recent urban expansion and increased pumping from the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer have raised the question of whether a decline in precipitation is the primary cause for the recent water-level decline in White Bear Lake. Understanding and quantifying the amount of groundwater inflow to a lake and water discharge from a lake to aquifers is commonly difficult but is important in the management of lake levels. Three methods were used in the study to assess groundwater and surface-water interactions on White Bear Lake: (1) a historical assessment (1978-2011) of levels in White Bear Lake, local groundwater levels, and their relation to historical precipitation and groundwater withdrawals in the White Bear Lake area; (2) recent (2010-11) hydrologic and water-quality data collected from White Bear Lake, other lakes, and wells; and (3) water-balance assessments for White Bear Lake in March and August 2011. An analysis of covariance between average annual lake-level change and annual precipitation indicated the relation between the two variables was significantly different from 2003 through 2011 compared with 1978 through 2002, requiring an average of 4 more inches of precipitation per year to maintain the lake level. This shift in the linear relation between annual lake-level change and annual precipitation

  5. Assessing Seasonal and Inter-Annual Variations of Lake Surface Areas in Mongolia during 2000-2011 Using Minimum Composite MODIS NDVI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinkyu Kang

    Full Text Available A minimum composite method was applied to produce a 15-day interval normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI dataset from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS daily 250 m reflectance in the red and near-infrared bands. This dataset was applied to determine lake surface areas in Mongolia. A total of 73 lakes greater than 6.25 km2in area were selected, and 28 of these lakes were used to evaluate detection errors. The minimum composite NDVI showed a better detection performance on lake water pixels than did the official MODIS 16-day 250 m NDVI based on a maximum composite method. The overall lake area detection performance based on the 15-day minimum composite NDVI showed -2.5% error relative to the Landsat-derived lake area for the 28 evaluated lakes. The errors increased with increases in the perimeter-to-area ratio but decreased with lake size over 10 km(2. The lake area decreased by -9.3% at an annual rate of -53.7 km(2 yr(-1 during 2000 to 2011 for the 73 lakes. However, considerable spatial variations, such as slight-to-moderate lake area reductions in semi-arid regions and rapid lake area reductions in arid regions, were also detected. This study demonstrated applicability of MODIS 250 m reflectance data for biweekly monitoring of lake area change and diagnosed considerable lake area reduction and its spatial variability in arid and semi-arid regions of Mongolia. Future studies are required for explaining reasons of lake area changes and their spatial variability.

  6. Construction of lake bathymetry from MODIS satellite data and GIS from 2003 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yi; Xiao, Fei; Du, Yun

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, sedimentation conditions in Dongting Lake have varied greatly because of signifi cant changes in runoff and sediment load in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River following the construction of Three Gorges Dam. The topography of the lake bottom has changed rapidly because of the intense exchange of water and sediment between the lake and the Changjiang River. However, time series information on lake-bottom topographic change is lacking. In this study, we introduced a method that combines remote sensing data and in situ water level data to extract a record of Dongting Lake bottom topography from 2003 to 2011. Multi-temporal lake land/water boundaries were extracted from MODIS images using the linear spectral mixture model method. The elevation of water/land boundary points were calculated using water level data and spatial interpolation techniques. Digital elevation models of Dongting Lake bottom topography in different periods were then constructed with the multiple heighted waterlines. The mean root-mean-square error of the linear spectral mixture model was 0.036, and the mean predicted error for elevation interpolation was -0.19 m. Compared with fi eld measurement data and sediment load data, the method has proven to be most applicable. The results show that the topography of the bottom of Dongting Lake has exhibited uneven erosion and deposition in terms of time and space over the last nine years. Moreover, lake-bottom topography has undergone a slight erosion trend within this period, with 58.2% and 41.8% of the lake-bottom area being eroded and deposited, respectively.

  7. Discharge, water temperature, and selected meteorological data for Vancouver Lake, Vancouver, Washington, water years 2011-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, James R.; Marshall, Cameron A.; Sheibley, Rich W.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey partnered with the Vancouver Lake Watershed Partnership in a 2-year intensive study to quantify the movement of water and nutrients through Vancouver Lake in Vancouver, Washington. This report is intended to assist the Vancouver Lake Watershed Partnership in evaluating potential courses of action to mitigate seasonally driven blooms of harmful cyanobacteria and to improve overall water quality of the lake. This report contains stream discharge, lake water temperature, and selected meteorological data for water years 2011, 2012, and 2013 that were used to develop the water and nutrient budgets for the lake.

  8. 78 FR 5474 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    .... Please note that the public comment period may end before the hour allotted, following the last call for.... DATES: GLPAC will meet on Monday, February 11, 2013, from 12:30 p.m. to 3:30 p.m. Please note...

  9. 78 FR 54264 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... Headquarters located at 2703 Martin Luther King Jr. Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20593 in conference room 6i10-01... Guard Stop 7509, 2703 Martin Luther King Jr. Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20593-7509; telephone...

  10. 77 FR 33228 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The GLPAC is an advisory committee established in accordance with the provisions of... accounting, who must be recommended to the Secretary by a unanimous vote of the other members of the..., applicants are required to complete Confidential Financial Disclosure Reports (OGE Form 450). Coast Guard...

  11. Modelling hourly rates of evaporation from small lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Granger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a field study of open water evaporation carried out on three small lakes in Western and Northern Canada. In this case small lakes are defined as those for which the temperature above the water surface is governed by the upwind land surface conditions; that is, a continuous boundary layer exists over the lake, and large-scale atmospheric effects such as entrainment do not come into play. Lake evaporation was measured directly using eddy covariance equipment; profiles of wind speed, air temperature and humidity were also obtained over the water surfaces. Observations were made as well over the upwind land surface.

    The major factors controlling open water evaporation were examined. The study showed that for time periods shorter than daily, the open water evaporation bears no relationship to the net radiation; the wind speed is the most significant factor governing the evaporation rates, followed by the land-water temperature contrast and the land-water vapour pressure contrast. The effect of the stability on the wind field was demonstrated; relationships were developed relating the land-water wind speed contrast to the land-water temperature contrast. The open water period can be separated into two distinct evaporative regimes: the warming period in the Spring, when the land is warmer than the water, the turbulent fluxes over water are suppressed; and the cooling period, when the water is warmer than the land, the turbulent fluxes over water are enhanced.

    Relationships were developed between the hourly rates of lake evaporation and the following significant variables and parameters (wind speed, land-lake temperature and humidity contrasts, and the downwind distance from shore. The result is a relatively simple versatile model for estimating the hourly lake evaporation rates. The model was tested using two independent data sets. Results show that the modelled evaporation follows the observed values

  12. Preliminary juvenile Lost River and shortnose sucker investigations in Clear Lake, California--2011 pilot study summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Summer M.; Rasmussen, Josh

    2012-01-01

    Poor recruitment appears to limit the recovery of Lost River and shortnose sucker populations in Clear Lake Reservoir, California, but the cause is unknown. Adult suckers migrate up Willow Creek and its tributaries to spawn in some years, but low flow in Willow Creek may inhibit spawning migrations in other years. It is unclear whether spawning is successful, larvae survive, or juveniles persist to adulthood. Environmental variables associated with successful spawning or young-of-year survival have not been identified and early life history for these populations is poorly understood. The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Ruby Pipeline L.L.C. Corporation (El Paso, Tex.) initiated a study in 2011 to better understand juvenile sucker life history in Clear Lake Reservoir, and to identify constraints in the early life history that may limit recruitment to the adult spawning populations. This is a report on the 2011 pilot study for this project.

  13. Measles Case Fatality Rate in Bihar, India, 2011–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murhekar, Manoj V.; Ahmad, Mohammad; Shukla, Hemant; Abhishek, Kunwar; Perry, Robert T.; Bose, Anindya S.; Shimpi, Rahul; Kumar, Arun; Kaliaperumal, Kanagasabai; Sethi, Raman; Selvaraj, Vadivoo; Kamaraj, Pattabi; Routray, Satyabrata; Das, Vidya Nand; Menabde, Nata; Bahl, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    Background Updated estimates of measles case fatality rates (CFR) are critical for monitoring progress towards measles elimination goals. India accounted for 36% of total measles deaths occurred globally in 2011. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to estimate measles CFR and identify the risk factors for measles death in Bihar–one of the north Indian states historically known for its low vaccination coverage. Methods We systematically selected 16 of the 31 laboratory-confirmed measles outbreaks occurring in Bihar during 1 October 2011 to 30 April 2012. All households of the villages/urban localities affected by these outbreaks were visited to identify measles cases and deaths. We calculated CFR and used multivariate analysis to identify risk factors for measles death. Results The survey found 3670 measles cases and 28 deaths (CFR: 0.78, 95% confidence interval: 0.47–1.30). CFR was higher among under-five children (1.22%) and children belonging to scheduled castes/tribes (SC/ST, 1.72%). On multivariate analysis, independent risk factors associated with measles death were age Measles CFR in Bihar was low. To further reduce case fatality, health authorities need to ensure that SC/ST are targeted by the immunization programme and that outbreak investigations target for vitamin A treatment of cases in high risk groups such as SC/ST and young children and ensure regular visits by health-workers in affected villages to administer vitamin A to new cases. PMID:24824641

  14. Measles case fatality rate in Bihar, India, 2011-12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj V Murhekar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Updated estimates of measles case fatality rates (CFR are critical for monitoring progress towards measles elimination goals. India accounted for 36% of total measles deaths occurred globally in 2011. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to estimate measles CFR and identify the risk factors for measles death in Bihar-one of the north Indian states historically known for its low vaccination coverage. METHODS: We systematically selected 16 of the 31 laboratory-confirmed measles outbreaks occurring in Bihar during 1 October 2011 to 30 April 2012. All households of the villages/urban localities affected by these outbreaks were visited to identify measles cases and deaths. We calculated CFR and used multivariate analysis to identify risk factors for measles death. RESULTS: The survey found 3670 measles cases and 28 deaths (CFR: 0.78, 95% confidence interval: 0.47-1.30. CFR was higher among under-five children (1.22% and children belonging to scheduled castes/tribes (SC/ST, 1.72%. On multivariate analysis, independent risk factors associated with measles death were age <5 years, SC/ST status and non-administration of vitamin A during illness. Outbreaks with longer interval between the occurrence of first case and notification of the outbreak also had a higher rate of deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Measles CFR in Bihar was low. To further reduce case fatality, health authorities need to ensure that SC/ST are targeted by the immunization programme and that outbreak investigations target for vitamin A treatment of cases in high risk groups such as SC/ST and young children and ensure regular visits by health-workers in affected villages to administer vitamin A to new cases.

  15. Expansion rate and geometry of floating vegetation mats on the margins of thermokarst lakes, northern Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsekian, A.D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Jones, M.; Grosse, G.; Walter, Anthony K.M.; Slater, L.

    2011-01-01

    Investigations on the northern Seward Peninsula in Alaska identified zones of recent (<50years) permafrost collapse that led to the formation of floating vegetation mats along thermokarst lake margins. The occurrence of floating vegetation mat features indicates rapid degradation of near-surface permafrost and lake expansion. This paper reports on the recent expansion of these collapse features and their geometry is determined using geophysical and remote sensing measurements. The vegetation mats were observed to have an average thickness of 0.57m and petrophysical modeling indicated that gas content of 1.5-5% enabled floatation above the lake surface. Furthermore, geophysical investigation provides evidence that the mats form by thaw and subsidence of the underlying permafrost rather than terrestrialization. The temperature of the water below a vegetation mat was observed to remain above freezing late in the winter. Analysis of satellite and aerial imagery indicates that these features have expanded at maximum rates of 1-2myr-1 over a 56year period. Including the spatial coverage of floating 'thermokarst mats' increases estimates of lake area by as much as 4% in some lakes. ?? 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2011] Benton Lake Wetland Management District, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  17. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2011] Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  18. 75 FR 52321 - Dry Lake Wind Power II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ...-1720-000] Dry Lake Wind Power II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... the above-referenced proceeding, of Dry Lake Wind Power II LLC application for market-based rate...

  19. [Limnology of high mountain tropical lake, in Ecuador: characteristics of sediments and rate of sedimentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunkel, Günter

    2003-06-01

    Equatorial high mountain lakes are a special type of lake occurring mainly in the South American Andes as well as in Central Africa and Asia. They occur at altitudes of a few thousand meters above sea level and are cold-water lakes (limnological study was therefore undertaken at Lake San Pablo, Ecuador, to analyze the basic limnological processes of the lake, which has a tendency for eutrophication. Sediment quality of San Pablo Lake is given under consideration of horizontal and vertical distribution using sediment cores. Significance of sediments for eutrophication process of lakes is demonstrated using phosphorus concentration of sediments as well as the phosphorus retention capacity of the sediments by ratio Fe/P. Dating of the sediments is done using 137Cs and 210Pb, but the activity of 137Cs in the sediment was very low nearly at the detection level. Sedimentation rate is determined to be 3.5 mm/year and the sediment cores represent about 110 years. P concentration of the sediments is high (approximately 5 g/kg dry substance), and P retention capacity by Fe is insufficient (Fe/P = 4). The sediment quality did not change significantly during the past decades, and the trophic state of San Pablo Lake was already less or more eutrophic 110 years ago. The contamination of the lake sediments by heavy metals is insignificant.

  20. A shift in bloater consumption in Lake Michigan between 1993 and 2011 and its effects on Diporeia and Mysis prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothoven, Steven A.; Bunnell, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine individual and population consumption by Bloater Coregonus hoyi in Lake Michigan during three time periods with variable Bloater density: 1993–1996 (high), 1998–2002 (intermediate), and 2009–2011 (low). Despite declines in Bloater abundance between 1993 and 2011, our results did not show any density-dependent compensatory response in annual individual consumption, specific consumption, or proportion of maximum consumption consumed. Diporeia spp. accounted for a steadily decreasing fraction of annual consumption, and Bloater were apparently unable to eat enough Mysis diluviana or other prey to account for the loss of Diporeia in the environment. The fraction of production of both Diporeia and Mysis that was consumed by the Bloater population decreased over time so that the consumption-to-production ratio for Diporeia + Mysis was 0.74, 0.26, and 0.14 in 1993–1996, 1998–2002, and 2009–2011, respectively. Although high Bloater numbers in the 1980s to 1990s may have had an influence on populations of Diporeia, Bloater were not the main factor driving Diporeia to a nearly complete disappearance because Diporeia continued to decline when Bloater predation demands were lessening. Thus, there appears to be a decoupling in the inverse relationship between predator and prey abundance in Lake Michigan. Compared with Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, the other dominant planktivore in the lake, Bloater have a lower specific consumption and higher gross conversion efficiency (GCE), indicating that the lake can support a higher biomass of Bloater than Alewife. However, declines in Bloater GCE since the 1970s and the absence of positive responses in consumption variables following declines in abundance suggest that productivity in Lake Michigan might not be able to support the same biomass of Bloater as in the past.

  1. Constant diversification rates of endemic gastropods in ancient Lake Ohrid: ecosystem resilience likely buffers environmental fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föller, K.; Stelbrink, B.; Hauffe, T.; Albrecht, C.; Wilke, T.

    2015-12-01

    Ancient lakes represent key ecosystems for endemic freshwater species. This high endemic biodiversity has been shown to be mainly the result of intra-lacustrine diversification. Whereas the principle role of this mode of diversification is generally acknowledged, actual diversification rates in ancient lakes remain little understood. At least four types are conceivable. Diversification rates may be constant over time, they may fluctuate, rates may be higher in the initial phase of diversification, or there may be a pronounced lag phase between colonization and subsequent diversification. As understanding the tempo of diversification in ancient lake environments may help reveal the underlying processes that drive speciation and extinction, we here use the Balkan Lake Ohrid as a model system and the largest species flock in the lake, the non-pyrgulinid Hydrobiidae, as a model taxon to study changes in diversification rates over time together with the respective drivers. Based on phylogenetic, molecular-clock, lineage-through-time plot, and diversification-rate analyses we found that this potentially monophyletic group is comparatively old and that it most likely evolved with a constant diversification rate. Preliminary data of the SCOPSCO (Scientific Collaboration On Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid) deep-drilling program do indicate signatures of severe environmental/climatic perturbations in Lake Ohrid. However, so far there is no evidence for the occurrence of catastrophic environmental events. We therefore propose that the constant diversification rate observed in endemic gastropods has been caused by two factors: (i) a potential lack of catastrophic environmental events in Lake Ohrid and/or (ii) a probably high ecosystem resilience, buffering environmental changes. Parameters potentially contributing to the lake's high ecosystem resilience are its distinct bathymetry, ongoing tectonic activities, and karst hydrology. The current study not only

  2. Occurrence and distribution of fecal indicator bacteria and gene markers of pathogenic bacteria in Great Lakes tributaries, March-October 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Angela K.; Johnson, Heather E.; Totten, Alexander R.; Duris, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    From March through October 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), conducted a study to determine the frequency of occurrence of pathogen gene markers and densities of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in 22 tributaries to the Great Lakes. This project was funded as part of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) and included sampling at 22 locations throughout 6 states that border the Great Lakes.

  3. Constant diversification rates of endemic gastropods in ancient Lake Ohrid: ecosystem resilience likely buffers environmental fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Föller

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ancient lakes represent key ecosystems for endemic freshwater species. This high endemic biodiversity has been shown to be mainly the result of intra-lacustrine diversification. Whereas the principle role of this mode of diversification is generally acknowledged, actual diversification rates in ancient lakes remain little understood. At least four modes are conceivable. Diversification rates may be constant over time, they may fluctuate, rates may be higher in the initial phase of diversification, or there may be a pronounced lag phase between colonization and subsequent diversification. As understanding the tempo of diversification in ancient lake environments may help unrevealing the underlying processes that drive speciation and extinction, we here use the Balkan Lake Ohrid as a model system and the largest species flock in the lake, the non-pyrgulinid Hydrobiidae, as a model taxon to study changes in diversification rates over time together with the respective drivers. Based on phylogenetic, molecular-clock, lineage-through-time plot and diversification-rate analyses we found that this monophyletic group is comparatively old and that it most likely evolved with a constant diversification rate. Preliminary data of the SCOPSCO deep-drilling program do indicate signatures of severe environmental/climatic perturbations in Lake Ohrid. However, so far there is no evidence for the occurrence of catastrophic environmental events. We therefore propose that the rate homogeneity observed in endemic gastropods has been caused by two factors: (i a potential lack of catastrophic environmental events in Lake Ohrid and/or (ii a high ecosystem resilience, buffering environmental changes. Parameters potentially contributing to the lake's high ecosystem resilience are its distinct bathymetry, ongoing tectonic activities, and karst hydrology. The current study not only contributes to one of the overall goals of the SCOPSCO deep-drilling program – inferring

  4. Integrated Pest Management Plan 2006-2011 Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Integrated Pest Management Plan is to provide a comprehensive, environmentally sensitive approach to managing pests on the Sand Lake NWRC. The...

  5. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2011] Bowdoin Wetland Management District, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  6. 2011 update to crested wheatgrass control and monitoring Benton Lake Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Crested wheatgrass (CWG) was planted on Benton Lake NWR at least 30 years ago, presumably to stabilize the soil where it had been disturbed in the process of...

  7. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2011] Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  8. Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wien, Carol Anne

    2008-01-01

    The lake is blue black and deep. It is a glaciated finger lake, clawed out of rock when ice retracted across Nova Scotia in a northerly direction during the last ice age. The lake is narrow, a little over a mile long, and deep, 90 to 190 feet in places according to local lore, off the charts in others. The author loves to swim there, with a sense…

  9. 76 FR 61074 - USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar AGENCY... increase in the fiscal year (FY) 2011 refined sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) of 136,078 metric tons raw... MTRV for sugars, syrups, and molasses (collectively referred to as refined sugar) described in...

  10. 76 FR 61472 - Revised Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Refined Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Revised Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Refined Sugar AGENCY... the fiscal year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported refined sugar... imports of refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (19 U.S.C. 3601(d)(3...

  11. Reaction rates, depositional history and sources of indium in sediments from Appalachian and Canadian Shield lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, André; Gobeil, Charles; Laforte, Lucie

    2014-07-01

    Sediment cores were collected at the deepest site of twelve headwater lakes from the Province of Québec, Canada that receive contaminants only from atmospheric deposition, either directly to the lake surface or indirectly from the watershed. Several of the lakes are located within relatively short distance (In2S3(s) do not precipitate in the sediments and that adsorption of In onto sedimentary FeS(s) does not occur. However, similarities in the In and Fe porewater profiles, and the presence of In in the authigenic Fe-rich solids, reveal that part of the In becomes associated with authigenic Fe oxyhydroxides in the perennially oxic lake and is coupled to the Fe redox cycling. Comparison of the In/Corg and In/Fe molar ratios in the authigenic Fe-rich material and in surface sediments (0-0.5 cm) of this lake suggests that most non-lithogenic In was bound to humic substances. From the magnitude of the net In reaction rates, we infer that the post-depositional redistribution of this element is quantitatively not important and that the In sedimentary record represents accurately In deposition at the sampling sites. Reconstructed chronologies of the anthropogenic In deposition and comparison of In inventories among lakes point to non-ferrous metal smelters as a past significant source of atmospheric In contamination and to a significant reduction of industrial In emissions into the North American atmosphere in recent decades.

  12. Laboratory experiment to determine phosphate release rates from sediments of a formerly oligotrophic lake (Silbersee, Cuxhaven)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmarami, Hatem; Greskowiak, Janek; Hamann, Enrico; Massmann, Gudrun

    2016-04-01

    The Silbersee is a small, formerly oligotrophic lake in northwestern Germany which still contains rare character species for oligotrophic lakes (Isoëtes lacustris, Littorella uniflora) threatened by eutrophication. It was suspected that the lake sediments and the redox conditions in the hypolimnon play an important role with regard to eutrophication, potentially releasing phosphorus (P) into the water column. This was the motivation to conduct experiments to estimate the release rate of phosphorus into the lake. It had been noted that the P concentrations in the bottom water were higher during summer in the stagnation phase, when conditions turned sulfidic. Eight sediment cores were taken with a Mondsee-corer (manufactured by UWITEC) at different sites of the lake. The thickness of the sediment within the cores ranged from 15cm to 35 cm and were overlying by approximately 40cm of lake water water. The headspace was approximately 10cm. The cores were stored in a fridge first under oxic, then under anoxic conditions as observed in the lake bottom water in the different seasons. Redox conditions were maintained by bubbling with oxygen and nitrogen gas during the respective time periods. During the experiment, the temperature was held constant to match the water temperature measured at the bottom of the lake (~ 7±1°C). Concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) and dissolved phosphorus (DP), iron (Fe) and dissolved oxygen (DO) as well as pH were measured under oxic and anoxic conditions in the water column. The results showed that TP, DP and Fe concentrations were higher under anoxic conditions than under oxic conditions. The observed increase of phosporous in the water column during the anoxic phase was presumably a result of (i) reductive Fe-oxides dissolution and the corresponding loss of sorption sites and (ii) desorption of phosphorous via surface complexation reactions due to pH changes during the experiment.

  13. Chemical and biological quality of water in Grand Lake St. Marys, Ohio, 2011-12, with emphasis on cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumouchelle, Denise H.; Stelzer, Erin A.

    2014-01-01

    Grand Lake St. Marys (GLSM) is a shallow lake in northwest Ohio, which is about 9 miles long and 3 miles wide with depths averaging less than 8 feet. Cyanobacteria blooms are common in GLSM, and high concentrations of microcystins—toxins produced by cyanobacteria—have been documented therein. During 2011–12, the U.S. Geological Survey collected 11 sets of water samples at 6 locations in the lake. The water samples were analyzed for concentrations of nutrients, chlorophyll, and microcystin and to determine plankton community structure and abundance. Analysis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to identify the relations between microcystin concentrations and Planktothrix and Microcystisgenotypes (toxic versus non-toxic). The qPCR analysis targets deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) genes and quantifies the potential for toxin production, whereas the qRT-PCR analysis targets ribonucleic acid (RNA) transcripts and quantifies the expression of the toxin gene. Water samples were collected six times at one site for analyses of major ions and trace elements. In addition, field measurements were made to determine transparency, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance of the water.

  14. USGS Lake Erie East Harbor bottom trawl data series, 1961-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Lake Erie Biological Station’s East Harbor sampling program began in 1961 with the commissioning of the research vessel Musky II. It is the longest known...

  15. 76 FR 44976 - Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans; Interest Rate for Fourth Quarter FY 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... No: 2011-18897] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans... Credit and Assistance Sec. 123.512, the following interest rate is effective for Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loans approved on or after July 22, 2011. Military Reservist Loan Program:...

  16. After Meeting: The 1st Maritime Pilotage/Towage Services and Technologies Congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan PARLAK

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The 1st Maritime Pilotage/Towage Services and Technologies Congress has been organized by UCTEA Chambers of Marine Engineers, UCTEA the Chamber of Turkish Naval Architects & Marine Engineers and Turkish Maritime Pilots’ Association at 23 October 2015, Hilton Hotel, İzmir. In the opening ceremony, two distinguished keynote speakers have presented their presentations. Captain Stein Inge DAHN who is the president of European Maritime Pilots’ Association(EMPA has given a fulfilling speech on switching to hand steering by giving an example from the automation in the Aviation Industry. The second keynote speaker Robert G. Allan, who is the Executive Chairman of Robert Allan Ltd., has given a leading speech under the title of “The State of the Art in Escort Tug Technology -2015”. Five key points have come into prominence during the symposium. To summarize: • To prevent ships and cargos which are exposed to damages, • To prevent marine and coastal environments against pollution due to collisions, • To establish fast, secure and well organized sea traffic • To develop new escort tug technologies and pilotage softwares in the national level which is open to competitions in the international markets. • Opening maritime pilotage into the competitions in the areas which needs special expertize. In my opinion, the topics discussed in the symposium have the attendants won a wide horizon in the field. However, the presentations related to Escort Tug Technologies were insufficient from the standpoint of both quality and numbers of the manuscripts presented. Due to importance of Maritime Pilotage/Towage Services and Technologies, much more attentions must be taken in the national and international levels and sustainability of the symposium must be provided .

  17. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, LAKE COUNTY, ILLINOIS USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  18. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, LAKE COUNTY, OHIO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  19. Landscape scale measures of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) bioenergetic growth rate potential in Lake Michigan and comparison with angler catch rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, T.O.; Rutherford, E.S.; Brines, Shannon J.; Geddes, C.A.; Mason, D.M.; Schwab, D.J.; Fleischer, G.W.

    2004-01-01

    The relative quality of a habitat can influence fish consumption, growth, mortality, and production. In order to quantify habitat quality, several authors have combined bioenergetic and foraging models to generate spatially explicit estimates of fish growth rate potential (GRP). However, the capacity of GRP to reflect the spatial distributions of fishes over large areas has not been fully evaluated. We generated landscape scale estimates of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) GRP throughout Lake Michigan for 1994-1996, and used these estimates to test the hypotheses that GRP is a good predictor of spatial patterns of steelhead catch rates. We used surface temperatures (measured with AVHRR satellite imagery) and acoustically measured steelhead prey densities (alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus) as inputs for the GRP model. Our analyses demonstrate that potential steelhead growth rates in Lake Michigan are highly variable in both space and time. Steelhead GRP tended to increase with latitude, and mean GRP was much higher during September 1995, compared to 1994 and 1996. In addition, our study suggests that landscape scale measures of GRP are not good predictors of steelhead catch rates throughout Lake Michigan, but may provide an index of interannual variation in system-wide habitat quality.

  20. 75 FR 26747 - Meadow Lake Wind Farm III LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ...-1176-000] Meadow Lake Wind Farm III LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... above-referenced proceeding of Meadow Lake Wind Farm III LLC's application for market-based rate... clicking on the appropriate link in the above list. They are also available for review in the Commission's...

  1. 75 FR 26747 - Meadow Lake Wind Farm IV LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ...] Meadow Lake Wind Farm IV LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...-referenced proceeding of Meadow Lake Wind Farm IV LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an... proceeding are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the appropriate link in the...

  2. Sea lamprey mark type, marking rate, and parasite-host relationships for lake trout and other species in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantry, Brian F.; Adams, Jean V.; Christie, Gavin; Schaner, Teodore; Bowlby, James; Keir, Michael; Lantry, Jana; Sullivan, Paul; Bishop, Daniel; Treska, Ted; Morrison, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We examined how attack frequency by sea lampreys on fishes in Lake Ontario varied in response to sea lamprey abundance and preferred host abundance (lake trout > 433 mm). For this analysis we used two gill net assessment surveys, one angler creel survey, three salmonid spawning run datasets, one adult sea lamprey assessment, and a bottom trawl assessment of dead lake trout. The frequency of fresh sea lamprey marks observed on lake trout from assessment surveys was strongly related to the frequency of sea lamprey attacks observed on salmon and trout from the creel survey and spawning migrations. Attack frequencies on all salmonids examined were related to the ratio between the abundances of adult sea lampreys and lake trout. Reanalysis of the susceptibility to sea lamprey attack for lake trout strains stocked into Lake Ontario reaffirmed that Lake Superior strain lake trout were among the most and Seneca Lake strain among the least susceptible and that Lewis Lake strain lake trout were even more susceptible than the Superior strain. Seasonal attack frequencies indicated that as the number of observed sea lamprey attacks decreased during June–September, the ratio of healing to fresh marks also decreased. Simulation of the ratios of healing to fresh marks indicated that increased lethality of attacks by growing sea lampreys contributed to the decline in the ratios and supported laboratory studies about wound healing duration.

  3. Ratings uplifts and bank characteristics in the Eurozone 2002-2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores which characteristics define banks that are too-big-to-fail in the Eurozone over the period 2002-2011. These banks are identified through ratings uplift data from Moody’s. Higher ratings uplifts are associated with higher degrees of interest income and lower degrees of commission

  4. CHAPHOLO (scientific drilling project): Paleolimnological Evaluation of Lake Chapala, western Mexico, During Holocene (CONACYT grant: CB2011-168685)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, P. F.; Fritz, S. C.; Ramirez Sanchez, U.; Gomez Salazar, S.; Ceja Andrade, I.; Priyadarsi Debajyoti, R.; Brenner, M.

    2012-12-01

    CHAPHOLO ( CHAP: Chapala; HOLO: Holocene) has as goal to evaluate paleoenvironmental variations recorded in the sediment of neotectonic Lake Chapala (LCH), western Mexico (20°15.129'N, 103° 02.996'W). The lake lies about 1524 m asl. LCH is the largest lake in Mexico (1,100 kmyr2), but is shallow (zmax = 7.20 m). It is located in a basin belonging to the Citala Rift, the east-west branch of three continental rifts that join to form the so-called Jalisco triple junction. Our working hypothesis is that recent (Holocene) paleolimnological changes in LCH were caused by major climate variations and by minor regional/local processes (e.g. volcanism). We will drill a 40m long core from the lake depocenter, with the objective of recovering a full Holocene record, and likely more, assuming a mean sedimentation rate of 2 mm yr-1. Core chronology will be established using AMS 14C and 210Pb techniques and climate inferences will be made using geochemical, geophysical and micropaleontological proxies. Particularly, we pretend to identify the six "short" fluctuations of climate that characterized the Holocene (Mayewski et al., 2004) and the identification of Mediewal Warm Period and the droughts affected the mayan culture (Hodell et al., 1995). We will verify the application of Ti as a proxy to rainfall (Metcalfe et al., 2010). During the last 10,000 the fact about the dissolution of diatom in LCH sediments must be evaluated (Ryves et al., 2009). The working group is multidisciplinary (Geochemistry, Micropaleontology, Paleolimnology, Geophysics) and involves multiple institutions (Guadalajara University, Mexican National University-UNAM, University of Florida, University of Nebraska-Lincoln). CHAPHOLO is supported by funds from the Mexican government and from the Guadalajara University. The theme of CHAPHOLO is consistent with global environmental programs such as PAGES and CLIVAR. This project will be developed in stages over three years.

  5. Holocene paleoclimatic evidence and sedimentation rates from a core in southwestern Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Steven M.; Jones, Glenn A.; Forester, R.M.; Foster, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    Preliminary results of a multidisciplinary study of cores in southwestern Lake Michigan suggest that the materials in these cores can be interpreted in terms of both isostatically and climatically induced changes in lake level. Ostracodes and mollusks are well preserved in the Holocene sediments, and they provide paleolimnologic and paleoclimatic data, as well as biogenic carbonate for stable-isotope studies and radiocarbon dating. Pollen and diatom preservation in the cores is poor, which prevents comparison with regional vegetation records. New accelerator-mass spectrometer 14C ages, from both carbon and carbonate fractions, provide basin-wide correlations and appear to resolve the longstanding problem of anomalously old ages that result from detrital organic matter in Great Lakes sediments. Several cores contain a distinct unconformity associated with the abrupt fall in lake level that occurred about 10.3 ka when the isostatically depressed North Bay outlet was uncovered by the retreating Laurentide Ice Sheet. Below the unconformity, ostracode assemblages imply deep, cold water with very low total dissolved solids (TDS), and bivalves have ?? 18O (PDB) values as light as - 10 per mil. Samples from just above the unconformity contain littoral to sublittoral ostracode species that imply warmer, higher-TDS (though still dilute) water than that inferred below the unconformity. Above this zone, another interval with ?? 18O values more negative than - 10 occurs. The isotopic data suggest that two influxes of cold, isotopically light meltwater from Laurentide ice entered the lake, one shortly before 10.3 ka and the other about 9 ka. These influxes were separated by a period during which the lake was warmer, shallower, but still very low in dissolved solids. One or both of the meltwater influxes may be related to discharge from Lake Agassiz into the Great Lakes. Sedimentation rates appear to have been constant from about 10 ka to 5 ka. Bivalve shells formed between about

  6. Response of ice cover on shallow lakes of the North Slope of Alaska to contemporary climate conditions (1950–2011: radar remote sensing and numerical modeling data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Surdu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Air temperature and winter precipitation changes over the last five decades have impacted the timing, duration, and thickness of the ice cover on Arctic lakes as shown by recent studies. In the case of shallow tundra lakes, many of which are less than 3 m deep, warmer climate conditions could result in thinner ice covers and consequently, to a smaller fraction of lakes freezing to their bed in winter. However, these changes have not yet been comprehensively documented. The analysis of a 20 yr time series of ERS-1/2 synthetic aperture radar (SAR data and a numerical lake ice model were employed to determine the response of ice cover (thickness, freezing to the bed, and phenology on shallow lakes of the North Slope of Alaska (NSA to climate conditions over the last six decades. Analysis of available SAR data from 1991–2011, from a sub-region of the NSA near Barrow, shows a reduction in the fraction of lakes that freeze to the bed in late winter. This finding is in good agreement with the decrease in ice thickness simulated with the Canadian Lake Ice Model (CLIMo, a lower fraction of lakes frozen to the bed corresponding to a thinner ice cover. Observed changes of the ice cover show a trend toward increasing floating ice fractions from 1991 to 2011, with the greatest change occurring in April, when the grounded ice fraction declined by 22% (α = 0.01. Model results indicate a trend toward thinner ice covers by 18–22 cm (no-snow and 53% snow depth scenarios, α = 0.01 during the 1991–2011 period and by 21–38 cm (α = 0.001 from 1950–2011. The longer trend analysis (1950–2011 also shows a decrease in the ice cover duration by ∼24 days consequent to later freeze-up dates by 5.9 days (α = 0.1 and earlier break-up dates by 17.7–18.6 days (α = 0.001.

  7. Reproductive biology of the Cisalpine pike (Esox cisalpinus Bianco and Delmastro, 2011 in Trasimeno Lake (Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pompei

    2015-11-01

    Total sample consisted of 292 females ranging in size from 28 to 103 cm (2+ -14+ age classes. Descriptive statistic of GSI, F, FR, δ and Wr is reported in Table 1. Fecundity was positively correlated with TL (r2=0.67, r=0.82, p0.05; covariate mean: TL=61.03 cm. On the contrary, RF varied remarkably from year to year (ANCOVA: F=3.57, p<0.05; covariate mean: TL=61.03 cm, without a clear temporal trend in the regression analysis (r2<0.01; r=-0.02; p=0.74. The great variability of RF values should be justified by the high unpredictability of environmental condition (i.e. water level, water temperature that characterize the Trasimeno Lake (Lorenzoni et al. 2002. The mean diameter of eggs showed a marked decrease from 2010 to 2012, with a slight increase in 2014 (ANCOVA: F=48.56, p<0.01; covariate mean: TL=61.03 cm; however the regression analysis highlights a general decrease over time (r2=0.03; r=

  8. Alkaline phosphatase activity and the phosphorus mineralization rate of Lake Taihu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Guang; ZHU; Guangwei; QIN; Boqiang; CHEN; Jun

    2006-01-01

    The phosphorus fractions, the alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) and other water chemical parameters were concomitantly monitored from April 2003 to October 2004 in different ecotype sites of Lake Taihu. During the stages of algae growth, the phosphorus fractions and their relationships with APA in different ecotype sites were discussed and the phosphorus mineralization rate was calculated. In the water of Lake Taihu, most of the phosphorus (70.2%) could be attributed to the suspended particulate phosphorus, while the dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) seems to contribute less than 7%. About 58% of the total phosphorus, however, can be hydrolyzed as inorganic phosphate to compensate for phosphorus deficiency of algae and bacteria growth. During the different algae growth stages, the APA and its Kinetic parameters were varied significantly between different ecotype sites of Lake Taihu. This trend is also visible by comparing the phosphorus mineralization rate,and the most rapidly phosphorus turnover time is only several minutes. The fast recycle of phosphorus can, to some extent, be explained that the phosphorus source of algal blooms. The phytoplankton seems to compensate for phosphorus deficiency by using the alkaline phosphatase to hydrolyze phosphomonoesters.

  9. 76 FR 21418 - Fiscal Year 2011 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of... raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: April 15, 2011. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed or delivered...

  10. Organic carbon mass accumulation rate regulates the flux of reduced substances from the sediments of deep lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsberger, Thomas; Schmid, Martin; Wüest, Alfred; Schwefel, Robert; Wehrli, Bernhard; Müller, Beat

    2017-07-01

    The flux of reduced substances, such as methane and ammonium, from the sediment to the bottom water (Fred) is one of the major factors contributing to the consumption of oxygen in the hypolimnia of lakes and thus crucial for lake oxygen management. This study presents fluxes based on sediment porewater measurements from different water depths of five deep lakes of differing trophic states. In meso- to eutrophic lakes Fred was directly proportional to the total organic carbon mass accumulation rate (TOC-MAR) of the sediments. TOC-MAR and thus Fred in eutrophic lakes decreased systematically with increasing mean hypolimnion depth (zH), suggesting that high oxygen concentrations in the deep waters of lakes were essential for the extent of organic matter mineralization leaving a smaller fraction for anaerobic degradation and thus formation of reduced compounds. Consequently, Fred was low in the 310 m deep meso-eutrophic Lake Geneva, with high O2 concentrations in the hypolimnion. By contrast, seasonal anoxic conditions enhanced Fred in the deep basin of oligotrophic Lake Aegeri. As TOC-MAR and zH are based on more readily available data, these relationships allow estimating the areal O2 consumption rate by reduced compounds from the sediments where no direct flux measurements are available.

  11. Water quality of the inner Puno Bay, Titicaca Lake, during summer 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana F. Beltrán Farfán

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water quality of the inner Puno Bay was evaluated; we established 12 stations, and were assessed monthly from December 2010 to April 2011. Physicochemical water parameters were determined with EPA and APHA standard methods. Nutrients were determined spectrophotometrically. The parameters of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, phosphates, nitrates and nitrites of water show that the outlet of the stabilization lagoon of Puno City (Espinar Island is a critical area of contamination at the inner Puno Bay. Transparency values were low. The electrical conductivity of water showed high values. Alkalinity values were high (75 - 150 mg/L and very high (> 150 mg/L, indicating a high content of carbonates and bicarbonates. Water hardness were high (121-180 mg/L and very high (> 180 mg/L. High levels of fecal coliform in waters near the island Espinar would be the result of wastewater discharges from the Puno city, without proper treatment.

  12. Hydraulic, geomorphic, and trout habitat conditions of the Lake Fork of the Gunnison River in Hinsdale County, Lake City, Colorado, Water Years 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cory A.; Richards, Rodney J.; Schaffrath, Keelin R.

    2015-01-01

    Channel rehabilitation, or reconfiguration, to mitigate a variety of riverine problems has become a common practice in the western United States. However, additional work to monitor and assess the channel response to, and the effectiveness of, these modifications over longer periods of time (decadal or longer) is still needed. The Lake Fork of the Gunnison River has been an area of active channel modification to accommodate the needs of the Lake City community since the 1950s. The Lake Fork Valley Conservancy District began a planning process to assess restoration options for a reach of the Lake Fork in Lake City to enhance hydraulic and ecologic characteristics of the reach. Geomorphic channel form is affected by land-use changes within the basin and geologic controls within the reach. The historic channel was defined as a dynamic, braided channel with an active flood plain. This can result in a natural tendency for the channel to braid. A braided channel can affect channel stability of reconfigured reaches when a single-thread meandering channel is imposed on the stream. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board and Colorado River Water Conservation District, began a study in 2010 to quantify existing hydraulic and habitat conditions for a reach of the Lake Fork of the Gunnison River in Lake City, Colorado. The purpose of this report is to quantify existing Lake Fork hydraulic and habitat conditions and establish a baseline against which post-reconfiguration conditions can be compared. This report (1) quantifies the existing hydraulic and geomorphic conditions in a 1.1-kilometer section of the Lake Fork at Lake City that has been proposed as a location for future channel-rehabilitation efforts, (2) characterizes the habitat suitability of the reach for two trout species based on physical conditions within the stream, and (3) characterizes the current riparian canopy density.

  13. On the rate of decline of persistent organic contaminants in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Great Lakes, 1970-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Daniel L; De Vault, David S; Swackhamer, Deborah L

    2010-03-15

    Thirty-four years of data from the Great Lakes Fish Monitoring Program (GLFMP) show significant changes in the behavior of most contaminants in lake trout over time consistent with changes in contaminant inputs following regulation and remediation. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) show positive apparent first-order rate constants falling to near zero. Dieldrin shows relatively unchanging half-lives of around 10 years except in Lake Superior (approximately 25 years). Mirex, consistently detected only in Lake Ontario fish, shows a slow decrease until the 1990s, when remediation of a source site occurred, after which half-lives are 2-3 years. Half-lives of oxychlordane, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dichloro-diphenyl-trichlorethane (DDT) and its metabolites were typically 3-6 years until the mid 1980s; since then, the newest data confirm half-lives are usually around 15-30 years. For PCBs, an increasing half-life is found in other media as well. Changes in food web structure, fishery dynamics, and climate undoubtedly affect concentrations but cannot explain observed long-term trends across several media. Concentrations of legacy contaminants in the Great Lakes are likely to continue to decline only slowly and pose a health concern for decades without identifying and containing remaining sources.

  14. Screening for cervical cancer in French Guiana: screening rates from 2006 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douine, M; Roué, T; Lelarge, C; Adenis, A; Thomas, N; Nacher, M

    2015-12-01

    In French Guiana, the age-standardized incidence rate of cervical cancer is four times higher than in France and the mortality rate 5.5 times higher. A survival study revealed that stage at diagnosis was the main factor influencing the prognosis, showing that early detection is crucial to increase cervical cancer survival. The present study aimed at evaluating the cervical cancer screening rate between 2006 and 2011 by age and for a 3-year period in French Guiana. All pap smears realised in French Guiana were analysed in two laboratories allowing exhaustive review of screening data. The screening rate was estimated at about 54% from 2006 to 2011, with a statistical difference between coastal and rural area (56.3% versus 18.7%). Although the methodological difference did not allow comparisons with metropolitan France, these results could be used to evaluate the impact of organised cervical cancer screening by the French Guiana Association for Organized Screening of Cancers which has been implemented in French Guiana since 2012.

  15. Injury rates of the German Women’s American Football National Team from 2009 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ezechieli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available American football is one of the leading causes of athletic-related injuries. Injury rates in female elite players are mostly unknown. We hypothesized that the injury rates of female was comparable to those in men’s football during practice, as well as games. From 2009 to 2011, injury data were collected from the German female national team during training camps, World Championship 2010 and International friendly matches. The injury was categorized by location on the body and recorded as fracture/dislocation, strain, concussion, contusion or other injury. Injury rates were determined based on the exposure of an athlete to a game or practice event. The injury rate was calculated as the ratio of injuries per 1000 athlete exposures (AE. The rate of injury was significantly higher during games (58.8/1000 AE than practices [16.3/1000 AE, (P<0.01]. Furthermore, the injury rate in the tryouts was significantly higher (24.05/1000 AE compared to other training sessions with the national team (11.24/1000 AE. Our findings show that the injury rates in female elite American football players can be compared to those described for male players. Higher injury rates during matches than in training should also be underlined.

  16. Qualitative research publication rates in top-ranked nursing journals: 2002-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Anna R; Umoquit, Muriah; Webster, Fiona; Dobrow, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Journal publication is the traditional means of disseminating research. Few top-ranked general medical and health services and policy research journals publish qualitative research. This study examined qualitative research publication rates in top-ranked nursing journals with varying characteristics (general vs. specialty focus, number of issues per year) and compared publication rates with those previously reported for journals in related fields. A bibliometric approach was used to identify and quantify qualitative articles published in 10 top-ranked nursing journals from 2002 to 2011. The percentage of qualitative empirical studies varied within and across nursing journals with no apparent association with journal characteristics. Although variable, qualitative research appears more common in high-ranking nursing journals than in general medical and health services and policy research journals. Examining factors that contribute to inconsistent rates may identify strategies to optimize qualitative research reporting and publication.

  17. National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey 2010/2011 : Individual refuge results for Banks Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey for Banks Lake NWR and is part of the USGS Data Series 643. The survey was conducted to better...

  18. National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey 2010/2011 : Individual refuge results for Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey for Rice Lake NWR and is part of the USGS Data Series 643. The survey was conducted to better...

  19. National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey 2010/2011 : Individual refuge results for Big Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey for Big Lake NWR and is part of the USGS Data Series 643. The survey was conducted to better...

  20. National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey 2010/2011 : Individual refuge results for Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey for Sand Lake NWR and is part of the USGS Data Series 643. The survey was conducted to better...

  1. Monitoring Lake Temperature at Kodiak, Togiak and Alaska Peninsula/Becharof National Wildlife Refuges: 2011 Progress Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Instrument arrays were established to conduct long-term, all-season monitoring of water temperature at eight lakes on Kodiak, Togiak, and Alaska Peninsula/Becharof...

  2. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2011] Lost Trail National Wildlife Refuge, Benton Lake ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  3. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2011] Northwest Montana Wetland Management District, Benton Lake & Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  4. [Montana MOYOCO Invasive Species Strike Team Final Report 2011] Northeast Montana Wetland Management District, Benton Lake & Lee Metcalf ISST

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The MOYOCO (MT) Invasive Species Strike Team is made up of two field strike teams, housed at Benton Lake and Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuges, yet administered...

  5. Estimated seepage rates from selected ditches, ponds, and lakes at the Camas National Wildlife Refuge, eastern Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Gordon W

    2017-12-01

    The Camas National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) in eastern Idaho, established in 1937, contains wetlands, ponds, and wet meadows that are essential resting and feeding habitat for migratory birds and nesting habitat for waterfowl. Initially, natural sources of water supported these habitats. However, during the past few decades, changes in climate and surrounding land use have altered and reduced natural groundwater and surface-water inflows, resulting in a 5-meter decline in the water table and an earlier, and more frequent, occurrence of no flow in Camas Creek at the Refuge. Due to these changes in water availability, water management that includes extensive groundwater pumping is now necessary to maintain the wetlands, ponds, and wet meadows. These water management activities have proven to be inefficient and expensive, and the Refuge is seeking alternative water-management options that are more efficient and less expensive. More efficient water management at the Refuge may be possible through knowledge of the seepage rates from ditches, ponds, and lakes at the Refuge. With this knowledge, water-management efficiency may be improved by natural means through selective use of water bodies with the smallest seepage rates or through engineering efforts to minimize seepage losses from water bodies with the largest seepage rates. The U.S. Geological Survey performed field studies in 2015 and 2016 to estimate seepage rates for selected ditches, ponds, and lakes at the Refuge. Estimated seepage rates from ponds and lakes ranged over an order of magnitude, from 3.4 ± 0.2 to 103.0 ± 0.5 mm/d, with larger seepage rates calculated for Big Pond and Redhead Pond, intermediate seepage rates calculated for Two-way Pond, and smaller seepages rates calculated for the south arm of Sandhole Lake. Estimated seepage losses from two reaches of Main Diversion Ditch were 21 ± 2 and 17 ± 2 percent/km. These losses represent seepage rates of about 890 and 860 mm/d, which are one

  6. Estimated seepage rates from selected ditches, ponds, and lakes at the Camas National Wildlife Refuge, eastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Gordon W.

    2017-01-01

    The Camas National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) in eastern Idaho, established in 1937, contains wetlands, ponds, and wet meadows that are essential resting and feeding habitat for migratory birds and nesting habitat for waterfowl. Initially, natural sources of water supported these habitats. However, during the past few decades, changes in climate and surrounding land use have altered and reduced natural groundwater and surface-water inflows, resulting in a 5-meter decline in the water table and an earlier, and more frequent, occurrence of no flow in Camas Creek at the Refuge. Due to these changes in water availability, water management that includes extensive groundwater pumping is now necessary to maintain the wetlands, ponds, and wet meadows.These water management activities have proven to be inefficient and expensive, and the Refuge is seeking alternative water-management options that are more efficient and less expensive. More efficient water management at the Refuge may be possible through knowledge of the seepage rates from ditches, ponds, and lakes at the Refuge. With this knowledge, water-management efficiency may be improved by natural means through selective use of water bodies with the smallest seepage rates or through engineering efforts to minimize seepage losses from water bodies with the largest seepage rates.The U.S. Geological Survey performed field studies in 2015 and 2016 to estimate seepage rates for selected ditches, ponds, and lakes at the Refuge. Estimated seepage rates from ponds and lakes ranged over an order of magnitude, from 3.4 ± 0.2 to 103.0 ± 0.5 mm/d, with larger seepage rates calculated for Big Pond and Redhead Pond, intermediate seepage rates calculated for Two-way Pond, and smaller seepages rates calculated for the south arm of Sandhole Lake. Estimated seepage losses from two reaches of Main Diversion Ditch were 21 ± 2 and 17 ± 2 percent/km. These losses represent seepage rates of about 890 and 860 mm/d, which are one

  7. Rates and risk factors for Coccidioidomycosis among prison inmates, California, USA, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Charlotte; Lucas, Kimberley D; Mohle-Boetani, Janet C

    2015-01-01

    In California, coccidioidomycosis is a disease acquired by inhaling spores of Coccidioides immitis, a fungus found in certain arid regions, including the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA, where 8 state prisons are located. During 2011, we reviewed coccidioidomycosis rates at 2 of the prisons that consistently report >80% of California's inmate cases and determined inmate risk factors for primary, severe (defined as pulmonary coccidioidomycosis requiring >10 hospital days), and disseminated coccidioidomycosis (defined by hospital discharge International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision code). Inmates of African American ethnicity who were >40 years of age were at significantly higher risk for primary coccidioidomycosis than their white counterparts (odds ratio = 2.0, 95% CI 1.5-2.8). Diabetes was a risk factor for severe pulmonary coccidioidomycosis, and black race a risk factor for disseminated disease. These findings contributed to a court decision mandating exclusion of black inmates and inmates with diabetes from the 2 California prisons with the highest rates of coccidioidomycosis.

  8. Les dispositifs de pilotage de la performance en environnement innovant et incertain : étude comparative de huit startups

    OpenAIRE

    Meyssonnier, François

    2015-01-01

    Une étude comparative des dispositifs de pilotage de la performance dans huit startups appartenant au même écosystème montre que ces entreprises recourent d’abord au suivi de trésorerie et au compte de résultat de la comptabilité générale puis aux tableaux de bord de production ou commercial et seulement ensuite aux outils classiques du contrôle de gestion que sont les calculs de coûts, le système budgétaire et le tableau de bord de pilotage global. En environnement innovant et incertain, l’i...

  9. Eastern Denali Fault Slip Rate and Paleoseismic History, Kluane Lake Area, Yukon Territory, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, G. J.; Haeussler, P. J.; Crone, A. J.; Lipovsky, P.; Schwartz, D. P.

    2008-12-01

    In 2002, the central part of the dextral-slip Denali fault (DF) system generated a M 7.9 earthquake in central Alaska. This rupture included the section of the Denali fault with the highest measured late Pleistocene slip rate, of 12.1±1.7 mm/yr, and the Totschunda fault, with a slip rate of 6.0±1.2 mm/yr. Immediately east of the Denali-Totschunda fault juncture, the slip rate on the eastern Denali fault (EDF) decreases to 8.4±2.2 mm/yr. We present observations of Holocene fault activity on the Yukon part of the EDF (Shakwak segment), which is located about 280 km southeast of the Denali-Totschunda intersection in the vicinity of Kluane Lake. Aerial reconnaissance in 2007, from the Denali-Totschunda fault juncture to the Kluane Lake region revealed a nearly continuously identifiable fault trace, which is occasionally obscured where it is subparallel to glacial landforms. In addition to geomorphic features associated with strike-slip faults, such as shutter ridges and sag ponds, the fault is commonly expressed by a chain of elongate mounds, likely tectonic pushups, 20-70 m in length, 10-50 m wide, and locally up to 10 m high. These appear to have formed by shortening between en echelon left-stepping fault strands that developed in layered glacial sediments. At one location (61°18'30.12" N, 139°01'02.54"W) we measured on the ground a channel offset of 20-25 m. An aerial view showed that other channels in the vicinity, as well as the margins of two mounds, were offset by similar amounts. These channels likely developed after deglaciation 10-12 ka. Using this age and the offset yields a slip-rate range of 1.7-2.5 mm/yr, a minimum value but one that may be close to the actual rate. However, because of uncertainties in age relations between construction of the uplift mounds and channel incision the offset could be younger and we estimate an upper limit of about 5 mm/yr. Adjacent to and south of the Duke River, an approximately 2-km-long section of the fault is

  10. The Water Production Rate of Comet 2009 P1 (Garradd) throughout the 2011-2012 Apparition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combi, Michael R.; Mäkinen, J. T. T.; Bertaux, J.; Quémerais, E.; Ferron, S.

    2012-10-01

    The all-sky hydrogen Lyman-alpha camera, SWAN (Solar Wind Anisotropies), on the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite made observations of the hydrogen coma of comet 2009 P1 (Garradd) throughout its apparition from August 15, 2011 through April 6, 2012. SOHO has been operating in a halo orbit around the Earth-Sun L1 Lagrange point since its launch in late 1995. Most water vapor produced by the comet is ultimately photodissociated into two H atoms and one O atom producing a huge atomic hydrogen coma that is routinely observed in the daily full-sky SWAN images in comets of sufficient brightness. Water production rates were calculated from 117 images over 8 months of the apparition using our time-resolved model (Mäkinen & Combi, 2005, Icarus 177, 217), yielding about 1 observation every 2 days on the average. The activity during much of the pre-perihelion leg was dominated by likely seasonal variability rather than a consistent increasing trend with decreasing heliocentric distance and varied between 1 and 3 x 1029 s-1. A single peak value for the water production rate (4 x 1029 s-1) was found on November 3, 2011, 50 days before perihelion. On the other hand during the post-perihelion leg the production rate decreased rather consistently from 2 x 1029 s-1at perihelion, approximately as r-4.6, where r is the heliocentric distance. The overall shape of the variation with time over the apparition shows many of the same general features as the visual light curve of Yoshida (http://www.aerith.net/comet/catalog/index-T-earth.html). SOHO is an international cooperative mission between ESA and NASA. Support from grant NNX11AH50G from the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program is also acknowledged.

  11. Recent (circa 1998 to 2011) channel-migration rates of selected streams in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Bret A.

    2013-01-01

    An investigation was completed to document recent (circa 1998 to 2011) channel-migration rates at 970 meander bends along 38 of the largest streams in Indiana. Data collection was completed by using the Google Earth™ platform and, for each selected site, identifying two images with capture dates separated by multiple years. Within each image, the position of the meander-bend cutbank was measured relative to a fixed local landscape feature visible in both images, and an average channel-migration rate was calculated at the point of maximum cutbank displacement. From these data it was determined that 65 percent of the measured sites have recently been migrating at a rate less than 1 ft/yr, 75 percent of the sites have been migrating at a rate less than 10 ft/yr, and while some sites are migrating in excess of 20 ft/yr, these occurrences are rare. In addition, it is shown that recent channel-migration activity is not evenly distributed across Indiana. For the stream reaches studied, far northern and much of far southern Indiana are drained by streams that recently have been relatively stationary. At the same time, this study shows that most of the largest streams in west-central Indiana and many of the largest streams in east-central Indiana have shown significant channel-migration activity during the recent past. It is anticipated that these results will support several fluvial-erosion-hazard mitigation activities currently being undertaken in Indiana.

  12. Impact of space weather on human heart rate during the years 2011-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galata, E.; Ioannidou, S.; Papailiou, M.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Paravolidakis, K.; Kouremeti, M.; Rentifis, L.; Simantirakis, E.; Trachanas, K.

    2017-08-01

    During the last years a possible link between different levels of solar and geomagnetic disturbances and human physiological parameters is suggested by several published studies. In this work the examination of the potential association between heart rate variations and specific space weather activities was performed. A total of 482 individuals treated at Hippocratio General Hospital in Athens, the Cardiology clinics of Nikaia General Hospital in Piraeus and the Heraklion University Hospital in Crete, Greece, were assessed from July 2011 to April 2013. The heart rate of the individuals was recorded by a Holter monitor on a n hourly basis, while the hourly variations of the cosmic ray intensity measured by the Neutron Monitor Station of the Athens University and of the geomagnetic index Dst provided by the Kyoto Observatory were used. The ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA) and the Multiple Linear Regression analysis were used for analysis of these data. A statistically significant effect of both cosmic rays and geomagnetic activity on heart rate was observed, which may indicate that changes in space weather could be linked to heart rate variations.

  13. Stomach cancer incidence rates among Americans, Asian Americans and Native Asians from 1988 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeerae; Park, Jinju; Nam, Byung-Ho; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Eastern Asia, accounting for approximately 50% of all new cases of stomach cancer worldwide. Our objective was to compare the stomach cancer incidence rates of Asian Americans in Los Angeles with those of native Asians to assess the etiology of stomach cancer from 1988 to 2011. To examine these differences, Asian Americans (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans living in Los Angeles, California, USA) and native Asians (from Korea, Japan, China, and the Philippines) were selected for this study. Using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents database, stomach cancer incidence rates were examined. Data from the National Cancer Registry of Korea were used for native Koreans. Between native countries, the incidence rates in Japan, China, the Philippines, and the US declined over time, but the incidence in Korea has remained constant. The incidences among Asian immigrants were lower than those among native Asians. The incidence rates of males were approximately 2 times higher than those among females in Asian countries were. The effect of immigration on stomach cancer incidence suggests that lifestyle factors are a significant determinant of stomach cancer risk. However, the incidence in Korea remains the highest of these countries.

  14. Micrometeorological Measurements of Air-Surface Exchange Rates of PBTs in the Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, D. E.; Perlinger, J. A.; Morrow, P.

    2002-12-01

    The fate of persistent bioaccumulative toxic chemicals (PBTs) in the environment is controlled by their exchange with various aquatic and terrestrial surfaces. Many of the PBTs are semivolatile and present in the atmosphere almost entirely in the vapor phase. The rate of exchange of these vapor phase chemicals can be predicted from physicochemical properties of the chemical and the surface and the meteorological conditions during the exchange. However, field studies of the uptake of the PBTs are extremely limited or nonexistent making it difficult to evaluate the modeled transfer velocities. This presentation describes a novel method to directly measure air-surface exchange rates of PBTs above aquatic and terrestrial surfaces by the micrometeorological technique known as the modified Bowen ratio approach. Simultaneous measurements of the air temperature, water vapor content, windspeed, and the chemical species concentration at two heights above the surface are required to derive the transfer velocity of the chemical. Advanced techniques that minimize the number of sample preparation steps are required to make the two concentration measurements with adequate relative accuracy. To accomplish this task, ambient air is sampled with a multicapillary column and the analytes are directly desorbed into a high-resolution gas chromatograph for quantitation. This presentation will summarize preliminary measurements made in the near-shore region of Upper Michigan's Keweenaw Peninsula on Lake Superior during the summer of 2001 and 2002.

  15. Inflow rate-driven changes in the composition and dynamics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in a large drinking water lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongqiang; Zhang, Yunlin; Jeppesen, Erik; Murphy, Kathleen R; Shi, Kun; Liu, Mingliang; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhu, Guangwei

    2016-09-01

    Drinking water lakes are threatened globally and therefore in need of protection. To date, few studies have been carried out to investigate how the composition and dynamics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in drinking water lakes are influenced by inflow rate. Such CDOM can lead to unpleasant taste and odor of the water and produce undesirable disinfection byproducts during drinking water treatment. We studied the drinking water Lake Qiandao, China, and found that the concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the lake increased significantly with inflow rate (p water safety and requires higher removal efficiency of CDOM during drinking water treatment processes.

  16. Water‐Data Report 393619093074801 YELLOW CREEK NR MENDON MO, HWY CC ON SWAN LAKE NWR-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 39036’19”N, long. 9307’48”W near Swan Lake NWR, 23.5 miles southeast of Chillicothe, MO, in Charlton County. Gage is mounted 9 feet off the ground on...

  17. Modern (1992–2011) and projected (2012–99) peak snowpack and May–July runoff for the Fort Peck Lake and Lake Sakakawea watersheds in the Upper Missouri River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, John F.; Todey, Dennis; Mayes Bousted, Barbara; Rossi, Shawn; Norton, Parker A.; Carter, Janet M.

    2016-02-09

    Mountain snowpack is an important contributor to runoff in the Upper Missouri River Basin; for example, high amounts of winter and spring precipitation in the mountains and plains in 2010–11 were associated with the peak runoff of record in 2011 in the Upper Missouri River Basin. To project trends in peak mountain snowpack and runoff in the upcoming decades, multiple linear regression models of peak mountain snowpack and total May–July runoff were developed for the Fort Peck Lake (above Fort Peck Dam) and lower Lake Sakakawea watersheds (between Fort Peck and Garrison Dams) in the Upper Missouri River Basin. Input to regression models included seasonal estimates of precipitation, air temperature, and total reference evapotranspiration stratified by elevation. Calibration was based on records from 107 weather stations from 1991 to 2011. Regressed annual peak mountain snowpack was used as input to the transfer function of May–July runoff. Peak snowpack and May–July runoff were projected for 2012–99 on the basis of air temperature and precipitation from the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) output. Two estimates of projected peak snowpack and May–July runoff for 2012–99 were computed: one estimate was based on output from the CCSM, version 3.0 (CCSM3), and the second estimate was based on output from the CCSM, version 4.0 (CCSM4). The significance of projected trends was based on the Kendall’s tau nonparametric test.

  18. Estimates of sediment trapping rates for two reservoirs in the Lake Erie watershed: Past and present scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alighalehbabakhani, Fatemeh; Miller, Carol J.; Selegean, James P.; Barkach, John; Sadatiyan Abkenar, Seyed Mohsen; Dahl, Travis; Baskaran, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Sediment accumulation can significantly impact the useful life of dams and the multiple functions served by those dams such as flood attenuation, hydropower, and water supply. However, there is only limited information, and even fewer physical measurements, assessing the rate of sediment accumulation in reservoirs behind dams. Many of the dams within the Great Lakes Watershed were constructed between 100 and 120 years ago, and there is reasonable concern that these dams and their associated reservoirs may be reaching capacity with respect to sediment storage. As a reservoir reaches its sediment storage capacity, there are numerous risks. Excess sediment can compromise the water intake for supply systems. Dam failure or removal can potentially allow large quantities of impounded sediment to migrate downstream, negatively impacting fish habitat and water quality. This research investigates the historical function of dams as sediment storage points. Also, this research assesses the effect of anthropogenic influences including land use change and dam construction on sediment yield and accumulation within the Lake Rockwell and Ballville Dam watershed. To better understand the historical and current sediment yield within the Lake Erie watershed, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) models of the Lake Rockwell and Ballville Dam watersheds were developed. The resulting model suggests that the average of sediment accumulation rate within Lake Rockwell Dam reservoir varies between the minimum of 1.6 and the maximum of 4.6 g/cm2/yr from 1988 to 2007. Within the Ballville Dam reservoir, the rate varies between the minimum of 2.6 and the maximum of 23.2 g/cm2/yr from 1980 to 1999.

  19. Examining the Relationships between Outsourcing and Downsizing to Mishap Rates at NASA (FYs 1985-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Sterlin Neil

    Outsourcing and downsizing practices within American businesses have been topics of investigation over the past four decades. With the intention of saving diminishing resources, many North American aerospace and governmental organizations have embraced both practices. During the 1990s the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) increased contractor outsourcing and reduced the civil servant population in response to mandated federal budget cuts. Major human capital adjustments were made within NASA as management elected to place the shuttle's operations under a single contract. The problem addressed is increased outsourcing and downsizing has been associated with reduced safety outcomes. The purpose of this quantitative archival study was to examine the relationships of outsourcing and downsizing to mishaps rates at NASA between fiscal year (FY) 1985 and FY 2011. Twenty-seven samples of outsourcing and downsizing data were examined to determine the relationships with high-severity mishaps (HSMs), moderate-severity mishaps (MSMs), and low-severity mishaps (LSMs). A quantitative design utilizing weighted least squares (WLS) regression analysis measured the relationships between predictor and outcome variables. Neither outsourcing nor downsizing predicted HSM rates, adjusted R2 = .32, F (3, 23) = 5.01, p = .53 (outsourcing); adjusted R2 = .49, F (3, 23) = 9.34, p = .41 (downsizing). Both outsourcing and downsizing predicted MSM rates, adjusted R2 = .21, F (3, 23) = 3.24, p = .006 (outsourcing); adjusted R2 = .49, F (3, 23) = 9.55, p = outsourcing); adjusted R2 = .89, F (3, 23) = 68.99, p = outsourcing and downsizing variables, and additional covariates. The added variables would offer a more convincing model for analyzing the impact of outsourcing and downsizing on mishaps. All-in-all, the efficacy of outsourcing and downsizing as a combined practice and its relationship to safety needs.

  20. Part task investigation of multispectral image fusion using gray scale and synthetic color night-vision sensor imagery for helicopter pilotage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Paul M.; Perconti, Philip

    1997-06-01

    Today, night vision sensor and display systems used in the pilotage or navigation of military helicopters are either long wave IR thermal sensors (8 - 12 microns) or image intensified, visible and near IR (0.6 - 0.9 microns), sensors. The sensor imagery is displayed using a monochrome phosphor on a Cathode Ray Tube or night vision goggle. Currently, there is no fielded capability to combine the best attributes of the emissive radiation sensed by the thermal sensor and the reflected radiation sensed by the image intensified sensor into a single fused image. However, recent advances in signal processing have permitted the real time image fusion and display of multispectral sensors in either monochrome or synthetic chromatic form. The merits of such signal processing is explored. A part task simulation using a desktop computer, video playback unit, and a biocular head mounted display was conducted. Response time and accuracy measures of test subject responses to visual perception tasks were taken. Subjective ratings were collected to determine levels of pilot acceptance. In general, fusion based formats resulted in better subject performance. The benefits of integrating synthetic color to fused imagery, however, is dependent on the color algorithm used, the visual task performed, and scene content.

  1. Mirror Lake salmon growth rate - Lower Columbia River Restoration Action Effectiveness Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to measure changes in juvenile salmon habitat occurrence and health following restoration activities at the Mirror Lake Complex and...

  2. 75 FR 47258 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ...-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the Secretary..., as well as, refined and specialty sugar Tariff-Rate Quotas (TRQ) as required under the U.S. World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments. The FY 2011 raw cane sugar TRQ is established at 1,117,195 metric...

  3. 76 FR 46267 - Increase in Fiscal Year 2011 Specialty Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota; Determination of Total Amounts of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ..., 2012. The second, third, fourth, and fifth tranches will be reserved for organic sugar and other... Office of the Secretary Increase in Fiscal Year 2011 Specialty Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota; Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups...

  4. Concentrations, loads, and yields of total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and suspended sediment and bacteria concentrations in the Wister Lake Basin, Oklahoma and Arkansas, 2011-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Stephanie D.

    2014-01-01

    The Poteau Valley Improvement Authority uses Wister Lake in southeastern Oklahoma as a public water supply. Total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and suspended sediments from agricultural runoff and discharges from wastewater treatment plants and other sources have degraded water quality in the lake. As lake-water quality has degraded, water-treatment cost, chemical usage, and sludge production have increased for the Poteau Valley Improvement Authority. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Poteau Valley Improvement Authority, investigated and summarized concentrations of total phosphorus, total nitrogen, suspended sediment, and bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus sp.) in surface water flowing to Wister Lake. Estimates of total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and suspended sediment loads, yields, and flow-weighted mean concentrations of total phosphorus and total nitrogen concentrations were made for the Wister Lake Basin for a 3-year period from October 2010 through September 2013. Data from water samples collected at fixed time increments during base-flow conditions and during runoff conditions at the Poteau River at Loving, Okla. (USGS station 07247015), the Poteau River near Heavener, Okla. (USGS station 07247350), and the Fourche Maline near Leflore, Okla. (USGS station 07247650), water-quality stations were used to evaluate water quality over the range of streamflows in the basin. These data also were collected to estimate annual constituent loads and yields by using regression models. At the Poteau River stations, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and suspended sediment concentrations in surface-water samples were significantly larger in samples collected during runoff conditions than in samples collected during base-flow conditions. At the Fourche Maline station, in contrast, concentrations of these constituents in water samples collected during runoff conditions were not significantly larger than concentrations during base

  5. Visual cues in low-level flight - Implications for pilotage, training, simulation, and enhanced/synthetic vision systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyle, David C.; Kaiser, Mary K.; Johnson, Walter W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the sources of visual information that are available in the out-the-window scene and describes how these visual cues are important for routine pilotage and training, as well as the development of simulator visual systems and enhanced or synthetic vision systems for aircraft cockpits. It is shown how these visual cues may change or disappear under environmental or sensor conditions, and how the visual scene can be augmented by advanced displays to capitalize on the pilot's excellent ability to extract visual information from the visual scene.

  6. Sea lamprey mark type, wounding rate, and parasite-host preference and abundance relationships for lake trout and other species in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantry, Brian F.; Adams, Jean; Christie, Gavin; Schaner, Teodore; Bowlby, James; Keir, Michael; Lantry, Jana; Sullivan, Paul; Bishop, Daniel; Treska, Ted; Morrison, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We examined how attack frequency by sea lampreys on fishes in Lake Ontario varied in response to sea lamprey abundance and preferred host abundance (lake trout > 433 mm). For this analysis we used two gill net assessment surveys, one angler creel survey, three salmonid spawning run datasets, one adult sea lamprey assessment, and a bottom trawl assessment of dead lake trout. The frequency of fresh sea lamprey marks observed on lake trout from assessment surveys was strongly related to the frequency of sea lamprey attacks observed on salmon and trout from the creel survey and spawning migrations. Attack frequencies on all salmonids examined were related to the ratio between the abundances of adult sea lampreys and lake trout. Reanalysis of the susceptibility to sea lamprey attack for lake trout strains stocked into Lake Ontario reaffirmed that Lake Superior strain lake trout were among the most and Seneca Lake strain among the least susceptible and that Lewis Lake strain lake trout were even more susceptible than the Superior strain. Seasonal attack frequencies indicated that as the number of observed sea lamprey attacks decreased during June–September, the ratio of healing to fresh marks also decreased. Simulation of the ratios of healing to fresh marks indicated that increased lethality of attacks by growing sea lampreys contributed to the decline in the ratios and supported laboratory studies about wound healing duration.

  7. Regional variation in suicide rates in Sri Lanka between 1955 and 2011: a spatial and temporal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipe, Duleeka W; Padmanathan, Prianka; Muthuwatta, Lal; Metcalfe, Chris; Gunnell, David

    2017-02-14

    Between 1955 and 2011 there were marked fluctuations in suicide rates in Sri Lanka; incidence increased six-fold between 1955 and the 1980s, and halved in the early 21st century. Changes in access to highly toxic pesticides are thought to have influenced this pattern. This study investigates variation in suicide rates across Sri Lanka's 25 districts between 1955 and 2011. We hypothesised that changes in the incidence of suicide would be most marked in rural areas due to the variation in availability of highly toxic pesticides in these locations during this time period. We mapped district-level suicide rates in 1955, 1972, 1980 and 2011. These periods preceded, included and postdated the rapid rise in Sri Lanka's suicide rates. We investigated the associations between district-level variations in suicide rates and census-derived measures of rurality (population density), unemployment, migration and ethnicity using Spearman's rank correlation and negative binomial models. The rise and fall in suicide rates was concentrated in more rural areas. In 1980, when suicide rates were at their highest, population density was inversely associated with area variation in suicide rates (r = -0.65; p suicides (r = -0.10; p = 0.697). There was no strong evidence that levels of migration or ethnicity were associated with area variations in suicide rates. The relative rates of suicide in the most rural compared to the most urban districts before (1955), during (1980) and after (2011) the rise in highly toxic pesticide availability were 1.1 (95% CI 0.5 to 2.4), 3.7 (2.0 to 6.9) and 2.1 (1.6 to 2.7) respectively. The findings provide some support for the hypothesis that changes in access to pesticides contributed to the marked fluctuations in Sri Lanka's suicide rate, but the impact of other factors cannot be ruled out.

  8. A comprehensive list and photographic collection of the vascular flora of Caddo Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Texas, March 2011-March 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, Larry

    2014-01-01

    A floristics inventory was conducted to identify and photograph the vascular plants occurring at Caddo Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Texas, from March 2011 to March 2012 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This research resulted in the identification of 511 taxa of vascular plants representing 111 families and 317 genera. Despite the degree of development of the refuge at the time it was transferred to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, plant diversity was high. Of the 511 species identified in this study, 346 species are new records for Harrison County, and 3 species are new discoveries for Texas. Caddo Lake NWR is primarily forested with 55 tree species and 35 shrub species identified in this study. Of the species identified, 289 are associated with wetlands having a wetland classification of facultative or wetter, possibly reflecting the proximity of Caddo Lake to the refuge and the three streams that intersect the refuge. Sixty-two of the species found on the refuge are introduced. Chinese tallow tree (Triadica sebifera) is one of the more common invasive tree species on the refuge and is actively controlled by refuge staff. Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense), sacred bamboo (Nandina domestica), and King’s Ranch bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica) are present on the refuge and have the potential to become invasive. More than 10,000 photographs were taken of the plants found on the refuge in an effort to document general appearance and capture diagnostic characters of each plant species. Photographs were also taken of many of the animals and landscapes encountered during the project. Select images of each of the plants and animals are included in the collection of more than 1,600 photographs (all photographs by Larry Allain).

  9. 2016 Lake Michigan Lake Trout Working Group Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Breidert, Brian; Boyarski, David; Bronte, Charles R.; Dickinson, Ben; Donner, Kevin; Ebener, Mark P.; Gordon, Roger; Hanson, Dale; Holey, Mark; Janssen, John; Jonas, Jory; Kornis, Matthew; Olsen, Erik; Robillard, Steve; Treska, Ted; Weldon, Barry; Wright, Greg D.

    2017-01-01

    This report provides a review on the progression of lake trout rehabilitation towards meeting the Salmonine Fish Community Objectives (FCOs) for Lake Michigan (Eshenroder et. al. 1995) and the interim goal and evaluation objectives articulated in A Fisheries Management Implementation Strategy for the Rehabilitation of Lake Trout in Lake Michigan (Dexter et al. 2011); we also include data describing lake trout stocking and mortality to portray the present state of progress towards lake trout rehabilitation.

  10. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES...

  11. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising the...

  12. Prediction of Trend between Water Environment Pollution of D Lake and Death Rate of Malignancy in Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李龙; 吴春松

    2003-01-01

    Grey system analysis method was used to study the correlation between water pollution in D Lake area and death rate of malignancy with death rate of malignancy as effect sequence and a variety of water pollution index as factor sequence. On the basis of grey correlation analysis, grey system predication model was established for death rate of malignancy in population in D Lake area including GM(1.N) model for death rate of malignancy [ MR(t+1) = (9.9987E1 ± 5. 0001E2 + 10.8994E3+1. 1114E4+165.1029) · e-0.0070t -9. 9987E1 - 5. 0001E2 - 10. 8994E3 - 1. 1114E4] and GM(1,1) model for related factors [ E1(t+1) =52. 1214-46. 9468e -0. 0058t, E2(t+1)=4. 6114-4.5664e0.0015t, E3(t+1)=1.1389-1. 1212e0.0065t, E4(t+1 = 554. 5867-549. 8006e0.0016t], and the trend of death rate of malignancy from 2000 to 2010 was predicted.

  13. Interactions between hatch dates, growth rates, and mortality of Age-0 native Rainbow Smelt and nonnative Alewife in Lake Champlain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Donna; Simonin, Paul W.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Pientka, Bernard; Sullivan, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Timing of hatch in fish populations can be critical for first-year survival and, therefore, year-class strength and subsequent species interactions. We compared hatch timing, growth rates, and subsequent mortality of age-0 Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax and Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, two common open-water fish species of northern North America. In our study site, Lake Champlain, Rainbow Smelt hatched (beginning May 26) almost a month earlier than Alewives (June 20). Abundance in the sampling area was highest in July for age-0 Rainbow Smelt and August for age-0 Alewives. Late-hatching individuals of both species grew faster than those hatching earlier (0.6 mm/d versus 0.4 for Rainbow Smelt; 0.7 mm/d versus 0.6 for Alewives). Mean mortality rate during the first 45 d of life was 3.4%/d for age-0 Rainbow Smelt and was 5.5%/d for age-0 Alewives. Alewife mortality rates did not differ with hatch timing but daily mortality rates of Rainbow Smelt were highest for early-hatching fish. Cannibalism is probably the primary mortality source for age-0 Rainbow Smelt in this lake. Therefore, hatching earlier may not be advantageous because the overlap of adult and age-0 Rainbow Smelt is highest earlier in the season. However, Alewives, first documented in Lake Champlain in 2003, may increase the mortality of age-0 Rainbow Smelt in the summer, which should favor selection for earlier hatching.

  14. Hysterectomy in Denmark 1977-2011: Changes in rate, indications, and hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Rune; Blaakær, J.; Ottesen, B.

    2013-01-01

    . The indication of pelvic organ prolapse and abnormal uterine bleeding increased while the indication of fibroids decreased. The average age of women at time of hysterectomy increased from 46 years in 1977-1981 to 50 years in 2006-2011. The mean number of hospitalization days was reduced by 75%. Regional...

  15. Changes in Rates of Shore Retreat, Lake Michigan, 1967-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    D.C., Apr. 1946. BERG, D.W., "Factors Affecting Beach Nourishment at Presque Isle Peninsula, Erie , Pennsylvania ," Proceedings of the Ninth Conference on...concern the behavior of beach fill at Presque Isle Peninsula on Lake Erie . Guidelines for moni- toring the effect of shore protection works in the Great...NTIS AD 631 520). BERG, D.W., and DUANE, D.B., "Effects of Particle Size and Distribution on Stability of Artificially Filled Beach, Presque Isle

  16. Holocene denudation rates from the superhumid southernmost Chilean Patagonian Andes (53°S) deduced from lake sediment budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Sonja; Kilian, Rolf; Baeza, Oscar; Lamy, Frank; Arz, Helge

    2013-04-01

    Holocene denudation rates and their regional variations in the superhumid and temperate climate of the southernmost Patagonian Andes are poorly surveyed. Therefore we have investigated denudation in five small lake catchments (0.11-1.62 km2) across a precipitation gradient from 600 to > 9000 mm yr- 1 in southernmost Chile at 53°S. Variations in denudation rates can be defined most precisely by using small catchments and short time spans (Holocene) thus can be related to variable bedrock types, vegetation cover, elevation, and climate. Minimum physical denudation rates were determined from sediment budgets based on sediment echosounder data and physical properties of sediment cores. The Holocene denudation rates vary from 0.08 mm kyr- 1 in the highly elevated, bare granitic rock catchments to 9.01 mm kyr- 1 in the low and vegetated catchments with a basement of sedimentary rocks. These values are comparable with those from similar areas in Norway, Sweden, and NW Iceland. The high annual precipitation in the study area has only a minor effect on denudation. Enhanced geomorphic activity during paraglacial conditions caused a faster denudation after the glacier retreat until either the clastic, glacial detritus was removed or the catchment was covered with vegetation. Chemical comparisons between basement rocks and lake sediments indicate a pronounced chemical denudation in catchments with peaty soils and low soil water pH values of 3 to 5. The Holocene surface lowering rates are on average 200 fold lower than Cenozoic surface lowering rates calculated from fission-track data for the southern Andes. This discrepancy can be explained by significantly higher erosion rates during glacial periods.

  17. 75 FR 79308 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 219 Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random... rail industry random testing positive rates were .037 percent for drugs and .014 percent for alcohol. Because the industry-wide random drug testing positive rate has remained below 1.0 percent for the last...

  18. Report on the behalf of the Finance, General Economy and Budgetary Control Commission on the Finance bill for 2011 (n. 2824), appendix N. 13: ecology, sustainable development and land planning, hazard prevention, management and steering of ecology, energy, sustainable development, land planning and sea policies; Rapport fait au nom de la Commission des Finances, de L'economie Generale et du Controle Budgetaire sur le projet de loi de finances pour 2011 (n. 2824), annexe N. 13 ecologie, developpement et amenagement durables prevention des risques conduite et pilotage des politiques de l'ecologie, de l'energie, du developpement durable et de la mer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This report comments the grants awarded to two programmes, the first one concerning the prevention of hazards, and the second concerning the management and steering of ecology, energy, sustainable development, land planning and sea policies. These two programmes are emblematic of the French government's action and ambition in the field of sustainable development and ecology. For the first one, the report comments the evolution of grants, their objectives and performance indicators. Then it addresses its various aspects: prevention of technological hazards and pollutions, prevention of natural and hydraulic hazards, nuclear safety, after-mine management. For the second programme, the report gives an assessment of the ministry reorganization, and comments the means requested for 2011

  19. Stay Rates of Foreign Doctorate Recipients from U.S. Universities, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finn, Michael G. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-01-02

    This report provides estimates of stay rates for foreign students who received doctorates in science or engineering (S/E) from U.S. universities. For this paper, the stay rate represents the proportion of foreign doctorate recipients from U.S. universities who stayed in the United States after graduation for any reason and is always specific to a particular year. Each line in the tables that follow describes a different group of these degree recipients.

  20. Mercury accumulation rates in Caço Lake, NE Brazil during the past 20.000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacerda, Luiz Drude; Turcq, Bruno; Sifeddine, Abdel; Cordeiro, Renato Campello

    2017-08-01

    Total Hg, TC, TN, goethite and siderite distributions in sediment cores from two locations across Caçó Lake (Brazil) identified paleoclimate factors that had affected the Hg deposition in this shallow tropical lake and its relationship with past climate and basin processes. Concentrations and fluxes of Hg were maximum in the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), with averages of 397 ng g-1 and 24.3 μg m-2 yr-1, respectively, decreasing during the Heinrich Stadial 1 (H1) and further during the Meltwater pulse 1A (MWP-1A). The higher values during LGM and H1 were strongly associated with dust deposition as observed in Greenland ice cores. After a period of lower values, there was a significant increase of concentrations and fluxes during the Younger Dryas (193 ng g-1 and 4.1 μg m-2 yr-1), still associated in part with dust deposition but also being influenced by the high volcanic activity of this period. Concentrations and fluxes decreased again to the lowest values during the Holocene from about 9500 to 2000 cal yr BP (114 ng g-1 and 1.25 μg m-2 yr-1). Analyses of 210Pb dated shorter cores shows increasing Hg accumulation rates during the past century, larger than in other period in the past but could not evidence the influence of colonial gold mining as suggested by earlier studies.

  1. 75 FR 45636 - Animal Generic Drug User Fee Rates and Payment Procedures for Fiscal Year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Animal Generic Drug User Fee Rates and Payment Procedures... generic new animal drug user fees. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act), as amended by the Animal Generic Drug User Fee Act of 2008 (AGDUFA), authorizes FDA to collect user fees for...

  2. Incidence Rates of Deliberate Self-Harm in Denmark 1994-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter Morthorst, Britt; Soegaard, Bodil; Nordentoft, Merete

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The validity and reliability of suicide statistics have been questioned and few nationwide studies of deliberate self-harm have been presented. AIM: To calculate rates of deliberate self-harm in Denmark in order to investigate trends and assess the reliability of hospital records. MET...

  3. Blood glucose screening rates among Minnesota adults with hypertension, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney, Renée S M; Peacock, James M; Smith, Steven A

    2014-11-26

    Many US adults have multiple chronic conditions, and hypertension and diabetes are among the most common dyads. Diabetes and prediabetes prevalence are increasing, and both conditions negatively affect cardiovascular health. Early diagnosis and treatment of diabetes and prediabetes can benefit people with hypertension by preventing cardiovascular complications. We analyzed 2011 Minnesota Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to describe the proportion of adults with hypertension screened for diabetes according to US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations for blood glucose testing. Covariates associated with lower odds of recent screening among adults without diabetes were determined using weighted logistic regression. Of Minnesota adults with self-reported hypertension, 19.6% had a diagnosis of diabetes and 10.7% had a diagnosis of prediabetes. Nearly one-third of adults with hypertension without diabetes had not received blood glucose screening in the past 3 years. Factors associated with greater odds of not being screened in multivariable models included being aged 18 to 44 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-2.55); being nonobese, with stronger effects for normal body mass index; having no check-up in the past 2 years (AOR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.49-4.17); having hypertension treated with medication (AOR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.49-2.71); and completing less than a college degree (AOR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.14-1.84). Excluding respondents with prediabetes or those not receiving a check-up did not change the results. Failure to screen among providers and failure to understand the importance of screening among individuals with hypertension may mean missed opportunities for early detection, clinical management, and prevention of diabetes.

  4. Value at risk using financial copulas: Application to the Mexican exchange rate (2002-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Nadiezhda Plascencia Cuevas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the volatility of exchange rate is a crucial and a transcendental issue for all transactions, negotiations and operations taking place in foreign currency, being an objective and an accurate prediction the cornerstone. Therefore, the main objective of this research is to analyze whether the Mexican exchange rate market, risk assessment using traditional VaR and VaR with copulas methodologies are more accurate when the estimates are made for a wide historical time-series or two periods for certain, helping it to predict the maximum losses that may be, with the main motivation to have a efficient hedging strategy. The principal conclusion is that assessing risk with these methodologies, the series does not necessarily have to include more than five years, considering that the use of copulas as a dependent measure make that the prediction fits better to the movements of the real returns.

  5. Cyst acquisition rate for Giardia lamblia in backcountry travelers to Desolation Wilderness, Lake Tahoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, S.C.; Sorenson, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of Giardia lamblia acquisition in back-country travelers to a wilderness area, provide longitudinal follow-up on the incidence of symptomatic gastrointestinal illness and relate such information to concentrations of Giardia cysts in water samples from a high-use area. A prospective cohort non-interventional study of 41 healthy adult backcountry travelers from age 19 to 71 years in Desolation Wilderness, Lake Tahoe Basin was carried out. The incidence of Giardia cyst acquisition in backcountry travelers was only 5.7% (95% CI 0.17–20.2%). Mild, self-limiting gastrointestinal illness occurred in 16.7% of subjects (95% CI 4.9%–34.50%), none of whom demonstrated G. lamblia infection. Water sampling from three popular stream sites revealed cyst contamination to be generally at low levels with cyst concentrations in the single digit range for every 100 gallons filtered. G. lamblia contamination of water occurs, but at low levels. Acquisition of this parasite may be infrequent in backcountry recreationalists. Symptomatic gastrointestinal illness following wilderness travel can be due to other etiologies. Our findings may not be representative of all wilderness areas, but suggest that in the absence of documented G. lamblia infection, persons symptomatic following travel may suffer a self-limiting gastrointestinal illness. In such circumstances, empiric therapy for giardiasis is tempting but difficult to justify.

  6. Refining fault slip rates using multiple displaced terrace risers—An example from the Honey Lake fault, NE California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ryan D.; Briggs, Richard; Crone, Anthony J.; Duross, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Faulted terrace risers are semi-planar features commonly used to constrain Quaternary slip rates along strike-slip faults. These landforms are difficult to date directly and therefore their ages are commonly bracketed by age estimates of the adjacent upper and lower terrace surfaces. However, substantial differences in the ages of the upper and lower terrace surfaces (a factor of 2.4 difference observed globally) produce large uncertainties in the slip-rate estimate. In this investigation, we explore how the full range of displacements and bounding ages from multiple faulted terrace risers can be combined to yield a more accurate fault slip rate. We use 0.25-m cell size digital terrain models derived from airborne lidar data to analyze three sites where terrace risers are offset right-laterally by the Honey Lake fault in NE California, USA. We use ages for locally extensive subhorizontal surfaces to bracket the time of riser formation: an upper surface is the bed of abandoned Lake Lahontan having an age of 15.8 ± 0.6 ka and a lower surface is a fluvial terrace abandoned at 4.7 ± 0.1 ka. We estimate lateral offsets of the risers ranging between 6.6 and 28.3 m (median values), a greater than fourfold difference in values. The amount of offset corresponds to the riser's position relative to modern stream meanders: the smallest offset is in a meander cutbank position, whereas the larger offsets are in straight channel or meander point-bar positions. Taken in isolation, the individual terrace-riser offsets yield slip rates ranging from 0.3 to 7.1 mm/a. However, when the offset values are collectively assessed in a probabilistic framework, we find that a uniform (linear) slip rate of 1.6 mm/a (1.4–1.9 mm/a at 95% confidence) can satisfy the data, within their respective uncertainties. This investigation demonstrates that integrating observations of multiple offset elements (crest, midpoint, and base) from numerous faulted and dated terrace risers at closely spaced

  7. Economic optimal nitrogen application rates for rice cropping in the Taihu Lake region of China: taking account of negative externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Xia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen application rates (NARs is often overestimated over the rice (Oryza sativa L. growing season in the Taihu Lake region of China. This is largely because only individual nitrogen (N losses are taken into account, or the inventory flows of reactive N have been limited solely to the farming process when evaluating environmental and economic effects of N fertilizer. Since N can permeate the ecosystem in numerous forms commencing from the acquisition of raw material, through manufacturing and use, to final losses in the farming process (e.g., N2O, NH3, NO3 leaching, etc., the costs incurred also accumulate and should be taken into account if economically-optimal N rates (EONRs are to be established. This study integrates important material and energy flows resulting from N use into a rice agricultural inventory that constitutes the hub of the life-cycle assessment (LCA method. An economic evaluation is used to determine an environmental and economic NAR for the Taihu Lake region. The analysis reveals that production and exploitation processes consume the largest proportion of resources, accounting for 77.2 % and 22.3 % of total resources, respectively. Regarding environmental impact, global warming creates the highest cost with contributions stemming mostly from fertilizer production and raw material exploitation processes. Farming process incurs the biggest environmental impact of the three environmental impact categories considered, whereas transportation has a much smaller effect. When taking account of resource consumption and environmental cost, the marginal benefit of 1 kg rice would decrease from 2.4 to only 1.01 yuan. Accordingly, our current EONR has been evaluated at 185 kg N ha−1 for a single rice-growing season. This could enhance profitability, as well as reduce the N losses associated with rice growing.

  8. Occurrence and origin of Escherichia coli in water and sediments at two public swimming beaches at Lake of the Ozarks State Park, Camden County, Missouri, 2011-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jordan L.; Schumacher, John G.; Burken, Joel G.

    2014-01-01

    In the past several years, the Missouri Department of Natural Resources has closed two popular public beaches, Grand Glaize Beach and Public Beach 1, at Lake of the Ozarks State Park in Osage Beach, Missouri when monitoring results exceeded the established Escherichia coli (E. coli) standard. As a result of the beach closures, the U.S. Geological Survey and Missouri University of Science and Technology, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, led an investigation into the occurrence and origins of E. coli at Grand Glaize Beach and Public Beach 1. The study included the collection of more than 1,300 water, sediment, and fecal source samples between August 2011 and February 2013 from the two beaches and vicinity. Spatial and temporal patterns of E. coli concentrations in water and sediments combined with measurements of environmental variables, beach-use patterns, and Missouri Department of Natural Resources water-tracing results were used to identify possible sources of E. coli contamination at the two beaches and to corroborate microbial source tracking (MST) sampling efforts. Results from a 2011 reconnaissance sampling indicate that water samples from Grand Glaize Beach cove contained significantly larger E. coli concentrations than adjacent coves and were largest at sites at the upper end of Grand Glaize Beach cove, indicating a probable local source of E. coli contamination within the upper end of the cove. Results from an intensive sampling effort during 2012 indicated that E. coli concentrations in water samples at Grand Glaize Beach cove were significantly larger in ankle-deep water than waist-deep water, trended downward during the recreational season, significantly increased with an increase in the total number of bathers at the beach, and were largest during the middle of the day. Concentrations of E. coli in nearshore sediment (sediment near the shoreline) at Grand Glaize Beach were significantly larger in foreshore samples

  9. Health Insurance In China: After Declining In The 1990s, Coverage Rates Rebounded To Near-Universal Levels By 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanping; Malik, Vasanti; Hu, Frank B

    2017-08-01

    We analyzed trends in rates of health insurance coverage in China in the period 1991-2011 and the association of health insurance with hypertension and diabetes based on data from eight waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey. The rate of coverage fell from 32.3 percent in 1991 to 21.9 percent in 2000, rebounding to 49.7 percent in 2006 and then rapidly climbing to 94.7 percent in 2011. Our study indicated that neither the prevalence of diabetes nor that of hypertension was significantly associated with health insurance coverage. When patients were aware of their condition or disease, those with insurance had a significantly higher likelihood of treatment for diabetes and hypertension, compared to those without insurance. We observed an association between health insurance coverage and seeking preventive care and receiving medical treatment when patients were aware of their condition or disease. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  10. Accumulation rates during 1311-2011 CE in North Central Greenland derived from air-borne radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Nanna; Eisen, Olaf; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Freitag, Johannes; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Lewis, Cameron; Nielsen, Lisbeth; Paden, John; Winter, Anna; Wilhelms, Frank

    2016-11-01

    Radar-detected internal layering contains information on past accumulation rates and patterns. In this study, we assume that the radar layers are isochrones, and use the layer stratigraphy in combination with ice-core measurements and numerical methods to retrieve accumulation information for the northern part of central Greenland. Measurements of the dielectric properties of an ice core from the NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling) site, allow for correlation of the radar layers with volcanic horizons to obtain an accurate age of the layers. We obtain accumulation patterns averaged over 100 a for the period 1311-2011. Our results show a clear trend of high accumulation rates west of the ice divide and low accumulation rates east of the ice divide. At the NEEM site the accumulation pattern is persistent during our study period and only small temporal variations occur in the accumulation rate. However, from approximately 200 km south of the NEEM drill site, the accumulation rate shows temporal variations based on our centennial averages. We attribute this variation to shifts in the location of the high-low accumulation boundary that usually is aligned with the ice divide, but appears to have moved across the divide in the past.

  11. Artisanal Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas, fishery of Caribbean Nicaragua: I. Catch rates and trends, 1991-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagueux, Cynthia J; Campbell, Cathi L; Strindberg, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    This is the first assessment of catch rates for the legal, artisanal green turtle, Chelonia mydas, fishery in Caribbean Nicaragua. Data were collected by community members, monitoring up to 14 landing sites from 1991 to 2011. We examined take levels, and temporal and spatial variability in catch rates for the overall fishery, by region, and community using General Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs). More than 171,556 green turtles were killed during the period, with a mean estimated minimum 8,169±2,182 annually. There was a statistically significant decline in catch rates overall. Catch rates peaked in 1997 and 2002, followed by a downward trend, particularly from mid-2008 to the end of the study period. Similar downward trends were evident in both study regions. Community specific catch rate trends also indicated declines with decreases ranging from 21% to 90%. Decrease in catch rates in Nicaragua is cause for concern even though the principal source rookery at Tortuguero, Costa Rica, shows an increase in nesting activity. Explanations for the apparent discrepancy between the increasing trend at Tortuguero and decreasing catch rate trends in Nicaragua include: i) an increase in reproductive output, ii) insufficient time has passed to observe the impact of the fishery on the rookery due to a time lag, iii) changes in other segments of the population have not been detected since only nesting activity is monitored, iv) the expansive northern Nicaragua foraging ground may provide a refuge for a sufficient portion of the Tortuguero rookery, and/or v) a larger than expected contribution of non-Tortuguero rookeries occurring in Nicaragua turtle fishing areas. Our results highlight the need for close monitoring of rookeries and in-water aggregations in the Caribbean. Where consumptive use still occurs, nations sharing this resource should implement scientifically based limits on exploitation to ensure sustainability and mitigate impacts to regional population diversity.

  12. Artisanal Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas, fishery of Caribbean Nicaragua: I. Catch rates and trends, 1991-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia J Lagueux

    Full Text Available This is the first assessment of catch rates for the legal, artisanal green turtle, Chelonia mydas, fishery in Caribbean Nicaragua. Data were collected by community members, monitoring up to 14 landing sites from 1991 to 2011. We examined take levels, and temporal and spatial variability in catch rates for the overall fishery, by region, and community using General Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs. More than 171,556 green turtles were killed during the period, with a mean estimated minimum 8,169±2,182 annually. There was a statistically significant decline in catch rates overall. Catch rates peaked in 1997 and 2002, followed by a downward trend, particularly from mid-2008 to the end of the study period. Similar downward trends were evident in both study regions. Community specific catch rate trends also indicated declines with decreases ranging from 21% to 90%. Decrease in catch rates in Nicaragua is cause for concern even though the principal source rookery at Tortuguero, Costa Rica, shows an increase in nesting activity. Explanations for the apparent discrepancy between the increasing trend at Tortuguero and decreasing catch rate trends in Nicaragua include: i an increase in reproductive output, ii insufficient time has passed to observe the impact of the fishery on the rookery due to a time lag, iii changes in other segments of the population have not been detected since only nesting activity is monitored, iv the expansive northern Nicaragua foraging ground may provide a refuge for a sufficient portion of the Tortuguero rookery, and/or v a larger than expected contribution of non-Tortuguero rookeries occurring in Nicaragua turtle fishing areas. Our results highlight the need for close monitoring of rookeries and in-water aggregations in the Caribbean. Where consumptive use still occurs, nations sharing this resource should implement scientifically based limits on exploitation to ensure sustainability and mitigate impacts to regional population

  13. Artisanal Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas, Fishery of Caribbean Nicaragua: I. Catch Rates and Trends, 1991–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagueux, Cynthia J.; Campbell, Cathi L.; Strindberg, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    This is the first assessment of catch rates for the legal, artisanal green turtle, Chelonia mydas, fishery in Caribbean Nicaragua. Data were collected by community members, monitoring up to 14 landing sites from 1991 to 2011. We examined take levels, and temporal and spatial variability in catch rates for the overall fishery, by region, and community using General Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs). More than 171,556 green turtles were killed during the period, with a mean estimated minimum 8,169±2,182 annually. There was a statistically significant decline in catch rates overall. Catch rates peaked in 1997 and 2002, followed by a downward trend, particularly from mid-2008 to the end of the study period. Similar downward trends were evident in both study regions. Community specific catch rate trends also indicated declines with decreases ranging from 21% to 90%. Decrease in catch rates in Nicaragua is cause for concern even though the principal source rookery at Tortuguero, Costa Rica, shows an increase in nesting activity. Explanations for the apparent discrepancy between the increasing trend at Tortuguero and decreasing catch rate trends in Nicaragua include: i) an increase in reproductive output, ii) insufficient time has passed to observe the impact of the fishery on the rookery due to a time lag, iii) changes in other segments of the population have not been detected since only nesting activity is monitored, iv) the expansive northern Nicaragua foraging ground may provide a refuge for a sufficient portion of the Tortuguero rookery, and/or v) a larger than expected contribution of non-Tortuguero rookeries occurring in Nicaragua turtle fishing areas. Our results highlight the need for close monitoring of rookeries and in-water aggregations in the Caribbean. Where consumptive use still occurs, nations sharing this resource should implement scientifically based limits on exploitation to ensure sustainability and mitigate impacts to regional population diversity. PMID

  14. The rate of radon remediation in Ireland 2011-2015: Establishing a base line rate for Ireland's National Radon Control Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdall, A; Fenton, D; Rafferty, B

    2016-10-01

    Radon is the greatest source of radiation exposure to the public. In Ireland, it is estimated that approximately 7% of the national housing stock have radon concentrations above the Reference Level of 200 Bq m(-3). A radon test can be carried out to identify homes with radon levels above the Reference Level. However there is no health benefit associated with radon testing unless it leads to remediation. Surveys to establish the rate of remediation in Ireland, that is the proportion of householders who having found levels of radon above the Reference Level proceed to carry out remediation work have been carried out in 2011 and 2013. Reasons for not carrying out remediation work were also investigated. In 2015 the survey was repeated to establish the current rate of remediation and reasons for not remediating. This report presents the results of that survey. It also compiles the data from all three surveys to identify any trends over time. The rate of remediation is an important parameter in estimating the effectiveness of programmes aimed at reducing radon levels. Currently the rate of remediation is 22% and the main reasons householders gave for not remediating were not certain there is a serious risk and concern about the cost of the work. In Ireland, this figure of 22% will be now used as a baseline metric against which the effectiveness of its National Radon Control Strategy will be measured over time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, GREEN LAKE COUNTY, WISCONSIN (AND INCORPORATED AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  16. 2011 Great Lakes Vessel Tracklines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  17. Reply to Discussion: a critique of Possible waterways between the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea in the late Quaternary: evidence from ostracod and foraminifer assemblages in lakes İznik and Sapanca, Turkey, Geo-Marine Letters, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazik, Atike; Meriç, Engin; Avşar, Niyazi

    2012-06-01

    In their discussion of our 2011 paper dealing with possible waterways between the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea in the "late" Quaternary, based on data from ostracod and foraminifer assemblages in lakes İznik and Sapanca, Turkey, Yaltırak et al. (Geo-Mar Lett 32:267-274, 2012) essentially reject the idea of any links whatsoever, be they between the Marmara Sea and the lakes İznik and Sapanca, or further to the Black Sea via the valley of the Sakarya River. The evidence they provide in support of their view, however, is essentially circumstantial, in part conjectural, and also inconclusive considering the findings in favour of linkage between the Marmara Sea and the lakes at the very least, while the proposed connection with the Sakarya River valley remains speculative because of the lack of unambiguous data. On the other hand, Yaltırak et al. (Geo-Mar Lett 32:267-274, 2012) do raise valid points of concern which deserve careful future investigation, the most important being the possibility of sample contamination from dumped marine sediment used for construction purposes along some parts of the shore of Lake İznik. We agree that a concerted multidisciplinary effort is required to address the many unresolved issues in connection with the potential waterways proposed by us and others before us.

  18. Enhanced viral activity and dark CO2 fixation rates under oxygen depletion: the case study of the marine Lake Rogoznica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastelli, Eugenio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Petani, Bruna; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Ciglenečki, Irena; Danovaro, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Global change is determining the expansion of marine oxygen-depleted zones, which are hot spots of microbial-driven biogeochemical processes. However, information on the functioning of the microbial assemblages and the role of viruses in such low-oxygen systems remains largely unknown. Here, we used the marine Rogoznica Lake as a natural model to investigate the possible consequences of oxygen depletion on virus-prokaryote interactions and prokaryotic metabolism in pelagic and benthic ecosystems. We found higher bacterial and archaeal abundances in oxygen-depleted than in oxic conditions, associated with higher heterotrophic carbon production, enzymatic activities and dark inorganic carbon fixation (DCF) rates. The oxygen-depleted systems were also characterized by higher viral abundance, production and virus-induced prokaryotic mortality. The highest DCF relative contribution to the whole total C production (> 30%) was found in oxygen-depleted systems, at the highest virus-induced prokaryotic mortality values (> 90%). Our results suggest that the higher rates of viral lysis in oxygen-depleted conditions can significantly enhance DCF by accelerating heterotrophic processes, organic matter cycling, and hence the supply of inorganic reduced compounds fuelling chemosynthesis. These findings suggest that the expansion of low-oxygen zones can trigger higher viral impacts on prokaryotic heterotrophic and chemoautotrophic metabolism, with cascading effects, neglected so far, on biogeochemical processes. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. CHAPHOLO: Paleolimnological Evaluation of Lake Chapala (Western Mexico) During the Past 10,000 Years (CONACYT CB2011, Grant 168685, In Progress). PHASE I: Drilling Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, P. F.; Dorfler, W.; Nelle, O.; Israde-Alcantara, I.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Chapala being the Mexican largest shallow (ca. 5 m) lake, of tectonic origin, is located in western Mexico. Based on magnetic profiles carried on by Alatorrre et al. (2007), the depocenter area, having an extension of ~ 10 km (E-W) x ~ 5 km (N-S), was delimited. The drilling campaign was carried out in April 2014, recovering a total of 51.50 m of sediment with a Usinger drilling machine (Ø 80 mm and 55 mm) and a Uwitec platform. To achieve efficient stratigraphic control at the site CHD (103° 02'W, 20° 15' N), 51.50 m of sediment were cored at three equidistant holes spread ca. 4 m: CHD-A (4.20 m), CHD-B (27.15 m) and CHD (20.15 m). The stratigraphic depth reached was 27.15 m. After recovery, the undisturbed sediment was extruded from iron tubes into PVC tubes and split longitudinally resulting one working half for laboratory work and the other as archive half. In total we obtained 103 "half tubes", that were protected with plastic film wrap and stored in plastic bags and keeping refrigerated at 4° C. The sediment collected is loose and its grain size is silty-clay, with the exception of volcanic material. The preliminary megascopic description of the sediment in CHD-A core based on color, presence of laminations, volcanic ash and black particles is as follows: COLOR. (0 m-4.15 m) gray-brown; (4.15 m -22.15 m) dark gray; (22.15 m -27.15 m) gray-brown. LAMINATION. (0m-11.15m) Incipient to defined; (11.15m-22.15m) Absent; (22.15m-23.15m) Incipient; (23.15m-27.15m) Absent. VOLCANIC ASH. (0m- 27.15m) Few horizons mm in thickness. From 26.52 m - 26.66 m a thin layer of 14 cm was observed. BLACK PARTICLES. (0m-27.15m) Presence at different concentration of black particles (cf. charcoal) DIATOM & POLLEN. (0m-10m) Central diatom (Surirella sp and Cyclotella sp); Pinus sp. The identification of different concentrations of charcoal is the opportunity to reconstruct the Holocene landscape dynamics in the watershed of Lake Chapala, regarding the fire history through

  20. Estimation of the minimum food requirement using the respiration rate of medusa of Aurelia aurita in Sihwa Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chang-hoon; Chae, Jinho; Jin, Jonghyeok; Yoon, Wonduk

    2012-06-01

    We examined the respiration rate of Aurelia aurita medusae at 20 °C and 28 °C to evaluate minimum metabolic demands of medusae population in Sihwa Lake, Korea during summer. While weight specific respiration rates of medusae were constant and irrespective to the wet weight (8-220 g), they significantly varied in respect to temperatures ( p<0.001, 0.11±0.03 mg C g-1 of medusa d-1 at 20°C and 0.28±0.11 mg C g-1 of medusa d-1 at 28 °C in average, where Q 10 value was 2.62). The respiration rate of medusae was defined as a function of temperature ( T, °C) and body weight ( W, g) according to the equation, R=0.13×2.62( T-20)/10 W 0.93. Population minimum food requirement ( PMFR) was estimated from the respiration rate as 15.06 and 4.86 mg C m-3 d-1 in June and July, respectively. During this period, increase in bell diameter and wet weight was not significant ( p=1 in the both), suggesting that the estimated PMFR closely represented the actual food consumption in the field. From July to August, medusae grew significantly at 0.052 d-1, thus the amount of food ingested by medusae population in situ was likely to exceed the PMFR (1.27 mg C m-3 d-1) during the period. In conclusion, the medusae population of higher density during June and July had limited amount of food, while those of lower in July and August ingested enough food for growth.

  1. Influence of clinical breakpoint changes from CLSI 2009 to EUCAST 2011 antimicrobial susceptibility testing guidelines on multidrug resistance rates of Gram-negative rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hombach, Michael; Wolfensberger, Aline; Kuster, Stefan P; Böttger, Erik C

    2013-07-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) rates of Gram-negative rods were analyzed comparing CLSI 2009 and EUCAST 2011 antibiotic susceptibility testing guidelines. After EUCAST 2011 was applied, the MDR rates increased for Klebsiella pneumoniae (2.2%), Enterobacter cloacae (1.1%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.7%), and Escherichia coli (0.4%). A total of 24% of Enterobacteriaceae MDR isolates and 12% of P. aeruginosa MDR isolates were categorized as MDR due to breakpoint changes.

  2. Influence of Clinical Breakpoint Changes from CLSI 2009 to EUCAST 2011 Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Guidelines on Multidrug Resistance Rates of Gram-Negative Rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfensberger, Aline; Kuster, Stefan P.; Böttger, Erik C.

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) rates of Gram-negative rods were analyzed comparing CLSI 2009 and EUCAST 2011 antibiotic susceptibility testing guidelines. After EUCAST 2011 was applied, the MDR rates increased for Klebsiella pneumoniae (2.2%), Enterobacter cloacae (1.1%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.7%), and Escherichia coli (0.4%). A total of 24% of Enterobacteriaceae MDR isolates and 12% of P. aeruginosa MDR isolates were categorized as MDR due to breakpoint changes. PMID:23596246

  3. Apparent and Measured Rates of Nitrification in the Hypolimnion of a Mesotrophic Lake

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    Three distinct phases were observed in the change of dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations in the hypolimnion of Grasmere. The second phase of decreasing ammonia and increasing nitrate concentrations was typical of the nitrification process. Observations on nitrate concentration gradients between surface sediments and the water column and experiments using the nitrification inhibitor N-Serve indicated the in situ activity of chemolithotrophic nitrifying organisms. Nitrification rates we...

  4. Concentration, flux, and the analysis of trends of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chloride in 18 tributaries to Lake Champlain, Vermont and New York, 1990–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Annual concentration, flux, and yield for total phosphorus, dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chloride for 18 tributaries to Lake Champlain were estimated for 1990 through 2011 using a weighted regression method based on time, tributary streamflows (discharges), and seasonal factors. The weighted regression method generated two series of daily estimates of flux and concentration during the period of record: one based on observed discharges and a second based on a flow-normalization procedure that removes random variation due to year-to-year climate-driven effects. The flownormalized estimate for a given date is similar to an average estimate of concentration or flux that would be made if all of the observed discharges for that date were equally likely to have occurred. The flux bias statistic showed that 68 of the 72 flux regression models were minimally biased. Temporal trends in the concentrations and fluxes were determined by calculating percent changes in flow-normalized annual fluxes for the full period of analysis (1990 through 2010) and for the decades 1990–2000 and 2000–2010. Basinwide, flow-normalized total phosphorus flux decreased by 42 metric tons per year (t/yr) between 1990 and 2010. This net result reflects a basinwide decrease in flux of 21 metric tons (t) between 1990 and 2000, followed by a decrease of 20 t between 2000 and 2010; both results were largely influenced by flux patterns in the large tributaries on the eastern side of the basin. A comparison of results for total phosphorus for the two separate decades of analysis found that more tributaries had decreasing concentrations and flux rates in the second decade than the first. An overall reduction in dissolved phosphorus flux of 0.7 t/yr was seen in the Lake Champlain Basin during the full period of analysis. That very small net change in flux reflects substantial reductions between 1990 and 2000 from eastern tributaries, especially in Otter Creek and the LaPlatte and Winooski

  5. Incidence rates of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates in France: a prospective nationwide study in 2011-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Jérôme; Pantel, Alix; Mérens, Audrey; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène

    2014-10-01

    To determine proportions and incidence rates of Enterobacteriaceae producing carbapenemase among those non-susceptible (NS) to carbapenems in France. From November 2011 to April 2012, 71 laboratories recorded non-duplicate Enterobacteriaceae clinical isolates NS to at least one carbapenem and the total number of isolates of the different species. Carbapenem MICs were determined by broth microdilution and the β-lactamase content by DNA microarray. During the study period, the 71 laboratories identified 133 244 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, of which 846 (0.63%) were NS to at least one carbapenem. Carbapenem-NS isolates accounted for 0.07% (61/90 148) among Escherichia coli isolates, 1.1% (111/10 436) among Klebsiella pneumoniae, 8.2% (492/5971) among Enterobacter cloacae and 4.0% (84/2104) among Enterobacter aerogenes. Among the 541 available carbapenem-NS isolates, 222 (including 63 randomly selected E. cloacae) were further analysed after confirmation of carbapenem non-susceptibility. None of the Enterobacter spp. isolates produced carbapenemase. Among the other species, 28 isolates produced carbapenemases (22 OXA-48, 4 KPC and 2 NDM), accounting for an estimated proportion of carbapenemase-producing isolates of 0.08% for all species, 0.01% for E. coli and 0.27% for K. pneumoniae. The incidence-density rate in the participating hospitals was 0.0041 per 1000 hospital-days and the incidence rate was 0.0027 per 100 admissions. The incidence-density rate of carbapenemase-producing isolates per 1000 hospital-days was low and 30-fold lower than that of carbapenem-NS isolates (0.125) and almost 300-fold lower than that of ESBL-producing isolates (1.104) in these French hospitals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Assessment of the health care waste generation rates and its management system in hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debere Mesfin Kote

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare waste management options are varying in Ethiopia. One of the first critical steps in the process of developing a reliable waste management plan requires a widespread understanding of the amount and the management system. This study aimed to assess the health care waste generation rate and its management system in some selected hospitals located in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Six hospitals in Addis Ababa, (three private and three public, were selected using simple random sampling method for this work. Data was recorded by using an appropriately designed questionnaire, which was completed for the period of two months. The calculations were based on the weights of the health care wastes that were regularly generated in the selected hospitals over a one week period during the year 2011. Average generation indexes were determined in relation to certain important factors, like the type of hospitals (public vs private. Results The median waste generation rate was found to be varied from 0.361- 0.669 kg/patient/day, comprised of 58.69% non-hazardous and 41.31% hazardous wastes. The amount of waste generated was increased as the number of patients flow increased (rs=1. Public hospitals generated high proportion of total health care wastes (59.22% in comparison with private hospitals (40.48%. The median waste generation rate was significantly vary between hospitals with Kruskal-Wallis test (X2=30.65, p=0.0001. The amount of waste was positively correlated with the number of patients (p Conclusion These findings revealed that the management of health care waste at hospitals in Addis Ababa city was poor.

  7. Assessment of the health care waste generation rates and its management system in hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debere, Mesfin Kote; Gelaye, Kassahun Alemu; Alamdo, Andamlak Gizaw; Trifa, Zemedu Mehamed

    2013-01-12

    Healthcare waste management options are varying in Ethiopia. One of the first critical steps in the process of developing a reliable waste management plan requires a widespread understanding of the amount and the management system. This study aimed to assess the health care waste generation rate and its management system in some selected hospitals located in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Six hospitals in Addis Ababa, (three private and three public), were selected using simple random sampling method for this work. Data was recorded by using an appropriately designed questionnaire, which was completed for the period of two months. The calculations were based on the weights of the health care wastes that were regularly generated in the selected hospitals over a one week period during the year 2011. Average generation indexes were determined in relation to certain important factors, like the type of hospitals (public vs private). The median waste generation rate was found to be varied from 0.361- 0.669 kg/patient/day, comprised of 58.69% non-hazardous and 41.31% hazardous wastes. The amount of waste generated was increased as the number of patients flow increased (rs=1). Public hospitals generated high proportion of total health care wastes (59.22%) in comparison with private hospitals (40.48%). The median waste generation rate was significantly vary between hospitals with Kruskal-Wallis test (X2=30.65, p=0.0001). The amount of waste was positively correlated with the number of patients (p waste separation and treatment practices were very poor. Other alternatives for waste treatment rather than incineration such as a locally made autoclave should be evaluated and implemented. These findings revealed that the management of health care waste at hospitals in Addis Ababa city was poor.

  8. L'EVOLUTION DU DESIGN DES SYSTEMES DE PILOTAGE DE LA PERFORMANCE DANS LES HOPITAUX : UNE QUETE PERMANENTE DE L'EFFICIENCE ORGANISATIONNELLE

    OpenAIRE

    Rouhana, Rima; Van Caillie, Didier

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Notre communication vise (1) à dresser un historique de l'évolution du design des systèmes de contrôle de gestion (CDG) et, essentiellement, des systèmes de pilotage de la performance (SPP) en contexte hospitalier; (2) à en inférer, dans une perspective contingente, la nature de ses principaux facteurs contingents; et (3) à synthétiser l'ensemble dans un modèle contingent conceptuel permettant de comprendre comment le système de contrôle de gestion des institutions hos...

  9. Alarming attrition rates among HIV-infected individuals in pre-antiretroviral therapy care in Myanmar, 2011–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myo Minn Oo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: High retention rates have been documented among patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART in Myanmar. However, there is no information on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected individuals in care before initiation of ART (pre-ART care. We assessed attrition (loss-to-follow-up [LTFU] and death rates among HIV-infected individuals in pre-ART care and their associated factors over a 4-year period. Design: In this retrospective cohort study, we extracted routinely collected data of HIV-infected adults (>15 years old entering pre-ART care (June 2011–June 2014 as part of an Integrated HIV Care (IHC programme, Myanmar. Attrition rates per 100 person-years and cumulative incidence of attrition were calculated. Factors associated with attrition were examined by calculating hazard ratios (HRs. Results: Of 18,037 HIV-infected adults enrolled in the IHC programme, 11,464 (63% entered pre-ART care (60% men, mean age 37 years, median cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4 cell count 160 cells/µL. Of the 11,464 eligible participants, 3,712 (32% underwent attrition of which 43% were due to deaths and 57% were due to LTFU. The attrition rate was 78 per 100 person-years (95% CI, 75–80. The cumulative incidence of attrition was 70% at the end of a 4-year follow-up, of which nearly 90% occurred in the first 6 months. Male sex (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.4–1.6, WHO clinical Stage 3 and 4, CD4 count <200 cells/µL, abnormal BMI, and anaemia were statistically significant predictors of attrition. Conclusions: Pre-ART care attrition among persons living with HIV in Myanmar was alarmingly high – with most attrition occurring within the first 6 months. Strategies aimed at improving early HIV diagnosis and initiation of ART are needed. Suggestions include comprehensive nutrition support and intensified monitoring to prevent pre-ART care attrition by tracking patients who do not return for pre-ART care appointments. It is high time that Myanmar moves

  10. Alarming attrition rates among HIV-infected individuals in pre-antiretroviral therapy care in Myanmar, 2011–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, Myo Minn; Gupta, Vivek; Aung, Thet Ko; Kyaw, Nang Thu Thu; Oo, Htun Nyunt; Kumar, Ajay MV

    2016-01-01

    Background High retention rates have been documented among patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Myanmar. However, there is no information on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals in care before initiation of ART (pre-ART care). We assessed attrition (loss-to-follow-up [LTFU] and death) rates among HIV-infected individuals in pre-ART care and their associated factors over a 4-year period. Design In this retrospective cohort study, we extracted routinely collected data of HIV-infected adults (>15 years old) entering pre-ART care (June 2011–June 2014) as part of an Integrated HIV Care (IHC) programme, Myanmar. Attrition rates per 100 person-years and cumulative incidence of attrition were calculated. Factors associated with attrition were examined by calculating hazard ratios (HRs). Results Of 18,037 HIV-infected adults enrolled in the IHC programme, 11,464 (63%) entered pre-ART care (60% men, mean age 37 years, median cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cell count 160 cells/µL). Of the 11,464 eligible participants, 3,712 (32%) underwent attrition of which 43% were due to deaths and 57% were due to LTFU. The attrition rate was 78 per 100 person-years (95% CI, 75–80). The cumulative incidence of attrition was 70% at the end of a 4-year follow-up, of which nearly 90% occurred in the first 6 months. Male sex (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.4–1.6), WHO clinical Stage 3 and 4, CD4 count <200 cells/µL, abnormal BMI, and anaemia were statistically significant predictors of attrition. Conclusions Pre-ART care attrition among persons living with HIV in Myanmar was alarmingly high – with most attrition occurring within the first 6 months. Strategies aimed at improving early HIV diagnosis and initiation of ART are needed. Suggestions include comprehensive nutrition support and intensified monitoring to prevent pre-ART care attrition by tracking patients who do not return for pre-ART care appointments. It is high time that Myanmar moves towards a

  11. Volcano crisis response at Yellowstone volcanic complex - after-action report for exercise held at Salt Lake City, Utah, November 15, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Thomas C.; Driedger, Carolyn L.; Tilling, Robert I.

    2013-01-01

    A functional tabletop exercise was run on November 14-15, 2011 in Salt Lake City, Utah, to test crisis response capabilities, communication protocols, and decision-making by the staff of the multi-agency Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO) as they reacted to a hypothetical exercise scenario of accelerating volcanic unrest at the Yellowstone caldera. The exercise simulated a rapid build-up of seismic activity, ground deformation, and hot-spring water-chemistry and temperature anomalies that culminated in a small- to moderate-size phreatomagmatic eruption within Yellowstone National Park. The YVO scientific team's responses to the unfolding events in the scenario and to simulated requests for information by stakeholders and the media were assessed by (a) the exercise organizers; (b) several non-YVO scientists, who observed and queried participants, and took notes throughout the exercise; and (c) the participants themselves, who kept logs of their actions during the exercise and later participated in a group debriefing session and filled out detailed questionnaires. These evaluations were tabulated, interpreted, and summarized for this report, and on the basis of this information, recommendations have been made. Overall, the YVO teams performed their jobs very well. The exercise revealed that YVO scientists were able to successfully provide critical hazards information, issue information statements, and appropriately raise alert levels during a fast-moving crisis. Based on the exercise, it is recommended that several measures be taken to increase YVO effectiveness during a crisis: 1. Improve role clarification within and between YVO science teams. 2. Improve communications tools and protocols for data-sharing and consensus-building among YVO scientists, who are geographically and administratively dispersed among various institutions across the United States. 3. Familiarize YVO staff with Incident Command System (ICS) procedures and protocols, and provide more in

  12. Estimating the designated use attainment decision error rates of US Environmental Protection Agency's proposed numeric total phosphorus criteria for Florida, USA, colored lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Douglas B

    2012-01-01

    The utility of numeric nutrient criteria established for certain surface waters is likely to be affected by the uncertainty that exists in the presence of a causal link between nutrient stressor variables and designated use-related biological responses in those waters. This uncertainty can be difficult to characterize, interpret, and communicate to a broad audience of environmental stakeholders. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has developed a systematic planning process to support a variety of environmental decisions, but this process is not generally applied to the development of national or state-level numeric nutrient criteria. This article describes a method for implementing such an approach and uses it to evaluate the numeric total P criteria recently proposed by USEPA for colored lakes in Florida, USA. An empirical, log-linear relationship between geometric mean concentrations of total P (a potential stressor variable) and chlorophyll a (a nutrient-related response variable) in these lakes-that is assumed to be causal in nature-forms the basis for the analysis. The use of the geometric mean total P concentration of a lake to correctly indicate designated use status, defined in terms of a 20 µg/L geometric mean chlorophyll a threshold, is evaluated. Rates of decision errors analogous to the Type I and Type II error rates familiar in hypothesis testing, and a 3rd error rate, E(ni) , referred to as the nutrient criterion-based impairment error rate, are estimated. The results show that USEPA's proposed "baseline" and "modified" nutrient criteria approach, in which data on both total P and chlorophyll a may be considered in establishing numeric nutrient criteria for a given lake within a specified range, provides a means for balancing and minimizing designated use attainment decision errors.

  13. Climatic and human impacts on quasi-periodic and abrupt changes of sedimentation rate at multiple time scales in Lake Taihu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiyu; Xu, Xiaojuan; Lin, Zhenshan; Zhang, Mingyang; Mi, Ying; Huang, Changchun; Yang, Hao

    2016-12-01

    With the ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition Method (EEMD) and the non-parametric Mann-Kendall Test, the quasi-periodic and abrupt changes of sedimentation rate at multiple time scales, and their relations to climate changes and human activities from 1951 to 2010 in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu (China) were studied. The results showed the following. (1) The change in sedimentation rate can be completely decomposed into three quasi-periodic changes on 3.7, 6.4, and 24-yr time scales, and a long-term trend. (2) The quasi-periodic changes in sedimentation rate are significantly and positively related to changes in annual average temperature at 6.4 and 24-yr time scales and human activities at 3.7-yr time scales, and not significantly related to precipitation at these time scales. The trend of sedimentation rate has a negative relation with temperature, but positive relations with precipitation and human activities. As a whole, the total variance contribution of climate changes to the quasi-periodic changes of sedimentation rate is close to that of human activities; (3) Temperature and precipitation are possibly related to the abrupt change of sedimentation rate as a whole. Floods have significant impacts on abrupt changes in the sedimentation rate at 3.7, 6.4 and 24-yr time scales. Moreover, some abrupt changes of sedimentation rate at 3.7- and 6.4-yr time scales are partly related to the changes of precipitation at 3.1-yr time scale and temperature at 5-yr time scale. The results of this study will help identify the impacts of climate change and human activities on lake sedimentation at different time scales, and will be available for use as a guide for reasonable development and effective protection of lake resources.

  14. Uniaxial Compressive Strength and Fracture Mode of Lake Ice at Moderate Strain Rates Based on a Digital Speckle Correlation Method for Deformation Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijian Lian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Better understanding of the complex mechanical properties of ice is the foundation to predict the ice fail process and avoid potential ice threats. In the present study, uniaxial compressive strength and fracture mode of natural lake ice are investigated over moderate strain-rate range of 0.4–10 s−1 at −5 °C and −10 °C. The digital speckle correlation method (DSCM is used for deformation measurement through constructing artificial speckle on ice sample surface in advance, and two dynamic load cells are employed to measure the dynamic load for monitoring the equilibrium of two ends’ forces under high-speed loading. The relationships between uniaxial compressive strength and strain-rate, temperature, loading direction, and air porosity are investigated, and the fracture mode of ice at moderate rates is also discussed. The experimental results show that there exists a significant difference between true strain-rate and nominal strain-rate derived from actuator displacement under dynamic loading conditions. Over the employed strain-rate range, the dynamic uniaxial compressive strength of lake ice shows positive strain-rate sensitivity and decreases with increasing temperature. Ice obtains greater strength values when it is with lower air porosity and loaded vertically. The fracture mode of ice seems to be a combination of splitting failure and crushing failure.

  15. Travel times, streamflow velocities, and dispersion rates in the Missouri River upstream from Canyon Ferry Lake, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Aroscott

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality, initiated a dye-tracer study to determine travel times, streamflow velocities, and longitudinal dispersion rates for the Missouri River upstream from Canyon Ferry Lake. For this study, rhodamine WT (RWT) dye was injected at two locations, Missouri River Headwaters State Park in early September and Broadwater-Missouri Dam (Broadwater Dam) in late August 2010. Dye concentrations were measured at three sites downstream from each dye-injection location. The study area was a 41.2-mile reach of the Missouri River from Trident, Montana, at the confluence of the Jefferson, Madison, and Gallatin Rivers (Missouri River Headwaters) at river mile 2,319.40 downstream to the U.S. Route 12 Bridge (Townsend Bridge), river mile 2,278.23, near Townsend, Montana. Streamflows were reasonably steady and ranged from 3,070 to 3,700 cubic feet per second. Mean velocities were calculated for each subreach between measurement sites for the leading edge, peak concentration, centroid, and trailing edge at 10 percent of the peak concentration of the dye plume. Calculated velocities for the centroid of the dye plume ranged from 0.80 to 3.02 feet per second within the study reach from Missouri River Headwaters to Townsend Bridge, near Townsend. The mean velocity of the dye plume for the entire study reach, excluding the subreach between the abandoned Milwaukee Railroad bridge at Lombard, Montana (Milwaukee Bridge) and Broadwater-Missouri Dam (Broadwater Dam), was 2.87 feet per second. The velocity of the centroid of the dye plume for the subreach between Milwaukee Bridge and Broadwater Dam (Toston Reservoir) was 0.80 feet per second. The residence time for Toston Reservoir was 8.2 hours during this study. Estimated longitudinal dispersion rates of the dye plume for this study ranged from 0.72 feet per second for the subreach from Milwaukee Bridge to Broadwater Dam to 2.26 feet per second for

  16. Survey on Immunization Coverage Rate of Children in Futian District from 2009 to 2011%2009-2011年福田区儿童免疫接种率调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林宝妮; 方琼; 曹丽; 周志峰; 蔡琳; 刘俊玲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the vaccination status of national immunization program and the main factors affecting the vaccination rates in children of Futian District from 2009 to 2011. Methods The children's cards and certificates, the vaccination situation of BCG, sugarcoated OPV, DPT, hepatitis B, measles, encephalitis B and the coverage rates of the "six vaccines", the reasons of unqualified vaccination, the causes of without vaccination were assessed and evaluated by the standard sampling method. Results During the period of 2009 - 2011, 210 children aged 12 - 24 months were sampled each year, the rate of establishing immunization card was 100% , the rate of establishing immunization certificate was 100% , and the coincident rate of card and certificate was 100%. The vaccination rates of BCG, sugarcoated OPV, DPT, hepatitis B, the first dose timely, measles, and encephalitis B were 100%, 100%, 100%, 99.36%, 91.9%, 100%, and 99.21%, respectively. The whole course vaccination rate of the "six vaccines" was 99. 05% , and the single vaccine immunization coverage rates of the "six vaccines" were all over 95%. Totally 46 cases had unqualified vaccination of the "six vaccines" during the period of 2009 - 2011. The beforehand vaccination was 34.78 % , and the overdue vaccination was 54.35 %. The interval discrepancy was 6.52%. And 4.35% children had not been vaccinated. Conclusions The vaccination coverage rates of national immunization program in children of Futian District from 2009 to 2011 remain at a high level, and the factors identified to be associated with vaccination failure are beforehand vaccination and overdue vaccination.%目的 评价2009 - 2011年福田区儿童国家免疫规划疫苗的接种情况和影响接种率的主要因素. 方法 采用标准组群抽样法对抽样儿童的建卡、建证情况,卡介苗、糖丸、百白破、乙肝、麻疹、乙脑“六苗”接种的情况及“六苗”覆盖情况,不合格接种原因,未接种

  17. The impact of alcohol and road traffic policies on crash rates in Botswana, 2004-2011: a time-series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebego, Miriam; Naumann, Rebecca B; Rudd, Rose A; Voetsch, Karen; Dellinger, Ann M; Ndlovu, Christopher

    2014-09-01

    In Botswana, increased development and motorization have brought increased road traffic-related death rates. Between 1981 and 2001, the road traffic-related death rate in Botswana more than tripled. The country has taken several steps over the last several years to address the growing burden of road traffic crashes and particularly to address the burden of alcohol-related crashes. This study examines the impact of the implementation of alcohol and road safety-related policies on crash rates, including overall crash rates, fatal crash rates, and single-vehicle nighttime fatal (SVNF) crash rates, in Botswana from 2004 to 2011. The overall crash rate declined significantly in June 2009 and June 2010, such that the overall crash rate from June 2010 to December 2011 was 22% lower than the overall crash rate from January 2004 to May 2009. Additionally, there were significant declines in average fatal crash and SVNF crash rates in early 2010. Botswana's recent crash rate reductions occurred during a time when aggressive policies and other activities (e.g., education, enforcement) were implemented to reduce alcohol consumption and improve road safety. While it is unclear which of the policies or activities contributed to these declines and to what extent, these reductions are likely the result of several, combined efforts.

  18. Flight Tests of Pilotage Error in Area Navigation with Vertical Guidance: Effects of Navigation Procedural Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-01

    effectiveness in ait transport ~..peroflons. Savoy, fItI.: t niversity of Illinois at Urbano - Champaign, Institute of Aviation, Aviation Rosearci) Lboratory...National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22151. Prepared for U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...differences between airline transport pilots and commercial pilots with instrument ratings were found for horizontal steering error only. Differences

  19. [Nitrogen uptake rate and use efficiency by rice under different levels of the controlled-release N fertilizers (CRF) in the Nansi Lake basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Wen; Du, Chun-Xiang; Li, Xiao-Wei; Li, Gui-Chun; Wang, Ming

    2011-07-01

    The nitrogen (N) fertilizers overused or misused are the main contributors for water eutrophication of the Nansi Lake in eastern China. A field experiment with different application levels of controlled-release N fertilizer (CRF) was carried out at a rice field in the Nansi lake basin to provide information on the nitrogen uptake rate and use efficiency by rice with CRF application at different growth stages of rice. The fertilization levels for the controlled fertilizer in this study were 0, 300, 337.5 and 375 kg/hm2, respectively, and 375 kg/hm2 for conventional urea (CU). We estimated the N uptake rate in different growing season and apparent recovery of fertilizer in root, stover and grain of rice. The result showed that grain yield increased by higher N rate. However, the N uptake rate did not increase linearly with the nitrogen application amount. The highest N uptake rate was 22.48 mg/(plant x d) under the fertilization amount of 337.5 kg/hm2 during the young panicle differentiation stage. Apparent N recovery efficiency for CU with traditional application amount of 375 kg/hm2 was 21.86%. Apparent N recovery efficiency for CRF with application amount of 337.5 kg/hm2 was highest with 37.17%. Based on the statistical data, with CU of traditional urea application amount of 375 kg/hm2, nitrogen loss and soil N residue at one growing season are 130.07 x 10(3) t for Jining city and 11.4 x 10(3) t for Yutai county of the Nansi Lake basin. If using CRF with the optimized application amount of 337.5 kg/hm2, nitrogen loss and soil residual at one growing season is 10.46 x 10(4) t for Jining city. It could reduce losses of 2.55 x 10(4) t N for Jining city and 2 235.26 t N for Yutai county per year. Because of releasing patterns more closely matched to crop N uptake patterns, controlled release N fertilizer could be a good way to prevent water eutrophication due to nitrogen fertilizer overused or misused in the Nansi Lake.

  20. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.; Eckert, Thomas H.; Schaner, Ted; Bowlby, James N.; Schleen, Larry P.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to maintain the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Ontario by stocking fry failed and the species was extirpated by the 1950s. Hatchery fish stocked in the 1960s did not live to maturity because of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation and incidental commercial harvest. Suppression of sea lampreys began with larvicide treatments of Lake Ontario tributaries in 1971 and was enhanced when the tributaries of Oneida Lake and Lake Erie were treated in the 1980s. Annual stocking of hatchery fish was resumed with the 1972 year class and peaked at about 1.8 million yearlings and 0.3 million fingerlings from the 1985–1990 year classes. Survival of stocked yearlings declined over 50% in the 1980 s and was negatively correlated with the abundance of lake trout > 550 mm long (r = −0.91, P < 0.01, n = 12). A slot length limit imposed by the State of New York for the 1988 fishing season reduced angler harvest. Angler harvest in Canadian waters was 3 times higher in eastern Lake Ontario than in western Lake Ontario. For the 1977–1984 year classes, mean annual survival rate of lake trout age 6 and older was 0.45 (range: 0.35–0.56). In U.S. waters during 1985–1992, the total number of lake trout harvested by anglers was about 2.4 times greater than that killed by sea lampreys. The number of unmarked lake trout < 250 mm long in trawl catches in 1978–1992 was not different from that expected due to loss of marks and failure to apply marks at the hatchery, and suggested that recruitment of naturally-produced fish was nil. However, many of the obstacles which may have impeded lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario during the 1980s are slowly being removed, and there are signs of a general ecosystem recovery. Significant recruitment of naturally produced lake trout by the year 2000, one interim objective of the rehabilitation plan for the Lake, may be achieved.

  1. The diurnal activity, movement and trypanosome infection rates of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Diptera: Glossinidae)in Buvuma Island, Lake Victoria, Uganda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONJINO M. OGWAL; ANDREW KALYEBI; JOHN B. KADDU

    2007-01-01

    The diurnal activity patterns, trypanosome infection rates and movement of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes(Diptera: Glossinidae) were investigated in Buvuma Island, Lake Victoria, Uganda. Hourly trapping of tsetse flies was undertaken to determine their activity rhythm while a capture-mark-release-recapture method was conducted to assess the movement and dispersal of tsetse flies between lakeshore, hinterland and further inland sites along a transected area. Dissection of tsetse flies was also undertaken to determine the trypanosome infection rates in salivary glands, proboscis and mid-gut. Results indicated a bimodal diurnal activity profile for G. f. fuscipes on the Island, both on the lakeshore and in the hinterland.Movement and dispersal of G. f. fuscipes tsetse flies occurred between lakeshore, hinterland and further inland sites with a greater tendency of flies to move to the lakeshore. Trypanosome infection rates of 4.32% for Trypasoma vivax and 1.15% for T. congolense were found in G. f. fuscipes.

  2. Route-Specific Passage Proportions and Survival Rates for Fish Passing through John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Bonneville Dam in 2010 and 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-06-04

    This report fulfills a request of the U.S. Army Engineer District, Portland, Oregon, to produce an interim report of estimates of route-specific fish passage proportions and survival rates for lower Columbia River dams in 2010 and 2011. The estimates are needed to update the Compass Model for the Columbia River Treaty and the new Biological Opinion before detail technical reports are published in late 2012. This report tabulates route-specific fish-passage proportions and survival rates for steelhead and Chinook salmon smolts passing through various sampled routes at John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Bonneville Dam in 2010 and 2011. Results were compiled from analyses of data acquired in spring 2010 and 2011 studies that were specifically designed to estimate dam-passage and forebay-to-tailrace survival rates, travel time metrics, and spill passage efficiency, as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion and the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. The study designs allowed for estimation of route-specific fish passage proportions and survival rates as well as estimation of forebay-passage survival, all of which are summarized herein.

  3. 2011-2012年海南省临高县中医院剖宫产率影响因素分析%Investigation on the cesarean section rate of puerperants in Hainan Lingao hospital from 2011 to 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈克芳

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析研究2011至2012年临高县中医院的剖宫产率,并探讨其相关影响因素。方法选取2011年1月至2012年12月该院2248例产妇为研究对象,对其分娩方式进行分析研究,比较不同病理性因素及非病理性因素者的剖宫产率。结果2248例产妇中共有428例剖宫产,剖宫产率为19.04%,其中存在胎儿宫内窘迫、胎位异常、妊娠期并发症、巨大儿的产妇剖宫产率高于其他产妇,低文化程度、高体质量指数、低社会支持程度及初产妇的剖宫产率高于其他产妇,且其均与剖宫产有密切关系(均P<0.05)。结论2011至2012年该院剖宫产率控制相对较好,且其中病理性及非病理性因素均相对较多,应给予针对性干预。%ObjectiveTo analyze and study the cesarean section rate of puerperants in our hospital from 2011 to 2012,and investigate the related influence factors.Methods2248 puerperants in our hospital from January 2011 to December 2012 were selected as research object,and the delivery mode of all the puerperants were analyzed and studied,then the cesarean section rate of puerperants with different pathological factors and non-pathological factors were analyzed and compared.Results428 cases of 2248 puerperants were with cesarean section,the cesarean section rate was 19.04%,and the cesarean section rate of puerperants with fetal distress,abnormal fetal position,pregnancy complications and giant baby were higher than those of other puerperants,the cesarean section rate of lower education degree,higher BMI,lower social support degree and primiparas were higher than those of other puerperants,and those factors all had closed correction to the cesarean section,allP<0.05,there were all significant differences.ConclusionThe cesarean section rate of puerperants in our hospital from 2011 to 2012 is well controlled,and the pathological factors and non-pathological factors are both more,so they should be paid to

  4. Total- and methyl-mercury concentrations and methylation rates across the freshwater to hypersaline continuum of the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William P.; Swanson, Neil; Black, Brooks; Rudd, Abigail; Carling, Gregory; Fernandez, Diego P.; Luft, John; Van Leeuwen, Jim; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    We examined mercury (Hg) speciation in water and sediment of the Great Salt Lake and surrounding wetlands, a locale spanning fresh to hypersaline and oxic to anoxic conditions, in order to test the hypothesis that spatial and temporal variations in Hg concentration and methylation rates correspond to observed spatial and temporal trends in Hg burdens previously reported in biota. Water column, sediment, and pore water concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg) and total mercury (THg), as well as related aquatic chemical parameters were examined. Inorganic Hg(II)-methylation rates were determined in selected water column and sediment subsamples spiked with inorganic divalent mercury (204Hg(II)). Net production of Me204Hg was expressed as apparent first-order rate constants for methylation (kmeth), which were also expanded to MeHg production potential (MPP) rates via combination with tin reducible ‘reactive’ Hg(II) (Hg(II)R) as a proxy for bioavailable Hg(II). Notable findings include: 1) elevated Hg concentrations previously reported in birds and brine flies were spatially proximal to the measured highest MeHg concentrations, the latter occurring in the anoxic deep brine layer (DBL) of the Great Salt Lake; 2) timing of reduced Hg(II)-methylation rates in the DBL (according to both kmeth and MPP) coincides with reduced Hg burdens among aquatic invertebrates (brine shrimp and brine flies) that act as potential vectors of Hg propagation to the terrestrial ecosystem; 3) values ofkmeth were found to fall within the range reported by other studies; and 4) MPP rates were on the lower end of the range reported in methodologically comparable studies, suggesting the possibility that elevated MeHg in the anoxic deep brine layer results from its accumulation and persistence in this quasi-isolated environment, due to the absence of light (restricting abiotic photo demethylation) and/or minimal microbiological demethylation.

  5. Détection et isolation de défauts par analyse des contraintes géométriques de guidage-pilotage

    OpenAIRE

    Marzat, Julien; Piet-Lahanier, Hélène; Walter, Eric

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Cette communication présente une méthode de détection de défauts pour les systèmes aéronautiques. Pour réaliser leur mission, ces systèmes sont commandés à l'aide d'algorithmes de guidage-pilotage. Le diagnostic est ici considéré du point de vue de la réussite de la mission : si un défaut survient, la commande ne pourra plus être appliquée correctement. L'approche proposée vérifie donc l'adéquation du système aux contraintes géométriques imposées par la loi de guidage-...

  6. Hydrological budget of Lake Chad: assessment of lake-groundwater interaction by coupling Bayesian approach and chemical budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchez, Camille; Goncalves, Julio; Deschamps, Pierre; Seidel, Jean-Luc; Doumnang, Jean-Claude; Sylvestre, Florence

    2014-05-01

    Estimation of lake-groundwater interactions is a crucial step to constrain water balance of lacustrine and aquifer systems. Located in the Sahel, the Lake Chad is at the center of an endorheic basin of 2,5.106 km2. One of the most remarkable features of this terminal lake is that, despite the semi-arid context and high evaporation rates of the area, its waters are fresh. It is proposed in the literature that the solutes are evacuated in the underlying quaternary aquifer bearing witness to the importance of surface water and groundwater exchanges for the chemical regulation of the lake. The water balance of this system is still not fully understood. The respective roles of evaporation versus infiltration into the quaternary aquifer are particularly under constrained. To assess lake-groundwater flows, we used the previous conceptual hydrological model of the lake Chad proposed by Bader et al. (Hydrological Sciences Journal, 2011). This model involves six parameters including infiltration rate. A probabilistic inversion of parameters, based on an exploration of the parameters space through a Metropolis algorithm (a Monte Carlo Markov Chain method), allows the construction of an a posteriori Probability Density Function of each parameter yielding to the best fits between observed lake levels and simulated. Then, a chemical budget of a conservative element, such as chloride, is introduced in the water balance model using the optimal parameters resulting from the Bayesian inverse approach. The model simulates lake level and chloride concentration variations of lake Chad from 1956 up to 2008. Simulated lake levels are in overall agreement with the observations, with a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient above 0.94 for all sets of parameters retained. The infiltration value, obtained by such probabilistic inversion approach, accounts for 120±20 mm/yr, representing 5% of the total outputs of the lake. However, simulated chloride concentrations are overestimated in

  7. Calculating Lake Morphology in the Colville River Delta, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, M.; Walker, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    The morphology and surface area of a lake can be determined using simple mathematical formulas. These formulas can be plugged into a Geographic Information System (GIS) and used to calculate the circularity, smoothness, compactness and orientation of a lake or pond in remotely sensed imagery. The calculated output can then be used to differentiate circular lakes from elongated lakes, lakes with smooth shorelines from those with complex shorelines, and lake orientation; such information can then be used to classify and quantify different types of lakes in complex environments such as river deltas. The Colville River delta is located on the North Slope of Arctic Alaska. Previous studies have classified the delta's 230,000+ lakes into five types: 1. thermokarst (thaw) lakes, 2. oriented lakes, 3. perched lakes, 4 channel lakes and 5. ice-wedge polygon ponds. This study uses 2004 aerial photography and 2011 satellite imagery to quantify the different types of lake in the delta.

  8. Effects of recruitment, growth, and exploitation on walleye population size structure in northern Wisconsin lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Nate, Nancy A.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the dynamics of walleye Sander vitreus population size structure, as indexed by the proportional size distribution (PSD) of quality-length fish, in Escanaba Lake during 1967–2003 and in 204 other lakes in northern Wisconsin during 1990–2011. We estimated PSD from angler-caught walleyes in Escanaba Lake and from spring electrofishing in 204 other lakes, and then related PSD to annual estimates of recruitment to age-3, length at age 3, and annual angling exploitation rate. In Escanaba Lake during 1967–2003, annual estimates of PSD were highly dynamic, growth (positively) explained 35% of PSD variation, recruitment explained only 3% of PSD variation, and exploitation explained only 7% of PSD variation. In 204 other northern Wisconsin lakes during 1990–2011, PSD varied widely among lakes, recruitment (negatively) explained 29% of PSD variation, growth (positively) explained 21% of PSD variation, and exploitation explained only 4% of PSD variation. We conclude that population size structure was most strongly driven by recruitment and growth, rather than exploitation, in northern Wisconsin walleye populations. Studies of other species over wide spatial and temporal ranges of recruitment, growth, and mortality are needed to determine which dynamic rate most strongly influences population size structure of other species. Our findings indicate a need to be cautious about assuming exploitation is a strong driver of walleye population size structure.

  9. Chemicals of emerging concern in water and bottom sediment in Great Lakes areas of concern, 2010 to 2011-Collection methods, analyses methods, quality assurance, and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Langer, Susan K.; Menheer, Michael A.; Foreman, William T.; Furlong, Edward T.; Smith, Steven G.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) cooperated with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on a study to identify the occurrence of chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) in water and bottom-sediment samples collected during 2010–11 at sites in seven areas of concern (AOCs) throughout the Great Lakes. Study sites include tributaries to the Great Lakes in AOCs located near Duluth, Minn.; Green Bay, Wis.; Roches­ter, N.Y.; Detroit, Mich.; Toledo, Ohio; Milwaukee, Wis.; and Ashtabula, Ohio. This report documents the collection meth­ods, analyses methods, quality-assurance data and analyses, and provides the data for this study. Water and bottom-sediment samples were analyzed at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, Colo., for a broad suite of CECs. During this study, 135 environmental and 23 field dupli­cate samples of surface water and wastewater effluent, 10 field blank water samples, and 11 field spike water samples were collected and analyzed. Sixty-one of the 69 wastewater indicator chemicals (laboratory method 4433) analyzed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.002 to 11.2 micrograms per liter. Twenty-eight of the 48 pharmaceuticals (research method 8244) analyzed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.0029 to 22.0 micro­grams per liter. Ten of the 20 steroid hormones and sterols analyzed (research method 4434) were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.16 to 10,000 nanograms per liter. During this study, 75 environmental, 13 field duplicate samples, and 9 field spike samples of bottom sediment were collected and analyzed for a wide variety of CECs. Forty-seven of the 57 wastewater indicator chemicals (laboratory method 5433) analyzed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.921 to 25,800 nanograms per gram. Seventeen of the 20 steroid hormones and sterols (research method 6434) analyzed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.006 to 8,921 nanograms per gram. Twelve of

  10. New York 2011 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Proram

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the NY coasts of Lake Erie and Lake Ontario in 2011....

  11. Investigation of Adsorption Rates of Pb, Cd, Cu, Co and Ni to Fresh-water Surface Coatings Developed in Nanhu Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG De-ming; ZHANG Jing-jing; LI Yu; ZHANG Jun-zhi; HUA Xiu-yi; YANG Fan

    2004-01-01

    The adsorption kinetics of five heavy metals onto the natural surface coatings, which were collected in the Nanhu Lake in Changchun, Jilin Province, China, were investigated for the purpose of giving some explanations for the mechanisms of heavy metal adsorption onto the surface coatings with initial metal ions of 5 μmol/L. The results show that firstly, the adsorption of heavy metals onto the surface coatings follows the first order kinetics; secondly, the double-constant rate equation is suitable to describing the adsorption of heavy metals selected onto the natural aquatic surface coatings, following the order KCu>KPb>KCo>KNi>KCd; thirdly, there is a significant correlation between the adsorption rate and the physical and chemical characteristics of heavy metals, such as E0, ΔfH0m, and ΔfG0m based on the linear regression analysis.

  12. Methane production and ebullition in a shallow, artificially aerated, eutrophic temperate lake (Lake Elsinore, CA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Denise; Anderson, Michael A

    2013-06-01

    Methane is an important component of the gases released from lakes. Understanding the factors influencing the release is important for mitigating this greenhouse gas. The volume of methane (CH4) and other gases in sediments, and the rate of CH4 ebullition, were determined for an artificially aerated, shallow, eutrophic freshwater lake in Southern California. Gas volume was measured at 28 sites in July 2010, followed by monthly sampling at 7 sites through December 2011. Gas volumes measured in July 2010 at the 28 sites exhibited a complex dependence on sediment properties; the volume of CH4 and other gases was negligible in very coarse-textured sediment with low water and organic carbon contents. Gas volumes increased strongly with increased silt content, and were highest in sediments with intermediate water contents (60 to 70%), organic carbon contents (2 to 3%) and depths (approximately 4m). Methane was the dominant gas collected from sediment (80 to 90%), while carbon dioxide comprised roughly 2 to 3% of sediment gas in the lake. Gas sampling during cool winter months revealed very low or undetectable volumes of gas present, while sediment gas volumes increased markedly during the spring and early summer months, and then declined in late summer and fall. The rate of CH4 ebullition, quantified with an echosounder, also varied markedly across the lake and seasonally. High rates of ebullition were measured at all 7 sites in July 2011 (up to 96mmolCH4m(-2)d(-1)), while the rates were >50% lower in September and negligible in December 2010. Ebullition rates were inversely correlated with depth and most other sediment properties, but strongly positively correlated with sand content. No simple relationship between ebullition rate and sediment gas volume across the set of sites was found, although ebullition rates at individual sites were strongly related to gas volume.

  13. Microbial community in a sediment-hosted CO(2) lake of the southern Okinawa Trough hydrothermal system RID C-8303-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inagaki, Fumio; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Tsunogai, Urumu

    2006-01-01

    Increasing levels Of CO(2) in the atmosphere are expected to cause climatic change with negative effects on the earth's ecosystems and human society. Consequently, a variety of CO(2) disposal options are discussed, including injection into the deep ocean. Because the dissolution Of CO(2) in seawa......Increasing levels Of CO(2) in the atmosphere are expected to cause climatic change with negative effects on the earth's ecosystems and human society. Consequently, a variety of CO(2) disposal options are discussed, including injection into the deep ocean. Because the dissolution Of CO(2......) in seawater will decrease ambient pH considerably, negative consequences for deep-water ecosystems have been predicted. Hence, ecosystems associated with natural Co(2) reservoirs in the deep sea, and the dynamics of gaseous, liquid, and solid CO(2) in such environments, are of great interest to science...... and society. We report here a biogeochemical and microbiological characterization of a microbial community inhabiting deep-sea sediments overlying a natural CO(2) lake at the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field, southern Okinawa Trough. We found high abundances (> 10(9) CM(-3)) of microbial cells in sediment...

  14. Analysis of Advantages and Disadvantages on the Lake of Corporate Capacity of 2011 Collaborative Innovation Center in University%高校"2011协同创新中心"法人资格缺失利弊分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军山; 杨明; 贺睿博; 刘秋旭

    2015-01-01

    由于当前法律和政策限制,2011协同创新中心(以下简称"中心")及其牵头单位自身利益考量等因素导致高校中心法人资格缺失,这使中心对外业务不得不依赖牵头单位,加大了牵头单位压力和风险,也影响了其他参与单位的积极性.但中心获得法人资格后又会带来税收增加、财政资金融通渠道堵塞等弊端.为保证中心可持续发展,应建立"公益型"现代公司法人治理的组织管理模式,确保效率和公益性相统一.%Because of current legal and policy restrictions and maximizing its own interest, the 2011 Collaborative Innovation Center in universityis still a group without corporate capacity. And the center has to rely on its leading member to carry out their business. This will inevitably increase working load facing with its leading member. And this will also bring negative effect on the enthusiasm of other participating member. However, it would have to face other problems such as payingmore tax and ifnancial channel blockage if the center has corporate capacity. In order to ensure the sustainable development,a special management mechanism such as public interest type should be provided and used within the center to ensure the unity of efifciency and public welfare.

  15. Suicide and the 2008 economic recession: who is most at risk? Trends in suicide rates in England and Wales 2001-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coope, Caroline; Gunnell, David; Hollingworth, William; Hawton, Keith; Kapur, Nav; Fearn, Vanessa; Wells, Claudia; Metcalfe, Chris

    2014-09-01

    The negative impacts of previous economic recessions on suicide rates have largely been attributed to rapid rises in unemployment in the context of inadequate social and work protection programmes. We have investigated trends in indicators of the 2008 economic recession and trends in suicide rates in England and Wales in men and women of working age (16-64 years old) for the period 2001-2011, before, during and after the economic recession, our aim was to identify demographic groups whose suicide rates were most affected. We found no clear evidence of an association between trends in female suicide rates and indicators of economic recession. Evidence of a halt in the previous downward trend in suicide rates occurred for men aged 16-34 years in 2006 (95% CI Quarter 3 (Q3) 2004, Q3 2007 for 16-24 year olds & Q1 2005, Q4 2006 for 25-34 year olds), whilst suicide rates in 35-44 year old men reversed from a downward to upward trend in early 2010 (95% CI Q4 2008, Q2 2011). For the younger men (16-34 years) this change preceded the sharp increases in redundancy and unemployment rates of early 2008 and lagged behind rising trends in house repossessions and bankruptcy that began around 2003. An exception were the 35-44 year old men for whom a change in suicide rate trends from downwards to upwards coincided with peaks in redundancies, unemployment and rises in long-term unemployment. Suicide rates across the decade rose monotonically in men aged 45-64 years. Male suicide in the most-to-medium deprived areas showed evidence of decreasing rates across the decade, whilst in the least-deprived areas suicide rates were fairly static but remained much lower than those in the most-deprived areas. There were small post-recession increases in the proportion of suicides in men in higher management/professional, small employer/self-employed occupations and fulltime education. A halt in the downward trend in suicide rates amongst men aged 16-34 years, may have begun before the 2008

  16. Suicide and the 2008 economic recession: Who is most at risk? Trends in suicide rates in England and Wales 2001–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coope, Caroline; Gunnell, David; Hollingworth, William; Hawton, Keith; Kapur, Nav; Fearn, Vanessa; Wells, Claudia; Metcalfe, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The negative impacts of previous economic recessions on suicide rates have largely been attributed to rapid rises in unemployment in the context of inadequate social and work protection programmes. We have investigated trends in indicators of the 2008 economic recession and trends in suicide rates in England and Wales in men and women of working age (16–64 years old) for the period 2001–2011, before, during and after the economic recession, our aim was to identify demographic groups whose suicide rates were most affected. We found no clear evidence of an association between trends in female suicide rates and indicators of economic recession. Evidence of a halt in the previous downward trend in suicide rates occurred for men aged 16–34 years in 2006 (95% CI Quarter 3 (Q3) 2004, Q3 2007 for 16–24 year olds & Q1 2005, Q4 2006 for 25–34 year olds), whilst suicide rates in 35–44 year old men reversed from a downward to upward trend in early 2010 (95% CI Q4 2008, Q2 2011). For the younger men (16–34 years) this change preceded the sharp increases in redundancy and unemployment rates of early 2008 and lagged behind rising trends in house repossessions and bankruptcy that began around 2003. An exception were the 35–44 year old men for whom a change in suicide rate trends from downwards to upwards coincided with peaks in redundancies, unemployment and rises in long-term unemployment. Suicide rates across the decade rose monotonically in men aged 45–64 years. Male suicide in the most-to-medium deprived areas showed evidence of decreasing rates across the decade, whilst in the least-deprived areas suicide rates were fairly static but remained much lower than those in the most-deprived areas. There were small post-recession increases in the proportion of suicides in men in higher management/professional, small employer/self-employed occupations and fulltime education. A halt in the downward trend in suicide rates amongst men aged 16–34 years, may have begun

  17. Hospitalisation, surgical and medical recurrence rates in inflammatory bowel disease 2003-2011-A Danish population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Andersen, Marianne K.; Vind, Ida; Prosberg, Michelle V.;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the cumulative probability of recurrence and admission rates in an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) inception cohort diagnosed in 2003-2004. METHODS: Data on medications, phenotypes and surgery for 513 individuals with ulcerative colitis (UC, n=300...... (47%) had at least one IBD-related hospitalisation. The hospitalisation rate decreased from 7.0 days/person-year in year one to 0.9 day at year 5 in CD, and from 4.7 days to 0.4 days for UC patients. Age above 40, current smoking, stricturing behaviour, and disease localisation (colonic, ileocolonic......, but not the surgery or hospitalisation rates, have decreased for CD but not for UC. The phenotypic characteristics at diagnosis predict the risk of recurrence and hospitalisation....

  18. Profile and artificial insemination practices of technicians and the artificial insemination success rates in Leyte, Samar, and Biliran, Philippines (2011-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybañez, Adrian P; Ybañez, Rochelle Haidee D; Caindec, Maxine O; Mani, Louie V; Abela, Julius V; Nuñez, Edgar S; Royo, Johnson T; Lopez, Ivy Fe M

    2017-02-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is a reproductive biotechnology that may be influenced by several factors, including the profile of the technicians and the practices used. Assessing technician's profile and their AI practices can be significant in improving AI success rate. This study aimed to know the profile and current practices used by AI technicians (AITs), to determine the success rates of AI in water buffaloes in Leyte, Samar, and Biliran from 2011 to 2015, and to evaluate the possible association between the parameters investigated. A total of 50 AITs from Leyte, Samar and Biliran, Philippines, were interviewed using a fixed questionnaire about their profile and employed AI practices, and 20,455 AI-related records of the Philippine Carabao Center (PCC) at Visayas State University (VSU), Baybay City, Leyte, were screened and analyzed. AI success rates were determined by retrospective analysis of the gathered data. Statistical analysis was performed between the technician profile and practices and the AI success rates. Results revealed that most of the technicians were male, around 31-40 years old, married, college graduates, working under local government units, had other sources of income, and with 1-5 years of continuous AI practice averaging 51-100 inseminations per year. Most of them attended only one basic training seminar, which was conducted more than 3 years ago in PCC in VSU. AI success rates were recorded highest in 2011 and lowest in 2015. Statistical analyses showed that some technician profile parameters (civil status, average AI per year, and the training center) and several practices (checking of soft cervix, rectal palpation, thawing temperature method, straw cutting method, and semen deposition) might have an influence on the success of AI. This study documents the first report on AIT's profile and their employed AI practices and the AI success rates in Leyte, Samar, and Biliran, Philippines. Selected profile parameters and AI practices may

  19. Publication rate of abstracts presented at the emergency medicine congresses held by the European Society for Emergency Medicine (EUSEM) in 2011 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Asim; Kose, Ozkan; Bilir, Ozlem; Ersunan, Gokhan; Ozel, Deniz; Guler, Ferhat

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the publication rate of the abstracts presented at the 6th Mediterranean Emergency Medicine Congress, 2011 and the 7th European Congress on Emergency Medicine, 2012. All abstracts, both posters and oral presentations, from the international emergency medicine congresses held by the European Society for Emergency Medicine (EUSEM) in 2011 and 2012 were identified. To establish whether these abstracts were subsequently published in peer-reviewed medical journals, the names of all the authors and the title of the abstracts were searched for in the databases of Clinical Key/Elsevier, EBSCO Discovery Service, MD Consult, Science Direct, Scopus, EMBASE, Medscape, Google Scholar and local ULAKBIM. The year of publication, consistency of author names and titles, the type of study, the journals in which papers were published and countries from which reports were submitted were all recorded. A total of 1721 abstracts were examined; 626 from 2011 (307 oral presentations and 319 posters) and 1095 from 2012 (154 oral presentations and 941 posters). Of all abstracts in 2011, 172 (27.5%) and of all abstracts in 2012, 265 (24.2%) were subsequently published as full-text reports in peer-reviewed journals. Of the 172 papers published in 2011, 152 (88.4%) were accepted by Science Citation Index (SCI) and/or SCI Expanded (SCI-E) journals and 155 (58.5%) of 265 papers were accepted by SCI and/or SCI-E journals in 2012 (p=0.0001). The publication rate of abstracts submitted to international emergency medicine congresses held by EUSEM over those 2 years was low compared with that of abstracts presented in other emergency medicine congresses. Presenters should be encouraged to send their studies to peer-reviewed journals. During the selection process by the scientific panel, constructive critics should be notified to the presenters instead of simply accepting or rejecting the studies that submitted to the congress, which may increase the

  20. Assessment of the health care waste generation rates and its management system in hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Debere Mesfin Kote; Gelaye Kassahun Alemu; Alamdo Andamlak Gizaw; Trifa Zemedu Mehamed

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Healthcare waste management options are varying in Ethiopia. One of the first critical steps in the process of developing a reliable waste management plan requires a widespread understanding of the amount and the management system. This study aimed to assess the health care waste generation rate and its management system in some selected hospitals located in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Six hospitals in Addis Ababa, (three private and three public), were selected using s...

  1. Tropical Controls on the CO2 Atmospheric Growth Rate 2010-2011 from the NASA Carbon Monitoring System Flux (CMS-Flux) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, K. W.; Liu, J.; Parazoo, N.; Lee, M.; Menemenlis, D.; Gierach, M. M.; Brix, H.; Gurney, K. R.; Collatz, G. J.; Bousserez, N.; Henze, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    Interannual variations in the atmospheric growth rate of CO2 have been attributed to the tropical regions and the controls are correlated with temperature anomalies. We investigate the spatial drivers of the atmospheric growth rate and the processes controlling them over the exceptional period of 2010-2011. This period was marked by a marked shift from an El Nino to La Nina period resulting in historically high sea surface temperature anomalies in the tropical Atlantic leading to serious droughts in the Amazon. However, in 2011, unusual precipitation in Australia was linked to gross primary productivity anomalies in semi-arid regions. We use satellite observations of CO2, CO, and solar induced fluorescence assimilated into the NASA Carbon Monitoring System Project (CMS-Flux) to attribute the atmospheric growth rate to global, spatially resolved fluxes. This system is based upon observationally-constrained "bottom-up" estimates from the Fossil Fuel Data Assimilation System (FFDAS), the ECCO2­-Darwin physical and biogeochemical adjoint ocean state estimation system, and CASA-GFED3 land-surface biogeochemical model. The system is used to compute regional tropical and extra-tropical fluxes and quantify the role of biomass burning and gross primary productivity in controlling those fluxes.

  2. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by fulvic acids isolated from Big Soda Lake, Nevada, USA, The Suwannee River, Georgia, USA and by polycarboxylic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Michael M.; Leenheer, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    Calcite crystallization rates are characterized using a constant solution composition at 25°C, pH=8.5, and calcite supersaturation (Ω) of 4.5 in the absence and presence of fulvic acids isolated from Big Soda Lake, Nevada (BSLFA), and a fulvic acid from the Suwannee River, Georgia (SRFA). Rates are also measured in the presence and absence of low-molar mass, aliphatic-alicyclic polycarboxylic acids (PCA). BSLFA inhibits calcite crystal-growth rates with increasing BSLFA concentration, suggesting that BSLFA adsorbs at growth sites on the calcite crystal surface. Calcite growth morphology in the presence of BSLFA differed from growth in its absence, supporting an adsorption mechanism of calcite-growth inhibition by BSLFA. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by BSLFA is consistent with a model indicating that polycarboxylic acid molecules present in BSLFA adsorb at growth sites on the calcite crystal surface. In contrast to published results for an unfractionated SRFA, there is dramatic calcite growth inhibition (at a concentration of 1 mg/L) by a SRFA fraction eluted by pH 5 solution from XAD-8 resin, indicating that calcite growth-rate inhibition is related to specific SRFA component fractions. A cyclic PCA, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-cyclohexane hexacarboxylic acid (CHXHCA) is a strong calcite growth-rate inhibitor at concentrations less than 0.1 mg/L. Two other cyclic PCAs, 1, 1 cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid (CPDCA) and 1, 1 cyclobutanedicarboxylic acid (CBDCA) with the carboxylic acid groups attached to the same ring carbon atom, have no effect on calcite growth rates up to concentrations of 10 mg/L. Organic matter ad-sorbed from the air onto the seed crystals has no effect on the measured calcite crystal-growth rates.

  3. Evidence of circadian rhythm, oxygen regulation capacity, metabolic repeatability and positive correlations between forced and spontaneous maximal metabolic rates in lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon C Svendsen

    Full Text Available Animal metabolic rate is variable and may be affected by endogenous and exogenous factors, but such relationships remain poorly understood in many primitive fishes, including members of the family Acipenseridae (sturgeons. Using juvenile lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens, the objective of this study was to test four hypotheses: 1 A. fulvescens exhibits a circadian rhythm influencing metabolic rate and behaviour; 2 A. fulvescens has the capacity to regulate metabolic rate when exposed to environmental hypoxia; 3 measurements of forced maximum metabolic rate (MMR(F are repeatable in individual fish; and 4 MMR(F correlates positively with spontaneous maximum metabolic rate (MMR(S. Metabolic rates were measured using intermittent flow respirometry, and a standard chase protocol was employed to elicit MMR(F. Trials lasting 24 h were used to measure standard metabolic rate (SMR and MMR(S. Repeatability and correlations between MMR(F and MMR(S were analyzed using residual body mass corrected values. Results revealed that A. fulvescens exhibit a circadian rhythm in metabolic rate, with metabolism peaking at dawn. SMR was unaffected by hypoxia (30% air saturation (O(2sat, demonstrating oxygen regulation. In contrast, MMR(F was affected by hypoxia and decreased across the range from 100% O(2sat to 70% O(2sat. MMR(F was repeatable in individual fish, and MMR(F correlated positively with MMR(S, but the relationships between MMR(F and MMR(S were only revealed in fish exposed to hypoxia or 24 h constant light (i.e. environmental stressor. Our study provides evidence that the physiology of A. fulvescens is influenced by a circadian rhythm and suggests that A. fulvescens is an oxygen regulator, like most teleost fish. Finally, metabolic repeatability and positive correlations between MMR(F and MMR(S support the conjecture that MMR(F represents a measure of organism performance that could be a target of natural selection.

  4. Estimación de la Incidencia de Cáncer de Tiroides en Capital Federal y el Gran Buenos Aires (período 2003-2011 Incidences Rates of Thyroid Cancer in Buenos Aires (2003-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo N Faure

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La incidencia del cáncer de tiroides ha aumentado significativamente en las últimas décadas en el resto del mundo. En Argentina no existe un registro nacional de cáncer por lo que la incidencia del mismo no puede establecerse. Por lo tanto, nuestro objetivo fue estimar la incidencia de cáncer de tiroides en la población de la Ciudad Autánoma de Buenos aires y Gran Buenos Aires así como la relación por género y la histología en el período de 2003 hasta 2011. Asumiendo que la población de afiliados a la Obra Social de la Policía Federal Argentina es representativa de los habitantes de Buenos Aires y el conurbano calculamos que la incidencia es de 6,51 casos/100.000 habitantes/año, con un incremento en 25 años mayor al doble, con predominio del carcinoma papilar frente al folicular.Thyroid cancer incidence has significantly risen worldwide in the last decades. In Argentina, there is no national cancer registry; therefore its incidence can not be established. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of thyroid cancer in the population of Buenos Aires City and suburbs, and the relationship between gender and histology over the period 2003-2011. Assuming that the population affiliated to the Social Security of the Argentine Federal Police is representative of the inhabitants of Buenos Aires City and suburbs, we estimate an incidence of 6.51 cases/100,000 population/year, with an increasing incidence of almost double from 1981-1986 to 2003-2011. An increase in papillary thyroid cancer was mainly responsible for this rising trend. Incidence rates were higher for females (11.76/100,000 women compared to those for males (2.65/100,000 men. Among men and women of all ages, the highest rate of incidence was for tumor size < 1 cm.

  5. Trends in Cancer Screening Rates among Korean Men and Women: Results from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), 2004-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Boyoung; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Yoon Young; Jun, Jae Kwan; Seo, Hong Gwan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS) is a nationwide survey conducted annually, since 2004. This study was conducted in order to report on trends in rates of cancer screening for five major cancers-stomach, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervix uteri in Korea. Materials and Methods Data collected by the KNCSS between 2004 and 2011 were used in this study. The eligible study population included cancer-free men who were 40 years old and over, and women who were 30 years o...

  6. The rate of the productivity of human resources, capital, and energy in sub-sectors of industry during 1991-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Parandakh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the rate of productivity of human resources, capital, and energy (electricity in a selection of sub-sectors of industry (basic metals, chemicals, non-metallic minerals, rubber and plastic products, and food products during 1991-2011 using the econometric methods. For this purpose, first, the amount of the stability of the model's variables in time series was tested. Then, the existence of co-integration between them was determined and, finally, the productivity of the model was calculated using ARDL. According to the results, the elasticity of labor force, capital and energy were 1.07, 1.47 and -0.23, respectively.

  7. Detecting methane ebullition on thermokarst lake ice using high resolution optical aerial imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Lindgren

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Thermokarst lakes are important emitters of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. However, accurate estimation of methane flux from thermokarst lakes is difficult due to their remoteness and observational challenges associated with the heterogeneous nature of ebullition (bubbling. We used multi-temporal high-resolution (9–11 cm aerial images of an interior Alaskan thermokarst lake, Goldstream Lake, acquired 2 and 4 days following freeze-up in 2011 and 2012, respectively, to characterize methane ebullition seeps and to estimate whole-lake ebullition. Bubbles impeded by the lake ice sheet form distinct white patches as a function of bubbling rate vs. time as ice thickens. Our aerial imagery thus captured in a single snapshot the ebullition events that occurred before the image acquisition. Image analysis showed that low-flux A- and B-type seeps are associated with low brightness patches and are statistically distinct from high-flux C-type and Hotspot seeps associated with high brightness patches. Mean whole-lake ebullition based on optical image analysis in combination with bubble-trap flux measurements was estimated to be 174 ± 28 and 216 ± 33 mL gas m−2 d−1 for the years 2011 and 2012, respectively. A large number of seeps demonstrated spatio-temporal stability over our two-year study period. A strong inverse exponential relationship (R2 ≥ 0.79 was found between percent surface area of lake ice covered with bubble patches and distance from the active thermokarst lake margin. Our study shows that optical remote sensing is a powerful tool to map ebullition seeps on lake ice, to identify their relative strength of ebullition and to assess their spatio-temporal variability.

  8. Methane production and ebullition in a shallow, artificially aerated, eutrophic temperate lake (Lake Elsinore, CA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Denise; Anderson, Michael A., E-mail: michael.anderson@ucr.edu

    2013-06-01

    Methane is an important component of the gases released from lakes. Understanding the factors influencing the release is important for mitigating this greenhouse gas. The volume of methane (CH{sub 4}) and other gases in sediments, and the rate of CH{sub 4} ebullition, were determined for an artificially aerated, shallow, eutrophic freshwater lake in Southern California. Gas volume was measured at 28 sites in July 2010, followed by monthly sampling at 7 sites through December 2011. Gas volumes measured in July 2010 at the 28 sites exhibited a complex dependence on sediment properties; the volume of CH{sub 4} and other gases was negligible in very coarse-textured sediment with low water and organic carbon contents. Gas volumes increased strongly with increased silt content, and were highest in sediments with intermediate water contents (60 to 70%), organic carbon contents (2 to 3%) and depths (approximately 4 m). Methane was the dominant gas collected from sediment (80 to 90%), while carbon dioxide comprised roughly 2 to 3% of sediment gas in the lake. Gas sampling during cool winter months revealed very low or undetectable volumes of gas present, while sediment gas volumes increased markedly during the spring and early summer months, and then declined in late summer and fall. The rate of CH{sub 4} ebullition, quantified with an echosounder, also varied markedly across the lake and seasonally. High rates of ebullition were measured at all 7 sites in July 2011 (up to 96 mmol CH{sub 4} m{sup −2} d{sup −1}), while the rates were > 50% lower in September and negligible in December 2010. Ebullition rates were inversely correlated with depth and most other sediment properties, but strongly positively correlated with sand content. No simple relationship between ebullition rate and sediment gas volume across the set of sites was found, although ebullition rates at individual sites were strongly related to gas volume. - Highlights: • Volume of gas in sediments and rate

  9. Earthquake-induced soft-sediment deformations and seismically amplified erosion rates recorded in varved sediments of Köyceğiz Lake (SW Turkey)

    KAUST Repository

    Avsar, Ulas

    2016-06-06

    Earthquake-triggered landslides amplify erosion rates in catchments, i.e. catchment response to seismic shocks (CR). In addition to historical eyewitness accounts of muddy rivers implying CRs after large earthquakes, several studies have quantitatively reported increased sediment concentrations in rivers after earthquakes. However, only a few paleolimnological studies could detect CRs within lacustrine sedimentary sequences as siliciclastic-enriched intercalations within background sedimentation. Since siliciclastic-enriched intercalations can easily be of non-seismic origin, their temporal correlation with nearby earthquakes is crucial to assign a seismic triggering mechanism. In most cases, either uncertainties in dating methods or the lack of recent seismic activity has prevented reliable temporal correlations, making the seismic origin of observed sedimentary events questionable. Here, we attempt to remove this question mark by presenting sedimentary traces of CRs in the 370-year-long varved sequence of Köyceğiz Lake (SW Turkey) that we compare with estimated peak ground acceleration (PGA) values of several nearby earthquakes. We find that earthquakes exceeding estimated PGA values of ca. 20 cm/s2 can induce soft-sediment deformations (SSD), while CRs seem only to be triggered by PGA levels higher than 70 cm/s2. In Köyceğiz Lake, CRs produce Cr- and Ni-enriched sedimentation due to the seismically mobilized soils derived from ultramafic rocks in the catchment. Given the varve chronology, the residence time of the seismically mobilized material in the catchment is determined to be 5 to 10 years.

  10. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, DODGE COUNTY, WISCONSIN (AND INCORPORATED AREAS) - Fox Lake Physical Map Revision

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  11. Lake Cadagno

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonolla, Mauro; Storelli, Nicola; Danza, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Lake Cadagno (26 ha) is a crenogenic meromictic lake located in the Swiss Alps at 1921 m asl with a maximum depth of 21 m. The presence of crystalline rocks and a dolomite vein rich in gypsum in the catchment area makes the lake a typical “sulphuretum ” dominated by coupled carbon and sulphur cyc...

  12. Reevaluation of lake trout and lake whitefish bioenergetics models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steve A.; Kao, Yu-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Using a corrected algorithm for balancing the energy budget, we reevaluated the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the laboratory and for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in the laboratory and in the field. For lake trout, results showed that the bioenergetics model slightly overestimated food consumption by the lake trout when they were fed low and intermediate rations, whereas the model predicted food consumption by lake trout fed ad libitum without any detectable bias. The slight bias in model predictions for lake trout on restricted rations may have been an artifact of the feeding schedule for these fish, and we would therefore recommend application of the Wisconsin lake trout bioenergetics model to lake trout populations in the field without any revisions to the model. Use of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for coregonids resulted in overestimation of food consumption by lake whitefish both in the laboratory and in the field by between 20 and 30%, on average. This overestimation of food consumption was most likely due to overestimation of respiration rate. We therefore adjusted the respiration component of the bioenergetics model to obtain a good fit to the observed consumption in our laboratory tanks. The adjusted model predicted the consumption in the laboratory and the field without any detectable bias. Until a detailed lake whitefish respiration study can be conducted, we recommend application of our adjusted version of the Wisconsin generalized coregonid bioenergetics model to lake whitefish populations in the field.

  13. Evaluation on Surveillance of Routine Immunization Coverage Rate in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in 2011%内蒙古自治区2011年常规免疫接种率监测结果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭广亮; 武贵森; 田晓灵; 范耀春

    2013-01-01

    Objective To get the information about routine immunization coverage in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region,and to evaluate the surveillance data.Methods The surveillance data were compared and analyzed by difference-value method and ratio-value method.Results The reported immunization coverage rates of BCG,DPT,HepB,PV,MCV and JE were all higher than 99%,while the estimated rates were all lower than 95%.The results of R value evaluation in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region were credible,while those of D value evaluation were unreliable.Conclusions The reality and accuracy of the reported routine immunization coverage rates in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region need to be improved.%目的 了解内蒙古自治区2011年常规免疫接种情况,对常规免疫接种率监测结果进行评价. 方法 通过差值法和比值法对监测结果进行比较分析. 结果 内蒙古全区卡介苗(BCG)、百白破疫苗(DPT)、乙肝疫苗(HepB)、脊髓灰质炎疫苗(PV)、麻类疫苗(MCV)和乙脑疫苗(JE)六苗常规免疫报告接种率均高于99%,估算接种率均小于95%.全区D值评价为不可信,R值评价为可信. 结论 内蒙古常规免疫接种率报告真实性、准确性有待提高.

  14. Regional stressing rate appears to control duration and decay of off-fault aftershocks in the 2011 M=9.0 Tohoku-oki, Japan, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, S.; Stein, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    The 11 March 2001 M=9.0 Tohoku-oki, Japan, earthquake brought the unprecedented broad increase in seismicity over inland Japan and far offshore. The seismicity rate increase was observed at distances of up to 425 km from the locus of high seismic slip on the megathrust, which roughly corresponds to the areas over 0.1 bar Coulomb stress increase (e.g., Toda et al., 2011). Such stress perturbation in the entire eastern Honshu island gives us a great opportunity to test one of the hypotheses in rate and state friction of Dieterich (1994): aftershock duration (ta) is inversely proportional to fault stressing rate. The Tohoku-oki mainshock indeed started a stopwatch simultaneously for all the off-fault and on-fault aftershocks in various tectonic situations. We have carefully examined the aftershock decays fitting the Omori-Utsu formula in several activated regions, including on the 2011 source fault, several inland areas of Tohoku (Akita, Iwaki, northern Sendai, and Fukushima), Tokyo metropolitan area, Choshi (east of Tokyo), Izu Peninsula, and areas along the most active Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL) central Honshu. Comparing the regional aftershock decays with the background rates of seismicity estimated from the JMA catalog from 2000 to 2010, we measured ta. One of the extreme short duration was measured at the Izu Peninsula where the heightened seismicity was rapidly toned down to the normal in one month. Overall seismicity in the Tohoku mainshock zone has been mostly closing to normal in 2 - 3 years. Both regions are characterized by high loading rate due to plate collision and subduction. Seismicity beneath Tokyo, also characterized by complex plate interfaces and brought average 1 bar closer to failure, has not followed the simple Omori decay but being settled a new higher rate after a rapid decay. In contrast to these highly deformed regions, current seismicity in slowly loading Tohoku inland regions are still much higher than background rate, which

  15. Profile and artificial insemination practices of technicians and the artificial insemination success rates in Leyte, Samar, and Biliran, Philippines (2011-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian P. Ybañez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Artificial insemination (AI is a reproductive biotechnology that may be influenced by several factors, including the profile of the technicians and the practices used. Assessing technician’s profile and their AI practices can be significant in improving AI success rate. Aim: This study aimed to know the profile and current practices used by AI technicians (AITs, to determine the success rates of AI in water buffaloes in Leyte, Samar, and Biliran from 2011 to 2015, and to evaluate the possible association between the parameters investigated. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 AITs from Leyte, Samar and Biliran, Philippines, were interviewed using a fixed questionnaire about their profile and employed AI practices, and 20,455 AI-related records of the Philippine Carabao Center (PCC at Visayas State University (VSU, Baybay City, Leyte, were screened and analyzed. AI success rates were determined by retrospective analysis of the gathered data. Statistical analysis was performed between the technician profile and practices and the AI success rates. Results: Results revealed that most of the technicians were male, around 31-40 years old, married, college graduates, working under local government units, had other sources of income, and with 1-5 years of continuous AI practice averaging 51-100 inseminations per year. Most of them attended only one basic training seminar, which was conducted more than 3 years ago in PCC in VSU. AI success rates were recorded highest in 2011 and lowest in 2015. Statistical analyses showed that some technician profile parameters (civil status, average AI per year, and the training center and several practices (checking of soft cervix, rectal palpation, thawing temperature method, straw cutting method, and semen deposition might have an influence on the success of AI. Conclusion: This study documents the first report on AIT’s profile and their employed AI practices and the AI success rates in Leyte, Samar

  16. LIMNOLOGY, LAKE BASINS, LAKE WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre GÂŞTESCU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Limnology is a border discipline between geography, hydrology and biology, and is also closely connected with other sciences, from it borrows research methods. Physical limnology (the geography of lakes, studies lake biotopes, and biological limnology (the biology of lakes, studies lake biocoenoses. The father of limnology is the Swiss scientist F.A. Forel, the author of a three-volume entitled Le Leman: monographie limnologique (1892-1904, which focuses on the geology physics, chemistry and biology of lakes. He was also author of the first textbook of limnology, Handbuch der Seenkunde: allgemeine Limnologie,(1901. Since both the lake biotope and its biohydrocoenosis make up a single whole, the lake and lakes, respectively, represent the most typical systems in nature. They could be called limnosystems (lacustrine ecosystems, a microcosm in itself, as the American biologist St.A. Forbes put it (1887.

  17. Water production rate of Comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) throughout the 2011-2012 apparition: Evidence for an icy grain halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combi, M. R.; Mäkinen, J. T. T.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Quémerais, E.; Ferron, S.; Fougere, N.

    2013-07-01

    The all-sky hydrogen Lyman-alpha camera, SWAN (Solar Wind Anisotropies), on the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite made observations of the hydrogen coma of Comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) throughout its apparition from August 15, 2011 through April 6, 2012. SOHO has been operating in a halo orbit around the Earth-Sun L1 Lagrange point since its launch in late 1995. Most water vapor produced by the comet is ultimately photodissociated into two H atoms and one O atom producing a huge atomic hydrogen coma that is routinely observed in the daily full-sky SWAN images in comets of sufficient brightness. Water production rates were calculated from 117 images over 8 months of the apparition yielding about 1 observation every 2 days on the average. The activity during much of the pre-perihelion leg was much larger than the post-perihelion leg and varied rather irregularly, not following the more typical steadily increasing trend with decreasing heliocentric distance. It varied generally between 1 and 3 × 1029 s-1, with a peak value of 4 × 1029 s-1 on November 3, 2011, 50 days before perihelion. The elevated production rate from the very large SWAN field-of-view compared with smaller aperture observations could be consistent with water production from icy particles rather than from gas sublimated directly from the nucleus. Scenarios for the nature and production of the icy grain source are explored. During the post-perihelion leg the water production rate decreased more uniformly and typically from 2 × 1029 s-1 at perihelion, approximately as r-3.2, where r is the heliocentric distance. This is consistent with water sublimation from a reasonably constant total surface area.

  18. Dynamic Simulation of the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku Earthquake with Geometric Complexity on a Rate- and State-dependent Subduction Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, B.; Duan, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Mw 9.0 Tohoku megathrust earthquake on 11 March 2011 is a great surprise to the scientific community due to its unexpected occurrence on the subduction zone of Japan Trench where earthquakes of magnitude ~7 to 8 are expected based on historical records. Slip distribution and kinematic slip history inverted from seismic data, GPS and tsunami recordings reveal two major aspects of this big event: a strong asperity near the hypocenter and large slip near the trench. To investigate physical conditions of these two aspects, we perform dynamic rupture simulations on a shallow-dipping rate- and state-dependent subduction plane with topographic relief. Although existence of a subducted seamount just up-dip of the hypocenter is still an open question, high Vp anomalies [Zhao et al., 2011] and low Vp/Vs anomalies [Yamamoto et al., 2014] there strongly suggest some kind of topographic relief exists there. We explicitly incorporate a subducted seamount on the subduction surface into our models. Our preliminary results show that the subducted seamount play a significant role in dynamic rupture propagation due to the alteration of the stress state around it. We find that a subducted seamount can act as a strong barrier to many earthquakes, but its ultimate failure after some earthquake cycles results in giant earthquakes. Its failure gives rise to large stress drop, resulting in a strong asperity in slip distribution as revealed in kinematic inversions. Our preliminary results also suggest that the rate- and state- friction law plays an important role in rupture propagation of geometrically complex faults. Although rate-strengthening behavior near the trench impedes rupture propagation, an energetic rupture can break such a barrier and manage to reach the trench, resulting in significant uplift at seafloor and hence devastating tsunami to human society.

  19. Higher Prevalence and Awareness, but Lower Control Rate of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes than General Population: The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seung-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kim, Dae Jung; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Kim, Nan Hee; Kim, Chul Sik; Song, Kee-Ho; Won, Jong Chul; Lim, Soo; Choi, Sung Hee; Han, Kyungdo

    2014-01-01

    Background We investigated the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rate of hypertension in Korean adults with diabetes using nationally representative data. Methods Using data of 5,105 adults from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011 (4,389 nondiabetes mellitus [non-DM]), 242 newly diagnosed with DM (new-DM), and 474 previously diagnosed with DM (known-DM), we analyzed the prevalence of hypertension (mean systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication) and control rate of hypertension (blood pressure [BP] <130/80 mm Hg). Results The prevalence of hypertension in diabetic adults was 54.6% (44.4% in new-DM and 62.6% in known-DM, P<0.0001 and P<0.0001, respectively) compared with non-DM adults (26.2%). Compared to non-DM, awareness (85.7%, P<0.001) and treatment (97.0%, P=0.020) rates were higher in known-DM, whereas no differences were found between new-DM and non-DM. Control rate among all hypertensive subjects was lower in new-DM (14.9%), compared to non-DM (35.1%, P<0.001) and known-DM (33.3%, P=0.004). Control rate among treated subjects was also lower in new-DM (25.2%), compared to non-DM (68.4%, P<0.0001) and known-DM (39.9%, P<0.0001). Conclusion Higher prevalence and low control rate of hypertension in adults with diabetes suggest that stringent efforts are needed to control BP in patients with diabetes, particularly in newly diagnosed diabetic patients. PMID:24627828

  20. Is Increasing Coal Seam Gas Well Development Activity Associated with Increasing Hospitalisation Rates in Queensland, Australia? An Exploratory Analysis 1995–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Angela K.; Cameron, Cate M.; Watt, Kerrianne; Vink, Sue; Jagals, Paul; Page, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The majority of Australia’s coal seam gas (CSG) reserves are in Queensland, where the industry has expanded rapidly in recent years. Despite concerns, health data have not been examined alongside CSG development. This study examined hospitalisation rates as a function of CSG development activity in Queensland, during the period 1995–2011. Admissions data were examined with CSG well numbers, which served as a proxy for CSG development activity. Time series models were used to assess changes in hospitalisation rates for periods of “low”, “medium”, “high”, and “intense” activity compared to a period of “very low” activity, adjusting for covariates. “All-cause” hospitalisation rates increased monotonically with increasing gas well development activity in females (324.0 to 390.3 per 1000 persons) and males (294.2 to 335.4 per 1000 persons). Hospitalisation rates for “Blood/immune” conditions generally increased for both sexes. Female and male hospitalisation rates for “Circulatory” conditions decreased with increasing CSG activity. Hospitalisation rates were generally low for reproductive and birth outcomes; no clear associations were observed. This study showed some outcomes were associated with increasing CSG development activity. However, as a condition of data access, the population and outcomes were aggregated to a broad geographic study area rather than using higher geographic resolution data. Higher resolution data, as well as other data sources, should be explored. Further research should be conducted with an expanded time period to determine if these trends continue as the industry grows. PMID:28524113

  1. Higher Prevalence and Awareness, but Lower Control Rate of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes than General Population: The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hyun Ko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe investigated the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rate of hypertension in Korean adults with diabetes using nationally representative data.MethodsUsing data of 5,105 adults from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011 (4,389 nondiabetes mellitus [non-DM], 242 newly diagnosed with DM (new-DM, and 474 previously diagnosed with DM (known-DM, we analyzed the prevalence of hypertension (mean systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication and control rate of hypertension (blood pressure [BP] <130/80 mm Hg.ResultsThe prevalence of hypertension in diabetic adults was 54.6% (44.4% in new-DM and 62.6% in known-DM, P<0.0001 and P<0.0001, respectively compared with non-DM adults (26.2%. Compared to non-DM, awareness (85.7%, P<0.001 and treatment (97.0%, P=0.020 rates were higher in known-DM, whereas no differences were found between new-DM and non-DM. Control rate among all hypertensive subjects was lower in new-DM (14.9%, compared to non-DM (35.1%, P<0.001 and known-DM (33.3%, P=0.004. Control rate among treated subjects was also lower in new-DM (25.2%, compared to non-DM (68.4%, P<0.0001 and known-DM (39.9%, P<0.0001.ConclusionHigher prevalence and low control rate of hypertension in adults with diabetes suggest that stringent efforts are needed to control BP in patients with diabetes, particularly in newly diagnosed diabetic patients.

  2. 2011年以来经济增长速度下降的性质与稳中求进之策%The Nature of Economic Growth Rate Decline since 2011 and Strategies for Promotion While Maintaining Economic Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱必祥

    2012-01-01

    本文认为2011年以来中国GDP增长速度的下降性质是新一轮经济周期性的,此次经济周期既是国际金融危机外部冲击和总需求下降的影响,更是内部经济结构变化所致。内部结构性变化表现在:一是人口结构老年化加快和劳动力供给出现相对的和结构性的短缺;二是居民收入分配结构的变化导致消费需求不足;三是东南沿海地区产业结构升级困难,中西部地区尚未形成转移产业增长极。稳中求进之策是短期内依靠宏观经济政策刺激需求防止GDP增速下滑过大过快,尤其是扩大政府财政对农民和农村的公共物品供给,长期之计是需要制度创新与结构调整。%This paper holds that the nature of Chinese GDP growth rate decline since 2011 is a new business cyclical decline. Causes of this business cycle include both the external impacts of international financial crises and domestic aggregate demand decline, especially changes in the internal economic structure. The internal structural changes concern three aspects : ( 1 ) the constant quickening of demographic aging and relative and structural labor supply shortage; (2) consumer demand insufficiency caused by structural changes in people's income distribution; (3) difficuhy in upgrading industrial structure in Southeast littoral and lack of transferred industrial growth poie in Central and West China. Strategies for promotion while maintaining economic stability are short - term macroeconomic policies to stimulate aggregate demand and to prevent fast and widespread GDP decline, especially through expanding supplies to farmers and rural public goods by governmental revenue. Long - term strategies require institutional innovation and industrial structure adjustments.

  3. Regional changes in charcoal-burning suicide rates in East/Southeast Asia from 1995 to 2011: a time trend analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Sen Chang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Suicides by carbon monoxide poisoning resulting from burning barbecue charcoal reached epidemic levels in Hong Kong and Taiwan within 5 y of the first reported cases in the early 2000s. The objectives of this analysis were to investigate (i time trends and regional patterns of charcoal-burning suicide throughout East/Southeast Asia during the time period 1995-2011 and (ii whether any rises in use of this method were associated with increases in overall suicide rates. Sex- and age-specific trends over time were also examined to identify the demographic groups showing the greatest increases in charcoal-burning suicide rates across different countries.We used data on suicides by gases other than domestic gas for Hong Kong, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore in the years 1995/1996-2011. Similar data for Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand were also extracted but were incomplete. Graphical and joinpoint regression analyses were used to examine time trends in suicide, and negative binomial regression analysis to study sex- and age-specific patterns. In 1995/1996, charcoal-burning suicides accounted for <1% of all suicides in all study countries, except in Japan (5%, but they increased to account for 13%, 24%, 10%, 7%, and 5% of all suicides in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore, respectively, in 2011. Rises were first seen in Hong Kong after 1998 (95% CI 1997-1999, followed by Singapore in 1999 (95% CI 1998-2001, Taiwan in 2000 (95% CI 1999-2001, Japan in 2002 (95% CI 1999-2003, and the Republic of Korea in 2007 (95% CI 2006-2008. No marked increases were seen in Malaysia, the Philippines, or Thailand. There was some evidence that charcoal-burning suicides were associated with an increase in overall suicide rates in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Japan (for females, but not in Japan (for males, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore. Rates of change in charcoal-burning suicide rate did not differ by sex/age group

  4. Estimating survival rates of quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis veliger larvae under summer and autumn temperature regimes in residual water of trailered watercraft at Lake Mead, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wook Jin Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available On 6 January 2007, invasive quagga mussels [Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (Andrusov, 1897] were discovered in the Boulder Basin ofLake Mead, Nevada, a popular site for recreational boating in the southwestern United States. Recreational watercraft are considered aprimary vector for overland dispersal of quagga mussel veliger larvae between water bodies. Thus, effective decontamination of veligers inresidual water carried by trailered recreation boats is critical to controlling this species’ spread. The survival rate of quagga mussel veligerswas measured during exposure to environmental temperature conditions mimicking those experienced in the residual water of traileredvessels during warm summer and cooler autumn months in the semi-arid southwestern United States. Under warm summer conditions,quagga mussel veligers survived approximately five days while under cooler autumn conditions they survived 27 days. When tested underautumn temperature conditions veliger survival times increased with increased level of larval development. The results suggested a greaterlikelihood of veliger transport in the residual water of trailered watercraft during autumn months. The results indicated that presentlyrecommended vessel quarantine times to kill all externally attached juvenile and adult dreissenid mussels prior to launching in an uninfested water body should be increased to generate 100% veliger mortality in residual water unable to be fully drained from the internal areas of watercraft.

  5. Production and Ebullition of Methane in a Shallow Eutrophic Lake (Lake Elsinore, CA)

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Denise Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The volume of methane (CH4) and other gases in sediments and the rate of CH4 ebullition were determined for a shallow eutrophic freshwater lake in Southern California. Gas volume, principally as CH4, was measured at 28 sites in July 2010, followed by monthly sampling at 7 sites through December 2011. Gas volumes measured in July 2010 at the 28 sites exhibited a complex dependence on sediment properties; the volume of CH4 and other gases were negligible in very coarse-textured sediment with lo...

  6. Soil efflux and total emission rates of magmatic CO2 at the horseshoe lake tree kill, mammoth mountain, California, 1995-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, T.M.; Doukas, M.P.; McGee, K.A.; Kessler, R.

    2001-01-01

    We report the results of eight soil CO2 efflux surveys by the closed circulation chamber method at the Horseshoe Lake tree kill (HLTK) - the largest tree kill on Mammoth Mountain. The surveys were undertaken from 1995 to 1999 to constrain total HLTK CO2 emissions and to evaluate occasional efflux surveys as a surveillance tool for the tree kills. HLTK effluxes range from 1 to > 10,000 g m -2 day -1 (grams CO2 per square meter per day); they are not normally distributed. Station efflux rates can vary by 7-35% during the course of the 8- to 16-h surveys. Disturbance of the upper 2 cm of ground surface causes effluxes to almost double. Semivariograms of efflux spatial covariance fit exponential or spherical models; they lack nugget effects. Efflux contour maps and total CO2 emission rates based on exponential, spherical, and linear kriging models of survey data are nearly identical; similar results are also obtained with triangulation models, suggesting that the kriging models are not seriously distorted by the lack of normal efflux distributions. In addition, model estimates of total CO2 emission rates are relatively insensitive to the measurement precision of the efflux rates and to the efflux value used to separate magmatic from forest soil sources of CO2. Surveys since 1997 indicate that, contrary to earlier speculations, a termination of elevated CO2 emissions at the HLTK is unlikely anytime soon. The HLTK CO2 efflux anomaly fluctuated greatly in size and intensity throughout the 1995-1999 surveys but maintained a N-S elongation, presumably reflecting fault control of CO2 transport from depth. Total CO2 emission rates also fluctuated greatly, ranging from 46 to 136 t day-1 (metric tons CO2 per day) and averaging 93 t day-1. The large inter-survey variations are caused primarily by external (meteorological) processes operating on time scales of hours to days. The externally caused variations can mask significant changes occurring at depth; a striking example is

  7. Towards the Understanding of Recent Lake Decline in the Yangtze Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Sheng, Y.; Wada, Y.

    2014-12-01

    In the era of Anthropocene, lakes as essential stocks of terrestrial water resources are subject to increasing vulnerability from both climatic variations and human activities. Our recent study reveals a decadal area decline among the largest cluster of freshwater lakes in East Asia, distributed across the Yangtze River Basin downstream of China's Three Gorges Dam (TGD). The observed lake decline, a cumulative rate of 7.4% (~850 km2) from 2000 to 2011, concurred with enduring meteorological drought, continuous population growth, and extensive human water regulation (e.g., the TGD). The decreasing trend was tested significant in all seasons, leading to an evident phase drop of the average annual lake cycle before and after the TGD operation. The most substantial decline in the post-TGD period appears in fall (1.1% yr-1), which intriguingly coincides with the TGD water storage season. Motivated by such findings, this paper provides a comprehensive diagnosis of the potential TGD impacts on the Yangtze-connected downstream lake system, in comparison to the concurrent contributions from local meteorological variations and human water consumption. Results uncover an altered inundation regime of the downstream lake system induced by TGD's water regulation, manifested as evident lake area decrease in fall and increase in spring and winter. As the most substantial influence, reduced lake area in fall explains ~20-80% of the observed post-TGD decline. Concurrent Yangtze channel erosion slightly reinforced the area decrease in fall while counteracting ~30% of the area increase in winter. Human water consumption accumulated through the local river network led to constant discharge reduction, which equals another ~80% of the TGD-induced lake decline in fall and completely counteracts the TGD-induced lake area increase in winter. However, human water consumption only adds minor contribution (< 6%) to the post-TGD lake decline due to slow increasing rates during 2000-2011. The

  8. Le pilotage de la performance par les valeurs à travers une approche systémique : le cas du centre de recherche intégré MIRCen (CEA)

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, Aude; Dudezert, Aurélie

    2007-01-01

    International audience; A l'heure des pôles de compétitivité et de la concurrence internationale, le pilotage de la performance est l'une des principales priorités des entreprises. Cette performance n'est plus uniquement l'image de critères économiques, mais intègre également d'autres dimensions : sociale, environnementale, scientifique, humaine, éthique... Ces différentes dimensions peuvent être appelées les valeurs de l'entreprise. Les critères de performance sont quantitatifs ou qualitatif...

  9. Acoustic telemetry reveals large-scale migration patterns of walleye in Lake Huron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd A Hayden

    Full Text Available Fish migration in large freshwater lacustrine systems such as the Laurentian Great Lakes is not well understood. The walleye (Sander vitreus is an economically and ecologically important native fish species throughout the Great Lakes. In Lake Huron walleye has recently undergone a population expansion as a result of recovery of the primary stock, stemming from changing food web dynamics. During 2011 and 2012, we used acoustic telemetry to document the timing and spatial scale of walleye migration in Lake Huron and Saginaw Bay. Spawning walleye (n = 199 collected from a tributary of Saginaw Bay were implanted with acoustic tags and their migrations were documented using acoustic receivers (n = 140 deployed throughout U.S. nearshore waters of Lake Huron. Three migration pathways were described using multistate mark-recapture models. Models were evaluated using the Akaike Information Criterion. Fish sex did not influence migratory behavior but did affect migration rate and walleye were detected on all acoustic receiver lines. Most (95% tagged fish migrated downstream from the riverine tagging and release location to Saginaw Bay, and 37% of these fish emigrated from Saginaw Bay into Lake Huron. Remarkably, 8% of walleye that emigrated from Saginaw Bay were detected at the acoustic receiver line located farthest from the release location more than 350 km away. Most (64% walleye returned to the Saginaw River in 2012, presumably for spawning. Our findings reveal that fish from this stock use virtually the entirety of U.S. nearshore waters of Lake Huron.

  10. Monitoring change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David L.; Angeroth, Cory E.; Freeman, Michael L.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Carling, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Great Salt Lake, only limited water quality monitoring has occurred historically. To change this, new monitoring stations and networks—gauges of lake level height and rate of inflow, moored buoys, and multiple lake-bottom sensors—will provide important information that can be used to make informed decisions regarding future management of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem.

  11. Is Lake Tahoe Terminal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, R. N.; Reuter, J.; Heyvaert, A.; Lewis, J.; Sahoo, G. B.; Schladow, G.; Thorne, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Tahoe, an iconic ultra-oligotrophic lake in the central Sierra Nevada, has been studied intensively since 1968, with the goal of understanding and ultimately controlling its eutrophication and loss of clarity. Research on the lake has included a) periodic profiles of primary productivity, nutrients, temperature, and plankton; b) Secchi depth; c) nutrient limitation experiments; d) analysis of sediment cores; e) radiocarbon dating of underwater in-place tree stumps; g) analysis of long-term temperature trends. Work in its watershed has included a) monitoring of stream discharge, sediment and nutrients at up to 20 stream gaging stations; b) monitoring of urban runoff water quality at selected sites; c) development of a GIS data base, including soils, vegetation, and land use. Based on these studies, we know that a) primary productivity in the lake is limited by phosphorus, and continues to increase; b) the loss of clarity continues, but at a declining rate; c) the lake has been warming since 1970, and its resistance to deep mixing is increasing; d) historically the lake level drops below the outlet elevation about one year in seven; e) 6300 to 4300 yrs BP lake level was below the present outlet elevation long enough for large trees to grow; f) the date of the peak snowmelt runoff is shifting toward earlier dates; g) after accounting for annual runoff, loads of nutrients and suspended sediment have declined significantly in some basin streams since 1980. Downscaled outputs from GCM climatic models have recently been used to drive hydrologic models and a lake clarity model, projecting future trends in the lake and watersheds. Results show a) the temperature and thermal stability will likely continue to increase, with deep mixing shutting down in the latter half of this century; b) the lake may drop below the outlet for an extended period beginning about 2085; c) the annual snowpack will continue to decline, with earlier snowmelt and shift from snowfall to rain; d

  12. Variability in response of lakes to climate change explained by surrounding watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Råman Vinnå, Love; Wüest, Alfred; Bouffard, Damien

    2017-04-01

    The consequences of climate change for inland waters have been shown to vary extensively not only globally, but also on a sub-regional scale [O'Reilly et al., 2015, GRL]. Local factors affecting heating include morphology [Toffolon et al., 2014, LO], irradiance absorption [Williamson et al., 2015, SR], local weather conditions and onset of stratification [Zhong et al., 2016, LO] as well as ice conditions [Austin and Colman, 2007, GRL]. However, inland waters are often a complex web of rivers, streams, lakes and reservoirs. Thereby, to correctly assess and predict future changes in lakes/reservoirs due to climate change, it is important to consider the changes occurring in the surrounding watersheds and how they affect downstream waters. Here we evaluate the impact of climate change on rivers originating in the Swiss Alps (Aare and Rhône) and downstream located perialpine lakes (Lake Biel and Lake Geneva). We use regional predictions for air temperature increase and the subsequently expected shift in river discharge regime under the A1B emission scenario [Bey et al., 2011, CH2011; Federal Office for the Environment FOEN, 2012, CCHydro]. Focus is on predicting the changes in water temperature, particle content, stratification and deep water renewal rate using the 1D SIMSTRAT [Goudsmit et al., 2002, JGR] and Air2Stream [Toffolon and Piccolroaz, 2015, ERL] models. We show that the effect of tributaries on the reaction for downstream lakes to climate change are inversely proportional to the hydraulic residence time of the systems. We furthermore include known changes in anthropogenic thermal emissions, which in Lake Biel correspond to 2 decades of climate induced warming. Our results are put into context with future water utility plans in Lake Biel.

  13. Largest College Endowments, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Of all endowments valued at more than $250-million, the UCLA Foundation had the highest rate of growth over the previous year, at 49 percent. This article presents a table of the largest college endowments in 2011. The table covers the "rank," "institution," "market value as of June 30, 2011," and "1-year change" of institutions participating in…

  14. Delineation of sympatric morphotypes of lake trout in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Seth A.; Bronte, Charles R.

    2001-01-01

    Three morphotypes of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush are recognized in Lake Superior: lean, siscowet, and humper. Absolute morphotype assignment can be difficult. We used a size-free, whole-body morphometric analysis (truss protocol) to determine whether differences in body shape existed among lake trout morphotypes. Our results showed discrimination where traditional morphometric characters and meristic measurements failed to detect differences. Principal components analysis revealed some separation of all three morphotypes based on head and caudal peduncle shape, but it also indicated considerable overlap in score values. Humper lake trout have smaller caudal peduncle widths to head length and depth characters than do lean or siscowet lake trout. Lean lake trout had larger head measures to caudal widths, whereas siscowet had higher caudal peduncle to head measures. Backward stepwise discriminant function analysis retained two head measures, three midbody measures, and four caudal peduncle measures; correct classification rates when using these variables were 83% for leans, 80% for siscowets, and 83% for humpers, which suggests the measures we used for initial classification were consistent. Although clear ecological reasons for these differences are not readily apparent, patterns in misclassification rates may be consistent with evolutionary hypotheses for lake trout within the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  15. Estimated rates of groundwater recharge to the Chicot, Evangeline and Jasper aquifers by using environmental tracers in Montgomery and adjacent counties, Texas, 2008 and 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Timothy D.; Truini, Margot

    2013-01-01

    Montgomery County is in the northern part of the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area, the fourth most populous metropolitan area in the United States. As populations have increased since the 1980s, groundwater has become an important resource for public-water supply and industry in the rapidly growing area of Montgomery County. Groundwater availability from the Gulf Coast aquifer system is a primary concern for water managers and community planners in Montgomery County and requires a better understanding of the rate of recharge to the system. The Gulf Coast aquifer system in Montgomery County consists of the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers, the Burkeville confining unit, and underlying Catahoula confining system. The individual sand and clay sequences of the aquifers composing the Gulf Coast aquifer system are not laterally or vertically continuous on a regional scale; however, on a local scale, individual sand and clay lenses can extend over several miles. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District, collected groundwater-quality samples from selected wells within or near Montgomery County in 2008 and analyzed these samples for concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), tritium (3H), helium-3/tritium (3He/3H), helium-4 (4He), and dissolved gases (DG) that include argon, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen and oxygen. Groundwater ages, or apparent age, representing residence times since time of recharge, were determined by using the assumption of a piston-flow transport model. Most of the environmental tracer data indicated the groundwater was recharged prior to the 1950s, limiting the usefulness of CFCs, SF6, and 3H concentrations as tracers. In many cases, no tracer was usable at a well for the purpose of estimating an apparent age. Wells not usable for estimating an apparent age were resampled in 2011 and analyzed for concentrations of major ions and carbon-14 (14C). At six of

  16. Playa Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital dataset provides information about the spatial distribution of soil units associated with playa lakes. Specific soil types have been designated by the...

  17. Oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard NAVIGATION RESPONSE TEAM 7 as part of project S-X905-NRT4-11 in the Great Lakes from 2011-08-15 to 2011-11-21 (NCEI Accession 0130681)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0130681 includes physical and profile data collected aboard the NAVIGATION RESPONSE TEAM 7 during project S-X905-NRT4-11 in the Great Lakes from...

  18. The Morphometry of Lake Palmas, a Deep Natural Lake in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Gilberto F.; Gonçalves, Monica A.; Garcia, Fábio da C.

    2014-01-01

    Lake Palmas (A = 10.3km2) is located in the Lower Doce River Valley (LDRV), on the southeastern coast of Brazil. The Lake District of the LDRV includes 90 lakes, whose basic geomorphology is associated with the alluvial valleys of the Barreiras Formation (Cenozoic, Neogene) and with the Holocene coastal plain. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of morphometry and thermal pattern of a LDRV deep lake, Lake Palmas. A bathymetric survey carried out in 2011 and the analysis of hydrographic and wind data with a geographic information system allowed the calculation of several metrics of lake morphometry. The vertical profiling of physical and chemical variables in the water column during the wet/warm and dry/mild cold seasons of 2011 to 2013 has furnished a better understanding of the influence of the lake morphometry on its structure and function. The overdeepened basin has a subrectangular elongated shape and is aligned in a NW-SE direction in an alluvial valley with a maximum depth (Zmax) of 50.7m, a volume of 2.2×108 m3 (0.22km3) and a mean depth (Zmv) of 21.4m. These metrics suggest Lake Palmas as the deepest natural lake in Brazil. Water column profiling has indicated strong physical and chemical stratification during the wet/warm season, with a hypoxic/anoxic layer occupying one-half of the lake volume. The warm monomictic pattern of Lake Palmas, which is in an accordance to deep tropical lakes, is determined by water column mixing during the dry and mild cold season, especially under the influence of a high effective fetch associated with the incidence of cold fronts. Lake Palmas has a very long theoretical retention time, with a mean of 19.4 years. The changes observed in the hydrological flows of the tributary rivers may disturb the ecological resilience of Lake Palmas. PMID:25406062

  19. Vegetation Survey of the Banks Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Lanier County, Georgia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report documents a vascular plant inventory performed for Banks Lake NWR from 2009 through 2011. Banks Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) comprises 3,559 acre...

  20. Last millenium environmental changes in Lake Bertrand sediments, Chilean Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacré, V.; Fagel, N.; Schmidt, S.; Alvarez, D.; Araneda, A.; Urrutia, R.

    2012-04-01

    Our study focuses on a multiproxy analysis of sedimentary records from Lago Bertrand (area 50 km2; 227 masl; 46°55'S 72°50'W). Three cores were retrieved during fieldtrips in 2009 and 2011 with an Uwitec gravity corer. One core was collected in the main lake (LBt09, 102 cm) and two others in a lateral extension (LBb11-A, 162 cm and LBb11-B, 156 cm). Data 210Pb and 137Cs give average sedimentation rates of 2 mm/yr for the upper core section from the main lake, allowing a decennial resolution. Our aim is to document the climatic variability during the last millennium in Northern Patagonia and its impact on the environment. Lago Bertrand is separated from a pro-glacial lake (Lago Plomo) by a morainic barrier. The sediments of this lake are mainly composed of clayed silts and very few sandy silts. In the cores from the Eastern branch of Lago Bertrand, X-ray radiographies and magnetic susceptibility profiles evidence well-defined pluri-millimetric laminations with organic-rich layers, especially in the central core section. In the main lake, X-ray radiographies show diffuse pluri-millimetric laminations while magnetic susceptibility profiles do not confirm it. The sediments of the main lake appear more homogeneous with less organic-rich layers. They are characterized by low C/N ratio (10), supporting an important aquatic productivity; high inorganic content (90-95% of the bulk sediment); two peaks in the biological silica profile; and abundant diatoms (50-100 µm). According to the age model, the changes in aquatic productivity occurred between 1700 and 1850 AD. The cores from the Eastern branch of Lago Bertrand are under investigation to confirm the extension of the sedimentological changes observed in the main lake. The main sedimentological change observed in Lago Bertrand occurs during an interval equivalent to a part of the Little Ice Age. A similar biogenic silica-rich layer was also recorded in another relatively distant lake (Lago Thompson at 45°30'S, 72°47

  1. Tallinna Toidumess 2011

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    2.-4. novembril toimunud vaid erialainimestele suunatud Tallinna Toidumessist 2011 (Tallinn FoodFair), kus autasustati konkursside Aasta kokaraamat 2011, Aasta kokk 2011, Aasta kelner 2011, Aasta kondiiter 2011, Aasta kondiiter 2011, Aasta pagar 2011, Noor pagar 2011, Noor kondiiter 2011, Noor teenindaja 2011, Parim koolisöökla 2011 ja Parimad jõulutooted 2011

  2. Tallinna Toidumess 2011

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    2.-4. novembril toimunud vaid erialainimestele suunatud Tallinna Toidumessist 2011 (Tallinn FoodFair), kus autasustati konkursside Aasta kokaraamat 2011, Aasta kokk 2011, Aasta kelner 2011, Aasta kondiiter 2011, Aasta kondiiter 2011, Aasta pagar 2011, Noor pagar 2011, Noor kondiiter 2011, Noor teenindaja 2011, Parim koolisöökla 2011 ja Parimad jõulutooted 2011

  3. Comparison of rubella immunization rates in immigrant and Italian women of childbearing age: Results from the Italian behavioral surveillance system PASSI (2011-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiani, Massimo; Ferrante, Gianluigi; Minardi, Valentina; Giambi, Cristina; Riccardo, Flavia; Declich, Silvia; Masocco, Maria

    2017-01-01

    International migration rapidly increased in the last decade, raising a renewed attention to its impact on public health. We evaluated differences in rubella immunization rate (RIR) between immigrant and Italian women of childbearing age and tried to identify the driving factors causing them. We analyzed data from the Italian behavioral surveillance system PASSI collected in 2011-2015 in a nationally representative sample of residents in Italy. The analysis was performed using log-binomial models to compare RIR between 41,094 Italian women and 3140 regular immigrant women of childbearing age (18-49 years), stratifying the latter by area of origin and length-of-stay in Italy (recent: ≤ 5-years; mid-term: 6-10-years; long-term: > 10-years). Immigrant women showed a RIR of 36.0% compared to 60.2% among Italian women (RIR-ratio = 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-0.63). Adjusting for demographic characteristics (i.e., sex, age and area of residence), socio-economic factors (i.e., education, occupation, family composition and economic status) and an indicator of the presence of at least one health-risk behavior (i.e., physical inactivity, current cigarette smoking, excessive alcohol consumption and excess weight) did not significantly change this difference (RIR-ratio = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.53-0.59). Recent immigrants (RIR-ratio = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.42-0.53) and immigrants from high migratory pressure countries (HMPC) in sub-Saharan Africa (RIR-ratio = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.31-0.56) and Asia (RIR-ratio = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.33-0.53) showed the greatest differences in RIR compared with Italian women. Differences in RIR between immigrant and Italian women were not explained by different demographic, socioeconomic and health-risk behaviors characteristics. As entitlement to free-of-charge immunization in Italy is universal, regardless of migration status, other informal barriers (e.g., cultural and barriers to information access) might explain lower RIRs in immigrant women

  4. Statistical analysis of lake levels and field study of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015: Chapter A of Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Diekoff, Aliesha L.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; White, Eric A.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Morel, Daniel L.; Heck, Jessica M.

    2016-10-19

    Water levels declined from 2003 to 2011 in many lakes in Ramsey and Washington Counties in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota; however, water levels in other northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes increased during the same period. Groundwater and surface-water exchanges can be important in determining lake levels where these exchanges are an important component of the water budget of a lake. An understanding of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area has been limited by the lack of hydrologic data. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council and Minnesota Department of Health, completed a field and statistical study assessing lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. This report documents the analysis of collected hydrologic, water-quality, and geophysical data; and existing hydrologic and geologic data to (1) assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes, (2) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (3) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (4) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake. Statistical analyses of lake levels during short-term (2002–10) and long-term (1925–2014) periods were completed to help understand lake-level changes across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area. Comparison of 2002–10 lake levels to several landscape and geologic characteristics explained variability in lake-level changes for 96 northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. Application of several statistical methods determined that (1) closed-basin lakes (without an active outlet) had larger lake-level declines than flow-through lakes with an outlet; (2

  5. Recent paleorecords document rising mercury contamination in Lake Tanganyika

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, C.H.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Cohen, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Recent Lake Tanganyika Hg deposition records were derived using 14C and excess 210Pb geochronometers in sediment cores collected from two contrasting depositional environments: the Kalya Platform, located mid-lake and more removed from watershed impacts, and the Nyasanga/Kahama River delta region, located close to the lake's shoreline north of Kigoma. At the Kalya Platform area, pre-industrial Hg concentrations are 23??0.2ng/g, increasing to 74ng/g in modern surface sediment, and the Hg accumulation rate has increased from 1.0 to 7.2??g/m 2/a from pre-industrial to present, which overall represents a 6-fold increase in Hg concentration and accumulation. At the Nyasanga/Kahama delta region, pre-industrial Hg concentrations are 20??3ng/g, increasing to 46ng/g in surface sediment. Mercury accumulation rate has increased from 30 to 70??g/m 2/a at this site, representing a 2-3-fold increase in Hg concentration and accumulation. There is a lack of correlation between charcoal abundance and Hg accumulation rate in the sediment cores, demonstrating that local biomass burning has little relationship with the observed Hg concentration or Hg accumulation rates. Examined using a sediment focusing-corrected mass accumulation rate approach, the cores have similar anthropogenic atmospheric Hg deposition profiles, suggesting that after accounting for background sediment concentrations the source of accumulating Hg is predominantly atmospheric in origin. In summary, the data document an increase of Hg flux to the Lake Tanganyika ecosystem that is consistent with increasing watershed sediment delivery with background-level Hg contamination, and regional as well as global increases in atmospheric Hg deposition. ?? 2011.

  6. A Citizen Science Program for Monitoring Lake Stages in Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmann, A.; Drum, A.; Rubsam, J.; Watras, C. J.; Cellar-Rossler, A.

    2011-12-01

    Historical data indicate that surface water levels in northern Wisconsin are fluctuating more now than they did in the recent past. In the northern highland lake district of Vilas County, Wisconsin, concern about record low lake levels in 2008 spurred local citizens and lake associations to form a lake level monitoring network comprising citizen scientists. The network is administered by the North Lakeland Discovery Center (NLDC, a local NGO) and is supported by a grant from the Citizen Science Monitoring Program of the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR). With technical guidance from limnologists at neighboring UW-Madison Trout Lake Research Station, citizen scientists have installed geographic benchmarks and staff gauges on 26 area lakes. The project engages citizen and student science participants including homeowners, non-profit organization member-participants, and local schools. Each spring, staff gauges are installed and referenced to fixed benchmarks after ice off by NLDC and dedicated volunteers. Volunteers read and record staff gauges on a weekly basis during the ice-free season; and maintain log books recording lake levels to the nearest 0.5 cm. At the end of the season, before ice on, gauges are removed and log books are collected by the NLDC coordinator. Data is compiled and submitted to a database management system, coordinated within the Wisconsin Surface Water Integrated Monitoring System (SWIMS), a statewide information system managed by the WDNR in Madison. Furthermore, NLDC is collaborating with the SWIMS database manager to develop data entry screens based on records collected by citizen scientists. This program is the first of its kind in Wisconsin to utilize citizen scientists to collect lake level data. The retention rate for volunteers has been 100% over the three years since inception, and the program has expanded from four lakes in 2008 to twenty-six lakes in 2011. NLDC stresses the importance of long-term monitoring and the

  7. Effect of ultramafic intrusions and associated mineralized rocks on the aqueous geochemistry of the Tangle Lakes Area, Alaska: Chapter C in Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Alaska, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bronwen; Gough, Larry P.; Wanty, Richard B.; Lee, Gregory K.; Vohden, James; O’Neill, J. Michael; Kerin, L. Jack

    2013-01-01

    Stream water was collected at 30 sites within the Tangle Lakes area of the Delta mineral belt in Alaska. Sampling focused on streams near the ultramafic rocks of the Fish Lake intrusive complex south of Eureka Creek and the Tangle Complex area east of Fourteen Mile Lake, as well as on those within the deformed metasedimentary, metavolcanic, and intrusive rocks of the Specimen Creek drainage and drainages east of Eureka Glacier. Major, minor, and trace elements were analyzed in aqueous samples for this reconnaissance aqueous geochemistry effort. The lithologic differences within the study area are reflected in the major-ion chemistry of the water. The dominant major cation in streams draining mafic and ultramafic rocks is Mg2+; abundant Mg and low Ca in these streams reflect the abundance of Mg-rich minerals in these intrusions. Nickel and Cu are detected in 84 percent and 87 percent of the filtered samples, respectively. Nickel and Cu concentrations ranged from Ni rock fractionation profiles for the aqueous samples were light rare earth element depleted, with negative Ce and Eu anomalies, indicating fractionation of the REE during weathering. Fractionation patterns indicate that the REE are primarily in the dissolved, as opposed to colloidal, phase.

  8. Tracking four-decade inundation changes with multi-temporal satellite images in China's largest freshwater lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guiping

    2017-04-01

    Poyang Lake is the largest freshwater lake in China. The lake has undergone remarkable spatio-temporal changes in both short- and long-term scales since 1970s, resulting in significant hydrological, ecological and economic consequences. Remote sensing techniques have advantages for large-scale studies, by offering images at different spatial and spectral resolutions. However, due to technical difficulties, no single satellite sensor can meet the needs for high spatio-temporal resolution required for such monitoring. In this study, using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images collected between 1973 and 2012, we documented and investigated the short- and long-term characteristics of lake inundation based on Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). First, we presented a novel downscaling method based on the NDWI statistical regression algorithm to generate small-scale resolution inundation map (30m) from coarse MODIS data (500m). The downscaling is a linear calibration of the NDWI index from MODIS imagery to Landsat imagery, which is based on the assumption that the relationships between fine resolution and coarse resolution are invariable. Second, Tupu analysis method was further performed to explore the spatial-temporal distribution and changing processes of lake inundation based on downscaling inundation maps. Then, a defined water variation rate (WVR) and inundation frequency (IF) indicator was used to reveal seasonal water surface submersion/exposure processes of lake expansion and shrinkage in different zones. Finally, mathematical statistics methods were utilized to explore the possible driving mechanisms of the revealed change patterns with meteorological data and hydrological data. The results show that, there is a high correlation (mean absolute error of 3.95% and an R2 of 0.97) between the MODIS- and Landsat-derived water surface areas in Poyang Lake. Over the past 40 years, a declining trend to a

  9. L'évolution de l'activité de contrôle de gestion en contexte PME : une focalisation sur le suivi des marges et le pilotage du changement

    OpenAIRE

    Van Caillie, Didier

    2002-01-01

    L'activité de contrôle de gestion menée en contexte PME est aujourd'hui devenue véritablement bicéphale, intégrant à la fois un contrôle de gestion opérationnel dominé par la volonté de maîtrise à court terme des coûts et surtout des marges qui traversent la vie quotidienne de l'entreprise au travers de toutes ses activités et un contrôle de gestion stratégique dominé par la volonté de permettre le pilotage effectif du changement dans l'entreprise, changement lui-même issu de l...

  10. L’apport de la méthode DEA au pilotage de la performance des centres de coût : l’exemple de la logistique amont

    OpenAIRE

    Cavaignac, Laurent F.; Villesèque-Dubus, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    Cet article a pour objectif de s’intéresser au pilotage de la performance des centres de coût en prenant le cas particulier de la logistique amont. Il s’agit plus précisément de s’interroger sur l’apport de la méthode DEA (méthode d’analyse d’enveloppement des données) comme outil d’analyse multidimensionnel de la performance pour gérer globalement les différentes composantes de cette performance multidimensionnelle, à savoir les coûts, la qualité et les délais. A partir de la réalisation d’u...

  11. Les pratiques des établissements d'enseignement supérieur et de recherche en matière de pilotage et de contrôle de gestion. 1. Les outils

    OpenAIRE

    Chatelain-Ponroy, Stéphanie; Rival, Madina; Sponem, Samuel; Torset, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    Cet article présente les résultats d'une enquête menée au deuxième trimestre de l'année 2006 auprès des établissements d'enseignement supérieur et de recherche. Cette enquête portait sur les pratiques de contrôle de gestion et de pilotage. Elle visait à comprendre comment les établissements publics d'enseignement supérieur envisageaient et utilisaient leur système de contrôle de gestion. Le questionnaire fut adressé aux secrétaires généraux de tous ces établissements afin de mieux connaître l...

  12. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  13. Eurofuse 2011

    CERN Document Server

    De Baets, Bernard; Fodor, Janos; Melo-Pinto, Pedro; Serodio, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    This carefully edited book comprises the papers from EUROFUSE 2011 Workshop on Fuzzy Methods for Knowledge-based Systems. EUROFUSE was established in 1998 as the EURO (the Association of European Operational Research Societies) Working Group on Fuzzy Sets, as a successor of the former European Chapter of IFSA (the International Fuzzy Systems Association). The present EUROFUSE 2011 workshop is held at Regua, Portugal, 21-23 September, in the World Heritage Site of the Douro Wine Region and is organised by Pedro Melo-Pinto and Pedro Couto. The workshop is devoted to Fuzzy Methods for Knowledge-b

  14. Transient hydrogeological controls on the chemistry of a seepage lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbenhoft, David P.; Webster, Katherine E.

    1995-01-01

    A solute mass balance method was used to estimate groundwater inflow and outflow rates for Nevins Lake, Michigan, a seepage lake in the upper peninsula that historically has shown extremely variable water chemistry compared with most other seepage lakes. A 4-year study (1989–1992) of the hydrology and geochemistry of Nevins Lake and its contiguous groundwater system revealed that changes in the mass of dissolved solutes are the result of annual hydraulic gradient reversals. A pronounced acidification of Nevins Lake from 1986 to 1988 was likely caused by drought-induced diminished groundwater inflow rates. In this study, dissolved calcium (the major cation in water of Nevins Lake, groundwater, and precipitation) was used for estimating mass flow rates. During the 1989–1992 period, Nevins Lake showed a reproducible annual cycle in calcium mass. Immediately following spring snowmelt and the resulting hydraulic gradient reversal, the mass of dissolved calcium in the lake increases rapidly, and then it decreases steadily throughout the summer and early fall, at which time the lake becomes hydraulically mounded and receives no groundwater inflow. Groundwater flow rates estimated by the solute mass balance method are sensitive to assumed solute concentrations in discharging groundwater. Pore water samples from the lake bed are shown to be more representative of water discharging to the lake than are samples from piezometers near the lake shore, but spatial and temporal variability in pore water chemistry must be considered. Stable isotope analyses (18O and 2H) of lake water, groundwater, and pore water samples show that water discharging to Nevins Lake in the spring is entirely recycled lake water, and no groundwater derived from terrestrial recharge reaches the lake. The conceptual model formulated during this study linking lake chemistry and the contiguous groundwater system and general groundwater flow patterns surrounding highly transient lake systems are likely

  15. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN01 (2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for New York, Canada, and Lake Ontario collected in 2011 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...

  16. Michigan 2011 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the MI coast of Lake Superior in 2011. The data...

  17. GRAPPA 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaeley, Gurjit S; D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Grassi, Walter;

    2012-01-01

    In a plenary session at the 2011 meeting of the Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (GRAPPA) the use of sonography for evaluating enthesitis and dactylitis in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) was reviewed, and initial proposals were presented to develop u...

  18. Monitoring of radioactive substances in foods distributed in Kyoto, Japan (1991-2011). - Comparison of detection rates and concentrations before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident - .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banno, Yukinori; Namikawa, Mikio; Miwa, Mariko; Ban, Soichirou; Orito, Taichi; Semura, Shunsuke; Kawakami, Masahiro; Doi, Naoya; Miyake, Shiro; Ishikawa, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Since the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, radioactive substances have been continually monitored in foods collected in the city of Kyoto, Japan. The importance of the monitoring was increased by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. Here, the detection rates and concentrations of radioactive substances were compared among food samples collected before and after the accident in Fukushima prefecture. Before the accident, (137)Cs was the only radioactive substance detected in foods. The detection rate was 70% for fish and shellfish samples and the highest concentration was 1.7 Bq/kg. It was also 83% for fresh mushroom samples and the highest concentration was 7.5 Bq/kg. In contrast, the detection rate was low for vegetables and the concentrations were also lower than those of the above samples. On the other hand, after the accident, (131)I was detected in food produced in the Tohoku and Kanto areas. Actually, (131)I (3,400 Bq/kg), (134)Cs (280 Bq/kg), and (137)Cs (280 Bq/kg) were detected in mizuna, a leaf vegetable, on March 23, 2011. These radioactive substances were detected in all leaf vegetable samples examined in March and April 2011, but they were not detected in samples examined in November 2011. (131)I was not detected in any food sample examined after May 2011. However, (137)Cs (average=7.9 Bq/kg) was consistently detected in fish and shellfish samples until November, although the concentrations were less than the regulatory limits. It appears unlikely that foods containing radioactive substances over the regulatory limits are currently being distributed in Kyoto.

  19. Mechanisms of Methane Release From Lake Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Shiba, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas that can be produced in bottom sediments of lakes and reservoirs and released through ebullition and other properties. Many studies have quantified ebullition rates, however, the detailed mechanisms remain incompletely understood. This study was undertaken to better understand, through in situ and laboratory measurements, the mechanisms of gas ebullition from lake sediment. Four sites on Lake Elsinore, CA with different properties were evaluated through th...

  20. Recent warming of lake Kivu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Katsev

    Full Text Available Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the warming trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is warming at the rate of 0.12°C per decade, which matches the warming rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though warming is strongest near the surface, warming rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the warming in deeper waters. The warming trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient.

  1. Hydrological and sedimentological regime of lower Vistula fluvial lakes (North Central Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordowski, Jarosław; Kubiak-Wójcicka, Katarzyna; Tyszkowski, Sebastian; Solarczyk, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Regarding the outflow the Vistula River is the largest river in the Baltic catchment. In its lower course it has developed an anastomosing channel pattern modified strongly by intensive human hydrotechnical activity and by the regulation which have intensified about 200 years ago. Channel regulation apart from already existing lakes have left many new artificially created ones. This activity have also altered the hydrological and sedimentary regime. It turned out that only the small portion of the lakes infilled rapidly but the majority have persisted to present day almost unchanged in spite of regulation. The reason of this resistence to silting is connected with specific interaction of sediment removing during high flood water episodes and strong groundwater circulation in former river arms transformed in present-day lakes. As an example of a lake with an intensive groundwater exchange rate with the main Vistula channel and supposed Quaternary and Tertiary aquifers was selected the Old Vistula lake (Stara Wisła) near Grudziądz town. It has got an area of 50 ha, mean depth 1,73 m, maximum depth 8 m, length about 4 km and medium width about 100 m. In the years 2011-2015 in its surficial water were conducted measures with two weeks frequency which included: temperature, pH, Eh, suspended matter amount, total and carbonaceous mineralization. For comparison similar measurements were also conducted in other fluvial lakes and Vistula tributaries. Hydrological data were supplemented by geological investigations of floodplain sediments cover which has important impact on the rate of groundwater migration and circulation. Investigations carried proved that there exists distinct gradient of carbonaceous mineralization from small values in the Vistula channel to high values at the valley edges. PH and Eh parameters in the Old Vistula lake were different than in all other surveyed sites what leads to conclusion that it is fed by deeper groundwaters than in the case of other

  2. Using Satellite Imagery to Monitor the Major Lakes; Case Study Lake Hamun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, H.; Islam, R.; Bah, A.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2015-12-01

    Proper lakes function can ease the impact of floods and drought especially in arid and semi-arid regions. They are important environmentally and can directly affect human lives. Better understanding of the effect of climate change and human-driven changes on lakes would provide invaluable information for policy-makers and local people. As part of a comprehensive study, we aim to monitor the land-cover/ land-use changes in the world's major lakes using satellite observations. As a case study, Hamun Lake which is a pluvial Lake, also known as shallow Lake, located on the south-east of Iran and adjacent to Afghanistan, and Pakistan borders is investigated. The Lake is the main source of resources (agriculture, fishing and hunting) for the people around it and politically important in the region since it is shared among three different countries. The purpose of the research is to find the Lake's area from 1972 to 2015 and to see if any drought or water resources management has affected the lake. Analyzing satellites imagery from Landsat shows that the area of the Lake changes seasonally and intra-annually. Significant seasonal effects are found in 1975,1977, 1987, 1993, 1996, 1998, 2000, 2009 and 2011, as well as, substantial amount of shallow water is found throughout the years. The precipitation records as well as drought historical records are studied for the lake's basin. Meteorological studies suggest that the drought, decrease of rainfalls in the province and the improper management of the Lake have caused environmental, economic and geographical consequences. The results reveal that lake has experienced at least two prolong dryings since 1972 which drought cannot solely be blamed as main forcing factor.Proper lakes function can ease the impact of floods and drought especially in arid and semi-arid regions. They are important environmentally and can directly affect human lives. Better understanding of the effect of climate change and human-driven changes on lakes

  3. AFRICA2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alphonce Shiundu

    2011-01-01

    THE big story out of Africa in 2011 was the referendum in southern Sudan.That culminated in the birth of a new country,the Republic of South Sudan,which joins the struggling band of developing nations.Africa's newest independent country is high on the hope of prosperity,wary about conflict,dogged with corruption,poverty and hunger,but nonetheless independent.

  4. Modelling framework developed for managing and forecasting the El Hierro 2011-2014 unrest processes based on the analysis of the seismicity and deformation data rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Alicia; Fernandez-Ros, Alberto; Berrocoso, Manuel; Marrero, Jose Manuel; Prates, Gonçalo; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Ortiz, Ramon

    2014-05-01

    In July 2011 at El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain), a volcanic unrest was detected, with significant deformations followed by increased seismicity. A submarine eruption started on 10 October 2011 and ceased on 5 March 2012, after the volcanic tremor signals persistently weakened through February 2012. However, the seismic activity did not end when the eruption, as several other seismic crises followed since. The seismic episodes presented a characteristic pattern: over a few days the number and magnitude of seismic event increased persistently, culminating in seismic events severe enough to be felt all over the island. In all cases the seismic activity was preceded by significant deformations measured on the island's surface that continued during the whole episode. Analysis of the available GNSS-GPS and seismic data suggests that several magma injection processes occurred at depth from the beginning of the unrest. A model combining the geometry of the magma injection process and the variations in seismic energy released has allowed successful forecasting of the new-vent opening. The model presented here places special emphasis on phenomena associated to moderate eruptions, as well as on volcano-tectonic earthquakes and landslides, which in some cases, as in El Hierro, may be more destructive than an eruption itself.

  5. Outflows of groundwater in lakes: case study of Lake Raduńske Górne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieśliński Roman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to locate and describe groundwater outflows in a selected lake basin. The study hypothesis was based on the fact that, according to the specialist literature, one of the forms of lake water supply is through groundwater outflows. It was also assumed that the lakes of the Kashubian Lake District are characterised by such a form of lake water supply. The time scope of the work included the period from January 2011 to September 2012. The spatial scope of the work included the area of Lake Raduńskie Górne, located in the Kashubian Lake District in north Poland. The research plot was in the north-eastern part of the lake. Office works were aimed at gathering and studying source materials and maps. Cartographic materials were analysed with the use of the MapInfo Professional 9.5. The purpose of the field work was to find the groundwater outflows in the basin of Lake Raduńskie Górne. During the field research diving was carried out in the lake. During the dive audiovisual documentation was conducted using a Nikon D90 camera with Ikelite underwater housing for Nikon D90 and an Ikelite DS 161 movie substrobe, as well as a GoPro HD HERO 2 Outdoor camera. During the project, four groundwater outflows were found. In order to examine these springs audiovisual and photographic documentation was made. To systematise the typology of the discovered springs, new nomenclature was suggested, namely under-lake springs with subtypes: an under-lake slope spring and under-lake offshore spring

  6. Bathymetry of Lake Michigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Michigan has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  7. Bathymetry of Lake Ontario

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Ontario has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  8. Designated Wildlife Lakes - points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is a point shapefile of Designated Wildlife Lakes in Minnesota. This shapefile was created by converting lake polygons from the Designated Wildlife Lakes...

  9. Great Lakes Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  10. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  11. Hydrography - Lakes Assessments - Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer shows only attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water Act...

  12. Bathymetry of Lake Huron

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  13. Lake volume and groundwater storage variations in Tibetan Plateau's endorheic basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoqing; Yao, Tandong; Shum, C. K.; Yi, Shuang; Yang, Kun; Xie, Hongjie; Feng, Wei; Bolch, Tobias; Wang, Lei; Behrangi, Ali; Zhang, Hongbo; Wang, Weicai; Xiang, Yang; Yu, Jinyuan

    2017-06-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP), the highest and largest plateau in the world, with complex and competing cryospheric-hydrologic-geodynamic processes, is particularly sensitive to anthropogenic warming. The quantitative water mass budget in the TP is poorly known. Here we examine annual changes in lake area, level, and volume during 1970s-2015. We find that a complex pattern of lake volume changes during 1970s-2015: a slight decrease of -2.78 Gt yr-1 during 1970s-1995, followed by a rapid increase of 12.53 Gt yr-1 during 1996-2010, and then a recent deceleration (1.46 Gt yr-1) during 2011-2015. We then estimated the recent water mass budget for the Inner TP, 2003-2009, including changes in terrestrial water storage, lake volume, glacier mass, snow water equivalent (SWE), soil moisture, and permafrost. The dominant components of water mass budget, namely, changes in lake volume (7.72 ± 0.63 Gt yr-1) and groundwater storage (5.01 ± 1.59 Gt yr-1), increased at similar rates. We find that increased net precipitation contributes the majority of water supply (74%) for the lake volume increase, followed by glacier mass loss (13%), and ground ice melt due to permafrost degradation (12%). Other term such as SWE (1%) makes a relatively small contribution. These results suggest that the hydrologic cycle in the TP has intensified remarkably during recent decades.

  14. Morphological variation of siscowet lake trout in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte, C.R.; Moore, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Historically, Lake Superior has contained many morphologically distinct forms of the lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that have occupied specific depths and locations and spawned at specific times of the year. Today, as was probably the case historically, the siscowet morphotype is the most abundant. Recent interest in harvesting siscowets to extract oil containing omega-3 fatty acids will require additional knowledge of the biology and stock structure of these lightly exploited populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether shape differences exist among siscowet populations across Lake Superior and whether these shape differences can be used to infer stock structure. Morphometric analysis (truss protocol) was used to differentiate among siscowets sampled from 23 locations in Lake Superior. We analyzed 31 distance measurements among 14 anatomical landmarks taken from digital images of fish recorded in the field. Cluster analysis of size-corrected data separated fish into three geographic groups: The Isle Royale, eastern (Michigan), and western regions (Michigan). Finer scales of stock structure were also suggested. Discriminant function analysis demonstrated that head measurements contributed to most of the observed variation. Cross-validation classification rates indicated that 67–71% of individual fish were correctly classified to their region of capture. This is the first study to present shape differences associated with location within a lake trout morphotype in Lake Superior.

  15. Sediment transport and evaluation of sediment surrogate ratings in the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, Water Years 2011–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Molly S.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Etheridge, Alexandra B.

    2015-12-14

    The Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and other native fish species are culturally important to the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, but their habitat and recruitment have been affected by anthropogenic changes to the river. Although the interconnections among anthropogenic changes and their impacts on fish are complex, the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, in cooperation with other agencies, has been trying to understand and promote native fish recruitment through the development and implementation of the Kootenai River Habitat Restoration Program. As part of this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey collected sediment and streamflow information and evaluated use of acoustic backscatter as a sediment surrogate for estimating continuous suspended-sediment concentration at three sites in the Kootenai River white sturgeon critical habitat during water years 2011–14.

  16. Poverty Survey 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Armoedesignalement 2011 In this joint publication, Statistics Netherlands (CBS) and the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP present the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The trend in the poverty rate is described for the population as a whole and for t

  17. Using Snow Fences to Augument Fresh Water Supplies in Shallow Arctic Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuefer, Svetlana

    2013-03-31

    , 2010, and 2011), we selected and monitored two lakes with similar hydrological regimes. Both lakes are located 30 miles south of Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, near Franklin Bluffs. One is an experimental lake, where we installed a snow fence; the other is a control lake, where the natural regime was preserved. The general approach was to compare the hydrologic response of the lake to the snowdrift during the summers of 2010 and 2011 against the baseline conditions in 2009. Highlights of the project included new data on snow transport rates on the Alaska North Slope, an evaluation of the experimental lake's hydrological response to snowdrift melt, and cost assessment of snowdrift‐generated water. High snow transport rates (0.49 kg/s/m) ensured that the snowdrift reached its equilibrium profile by winter's end. Generally, natural snowpack disappeared by the beginning of June in this area. In contrast, snow in the drift lasted through early July, supplying the experimental lake with snowmelt when water in other tundra lakes was decreasing. The experimental lake retained elevated water levels during the entire open‐water season. Comparison of lake water volumes during the experiment against the baseline year showed that, by the end of summer, the drift generated by the snow fence had increased lake water volume by at least 21-29%. We estimated water cost at 1.9 cents per gallon during the first year and 0.8 cents per gallon during the second year. This estimate depends on the cost of snow fence construction in remote arctic locations, which we assumed to be at $7.66 per square foot of snow fence frontal area. The snow fence technique was effective in augmenting the supply of lake water during summers 2010 and 2011 despite low rainfall during both summers. Snow fences are a simple, yet an effective, way to replenish tundra lakes with freshwater and increase water availability in winter. This research project was synergetic with the NETL project, "North Slope Decision

  18. Using Snow Fences to Augument Fresh Water Supplies in Shallow Arctic Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuefer, Svetlana

    2013-03-31

    , 2010, and 2011), we selected and monitored two lakes with similar hydrological regimes. Both lakes are located 30 miles south of Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, near Franklin Bluffs. One is an experimental lake, where we installed a snow fence; the other is a control lake, where the natural regime was preserved. The general approach was to compare the hydrologic response of the lake to the snowdrift during the summers of 2010 and 2011 against the baseline conditions in 2009. Highlights of the project included new data on snow transport rates on the Alaska North Slope, an evaluation of the experimental lake's hydrological response to snowdrift melt, and cost assessment of snowdrift‐generated water. High snow transport rates (0.49 kg/s/m) ensured that the snowdrift reached its equilibrium profile by winter's end. Generally, natural snowpack disappeared by the beginning of June in this area. In contrast, snow in the drift lasted through early July, supplying the experimental lake with snowmelt when water in other tundra lakes was decreasing. The experimental lake retained elevated water levels during the entire open‐water season. Comparison of lake water volumes during the experiment against the baseline year showed that, by the end of summer, the drift generated by the snow fence had increased lake water volume by at least 21-29%. We estimated water cost at 1.9 cents per gallon during the first year and 0.8 cents per gallon during the second year. This estimate depends on the cost of snow fence construction in remote arctic locations, which we assumed to be at $7.66 per square foot of snow fence frontal area. The snow fence technique was effective in augmenting the supply of lake water during summers 2010 and 2011 despite low rainfall during both summers. Snow fences are a simple, yet an effective, way to replenish tundra lakes with freshwater and increase water availability in winter. This research project was synergetic with the NETL project, "North Slope Decision

  19. Investigating Clinical and Radiographical Success Rate of Dental Procedures Performed On Children under General Anesthesia in a Surgical Clinic in Yazd between 2006- 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z bahrololoomi

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Regarding failure rate of amalgam and composite restorations, a definitive treatment plan consisting of SSC, pulp therapy and / or extraction may be preferred for oral rehabilitation of the children under GA.

  20. September 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Donizetti's Opera: L'elisir d'Amore Time: 2011/9/10-201 I/9/13 Venue: NCPA-Opera House Price: RMB 100/180/280/400/460/520/ 580/680 Tickets are available at 86-10-6417845of his good application in instrumental cast- ing: In Nemorino's famous aria Una furtiva lagrima in I3:lisir d'amore, Act II, Donizetti uses bassoon to lead out the aria with harp as the background.

  1. Publications 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fabio AcerbiDiofanto, “De polygonis numeris”. Introduzione, testo critico, traduzione italiana e commento di F. Acerbi», Pisa, Roma, Fabrizio Serra Editore, 2011. 252 p. Dany Amiot- [avec Dejan Stosic], « Sautiller, voleter, dansoter : évaluation, pluriactionnalité, aspect », Temps, aspect et classes de mots : études théoriques et didactiques. Actes du septième colloque international de linguistique française et roumaine, E. Arjoca-Ieremia, C. Avezard-Roger, J. Goes, E. Moline & A. Tihu (...

  2. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  3. Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Wetland Management District & Prairie Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This general report summarizes the vision, history, research, and management areas of Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge in the year 2011.

  4. Analysis on Monitoring Results of Maternal Mortality Rates from 2005 to 2011 and Discussion of the Related Experience%株洲市2005-2011年孕产妇死亡监测结果分析与经验探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王希; 谢乐瑜; 陈勇兰

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨株洲市孕产妇死亡相关因素及降低死亡率的有效措施. 方法 株洲市妇幼保健院收集上报孕产妇个案调查表,结合十二表格评审法,对2005 - 2011年67例孕产妇进行死因评审分析. 结果 株洲市7年孕产妇死亡率整体逐年下降,2010年略微反弹,2011年降至历史最低.平均孕产妇死亡率:19.32/10万,死亡原因前三位的是:产科出血、妊娠合并内科疾病、羊水栓塞,其中栓塞性疾病发生呈增多趋势. 结论 健全的三级网络、加强各级医疗保健技术人员的业务水平,加强孕产妇的系统管理,注重高危面访工作,做好孕产妇死亡的评审工作,加大卫生行政部门监管力度,可有效降低孕产妇死亡率.%Objective To explore the related factors of maternal deaths in Zhuzhou City and the effective measures to reduce maternal mortality rates. Methods The maternal - case questionnaires were collected by Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Zhuzhou City. With twelve— form evaluation method, death causes of 67 maternal death — cases collected from 2005 to 2011 were assessed and analyzed. Results The maternal mortality rates in Zhuzhou City declined year by year during the period of 2005 - 2011, slightly rebounded in 2010, and then fell to the lowest level of the recorded history in 2011. The average maternal mortality rate was 19.32/100,000. The top three causes of death in order were obstetric hemorrhage, pregnancy with internal medical problems, and amniotic fluid embolism, among them, embolization cases showed an upward trend. Conclusions We can effectively reduce the maternal mortality rate through perfecting three- level network, increasing the professional levels of medical staff, strengthening the systematic management of maternal health, paying more attention to the interview of high— risk pregnant women, organizing the review of maternal deaths, and enhancing the supervision of public health by administrative

  5. Mid Holocene lake level and shoreline behavior during the Nipissing phase of the upper Great Lakes at Alpena, Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, T.A.; Lepper, K.; Endres, A.L.; Johnston, J.W.; Baedke, S.J.; Argyilan, E.P.; Booth, R.K.; Wilcox, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Nipissing phase was the last pre-modern high-water stage of the upper Great Lakes. Represented as either a one- or two-peak highstand, the Nipissing occurred following a long-term lake-level rise. This transgression was primarily an erosional event with only the final stage of the transgression preserved as barriers, spits, and strandplains of beach ridges. South of Alpena, Michigan, mid to late Holocene coastal deposits occur as a strandplain between Devils Lake and Lake Huron. The landward part of this strandplain is a higher elevation platform that formed during the final stage of lake-level rise to the Nipissing peak. The pre-Nipissing shoreline transgressed over Devils Lake lagoonal deposits from 6.4 to 6.1. ka. The first beach ridge formed ~ 6. ka, and then the shoreline advanced toward Lake Huron, producing beach ridges about every 70. years. This depositional regression produced a slightly thickening wedge of sediment during a lake-level rise that formed 20 beach ridges. The rise ended at 4.5. ka at the Nipissing peak. This peak was short-lived, as lake level fell > 4. m during the following 500. years. During this lake-level rise and subsequent fall, the shoreline underwent several forms of shoreline behavior, including erosional transgression, aggradation, depositional transgression, depositional regression, and forced regression. Other upper Great Lakes Nipissing platforms indicate that the lake-level change observed at Alpena of a rapid pre-Nipissing lake-level rise followed by a slower rise to the Nipissing peak, and a post-Nipissing rapid lake-level fall is representative of mid Holocene lake level in the upper Great Lakes. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Effects of acoustic tag implantation on lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens: lack of evidence for changes in behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondorp, Darryl W.; Holbrook, Christopher; Krueger, Charles C.

    2015-01-01

    An assumption of studies using acoustic telemetry is that surgical implantation of acoustic transmitters or tags does not alter behavior of tagged individuals. Evaluating the validity of this assumption can be difficult for large fish, such as adult sturgeons, not amenable to controlled laboratory experimentation. The purpose of this study was to determine if and when this assumption was valid for adult lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens tagged with large (34 g) acoustic transmitters and released into the St. Clair River during 2011–2014. The hypothesis that activity and reach-scale distributions of tagged and untagged lake sturgeon did not differ was tested by comparing movement frequencies, movement rates (speed-over-ground), and location-specific detection probabilities between newly-tagged lake sturgeon and presumably fully-recovered conspecifics tagged and released in prior years.

  7. Summer 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric G. Strauss

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities and the Environment Editor, Eric Strauss, provides an introduction to the Summer 2011 issue. He discusses the journal's transition to its new home at Loyola Marymount University and the creation of the Center for Urban Resilience and Ecological Solution, while underscoring highlights of the special topics section on Urban Predators. The contributors to this section participated in the International Symposium on Urban Wildlife and the Environment hosted by the Wildlife Society at the University of Massachusetts Amherst in June of 2009. Finally, Dr. Strauss notes the breadth of our issue by mentioning the additional articles' focus on rain gardens, water quality, arthropod diversity, green roofs, and socio-ecological dynamics.

  8. Methodological considerations regarding the use of inorganic {sup 197}Hg(II) radiotracer to assess mercury methylation potential rates in lake sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Catan, Soledad [Laboratorio de Analisis por Activacion Neutronica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Guevara, Sergio Ribeiro [Laboratorio de Analisis por Activacion Neutronica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)], E-mail: ribeiro@cab.cnea.gov.ar; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark [US Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Rd./MS 480, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Magnavacca, Cecilia [Centro Atomico Ezeiza, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Presbitero Gonzalez y Aragon No. 15, B1802AYA, Ezeiza, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cohen, Isaac Marcos [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad Regional Buenos Aires, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Medrano 951 (C1179AAQ) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Arribere, Maria [Laboratorio de Analisis por Activacion Neutronica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)

    2007-09-15

    Methodological considerations on the determination of benthic methyl-mercury (CH{sub 3}Hg) production potentials were investigated on lake sediment, using {sup 197}Hg radiotracer. Three methods to arrest bacterial activity were compared: flash freezing, thermal sterilization, and {gamma}-irradiation. Flash freezing showed similar CH{sub 3}Hg recoveries as thermal sterilization, which was both 50% higher than the recoveries obtained with {gamma}-ray irradiation. No additional radiolabel was recovered in kill-control samples after an additional 24 or 65 h of incubation, suggesting that all treatments were effective at arresting Hg(II)-methylating bacterial activity, and that the initial recoveries are likely due to non-methylated {sup 197}Hg(II) carry-over in the organic extraction and/or [{sup 197}Hg]CH{sub 3}Hg produced via abiotic reactions. Two CH{sub 3}Hg extraction methods from sediment were compared: (a) direct extraction into toluene after sediment leaching with CuSO{sub 4} and HCl and (b) the same extraction with an additional back-extraction step to thiosulphate. Similar information was obtained with both methods, but the low efficiency observed and the extra work associated with the back-extraction procedure represent significant disadvantages, even tough the direct extraction involves higher Hg(II) carry over.

  9. Methodological considerations regarding the use of inorganic 197Hg(II) radiotracer to assess mercury methylation potential rates in lake sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Catan S.; Guevara, S.R.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M.; Magnavacca, C.; Cohen, I.M.; Arribere, M.

    2007-01-01

    Methodological considerations on the determination of benthic methyl-mercury (CH3Hg) production potentials were investigated on lake sediment, using 197Hg radiotracer. Three methods to arrest bacterial activity were compared: flash freezing, thermal sterilization, and ??-irradiation. Flash freezing showed similar CH3Hg recoveries as thermal sterilization, which was both 50% higher than the recoveries obtained with ??-ray irradiation. No additional radiolabel was recovered in kill-control samples after an additional 24 or 65 h of incubation, suggesting that all treatments were effective at arresting Hg(II)-methylating bacterial activity, and that the initial recoveries are likely due to non-methylated 197Hg(II) carry-over in the organic extraction and/or [197Hg]CH3Hg produced via abiotic reactions. Two CH3Hg extraction methods from sediment were compared: (a) direct extraction into toluene after sediment leaching with CuSO4 and HCl and (b) the same extraction with an additional back-extraction step to thiosulphate. Similar information was obtained with both methods, but the low efficiency observed and the extra work associated with the back-extraction procedure represent significant disadvantages, even tough the direct extraction involves higher Hg(II) carry over. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Methodological considerations regarding the use of inorganic 197Hg(II) radiotracer to assess mercury methylation potential rates in lake sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Catán, Soledad; Guevara, Sergio Ribeiro; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Magnavacca, Cecilia; Cohen, Isaac Marcos; Arribere, María

    2007-09-01

    Methodological considerations on the determination of benthic methyl-mercury (CH(3)Hg) production potentials were investigated on lake sediment, using (197)Hg radiotracer. Three methods to arrest bacterial activity were compared: flash freezing, thermal sterilization, and gamma-irradiation. Flash freezing showed similar CH(3)Hg recoveries as thermal sterilization, which was both 50% higher than the recoveries obtained with gamma-ray irradiation. No additional radiolabel was recovered in kill-control samples after an additional 24 or 65 h of incubation, suggesting that all treatments were effective at arresting Hg(II)-methylating bacterial activity, and that the initial recoveries are likely due to non-methylated (197)Hg(II) carry-over in the organic extraction and/or [(197)Hg]CH(3)Hg produced via abiotic reactions. Two CH(3)Hg extraction methods from sediment were compared: (a) direct extraction into toluene after sediment leaching with CuSO(4) and HCl and (b) the same extraction with an additional back-extraction step to thiosulphate. Similar information was obtained with both methods, but the low efficiency observed and the extra work associated with the back-extraction procedure represent significant disadvantages, even tough the direct extraction involves higher Hg(II) carry over.

  11. Deglaciation and the Evolution of Planetary Lake Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; Haberle, C.; Moersch, J. E.; Jacobsen, R. E.; Sommaruga, R.; Fleming, E.; Detweiler, A. M.; Echeverria, A.; Parro, V.; Blanco, Y.; Rivas, L.; Demergasso, C.; Bebout, L.; Chong, G.; Rose, K.; Smith, T.; Pedersen, L.; Lee, S.; Fong, T.; Wettergreen, D.; Tambley, C.

    2012-12-01

    The goal of the Planetary Lake Lander project (PLL) is to deploy an adaptive robotic lake lander in the Central Andes of Chile, where ice is melting at an accelerated rate. Deglaciation subjects lakes to interannual variability, raising questions about its impact on metabolic activity and biogeochemical cycles, lake habitat, ecosystem, and biodiversity. Documenting these questions contributes to a better understanding of the changes affecting Earth's glacial lake ecosystems, and may shed light on how life adapted during past deglaciations. From an astrobiological perspective, it brings new insights into the evolution of Mars habitability during comparable geological periods. Further, the robotic exploration of glacial lakes confronts us with challenges analogous to those that will be faced by future planetary missions to Titan's planetary seas. PLL, thus, bridges planets along an intertwined pathway where the study of one planet informs on the evolution of others and on the technological challenges associated with their exploration. During our field field campaign In November 2011, we characterized the physical, geological, and biological environment of Laguna Negra (33.65S -70.13W) a 6-km large, 300 m deep glacial lake, and generated an environmental database to baseline the adaptive system that will be used in the future by the lake lander to autonomously monitor the lake.Time series show changes in precipitation over the past decades, and in temperature and relative humidity. Meteorological stations and a stream gauge are tracking daily and seasonal changes at high resolution. Data are correlated to daily vertical profiles performed by the lake lander to monitor physico-chemical changes. Bathymetric maps reveal the bottom topography, and isolated habitats. Most dominant spectral units have been defined in ASTER near- and thermal infrared. They were sampled from spectra and hand specimens in the field and are now being characterized for mineralogic compositions

  12. Effect of intraoperative constant rate infusion of lidocaine on short-term survival of dogs with septic peritonitis: 75 cases (2007-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Luca; Seymour, Christopher J

    2016-02-15

    To investigate whether intraoperative administration of a lidocaine infusion to dogs with septic peritonitis was associated with short-term (48 hours) survival after surgery. Retrospective case series. 75 dogs with septic peritonitis. Medical records of dogs with septic peritonitis that underwent laparotomy between January 2007 and December 2011 at the Royal Veterinary College were reviewed. Select variables during the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative periods and short-term survival after surgery were compared between dogs that received an opioid only (group O; n = 33) and dogs that received lidocaine (50 μg/kg/min [22.7 μg/kg/min], IV; group L; 42) in addition to an opioid during surgery. The proportion of dogs that survived for 48 hours after surgery was significantly greater for group L (35/42) than for group O (20/33). Intraoperative infusion of lidocaine increased the odds of short-term survival (OR, 8.77; 95% CI, 1.94 to 39.57). No significant differences were observed between the 2 treatment groups for variables assessed during the preoperative and postoperative periods. During the intraoperative period, more dogs in group L received an IV bolus of a synthetic colloid than did dogs in group O, but the number of IV boluses administered was not associated with short-term survival. Results indicated that IV infusion of lidocaine might improve the short-term survival of dogs with septic peritonitis. Prospective clinical trials are necessary to determine the efficacy of lidocaine as a supportive treatment for dogs with septic peritonitis.

  13. Lifestyle, chronic diseases and self-rated health among Malaysian adults: results from the 2011 National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Ying Ying; Teh, Chien Huey; LIM, Kuang Kuay; LIM, Kuang Hock; Yeo, Pei Sien; Kee, Chee Cheong; Omar, Mohd Azahadi; Ahmad, Noor Ani

    2015-01-01

    Background Self-rated health (SRH) has been demonstrated as a valid and appropriate predictor of incident mortality and chronic morbidity. Associations between lifestyle, chronic diseases, and SRH have been reported by various population studies but few have included data from developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of poor SRH in Malaysia and its association with lifestyle factors and chronic diseases among Malaysian adults. Methods This study was based on...

  14. How can we further improve the LDL-cholesterol target level achievement rate based on the Hungarian MULTI GAP 2011 study results and considering the new European dyslipidemia guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Laszlo; Paragh, György; Karadi, Istvan; Reiber, Istvan; Pados, Gyula; Kiss, Zoltan

    2012-09-08

    Despite the continuous improvement of the quality of lipid lowering therapy the achievement of target values is still not satisfactory, mainly in the very high cardiovascular risk category patients, where the goal of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is 1.80 mmol/l. The trends in lipid lowering treatment of 17420 patients from different studies conducted between 2004 and 2010 were compared to that of 1626 patients of MULTI GAP (MULTI Goal Attainment Problem) 2011 treated by general practitioners (GPs) and specialists. In MULTI GAP 2011 the mean LDL-C level ± SD) of patients treated by GPs was found to be 2.87 ±1.01 mmol/l, the target value of 2.50 was achieved by 40% of them, in the specialists' patients the mean LDL-C level proved to be 2.77 ±1.10 mmol/l and the achievement rate was 45%. In the 2.50 mmol/l achievement rate of GPs' patients a satisfactory improvement was observed in the studied years, but the 1.80 mmol/l LDL-C goal in 2011 was attained only in 11% of very high risk cases. There was a linear correlation between the patient compliance estimated by the physicians and the LDL-C achievement rate. As the number of very high risk category patients has been increased according to the new European dyslipidemia guidelines, growing attention needs to be placed on attainment of the 1.80 mmol/l LDL-C level. Based on the results of the MULTI GAP studies, improving patients' adherence and the continuous training of physicians are necessary.

  15. Lower Vistula fluvial lakes as possible places of deep groundwaters effluence (Grudziądz Basin, North Central Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordowski, Jaroslaw; Kubiak-Wójcicka, Katarzyna; Solarczyk, Adam; Tyszkowski, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    Regarding the outflow the Vistula River is the largest river in the Baltic catchment. In its lower course, below Bydgoszcz, in the Late Holocene Vistula channel adopted an weakly anastomosing fluvial pattern destroyed by intensive human hydrotechnical activity and by the regulation which have intensified about 200 years ago. Channel regulation have left many artificially separated fluvial lakes. Part of them infilled rapidly but the majority have persisted to present day almost unchanged. It has also arised the question: what drives the resistence for silting? To solve the problem there were conducted simultaneous hydrological and geomorphological investigations, because there were two concepts: one that the mineral material is removed from fluvial lakes while high stands by flood waters and second that the material is removed due to high groundwater "exchange" rate when the fluvial lake has a sufficient hydrological connectivity to the main Vistula channel. The Vistula valley crosses morainic plains of the last glaciation. On the average it has about 10 km width and is incised about 70 - 80 m deep, compared to neighbouring plains, dissecting all the Quaternary aquifers. On the floodplain area the Quaternary sediments lay with a layer of only 10-20 m thickness over Miocene and Oligocene sands. In favourable conditions, particularly while a low stand there exists the possibility of Tertiary water migration toward the surface of fluvial lakes provided they have not continuous flood sediments cover on their floors. As an example of such a lake with an intensive water exchange rate by supposed deep groundwaters was chosen the Old Vistula lake (Stara Wisła) near Grudziądz town. The lake has an area of 40 ha, mean depth 1,73 m, maximum depth 8 m, length about 4 km and medium width about 100 m. In the years 2011-2014, with two weeks frequency, in its surficial water layer were conducted measures which included temperature, pH, Eh, suspended matter amount, total and

  16. [Study on seasonal characteristics of thermal stratification in lacustrine zone of Lake Qiandao].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chun-Ying; Yu, Zuo-Ming; Wu, Zhi-Xu; Wu, Chun-Jin

    2013-07-01

    Lake Qiandao is a typical subtropical man-made reservoir in China. The investigation on the seasonal and vertical dynamics of water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH value, turbidity, photosynthetic available radiation (PAR) and chlorophyll a was conducted in 2011 in order to find out the physical characteristics of Lake Qiandao. The average surface water temperature ranged from 10.4 to 32.7 degrees C. A monomictic thermal stratification was observed in Lake Qiandao, initiating in April and lasting until December. The results showed that thermal stratification had influences on vertical distribution of DO, pH value, turbidity, PAR and chlorophyll a. Very strong stratification of DO was found, inducing lower oxygen concentration in the thermocline layer and temporal hypoxia in the bottom water. The maximum turbidity was found in the thermocline layer and the precipitation affected the surface turbidity value. Moreover, the chlorophyll a concentration was higher in the surface water and lower in the bottom water as found in this study, implying that water quality was affected by stratification. Besides, the maximum photosynthesis rate and algal growth rate were found at the depth 5-10 m below the water surface. Therefore, the results can provide theoretical support for the sampling and analysis of algal blooms in Lake Qiandao.

  17. Regional changes in charcoal-burning suicide rates in East/Southeast Asia from 1995 to 2011: a time trend analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Shu-Sen Chang; Ying-Yeh Chen; Paul S F Yip; Won Jin Lee; Akihito Hagihara; David Gunnell

    2014-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Every year, almost one million people die by suicide globally; suicide is the fifth leading cause of death in women aged 15–49 and the sixth leading cause of death in men in the same age group. Most people who take their own life are mentally ill. For others, stressful events (the loss of a partner, for example) have made life seem worthless or too painful to bear. Strategies to reduce suicide rates include better treatment of mental illness and programs that help ...

  18. Current status and future tendency of lake eutrophication in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xiangcan; XU Qiujin; HUANG Changzhu

    2005-01-01

    Current trophic status and trend of Chinese freshwater lakes were investigated in this study. The results showed that all lakes studied were commonly undergoing the eutrophication process, water quality decreased and lake's ecosystem is being declined. Most of the urban lakes are facing serious eutrophication. Many medium-sized lakes are in metrophic or eutrophic status, some local water are even approaching the hypertrophic level. The famous five freshwater lakes in China have entered into eutrophication in the condition of higher nutrient load. Lake Taihu, Hongze and Caohu are already in eutrophic state. Eutrophic lakes are mainly distributed in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River and Yungui plateau. Lake eutrophication developed rapidly. Among the 34 lakes studied in 1970's, most of lakes were in the mesotrophic status,mesotrophic water area accounted for 91.8%. With the nine year of 1978-1987 the area percentage of oligotrophic lakes decreased from 3.2% to 0.53%, and that of eutrophic lakes increased from 5.0% to 55.01%. Recent data showed 57.5% lakes were in eutrophic and hypertrophic status of the 40 surveyed lakes.Eutrophic trend of Lake Taihu, Chaohu and Xuanwu in the region of the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River was predicated using the ecological stress model. The results showed that in 2008 Lake Taihu, Chaohu and Xuanwu might be of eutrophication, eutrophication and hypertrophication, respectively if no control measurement is taken. Provided the pollution water treatment rate is 60% in 2030, approximately 30 billion ton pollution water would still be discharged directly in the lakes. Therefore, in 2030 the urban lakes in China might be eutrophication or hypertrophication, and most of the medium-sized lakes at the urban-rural fringe might be in eutrophication or hypertrophication. The famous five biggest freshwater lakes in China might be eutrophication if control countermeasures are taken as now.Lake eutrophication has become a

  19. Flood Insurance Rate Maps and Base Flood Elevations, FIRM, DFIRM, BFE, Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) - Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRM), Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Polk County, Wisconsin.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Flood Insurance Rate Maps and Base Flood Elevations, FIRM, DFIRM, BFE dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other...

  20. Mercury accumulation in yellow perch in Wisconsin seepage lakes: Relation to lake characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, W.G.; Wiener, J.G.; Rada, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    We studied relations between lacustrine characteristics and the total mercury (Hg) content of calendar age-2 yellow perch (Perca flavescens) in 10 seepage lakes in north-central Wisconsin. Mean concentrations and burdens (masses) of Hg in whole perch varied widely among lakes, were negatively correlated with lake pH and were positively correlated with total Hg concentration in surficial profundal sediment. Approximately 80 to 90% of the variation in Hg concentration and burden in whole perch was explained with multiple regressions containing two independent variables: either lake pH or alkalinity, and Hg concentration in surficial sediment. Variation among lakes in the Hg concentration in yellow perch was unrelated to their relative rates of growth. The mean concentration of Hg in axial muscle tissue of age-5 walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) from five of the study lakes was highly correlated with the mean concentration in whole age-2 perch in the same lakes. We hypothesized that the high Hg concentrations often seen in piscivorous fish in low-alkalinity lakes (relative to high-alkalinity lakes) is at least partly due to a greater dietary intake of Hg in such waters. Furthermore, the analysis of small yellow perch—the preferred prey of adult walleyes and an important forage species for many predatory fishes in the north-central United States—may be an effective approach to assessing Hg bioavailability in the region's lakes.

  1. Network global navigation satellite system surveys to harmonize American and Canadian datum for the Lake Champlain Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Robert H.; Rydlund, Jr., , Paul H.; Martin, Daniel J.

    2016-03-08

    Historically high flood levels were observed during flooding in Lake Champlain and the Richelieu River from late April through May 2011. Flooding was caused by record spring precipitation and snowmelt from the third highest cumulative snowfall year on record, which included a warm, saturated late spring snowpack. Flood stage was exceeded for a total of 67 days from April 13 to June 19, 2011. During this flooding, shoreline erosion and lake flood inundation were exacerbated by wind-driven waves associated with local fetch and lake-wide seiche effects. In May 2011, a new water-surface-elevation record was set for Lake Champlain. Peak lake-level water-surface elevations varied at the three U.S. Geological Survey lake-level gages on Lake Champlain in 2011. The May 2011 peak water-surface elevations for Lake Champlain ranged from 103.20 feet above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 at the northern end of Lake Champlain (at its outlet into the Richelieu River at Rouses Point, New York) to 103.57 feet above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 at the southern end of the Lake in Whitehall, New York. The water-surface elevations for the Richelieu River in Canada are referenced to a different vertical datum than are those in Lake Champlain in the United States, which causes difficulty in assessing real-time flood water-surface elevations and comparing of flood peaks in the Lake Champlain Basin in the United States and Canada.

  2. Planetary Lake Lander - A Robotic Sentinel to Monitor a Remote Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Liam; Smith, Trey; Lee, Susan; Cabrol, Nathalie; Rose, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The Planetary Lake Lander Project is studying the impact of rapid deglaciation at a high altitude alpine lake in the Andes, where disrupted environmental, physical, chemical, and biological cycles result in newly emerging natural patterns. The solar powered Lake Lander robot is designed to monitor the lake system and characterize both baseline characteristics and impacts of disturbance events such as storms and landslides. Lake Lander must use an onboard adaptive science-on-the-fly approach to return relevant data about these events to mission control without exceeding limited energy and bandwidth resources. Lake Lander carries weather sensors, cameras and a sonde that is winched up and down the water column to monitor temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and other water quality parameters. Data from Lake Lander is returned via satellite and distributed to an international team of scientists via web-based ground data systems. Here, we describe the Lake Lander Project scientific goals, hardware design, ground data systems, and preliminary data from 2011. The adaptive science-on-the-fly system will be described in future papers.

  3. Suppression of invasive lake trout in an isolated backcountry lake in Glacier National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredenberg, C. R.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Guy, Christopher S.; D'Angelo, Vincent S.; Downs, Christopher C.; Syslo, John M.

    2017-01-01

    Fisheries managers have implemented suppression programmes to control non-native lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush (Walbaum), in several lakes throughout the western United States. This study determined the feasibility of experimentally suppressing lake trout using gillnets in an isolated backcountry lake in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA, for the conservation of threatened bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus (Suckley). The demographics of the lake trout population during suppression (2009–2013) were described, and those data were used to assess the effects of suppression scenarios on population growth rate (λ) using an age-structured population model. Model simulations indicated that the population was growing exponentially (λ = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.16–1.28) prior to suppression. However, suppression resulted in declining λ(0.61–0.79) for lake trout, which was concomitant with stable bull trout adult abundances. Continued suppression at or above observed exploitation levels is needed to ensure continued population declines.

  4. Characterization of the heart rate curve during a maximum incremental test on a treadmill. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n4p285

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Marcel Fernandes Nascimento

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the heart rate (HR profile plotted against incremental workloads (IWL during a treadmill test using three mathematical models [linear, linear with 2 segments (Lin2, and sigmoidal], and to determine the best model for the identification of the HR threshold that could be used as a predictor of ventilatory thresholds (VT1 and VT2. Twenty-two men underwent a treadmill incremental test (retest group: n=12 at an initial speed of 5.5 km.h-1, with increments of 0.5 km.h-1 at 1-min intervals until exhaustion. HR and gas exchange were continuously measured and subsequently converted to 5-s and 20-s averages, respectively. The best model was chosen based on residual sum of squares and mean square error. The HR/IWL ratio was better fitted with the Lin2 model in the test and retest groups (p0.05. During a treadmill incremental test, the HR/IWL ratio seems to be better fitted with a Lin2 model, which permits to determine the HR threshold that coincides with VT1.

  5. Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and...

  6. Heterogeneous glacial lake changes and links of lake expansions to the rapid thinning of adjacent glacier termini in the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunqiao; Sheng, Yongwei; Wang, Jida; Ke, Linghong; Madson, Austin; Nie, Yong

    2017-03-01

    Glacier mass loss in the Himalayas has far-reaching implications for the alteration of regional hydrologic regimes, an increased risk of glacial lake outburst, downstream water resource abundance, and contributions to sea level rise. However, the mass losses of Himalayan glaciers are not well understood towing to the scarcity of observations and the heterogeneous responses of Himalayan glaciers to climate change and local factors (e.g., glacier surge, interacting with proglacial lakes). In particular, there is a lack of understanding on the unique interactions between moraine-dammed glacial lakes and their effects on debris cover on valley glacier termini. In this study, we examined the temporal evolution of 151 large glacial lakes across the Himalayas and then classified these glacial lakes into three categories: proglacial lakes in contact with full or partial debris-covered glaciers (debris-contact lakes), ice cliff-contact lakes, and non-glacier-contact lakes. The results show that debris-contact lakes experienced a dramatic areal increase of 36.5% over the years 2000 to 2014, while the latter two categories of lakes remained generally stable. The majority of lake expansions occurred at the glacier front without marked lake level rises. This suggests that the rapid expansion of these debris-contact lakes can be largely attributed to the thinning of debris-covered ice as caused by the melting of glacial fronts and the subsequent glacial retreat. We reconstructed the height variations of glacier fronts in contact with 57 different proglacial lakes during the years 2000 to 2014. These reconstructed surface elevation changes of debris-covered, lake-contact glacier fronts reveal significant thinning trends with considerable lowering rates that range from 1.0 to 9.7 m/y. Our study reveals that a substantial average ice thinning of 3.9 m/y occurred at the glacier fronts that are in contact with glacial lakes.

  7. Death in the United States, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Death in the United States, 2011 Recommend on Facebook ... 2011 SOURCE: National Vital Statistics System, Mortality. Do death rates vary by state? States experience different mortality ...

  8. Evaluation of a lake whitefish bioenergetics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; O'Connor, Daniel V.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Schneeberger, Philip J.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Argyle, Ray L.; Brandt, Stephen B.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis in the laboratory and in the field. For the laboratory evaluation, lake whitefish were fed rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax in four laboratory tanks during a 133-d experiment. Based on a comparison of bioenergetics model predictions of lake whitefish food consumption and growth with observed consumption and growth, we concluded that the bioenergetics model furnished significantly biased estimates of both food consumption and growth. On average, the model overestimated consumption by 61% and underestimated growth by 16%. The source of the bias was probably an overestimation of the respiration rate. We therefore adjusted the respiration component of the bioenergetics model to obtain a good fit of the model to the observed consumption and growth in our laboratory tanks. Based on the adjusted model, predictions of food consumption over the 133-d period fell within 5% of observed consumption in three of the four tanks and within 9% of observed consumption in the remaining tank. We used polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as a tracer to evaluate model performance in the field. Based on our laboratory experiment, the efficiency with which lake whitefish retained PCBs from their food (I?) was estimated at 0.45. We applied the bioenergetics model to Lake Michigan lake whitefish and then used PCB determinations of both lake whitefish and their prey from Lake Michigan to estimate p in the field. Application of the original model to Lake Michigan lake whitefish yielded a field estimate of 0.28, implying that the original formulation of the model overestimated consumption in Lake Michigan by 61%. Application of the bioenergetics model with the adjusted respiration component resulted in a field I? estimate of 0.56, implying that this revised model underestimated consumption by 20%.

  9. Injection of Helium 3 and SF{sub 6} in a lake for the determination of gaseous exchange rates at the water-air interface: implementation, analysis and experimental results; Injection d`helium-3 et SF{sub 6} en lac pour la determination des coefficients gazeux a l`interface eau-air: deploiement, analyse et resultats experimentaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poisson, A. [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France); Jean-Baptiste, P. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Direction des Sciences de la Matiere

    1994-12-31

    In order to study the hypothesis of an under-rating of the exchange velocity at the ocean-atmosphere interface that could explain the lack of CO{sub 2} in the global CO{sub 2} balance, an experiment was carried out in two lakes at the Kerguelen Islands where strong winds are common, in order to evaluate precisely the relation between the transfer coefficient and the wind velocity: {sup 3}He and SF{sub 6} tracers were injected in the lakes; concentration evolutions were recorded and results are shown to validate the above assumption. 6 figs., 1 tab., 9 refs.

  10. Focused groundwater discharge of phosphorus to a eutrophic seepage lake (Lake Væng, Denmark): implications for lake ecological state and restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidmose, Jacob; Nilsson, Bertel; Engesgaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A study on Lake Væng in Denmark demonstrates a high potential for loading of phosphorous via groundwater to seepage lakes. Groundwater discharges are displayed as an important source of phosphorous to a lake due to: (1) high concentrations in the aquifer just below the lake, and (2) the main flow...... paths through the aquifer–lakebed interface either being overland flow through a seepage face, or focused in zones with very high discharge rates. In-lake springs have measured discharge of up to 7.45 m3 per m2 of lakebed per day. These findings were based on seepage meter measurements at 18 locations......, stable isotope (δ18O) analyses, temperature profiles and mapping of ice cover distribution. Groundwater–lake interaction was modelled with a 2D conceptual flow model (MODFLOW) with hydrogeology interpreted from catchment multi electrode profiling, on-lake ground-penetrating radar, well logging...

  11. Glacial lake outburst floods from Kyagar Glacier, Karakoram, P. R. China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemmig, Christoph; Huss, Matthias; Keusen, Hansrudolf; Hess, Josef; Wegmüller, Urs; Ao, Zhigang; Kulubayi, Wubuli

    2013-04-01

    Kyagar Glacier is located in the Karakoram Mountains in the southwest of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, P.R. China. The glacier tongue entirely blocks the riverbed of the upper Shaksgam Valley and impounds a glacial lake at 4750 m a.s.l., which was the source of several violent and disastrous Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF) over the past decades. The spontaneous floods are a threat to over 1 mio. inhabitants in the floodplains of the Yarkant River. A GLOF early warning system, combining satellite remote sensing and two terrestrial observation and warning stations at Kyagar Lake and 200 km downstream, was implemented in 2011 and 2012. The stations provide daily images based on automatic cameras, water level measurements, and are equipped with weather sensors to monitor local climate. We discuss the GLOF early warning system and present first measurement series of melt-water runoff and meteorological conditions from one of the remotest regions of the Karakoram mountains. The ongoing project also elaborates scenario-based forecasts of future glacier lake developments, considering the ice-flow dynamics of Kyagar Glacier as well as surface mass-balance response to climate change. Comparison of two high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) for the ice dam show surface lowering rates of more than 4 m a-1 between 2002 and 2011 leading to a significant reduction in lake volume and hence, a decreasing GLOF hazard potential. Glacier melt modelling using climate scenarios indicates a rapid retreat of the glacier tongue over the next decades. However, two DEMs covering the entire glacier for 2000-2008 show small elevation changes in the accumulation area and even a slight mass gain in the central part. This is supported by the observation of a moderate ice-flow speed-up in this region. This pattern is typical for surge-type glaciers and is consistent with the numerous documented glacier surges in the Karakoram. Furthermore, the displacement rate of the glacier

  12. The role of nitrogen fixation in cyanobacterial bloom toxicity in a temperate, eutrophic lake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas J Beversdorf

    Full Text Available Toxic cyanobacterial blooms threaten freshwaters worldwide but have proven difficult to predict because the mechanisms of bloom formation and toxin production are unknown, especially on weekly time scales. Water quality management continues to focus on aggregated metrics, such as chlorophyll and total nutrients, which may not be sufficient to explain complex community changes and functions such as toxin production. For example, nitrogen (N speciation and cycling play an important role, on daily time scales, in shaping cyanobacterial communities because declining N has been shown to select for N fixers. In addition, subsequent N pulses from N(2 fixation may stimulate and sustain toxic cyanobacterial growth. Herein, we describe how rapid early summer declines in N followed by bursts of N fixation have shaped cyanobacterial communities in a eutrophic lake (Lake Mendota, Wisconsin, USA, possibly driving toxic Microcystis blooms throughout the growing season. On weekly time scales in 2010 and 2011, we monitored the cyanobacterial community in a eutrophic lake using the phycocyanin intergenic spacer (PC-IGS region to determine population dynamics. In parallel, we measured microcystin concentrations, N(2 fixation rates, and potential environmental drivers that contribute to structuring the community. In both years, cyanobacterial community change was strongly correlated with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN concentrations, and Aphanizomenon and Microcystis alternated dominance throughout the pre-toxic, toxic, and post-toxic phases of the lake. Microcystin concentrations increased a few days after the first significant N(2 fixation rates were observed. Then, following large early summer N(2 fixation events, Microcystis increased and became most abundant. Maximum microcystin concentrations coincided with Microcystis dominance. In both years, DIN concentrations dropped again in late summer, and N(2 fixation rates and Aphanizomenon abundance increased

  13. Lake metabolism scales with lake morphometry and catchment conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Peter A.; Baastrup-Spohr, Lars; Jensen, Kaj Sand

    2012-01-01

    We used a comparative data set for 25 lakes in Denmark sampled during summer to explore the influence of lake morphometry, catchment conditions, light availability and nutrient input on lake metabolism. We found that (1) gross primary production (GPP) and community respiration (R) decline with lake...... in lake morphometry and catchment conditions when comparing metabolic responses of lakes to human impacts....

  14. Lower extremity amputation rates in people with diabetes as an indicator of health systems performance. A critical appraisal of the data collection 2000-2011 by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carinci, F; Massi Benedetti, M; Klazinga, N S; Uccioli, L

    2016-10-01

    Critical appraisal of secondary data made available by the OECD for the time frame 2000-2011. Comparison of trends and variation of amputations in people with diabetes across OECD countries. Generalized estimating equations to test the statistical significance of the annual change adjusting for major potential confounders. A total of 26 OECD countries contributed to the OECD data collection for at least 1 year in the reference time frame, showing a decline in rates of over 40 %, from a mean of 13.2 (median 9.4, range 5.1-28.1) to 7.8 amputations per 100,000 in the general population (9.9, 1.0-18.4). The multivariate model showed an average decrease equal to -0.27 per 100,000 per year (p = 0.015), adjusted by structural characteristics of health systems, showing lower amputation rates for health systems financed by public taxation (-4.55 per 100,000 compared to insurance based, p = 0.002) and non-ICD coding mechanisms (-7.04 per 100,000 compared to ICD-derived, p = 0.001). Twelve-year decrease was stronger among insurance-based financing systems (tax based: -0.16 per 100,000, p = 0.064; insurance based: -0.36 per 100,000; p = 0.046). In OECD countries, amputation rates in diabetes continuously decreased over 12 years. Still, in 2011, one amputation every 7 min could be directly attributed to diabetes. Although interesting, these results should be taken with extreme caution, until common definitions are improved and data quality issues, e.g., a different ability in capturing diabetes diagnoses, are fully resolved.

  15. A 400-year phytolith-based reconstruction of wild rice (Zizania palustris) abundance from Mud Lake core sediments, Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Reservation, Minnesota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, R.; Caylor, E.; Yost, C. L.; Drake, C.; Ladwig, J. L.; Myrbo, A.; Howes, T.

    2014-12-01

    Wild rice (Zizania palustris L.) is an aquatic grass with spiritual and subsistence significance to Native people of the Great Lakes region of North America. Mud Lake (Mashkiigwaagamaag), located on the Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Reservation in Carlton County, Minnesota, USA, once supported an extensive population of wild rice (manoomin). However, early 20th century attempts to ditch and drain surrounding wetlands for landuse intensification severely altered the natural hydrological system that supports wild rice. Fond du Lac Resource Management (FDLRM) technicians are currently working to increase the wild rice population in Mud Lake. As part of these efforts, this phytolith study was undertaken to better understand how wild rice abundance has fluctuated over the past 400 years, with particular emphasis on the 19th and 20th centuries. Phytoliths are microscopic opal silica plant remains that are incorporated into soils and lake sediments after the plant-parts that contain them decay. Wild rice produces phytolith morphotypes that are unequivocally diagnostic. Mud Lake core MNMN-MUD11-1C-1P-1 (46°43'38.39"N, 92°42'2.45"W) was piston cored by LacCore (National Lacustrine Core Facility) and FDLRM technicians on 24 May 2011. Initial core descriptions, multi-sensor core logging, phytolith sampling and phytolith extractions were completed during the summer of 2014 at LacCore. Wild rice phytolith identification and quantification was conducted on twelve samples using brightfield microscopy at 400x magnification. Wild rice phytolith concentration values ranged from 68 to 2,300 phytoliths/cm3. Wild rice accumulation rates ranged from 9 to 383 phytoliths/ cm2/yr, peaking in 1952 AD. Wild rice abundance in Mud Lake appears to be influenced by a complex set of variables that include anthropogenic disturbance, climatic events and aquatic plant community succession.

  16. Human land uses enhance sediment denitrification and N2O production in Yangtze lakes primarily by influencing lake water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sediment denitrification in lakes alleviates the effects of eutrophication through removal of nitrogen to the atmosphere as N2O and N2. However, N2O contributes notably to the greenhouse effect and global warming. Human lands uses (e.g., agricultural and urban areas strongly affect lake water quality and sediment characteristics, which, in turn, may regulate lake sediment denitrification and N2O production. In this study, we investigated sediment denitrification and N2O production and their relationships to within-lake variables and watershed land uses in 20 lakes from the Yangtze River basin in China. The results indicated that both lake water quality and sediment characteristics were significantly influenced by watershed land uses. Increased background denitrification rate would result in increased N2O production rate. Background denitrification and N2O production rates were positively related to water nitrogen concentrations but were not significantly correlated with sediment characteristics and plant community structure. A significant positive relationship was observed between background denitrification rate and percentage of human-dominated land uses (HDL in watersheds. Structural equation modelling revealed that the indirect effects of HDL on sediment denitrification and N2O production in Yangtze lakes were mediated primarily through lake water quality. Our findings also suggest that although sediments in Yangtze lakes can remove large quantities of nitrogen through denitrification, they may also be an important source of N2O, especially in lakes with high nitrogen content.

  17. Plant Community Response in Small Plots One Year after Treatment with Triclopyr and Endothall in Noxon Rapids Reservoir, MT, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    aquatic macrophyte community of Onondaga Lake: Field survey and plant growth bioassays of lake sediments. Lake and Reservoir Management 12:73-79...Plant Community Response in Small Plots One Year after Treatment with Triclopyr and Endothall in Noxon Rapids Reservoir , MT, 2011 Ryan M...Plots One Year after Treatment with Triclopyr and Endothall in Noxon Rapids Reservoir , MT, 2011 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  18. On the Thermal Anomaly of Lake Untersee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevington, James

    2015-01-01

    Reported here is the outcome from a student internship undertaken with Dr. Chris McKay at the NASA Ames Research Center. The project for this internship focuses on Lake Untersee, an Earth analog for icy moons. The anoxic hole of Lake Untersee has a thermal bump that was first observed by Wand et al., 1997 and has been confirmed several times (Wand et al., 2006; Andersen 2011). The expected thermal profile of the hole is linear from 0 C at the thermocline to approximately 4 C, the ground temperature in Antarctica, at the bottom. Instead, there is an increase from 0 C near the thermocline to 5 C which is maintained for 7 m, then a linear profile to approximately 4 C near the bottom. Thermal modeling was conducted to quantify the energy input required to maintain the bump. The results revealed 2 sources. Chemical reactions and radiative energy were analyzed as possible explanation. The chemical analysis revealed a peak in Chlorophyll a at the same depth as the shallower source and several interesting reactions with maximum rates at the same location as the lower depth source. However, the energy released from these reactions was orders of magnitude smaller than required source. The radiation analysis revealed a profile with two peaks in similar locations to the sources and a total energy input within a factor of 1.5 of the required sources. The conclusion from this work is that photosynthesis and the chemical reactions support microbial life in the water column which in turn acts as an opacity to convert radiative energy into thermal energy. Recommendations for future work are aimed at quantifying the quantity and types of microbes present in the water column. Beyond the work of the project, two field trips are described and a discussion on benefits to the student of the internship is given.

  19. Arsenic pollution and its treatment in Yangzonghai lake in China: In situ remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Wang, Shixiong; Zhang, Shu; Yang, Xiangjun; Huang, Zhangjie; Wang, Chong; Wei, Qunyan; Zhang, Genlin; Xiao, Jun; Jiang, Fengzhi; Chang, Jun; Xiang, Xing; Wang, Juan

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the effect of direct atomization and spraying a ferric chloride (FeCl3) solution to decrease the arsenic concentration and its pollution in Yangzonghai Lake, China, was investigated. Ten ships were used for spraying 6-8t of FeCl3 in the lake every day since October 2009. After spraying, the average concentration of arsenic in Yangzonghai Lake, which has an area of 31 km(2), an average depth of 20 m, and a water storage capacity of 604 million m(3), started to decrease from 0.117 mg L(-1). On 20 September 2010, the lowest arsenic level of 0.021 mg L(-1) was attained, with an arsenic removal rate as high as 82.0%. However, the source of pollution was not eliminated, and local rainfall mainly occurred in September; hence, arsenic concentration from October to December increased to 0.078 mg L(-1). At the beginning of 2011, the As concentration decreased and remained at 0.025-0.028 mg L(-1) from May to September. During the 2 years of FeCl3 treatment, the water quality improved from V Class to II-III Class of the Chinese standards, which remained consistent for 12 months. The total cost for this in situ water treatment was 29 million RMB, which was less than a hundredth of the expected expenditure of 4-7 billion RMB. The treatment method achieved goals such as high arsenic removal rate, easy operation, low cost, and ecological security. In this study, the changing patterns of the concentration of arsenic in Yangzonghai Lake from June 2008 to December 2014 were analyzed, and the following problems were discussed: the stability of iron-arsenic precipitates in the lake, the concentrations of ferric and chloride ions in the lake, the pH of the lake during treatment, the stability of iron-arsenic precipitates in the lakebed sediments, and the variation of phytoplankton species in the lake.

  20. DNR 24K Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Medium scale lake polygons derived from the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) polygons and MnDOT Basemap lake delineations. Integrated with the DNR 24K Streams...

  1. Analysis of Utilization of Carbapenem Drugs and Correlation of Bacterial Resistance Rate in Yangquan Coalmine Group General Hospital during 2011-2013%2011-2013年阳煤集团总医院碳青霉烯类药物应用情况与细菌耐药率相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘苗

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过对碳青霉烯类药物应用情况及非发酵菌鲍曼不动杆菌( Acinetobacter baumannii, AB )和铜绿假单胞菌( Pseudomonas aeruginosa,P.aeruginosa,PA)对碳青霉烯类药物的耐药率进行相关性分析,从而促进临床合理用药。方法:采用回顾性分析,对山西省阳泉市阳煤集团总医院(以下简称“我院”)2011—2013年碳青霉烯类抗菌药物应用情况进行统计,同时将AB和PA对碳青霉烯类药物的耐药率进行统计和排序,分别使用SPSS 13.0统计软件和世界卫生组织细菌耐药性监测网提供WHONET 5.4软件进行数据分析。结果:2011—2013年我院碳青霉烯类药物使用强度分别为0.917、0.8432、0.5687,AB对碳青霉烯类药物的耐药率在2011、2012、2013年分别为79.58%、70.68%、81.91%,与使用强度无关;PA对碳青霉烯类药物的耐药率在2011、2012、2013年分别为56.05%、50.38%、38.35%,与使用强度呈显著正相关,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:及时了解碳青霉烯类药物的耐药现状,掌握耐药机制及其用药原则,能延缓耐药菌株的发生并能促进该药的合理应用,同时对加强医院感染细菌学监测,杜绝感染爆发流行具有积极意义。%OBJECTIVE:To promote the clinical rational drug use through the analysis of utilization of carbapenem drugs and the correlation of resistance rate of non-fermenting bacteria-acinetobacterbaumannii(AB) and pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P.aeruginosa,PA) to carbapenem drugs.METHODS:Retrospective analysis was used to proceed statistics about utilization of carbapenem antibiotics in Yangquan Coalmine Group General Hospital ( hereinafter referred to as “our hospital”) during 2011-2013, meanwhile drug resistance rates about AB and PA to carbapenem drugs were statistically sorted.SPSS 13.0 statistical software and WHONET 5.4 software provided by WHO bacterial resistance monitoring

  2. Mercury accumulation in Devils Lake, North Dakota effects of environmental variation in closed-basin lakes on mercury chronologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, R.M.; Alexander, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    Sediment cores were collected from lakes in the Devils Lake Basin in North Dakota to determine if mercury (Hg) accumulation chronologies from sediment-core data are good indicators of variations in Hg accumulation rates in saline lakes. Sediment cores from Creel Bay and Main Bay, Devils Lake were selected for detailed analysis and interpretation. The maximum Hg concentration in the Creel Bay core was 0.15 micrograms per gram at 8 to 9 centimeters. The maximum Hg concentration in the Main Bay core was 0.07 micrograms per gram at 5 to 7 centimeters. The general decreases in Hg concentrations with depth are attributed to historic variations in atmospheric Hg deposition rate. Hg stratigraphies combined with 210Pb and 137Cs dating analyses yield Hg chronologies that indicate a general increase in Hg accumulation rates in Devils Lake since the middle of the 19th century. Mean modern Hg accumulation rates in Creel Bay were 4.9 nanograms per square centimeter per year, and rates in Main Bay were 1.8 nanograms per square centimeter per year. Mean preindustrial Hg accumulation rates in Creel Bay were 1.2 nanograms per square centimeter per year, and rates in Main Bay were 1.6 nanograms per square centimeter per year. Relatively low Hg concentrations in recent sediments in the Devils Lake Basin, along with similarities in Hg accumulation rates between lakes in the Devils Lake Basin and other lakes in the northern interior of North America, indicate that local sources of Hg are not important sources of Hg. Results of the study indicate that accurate Hg chronologies are discernible in sediment cores collected from saline lakes. However, spatial and temporal variations in lake level and water chemistry common to saline lakes make interpretation of radioisotopic and geochemical chronologies difficult. Hg geochemistry in Devils Lake, and presumably in other saline lakes, is dynamic. The results of this study indicate that the absolute amount of sediment transported to Devils Lake

  3. Capitol Lake, Washington, 2004 data summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshleman, Jodi; Ruggiero, Peter; Kingsley, Etienne; Gelfenbaum, Guy; George, Doug

    2006-01-01

    At the request of the Washington Department of Ecology (WDOE), the US Geological Survey (USGS) collected bathymetry data in Capital Lake, Olympia, Wash., on September 21, 2004. The data are to be used to calculate sediment infilling rates within the lake as well as for developing the bottom boundary conditions for numerical models of water quality, sediment transport, and morphological change. In addition, the USGS collected sediment samples in Capitol Lake in February, 2005, to help characterize bottom sediment for numerical model calculations and substrate assessment.

  4. NM Property Tax Rates - September 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  5. Mercury accumulation in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Siefkes, Michael J.; Dettmers, John M.; Blum, Joel D.; Johnson, Marcus W.

    2014-01-01

    We determined whole-fish total mercury (Hg) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was used to explore the effects of sex-related differences in activity and resting (standard) metabolic rate (SMR) on mercury accumulation. The grand mean for Hg concentrations was 519 ng/g (standard error of the mean = 46 ng/g). On average, males were 16% higher in Hg concentration than females. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that 14% higher activity and SMR in males would account for this observed sex difference in Hg concentrations. We concluded that the higher Hg concentration in males was most likely due to higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and SMR. Our findings have implications for estimating the effects of sea lamprey populations on mercury cycling within ecosystems, as well as for the proposed opening of sea lamprey fisheries. Eventually, our results may prove useful in improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for substantial damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native.

  6. Mercury accumulation in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from Lake Huron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P; Johnson, Nicholas S; Siefkes, Michael J; Dettmers, John M; Blum, Joel D; Johnson, Marcus W

    2014-02-01

    We determined whole-fish total mercury (Hg) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was used to explore the effects of sex-related differences in activity and resting (standard) metabolic rate (SMR) on mercury accumulation. The grand mean for Hg concentrations was 519 ng/g (standard error of the mean=46 ng/g). On average, males were 16% higher in Hg concentration than females. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that 14% higher activity and SMR in males would account for this observed sex difference in Hg concentrations. We concluded that the higher Hg concentration in males was most likely due to higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and SMR. Our findings have implications for estimating the effects of sea lamprey populations on mercury cycling within ecosystems, as well as for the proposed opening of sea lamprey fisheries. Eventually, our results may prove useful in improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for substantial damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native.

  7. Modeling gradually changing seasonal variation in count data using state space models: a cohort study of hospitalization rates of stroke in atrial fibrillation patients in Denmark from 1977 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Anette L; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Overvad, Kim; Rasmussen, Lars H; Dethlefsen, Claus

    2012-11-20

    Seasonal variation in the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases has been recognized for decades. In particular, incidence rates of hospitalization with atrial fibrillation (AF) and stroke have shown to exhibit a seasonal variation. Stroke in AF patients is common and often severe. Obtaining a description of a possible seasonal variation in the occurrence of stroke in AF patients is crucial in clarifying risk factors for developing stroke and initiating prophylaxis treatment. Using a dynamic generalized linear model we were able to model gradually changing seasonal variation in hospitalization rates of stroke in AF patients from 1977 to 2011. The study population consisted of all Danes registered with a diagnosis of AF comprising 270,017 subjects. During follow-up, 39,632 subjects were hospitalized with stroke. Incidence rates of stroke in AF patients were analyzed assuming the seasonal variation being a sum of two sinusoids and a local linear trend. The results showed that the peak-to-trough ratio decreased from 1.25 to 1.16 during the study period, and that the times of year for peak and trough changed slightly. The present study indicates that using dynamic generalized linear models provides a flexible modeling approach for studying changes in seasonal variation of stroke in AF patients and yields plausible results.

  8. Sexual difference in mercury concentrations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, C.P.; Keir, M.J.; Whittle, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    We determined total mercury (Hg) concentrations in 50 female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and 69 male lake trout from Lake Ontario (Ontario, Canada and New York, United States). Results showed that, on average, males were 8% higher in Hg concentration than females in Lake Ontario. We also used bioenergetics modeling to determine whether a sexual difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE) could explain the observed sexual difference in Hg concentrations. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, male GGE was about 3% higher than female GGE, on average. Although the bioenergetics modeling could not explain the higher Hg concentrations exhibited by the males, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in Hg concentrations of the lake trout. In an earlier study, male lake trout from Lake Ontario were found to be 22% higher in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentration than females from Lake Ontario. Thus, although males were higher in both Hg and PCB concentrations, the degree of the sexual difference in concentration varied between the two contaminants. Further research on sexual differences in Hg excretion rates and Hg direct uptake rates may be needed to resolve the disparity in results between the two contaminants.

  9. Lake shoreline and littoral physical habitat structure in a national lakes assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian and littoral habitat components are important to lake biological assemblages, providing refuge from predation, living and egg-laying substrates, and food. Shoreline structure also affects nutrient cycling, littoral production, and sedimentation rates. Measures of ripar...

  10. LAKE VICTORIA BASIN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    selected satellite lakes and Mara River in Lake Victoria basin, during wet and dry seasons in. 2002. Samples ... The wet season recorded higher biomass in all satellite lakes than during the dry season (t = 2.476, DF ..... communication. Urbana ...

  11. Integration of Bayesian analysis for eutrophication prediction and assessment in a landscape lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Likun; Zhao, Xinhua; Peng, Sen; Zhou, Guangyu

    2015-01-01

    Eutrophication models have been widely used to assess water quality in landscape lakes. Because flow rate in landscape lakes is relatively low and similar to that of natural lakes, eutrophication is more dominant in landscape lakes. To assess the risk of eutrophication in landscape lakes, a set of dynamic equations was developed to simulate lake water quality for total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), dissolve oxygen (DO) and chlorophyll a (Chl a). Firstly, the Bayesian calibration results were described. Moreover, the ability of the model to reproduce adequately the observed mean patterns and major cause-effect relationships for water quality conditions in landscape lakes were presented. Two loading scenarios were used. A Monte Carlo algorithm was applied to calculate the predicated water quality distributions, which were used in the established hierarchical assessment system for lake water quality risk. The important factors affecting the lake water quality risk were defined using linear regression analysis. The results indicated that the variations in the landscape lake receiving recharge water quality caused considerable landscape lake water quality risk in the surrounding area. Moreover, the Chl a concentration in lake water was significantly affected by TP and TN concentrations; the lake TP concentration was the limiting factor for growth of plankton in lake water. The lake water TN concentration provided the basic nutritional requirements. Lastly, lower TN and TP concentrations in the receiving recharge water caused increased lake water quality risk.

  12. Dreissenid mussels are not a "dead end" in Great Lakes food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenijan, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Schneeberger, Philip J.; Ebener, Mark P.; Mohr, Lloyd C.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Bence, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Dreissenid mussels have been regarded as a “dead end” in Great Lakes food webs because the degree of predation on dreissenid mussels, on a lakewide basis, is believed to be low. Waterfowl predation on dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes has primarily been confined to bays, and therefore its effects on the dreissenid mussel population have been localized rather than operating on a lakewide level. Based on results from a previous study, annual consumption of dreissenid mussels by the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) population in central Lake Erie averaged only 6 kilotonnes (kt; 1 kt = one thousand metric tons) during 1995–2002. In contrast, our coupling of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) population models with a lake whitefish bioenergetics model revealed that lake whitefish populations in Lakes Michigan and Huron consumed 109 and 820 kt, respectively, of dreissenid mussels each year. Our results indicated that lake whitefish can be an important predator on dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes, and that dreissenid mussels do not represent a “dead end” in Great Lakes food webs. The Lake Michigan dreissenid mussel population has been estimated to be growing more than three times faster than the Lake Huron dreissenid mussel population during the 2000s. One plausible explanation for the higher population growth rate in Lake Michigan would be the substantially higher predation rate by lake whitefish on dreissenid mussels in Lake Huron.

  13. A Preliminary Analysis of Lake Level and Water Storage Changes over Lakes Baikal and Balkhash from Satellite Altimetry and Gravimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheinway Hwang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lakes Baikal and Balkhash are two of the world¡¦s major lakes affecting fresh water supplies in their catchments. Measurements from satellite altimetry (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 and -2, satellite gravimetry (GRACE and a hydrological model (LDAS are used to see the relationship between lake level change (LLC and water storage change in these two lakes. At Lake Baikal, the average rate of LLC is negative for 1992 - 1998 and positive for 1998 - 2007, and the reversal of the LLC trend concurs with that of the temperature trend during the 1997 - 1998 El Nino. The rate of gravity change ranges from -0.5 to 0.5 ugal yr-1 with a low over the Tian Shan and a high over western Lake Baikal. Due to the climates over the two lakes, the phases of the annual gravity changes differ by up to 100 days. Using the rates of LLC and gravity changes, the ratios between the mass changes of the lake and its catchment over Lakes Baikal and Balkhash are estimated to 0.6 and 0.3, respectively. The result may help to establish water balance models over these two lakes.

  14. Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotny, Eric V.; Murphy, Dan [University of Minnesota, Department of Civil Engineering, St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, 2 Third Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN 55414, 612-625-2810 (United States); Stefan, Heinz G. [University of Minnesota, Department of Civil Engineering, St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, 2 Third Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN 55414, 612-625-2810 (United States)], E-mail: stefa001@umn.edu

    2008-11-15

    Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these lakes were 10 and 25 times higher, respectively, than in other non-urban lakes in the region. Seasonal salinity/chloride cycles in the lakes were correlated with road salt applications: High concentrations in the winter and spring, especially near the bottom of the lakes, were followed by lower concentrations in the summer and fall due to flushing of the lakes by rainfall runoff. The seasonal salt storage/flushing rates for individual lakes were derived from volume-weighted average chloride concentration time series. The rate ranged from 9 to 55% of a lake's minimum salt content. In some of the lakes studied salt concentrations were high enough to stop spring turnover preventing oxygen from reaching the benthic sediments. Concentrations above the sediments were also high enough to induce convective mixing of the saline water into the sediment pore water. A regional analysis of historical water quality records of 38 lakes in the TCMA showed increases in lake salinity from 1984 to 2005 that were highly correlated with the amount of rock salt purchased by the State of Minnesota. Chloride concentrations in individual lakes were positively correlated with the percent of impervious surfaces in the watershed and inversely with lake volume. Taken together, the results show a continuing degradation of the water quality of urban lakes due to application of NaCl in their watersheds.

  15. Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Eric V; Murphy, Dan; Stefan, Heinz G

    2008-11-15

    Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these lakes were 10 and 25 times higher, respectively, than in other non-urban lakes in the region. Seasonal salinity/chloride cycles in the lakes were correlated with road salt applications: High concentrations in the winter and spring, especially near the bottom of the lakes, were followed by lower concentrations in the summer and fall due to flushing of the lakes by rainfall runoff. The seasonal salt storage/flushing rates for individual lakes were derived from volume-weighted average chloride concentration time series. The rate ranged from 9 to 55% of a lake's minimum salt content. In some of the lakes studied salt concentrations were high enough to stop spring turnover preventing oxygen from reaching the benthic sediments. Concentrations above the sediments were also high enough to induce convective mixing of the saline water into the sediment pore water. A regional analysis of historical water quality records of 38 lakes in the TCMA showed increases in lake salinity from 1984 to 2005 that were highly correlated with the amount of rock salt purchased by the State of Minnesota. Chloride concentrations in individual lakes were positively correlated with the percent of impervious surfaces in the watershed and inversely with lake volume. Taken together, the results show a continuing degradation of the water quality of urban lakes due to application of NaCl in their watersheds.

  16. Modeling toxaphene behavior in the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaoyan; Hopke, Philip K; Holsen, Thomas M; Crimmins, Bernard S

    2011-01-15

    Chlorinated camphenes, toxaphene, are persistent organic pollutants of concern in the Great Lakes since elevated concentrations are found in various media throughout the system. While concentrations have decreased since their peak values in the 1970s and 80s, recent measurements have shown that the rate of this decline in Lake Superior has decreased significantly. This modeling study focused on toxaphene cycling in the Great Lakes and was performed primarily to determine if elevated water and fish concentrations in Lake Superior can be explained by physical differences among the lakes. Specifically, the coastal zone model for persistent organic pollutants (CoZMo-POP), a fugacity-based multimedia fate model, was used to calculate toxaphene concentrations in the atmosphere, water, soil, sediment, and biota. The performance of the model was evaluated by comparing calculated and reported concentrations in these compartments. In general, simulated and observed concentrations agree within one order of magnitude. Both model results and observed values indicate that toxaphene concentrations have declined in water and biota since the 1980s primarily as the result of decreased atmospheric deposition rates. Overall the model results suggest that the CoZMo-POP2 model does a reasonable job in simulating toxaphene variations in the Great Lakes basin. The results suggest that the recent findings of higher toxaphene concentrations in Lake Superior can be explained by differences in the physical properties of the lake (primarily large volume, large residence time and cold temperatures) compared to the lower lakes and increased recent inputs are not needed to explain the measured values.

  17. Water level changes of high altitude lakes in Himalaya–Karakoram from ICESat altimetry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Priyeshu Srivastava; Rakesh Bhambri; Prashant Kawishwar; D P Dobhal

    2013-12-01

    Himalaya–Karakoram (H–K) region hosts large number of high altitude lakes but are poorly gauged by in-situ water level monitoring method due to tough terrain conditions and poor accessibility. After the campaigns of ICESat during 2003–2009, now it is possible to achieve lake levels at decimetre accuracy. Therefore, in present study, high altitude lake levels were observed using ICESat/GLAS altimetry in H–K between 2003 and 2009 to generate baseline information. The study reveals that out of 13 lakes, 10 lakes show increasing trend of water levels at different rate (mean rate 0.173 m/y) whereas three lakes unveiled decreasing trend (mean rate −0.056 m/y). Out of five freshwater lakes, four lakes show an increasing trend of their level (mean rate 0.084 m/y) whereas comparatively six salt lakes (out of seven salt lakes) exhibited ∼3 times higher mean rate of lake level increase (0.233 m/y). These observed lake level rise can be attributed to the increased melt runoffs (i.e., seasonal snow and glacier melts) owing to the enhanced mean annual and seasonal air temperature during past decade in north-western (NW) Himalaya. Further, varied behaviours of lake level rises in inter- and intra-basins suggest that the local climatic fluctuations play prominent role along with regional and global climate in complex geographical system of NW Himalaya.

  18. Hydrological, chemical, and isotopic budgets of Lake Chad: a quantitative assessment of evaporation, transpiration and infiltration fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchez, Camille; Goncalves, Julio; Deschamps, Pierre; Vallet-Coulomb, Christine; Hamelin, Bruno; Doumnang, Jean-Claude; Sylvestre, Florence

    2016-04-01

    In the Sahelian belt, Lake Chad is a key water body for 13 million people, who live on its resources. It experiences, however, substantial and frequent surface changes. Located at the centre of one of the largest endorheic basins in the world, its waters remain surprisingly fresh. Its low salinity has been attributed to a low infiltration flow whose value remains poorly constrained. Understanding the lake's hydrological behaviour in response to climate variability requires a better constraint of the factors that control its water and chemical balance. Based on the three-pool conceptualization of Lake Chad proposed by Bader et al. (2011), this study aims to quantify the total water outflow from the lake, the respective proportions of evaporation (E), transpiration (T), and infiltration (I), and the associated uncertainties. A Bayesian inversion method based on lake-level data was used, leading to total water loss estimates in each pool (E + T + I = ETI). Sodium and stable isotope mass balances were then used to separate total water losses into E, T, and I components. Despite the scarcity of representative data available on the lake, the combination of these two geochemical tracers is relevant to assess the relative contribution of these three outflows involved in the control of the hydrological budget. Mean evapotranspiration rates were estimated at 2070 ± 100 and 2270 ± 100 mm yr-1 for the southern and northern pools, respectively. Infiltration represents between 100 and 300 mm yr-1 but most of the water is evapotranspirated in the first few kilometres from the shorelines and does not efficiently recharge the Quaternary aquifer. Transpiration is shown to be significant, around 300 mm yr-1 and reaches 500 mm yr-1 in the vegetated zone of the archipelagos. Hydrological and chemical simulations reproduce the marked hydrological change between the normal lake state that occurred before 1972 and the small lake state after 1972 when the lake surface shrunk to a one

  19. Breast cancer statistics, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol; Siegel, Rebecca; Bandi, Priti; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including trends in incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 230,480 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 39,520 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2011. Breast cancer incidence rates were stable among all racial/ethnic groups from 2004 to 2008. Breast cancer death rates have been declining since the early 1990s for all women except American Indians/Alaska Natives, among whom rates have remained stable. Disparities in breast cancer death rates are evident by state, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity. While significant declines in mortality rates were observed for 36 states and the District of Columbia over the past 10 years, rates for 14 states remained level. Analyses by county-level poverty rates showed that the decrease in mortality rates began later and was slower among women residing in poor areas. As a result, the highest breast cancer death rates shifted from the affluent areas to the poor areas in the early 1990s. Screening rates continue to be lower in poor women compared with non-poor women, despite much progress in increasing mammography utilization. In 2008, 51.4% of poor women had undergone a screening mammogram in the past 2 years compared with 72.8% of non-poor women. Encouraging patients aged 40 years and older to have annual mammography and a clinical breast examination is the single most important step that clinicians can take to reduce suffering and death from breast cancer. Clinicians should also ensure that patients at high risk of breast cancer are identified and offered appropriate screening and follow-up. Continued progress in the control of breast cancer will require sustained and increased efforts to provide high-quality screening, diagnosis, and treatment to all segments of the population.

  20. Water-quality and lake-stage data for Wisconsin lakes, water years 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteufel, S. Bridgett; Robertson, Dale M.

    2017-05-25

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a data base for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. To make these data available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series. The locations of water-quality and lake-stage stations in Wisconsin for water year 2012 are shown in figure 1. A water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. It is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Thus, the period October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2012, is called “water year 2012.”The purpose of this report is to provide information about the chemical and physical characteristics of Wisconsin lakes. Data that have been collected at specific lakes, and information to aid in the interpretation of those data, are included in this report. Data collected include measurements of in-lake water quality and lake stage. Time series of Secchi depths, surface total phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations collected during non-frozen periods are included for all lakes. Graphs of vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance are included for sites where these parameters were measured. Descriptive information for each lake includes: location of the lake, area of the lake’s watershed, period for which data are available, revisions to previously published records, and pertinent remarks. Additional data, such as streamflow and water quality in tributary and outlet streams of some of the lakes, are published online at http://nwis.waterdata.usgs.gov/wi/nwis.Water-resources data, including stage and discharge data at most streamflow-gaging stations, are available online. The Wisconsin Water Science Center’s home page is at https://www.usgs.gov/centers/wisconsin-water-science-center. Information on

  1. Evaluation of methods to estimate lake herring spawner abundance in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, D.L.; Stockwell, J.D.; Cholwek, G.A.; Evrard, L.M.; Schram, S.; Seider, M.; Symbal, M.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, commercial fishers harvested Lake Superior lake herring Coregonus artedi for their flesh, but recently operators have targeted lake herring for roe. Because no surveys have estimated spawning female abundance, direct estimates of fishing mortality are lacking. The primary objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of using acoustic techniques in combination with midwater trawling to estimate spawning female lake herring densities in a Lake Superior statistical grid (i.e., a 10′ latitude × 10′ longitude area over which annual commercial harvest statistics are compiled). Midwater trawling showed that mature female lake herring were largely pelagic during the night in late November, accounting for 94.5% of all fish caught exceeding 250 mm total length. When calculating acoustic estimates of mature female lake herring, we excluded backscattering from smaller pelagic fishes like immature lake herring and rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax by applying an empirically derived threshold of −35.6 dB. We estimated the average density of mature females in statistical grid 1409 at 13.3 fish/ha and the total number of spawning females at 227,600 (95% confidence interval = 172,500–282,700). Using information on mature female densities, size structure, and fecundity, we estimate that females deposited 3.027 billion (109) eggs in grid 1409 (95% confidence interval = 2.356–3.778 billion). The relative estimation error of the mature female density estimate derived using a geostatistical model—based approach was low (12.3%), suggesting that the employed method was robust. Fishing mortality rates of all mature females and their eggs were estimated at 2.3% and 3.8%, respectively. The techniques described for enumerating spawning female lake herring could be used to develop a more accurate stock–recruitment model for Lake Superior lake herring.

  2. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) suppression for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) recovery in Flathead Lake, Montana, North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Hansen, Barry S; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Non-native lake trout Salvelinus namaycush displaced native bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in Flathead Lake, Montana, USA, after 1984, when Mysis diluviana became abundant following its introduction in upstream lakes in 1968–1976. We developed a simulation model to determine the fishing mortality rate on lake trout that would enable bull trout recovery. Model simulations indicated that suppression of adult lake trout by 75% from current abundance would reduce predation on bull trout by 90%. Current removals of lake trout through incentivized fishing contests has not been sufficient to suppress lake trout abundance estimated by mark-recapture or indexed by stratified-random gill netting. In contrast, size structure, body condition, mortality, and maturity are changing consistent with a density-dependent reduction in lake trout abundance. Population modeling indicated total fishing effort would need to increase 3-fold to reduce adult lake trout population density by 75%. We conclude that increased fishing effort would suppress lake trout population density and predation on juvenile bull trout, and thereby enable higher abundance of adult bull trout in Flathead Lake and its tributaries.

  3. Mortality rate and death cause of hospitalized children in Anhui Provincial Hospital between the year 2006 and 2011%2006-2011年安徽省立医院儿科住院患儿病死率及病死原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈付哲; 潘家华; 张慧芳; 刘威; 王亮; 樊婷婷; 张雪

    2013-01-01

    Objective Through a retrospective analysis of children' s death causes in Anhui Provincial Hospital for the past six years, this paper focuses on the research of the main death causes,mortality rate and trend to provide a certain objective basis for children' s health care and developing appropriate prevention and control measures. Methods This paper conducted a statistic analysis through a collection of data and material of 202 death cases of hospitalized children between the year of 2006 and 2011. Results There were 202 death cases of hospitalized children in Anhui Provincial Hospital from the year 2006 to 2011 ,with a male to female ratio of 2. 06:1 and the mortality rate dropping from 1. 06% in 2006 to 0. 49% in 2011. However, the number of deaths in hospitalized children was not reduced even if there was an overall downward trend of mortality rate. There were 106 death cases( with a proportion of 52. 48% ) of children who died within 24 hours of admission, with the ratio trend declining every year. The proportion of deaths of infants less than 1 year old was the highest,accounting for 57.43% of all deaths. According to systematic classification of disease,the top 5 death causes were:neonatal disease in 63 cases( 31. 19% ),tumor in 31 cases( 15. 35% ),injury and poisoning in 18 cases( 8. 91% ),congenital malformations in 16 cases(7.92% ),respiratory disease in 16 cases( 7. 92% ),with different causes for different age groups. Children in different ages died for different reasons. For example,from 0 to 28 days mainly premature birth/low birth weight,from 28 d to 1-year-old mainly congenital heart disease,from 1 to 5-year-old mainly accidental injury,and from 5 to 16-year-old mainly leukemia. Conclusion Based on the characteristics of death cause of children from different age groups, different control measures should be taken while perinatal care and the prevention and treatment of infant diseases should be made. To prevent and treat children with congenital

  4. Toxaphene in Great Lakes biota and air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassmeyer, Susan Theresa

    1998-11-01

    Toxaphene is a complex mixture of at least 600 hexa- through decachlorinated bornanes and bornenes, which was used as an insecticide in the United States from the 1950's until 1982, when it was banned. Toxaphene is ubiquitous in the environment, probably because of its atmospheric transport away from areas of use. Toxaphene's complex nature makes accurate quantitation difficult. I have developed a computer program to automate quantitation, thus decreasing the time required for analysis while maintaining precise quantitation. I have shown that toxaphene in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) taken from Lake Superior have not decreased as they have in the four other Great Lakes from the time of the ban though 1992. This result could be due to three possibilities: ( a) There had been a food chain perturbation that made the 1982 concentrations unusually low. (b) The physical properties of Lake Superior make the loss rate significantly lower than the other Great Lakes. (c) There are current sources of toxaphene entering the Lake Superior basin. I analyzed an extended time series of lake trout from Lake Superior and from northern Lake Michigan to test the first two hypotheses. The concentrations of toxaphene have been constant in trout from Lake Superior since the late 1970's, so hypothesis a can be negated. The northern Lake Michigan samples did not decline as greatly as the southern basin samples, so hypothesis b can not be disproved. To determine the atmospheric deposition of toxaphene to Lake Superior, I analyzed air samples collected every twelve days for sixteen months at Eagle Harbor, Michigan. The concentrations of toxaphene in these samples are similar to those found in recent studies of air collected at Traverse City, MI., but significantly lower than samples taken at a land based site in southern Ontario in 1988 and 1989. This difference in concentration may (or may not) be due to differences in sampling times or locations or

  5. Incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV in a multicenter cohort of HIV-positive patients in Spain 2004-2011: increasing rates of HCV diagnosis but not of HCV seroconversions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz Sobrino-Vegas

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We aim to describe rates and risk factors of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV diagnoses, follow-up HCV testing and HCV seroconversion from 2004-2011 in a cohort of HIV-positive persons in Spain. METHODS: CoRIS is a multicentre, open and prospective cohort recruiting adult HIV-positive patients naïve to antiretroviral therapy. We analysed patients with at least one negative and one follow-up HCV serology. Incidence Rates (IR were calculated and multivariate Poisson regression was used to estimate adjusted Rates Ratios (aIRR. RESULTS: Of 2112 subjects, 53 HCV diagnoses were observed, IR = 0.93/100 py (95%CI: 0.7-1.2. IR increased from 0.88 in 2004-05 to 1.36 in 2010-11 (aIRR = 1.55; 95%CI: 0.37-6.55. In men who have sex with men (MSM from 0.76 to 1.10 (aIRR = 1.45; 95%CI: 0.31-6.82; in heterosexual (HTX subjects from 1.19 to 1.28 (aIRR = 1.08; 95%CI: 0.11-10.24. HCV seroconversion rates decreased from 1.77 to 0.65 (aIRR = 0.37; 95%CI: 0.12-1.11; in MSM from 1.06 to 0.49 (aIRR = 0.46; 95%CI: 0.09-2.31; in HTX from 2.55 to 0.59 (aIRR = 0.23; 95%CI: 0.06-0.98. HCV infection risk was higher for injecting drug users (IDU compared to HTX (aIRR = 9.63;95%CI: 2.9-32.2; among MSM, for subjects aged 40-50 compared to 30 or less (IRR = 3.21; 95%CI: 1.7-6.2; and among HTX, for female sex (aIRR = 2.35; 95%CI: 1.03-5.34 and <200 CD4-count (aIRR = 2.39; 95%CI: 0.83-6.89. CONCLUSION: We report increases in HCV diagnoses rates which seem secondary to intensification of HCV follow-up testing but not to rises in HCV infection rates. HCV IR is higher in IDU. In MSM, HCV IR increases with age. Among HTX, HCV IR is higher in women and in subjects with impaired immunological situation.

  6. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN03 (2011-2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, and Lake Michigan collected in 2011 to 2013 over 3 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity...

  7. Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN02 (2011-2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, Canada and Lake Erie collected in 2011 and 2012 over 3 surveys. This data set is part of the...

  8. Growth and survival of stocked lake trout with nuclear cataracts in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Harold L.; Elrod, Joseph H.

    1991-01-01

    Four strains of yearling lake trout Salvelinus namaycush from the 1985 and 1986 year-classes at the Allegheny National Fish Hatchery were evaluated for nuclear cataracts prior to stocking in Lake Ontario in June 1986 and 1987. Lake trout recaptured by bottom trawling from April to August 1987 and 1988 were examined for cataracts. Cataract frequencies in three strains of yearling lake trout at stocking in 1986 and after 14 and 26 months in the lake were: Seneca Lake–35, 24, and 29%; Lake Ontario–32,24, and 42%; and Lake Superior–7,4, and 6%. Cataract frequencies for yearlings at stocking in 1987 and after 2 and 14 months were: Seneca Lake–51, 37, and 51 %; Lake Superior–7,12, and 12%; and Jenny Lake–46,13, and 36%. Cataract frequency was lower (P weight and length were not different between healthy fish and fish with cataracts. The absence of growth depression in fish with cataracts and the reduced survival rate suggested that faster growing fish were more susceptible to cataract formation.

  9. Editorial Report - 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pereira Camara Leal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available RBFin is the main Brazilian publication outlet of academic papers about finance. The contents of the Review are open and online; a printed version is maintained, in part, thanks to a grant from CNPq/CAPES. Using the Open Journals System to manage the editorial process, publication of RBFin adheres to a strict publication schedule. The journal is indexed by EconLit, Google Scholar, DOAJ, Gale and Ebsco and is listed in the JEL, Latindex, OpenJGate, and Cabell's directories. RBFin is rated B1 in the business area of the Brazilian classification system. The editorial board undergoes partial turnover every year and comprises 18 individuals from four countries, the Brazilian members being affiliated with universities in five different Brazilian states. The acceptance rate was 30% for papers submitted in 2010, the most recent year in which all submissions have already received a final decision. The average number of days between receipt and acceptance for all articles published in 2011 was 266. The worst case was 462 days. The average number of days between receipt and publication was 432. The worst case was 599 days. The average number of hits per article as of January 2012 was 1,249. Sixty-four individuals served as reviewers in 2011.

  10. Mechanisms influencing changes in lake area in Alaskan boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Jennifer K.; Griffith, Brad; Verbyla, David; Jones, Jeremy B.

    2011-01-01

    During the past ∼50 years, the number and area of lakes have declined in several regions in boreal forests. However, there has been substantial finer-scale heterogeneity; some lakes decreased in area, some showed no trend, and others increased. The objective of this study was to identify the primary mechanisms underlying heterogeneous trends in closed-basin lake area. Eight lake characteristics (δ18O, electrical conductivity, surface : volume index, bank slope, floating mat width, peat depth, thaw depth at shoreline, and thaw depth at the forest boundary) were compared for 15 lake pairs in Alaskan boreal forest where one lake had decreased in area since ∼1950, and the other had not. Mean differences in characteristics between paired lakes were used to identify the most likely of nine mechanistic scenarios that combined three potential mechanisms for decreasing lake area (talik drainage, surface water evaporation, and terrestrialization) with three potential mechanisms for nondecreasing lake area (subpermafrost groundwater recharge through an open talik, stable permafrost, and thermokarst). A priori expectations of the direction of mean differences between decreasing and nondecreasing paired lakes were generated for each scenario. Decreasing lakes had significantly greater electrical conductivity, greater surface : volume indices, shallower bank slopes, wider floating mats, greater peat depths, and shallower thaw depths at the forest boundary. These results indicated that the most likely scenario was terrestrialization as the mechanism for lake area reduction combined with thermokarst as the mechanism for nondecreasing lake area. Terrestrialization and thermokarst may have been enhanced by recent warming which has both accelerated permafrost thawing and lengthened the growing season, thereby increasing plant growth, floating mat encroachment, transpiration rates, and the accumulation of organic matter in lake basins. The transition to peatlands associated

  11. Lake retention of manufactured nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Quik, J.T.K.; Velzeboer, I.

    2015-01-01

    For twenty-five world lakes and three engineered nanoparticles (ENP), lake retention was calculated using a uniformly mixed lake mass balance model. This follows similar approaches traditionally used in water quality management. Lakes were selected such that lake residence times, depths and areal hy

  12. Lake retention of manufactured nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Quik, J.T.K.; Velzeboer, I.

    2015-01-01

    For twenty-five world lakes and three engineered nanoparticles (ENP), lake retention was calculated using a uniformly mixed lake mass balance model. This follows similar approaches traditionally used in water quality management. Lakes were selected such that lake residence times, depths and areal hy

  13. Salting our freshwater lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Hilary A; Bartlett, Sarah L; Burke, Samantha M; Doubek, Jonathan P; Krivak-Tetley, Flora E; Skaff, Nicholas K; Summers, Jamie C; Farrell, Kaitlin J; McCullough, Ian M; Morales-Williams, Ana M; Roberts, Derek C; Ouyang, Zutao; Scordo, Facundo; Hanson, Paul C; Weathers, Kathleen C

    2017-04-25

    The highest densities of lakes on Earth are in north temperate ecosystems, where increasing urbanization and associated chloride runoff can salinize freshwaters and threaten lake water quality and the many ecosystem services lakes provide. However, the extent to which lake salinity may be changing at broad spatial scales remains unknown, leading us to first identify spatial patterns and then investigate the drivers of these patterns. Significant decadal trends in lake salinization were identified using a dataset of long-term chloride concentrations from 371 North American lakes. Landscape and climate metrics calculated for each site demonstrated that impervious land cover was a strong predictor of chloride trends in Northeast and Midwest North American lakes. As little as 1% impervious land cover surrounding a lake increased the likelihood of long-term salinization. Considering that 27% of large lakes in the United States have >1% impervious land cover around their perimeters, the potential for steady and long-term salinization of these aquatic systems is high. This study predicts that many lakes will exceed the aquatic life threshold criterion for chronic chloride exposure (230 mg L(-1)), stipulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in the next 50 y if current trends continue.

  14. Tracing and quantifying groundwater inflow into lakes using radon-222

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kluge

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its high activities in groundwater, the radionuclide 222Rn is a sensitive natural tracer to detect and quantify groundwater inflow into lakes, provided the comparatively low activities in the lakes can be measured accurately. Here we present a simple method for radon measurements in the low-level range down to 3 Bq m−3, appropriate for groundwater-influenced lakes, together with a concept to derive inflow rates from the radon budget in lakes. The analytical method is based on a commercially available radon detector and combines the advantages of established procedures with regard to efficient sampling and sensitive analysis. Large volume (12 l water samples are taken in the field and analyzed in the laboratory by equilibration with a closed air loop and alpha spectrometry of radon in the gas phase. After successful laboratory tests, the method has been applied to a small dredging lake without surface in- or outflow in order to estimate the groundwater contribution to the hydrological budget. The inflow rate calculated from a 222Rn balance for the lake is around 530 m3 per day, which is comparable to the results of previous studies. In addition to the inflow rate, the vertical and horizontal radon distribution in the lake provides information on the spatial distribution of groundwater inflow to the lake. The simple measurement and sampling technique encourages further use of radon to examine groundwater-lake interaction.

  15. Incidence and survival rates of primary renal cell carcinoma in residents in Pudong New Area in Shanghai, 2002-2011%2002-2011年上海市浦东新区居民原发性肾细胞癌的发病与生存情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小攀; 孙乔; 杨黎明; 杨琛; 闫蓓; 张美玉; 李晓莉; 吴铮; 傅益飞

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析上海市浦东新区原发性肾细胞癌患者的发病和生存情况.方法:以2002-2011年上海市浦东新区常住户籍居民为研究对象,按世界标准人口计算原发性肾细胞癌标化发病率及死亡率,应用Kaplan-Meier法和COX多元回归模型分析不同性别、不同地区、不同TNM分期和是否手术的原发性肾细胞癌患者的生存情况.结果:2002-2011年原发性肾细胞癌新发1 905例,男性1 234例、女性671例;男性标化发病率(5.71/10万人年)高于女性(3.07/10万人年).原发性肾细胞癌相关死亡697例,男性453例、女性244例;男性标化死亡率(1.88/10万人年)高于女性(0.92/10万人年).原发性肾细胞癌患者1~5年生存率分别为74.75%、69.84%、66.38%、63.40%和61.44%.中心城区与其他地区、TNM高分期组与低分期组、手术切除组与非手术组患者的总体生存率之间差异有统计学意义(P=0.040,P<0.001,P<0.001).不选择手术治疗和TNM高分期是原发性肾细胞癌患者生存率降低的独立危险因素(P<0.001).结论:浦东新区原发性肾细胞癌的男性发病率和死亡率高于女性,中心城区居民高于区域内其他地区.手术治疗和肿瘤早发现可明显改善原发性肾细胞癌患者的预后.%Objective: To investigate the incidence and survival rates of primary RCC (renal cell carcinoma) in residents in Pudong New Area in Shanghai. Methods: The residents in Pudong New Area in Shanghai were recruited in this study during the period 2002-2011. The standardized morbidity and mortality of primary RCC were calculated by world standard population. The survival of primary RCC patients according to gender, resident district, TNM staging and surgical operation was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method and COX regression analysis. Results: Among 1 905 new cases of primary RCC occurring during 2002-2011, 1 234 were males and 671 were females. The age-standardized incidence rate in males (5.1 7

  16. Time-averaged discharge rate of subaerial lava at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, measured from TanDEM-X interferometry: Implications for magma supply and storage during 2011-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Differencing digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from TerraSAR add-on for Digital Elevation Measurements (TanDEM-X) synthetic aperture radar imagery provides a measurement of elevation change over time. On the East Rift Zone (EZR) of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, the effusion of lava causes changes in topography. When these elevation changes are summed over the area of an active lava flow, it is possible to quantify the volume of lava emplaced at the surface during the time spanned by the TanDEM-X data—a parameter that can be difficult to measure across the entirety of an ~100 km2 lava flow field using ground-based techniques or optical remote sensing data. Based on the differences between multiple TanDEM-X-derived DEMs collected days to weeks apart, the mean dense-rock equivalent time-averaged discharge rate of lava at Kīlauea between mid-2011 and mid-2013 was approximately 2 m3/s, which is about half the long-term average rate over the course of Kīlauea's 1983–present ERZ eruption. This result implies that there was an increase in the proportion of lava stored versus erupted, a decrease in the rate of magma supply to the volcano, or some combination of both during this time period. In addition to constraining the time-averaged discharge rate of lava and the rates of magma supply and storage, topographic change maps derived from space-based TanDEM-X data provide insights into the four-dimensional evolution of Kīlauea's ERZ lava flow field. TanDEM-X data are a valuable complement to other space-, air-, and ground-based observations of eruptive activity at Kīlauea and offer great promise at locations around the world for aiding with monitoring not just volcanic eruptions but any hazardous activity that results in surface change, including landslides, floods, earthquakes, and other natural and anthropogenic processes.

  17. Recharge of a subglacial lake by surface meltwater in northeast Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Michael J; Herried, Bradley G; Bevis, Michael G; Bell, Robin E

    2015-02-12

    In a warming climate, surface meltwater production on large ice sheets is expected to increase. If this water is delivered to the ice sheet base it may have important consequences for ice dynamics. For example, basal water distributed in a diffuse network can decrease basal friction and accelerate ice flow, whereas channelized basal water can move quickly to the ice margin, where it can alter fjord circulation and submarine melt rates. Less certain is whether surface meltwater can be trapped and stored in subglacial lakes beneath large ice sheets. Here we show that a subglacial lake in Greenland drained quickly, as seen in the collapse of the ice surface, and then refilled from surface meltwater input. We use digital elevation models from stereo satellite imagery and airborne measurements to resolve elevation changes during the evolution of the surface and basal hydrologic systems at the Flade Isblink ice cap in northeast Greenland. During the autumn of 2011, a collapse basin about 70 metres deep and about 0.4 cubic kilometres in volume formed near the southern summit of the ice cap as a subglacial lake drained into a nearby fjord. Over the next two years, rapid uplift of the floor of the basin (which is approximately 8.4 square kilometres in area) occurred as surface meltwater flowed into crevasses around the basin margin and refilled the subglacial lake. Our observations show that surface meltwater can be trapped and stored at the bed of an ice sheet. Sensible and latent heat released by this trapped meltwater could soften nearby colder basal ice and alter downstream ice dynamics. Heat transport associated with meltwater trapped in subglacial lakes should be considered when predicting how ice sheet behaviour will change in a warming climate.

  18. Monitoring results of immunization successful rate of measles and rubella combined vaccine in Daxingin District of Beijing City in 2011%2011年北京市大兴区麻风疫苗基础免疫成功率监测结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐金凤; 侯文俊

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To know the immunization effect of measles and rubella combined vaccine on 8 -month-old infants in Daxin-gin District of Beijing City in 2011, ,and provide a basis for immunization strategy. [Methods]The serum samples of 8 -month-old infants were collected before and 1 month after immunization of measles and rubella combined vaccine, then the IgG antibody of measles and rubella were detected- [ Results ] After immunization , the positive rate of measles antibody was 100% , and GMT reached 1 : 1385. 52; 33 cases were rubella IgG positive with the positive rate of 82. 5% , and GMT reached 1: 31.18. [ Conclusion]The immunogenicity of measles ingredient in current measles and rubella combined vaccine is good in this district, but the effect of rubella ingredient is not so good. Therefore, revaccination is necessary.%目的 了解北京市大兴区2011年8月龄儿童接种麻疹风疹联合减毒活疫苗(简称麻风疫苗)后的免疫效果,为制定麻疹免疫策略提供依据.方法 采集40名8月龄儿童麻风疫苗免疫前、免疫后1个月双份血标本,分别进行麻疹、风疹IgG抗体测定.结果 免后麻疹抗体阳性40人,阳性率100%,GMT 1∶1 385.52;风疹抗体阳性33人,阳性率82.50%,GMT1∶31.18.结论 该区现行的麻风疫苗所包含的麻疹成分免疫原性好,风疹成分免疫效果较差,应进行风疹疫苗复种弥补.

  19. Lake-level variability and water availability in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Douglas A.; Thompson, Todd A.; Booth, Robert K.; Nicholas, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    In this report, we present recorded and reconstructed (pre-historical) changes in water levels in the Great Lakes, relate them to climate changes of the past, and highlight major water-availability implications for storage, coastal ecosystems, and human activities. 'Water availability,' as conceptualized herein, includes a recognition that water must be available for human and natural uses, but the balancing of how much should be set aside for which use is not discussed. The Great Lakes Basin covers a large area of North America. The lakes capture and store great volumes of water that are critical in maintaining human activities and natural ecosystems. Water enters the lakes mostly in the form of precipitation and streamflow. Although flow through the connecting channels is a primary output from the lakes, evaporation is also a major output. Water levels in the lakes vary naturally on timescales that range from hours to millennia; storage of water in the lakes changes at the seasonal to millennial scales in response to lake-level changes. Short-term changes result from storm surges and seiches and do not affect storage. Seasonal changes are driven by differences in net basin supply during the year related to snowmelt, precipitation, and evaporation. Annual to millennial changes are driven by subtle to major climatic changes affecting both precipitation (and resulting streamflow) and evaporation. Rebounding of the Earth's surface in response to loss of the weight of melted glaciers has differentially affected water levels. Rebound rates have not been uniform across the basin, causing the hydrologic outlet of each lake to rise in elevation more rapidly than some parts of the coastlines. The result is a long-term change in lake level with respect to shoreline features that differs from site to site. The reconstructed water-level history of Lake Michigan-Huron over the past 4,700 years shows three major high phases from 2,300 to 3,300, 1,100 to 2,000, and 0 to 800

  20. Reducing Lake Erie's Harmful Algal Blooms: Projection and Adoption of Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J.; Aloysius, N.; Howard, G.; Kalcic, M. M.; Wilson, R. S.; Scavia, D.; Roe, B.

    2016-12-01

    In early 2016, the United States and Canada formally agreed to reduce phosphorus inputs to Lake Erie by 40% to reduce the severity of annual Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). These blooms have become more severe, with record events occurring in 2011 and 2015, and have compromised public safety, shut down drinking water supplies, and negatively impacted the economy of the western Lake Erie basin. Now, key questions revolve around the ability to reach the 40% reduction, required management changes, and resources to support these changes. This presentation will highlight interdisciplinary research to compare the amount and types of practices needed for this reduction to the current and projected levels of adoption. Economic resources to support these management changes are also compared with the financial support from the general public to improve Lake Erie water quality. Multiple models of the Maumee watershed identified management plans and adoption rates needed to reach the reduction targets. For example, one successful scenario estimated necessary adoption rates of 50% for subsurface application of fertilizer on row crops, 58% for cover crops, and 78% for buffer strips. Current adoption is below these levels, but future projections based on farmer surveys shows these levels are possible. Public support is necessary to generate the funding to support cost sharing and other programs aimed at increasing adoption of recommended practices. Comparing results from willingness-to-pay surveys of the general public with the estimated need for these management plans shows a gap in resources to support these levels of adoption. In general, these results show that accelerated adoption of management plans is needed compared to past adoption rates, but that these rates are possible based on likely adoption rates. Projected support from the general public indicates it will be challenging to fund these rates of adoption, especially during climate changes that may require even greater

  1. Hazard assessment of glacial lake outburst floods from Kyagar glacier, Karakoram mountains, China

    OpenAIRE

    Haemmig, Christoph; Huss, Matthias; Keusen, Hansrudolf; Hess, Josef; Wegmüller, Urs; Ao, Zhigang; Kulubayi, Wubuli

    2014-01-01

    Kyagar glacier is located in the Chinese Karakoram mountains. The glacier tongue entirely blocks the riverbed in the upper Shaksgam valley and impounds a glacial lake, which was the source of several violent and disastrous glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). A GLOF early warning system was implemented between 2011 and 2013. We present an integrative analysis of the hazard potential of Kyagar lake, taking into account the ice flow dynamics of Kyagar glacier as well as the recent surface mass...

  2. Landscape drivers of regional variation in the relationship between total phosphorus and chlorophyll in lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, T.; Soranno, P.A.; Webster, K.E.; Cheruvelil, K.S.

    2011-01-01

    the ecoregional scale, the slope parameter was positively related to the percentage of pasture in an ecoregion, indicating that CHL tends to respond more rapidly to changes in TP where there are high levels of agricultural pasture than where there is little. The intercept (i.e. the ecoregion-average CHL) was negatively related to the percentage of wooded wetlands in the ecoregion. By explicitly accounting for the hierarchical nature of lake-landscape interactions, we quantified the effects of landscape characteristics on the response of CHL to TP at two spatial scales. We provide new insight into ecoregional drivers of the rate at which algal biomass responds to changes in nutrient concentrations. Our results also indicate that the direction and magnitude of the effects of certain land use and cover characteristics on lake nutrient dynamics may be scale dependent and thus likely to represent different underlying mechanisms regulating lake productivity. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Changing Lake Bathymetry with Deglaciation: The Mendenhall Glacier System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, C.; Korzen, N.; Knuth, E.; Sauer, D.; Heavner, M.

    2008-12-01

    Ongoing rapid ice ablation and glacier thinning has continued the buoyancy-driven, large-scale calving events and ice terminus collapse of the Mendenhall Glacier. New bathymetric data collected from Mendenhall Lake between 2004 and 2008 reveal lake shallowing adjacent to the 2008 glacier terminus. Since 2000, the lake has expanded beyond its former 3.4 km2 footprint to 4.02 km2 and enlarged its volume from 0.05 km3 to 0.23 km3 as it elongates to the north, following the receding lakefront terminus and filling its Pleistocene ice-scoured cirque basin. In 2004, the northeastern-most deep in the lake basin reached a maximum depth of ~97 meters below mean lake level. Since that time this deep has shallowed to the north decreasing along the 2008 glacier terminus to depths ranging from 79.85 to 0 m below mean lake level. This new bathymetric data will be used for ongoing mass balance studies as well as for determination of changes in lake sedimentation rates and lake basin morphology since the 1970s when original lake surveys were conducted by the Alaska Dept of Fish and Game personnel. Comparison of lake basin volume with river discharge data will help to better define the seasonal contribution of glacier melt water to Mendenhall River summer discharge, which reached 50 percent during the summer of 1998.

  4. Hydrography - Lakes Assessments - Non Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer shows only non attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water...

  5. Boat Dwellers of Weishan Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER; LIM

    1998-01-01

    IN the south of Shandong Province, Weishan Lake is the largest freshwater lake in northern China. Under the bright blue sky, it gleams like a large mirror. "As the sun is about to set, Weishan Lake is quiet…" Humming

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase rates in aerobic gram-negative bacteria causing intra-abdominal infections in Vietnam: report from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART 2009-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedenbach, Douglas J; Bouchillon, Samuel K; Hoban, Daryl J; Hackel, Meredith; Phuong, Doan Mai; Nga, Tran Thi Thanh; Phuong, Nguyen Tran My; Phuong, Tran Thi Lan; Badal, Robert E

    2014-08-01

    Treatment options for multidrug-resistant pathogens remain problematic in many regions and individual countries, warranting ongoing surveillance and analysis. Limited antimicrobial susceptibility information is available for pathogens from Vietnam. This study determined the bacterial susceptibility of aerobic gram-negative pathogens of intra-abdominal infections among patients in Vietnam during 2009-2011. A total of 905 isolates were collected from 4 medical centers in this investigation as part of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends. Antimicrobial susceptibility and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) rates among the appropriate species were determined by a central laboratory using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods. Among the species collected, Escherichia coli (48.1% ESBL-positive) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (39.5% ESBL-positive) represented the majority (46.4%) of the isolates submitted for this study. Ertapenem MIC90 values were lowest for these 2 species at 0.12 and 0.25μg/mL and remained unchanged for ESBL-positive isolates. Imipenem MIC90 values were also the same for all isolates and ESBL-positive strains at 0.25 and 0.5μg/mL, respectively. Ertapenem MIC90 values for additional species with sufficient numbers for analysis, including Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were 1, 0.06, >4, and >4μg/mL, respectively. Analysis of beta-lactamases in a subset of 132 phenotypically ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae demonstrated that CTX-M variants, particularly CTX-M-27 and CTX-M-15, were the predominant enzymes. High resistance rates in Vietnam hospitals dictate continuous monitoring as antimicrobial inactivating enzymes continue to spread throughout Asia and globally.

  7. Simulating 2,368 temperate lakes reveals weak coherence in stratification phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jordan S.; Winslow, Luke A.; Hansen, Gretchen J. A.; Van Den Hoek, Jamon; Hanson, Paul C.; Bruce, Louise C; Markfort, Corey D.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in water temperatures resulting from climate warming can alter the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems. Lake-specific physical characteristics may play a role in mediating individual lake responses to climate. Past mechanistic studies of lake-climate interactions have simulated generic lake classes at large spatial scales or performed detailed analyses of small numbers of real lakes. Understanding the diversity of lake responses to climate change across landscapes requires a hybrid approach that couples site-specific lake characteristics with broad-scale environmental drivers. This study provides a substantial advancement in lake ecosystem modeling by combining open-source tools with freely available continental-scale data to mechanistically model daily temperatures for 2,368 Wisconsin lakes over three decades (1979-2011). The model accurately predicted observed surface layer temperatures (RMSE: 1.74°C) and the presence/absence of stratification (81.1% agreement). Among-lake coherence was strong for surface temperatures and weak for the timing of stratification, suggesting individual lake characteristics mediate some - but not all - ecologically relevant lake responses to climate.

  8. Estimation of lake water - groundwater interactions in meromictic mining lakes by modelling isotope signatures of lake water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebach, Anne; Dietz, Severine; Lessmann, Dieter; Knoeller, Kay

    2008-03-01

    A method is presented to assess lake water-groundwater interactions by modelling isotope signatures of lake water using meteorological parameters and field data. The modelling of delta(18)O and deltaD variations offers information about the groundwater influx into a meromictic Lusatian mining lake. Therefore, a water balance model is combined with an isotope water balance model to estimate analogies between simulated and measured isotope signatures within the lake water body. The model is operated with different evaporation rates to predict delta(18)O and deltaD values in a lake that is only controlled by weather conditions with neither groundwater inflow nor outflow. Comparisons between modelled and measured isotope values show whether the lake is fed by the groundwater or not. Furthermore, our investigations show that an adaptation of the Craig and Gordon model [H. Craig, L.I. Gordon. Deuterium and oxygen-18 variations in the ocean and the marine atmosphere. In Stable Isotopes in Oceanographic Studies and Paleotemperature, Spoleto, E. Tongiorgi (Ed.), pp. 9-130, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Laboratorio di Geologia Nucleare, Pisa (1965).] to specific conditions in temperate regions seems necessary.

  9. Tempo and mode of diversification of lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia J Day

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the causes of disparities in species diversity across taxonomic groups and regions is a fundamental aim in evolutionary biology. Addressing these questions is difficult because of the need for densely sampled phylogenies and suitable empirical systems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we investigate the cichlid fish radiation of Lake Tanganyika and show that per lineage diversification rates have been more than six times slower than in the species flocks of Lakes Victoria and Malawi. The result holds even at peak periods of diversification in Lake Tanganyika, ruling out the age of the lake as an explanation for slow average rates, and is robust to uncertainties over the calibration of cichlid radiations in geological time. Moreover, Lake Tanganyika lineages, irrespective of different biological characteristics (e.g. sexually dichromatic versus sexually monochromatic clades, have diversified at similar rates, falling within typical estimates across a range of plant and animal clades. For example, the mostly sexually dichromatic haplochromines, which have speciated explosively in Lakes Victoria and Malawi, have displayed modest rates in Lake Tanganyika (where they are called Tropheini. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that either the Lake Tanganyika environment is less conducive for cichlid speciation or the remarkable diversifying abilities of the haplochromines were inhibited by the prior occupancy of older radiations. Although the results indicate a dominant role for the environment in shaping cichlid diversification, differences in the timing of diversification among the Tanganyikan tribes indicate that biological differences were still important for the dynamics of species build-up in the lake. While we cannot resolve the timing of the radiation relative to the origin of the lake, because of the lack of robust geological date calibrations for cichlids, our results are consistent with a scenario that the

  10. The non-native faucet snail (Bithynia tentaculata) makes the leap to Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The European-origin faucet snail (Bithynia tentaculata) has been present in the lower Great Lakes since the late 1800s but only very recently reached Lake Superior. Surveys from 2011 through 2013 found faucet snail to be abundant and wide-spread in the St. Louis River Estuary wi...

  11. Determining factors for fishers’ income: the case of Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebremedhin, S.; Budusa, M.; Mingist, M.; Vijverberg, J.

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted from June 2011 to November 2012. We investigated the contribution of Lake Tana fisheries to the livelihoods of the people living around the lake. Random sampling techniques were used to select respondents. In total 145 respondents were drawn. The data were analyzed using

  12. 76 FR 48751 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Lake Michigan Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... number for this rulemaking (USCG-2011-0489) in the ``Keyword'' box, and click ``Search. '' You may also... security zone would encompass all U.S. navigable waters of Lake Michigan within an arc of a 100-yard radius... all U.S. navigable waters of Lake Michigan within the arc of a circle with a 100-yard radius with...

  13. 76 FR 55564 - Safety Zone; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Sandusky Bay, Lake Erie, Cedar Point, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Sandusky Bay, Lake... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Erie during the Revolution 3 Triathlon. This temporary... a triathlon event. DATES: This rule is effective from 6 to 11 a.m. on September 11, 2011....

  14. Determining factors for fishers’ income: the case of Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebremedhin, S.; Budusa, M.; Mingist, M.; Vijverberg, J.

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted from June 2011 to November 2012. We investigated the contribution of Lake Tana fisheries to the livelihoods of the people living around the lake. Random sampling techniques were used to select respondents. In total 145 respondents were drawn. The data were analyzed using desc

  15. Determining factors for fishers’ income: the case of Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebremedhin, S.; Budusa, M.; Mingist, M.; Vijverberg, J.

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted from June 2011 to November 2012. We investigated the contribution of Lake Tana fisheries to the livelihoods of the people living around the lake. Random sampling techniques were used to select respondents. In total 145 respondents were drawn. The data were analyzed using desc

  16. Alligator diet in relation to alligator mortality on Lake Griffin, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A.N.; Ross, J.P.; Woodward, A.R.; Carbonneau, D.A.; Percival, H.F.

    2007-01-01

    Alligator mississippiensis (American Alligators) demonstrated low hatch-rate success and increased adult mortality on Lake Griffin, FL, between 1998 and 2003. Dying Lake Griffin alligators with symptoms of poor motor coordination were reported to show specific neurological impairment and brain lesions. Similar lesions were documented in salmonines that consumed clupeids with high thiaminase levels. Therefore, we investigated the diet of Lake Griffin alligators and compared it with alligator diets from two lakes that exhibited relatively low levels of unexplained alligator mortality to see if consumption of Dorosoma cepedianum (gizzard shad) could be correlated with patterns of mortality. Shad in both lakes Griffin and Apopka had high levels of thiaminase and Lake Apopka alligators were consuming greater amounts of shad relative to Lake Griffin without showing mortality rates similar to Lake Griffin alligators. Therefore, a relationship between shad consumption alone and alligator mortality is not supported.

  17. Spatial analysis of freshwater lake cyanobacteria blooms, 2008-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Cyanobacteria and associated harmful algal blooms cause significant social, economic, and environmental impacts. Cyanobacteria synthesize hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, and dermatotoxins, affecting the health of humans and other species. The Cyanobacteria ...

  18. Nitrogen removal from Lake Caohai, a typical ultra-eutrophic lake in China with large scale confined growth of Eichhornia crassipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yingying; Zhang, Junqian; Yan, Shaohua; Guo, Junyao

    2013-06-01

    An ecological engineering project, with large-scale utilization of Eichhornia crassipes (coverage area ∼4.3km(2)) for pollution control in an open ultra-eutrophic lake, Lake Caohai, was first implemented in 2011. In this study, the efficiency of N removal using E. crassipes in the lake was evaluated. After E. crassipes was planted in May, the concentrations of TN and NH4(+) in Waicaohai, the main part of Lake Caohai, were significantly decreased within a month, and then, remained stable from June to November, 2011, although the lake had received waste water continuously from river inlets. The average concentrations of TN, NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N in water of Xi Yuan Channel (outlet) were reduced to 3.3, 0.02 and 0.8mgL(-1) from 13.8, 4.7 and 5.8mgL(-1) in river inlets, respectively. The DO levels in 2011 were not decreased, but concentrations of TN and NH4(+) were significantly reduced when compared with the historical data from 2007 in the lake. Assimilation by E. crassipes was the main pathway to remove N in Lake Caohai, accounted for 52% of the total N influent (936t), or 64% of the removed N (761t). These results indicated that large scale utilization of E. crassipes for removal of N in the eutrophic lake is practicable.

  19. High-resolution water column survey to identify active sublacustrine hydrothermal discharge zones within Lake Rotomahana, North Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sharon L.; de Ronde, Cornel E. J.; Fornari, Daniel; Tivey, Maurice A.; Stucker, Valerie K.

    2016-03-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles were used to conduct a high-resolution water column survey of Lake Rotomahana using temperature, pH, turbidity, and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) to identify active hydrothermal discharge zones within the lake. Five areas with active sublacustrine venting were identified: (1) the area of the historic Pink Terraces; (2) adjacent to the western shoreline subaerial "Steaming Cliffs," boiling springs and geyser; (3) along the northern shoreline to the east of the Pink Terrace site; (4) the newly discovered Patiti hydrothermal system along the south margin of the 1886 Tarawera eruption rift zone; and (5) a location in the east basin (northeast of Patiti Island). The Pink Terrace hydrothermal system was active prior to the 1886 eruption of Mount Tarawera, but venting along the western shoreline, in the east basin, and the Patiti hydrothermal system appear to have been initiated in the aftermath of the eruption, similar to Waimangu Valley to the southwest. Different combinations of turbidity, pH anomalies (both positive and negative), and ORP responses suggest vent fluid compositions vary over short distances within the lake. The seasonal period of stratification limits vertical transport of heat to the surface layer and the hypolimnion temperature of Lake Rotomahana consequently increases with an average warming rate of ~ 0.010 °C/day due to both convective hydrothermal discharge and conductive geothermal heating. A sudden temperature increase occurred during our 2011 survey and was likely the response to an earthquake swarm just 11 days prior.

  20. Analysis of deposition and erosion of Dongting Lake by GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The sediments of the Dongting Lake come from four channels (one of them was closed in 1959), connected with the Yangtze River, four tributaries (Lishui, Yuanjiang, Zishui and Xiangjiang)and local area, and some of them are transported into the Yangtze River in Chenglingji, which is located at the exit of the Dongting Lake, some of them deposit into drainage system in the lake region and the rest deposit into the lake. The annual mean sediment is 166,555x104 t, of which 80% come from the four channels, 18% from the four tributaries and 2% from local area, whereas 26% of the total sediments are transported into the Yangtze River and 74% deposited into the lake and the lake drainage system. Based on topographic maps of 1974, 1988 and 1998, and the spatial analysis method with geographic information system (GIS), changes in sediment deposition and erosion are studied in this paper. By overlay analysis of 1974 and 1988, 1988 and 1998, erosion and sediments deposition areas are defined. The main conclusions are: (1) sediment rate in the lake is larger than erosion rate from 1974 to 1998. The mean deposition in the lake is 0.43 m; (2) annual sediment deposition is the same between 1974-1988 and 1988-1998, but the annual volume of deposition and erosion of 1988-1998 is bigger than that in 1974-1988; (3) before the completion of the Three Gorges Reservoir,there will be 7.82x108 m3 of sediments deposited in the lake, which would make the lake silted up by 0.33 m; (4) in the lake, the deposition area is found in the north of the east Dongting Lake, the south-west of the south Dongting Lake, and the east of the west Dongting Lake; while the eroded area is in the south of the east Dongting Lake, the middle of the south Dongting Lake, the west of the west Dongting Lake, as well as Xiangjiang and Lishui river flood channels.

  1. Chironomidae (Diptera in the Himalayan Lakes – A study of sub-fossil assemblages in the sediments of two high altitude lakes from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subodh Sharma

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Chironomid head capsules were identified from sediment cores taken from Lake Gokyo (4750 m and Lake Gosaikunda (4350 m in the east-central Himalaya, to determine taxonomic composition of chironomid assemblages over time.  The sedimentation rate of Lake Gosaikunda was estimated at 0.05 cm/yr and that of Gokyo was estimated at 0.07 cm/yr by 210Pb and 137Cs dating.  Micropsectra sp. was dominant in the sediments of both lakesLake Gokyo sediments also contained Pseudodiamesa sp., Eukiefferiella/Tvetenia sp., Orthocladius/Cricotopus sp. and Rheocricotopus sp.  The concentration of headcapsules was nearly an order of magnitude greater in the Lake Gosaikunda core, which contained mostly Micropsectra sp. and Pseudodiamesa sp.  These taxa are typical of cold oligotrophic lakes.  Differences in lake depth, dissolved minerals, plus epi- and hypolimnetic temperature and dissolved oxygen suggest that stratification and temperature-induced increases in primary production may affect chironomid assemblages in these pristine lakes.  Palaeolimnological studies of Himalayan lakes should include replicate cores within lake, to increase headcapsule sample sizes given potentially high rates of sedimentation from glacial runoff. Key words: high altitude lakes, Himalaya, Chironomidae, palaeolimnology, Nepal

  2. Mobility. Snapshot Report, Fall 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents information on student mobility for 2011. It offers data on the following: (1) Mobility Rates by Student Enrollment Status; (2) Mobile Student Enrollment at 2-/4-Year Institutions; and (3) Mobile Student Enrollment at Public/Private Institutions.

  3. Arsenic mobility in contaminated lake sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P.; Dobbs, Gregory M.; Chen, Jing; Lackovic, Jeffrey

    2004-06-01

    An arsenic contaminated lake sediment near a landfill in Maine was used to characterize the geochemistry of arsenic and assess the influence of environmental conditions on its mobility. A kinetic model was developed to simulate the leaching ability of arsenic in lake sediments under different environmental conditions. The HM1D chemical transport model was used to model the column experiments and determine the rates of arsenic mobility from the sediment. Laboratory studies provided the information to construct a conceptual model to demonstrate the mobility of arsenic in the lake sediment. The leaching ability of arsenic in lake sediments greatly depends on the flow conditions of ground water and the geochemistry of the sediments. Large amounts of arsenic were tightly bound to the sediments. The amount of arsenic leaching out of the sediment to the water column was substantially decreased due to iron/arsenic co-precipitation at the water-sediment interface. Overall, it was found that arsenic greatly accumulated at the ground water/lake interface and it formed insoluble precipitates. - Arsenic accumulates at the ground water/lake interface, where it forms insoluble precipitates.

  4. Modelled present and future thaw lake area expansion/contraction trends throughout the continuous permafrost zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Mi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Thaw lakes and drained lake basins are a dominant feature of Arctic lowlands. Thaw lakes are a source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4, which is produced under anaerobic conditions, while drained lake basins are carbon sinks due to sedimentation. Besides feedbacks on climate, the development of thaw lakes due to the melt-out of ground ice and subsequent ground subsidence, can have significant impacts on the regional morphology, hydrology, geophysics and biogehemistry. Permafrost degradation as a result of climate warming, which is proceeding considerably faster in high latitude regions than the global average, could lead to either an increases in lake area due to lake expansion, or decrease due to lake drainage. However, which process will dominate is elusive. Therefore understanding thaw lake dynamics and quantifying the feedbacks related to thaw lake expansion and contraction are urgent questions to solve. We apply a stochastic model, THAWLAKE, on four representative Arctic sites, to reproduce recent lake dynamics (1963–2012 and predict for the future changes under various anticipated climate scenarios. The model simulations of current thaw lake cycles and expansion rates are comparable with data. Future lake expansions are limited by lake drainage. We suggest further improvements in the area of enhancing the hydrology component, and operation on larger scales to gauge the impacts on lacustrine morphology and greenhouse gas emissions.

  5. Bibliography of Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussels) and Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (QUAGGA mussels): 1989 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloesser, Don W.; Schmuckal, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Dreissenid mussels invaded and colonized waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes during the late 1980s. Their colonization and resulting impact have been characterized as one of the most important ecological changes in freshwater systems in North America. The need for information on dreissenid mussels has grown during the past 2 decades, which has prompted the compilation of this bibliography. Two previous bibliographies of dreissenid mussels indicate average publication rates were 6 publications/year between 1771 and 1964 (1,180 in 194 y) and 30 publications/year between 1964 and 1993 (885 in 30 y). In the current bibliography, the average rate of publication doubled during the past 23 y (1989 to 2011) to 66 publications/year based on a total of 1,502 publications. These rates may be biased by increased numbers of researchers and journals over time but, at a minimum, these rates indicate continued interest and concern by humans about the impact of dreissenid mussels on water availability and the expanding range of dreissenids throughout the world. The current bibliography has a 94% efficiency rate for subject and 100% efficiency for title search criteria when compared with references in published studies of dreissenid mussels in 2011. In addition to publications, we included 206 student theses and 225 chapters in 26 books including 6 books devoted solely to dreissenid mussels. A vast majority of student theses were about dreissenid mussels in North America, especially in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The 6 books devoted to dreissenid mussels contained a variety of chapters that described biology, impact, control, and ecology of dreissenid mussels in both Europe (published in 1992 and 2010) and North America (1993, 1994, 1997, and 2000). In addition, there is a 7th book devoted solely to dreissenid mussels that is near completion.

  6. Evaluating the growth potential of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) feeding on siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, E.K.; Weidel, B.C.; Ahrenstorff, T.D.; Mattes, W.P.; Kitchell, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Differences in the preferred thermal habitat of Lake Superior lake trout morphotypes create alternative growth scenarios for parasitic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) attached to lake trout hosts. Siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) inhabit deep, consistently cold water (4–6 °C) and are more abundant than lean lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) which occupy temperatures between 8 and 12 °C during summer thermal stratification. Using bioenergetics models we contrasted the growth potential of sea lampreys attached to siscowet and lean lake trout to determine how host temperature influences the growth and ultimate size of adult sea lamprey. Sea lampreys simulated under the thermal regime of siscowets are capable of reaching sizes within the range of adult sea lamprey sizes observed in Lake Superior tributaries. High lamprey wounding rates on siscowets suggest siscowets are important lamprey hosts. In addition, siscowets have higher survival rates from lamprey attacks than those observed for lean lake trout which raises the prospect that siscowets serve as a buffer to predation on more commercially desirable hosts such as lean lake trout, and could serve to subsidize lamprey growth.

  7. Exploring the long-term balance between net precipitation and net groundwater exchange in Florida seepage lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terrie M.; Sacks, Laura A.; Swancar, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The long-term balance between net precipitation and net groundwater exchange that maintains thousands of seepage lakes in Florida’s karst terrain is explored at a representative lake basin and then regionally for the State’s peninsular lake district. The 15-year water budget of Lake Starr includes El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-related extremes in rainfall, and provides the longest record of Bowen ratio energy-budget (BREB) lake evaporation and lake-groundwater exchanges in the southeastern United States. Negative net precipitation averaging -25 cm/yr at Lake Starr overturns the previously-held conclusion that lakes in this region receive surplus net precipitation. Net groundwater exchange with the lake was positive on average but too small to balance the net precipitation deficit. Groundwater pumping effects and surface-water withdrawals from the lake widened the imbalance. Satellite-based regional estimates of potential evapotranspiration at five large lakes in peninsular Florida compared well with basin-scale evaporation measurements from seven open-water sites that used BREB methods. The regional average lake evaporation estimated for Lake Starr during 1996-2011 was within 5 percent of its measured average, and regional net precipitation agreed within 10 percent. Regional net precipitation to lakes was negative throughout central peninsular Florida and the net precipitation deficit increased by about 20 cm from north to south. Results indicate that seepage lakes farther south on the peninsula receive greater net groundwater inflow than northern lakes and imply that northern lakes are in comparatively leakier hydrogeologic settings. Findings reveal the peninsular lake district to be more vulnerable than was previously realized to drier climate, surface-water withdrawals from lakes, and groundwater pumping effects.

  8. Changes in consumption by alewives and lake whitefish after dreissenid mussel invasions in Lakes Michigan and Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothoven, S.A.; Madenjian, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Growth of alewives Alosa pseudoharengus and lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis has declined since the arrival and spread of dreissenid mussels in Lakes Michigan and Huron. Alewives are the main forage for the salmonids in Lake Michigan, and lake whitefish are the most important commercial species in both lakes. Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine consumption by the average individual fish before and after the dreissenid invasion and to provide insight into the invasion's effects on fish growth and food web dynamics. Alewives feed on both Zooplankton and benthic macroinvertebrates, and lake whitefish are benthivores. Annual consumption of zooplankton by an average alewife in Lake Michigan was 37% lower and consumption of benthic macroinvertebrates (amphipods Diporeia spp., opossum shrimp Mysis relicta, and Chironomidae) was 19% lower during the postinvasion period (1995-2005) than during the preinvasion period (1983-1994). Reduced consumption by alewives corresponded with reduced alewife growth. In Lakes Michigan and Huron, consumption of nonmollusk macroinvertebrates (Diporeia spp., opossum shrimp, Chironomidae) by the average lake whitefish was 46-96% lower and consumption of mollusks (mainly dreissenids and gastropods) was 2-5 times greater during the postinvasion period than during the preinvasion period. Even though total food consumption by lake whitefish did not differ between the two periods in Lake Huron or the Southern Management Unit in Lake Michigan, postinvasion weight at age was at least 38% lower than preinvasion weight at age. Under the current postinvasion diet regime, consumption by lake whitefish would have to increase by up to 122% to achieve preinvasion growth rates. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  9. PREDICTED SEDIMENTARY SECTION OF SUBGLACIAL LAKE VOSTOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Leychenkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In early February 2012, the drill hole at the Vostok Station encountered theLakeVostokwater. This step is important to study the lake composition including possible microbial life and to model subglacial environments however, the next ambitious target of the Vostok Drilling Project is sampling of bottom sediments, which contain the unique record of ice sheet evolution and environmental changes in centralAntarcticafor millions of years. In this connection, the forecast of sedimentary succession based on existing geophysical data, study of mineral inclusions in the accretion ice cores and tectonic models is important task. Interpretation of Airborne geophysical data suggests thatLakeVostokis the part of spacious rift system, which exists at least from Cretaceous. Reflection and refraction seismic experiments conducted in the southern part ofLakeVostokshow very thin (200–300 m stratified sedimentary cover overlying crystalline basement with velocity of 6.0–6.2 km/s. At present, deposition in southernLakeVostokis absent and similar conditions occurred likely at least last3 m.y. when ice sheet aboveLakeVostokchanged insignificantly. It can be also inferred that from the Late Miocene the rate of deposition inLakeVostokwas extremely low and so the most of sedimentary section is older being possibly of Oligocene to early to middle Miocene age when ice sheet oscillated and deposition was more vigorous. If so, the sampling of upper few meters of this condensed section is very informative in terms of history of Antarctic glaciation. Small thickness of sedimentary cover raises a question about existence of lake (rift depression during preglacial and early glacial times.

  10. 北京市50~79岁人群脑卒中患病率和危险因素调查%Prevalence rates and risk factors on stroke among 50-79 years-olds in Beijing, 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马爱娟; 董忠; 李刚

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of stroke among population aged 50-79 in Beijing,2011.Methods 38 532 subjects were randomly selected with cluster sampling method,under the proportion to the population size (PPS).Each participant was invited to receive face to face standardized questionnaire interview,physical examination and neck ultrasonography.Results The standardized prevalence of stroke was 9.3%,with 11.5% and 8.1% for males and females respectively.The prevalence rate increased with age and was higher in males,in suburb areas and people with poor education.Ischemic stroke accounted for 80.8% of all the stroke cases,with 16.6% of the patients had one recur.The standardized prevalence rates of hypertension,dyslipidemia,obesity,diabetes mellitus were 80.7%,29.6%,22.9%,16.9%,respectively.The prevalence rates of hypertension,dyslipidemia,obesity,diabetes mellitus,migraine,heart disease,carotid stenosis,sleep apnea,peripheral cascular disease,ischemic eye disease,high homocysteine level and sickle cell anemia among stroke patients were 89.3%,39.7%,25.4%,25.4%,21.4%,23.7%,13.2%,6.4%,6.5%,5.9%,0.3%,0.3%,respectively,all higher than those without the disease.47.9 percent of the stroke patients had 3 or more chronic diseases with more risk factors.Conclusion People who were 50 to 79 years old and living in Beijing had both higher prevalence and recurrence rate of stroke,with the main type as ischemic stroke.Compared with urban area,the situation in suburb was more serious.Stroke patients had more risk factors.The top four relevant chronic diseases of stroke patients were hypertension,dyslipidemia,obesity and diabetes mellitus.In order to reduce or delay the occurrence or recurrence of stroke,lifestyle intervention programs should be adopted to control related chronic diseases at their early stages.%目的 了解2011年北京市50~79岁人群脑卒中患病率和危险因素.方法 于2011年9-11月采

  11. Brief Communication "Expansion of meltwater lakes on the Greenland ice sheet"

    OpenAIRE

    I. M. Howat; Peña, S.; J. H. van Angelen; Lenaerts, J. T. M.; Broeke, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Forty years of satellite imagery reveal that meltwater lakes on the margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet have expanded substantially inland to higher elevations with warming. These lakes are important because they provide a mechanism for bringing water to the ice bed, causing sliding. Inland expansion of lakes could accelerate ice flow by bringing water to previously frozen bed, potentially increasing future rates of mass loss. Increasing lake elevations closely follow the rise...

  12. Great Lakes Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ron

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reservoirs of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. They are also a magnificent resource for the teachers of Ontario. Study of the Great Lakes can bring to life the factors that shape the ecology…

  13. Marine lakes of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, Leontine Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to obtain insight into the processes that play a role in biodiversity patterns of tropical marine species by using marine lakes as a model. Marine lakes are landlocked water bodies that maintain a marine character through narrow submarine connections to the sea. Two

  14. The Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasons, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reserviors of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. These lakes and their relationship with people of Canada and the United States can be useful as a subject for teaching the impact of human…

  15. Marine lakes of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, Leontine Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to obtain insight into the processes that play a role in biodiversity patterns of tropical marine species by using marine lakes as a model. Marine lakes are landlocked water bodies that maintain a marine character through narrow submarine connections to the sea. Two

  16. Lake trout in northern Lake Huron spawn on submerged drumlins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Stephen C.; Binder, Thomas; Wattrus, Nigel J.; Faust, Matthew D.; Janssen, John; Menzies, John; Marsden, J. Ellen; Ebener, Mark P.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji X.; Tucker, Taaja R.; Hansen, Michael J.; Thompson, Henry T.; Muir, Andrew M.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations of spawning lake trout Salvelinus namaycush near Drummond Island in northern Lake Huron indicate that lake trout use drumlins, landforms created in subglacial environments by the action of ice sheets, as a primary spawning habitat. From these observations, we generated a hypothesis that may in part explain locations chosen by lake trout for spawning. Most salmonines spawn in streams where they rely on streamflows to sort and clean sediments to create good spawning habitat. Flows sufficient to sort larger sediment sizes are generally lacking in lakes, but some glacial bedforms contain large pockets of sorted sediments that can provide the interstitial spaces necessary for lake trout egg incubation, particularly if these bedforms are situated such that lake currents can penetrate these sediments. We hypothesize that sediment inclusions from glacial scavenging and sediment sorting that occurred during the creation of bedforms such as drumlins, end moraines, and eskers create suitable conditions for lake trout egg incubation, particularly where these bedforms interact with lake currents to remove fine sediments. Further, these bedforms may provide high-quality lake trout spawning habitat at many locations in the Great Lakes and may be especially important along the southern edge of the range of the species. A better understanding of the role of glacially-derived bedforms in the creation of lake trout spawning habitat may help develop powerful predictors of lake trout spawning locations, provide insight into the evolution of unique spawning behaviors by lake trout, and aid in lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes.

  17. Global Health 2011%Global Health2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    BMJ Group and NICE International have joined forces to co- host a unique two day conference on policies for sustainable and effective healthcare.Taking place on 29 and 30 September 2011 at BMA House in London,Global Health 2011 will bring together experts from around the world to discuss and promote cost effective and evidence informed policy making as a means to improve health outcomes.

  18. Volcanic lake systematics II. Chemical constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, J.C.; Pasternack, G.B.; Rowe, G.L.

    2000-01-01

    A database of 373 lake water analyses from the published literature was compiled and used to explore the geochemical systematics of volcanic lakes. Binary correlations and principal component analysis indicate strong internal coherence among most chemical parameters. Compositional variations are influenced by the flux of magmatic volatiles and/or deep hydrothermal fluids. The chemistry of the fluid entering a lake may be dominated by a high-temperature volcanic gas component or by a lower-temperature fluid that has interacted extensively with volcanic rocks. Precipitation of minerals like gypsum and silica can strongly affect the concentrations of Ca and Si in some lakes. A much less concentrated geothermal input fluid provides the mineralized components of some more dilute lakes. Temporal variations in dilution and evaporation rates ultimately control absolute concentrations of dissolved constituents, but not conservative element ratios. Most volcanic lake waters, and presumably their deep hydrothermal fluid inputs, classify as immature acid fluids that have not equilibrated with common secondary silicates such as clays or zeolites. Many such fluids may have equilibrated with secondary minerals earlier in their history but were re-acidified by mixing with fresh volcanic fluids. We use the concept of 'degree of neutralization' as a new parameter to characterize these acid fluids. This leads to a classification of gas-dominated versus rock-dominated lake waters. A further classification is based on a cluster analysis and a hydrothermal speedometer concept which uses the degree of silica equilibration of a fluid during cooling and dilution to evaluate the rate of fluid equilibration in volcano-hydrothermal systems.

  19. Objekt 2011 / Andres Kurg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurg, Andres, 1975-

    2011-01-01

    Installatsioon "Objekt nr. 2011" Tallinnas Vabaduse väljakul 27.02.-20.03.2011. Austria arhitektide rühmituse Haus-Rucker-Co installatsioon "Oaasi nr. 7" 5. Documenta näitusel Kasselis 1972. aastal

  20. Objekt 2011 / Andres Kurg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurg, Andres, 1975-

    2011-01-01

    Installatsioon "Objekt nr. 2011" Tallinnas Vabaduse väljakul 27.02.-20.03.2011. Austria arhitektide rühmituse Haus-Rucker-Co installatsioon "Oaasi nr. 7" 5. Documenta näitusel Kasselis 1972. aastal

  1. NLCD 2011 database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — National Land Cover Database 2011 (NLCD 2011) is the most recent national land cover product created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium....

  2. Use of isotopic data to estimate water residence times of the Finger Lakes, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Robert L.; Kraemer, Thomas F.

    1995-01-01

    Water retention times in the Finger Lakes, a group of 11 lakes in central New York with similar hydrologic and climatic characteristics, were estimated by use of a tritium-balance model. During July 1991, samples were collected from the 11 lakes and selected tributary streams and were analyzed for tritium, deuterium, and oxygen-18. Additional samples from some of the sites were collected in 1990, 1992 and 1993. Tritium concentration in lake water ranged from 24.6 Tritium Units (TU) (Otisco Lake) to 43.2 TU (Seneca Lake).The parameters in the model used to obtain water retention time (WRT) included relative humidity, evaporation rate, tritium concentrations of inflowing water and lake water, and WRT of the lake. A historical record of tritium concentrations in precipitation and runoff was obtained from rainfall data at Ottawa, Canada, analyses of local wines produced during 1977–1991, and streamflow samples collected in 1990–1991. The model was simulated in yearly steps for 1953–1991, and the WRT was varied to reproduce tritium concentrations measured in each lake in 1991. Water retention times obtained from model simulations ranged from 1 year for Otisco Lake to 12 years for Seneca Lake, and with the exception of Seneca Lake and Skaneateles Lake, were in agreement with earlier estimates obtained from runoff estimates and chloride balances. The sensitivity of the model to parameter changes was tested to determine possible reasons for the differences calculated for WRT's for Seneca Lake and Skaneateles Lake. The shorter WRT obtained from tritium data for Lake Seneca (12 years as compared to 18 years) can be explained by a yearly addition of less than 3% by lake volume of ground water to the lake, the exact percentage depending on tritium concentration in the ground water.

  3. Ciliate epibionts associated with crustacean zooplankton in German lakes: Distribution, motility and bacterivory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Lynn Bickel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ciliate epibionts associated with crustacean zooplankton are widespread in aquatic systems, but their ecological roles are little known. We studied the occurrence of ciliate epibionts on crustacean zooplankton in nine German lakes with different limnological features during the summer of 2011. We also measured the detachment and reattachment rates of the ciliates, changes in their motility, and the feeding rates of attached vs. detached ciliate epibionts. Epibionts were found in all lakes sampled except an acidic lake with large humic inputs. Epibiont prevalence was as high as 80.96% on the cladoceran Daphnia cucullata, 67.17% on the cladoceran Diaphanosoma brachyurum, and 46.67% on the calanoid copepod Eudiaptomus gracilis. Both cladoceran groups typically had less than 10 epibionts per individual, while the epibiont load on E. gracilis ranged from one to >30 epibionts per individual. After the death of the zooplankton host, the peritrich ciliate epibiont Epistylis sp. detached in an exponential fashion with a half-life of 5 min, and 98% detached within 30 min, leaving behind the stalks used for attachment. Immediately after detachment, the ciliates were immotile, but 62% became motile within 60 min. When a new host was present, only 27% reattached after 120 min. The average measured ingestion rate and clearance rate of Epistylis were 11,745 bacteria ciliate-1 h-1 and 24.33 μl ciliate-1 h-1, respectively. Despite their high feeding rates, relatively low epibiont abundances were observed in the field, which suggests either diversion of energy to stalk formation, high metabolic loss by the epibionts, or high mortality among the epibiont populations.

  4. Ciliate epibionts associated with crustacean zooplankton in german lakes: distribution, motility, and bacterivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Samantha L; Tang, Kam W; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    Ciliate epibionts associated with crustacean zooplankton are widespread in aquatic systems, but their ecological roles are little known. We studied the occurrence of ciliate epibionts on crustacean zooplankton in nine German lakes with different limnological features during the summer of 2011. We also measured the detachment and re-attachment rates of the ciliates, changes in their motility, and the feeding rates of attached vs. detached ciliate epibionts. Epibionts were found in all lakes sampled except an acidic lake with large humic inputs. Epibiont prevalence was as high as 80.96% on the cladoceran Daphnia cucullata, 67.17% on the cladoceran Diaphanosoma brachyurum, and 46.67% on the calanoid copepod Eudiaptomus gracilis. Both cladoceran groups typically had less than 10 epibionts per individual, while the epibiont load on E. gracilis ranged from 1 to >30 epibionts per individual. After the death of the zooplankton host, the peritrich ciliate epibiont Epistylis sp. detached in an exponential fashion with a half-life of 5 min, and 98% detached within 30 min, leaving behind the stalks used for attachment. Immediately after detachment, the ciliates were immotile, but 62% became motile within 60 min. When a new host was present, only 27% reattached after 120 min. The average measured ingestion rate and clearance rate of Epistylis were 11,745 bacteria ciliate(-1) h(-1) and 24.33 μl ciliate(-1) h(-1), respectively. Despite their high feeding rates, relatively low epibiont abundances were observed in the field, which suggests either diversion of energy to stalk formation, high metabolic loss by the epibionts, or high mortality among the epibiont populations.

  5. Lake metabolism scales with lake morphometry and catchment conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Peter A.; Baastrup-Spohr, Lars; Jensen, Kaj Sand;

    2012-01-01

    We used a comparative data set for 25 lakes in Denmark sampled during summer to explore the influence of lake morphometry, catchment conditions, light availability and nutrient input on lake metabolism. We found that (1) gross primary production (GPP) and community respiration (R) decline with lake...... area, water depth and drainage ratio, and increase with algal biomass (Chl), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total phosphorus (TP); (2) all lakes, especially small with less incident light, and forest lakes with high DOC, have negative net ecosystem production (NEP ... decreases with lake area and water depth as a consequence of lower input of nutrients and organic matter per unit water volume; (4) the influence of benthic processes on free water metabolic measures declines with increasing lake size; and (5) with increasing lake size, lake metabolism decreases...

  6. Methane distribution and transportation in Lake Chaohu: a shallow eutrophic lake in Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Shen, Q.

    2016-12-01

    Global warming and eutrophication are two world widely concerned environmental problems. Methane is the second important greenhouse gas, and lake has been proven as a quite important natural source of methane emission. More methane may emit from eutrophic lake due to the higher organic matter deposition in the lake sediment. Lake Chaohu is a large and shallow eutrophic lake in eastern China (N31°25' 31°43', E117°16' 117°05'), with an area of 770 km2 and a mean depth of 2.7 m. To examine methane distribution and transportation in this eutrophic lake, field study across different seasons was carried out with 20 study sites in the lake. Samples from the different water and sediment depth was collected using headspace bottle, and methane content was measured by gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector. The potential methane production in the sediment was examined by an indoor incubation experiment. Methane flux from sediment to the overlying water was calculated by Fick's law, and methane emission from surface to the air was calculated at the same time. The results indicates that more methane accumulated in the water of northwestern bay in this lake, and higher methane release rates was also found at this area. Methane increases gradually with depth in the top 10 cm in sediment cores, then it almost keeps at constant state in the deeper sediment. In the sediment from northwestern bay, more methane content and the higher potential methane production was found compared to the sediment from the east area of this lake.

  7. Thermal regimes of Rocky Mountain lakes warm with climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James J.; Fausch, Kurt D.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Walters, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is causing a wide range of stresses in aquatic ecosystems, primarily through warming thermal conditions. Lakes, in response to these changes, are experiencing increases in both summer temperatures and ice-free days. We used continuous records of lake surface temperature and air temperature to create statistical models of daily mean lake surface temperature to assess thermal changes in mountain lakes. These models were combined with downscaled climate projections to predict future thermal conditions for 27 high-elevation lakes in the southern Rocky Mountains. The models predict a 0.25°C·decade-1increase in mean annual lake surface temperature through the 2080s, which is greater than warming rates of streams in this region. Most striking is that on average, ice-free days are predicted to increase by 5.9 days ·decade-1, and summer mean lake surface temperature is predicted to increase by 0.47°C·decade-1. Both could profoundly alter the length of the growing season and potentially change the structure and function of mountain lake ecosystems. These results highlight the changes expected of mountain lakes and stress the importance of incorporating climate-related adaptive strategies in the development of resource management plans.

  8. Rapid Loss of Lakes on the Mongolian Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, S.; Fang, J.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, S.; Shen, H.; Hu, H.; Tang, Z.; Wang, Z.; Guo, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Lakes are widely distributed on the Mongolian Plateau and as critical water sources have sustained Mongolian pastures for hundreds of years. However, the plateau has experienced significant lake shrinkage and grassland degradation during the past several decades. To quantify the changes in all the lakes on the plateau and the associated driving factors, we performed a satellite-based survey using multi-temporal Landsat images from the 1970s to 2000s, combining with ground-based censuses. Our results document a rapid loss of lakes on the plateau in the past decades: the number of lakes with a water surface area >1 km2 decreased from 785 in the late 1980s to 577 in 2010, with a greater rate of decrease (34.0%) in Inner Mongolia of China than in Mongolia (17.6%). This decrease has been particularly pronounced since the late 1990s in Inner Mongolia and the number of lakes >10 km2 has declined by 30.0%. The statistical analyses suggested that in Mongolia precipitation was the dominant driver for the lake changes, while in Inner Mongolia coal mining was most important in its grassland area and irrigation was the leading factor in its cultivated area. The deterioration of lakes is expected to continue in the following decades not only because of changing climate but also increasing exploitation of underground mineral and groundwater resources on the plateau. To protect grasslands and the indigenous nomads, effective action is urgently required to save these valuable lakes from further deterioration.

  9. Lakes near the glacier Maliy Azau on the Elbrus (Central Caucasus: dynamics and outbursts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Dokukin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The lake dynamics and the current state of them were analyzed on the basis of interpretation of aerial and satellite images of different years together with results of field surveys. Areas of six lakes existing in different years near the Maliy Azau Glacier had been determined. On August 22, 2011, the maximum area of one of the lakes was equal to 25.5 thousand m2. The first outburst was caused by the landslide deformations of the moraine massif forming a part of the lake basin, while the second one was a result of degradation of the lake ice dam and the water overflow on top of it. The present‑day lake dams (terminal‑moraine ramparts and medial moraine ridges are the result of the Maliy Azau Glacier advance in 1990s. The revealed feature of the lake dynamics on the mountain Elbrus was a drop of the water level and corresponding decrease of the lake areas in winter that was related to existence of the groundwater runoff into fractured volcanic rocks. At present, moraine dams of lakes and areas of the surface water runoff from the lakes are in stable condition due to which there is no threat of a lake outburst. However, the potential threat of outburst still remains because of high seismicity and possible volcanic activity in this region.

  10. Macrophytes assemblages in mountain lakes of Alerce Andino National Park (41° S, Lakes Region, Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Hauenstein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The lakes studied (Chapo, Sargazo, Chaiquenes and Triángulo are located in the Alerce Andino National Park (41°30'S, 71°32'W, Chile. An inventory of the aquatic and riparian species was performed between December 2010 and January 2011. A null model analysis was done to determine the existence of regulatory factors of species associations, and the Jaccard index was applied to determine floristic similarities. It identidied 23 species, the high number was reported (14 and the most introduced species number (4 were reported at Sargazo lake, whereas the low species number was observed in Triángulo lake with three species. The analysis of the null model revealed the presence of regulatory factors in one of the three simulations. However, in the other two simulations, the species associations appeared to be random, presumably because many species were repeated at the study sites. According to the Jaccard index, Triángulo Lake is noticeably different from the other lakes, probably due to its marked oligotrophy.

  11. Subglacial lake drainage detected beneath the Greenland ice sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Steven; McMillan, Malcolm; Morlighem, Mathieu

    2015-10-09

    The contribution of the Greenland ice sheet to sea-level rise has accelerated in recent decades. Subglacial lake drainage events can induce an ice sheet dynamic response--a process that has been observed in Antarctica, but not yet in Greenland, where the presence of subglacial lakes has only recently been discovered. Here we investigate the water flow paths from a subglacial lake, which drained beneath the Greenland ice sheet in 2011. Our observations suggest that the lake was fed by surface meltwater flowing down a nearby moulin, and that the draining water reached the ice margin via a subglacial tunnel. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar-derived measurements of ice surface motion acquired in 1995 suggest that a similar event may have occurred 16 years earlier, and we propose that, as the climate warms, increasing volumes of surface meltwater routed to the bed will cause such events to become more common in the future.

  12. Subglacial lake drainage detected beneath the Greenland ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Steven; McMillan, Malcolm; Morlighem, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of the Greenland ice sheet to sea-level rise has accelerated in recent decades. Subglacial lake drainage events can induce an ice sheet dynamic response—a process that has been observed in Antarctica, but not yet in Greenland, where the presence of subglacial lakes has only recently been discovered. Here we investigate the water flow paths from a subglacial lake, which drained beneath the Greenland ice sheet in 2011. Our observations suggest that the lake was fed by surface meltwater flowing down a nearby moulin, and that the draining water reached the ice margin via a subglacial tunnel. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar-derived measurements of ice surface motion acquired in 1995 suggest that a similar event may have occurred 16 years earlier, and we propose that, as the climate warms, increasing volumes of surface meltwater routed to the bed will cause such events to become more common in the future. PMID:26450175

  13. Using multiple environmental methods to estimate groundwater discharge into an arid lake (Dakebo Lake, Inner Mongolia, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaosi; Cui, Geng; Du, Shanghai; Yuan, Wenzhen; Wang, Huang

    2016-11-01

    It is important to have both a qualitative and quantitative understanding of the hydraulic exchange between groundwater and surface water to support the development of effective management plans for sustainable use of water resources. Groundwater is a major source of surface-water recharge and plays an important role in maintaining the integrity of ecosystems, especially within wetlands in semi-arid regions. The Ordos Desert Plateau of Inner Mongolia (China) is a vulnerable ecosystem that suffers from an extreme lack of water. The hydraulic exchange between groundwater and lake water in Dakebo Lake (the largest of hundreds of lakes on the Ordos Desert Plateau) was evaluated using multiple environmental methods. Continuous monitoring of the groundwater and lake-water levels indicated that the lake was recharged vertically by groundwater. Application of hydrodynamic and temperature tracing methods to the western side of the lake indicated that the rate of groundwater discharge to the lake was about 2 × 10-6 to 3 × 10-6 m/s in spring, summer, and autumn, but that there was no recharge in winter because the hypolentic zone (HZ) was frozen. Mixing ratios of groundwater and lake water in the HZ, estimated from the 18O and 2H ratios, showed that there were spatial variations in the hydrodynamic exchange between groundwater and lake water within the HZ.

  14. The occurrence of the longjaw cisco, Leucichthys alpenae, in Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, W.B.; Smith, Stanford H.

    1962-01-01

    The longjaw cisco, Leucichthys alpenae, is shown to be a species new to the Lake Erie fauna. The taxonomic work on Lake Erie ciscoes is reviewed. Thirty three specimens of L. alpenae taken in 1946, 1947 and 1957 are compared morphometrically with Leucichthys artedi of Lake Erie, the only other cisco species in the lake. L. alpenae has a longer and deeper head, longer maxillary and fewer gill rakers. L. alpenae is more distinct from L. artedi in Lake Huron than in Lake Erie. The rate of growth of L. alpenae in Lake Erie compares favourably with that in Lake Michigan.

  15. Ecology under lake ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Stephanie E; Galloway, Aaron W E; Powers, Stephen M; Ozersky, Ted; Woo, Kara H; Batt, Ryan D; Labou, Stephanie G; O'Reilly, Catherine M; Sharma, Sapna; Lottig, Noah R; Stanley, Emily H; North, Rebecca L; Stockwell, Jason D; Adrian, Rita; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A; Arvola, Lauri; Baulch, Helen M; Bertani, Isabella; Bowman, Larry L; Carey, Cayelan C; Catalan, Jordi; Colom-Montero, William; Domine, Leah M; Felip, Marisol; Granados, Ignacio; Gries, Corinna; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Haberman, Juta; Haldna, Marina; Hayden, Brian; Higgins, Scott N; Jolley, Jeff C; Kahilainen, Kimmo K; Kaup, Enn; Kehoe, Michael J; MacIntyre, Sally; Mackay, Anson W; Mariash, Heather L; McKay, Robert M; Nixdorf, Brigitte; Nõges, Peeter; Nõges, Tiina; Palmer, Michelle; Pierson, Don C; Post, David M; Pruett, Matthew J; Rautio, Milla; Read, Jordan S; Roberts, Sarah L; Rücker, Jacqueline; Sadro, Steven; Silow, Eugene A; Smith, Derek E; Sterner, Robert W; Swann, George E A; Timofeyev, Maxim A; Toro, Manuel; Twiss, Michael R; Vogt, Richard J; Watson, Susan B; Whiteford, Erika J; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A

    2017-01-01

    Winter conditions are rapidly changing in temperate ecosystems, particularly for those that experience periods of snow and ice cover. Relatively little is known of winter ecology in these systems, due to a historical research focus on summer 'growing seasons'. We executed the first global quantitative synthesis on under-ice lake ecology, including 36 abiotic and biotic variables from 42 research groups and 101 lakes, examining seasonal differences and connections as well as how seasonal differences vary with geophysical factors. Plankton were more abundant under ice than expected; mean winter values were 43.2% of summer values for chlorophyll a, 15.8% of summer phytoplankton biovolume and 25.3% of summer zooplankton density. Dissolved nitrogen concentrations were typically higher during winter, and these differences were exaggerated in smaller lakes. Lake size also influenced winter-summer patterns for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), with higher winter DOC in smaller lakes. At coarse levels of taxonomic aggregation, phytoplankton and zooplankton community composition showed few systematic differences between seasons, although literature suggests that seasonal differences are frequently lake-specific, species-specific, or occur at the level of functional group. Within the subset of lakes that had longer time series, winter influenced the subsequent summer for some nutrient variables and zooplankton biomass. © 2016 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Yellowstone Lake Nanoarchaeota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eClingenpeel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park, where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1,349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels. However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (70 pyrosequencing reads was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations.

  17. Yellowstone lake nanoarchaeota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clingenpeel, Scott; Kan, Jinjun; Macur, Richard E; Woyke, Tanja; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Inskeep, William P; Nealson, Kenneth; McDermott, Timothy R

    2013-01-01

    Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park (YNP), where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR) were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels). However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp) demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (71 pyrosequencing reads) was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations.

  18. Glacial areas, lake areas, and snowlines from 1975 to 2012: status of the Cordillera Vilcanota, including the Quelccaya Ice Cap, northern central Andes, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Hanshaw

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers in the tropical Andes of southern Peru have received limited attention compared to glaciers in other regions (both near and far, yet remain of vital importance to agriculture, fresh water, and hydropower supplies of downstream communities. Little is known about recent glacial-area changes and how the glaciers in this region respond to climate changes, and, ultimately, how these changes will affect lake and water supplies. To remedy this, we have used 144 multi-spectral satellite images spanning almost four decades, from 1975–2012, to obtain glacial and lake-area outlines for the understudied Cordillera Vilcanota region, including the Quelccaya Ice Cap. In a second step, we have estimated the snowline altitude of the Quelccaya Ice Cap using spectral unmixing methods. We have made the following four key observations: first, since 1988 glacial areas throughout the Cordillera Vilcanota have been declining at a rate of 5.46 ± 1.70 km2 yr−1 (22-yr average, 1988–2010, with 95% confidence interval. The Quelccaya Ica Cap, specifically, has been declining at a rate of 0.67 ± 0.18 km2 yr−1 since 1980 (31-yr average, 1980–2011, also with 95% confidence interval; Second, decline rates for individual glacierized regions have been accelerating during the past decade (2000–2011 as compared to the preceding decade (1990–2000; Third, the snowline of the Quelccaya Ice Cap is retreating to higher elevations as glacial areas decrease, by a total of almost 300 m between its lowest recorded elevation in 1989 and its highest in 1998; and fourth, as glacial regions have decreased, 61% of lakes connected to glacial watersheds have shown a roughly synchronous increase in lake area, while 84% of lakes not connected to glacial watersheds have remained stable or have declined in area. Our new and detailed data on glacial and lake areas over 37 yr provide an important spatiotemporal assessment of climate

  19. Glacial areas, lake areas, and snowlines from 1975 to 2012: status of the Cordillera Vilcanota, including the Quelccaya Ice Cap, northern central Andes, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanshaw, M. N.; Bookhagen, B.

    2013-02-01

    Glaciers in the tropical Andes of southern Peru have received limited attention compared to glaciers in other regions (both near and far), yet remain of vital importance to agriculture, fresh water, and hydropower supplies of downstream communities. Little is known about recent glacial-area changes and how the glaciers in this region respond to climate changes, and, ultimately, how these changes will affect lake and water supplies. To remedy this, we have used 144 multi-spectral satellite images spanning almost four decades, from 1975-2012, to obtain glacial and lake-area outlines for the understudied Cordillera Vilcanota region, including the Quelccaya Ice Cap. In a second step, we have estimated the snowline altitude of the Quelccaya Ice Cap using spectral unmixing methods. We have made the following four key observations: first, since 1988 glacial areas throughout the Cordillera Vilcanota have been declining at a rate of 5.46 ± 1.70 km2 yr-1 (22-yr average, 1988-2010, with 95% confidence interval). The Quelccaya Ica Cap, specifically, has been declining at a rate of 0.67 ± 0.18 km2 yr-1 since 1980 (31-yr average, 1980-2011, also with 95% confidence interval); Second, decline rates for individual glacierized regions have been accelerating during the past decade (2000-2011) as compared to the preceding decade (1990-2000); Third, the snowline of the Quelccaya Ice Cap is retreating to higher elevations as glacial areas decrease, by a total of almost 300 m between its lowest recorded elevation in 1989 and its highest in 1998; and fourth, as glacial regions have decreased, 61% of lakes connected to glacial watersheds have shown a roughly synchronous increase in lake area, while 84% of lakes not connected to glacial watersheds have remained stable or have declined in area. Our new and detailed data on glacial and lake areas over 37 yr provide an important spatiotemporal assessment of climate variability in this area. These data can be integrated into further studies

  20. Glacial areas, lakes areas, and snowlines from 1975-2012: Status of the Cordillera Vilcanota, including the Quelccaya Ice Cap, northern central Andes, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanshaw, Maiana Natania

    Glaciers in the tropical Andes of southern Peru have received limited attention compared to glaciers in other regions (both near and far), yet remain of vital importance to agriculture, fresh water, and hydropower supplies of downstream communities. Little is known about recent glacial-area changes and how the glaciers in this region respond to climate changes, and, ultimately, how these changes will affect lake and water supplies. To remedy this, we have used 144 multi-spectral satellite images spanning almost four decades, from 1975-2012, to obtain glacial and lake-area outlines for the understudied Cordillera Vilcanota region, including the Quelccaya Ice Cap. In a second step, we have estimated the snowline altitude of the Quelccaya Ice Cap using spectral unmixing methods. We have made the following four key observations: First, since 1988 glacial areas throughout the Cordillera Vilcanota have been declining at a rate of 5.46 +/- 1.70 km2/yr (22-year average, 1988-2010, with 95 % confidence interval). The Quelccaya Ica Cap, specifically, has been declining at a rate of 0.67 +/- 0.18 km2/yr since 1980 (31-year average, 1980-2011, also with 95 % confidence interval); Second, decline rates for individual glacierized regions have been accelerating during the past decade (2000-2011) as compared to the preceding decade (1990-2000); Third, the snowline of the Quelccaya Ice Cap is retreating to higher elevations as glacial areas decrease, by a total of almost 300 m between its lowest recorded elevation in 1989 and its highest in 1998; and fourth, as glacial regions have decreased, 61 % of lakes connected to glacial watersheds have shown a roughly synchronous increase in lake area, while 84 % of lakes not connected to glacial watersheds have remained stable or have declined in area. Our new and detailed data on glacial and lake areas over 37 years provide an important spatiotemporal assessment of climate variability in this area. These data can be integrated into further

  1. Interannual variations in the hydrothermal regime around a thermokarst lake in Beiluhe, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z. J.; Niu, F. J.; Fang, J. H.; Luo, J.; Yin, G. A.

    2017-01-01

    Thermokarst is a term associated with the thaw of ice-rich permafrost and the resulting formation of irregular depressions in the landscape from thaw settlement. Thermokarst lakes may subsequently develop from ponds formed in depressions. These lakes commonly have collapsing shorelines, and the development of thermokarst terrain and associated thermal erosion may significantly influence the stability of infrastructure and the hydrothermal conditions of the surrounding permafrost. In this study, we examined interannual variations in the hydrothermal regime of a thermokarst lake in Beiluhe Basin based on field data measured in 2006-2013. The timing and nature of lake ice growth and melt were recorded. We observed considerable seasonal differences in lake water level ( 0.5 m) and differences in water level between the lake and the water table in the surrounding ground (over 1.0 m). The nearly-saturated ground at the lakeshore ( 35% in maximum volumetric water content) highlights the seepage effect from the lake to the surrounding ground. The vertical temperature profile from + 2 m (air) to - 2 m (lake bottom) and to 60 m depth in the ground was measured. The annual mean air temperature, lake-surface temperature, and annual mean lake-bottom temperature in 2010-2011 were approximately - 3.6, 0.4, and > 5 °C, respectively. The thermal offsets between the air and the lake surface and between the lake surface and lake bottom were 3 and 7 °C, respectively. The annual mean lake-bottom temperatures ranged from 2.3 to 6.9 °C at water depths from 1.2 to 2.1 m. The asymmetry of the bathymetry has resulted in distinct thermal regimes beneath the lake bottom in different locations. A through-talik was present at the deepest side of the lake, but some permafrost extended laterally beneath the lake bottom at the shallower side, forming an hourglass shape in cross section at one end. Lateral thermal erosion along the lakeshore was linked to the lake-bottom temperature and lake

  2. Cormorant predation on PIT-tagged lake fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Skov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study use data from recovered PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder tags to explore species- and size-specific annual predation rates by cormorants on three common lacustrine fishes (size range 120-367 mm in a European lake; roach (Rutilus rutilus, common bream (Abramis brama and perch (Perca fluviatilis. In addition, we quantify the level of age/size truncation that cormorant predation could introduce in a population of perch, an important fish for recreational angling as well as for trophic interactions and ecosystem function in European lakes. Based on three years of PIT tagging of fish in lake Viborg and subsequent recoveries of PIT tags from nearby cormorant roosting and breeding sites, we show that cormorants are major predators of roach, bream and perch within the size groups we investigated and for all species larger individuals had higher predation rates. Perch appear to be the most vulnerable of the three species and based on a comparison with mortality estimates from lakes without significant avian predation, this study suggest that predation from cormorants can induce age/size truncation in lake Viborg, leaving very few larger perch in the lake. This truncation reduces the likelihood of anglers catching a large perch and may also influence lower trophic levels in the lake and thus turbidity as large piscivorous perch often play an important structuring role in lake ecosystem functioning.

  3. Ecology of playa lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukos, David A.; Smith, Loren M.

    1992-01-01

    Between 25,000 and 30,000 playa lakes are in the playa lakes region of the southern high plains (Fig. 1). Most playas are in west Texas (about 20,000), and fewer, in New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Colorado. The playa lakes region is one of the most intensively cultivated areas of North America. Dominant crops range from cotton in southern areas to cereal grains in the north. Therefore, most of the native short-grass prairie is gone, replaced by crops and, recently, grasses of the Conservation Reserve Program. Playas are the predominant wetlands and major wildlife habitat of the region.More than 115 bird species, including 20 species of waterfowl, and 10 mammal species have been documented in playas. Waterfowl nest in the area, producing up to 250,000 ducklings in wetter years. Dominant breeding and nesting species are mallards and blue-winged teals. During the very protracted breeding season, birds hatch from April through August. Several million shorebirds and waterfowl migrate through the area each spring and fall. More than 400,000 sandhill cranes migrate through and winter in the region, concentrating primarily on the larger saline lakes in the southern portion of the playa lakes region.The primary importance of the playa lakes region to waterfowl is as a wintering area. Wintering waterfowl populations in the playa lakes region range from 1 to 3 million birds, depending on fall precipitation patterns that determine the number of flooded playas. The most common wintering ducks are mallards, northern pintails, green-winged teals, and American wigeons. About 500,000 Canada geese and 100,000 lesser snow geese winter in the playa lakes region, and numbers of geese have increased annually since the early 1980’s. This chapter describes the physiography and ecology of playa lakes and their attributes that benefit waterfowl.

  4. Gill net catch data in Lake Erie, 2010-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes site characteristics and fish catch rate information for gill nets deployed in Lake Erie. Catches of walleye (Sander vitreus), clupeidae, and...

  5. Examining the relationship between mercury and organic matter in lake sediments along a latitudinal transect in subarctic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Jennifer M.; Sanei, Hamed; Parsons, Michael; Swindles, Graeme T.; Macumber, Andrew L.; Patterson, R. Timothy; Palmer, Michael; Falck, Hendrik

    2016-04-01

    The accumulation of Hg in aquatic environments at both high and low latitudes can be controlled by organic matter through algal scavenging, thus complicating the interpretation of historical Hg profiles in lake sediments1,2,3. However, other recent studies suggest that algal scavenging is not important in governing Hg flux to sediments4, in some cases because of dilution by inorganic materials5. This study examines relationships between Hg and organic matter (OM) in over 100 lakes located between 60.5 and 65.4 °N and crossing the latitudinal tree-line in subarctic Canada. The latitudinal gradient approach in our study offers an opportunity to better understand climate and environmental controls on OM accumulation and its role in influencing Hg deposition in subarctic lacustrine environments. We used Rock Eval 6 pyrolysis to determine total organic carbon (TOC%), S1 (soluble OM consisting of degradable lipids and algal pigments), S2 (OM derived from highly aliphatic biomacromolecule structure of algal cell walls), and S3 (OM dominated by carbohydrates, lignins, and plant materials). Total Hg in sediments was measured using thermal decomposition, amalgamation, and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In these lake sediments, S2 composes the majority of TOC (Pearson's r = 0.978, pMercury displays a significant positive association with S1 (r = 0.556, pmercury in recent lake sediment: the physical-geochemical aspects. Appl Geochem 21: 1900-12. 2Outridge, P.M., Sanei, H., Stern, G.A., Hamilton, P.B., Goodarzi, F. 2007. Evidence for control of mercury accumulation rates in Canadian high Arctic lake sediments by variations of aquatic primary productivity. Environ Sci Technol 41: 5259-65. 3Wu, F., Zu, L., Liao, H., Guo, F., Zhao, X., Giesy, J. 2013. Relationship between mercury and organic carbon in sediment cores from Lakes Qinghai and Chenghai, China. J Soils Sediments 13: 1084-1092.4Kirk, J.L., Muir, D.C.G., Antoniades, D., Douglas, M.S.V., Evans, M.S., Jackson, T

  6. Reconstructing Environmental Change Using Lake Varves as a Climate Proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Christopher; Bodzin, Alec; Cirucci, Lori; Anastasio, David; Sahagian, Dork

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe an investigative activity in which their eighth-grade students reconstructed past environmental change in the New England area using data from lake varves in central Vermont to examine evidence of climate change. The investigation uses an authentic paleoclimate record (Ridge 2011) from the Pleistocene epoch,…

  7. Limnology of Sawtooth Valley Lakes in 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luecke, C.; Slater, M.; Budy, P.

    1996-05-01

    Included in this section of the report on limnology of Lakes in the Snake River Plain are descriptions of the limnological characteristics of the four lakes in reference to their potential effect of growth and survival of juvenile sockeye salmon. Physical parameters included light penetration, Secchi transparency, and water temperature; chemical parameters included oxygen, and both dissolved and particulate forms of nitrogen and phosphorus. Phytoplankton parameters included chlorophyll concentration, biovolume of dominant taxa, and rates of primary production; zooplankton parameters included density and biomass estimate, length frequencies, and the number of eggs carried by female cladocerans. 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Use of Landsat land surface temperature and vegetation indices for monitoring drought in the Salt Lake Basin Area, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Osman; Ekercin, Semih; Dadaser-Celik, Filiz

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate multitemporal land surface temperature (LST) changes by using satellite remote sensing data. The study included a real-time field work performed during the overpass of Landsat-5 satellite on 21/08/2011 over Salt Lake, Turkey. Normalized vegetation index (NDVI), vegetation condition index (VCI), and temperature vegetation index (TVX) were used for evaluating drought impact over the region between 1984 and 2011. In the image processing step, geometric and radiometric correction procedures were conducted to make satellite remote sensing data comparable with in situ measurements carried out using thermal infrared thermometer supported by hand-held GPS. The results showed that real-time ground and satellite remote sensing data were in good agreement with correlation coefficient (R2) values of 0.90. The remotely sensed and treated satellite images and resulting thematic indices maps showed that dramatic land surface temperature changes occurred (about 2°C) in the Salt Lake Basin area during the 28-year period (1984-2011). Analysis of air temperature data also showed increases at a rate of 1.5-2°C during the same period. Intensification of irrigated agriculture particularly in the southern basin was also detected. The use of water supplies, especially groundwater, should be controlled considering particularly summer drought impacts on the basin.

  9. Use of Landsat Land Surface Temperature and Vegetation Indices for Monitoring Drought in the Salt Lake Basin Area, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Orhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to investigate multitemporal land surface temperature (LST changes by using satellite remote sensing data. The study included a real-time field work performed during the overpass of Landsat-5 satellite on 21/08/2011 over Salt Lake, Turkey. Normalized vegetation index (NDVI, vegetation condition index (VCI, and temperature vegetation index (TVX were used for evaluating drought impact over the region between 1984 and 2011. In the image processing step, geometric and radiometric correction procedures were conducted to make satellite remote sensing data comparable with in situ measurements carried out using thermal infrared thermometer supported by hand-held GPS. The results showed that real-time ground and satellite remote sensing data were in good agreement with correlation coefficient (R2 values of 0.90. The remotely sensed and treated satellite images and resulting thematic indices maps showed that dramatic land surface temperature changes occurred (about 2∘C in the Salt Lake Basin area during the 28-year period (1984–2011. Analysis of air temperature data also showed increases at a rate of 1.5–2∘C during the same period. Intensification of irrigated agriculture particularly in the southern basin was also detected. The use of water supplies, especially groundwater, should be controlled considering particularly summer drought impacts on the basin.

  10. Le rôle de l’audit interne dans le pilotage et la performance du système de contrôle interne : cas d’un échantillon d’entreprises algériennes

    OpenAIRE

    Chekroun, Meriem

    2013-01-01

    Les scandales financiers qui ont ébranlé récemment les entreprises publiques algériennes, telle que l’entreprise Sonatrach, ont mis sur le devant de la scène la nécessité de renforcer le système de contrôle interne (SCI) qui est considéré de plus en plus comme une solution à un large éventail de problèmes latents ( les problèmes d’ordre éthique,…), y compris la fonction d’audit interne ayant un rôle prépondérant dans le pilotage et la performance du SCI. Pour ce faire, l’audit ...

  11. Can lake sensitivity to desiccation be predicted from lake geometry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi Haghighi, Ali; Menberu, Meseret Walle; Aminnezhad, Mousa; Marttila, Hannu; Kløve, Bjørn

    2016-08-01

    Declining lake levels (Aral Sea syndrome) can be caused by changes in climate, increased water use or changed regulation patterns. This paper introduces a novel lake geometry index (LGI) to quantify lake hydrological characteristics. The index was developed using a large representative dataset of lake hypsographic characteristics from 152 lakes and man-made reservoirs. Using the LGI index, lakes can be classified into five groups: groups 1-4 when LGI is 0.5-2.5, 2.5-4.5, 4.5-6.5 and 6.5-8.5, respectively, and group 5 when LGI is >8.5. Naturally shallow and vast lakes and wetlands fall into the first group and deep man-made reservoirs in narrow valleys are in group 5. The response of three different lake systems (LGI 0.75, 2.75 and 6.5) to different water flow scenarios was then simulated using the water balance equation. From this, the index 'potential lake area' (Apot) was developed to show lake responses to changed hydro-climatological conditions. Apot and LGI can be used to classify lakes into open or closed systems. Simulations showed that lakes with low LGI have a shorter response time to flow and climate changes. As a result, the impact of water balance restoration is faster for lakes with low LGI than for lakes with high LGI. The latter are also more vulnerable to climate variation and change.

  12. Changes in Glaciers and Glacial Lakes and the Identification of Dangerous Glacial Lakes in the Pumqu River Basin, Xizang (Tibet)

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Che; Lin Xiao; Yuei-An Liou

    2014-01-01

    Latest satellite images have been utilized to update the inventories of glaciers and glacial lakes in the Pumqu river basin, Xizang (Tibet), in the study. Compared to the inventories in 1970s, the areas of glaciers are reduced by 19.05% while the areas of glacial lakes are increased by 26.76%. The magnitudes of glacier retreat rate and glacial lake increase rate during the period of 2001–2013 are more significant than those for the period of the 1970s–2001. The accelerated changes in areas of...

  13. Fate of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon in lakes: a quantitative approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Hanson

    Full Text Available Inputs of dissolved organic carbon (DOC to lakes derived from the surrounding landscape can be stored, mineralized or passed to downstream ecosystems. The balance among these OC fates depends on a suite of physical, chemical, and biological processes within the lake, as well as the degree of recalcintrance of the allochthonous DOC load. The relative importance of these processes has not been well quantified due to the complex nature of lakes, as well as challenges in scaling DOC degradation experiments under controlled conditions to the whole lake scale. We used a coupled hydrodynamic-water quality model to simulate broad ranges in lake area and DOC, two characteristics important to processing allochthonous carbon through their influences on lake temperature, mixing depth and hydrology. We calibrated the model to four lakes from the North Temperate Lakes Long Term Ecological Research site, and simulated an additional 12 'hypothetical' lakes to fill the gradients in lake size and DOC concentration. For each lake, we tested several mineralization rates (range: 0.001 d(-1 to 0.010 d(-1 representative of the range found in the literature. We found that mineralization rates at the ecosystem scale were roughly half the values from laboratory experiments, due to relatively cool water temperatures and other lake-specific factors that influence water temperature and hydrologic residence time. Results from simulations indicated that the fate of allochthonous DOC was controlled primarily by the mineralization rate and the hydrologic residence time. Lakes with residence times 6 years mineralized approximately 60% of the DOC. DOC fate in lakes can be determined with a few relatively easily measured factors, such as lake morphometry, residence time, and temperature, assuming we know the recalcitrance of the DOC.

  14. The use of Pb-210 to normalize fluxes and burdens of atmospheric contaminants in lake sediment cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunskill, G.J.; Wilkinson, P.; Hunt, R.; Muir, D.; Billeck, B.; Lockhart, L. (Freshwater Inst., Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada))

    1990-01-09

    It is possible to estimate the local annual atmospheric flux (Bq/m[sup 2] [sm bullet] yr) of Pb-210 to land and lake surfaces from measurements of the integral of excess Pb-210 in soil and peat profiles. If you compare this average Pb-210 flux to the soil surface, to the Pb-210 flux to deep lake sediments, you will usually find that the lake sediment flux is a factor of 2 to 6 greater. This is because most of the clay-sized and organic material added to the lake (and resuspended in the lake) each year is funneled into the deeper parts of the lake basin. The ratio of the deep lake Pb-210 sediment flux to the average terrestrial soil Pb-210 flux will be called the focusing factor, which can be used to crudely estimate whole lake sedimentation rates (g/m[sup 2] lake surface area [sm bullet] yr). Many industrial and agricultural contaminants are delivered to remote lakes by atmospheric deposition, and those contaminants that are strongly particle reactive will usually be resuspended and funneled into the deeper parts of the lake basin similar to Pb-210. Often a single sediment core history of deposition is used to estimate contaminant burdens and fluxes at the coring site in a lake basin. These deep basin contaminant burdens and fluxes can be divided by the focusing factor to estimate the burden per unit lake surface area and the atmospheric deposition rate to the lake surface area.

  15. 46 CFR 403.110 - Accounting entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting entities. 403.110 Section 403.110 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.110 Accounting entities. Each Association shall be a separate...

  16. 46 CFR 403.115 - Accounting period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting period. 403.115 Section 403.115 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE UNIFORM ACCOUNTING SYSTEM General § 403.115 Accounting period. Each Association subject to this part shall...

  17. Ecological environment of Luoma Lake and protection measures%骆马湖生态环境现状及其保护措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申霞; 洪大林; 谈永锋; 王永平; 董家根

    2013-01-01

    An in situ sampling was conducted to study the water quality in Luoma Lake and its connected rivers,as well as the nutrient content in sediment and the species diversity and quantity of benthos in the lake.The results show that the water quality in 2011 reached grade Ⅲ of the surface water standards and the lake had almost reached eutrophication.The species diversity and quantity of benthos have decreased noticeably in recent years.The pollutant source solution suggests that the main nutrient source of Luoma Lake was the Zhongyunhe River and the Yihe River,and the contribution rate of the pollutant reached 90%.In view of this,improving local wastewater treatment efficiency and reducing the pollutant concentration of the connected rivers are effective methods for protecting the ecological environment of Luoma Lake.%通过现场采样分析,研究骆马湖及其出入湖河道的水质现状、湖区底质营养盐含量以及水生生物资源的种类和数量.结果表明,2011年骆马湖水质为地表水Ⅲ类,已接近富营养化水平,底栖生物资源较前几年有明显减少;骆马湖营养物质的主要来源为上游的中运河和沂河,其污染物贡献率达90%.指出提高区域污水处理率、降低入湖河道的污染物浓度是保护骆马湖生态环境的必由之路.

  18. Halls Lake 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Salt marsh habitats along the shoreline of Halls Lake are threatened by wave erosion, but the reconstruction of barrier islands to reduce this erosion will modify or...

  19. Sunk Lake Natural Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Sunk Lake Natural Area Management Plan guides the long-range development of the Natural Area by identifying and integrating appropriate habitats, management...

  20. Lake Transect : 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document summarizes transect surveys that were done at four different lakes on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge in 1986. Lists of the plant species found at...

  1. Lake Transect : 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document summarizes transect surveys that were done at four different lakes on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge in 1988. Lists of the plant species found at...

  2. Lake Transect : 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document summarizes transect surveys that were done at four different lakes on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge in 1989. Lists of the plant species found...

  3. History of Lake Andes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Information about the history and management of Lake Andes is compiled in this report. It is intended to help future refuge managers become acquainted with the...

  4. Lake Level Reconstructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past lake levels, mostly related to changes in moisture balance (evaporation-precipitation). Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data...

  5. Great Lakes Ice Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Charts show ice extent and concentration three times weekly during the ice season, for all lakes except Ontario, from the 1973/74 ice season through the 2001/2002...

  6. Suitability of Lake Erie for bigheaded carps based on bioenergetic models and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Karl R.; Chapman, Duane C.; Wynne, Timothy; Masagounder, Karthik; Paukert, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Algal blooms in the Great Lakes are a potential food source for silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis; together bigheaded carps). Understanding these blooms thus plays an important role in understanding the invasion potential of bigheaded carps. We used remote sensing imagery, temperatures, and improved species specific bioenergetics models to determine algal concentrations sufficient for adult bigheaded carps. Depending on water temperature we found that bigheaded carp require between 2 and 7 μg/L chlorophyll or between 0.3 and 1.26 × 105cells/mL Microcystis to maintain body weight. Algal concentrations in the western basin and shoreline were found to be commonly several times greater than the concentrations required for weight maintenance. The remote sensing images show that area of sufficient algal foods commonly encompassed several hundred square kilometers to several thousands of square kilometers when blooms form. From 2002 to 2011, mean algal concentrations increased 273%–411%. This indicates Lake Erie provides increasingly adequate planktonic algal food for bigheaded carps. The water temperatures and algal concentrations detected in Lake Erie from 2008 to 2012 support positive growth rates such that a 4 kg silver carp could gain between 19 and 57% of its body weight in a year. A 5 kg bighead carp modeled at the same water temperatures could gain 20–81% of their body weight in the same period. The remote sensing imagery and bioenergetic models suggest that bigheaded carps would not be food limited if they invaded Lake Erie.

  7. Evidence of recent changes in the ice regime of lakes in the Canadian High Arctic from spaceborne satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Surdu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Arctic lakes, through their ice cover phenology, are a key indicator of climatic changes that the high-latitude environment is experiencing. In the case of lakes in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA, many of which are ice covered more than ten months per year, warmer temperatures could result in ice regime shifts. Within the dominant polar-desert environment, small local warmer areas have been identified. These relatively small regions – polar oases – with longer growing seasons, greater biological production and diversity, are confined from the surrounding barren polar desert. The ice regimes of 11 lakes located in both polar-desert and polar-oasis environments, with surface areas between 4 and 542 km2, many of unknown bathymetry, were documented. In order to investigate the response of ice cover of lakes in the CAA to climate conditions during recent years, a 15-year time series (1997–2011 of RADARSAT-1/2 ScanSAR Wide Swath, ASAR Wide Swath and Landsat acquisitions were analysed. Results show that melt onset (MO occurred earlier for all observed lakes. With the exception of Lower Murray Lake, all lakes experienced earlier summer-ice minimum and water-clear-of-ice dates (WCI, with greater changes being observed for polar-oasis lakes (9–24 days earlier WCI dates for lakes located in polar oases and 2–20 days earlier WCI dates for polar-desert lakes. Additionally, results suggest that some lakes may be transitioning from a perennial/multiyear to a seasonal ice regime, with only a few lakes maintaining a multiyear ice cover on occasional years. Aside Lake Hazen and Murray Lakes that preserved their ice cover during the summer of 2009, no residual ice was observed on any of the other lakes from 2007 to 2011.

  8. Evidence of recent changes in the ice regime of lakes in the Canadian High Arctic from spaceborne satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdu, Cristina M.; Duguay, Claude R.; Fernández Prieto, Diego

    2016-05-01

    Arctic lakes, through their ice cover phenology, are a key indicator of climatic changes that the high-latitude environment is experiencing. In the case of lakes in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA), many of which are ice covered more than 10 months per year, warmer temperatures could result in ice regime shifts. Within the dominant polar-desert environment, small local warmer areas have been identified. These relatively small regions - polar oases - with longer growing seasons and greater biological productivity and diversity are secluded from the surrounding barren polar desert. The ice regimes of 11 lakes located in both polar-desert and polar-oasis environments, with surface areas between 4 and 542 km2, many of unknown bathymetry, were documented. In order to investigate the response of ice cover of lakes in the CAA to climate conditions during recent years, a 15-year time series (1997-2011) of RADARSAT-1/2 ScanSAR Wide Swath, ASAR Wide Swath, and Landsat acquisitions were analyzed. Results show that melt onset occurred earlier for all observed lakes. With the exception of Lower Murray Lake, all lakes experienced earlier summer ice minimum and water-clear-of-ice (WCI) dates, with greater changes being observed for polar-oasis lakes (9-24 days earlier WCI dates for lakes located in polar oases and 2-20 days earlier WCI dates for polar-desert lakes). Additionally, results suggest that some lakes may be transitioning from a perennial/multiyear to a seasonal ice regime, with only a few lakes maintaining a multiyear ice cover on occasional years. Aside Lake Hazen and Murray Lakes, which preserved their ice cover during the summer of 2009, no residual ice was observed on any of the other lakes from 2007 to 2011.

  9. Chase Lake Wetland Management District, Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Chase Lake Prairie Project: Annual narrative report: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Chase Lake WMD, Chase Lake NWR, Chase Lake Prairie Project, and Halfway Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1997...

  10. WHISKER LAKE WILDERNESS, WISCONSIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Klaus J.

    1984-01-01

    The mineral-resource potential of the Whisker Lake Wilderness in northeastern Wisconsin was evaluated. Only a strip along the southwest corner of the wilderness is assessed as having probable mineral-resource potential. If mineral deposits exist, they probably are of the massive sulfide type. The geologic terrain precludes the presence of fossil fuel resources. Sand and gravel and peat in swampy lowlands are the only resources of the Whisker lake Wilderness.

  11. Lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region and their influence during BAQS-Met 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. L. Sills

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Mesoscale observations from the BAQS-Met field experiment during the summer of 2007 were integrated and manually analyzed in order to identify and characterize lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region of North America, and assess their potential impact on air quality. Lake breezes were found to occur on 90% of study days, often occurring in conditions previously thought to impede their development. They affected all parts of the study region, including southwestern Ontario and nearby portions of southeast Michigan and northern Ohio, occasionally penetrating inland from 100 km to over 200 km. Occurrence rates and penetration distances were found to be higher than previously reported in the literature. This more accurate depiction of observed lake breezes allows a better understanding of their influence on the production and transport of pollutants in this region.

    The observational analyses were compared with output from subsequent runs of a high-resolution numerical weather prediction model. The model accurately predicted lake breeze occurrence in a variety of synoptic wind regimes, but selected cases showed substantial differences in the detailed timing and location of lake-breeze fronts, and with the initiation of deep moist convection. Knowledge of such strengths and weaknesses will assist with interpretation of results from air quality modelling driven by this meteorological model.

  12. Resilience and Restoration of Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L. Cottingham

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Lake water quality and ecosystem services are normally maintained by several feedbacks. Among these are nutrient retention and humic production by wetlands, nutrient retention and woody habitat production by riparian forests, food web structures that cha nnel phosphorus to consumers rather than phytoplankton, and biogeochemical mechanisms that inhibit phosphorus recycling from sediments. In degraded lakes, these resilience mechanisms are replaced by new ones that connect lakes to larger, regional economi c and social systems. New controls that maintain degraded lakes include runoff from agricultural and urban areas, absence of wetlands and riparian forests, and changes in lake food webs and biogeochemistry that channel phosphorus to blooms of nuisance al gae. Economic analyses show that degraded lakes are significantly less valuable than normal lakes. Because of this difference in value, the economic benefits of restoring lakes could be used to create incentives for lake restoration.

  13. Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...

  14. Anaerobic psychrophiles from Lake Zub and Lake Untersee, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alisa; Pikuta, Elena V.; Guisler, Melissa; Stahl, Sarah; Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-08-01

    The study of samples from Antarctica 2008 and 2009 expeditions organized and successfully conducted by Richard Hoover led to the isolation of diverse anaerobic strains with psychrotolerant and psychrophilic physiology. Due to the fact that Lake Untersee has never been subject to microbiological study, this work with the samples has significant and pioneering impact to the knowledge about the biology of this unique ecosystem. Also, the astrobiological significance for the study of these ecosystems is based on new findings of ice covered water systems on other bodies of our solar system. Anaerobic psychrotolerant strain LZ-22 was isolated from a frozen sample of green moss with soils around the rhizosphere collected near Lake Zub in Antarctica. Morphology of strain LZ-22 was observed to be motile, rod shaped and spore-forming cells with sizes 1 x 5-10 μm. This new isolate is a mesophile with the maximum temperature of growth at 40°C. Strain LZ-22 is able to live on media without NaCl and in media with up to 7 % (w/v) NaCl. It is catalase negative and grows only on sugars with the best growth rate being on lactose. The strain is a neutrophile and grows between pH 5 and 9.0 with the optimum at 7.8. Another two strains UL7-96mG and LU-96m7P were isolated from deep water samples of Lake Untersee. Proteolytic strain LU-96m7P had a truly psychrophilic nature and refused to grow at room temperature. Sugarlytic strain UL7-96mG was found to be psychrotolerant, but its rate of growth at 3°C was very high compared with other mesophiles. Two homoacetogenic psychrophilic strains A7AC-96m and AC-DS7 were isolated and purified from samples of Lake Untersee; both of them are able to grow chemolithotrophically on H2+CO2. In the presence of lactate, these strains are able to grow only at 0-18 °C, and growth at 22 °C was observed only with yeast extract stimulation. In this paper, physiological and morphological characteristics of novel psychrophilic and psychrotolerant isolates

  15. Anaerobic Psychrophiles from Lake Zub and Lake Untersee, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alisa; Pikuta, Elena V.; Guisler, Melissa; Stahl, Sarah; Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    The study of samples from Antarctica 2008 and 2009 expeditions organized and successfully conducted by Richard Hoover led to the isolation of diverse anaerobic strains with psychrotolerant and psychrophilic physiology. Due to the fact that Lake Untersee has never been subject to microbiological study, this work with the samples has significant and pioneering impact to the knowledge about the biology of this unique ecosystem. Also, the astrobiological significance for the study of these ecosystems is based on new findings of ice covered water systems on other bodies of our solar system. Anaerobic psychrotolerant strain LZ-22 was isolated from a frozen sample of green moss with soils around the rhizosphere collected near Lake Zub in Antarctica. Morphology of strain LZ-22 was observed to be motile, rod shaped and spore-forming cells with sizes 1 x 5-10 micron. This new isolate is a mesophile with the maximum temperature of growth at 40C. Strain LZ-22 is able to live on media without NaCl and in media with up to 7% (w/v) NaCl. It is catalase negative and grows only on sugars with the best growth rate being on lactose. The strain is a neutrophile and grows between pH 5 and 9.0 with the optimum at 7.8. Another two strains UL7-96mG and LU-96m7P were isolated from deep water samples of Lake Untersee. Proteolytic strain LU-96m7P had a truly psychrophilic nature and refused to grow at room temperature. Sugarlytic strain UL7-96mG was found to be psychrotolerant, but its rate of growth at 3C was very high compared with other mesophiles. Two homoacetogenic psychrophilic strains A7AC-96m and AC-DS7 were isolated and purified from samples of Lake Untersee; both of them are able to grow chemolithotrophically on H2+CO2. In the presence of lactate, these strains are able to grow only at 0-18C, and growth at 22C was observed only with yeast extract stimulation. In this paper, physiological and morphological characteristics of novel psychrophilic and psychrotolerant isolates from

  16. Lake-catchment systems and sediment information in Baikal district (Siberia and Mongolia)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KASHIWAYA Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Sediment information is closely related to a lake-catchment system. Lake Baikal and Lake Khuvsgul in the Baikal depression have shown different sedimentary trends during the past 800 ka; the sediment discharge (sedimentation rate) in Baikal basically followed the global climatic change, whereas that in Khuvsgul did not always do so. An elementary mathematical model is used to explain the difference, considering changes in the catchment area and water level. Numerical calculations based on the model suggest that sedimentary conditions are closely related to changes in the water level and erosion area, which probably had a signiifcant inlfuence on Lake Khuvsgul and little inlfuence on Lake Baikal.

  17. Comparison of evaporation at two central Florida lakes, April 2005–November 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swancar, Amy

    2015-09-25

    Evaporation from April 2005 through October 2007 at two central Florida lakes, one close to the Gulf of Mexico and one in the center of the peninsula, was 4.043 and 4.111 meters (m), respectively; evaporation for 2006 was 1.534 and 1.538 m, respectively. Although annual evaporation rates at the two lakes were similar, there were monthly differences between the two lakes because of changes in stored heat; the shallower Lake Calm (mean depth 3 m) stored less heat and exchanged heat more rapidly than the deeper Lake Starr (mean depth 5 m).

  18. Rate Review Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — As of September 1, 2011, the Affordable Care Act and rate review regulation require review of rate increases of 10 percent or more. A non-grandfathered health plan...

  19. Quo Vadis photovoltaics 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger-Waldau, A.

    2011-10-01

    Since more than 10 years photovoltaics is one of the most dynamic industries with growth rates well beyond 40% per annum. This growth is driven not only by the progress in materials knowledge and processing technology, but also by market introduction programmes in many countries around the world. Despite the negative impacts on the economy by the financial crisis since 2009, photovoltaics is still growing at an extraordinary pace and had in 2010 an extraordinary success, as both production and markets doubled. The open question is what will happen in 2011 and the years after as the situation is dominated by huge manufacturing overcapacities and an increasing unpredictability of policy support. How can the PV industry continue their cost reduction to ensure another 10 to 20 years of sustained and strong growth necessary to make PV to one of the main pillars of a sustainable energy supply in 2030. Despite the fact, that globally the share of electricity from photovoltaic systems is still small, at local level it can be already now above 30% of the demand at certain times of the year. Future research in PV has to provide intelligent solutions not only on the solar cell alone, but also on the module and the system integration level in order to permit a 5 to 10% share of electricity in 2020.

  20. Quo Vadis photovoltaics 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jäger-Waldau A.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Since more than 10 years photovoltaics is one of the most dynamic industries with growth rates well beyond 40% per annum. This growth is driven not only by the progress in materials knowledge and processing technology, but also by market introduction programmes in many countries around the world. Despite the negative impacts on the economy by the financial crisis since 2009, photovoltaics is still growing at an extraordinary pace and had in 2010 an extraordinary success, as both production and markets doubled. The open question is what will happen in 2011 and the years after as the situation is dominated by huge manufacturing overcapacities and an increasing unpredictability of policy support. How can the PV industry continue their cost reduction to ensure another 10 to 20 years of sustained and strong growth necessary to make PV to one of the main pillars of a sustainable energy supply in 2030. Despite the fact, that globally the share of electricity from photovoltaic systems is still small, at local level it can be already now above 30% of the demand at certain times of the year. Future research in PV has to provide intelligent solutions not only on the solar cell alone, but also on the module and the system integration level in order to permit a 5 to 10% share of electricity in 2020.

  1. Is Lake Chabot Eutrophic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, K.; Logan, J.; Esterlis, P.; Lew, A.; Nguyen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction/Abstract: Lake Chabot is an integral part of the East Bay watershed that provides habitats for animals and recreation for humans year-round. Lake Chabot has been in danger of eutrophication due to excessive dumping of phosphorous and nitrogen into the water from the fertilizers of nearby golf courses and neighboring houses. If the lake turned out to be eutrophified, it could seriously impact what is currently the standby emergency water supply for many Castro Valley residents. Eutrophication is the excessive richness of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in a lake, usually as a result of runoff. This buildup of nutrients causes algal blooms. The algae uses up most of the oxygen in the water, and when it dies, it causes the lake to hypoxify. The fish in the lake can't breathe, and consequently suffocate. Other oxygen-dependant aquatic creatures die off as well. Needless to say, the eutrophication of a lake is bad news for the wildlife that lives in or around it. The level of eutrophication in our area in Northern California tends to increase during the late spring/early summer months, so our crew went out and took samples of Lake Chabot on June 2. We focused on the area of the lake where the water enters, known on the map as Honker Bay. We also took readings a ways down in deeper water for comparison's sake. Visually, the lake looked in bad shape. The water was a murky green that glimmered with particulate matter that swirled around the boat as we went by. In the Honker Bay region where we focused our testing, there were reeds bathed in algae that coated the surface of the lake in thick, swirling patterns. Surprisingly enough, however, our test results didn't reveal any extreme levels of phosphorous or nitrogen. They were slightly higher than usual, but not by any significant amount. The levels we found were high enough to stimulate plant and algae growth and promote eutrophication, but not enough to do any severe damage. After a briefing with a

  2. Overdeepened glacigenic landforms in Lake Thun (Switzerland) revealed by a multichannel reflection seismic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Stefano; Herwegh, Marco; Schlunegger, Fritz; Hübscher, Christian; Weiss, Benedikt J.; Schmelzbach, Cédric; Horstmeyer, Heinrich; Buechi, Marius W.; Anselmetti, Flavio S.

    2016-04-01

    Recently acquired high-resolution multibeam bathymetry, in combination with a 2D multichannel reflection seismic campaign on perialpine Lake Thun (Switzerland) reveals new insights into the diverse geometry of the lake basin and a so far unknown subaquatic moraine crest with unprecedented clarity. These new data will improve our comprehension concerning the retreat phases of the Aare glacier, the morphology of its proximal deposits and the facies architecture of the subglacial units. The overdeepened basin of Lake Thun was formed by a combination of tectonically predefined weak zones and glacial erosion during the last glacial periods. The new data indicate that below the outermost edge of a morphologically distinct platform in the south eastern part of the lake basin, a ridge structure marked by strong reflection amplitudes occurs. This structure is interpreted as a subaquatic terminal moraine crest, most likely created by a slightly advancing or stagnant grounded Aare glacier during its major retreating phase. The terminal moraine smoothly transforms downstream into well distinguishable foresets with internally recognisable layering, which dip steeply towards the deepest part of the basin, eventually transforming into bottomsets. This depositional sequence formed by the fore- and bottomsets represents ˜50% of the overall sediment volume that fills the basin and was deposited while the glacier was stagnant, interpreted to represent a rather short period of time of a few hundreds of years. This sequence is overlain by lacustrine deposits formed by late-glacial and Holocene laminated muds comprising intercalated turbidites (Wirth et al. 2011). Little is known about the exact timing and behaviour of retreating glaciers between their recessional phase from the Alpine foreland to the deglaciation of the inner-Alpine ice cap, mostly due to the lack of well-developed moraines that indicate glacial stabilization or slight readvance. Findings from pollen analyses by

  3. Tewaukon – Clouds LakeLake Elsie – Storm Lake and Wild Rice Refuges Narrative Reports : 1939-1956 : From Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These narrative reports summarize refuge activities from 1939 to 1956 for Lake Tewaukon Refuge, Clouds Lake Refuge, Lake Elsie Refuge, Storm Lake Refuge, Wild Rice...

  4. TOXAPHENE STUDY OF GREAT LAKES TRIBUTARY SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Product is the paper "Pulp and Paper Mills as Sources of Toxaphene to Lake Superior and Northern Lake Michigan" published in the Journal of Great Lakes Research, 25(2):383-394 International Association of Great Lakes 1999.

  5. Glacial lake inventory and lake outburst potential in Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Maxim A; Sabitov, Timur Y; Tomashevskaya, Irina G; Glazirin, Gleb E; Chernomorets, Sergey S; Savernyuk, Elena A; Tutubalina, Olga V; Petrakov, Dmitriy A; Sokolov, Leonid S; Dokukin, Mikhail D; Mountrakis, Giorgos; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Stoffel, Markus

    2017-08-15

    Climate change has been shown to increase the number of mountain lakes across various mountain ranges in the World. In Central Asia, and in particular on the territory of Uzbekistan, a detailed assessment of glacier lakes and their evolution over time is, however lacking. For this reason we created the first detailed inventory of mountain lakes of Uzbekistan based on recent (2002-2014) satellite observations using WorldView-2, SPOT5, and IKONOS imagery with a spatial resolution from 2 to 10m. This record was complemented with data from field studies of the last 50years. The previous data were mostly in the form of inventories of lakes, available in Soviet archives, and primarily included localized in-situ data. The inventory of mountain lakes presented here, by contrast, includes an overview of all lakes of the territory of Uzbekistan. Lakes were considered if they were located at altitudes above 1500m and if lakes had an area exceeding 100m(2). As in other mountain regions of the World, the ongoing increase of air temperatures has led to an increase in lake number and area. Moreover, the frequency and overall number of lake outburst events have been on the rise as well. Therefore, we also present the first outburst assessment with an updated version of well-known approaches considering local climate features and event histories. As a result, out of the 242 lakes identified on the territory of Uzbekistan, 15% are considered prone to outburst, 10% of these lakes have been assigned low outburst potential and the remainder of the lakes have an average level of outburst potential. We conclude that the distribution of lakes by elevation shows a significant influence on lake area and hazard potential. No significant differences, by contrast, exist between the distribution of lake area, outburst potential, and lake location with respect to glaciers by regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Lake Biel sediment record during the last 7500 years and impact of the Aare river deviation in 1878 AD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeannet, Alice; Corella, Juan Pablo; Reusch, Anna; Kremer, Katrina; Girardclos, Stéphanie

    2013-04-01

    Lake sediments are excellent archives of environmental and climate changes as well as human impact on lake- and river-systems. Lake Biel is a medium-sized peri-alpine lake (Switzerland) with a maximum depth of 74 m and lies at 429 m asl. Our study focuses on the south-west basin, where the lake sedimentation was naturally mainly controlled by autochthonous sedimentation, and is now, since the artificial Aare river deviation through the Hagneck canal in 1878 AD, under the strong influence of water and sediment input from its catchment. A 10.05-m-long composite sediment sequence, cored in 2011 at 52 m water depth, was built from two cores retrieved with an Uwitec system. The cored sedimentary sequence begins in 1975 and spans the last 7500 years, as dated by seven 14C analyses and 210Pb/137Cs activity profiles. Magnetic susceptibility and density were measured with a Geotek MSCL at 0.5 cm resolution, granulometry with a CILAS grain sizer every 10 cm and X-ray fluorescence measurements were carried out using an Avaatech core scanner at 1-cm resolution. Lake Biel sediment record is subdivided in four main units. The lowest Unit A (651-1005 cm; 7355 to 5075 BP), with dark greyish clayey silty laminated layers and sedimentation rates between 0.10 to 0.29 cm/yr, shows stable low values for almost all proxies, excepted for allochtonous elements which increase between 7000-6000 BP. By analogy with Unit C facies (see below), Unit A is interpreted as influenced by the Aare river which probably flew into the south-west basin at that time. Unit B1 (651-343 cm, 5075 to 2036 BP) has lower sedimentation rate (0.10 cm/yr), high Ca/Ti ratio, light sediment color, constant clayey silty grain size and varying elemental profiles which point to the dominant influence of autochtonous lake processes influenced by climate. From the beginning of Unit B2 (343-147 cm, 2036 to 1878 AD) sediment grain size increases which possibly reflects a human influence over the lake system. The greatest

  7. Flood Insurance Rate Maps and Base Flood Elevations, FIRM, DFIRM, BFE, Kent County Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map Database (DFIRM); DFIRM_Kent10; he Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data., Published in 2011, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Flood Insurance Rate Maps and Base Flood Elevations, FIRM, DFIRM, BFE dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other...

  8. Flood Insurance Rate Maps and Base Flood Elevations, FIRM, DFIRM, BFE, Newport County Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map Database (DFIRM); DFIRM_Newport10; The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data., Published in 2011, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Flood Insurance Rate Maps and Base Flood Elevations, FIRM, DFIRM, BFE dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other...

  9. Modeling a glacial lake outburst flood process chain: the case of Lake Palcacocha and Huaraz, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somos-Valenzuela, Marcelo A.; Chisolm, Rachel E.; Rivas, Denny S.; Portocarrero, Cesar; McKinney, Daene C.

    2016-07-01

    One of the consequences of recent glacier recession in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, is the risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) from lakes that have formed at the base of retreating glaciers. GLOFs are often triggered by avalanches falling into glacial lakes, initiating a chain of processes that may culminate in significant inundation and destruction downstream. This paper presents simulations of all of the processes involved in a potential GLOF originating from Lake Palcacocha, the source of a previously catastrophic GLOF on 13 December 1941, killing about 1800 people in the city of Huaraz, Peru. The chain of processes simulated here includes (1) avalanches above the lake; (2) lake dynamics resulting from the avalanche impact, including wave generation, propagation, and run-up across lakes; (3) terminal moraine overtopping and dynamic moraine erosion simulations to determine the possibility of breaching; (4) flood propagation along downstream valleys; and (5) inundation of populated areas. The results of each process feed into simulations of subsequent processes in the chain, finally resulting in estimates of inundation in the city of Huaraz. The results of the inundation simulations were converted into flood intensity and preliminary hazard maps (based on an intensity-likelihood matrix) that may be useful for city planning and regulation. Three avalanche events with volumes ranging from 0.5 to 3 × 106 m3 were simulated, and two scenarios of 15 and 30 m lake lowering were simulated to assess the potential of mitigating the hazard level in Huaraz. For all three avalanche events, three-dimensional hydrodynamic models show large waves generated in the lake from the impact resulting in overtopping of the damming moraine. Despite very high discharge rates (up to 63.4 × 103 m3 s-1), the erosion from the overtopping wave did not result in failure of the damming moraine when simulated with a hydro-morphodynamic model using excessively conservative soil

  10. A dynamic multimedia environmental and bioaccumulation model for brominated flame retardants in Lake Huron and Lake Erie, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dong-Hee; Lastoskie, Christian M

    2011-05-01

    Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) may pose a worldwide pollution problem because of their persistence, long-range transport capability, and predisposition to bioaccumulate. The ubiquitous presence of PBBs and PBDEs has heightened interest in determination of their fate. We report results for a fugacity-based dynamic environmental and bioaccumulation model of the fate of hexabromobiphenyl (hexaBB) discharged into the Saginaw Bay region of Lake Huron, USA. We calculated transient fugacity profiles of hexaBB in Lake Huron and Lake Erie water and sediment during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s. The hexaBB concentrations in the environmental compartments were used as inputs for a dynamic bioaccumulation model of Lake Huron and Lake Erie aquatic biota. The model results indicate that the sediment compartments of Lakes Huron and Erie serve as reservoirs for the accumulation and slow transfer of hexaBB to the food web constituents of these lakes. We present bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and compare the predicted hexaBB concentrations in lake trout from the bioaccumulation model with measurements during the period 1980 to 2000. An uncertainty analysis for this model suggests that errors associated with input parameter uncertainty can be reduced by refining estimates of the sediment degradation half-life of hexaBB. The corroborated PBB model has carryover application for modeling the fate of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) contaminants in the Great Lakes. By fitting model outputs to field measurement data using the transformed least square fit method, we report estimations of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) emission rates into the Lake Huron and Lake Erie watershed areas.

  11. Trends in evaporation of a large subtropical lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Cheng; Wang, Yongwei; Wang, Wei; Liu, Shoudong; Piao, Meihua; Xiao, Wei; Lee, Xuhui

    2017-07-01

    How rising temperature and changing solar radiation affect evaporation of natural water bodies remains poor understood. In this study, evaporation from Lake Taihu, a large (area 2400 km2) freshwater lake in the Yangtze River Delta, China, was simulated by the CLM4-LISSS offline lake model and estimated with pan evaporation data. Both methods were calibrated against lake evaporation measured directly with eddy covariance in 2012. Results show a significant increasing trend of annual lake evaporation from 1979 to 2013, at a rate of 29.6 mm decade-1 according to the lake model and 25.4 mm decade-1 according to the pan method. The mean annual evaporation during this period shows good agreement between these two methods (977 mm according to the model and 1007 mm according to the pan method). A stepwise linear regression reveals that downward shortwave radiation was the most significant contributor to the modeled evaporation trend, while air temperature was the most significant contributor to the pan evaporation trend. Wind speed had little impact on the modeled lake evaporation but had a negative contribution to the pan evaporation trend offsetting some of the temperature effect. Reference evaporation was not a good proxy for the lake evaporation because it was on average 20.6 % too high and its increasing trend was too large (56.5 mm decade-1).

  12. Are Sierran Lakes Warming as a Result of Climate Change? The Effects of Climate Warming and Variation in Precipitation on Water Temperature in a Snowmelt-Dominated Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadro, S.; Melack, J. M.; Sickman, J. O.; Skeen, K.

    2016-12-01

    Water temperature regulates a broad range of fundamental ecosystem processes in lakes. While climate can be an important factor regulating lake temperatures, heterogeneity in the warming response of lakes is large, and variation in precipitation is rarely considered. We analyzed three decades of climate and water temperature data from a high-elevation catchment in the southern Sierra Nevada of California to illustrate the magnitude of warming taking place during different seasons and the role of precipitation in regulating lake temperatures. Significant climate warming trends were evident during all seasons except spring. Nighttime rates of climate warming were approximately 25% higher than daytime rates. Spatial patterns in warming were elevation dependent, with rates of temperature increase higher at sites above 2800 m.a.s.l. than below. Although interannual variation in snow deposition was high, the frequency and severity of recent droughts has contributed to a significant 3.4 mm year -1 decline in snow water equivalent over the last century. Snow accumulation, more than any other climate factor, regulated lake temperature; 94% of variation in summer lake temperature was regulated by precipitation as snow. For every 100 mm decrease in snow water equivalent there was a 0.62 ° increase in lake temperature. Drought years amplify warming in lakes by reducing the role of cold spring meltwaters in lake energy budgets and prolonging the ice-free period during which lakes warm. The combination of declining winter snowpack and warming air temperatures has the capacity to amplify the effect of climate warming on lake temperatures during drought years. Interactions among climatic factors need to be considered when evaluating ecosystem level effects, especially in mountain regions. For mountain lakes already affected by drought, continued climate warming during spring and autumn has the greatest potential to impact mean lake temperatures.

  13. Evidence of Lake Trout reproduction at Lake Michigan's mid-lake reef complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, J.; Jude, D.J.; Edsall, T.A.; Paddock, R.W.; Wattrus, N.; Toneys, M.; McKee, P.

    2006-01-01

    The Mid-Lake Reef Complex (MLRC), a large area of deep (> 40 m) reefs, was a major site where indigenous lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan aggregated during spawning. As part of an effort to restore Lake Michigan's lake trout, which were extirpated in the 1950s, yearling lake trout have been released over the MLRC since the mid-1980s and fall gill net censuses began to show large numbers of lake trout in spawning condition beginning about 1999. We report the first evidence of viable egg deposition and successful lake trout fry production at these deep reefs. Because the area's existing bathymetry and habitat were too poorly known for a priori selection of sampling sites, we used hydroacoustics to locate concentrations of large fish in the fall; fish were congregating around slopes and ridges. Subsequent observations via unmanned submersible confirmed the large fish to be lake trout. Our technological objectives were driven by biological objectives of locating where lake trout spawn, where lake trout fry were produced, and what fishes ate lake trout eggs and fry. The unmanned submersibles were equipped with a suction sampler and electroshocker to sample eggs deposited on the reef, draw out and occasionally catch emergent fry, and collect egg predators (slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus). We observed slimy sculpin to eat unusually high numbers of lake trout eggs. Our qualitative approaches are a first step toward quantitative assessments of the importance of lake trout spawning on the MLRC.

  14. Whole-lake nitrate addition for control of methylmercury in mercury-contaminated Onondaga Lake, NY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, David A; Babcock, David B; Nolan, John G; Prestigiacomo, Anthony R; Effler, Steven W; Driscoll, Charles T; Todorova, Svetoslava G; Kuhr, Kenneth M

    2013-08-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) strongly bioaccumulates in aquatic food webs resulting in exposure to humans and wildlife through consumption of fish. Production of MeHg is promoted by anaerobic conditions and the supply of inorganic Hg (Hg(2+)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and labile organic carbon. The anaerobic sediments of stratified lakes are particularly active zones for methylation of Hg(2+) and can be an important source of MeHg to the water column during summer anoxia and fall turnover. Nitrate (NO3(-)) addition has recently been proposed as a novel approach for the control of MeHg accumulation in the hypolimnia of Hg-contaminated lakes. In 2011, a whole-lake NO3(-) addition pilot test was conducted in Hg-contaminated Onondaga Lake, NY with the objective of limiting release of MeHg from the pelagic sediments to the hypolimnion through maintenance of NO3(-)-N concentrations >1mgN/L. A liquid calcium-nitrate solution was added to the hypolimnion as a neutrally buoyant plume approximately three times per week during the summer stratification interval. Maximum hypolimnetic concentrations of MeHg and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) decreased 94% and 95% from 2009 levels, suggesting increased sorption to Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides in surficial sediments as the regulating mechanism. Increased MeHg concentrations in the upper waters during fall turnover, which had been a generally recurring pattern, did not occur in 2011, resulting in decreased exposure of aquatic organisms to MeHg. Over the 1992-2011 interval, the hypolimnetic NO3(-) supply explained 85% and 95% of the interannual variations in hypolimnetic accumulations of SRP and MeHg, respectively.

  15. Recent dynamics of alpine lakes on the endorheic Changtang Plateau from multi-mission satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kehan; Yao, Fangfang; Wang, Jida; Luo, Jiancheng; Shen, Zhanfeng; Wang, Chao; Song, Chunqiao

    2017-09-01

    Monitoring of the alpine lakes on the endorheic Changtang Plateau is vitally important in understanding climate impacts on hydrological cycle. Existing studies have revealed an accelerated lake expansion on the Changtang Plateau during the 2000s compared with prior decades. However, the partial hiatus of recent Landsat archive affected the continuation of understanding the lake changes in the recent decade. Here we synergistically used imagery from Landsat and Huanjing satellites to enable a detailed monitoring of lake area dynamics on the Changtang Plateau. Our results present that lakes on the Changtang Plateau continued to expand at a rapid rate of 340.79 km2 yr-1 (1.06% yr-1, p variations of the selected 24 large lakes fluctuated within 0.22-2.46% (in coefficient of variation) for glacier-fed lakes and 0.17-2.36% for non-glacier-fed lakes. Most of these lakes expanded during the unfrozen period (from May/June to October) and reached to their maximum extents in September or October. By spatially associating our revealed lake changes with climate variables, we observed that the recent lake expansion is more related to precipitation than to temperature, although future efforts are needed for a more comprehensive picture of the lake changing mechanisms.

  16. Energy Norway 2011; Energi Norge 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Whereas in the beginning of 2011 was directed much attention to the record low rainfall and record high energy prices, the end of the year was characterized by quite different disturbances. Powerful storms in many parts of the country led to much debate about the security of supply. The whole year has Energy Norway worked to highlight the need for further network expansion both in Norway and to Norway. Renewable energy can only be used when it is transported to where it is needed. In 2011, the new players in the energy debate in partnership with the industry pointed to the significant challenges that slow licensing procedures for network and production facilities represent for society. Through the launch of A green thread Energy Norway sat focus on electricity as clean energy carrier and its unique role in a low carbon society. Read more about our work in the annual report.(eb)

  17. Geochemical evidence of hydrothermal recharge in Lake Baringo, central Kenya Rift Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarits, Corinne; Renaut, Robin W.; Tiercelin, Jean-Jacques; Le Hérissé, Alain; Cotten, Jo; Cabon, Jean-Yves

    2006-06-01

    Lake Baringo, a freshwater lake in the central Kenya Rift Valley, is fed by perennial and ephemeral rivers, direct rainfall, and hot springs on Ol Kokwe Island near the centre of the lake. The lake has no surface outlet, but despite high evaporation rates it maintains dilute waters by subsurface seepage through permeable sediments and faulted lavas. New geochemical analyses (major ions, trace elements) of the river, lake, and hot spring waters and the suspended sediments have been made to determine the main controls of lake water quality. The results show that evaporative concentration and the binary mixing between two end members (rivers and thermal waters) can explain the hydrochemistry of the lake waters.Two zones are recognized from water composition. The southern part of the lake near sites of perennial river inflow is weakly influenced by evaporation, has low total dissolved species (TDS), and has a seasonally variable load of mainly detrital suspended sediments. In contrast, waters of the northern part of the lake show evidence for strong evaporation (TDS of up to eight times inflow). Authigenic clay minerals and calcite may be precipitating from those more concentrated fluids.The subaerial hot-spring waters have a distinctive chemistry and are enriched in some elements that are also present in the lake water. Comparison of the chemical composition of the inflowing surface waters and lake water shows (1) an enrichment of some species (HCO3-, Cl, SO42-, F, Na, B, V, Cr, As, Mo, Ba and U) in the lake, (2) a depletion in SiO2 in the lake, and (3) a possible hydrothermal origin for most F. The rare earth element distribution and the F/Cl and Na/Cl ratios give valuable information on the rate of mixing of the river and hydrothermal fluids in the lake water. Calculations imply that thermal fluids may be seeping upward locally into the lake through grid-faulted lavas, particularly south of Ol Kokwe Island.

  18. Arbeidsongevallen in Nederland 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, A.; Besten, H. den; Klauw, M. van den; Ybema, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    De brochure ‘Arbeidsongevallen in Nederland 2011’ kijkt terug op 10 jaar monitoring van arbeidsongevallen. De brochure bevat een beknopt overzicht van de cijfers over arbeidsongevallen in Nederland in 2011 en de afgelopen tien jaar. Het gaat om aantallen en trends, risicogroepen, werkkenmerken, toed

  19. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Ohio Region 5 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  20. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in California Region 18 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  1. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Tennessee Region 6 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  2. SATELLITE LAKES OF LAKE VICTORIA BASIN (TANZANIAN SIDE)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on phytoplankton species diversity and abundance were carried out in 8 selected satellite lakes within the Lake ... species of blue green algae such as Spirulina spp. are sources of ... scientific and conservation interests. This study ...

  3. 76 FR 63199 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... No. USCG-2011-0228] Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, Chicago River, and Calumet-Saganashkee Channel, Chicago, IL... enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des...

  4. The SCOPSCO drilling project recovers more than 1.2 million years of history from Lake Ohrid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, B.; Wilke, T.; Krastel, S.; Zanchetta, G.; Sulpizio, R.; Reicherter, K.; Leng, M. J.; Grazhdani, A.; Trajanovski, S.; Francke, A.; Lindhorst, K.; Levkov, Z.; Cvetkoska, Aleksandra; Reed, J. M.; Zhang, X.; Lacey, J. H.; Wonik, T.; Baumgarten, H.; Vogel, H.

    2014-01-01

    The Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project is an international research initiative to study the influence of major geological and environmental events on the biological evolution of lake taxa. SCOPSCO drilling campaigns were carried out in 2011 and 201

  5. Simulation and Evaluation of Pollution Load Reduction Scenarios for Water Environmental Management: A Case Study of Inflow River of Taihu Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruibin Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the beginning of the 21st century, the deterioration of water quality in Taihu Lake, China, has caused widespread concern. The primary source of pollution in Taihu Lake is river inflows. Effective pollution load reduction scenarios need to be implemented in these rivers in order to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake. It is important to select appropriate pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving particular goals. The aim of this study was to facilitate the selection of appropriate scenarios. The QUAL2K model for river water quality was used to simulate the effects of a range of pollution load reduction scenarios in the Wujin River, which is one of the major inflow rivers of Taihu Lake. The model was calibrated for the year 2010 and validated for the year 2011. Various pollution load reduction scenarios were assessed using an analytic hierarchy process, and increasing rates of evaluation indicators were predicted using the Delphi method. The results showed that control of pollution from the source is the optimal method for pollution prevention and control, and the method of “Treatment after Pollution” has bad environmental, social and ecological effects. The method applied in this study can assist for environmental managers to select suitable pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving various objectives.

  6. Simulation and evaluation of pollution load reduction scenarios for water environmental management: a case study of inflow river of Taihu Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Zhu, Wenting; Gao, Hailong; Hu, Wei; Wang, Jinhua

    2014-09-09

    In the beginning of the 21st century, the deterioration of water quality in Taihu Lake, China, has caused widespread concern. The primary source of pollution in Taihu Lake is river inflows. Effective pollution load reduction scenarios need to be implemented in these rivers in order to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake. It is important to select appropriate pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving particular goals. The aim of this study was to facilitate the selection of appropriate scenarios. The QUAL2K model for river water quality was used to simulate the effects of a range of pollution load reduction scenarios in the Wujin River, which is one of the major inflow rivers of Taihu Lake. The model was calibrated for the year 2010 and validated for the year 2011. Various pollution load reduction scenarios were assessed using an analytic hierarchy process, and increasing rates of evaluation indicators were predicted using the Delphi method. The results showed that control of pollution from the source is the optimal method for pollution prevention and control, and the method of "Treatment after Pollution" has bad environmental, social and ecological effects. The method applied in this study can assist for environmental managers to select suitable pollution load reduction scenarios for achieving various objectives.

  7. Life history variation among four lake trout morphs at Isle Royale, Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Nate, Nancy A.; Muir, Andrew M.; Bronte, Charles R.; Zimmerman, Mara S.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Life history traits were compared among four morphs of lake trout at Isle Royale, Lake Superior. Of 738 lake trout caught at Isle Royale, 701 were assigned to a morph (119 humpers, 160 leans, 85 redfins, and 337 siscowets) using a combination of statistical analysis of head and body shape and visual assignment. On average, redfins were longer (544 mm), heavier (1,481 g), heavier at length (Wr = 94), more buoyant, and older (22 years) than siscowets (519 mm; 1,221 g; 90; 19 years), leans (479 mm; 854 g; 82; 13 years), and humpers (443 mm; 697 g; 87; 17 years). On average, leans grew from a younger age at length = 0 and shorter length at age = 0, at a faster early growth rate to a longer asymptotic length than the other three morphs, while redfins grew at a slower instantaneous rate and humpers grew to a shorter asymptotic length than other morphs. On average, leans were longer (562 mm) and older (15 years) at 50% maturity than redfins (427 mm, 12 years), siscowets (401 mm, 11 years), or humpers (394 mm, 13 years). Life history parameters did not differ between males and females within each morph. We conclude that differences in life history attributes of lean, humper, redfin, and siscowet morphs of lake trout are consistent with differential habitat use in waters around Isle Royale, Lake Superior.

  8. A full lipid biomarker based record from Lake Challa, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaga, C. I.; de Leeuw, J. W.; Verschuren, D.; Sinninghe Damsté1, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    The climate of the regions surrounding the Indian Ocean - East Africa, Arabian and Indian peninsulas - is strongly dominated by the dynamics of the seasonal monsoon. To understand the long and short term driving forces behind the natural climatic variability in this region it is highly important to reconstruct climatic changes in the past and, thereby, predict future changes taking into account also anthropogenic activities. Most low latitude locations lack continuous, highly resolved continental records with good age control. From the few existing records acquired from tropical glacier ice, cave stalagmites and fossil diatoms a thorough understanding of the climatic variations reflected (rainfall and drought or temperature and its effect on precipitation) is scanty. Chemically stratified crater lakes accumulate high-quality climate-proxy records as shown in very recent studies done on the continuous and finely laminated sediment record of Lake Challa situated on the lower East slope of Mt. Kilimanjaro (Verschuren et al. 2009; Wolff et al. 2011). The unique location of this lake in equatorial East Africa implies that the climate variability is influenced by the Indian Ocean and not by the Atlantic due to the Congo Air Boundary (Thierney et al. 2011). The objective of this study is to fully explore the biomarker content of the Lake Challa sedimentary record already characterized by an excellent time resolution and chronology. Various normal chain lipids (n-alkanes, n-fatty acids, n-alcohols), sterols, long-chain diols, triterpenoids and glycolipids in sedimentary organic matter, were determined in their solvent-extractable (free) and saponification-released forms (bound). The changing composition of organic matter content from the investigated lake is used as a framework to trace palaeo-humidity, terrestrial input, algal input, temperature in sediment traps and underlying sediments of Lake Challa to further our palaeo-environmental knowledge based on GDGT's and

  9. The geomorphology of Patagonian ice dammed lake basins: Insights from remote sensing of a modern lake and reconstruction of a Late Quaternary lake drainage event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorndycraft, Varyl

    2016-04-01

    The geomorphology of ice dammed lake basins can be complex due to geomorphic responses to multiple base level changes from repeated filling and emptying, as well as the potential for catastrophic drainage events. Refining landscape models of Quaternary ice dammed palaeolake systems has the potential to improve our understanding of glacier and meltwater dynamics during deglaciation phases. In this poster two case studies are presented to shed light on the range of geomorphic processes exhibited within ice dammed lake basins. Using Google Earth Pro and repeat LANDSAT imagery the geomorphology resulting from multiple base level changes of an ice dammed lake of the Viedma Glacier (Southern Patagonia Icefield) is presented. The LANDSAT imagery shows transgressive lake phases inundating already formed delta and terrace surfaces, whilst the high resolution Google Earth Pro images reveal a complex suite of incised terrace levels developed on the valley floor following lake drainage events. Secondly, the impact of catastrophic drainage of the Late Pleistocene Palaeolake Cochrane (Northern Patagonia Icefield) is investigated through geomorphological mapping. Here an outburst flood and rapid lowering of the lake has led to large scale eddy scouring of glacio-lacustrine sediments, with scarp slopes of ca. 30-40 m in height, and the formation of boulder bars during the final stages of lake fall. The implications of the mapping for interpretations of Late Quaternary palaeolake sediment-landform assemblages and rates of landscape change are discussed.

  10. Chronology of Lake El'gygytgyn sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Nowaczyk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A 318 m long sedimentary profile drilled by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP at Site 5011-1 in Lake El'gygytgyn, Far East Russian Arctic, has been analysed for its sedimentologic response to global climate modes by chrono-stratigraphic methods. The 12 km wide lake is sited in an 18 km large crater that was created by the impact of a meteorite 3.58 Ma ago. Since then sediments have been continuously deposited. For establishing their chronology, major reversals of the Earth's magnetic field provided initial tie points for the age model, confirming that the impact occurred in the earliest Gauss chron. Various stratigraphic parameters, reflecting redox conditions at the lake floor and climatic conditions in the catchment were tuned synchronously to Northern Hemisphere insolation variations and the marine oxygen isotope stack, respectively. Thus, a robust age model comprising more than 600 tie points could be defined. It could be shown that deposition of sediments in Lake El'gygytgyn occurred in concert with global climatic cycles. The upper ~160 m of sediments represent the past 3.3 Ma, equivalent to sedimentation rates of 4 to 5 cm ka−1, whereas the lower 160 m represent just the first 0.3 Ma after the impact, equivalent to sedimentation rates in the order of 45 cm ka−1.

  11. Lake Michigan lake trout PCB model forecast post audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scenario forecasts for total PCBs in Lake Michigan (LM) lake trout were conducted using the linked LM2-Toxics and LM Food Chain models, supported by a suite of additional LM models. Efforts were conducted under the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study and the post audit represents th...

  12. Greenland supraglacial lake drainages triggered by hydrologically induced basal slip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Laura A; Behn, Mark D; McGuire, Jeffrey J; Das, Sarah B; Joughin, Ian; Herring, Thomas; Shean, David E; King, Matt A

    2015-06-04

    Water-driven fracture propagation beneath supraglacial lakes rapidly transports large volumes of surface meltwater to the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet. These drainage events drive transient ice-sheet acceleration and establish conduits for additional surface-to-bed meltwater transport for the remainder of the melt season. Although it is well established that cracks must remain water-filled to propagate to the bed, the precise mechanisms that initiate hydro-fracture events beneath lakes are unknown. Here we show that, for a lake on the western Greenland Ice Sheet, drainage events are preceded by a 6-12 hour period of ice-sheet uplift and/or enhanced basal slip. Our observations from a dense Global Positioning System (GPS) network allow us to determine the distribution of meltwater at the ice-sheet bed before, during, and after three rapid drainages in 2011-2013, each of which generates tensile stresses that promote hydro-fracture beneath the lake. We hypothesize that these precursors are associated with the introduction of meltwater to the bed through neighbouring moulin systems (vertical conduits connecting the surface and base of the ice sheet). Our results imply that as lakes form in less crevassed, interior regions of the ice sheet, where water at the bed is currently less pervasive, the creation of new surface-to-bed conduits caused by lake-draining hydro-fractures may be limited.

  13. Current rates, degression and calculation examples according to the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) from 4th August 2011 ('EEG 2012'); Verguetungsansaetze, Degression und Berechnungsbeispiele nach dem neuen Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG) vom 04. August 2011 ('EEG 2012')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    On 30st June 2011, the German Bundestag has passed the Law on the revision of the legal framework for the promotion of power generation from renewable energy sources. With this, the Renewable Energy Law has been amended substantially. The amendment was signed on 4 August 2011 at the Federal Law Gazette (BGBl I, page 1634) proclaimed and came into force on 1 January 2012. The tables in the contribution under consideration present the minimum feed-in tariffs, bonuses and annual degression steps for the power generation from renewable energy and coal mine gas under the Renewable Energy Law in the new version. These tables are valid for installations which are put into operation from 1st January 2012. For plants which have been put into operation before 2012, generally the existing law remains in force, subject to certain transitional provisions.

  14. Mono Lake Excursion Reviewed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, J. C.; Coe, R. S.

    2007-05-01

    The Mono Lake Excursion as recorded in the Mono Basin, CA, has an older part that is about negative 30 degrees inclination and about 300 degrees declination during low relative field intensity. Those paleomagnetic directions are closely followed by greater than 80 degrees positive inclination and east declination of about 100 degrees during higher relative field intensity. A path of the Virtual Geomagnetic Poles (VGPs) for the older part followed from old to young forms a large clockwise loop that reaches 35 degrees N latitude and is centered at about 35 degrees E longitude. That loop is followed by a smaller one that is counterclockwise and centered at about 70 degrees N latitude and 270 degrees E longitude (Denham & Cox, 1971; Denham, 1974; Liddicoat & Coe, 1979). The Mono Lake Excursion outside the Mono Basin in western North America is recorded as nearly the full excursion at Summer Lake, OR (Negrini et al., 1984), and as the younger portion of steep positive inclination/east declination in the Lahontan Basin, NV. The overall relative field intensity during the Mono Lake Excursion in the Lahontan Basin mirrors very closely the relative field intensity in the Mono Basin (Liddicoat, 1992, 1996; Coe & Liddicoat, 1994). Using 14C and 40Ar/39Ar dates (Kent et al., 2002) and paleoclimate and relative paleointensity records (Zimmerman et al., 2006) for the Mono Lake Excursion in the Mono Basin, it has been proposed that the Mono Lake Excursion might be older than originally believed and instead be the Laschamp Excursion at about 40,000 yrs B.P. (Guillou et al., 2004). On the contrary, we favor a younger age for the Mono Lake Excursion, about 32,000 yrs B.P., using the relative paleointensity in the Mono Basin and Lahontan Basin and 14C dates from the Lahontan Basin (Benson et al., 2002). The age of about 32,000 yrs B.P. is also in accord with the age (32,000- 34,000 yrs B.P.) reported by Channell (2006) for the Mono Lake Excursion at ODP Site 919 in the Irminger Basin

  15. Lake Erie Fish Community Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Lake Erie Biological Station (LEBS), located in Sandusky, Ohio, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). LEBS is the primary federal agency...

  16. Crescent Lake Wilderness Reference Sheet

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Reference sheet includes information about Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge, and results of the public hearing for Crescent Lake Wilderness Proposal.

  17. Freshwater lake seabird surveys 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Alaska Peninsula/Becharof NWR complex hosts Becharof Lake, the largest lake within a National Wildlife Refuge system. In addition to this distinction, Becharof...

  18. Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA) houses environmental data on a wide variety of constituents in water, biota, sediment, and air in the Great Lakes area.

  19. Functional microbiology of soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Banciu, H.L.; Muyzer, G.

    2015-01-01

    Soda lakes represent unique permanently haloalkaline system. Despite the harsh conditions, they are inhabited by abundant, mostly prokaryotic, microbial communities. This review summarizes results of studies of main functional groups of the soda lake prokaryotes responsible for carbon, nitrogen and

  20. Pattern of movement of introduced pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus in artificial, post-excavation lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Zięba

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A mark-recapture study was conducted between May 2012 and September 2014 to estimate the home range, movement rate and habitat preferences of non-native pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus (Centrarchidae in Emerald Lake, a deep former chalk pit in north-western Poland. Multiple (19, predominantly monthly electrofishing runs through the lake’s littoral zone were made to determine the spatial distribution of 359 pumpkinseed fitted with passive integrated transponder (PIT tags from two to 674 days after tagging. Of the 43 specimens re-captured (11 males, 11 females, 21 of undetermined sex, 11 pumpkinseed were detected twice and one three times. From the 56 separate detections, 39% were at the place of previous detection, which gives evidence of rather high site fidelity. The mean total for displacements was 43 m (max. = 156 m, especially males (mean = 60 m; min = 17 m, max = 119 m and for females (mean = 44 m; min = 0 m, max. = 148 m, respectively. The highest rate of relocation was observed for autumn (49%, then consecutively for summer (36% and for spring (15%. The most preferred sites for pumpkinseed were muddy, shallow underwater shelves overgrown with common reed (Phragmites australis, bulrush (Typha latifolia and horsetail (Equisetum sp. located on the east and south-east edges of the lake. This study was funded by the National Science Centre, Poland (decision No DEC-2011/01/D/NZ8/01807.

  1. Microplastic pollution in lakes and lake shoreline sediments - A case study on Lake Bolsena and Lake Chiusi (central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Elke Kerstin; Paglialonga, Lisa; Czech, Elisa; Tamminga, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Rivers and effluents have been identified as major pathways for microplastics of terrestrial sources. Moreover, lakes of different dimensions and even in remote locations contain microplastics in striking abundances. This study investigates concentrations of microplastic particles at two lakes in central Italy (Lake Bolsena, Lake Chiusi). A total number of six Manta Trawls have been carried out, two of them one day after heavy winds occurred on Lake Bolsena showing effects on particle distribution of fragments and fibers of varying size categories. Additionally, 36 sediment samples from lakeshores were analyzed for microplastic content. In the surface waters 2.68 to 3.36 particles/m(3) (Lake Chiusi) and 0.82 to 4.42 particles/m(3) (Lake Bolsena) were detected, respectively. Main differences between the lakes are attributed to lake characteristics such as surface and catchment area, depth and the presence of local wind patterns and tide range at Lake Bolsena. An event of heavy winds and moderate rainfall prior to one sampling led to an increase of concentrations at Lake Bolsena which is most probable related to lateral land-based and sewage effluent inputs. The abundances of microplastic particles in sediments vary from mean values of 112 (Lake Bolsena) to 234 particles/kg dry weight (Lake Chiusi). Lake Chiusi results reveal elevated fiber concentrations compared to those of Lake Bolsena what might be a result of higher organic content and a shift in grain size distribution towards the silt and clay fraction at the shallow and highly eutrophic Lake Chiusi. The distribution of particles along different beach levels revealed no significant differences.

  2. Car stickers for 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    The 2011 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive their 2011 car stickers by internal mail as of 15 December.   Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents for the vehicles concerned must be presented. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/ISG/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  3. Changes in Glaciers and Glacial Lakes and the Identification of Dangerous Glacial Lakes in the Pumqu River Basin, Xizang (Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Che

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Latest satellite images have been utilized to update the inventories of glaciers and glacial lakes in the Pumqu river basin, Xizang (Tibet, in the study. Compared to the inventories in 1970s, the areas of glaciers are reduced by 19.05% while the areas of glacial lakes are increased by 26.76%. The magnitudes of glacier retreat rate and glacial lake increase rate during the period of 2001–2013 are more significant than those for the period of the 1970s–2001. The accelerated changes in areas of the glaciers and glacial lakes, as well as the increasing temperature and rising variability of precipitation, have resulted in an increased risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs in the Pumqu river basin. Integrated criteria were established to identify potentially dangerous glacial lakes based on a bibliometric analysis method. It is found, in total, 19 glacial lakes were identified as dangerous. Such finding suggests that there is an immediate need to conduct field surveys not only to validate the findings, but also to acquire information for further use in order to assure the welfare of the humans.

  4. Spawning site fidelity and apparent annual survival of walleye (Sander vitreus) differ between a Lake Huron and Lake Erie tributary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Todd A.; Binder, Thomas; Holbrook, Christopher; Vandergoot, Christopher; Fielder, David G.; Cooke, Steven J.; Dettmers, John M; Krueger, Charles Conrad

    2017-01-01

    Fidelity to spawning habitats can maximise reproductive success of fish by synchronising movements to sites of previous recruitment. To determine the role of reproductive fidelity in structuring walleye Sander vitreus populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes, we used acoustic telemetry combined with Cormack–Jolly–Seber capture–recapture models to estimate spawning site fidelity and apparent annual survival for the Tittabawassee River in Lake Huron and Maumee River in Lake Erie. Walleye in spawning condition were tagged from the Tittabawassee River in Lake Huron and Maumee River in Lake Erie in 2011–2012. Site fidelity and apparent annual survival were estimated from return of individuals to the stream where tagged. Site fidelity estimates were higher in the Tittabawassee River (95%) than the Maumee River (70%) and were not related to sex or fish length at tagging. Apparent annual survival of walleye tagged in the Tittabawassee did not differ among spawning seasons but was higher for female than male walleye and decreased linearly as fish length increased. Apparent annual survival of walleye tagged in the Maumee River did not differ among spawning seasons but was higher for female walleye than male walleye and increased linearly as fish length increased. Greater fidelity of walleye tagged in the Tittabawassee River than walleye tagged in the Maumee River may be related to the close proximity to the Maumee River of other spawning aggregations and multiple spawning sites in Lake Erie. As spawning site fidelity increases, management actions to conserve population structure require an increasing focus on individual stocks.

  5. Local and synoptic controls on rapid supraglacial lake drainage in West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Andrew; Banwell, Alison; Arnold, Neil; Willis, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Many supraglacial lakes within the ablation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) are known to drain rapidly (in scale factors, such as ice thickness, driving stresses, ice velocities and strain rates. A combination of the local water-volume threshold and one or more synoptic-scale factors may explain the overall patterns of rapid lake drainage, but this requires verification using targeted field- and remotely-based studies that cover large areas of the GrIS and span long timescales. Here, we investigate a range of potential controls on rapid supraglacial lake drainage in the land-terminating Paakitsoq region of the ice sheet, northeast of Jakobshavn Isbræ, for the 2014 melt season. We have analysed daily 250-m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery in order to calculate lake areas, depths and volumes, and have developed an automatic lake-tracking algorithm to determine the dates on which all rapid lake drainage events occur. For each rapidly draining lake, the water volumes immediately prior to drainage are compared with other local factors, notably lake-filling rate and ice thickness, and with a variety of synoptic-scale features, such as slope angles, driving stresses, surface velocities, surface strain rates and the incidence of nearby lake-drainage events. We present the outcomes of our statistical analysis to elicit the statistically significant controls on hydrofracture beneath supraglacial lakes.

  6. Radionuclides and mercury in the salt lakes of the Crimea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoyeva, Natalya; Gulina, Larisa; Gulin, Sergey; Plotitsina, Olga; Stetsuk, Alexandra; Arkhipova, Svetlana; Korkishko, Nina; Eremin, Oleg

    2015-11-01

    90Sr concentrations, resulting from the Chernobyl NPP accident, were determined in the salt lakes of the Crimea (Lakes Kiyatskoe, Kirleutskoe, Kizil-Yar, Bakalskoe and Donuzlav), together with the redistribution between the components of the ecosystems. The content of mercury in the waters of the studied reservoirs was also established. Vertical distributions of natural radionuclide activities (238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 210Pb, 40K) and anthropogenic 137Cs concentrations (as radiotracers) were determined in the bottom sediments of the Koyashskoe salt lake (located in the south-eastern Crimea) to evaluate the longterm dynamics and biogeochemical processes. Radiochemical and chemical analysis was undertaken and radiotracer and statistical methods were applied to the analytical data. The highest concentrations of 90Sr in the water of Lake Kiyatskoe (350.5 and 98.0 Bq/m3) and Lake Kirleutskoe (121.3 Bq/m3) were due to the discharge of the Dnieper water from the North-Crimean Canal. The high content of mercury in Lake Kiyatskoe (363.2 ng/L) and in seawater near Lake Kizil-Yar (364 ng/L) exceeded the maximum permissible concentration (3.5 times the maximum). Natural radionuclides provide the main contribution to the total radioactivity (artificial and natural combined) in the bottom sediments of Lake Koyashskoe. The significant concentration of 210Pb in the upper layer of bottom sediments of the lake indicates an active inflow of its parent radionuclide—gaseous 222Rn from the lower layers of the bottom sediment. The average sedimentation rates in Lake Koyashskoe, determined using 210Pb and 137Cs data, were 0.117 and 0.109 cm per year, respectively.

  7. Modeling Antarctic subglacial lake filling and drainage cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Dow

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The growth and drainage of active subglacial lakes in Antarctica has previously been inferred from analysis of ice surface altimetry data. We use a subglacial hydrology model applied to a synthetic Antarctic ice stream to determine internal controls on the filling and drainage of subglacial lakes and their impact on ice stream dynamics. Our model outputs suggest that the highly constricted subglacial environment of the ice stream, combined with relatively high rates of water flow funneled from large catchments, can combine to create a system exhibiting slow-moving pressure waves. Over a period of years, the accumulation of water in the ice stream onset region results in a buildup of pressure creating temporary channels, which then evacuate the excess water. This increased flux of water through the ice stream drives lake growth. As the water body builds up, it too steepens the hydraulic gradient and allows greater flux out of the overdeepened lake basin. Eventually this flux is large enough to create channels that cause the lake to drain. Due to the presence of the channels, the drainage of the lake causes high water pressures around 50 km downstream of the lake rather than immediately in the vicinity of the overdeepening. Following lake drainage, channels again shut down. Lake drainage depends on the internal hydrological development in the wider system and therefore does not directly correspond to a particular water volume or depth. This creates a highly temporally and spatially variable system, which is of interest for assessing the importance of subglacial lakes in ice stream hydrology and dynamics.

  8. Sedimentation influx and volcanic interactions in the Fuji Five Lakes: implications for paleoseismological records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamair, Laura; Hubert-Ferrari, Aurélia; Yamamoto, Shinya; El Ouahabi, Meriam; Garrett, Ed; Shishikura, Masanobu; Schmidt, Sabine; Boes, Evelien; Obrochta, Stephen; Nakamura, Atsunori; Miyairi, Yosuke; Yokoyama, Yusuke; De Batist, Marc; Heyvaert, Vanessa M. A.

    2017-04-01

    The Fuji Fives Lakes are located at the foot of Mount Fuji volcano close to the triple junction, where the North American Plate, the Eurasian plate and the Philippine Sea Plate meet. These lakes are ideally situated to study Mount Fuji volcanism and the interaction between volcanism, changes in lake sedimentation rates and the ability of lakes to record paleoearthquakes. Here, we present newly acquired geological data of Lake Yamanaka and Lake Motosu, including seismic reflection profiles, gravity and piston cores. These two lakes and their respective watersheds were affected by several eruptions of Mount Fuji. Lake Yamanaka, a very shallow lake (max. depth 14 m), was heavily impacted by the scoria fall-out of the A.D. 1707 Hoei eruption of Mount Fuji. A detailed investigation of the effect of the Hoei eruption was conducted on short gravity cores, using high resolution XRD, C/N and 210Pb/137Cs analyses. The preliminary results suggest that the sedimentation rate of Lake Yamanaka drastically reduced after the Hoei eruption, followed by an increase until the present day. Similarly, lacustrine sedimentation in Lake Motosu (max. depth 122 m) was disturbed by Mount Fuji volcanism at a larger scale. The watershed of Lake Motosu was impacted by several lava flows and scoria cones. For example, the Omuro scoria cone reduced the catchment size of Lake Motosu and modified its physiography. The related scoria fall out covered an extensive part of the lake catchment and reduced terrigenous sedimentary influx to Lake Motosu. Within the deep basin of Lake Motosu, seismic reflection data shows two different periods that are distinguished by a major change in the dominant sedimentary processes. During the first period, sublacustrine landslides and turbidity currents were the dominant sedimentation processes. During the second one, the seismic stratigraphy evidences only deposition of numerous turbidites interrupting the hemipelagic sedimentation. Changes in sedimentary processes

  9. A Lake Dream in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei

    2009-01-01

    @@ When William Wordsworth,representative of Lake Poets wrote his Ode to Night ingale nearby the Lake District of England at the turn of the nine-teenth century,he never imagined a century later,a similar romantic lake dream has been created in China,Asia.

  10. Interesting Ziandao Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    LOCATED in Chun’an County, Zhejiang Province, Qiandao Lake (Lake of a Thousand Isles) is a state-level scenic spot and a bright pearl of the golden tourism line between Hangzhou’s West Lake and Anhui’s Huangshan Mountain. Last autumn, we went to Chun’an. It took only three to four hours by coach to travel from Hangzhou to Chun’an. Flanked by mountains on the west, the small county faces water on the east. A street goes across the county; it takes less than half an hour to walk from one end to the other. Small restaurants and shops line the western side of the road,

  11. Viruses in Antarctic lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Suttle, C. A.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics.

  12. The influence of subsurface flow on lake formation and north polar lake distribution on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, David G.; Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C.; Newman, Claire E.; Mitchell, Karl L.; Stiles, Bryan W.

    2016-10-01

    Observations of lakes, fluvial dissection of the surface, rapid variations in cloud cover, and lake shoreline changes indicate that Saturn's moon Titan is hydrologically active, with a hydrocarbon-based hydrological cycle dominated by liquid methane. Here we use a numerical model to investigate the Titan hydrological cycle - including surface, subsurface, and atmospheric components - in order to investigate the underlying causes of the observed distribution and sizes of lakes in the north polar region. The hydrocarbon-based hydrological cycle is modeled using a numerical subsurface flow model and analytical runoff scheme, driven by a general circulation model with an active methane-cycle. This model is run on synthetically generated topography that matches the fractal character of the observed topography, without explicit representation of the effects of erosion and deposition. At the scale of individual basins, intermediate to high permeability (10-8-10-6 cm2) aquifers are required to reproduce the observed large stable lakes. However, at the scale of the entire north polar lake district, a high permeability aquifer results in the rapid flushing of methane through the aquifer from high polar latitudes to dry lower polar latitudes, where methane is removed by evaporation, preventing large lakes from forming. In contrast, an intermediate permeability aquifer slows the subsurface flow from high polar latitudes, allowing greater lake areas. The observed distribution of lakes is best matched by either a uniform intermediate permeability aquifer, or a combination of a high permeability cap at high latitudes surrounded by an intermediate permeability aquifer at lower latitudes, as could arise due to karstic processes at the north pole. The stability of Kraken Mare further requires reduction of the evaporation rate over the sea to 1% of the value predicted by the general circulation model, likely as a result of dissolved ethane, nitrogen, or organic solutes, and/or a

  13. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Great Lakes Region 4 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  14. Comparison of energy-budget evaporation losses from two morphometrically different Florida seepage lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, L.A.; Lee, T.M.; Radell, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    Evaporation was computed by the energy-budget method for two north Florida lakes with similar surface areas but different depths, for the period May 1989 to December 1990. Lake Barco, in north-central Florida, is shallow, with an average depth of 3 m; Lake Five-O, in the Florida panhandle, is considerably deeper, with an average depth of 9.5 m. As a result, the thermal regime and seasonal evaporation rates of the lakes are different. Evaporation from the shallower lake was higher than that from the deeper lake in the winter and spring. In the late summer and autumn, however, the situation is reversed. Evaporation from the shallow lake is directly related to the amount of incoming shortwave radiation because of its limited ability to store energy. The lag in evaporation at the deeper lake is a function of the greater amount of heat that it seasonally stores and releases. The difference in annual evaporation between Lake Barco (151 cm year-1) and Lake Five-O (128 cm year-1) is related to differences in regional climatic conditions between the two sites. Additionally, higher than normal evaporation rates at the two lakes are probably related to drought conditions experienced in north Florida during 1990, which resulted in higher temperatures and more incoming radiation. Monthly evaporation at Lake Barco could usually be estimated within 10% of the energy-budget evaporation using a constant pan coefficient. This lake may be representative of other shallow lakes that do not store considerable heat. Monthly evaporation at Lake Five-O, however, could not be estimated accurately by using an annual pan coefficient because of the large seasonal influence of change in stored heat. Monthly mass-transfer evaporation compared well with energy-budget evaporation at Lake Barco, but did not compare well at Lake Five-O. These errors may also be associated with changes in heat storage. Thus, the thermal regime of the lake must be considered to estimate accurately the seasonal

  15. 2011 NATA - Emissions Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes all emissions sources that were modeled in the 2011 National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA), inlcluding point, nonpoint, and mobile sources, and...

  16. Horace 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Klein

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available > Retour vers la bibliographie générale 2010-2011Becker, A.(2010, « Listening to Lyric: Accent and Ictus in the Latin Sapphic Stanza », CW 2010, p. 159-182 [Horace / Ausone]Bitto, G. (2011, « Ein Horazisches Skolion », Hermes 139, 2011, p. 205-215. Cucchiarelli, A. (2010, « Return to Sender : Horace's sermo from Epistles to Satires », in G. Davis éd., A Companion to Horace, Malden (Wiley-Blackwell, MA-Oxford, p. 291-318. Cucciarelli, A. (2011, « Opportune insanity : an interpolation in H...

  17. Prevalence of Colacium vesiculosum (Colaciales: Euglenophyceae on planktonic crustaceans in a subtropical shallow lake of Argentina

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    Yolanda Zalocar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Colacium vesiculosum (Euglenophyceae is an epibiont common on planktonic microcrustaceans of continental waters. The interaction between epibionts and substrate organisms is not very well known, particularly in subtropical environments of South America. In the present work, we analyzed the prevalence, density, biomass and attachment sites of C. vesiculosum on planktonic microcrustaceans from Paiva Lake, a subtropical lake of Argentina. With the aim to evaluate whether epibionts affect the filtering rates of Notodiaptomus spiniger, the dominant planktonic crustacean, we carried out bioassays using phytoplankton <53µm. Crustaceans were sampled using a PVC tube (1.2m long and 10cm in diameter, filtering 50L of water through a 53µm-mesh. Microcrustaceans were counted in Bogorov chambers under a stereoscopic microscope. The infested organisms were separated and observed with a photonic microscope to determine density and biovolume of epibionts, by analyzing their distribution on the exoskeleton. The prevalence of C. vesiculosum was higher in adult crustaceans than in their larvae and juveniles. The most infested group was that of calanoid copepods, related to their high density. The attachment sites on the exoskeleton were found to be the portions of the body which have a higher probability of encounter with epibionts during locomotion and feeding, i.e., antennae and thoracic legs in copepods, and thoracic legs and postabdomen in cladocerans. The similar values found in the filtering rate of infested and uninfested individuals of N. spiniger and the constant prevalence (<40% of epibiont algae, suggest that C. vesiculosum does not condition the life of planktonic crustaceans of Paiva Lake. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1295-1306. Epub 2011 September 01.

  18. Morphofunctional differences of roach (Rutilus rutilus in Plescheevo lake

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    I. A. Stolbunov

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparative morphobiological analysis of the roach Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus, 1758, living in littoral and open deep-water zones of the lake Plescheevo, was carried out. Different ecological forms of fish were found: littoral and pelagic. They vary in a number of plastic characteristics, morphofunctional parameters (gape size and body form and in growth rate. We assume that intrapopulation differentiation of the roach was induced by invasion of the zebra mussel into the lake.

  19. Technologies for lake restoration

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    Helmut KLAPPER

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Lakes are suffering from different stress factors and need to be restored using different approaches. The eutrophication remains as the main water quality management problem for inland waters: both lakes and reservoirs. The way to curb the degradation is to stop the nutrient sources and to accelerate the restoration with help of in-lake technologies. Especially lakes with a long retention time need (eco- technological help to decrease the nutrient content in the free water. The microbial and other organic matter from sewage and other autochthonous biomasses, causes oxygen depletion, which has many adverse effects. In less developed countries big reservoirs function as sewage treatment plants. Natural aeration solves problems only partly and many pollutants tend to accumulate in the sediments. The acidification by acid rain and by pyrite oxidation has to be controlled by acid neutralizing technologies. Addition of alkaline chemicals is useful only for soft waters, and technologies for (microbial alkalinization of very acidic hardwater mining lakes are in development. The corrective measures differ from those in use for eutrophication control. The salinization and water shortage mostly occurs if more water is used than available. L. Aral, L. Tschad, the Dead Sea or L. Nasser belong to waters with most severe environmental problems on a global scale. Their hydrologic regime needs to be evaluated. The inflow of salt water at the bottom of some mining lakes adds to stability of stratification, and thus accumulation of hydrogen sulphide in the monimolimnion of the meromictic lakes. Destratification, which is the most used technology, is only restricted applicable because of the dangerous concentrations of the byproducts of biological degradation. The contamination of lakes with hazardous substances from industry and agriculture require different restoration technologies, including subhydric isolation and storage, addition of nutrients for better self

  20. Lakes on Mars

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    Cabrol, Nathalie A

    2014-01-01

    On Earth, lakes provide favorable environments for the development of life and its preservation as fossils. They are extremely sensitive to climate fluctuations and to conditions within their watersheds. As such, lakes are unique markers of the impact of environmental changes. Past and current missions have now demonstrated that water once flowed at the surface of Mars early in its history. Evidence of ancient ponding has been uncovered at scales ranging from a few kilometers to possibly that of the Arctic ocean. Whether life existed on Mars is still unknown; upcoming missions may find critic