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Sample records for lake tanganyika scale-eating

  1. Evolutionary history of Lake Tanganyika's scale-eating cichlid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblmüller, Stephan; Egger, Bernd; Sturmbauer, Christian; Sefc, Kristina M

    2007-09-01

    Although Lake Tanganyika is not the most species-rich of the Great East African Lakes it comprises by far the greatest diversity of cichlid fishes in terms of morphology, ecology, and breeding styles. Our study focuses on the Tanganyikan cichlid tribe Perissodini, which exhibits one of the most peculiar feeding strategies found in cichlids-scale-eating. Their evolutionary history was reconstructed from 1416 bp DNA sequence of two mitochondrial genes (ND2 and partial control region) and from 612 AFLP markers. We confirm the inclusion of the zooplanktivorous genus Haplotaxodon in the tribe Perissodini, and species status of Haplotaxodon trifasciatus. Within the Perissodini, the major lineages emerged within a short period roughly 1.5-2 MYA, which makes their radiation slightly younger than that of other Tanganyikan cichlid tribes. Most scale-eaters evolved in deep-water habitat, perhaps associated with the previously documented radiations of other deep-water dwelling cichlid lineages, and colonized the shallow habitat only recently.

  2. Acquisition of Lateralized Predation Behavior Associated with Development of Mouth Asymmetry in a Lake Tanganyika Scale-Eating Cichlid Fish.

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    Yuichi Takeuchi

    Full Text Available The scale-eating cichlid Perissodus microlepis with asymmetric mouth is an attractive model of behavioral laterality: each adult tears off scales from prey fishes' left or right flanks according to the direction in which its mouth is skewed. To investigate the development of behavioral laterality and mouth asymmetry, we analyzed stomach contents and lower jaw-bone asymmetry of various-sized P. microlepis (22 ≤ SL<115 mm sampled in Lake Tanganyika. The shapes of the pored scales found in each specimen's stomach indicated its attack side preference. Early-juvenile specimens (SL<45 mm feeding mainly on zooplankton exhibited slight but significant mouth asymmetry. As the fish acquired scale-eating (45 mm ≤ SL, attack side preference was gradually strengthened, as was mouth asymmetry. Among size-matched individuals, those with more skewed mouths ate more scales. These findings show that behavioral laterality in scale-eating P. microlepis is established in association with development of mouth asymmetry which precedes the behavioral acquisition, and that this synergistic interaction between physical and behavioral literalities may contribute to efficient scale-eating.

  3. Marine incursion: the freshwater herring of Lake Tanganyika are the product of a marine invasion into west Africa.

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    Anthony B Wilson

    Full Text Available The spectacular marine-like diversity of the endemic fauna of Lake Tanganyika, the oldest of the African Great Lakes, led early researchers to suggest that the lake must have once been connected to the ocean. Recent geophysical reconstructions clearly indicate that Lake Tanganyika formed by rifting in the African subcontinent and was never directly linked to the sea. Although the Lake has a high proportion of specialized endemics, the absence of close relatives outside Tanganyika has complicated phylogeographic reconstructions of the timing of lake colonization and intralacustrine diversification. The freshwater herring of Lake Tanganyika are members of a large group of pellonuline herring found in western and southern Africa, offering one of the best opportunities to trace the evolutionary history of members of Tanganyika's biota. Molecular phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that herring colonized West Africa 25-50MYA, at the end of a major marine incursion in the region. Pellonuline herring subsequently experienced an evolutionary radiation in West Africa, spreading across the continent and reaching East Africa's Lake Tanganyika during its early formation. While Lake Tanganyika has never been directly connected with the sea, the endemic freshwater herring of the lake are the descendents of an ancient marine incursion, a scenario which may also explain the origin of other Tanganyikan endemics.

  4. Optimized extraction of daily bio-optical time series derived from MODIS/Aqua imagery for Lake Tanganyika, Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horion, Stéphanie; Bergamino, N; Stenuite, S

    2010-01-01

    the MODIS-Aqua sensor. Standard MODIS Aqua Ocean Color products were found to not provide a suitable calibration for high altitude lakes such as the Lake Tanganyika. An optimization of the extraction process and the validation of the dataset were performed with independent sets of in situ measurements. Our......Lake Tanganyika is one of the world's great freshwater ecosystems. In recent decades its hydrodynamic characteristics have undergone important changes that have had consequences on the lake's primary productivity. The establishment of a long-term Ocean Color dataset for Lake Tanganyika...

  5. Lake Tanganyika--a 'melting pot' of ancient and young cichlid lineages (Teleostei: Cichlidae?

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    Juliane D Weiss

    Full Text Available A long history of research focused on the East Africa cichlid radiations (EAR revealed discrepancies between mtDNA and nuclear phylogenies, suggesting that interspecific hybridisation may have been significant during the radiation of these fishes. The approximately 250 cichlid species of Lake Tanganyika have their roots in a monophyletic African cichlid assemblage, but controversies remain about the precise phylogenetic origin and placement of different lineages and consequently about L. Tanganyika colonization scenarios. 3312 AFLP loci and the mitochondrial ND2 gene were genotyped for 91 species representing almost all major lacustrine and riverine haplotilapiine east African cichlid lineages with a focus on L. Tanganyika endemics. Explicitly testing for the possibility of ancient hybridisation events, a comprehensive phylogenetic network hypothesis is proposed for the origin and diversification of L. Tanganyika cichlids. Inference of discordant phylogenetic signal strongly suggests that the genomes of two endemic L. Tanganyika tribes, Eretmodini and Tropheini, are composed of an ancient mixture of riverine and lacustrine lineages. For the first time a strong monophyly signal of all non-haplochromine mouthbrooding species endemic to L. Tanganyika ("ancient mouthbrooders" was detected. Further, in the genomes of early diverging L. Tanganyika endemics Trematocarini, Bathybatini, Hemibatini and Boulengerochromis genetic components of other lineages belonging to the East African Radiation appear to be present. In combination with recent palaeo-geological results showing that tectonic activity in the L. Tanganyika region resulted in highly dynamic and heterogeneous landscape evolution over the Neogene and Pleistocene, the novel phylogenetic data render a single lacustrine basin as the geographical cradle of the endemic L. Tanganyika cichlid lineages unlikely. Instead a scenario of a pre-rift origin of several independent L. Tanganyika precursor

  6. Heterogeneity in physical, chemical and plankton-community structures in Lake Tanganyika

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    Langenberg, V.T.; Tumba, J.M.; Tshibangu, K.; Lukwesa, C.; Chitamwebwa, D.; Bwebwa, D.; Makasa, L.; Roijackers, R.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    From 28 August to 6 September 1995, we monitored the lake-wide physical, chemical and biological properties of the pelagic waters in Lake Tanganyika. The aim of this study was to examine the spatial environmental variability and its relation to fluctuations in plankton abundance and community

  7. Mercury biomagnification in the food web of Lake Tanganyika (Tanzania, East Africa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, L. [School of Environmental Studies and Department of Biology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L-3N6 (Canada)], E-mail: linda.campbell@queensu.ca; Verburg, Piet [National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, PO Box 11-115, Hamilton 3251 (New Zealand); Dixon, D.G. [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue, Waterloo (Canada); Hecky, R.E. [Large Lakes Observatory, University of Minnesota, Duluth, 10 University Drive 204 RLBDuluth, MN 55812-2496 (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Lake Tanganyika is a globally important lake with high endemic biodiversity. Millions of people in the lake basin depend on several fish species for consumption. Due to the importance of fish consumption as an exposure route of mercury to humans, we sampled Lake Tanganyika in 2000 to assess total mercury concentrations and biomagnification of total mercury through the food web. Stable nitrogen and carbon isotope analyses of food web structure indicate a complex food web with overlapping omnivory with some specialist fish species. Stable nitrogen isotope analyses further confirm that mercury is biomagnifying through the Tanganyika food web at rates similar to those seen in Lakes Malawi and Victoria, the other two African Great Lakes. Most collected fish species and all invertebrate species had mercury concentrations below 0.2 {mu}g Hg/g wet weight. However, several fish species, Ctenochromis horei (average 0.15 {mu}g/g ww), Neolamprologus boulengeri (0.2 {mu}g/g ww) , Bathybates spp.spp. (0.21 {mu}g/g ww), Mastacembelus cunningtoni (0.22 {mu}g/g ww) and Clarias theodorae (0.22 {mu}g/g ww) approached or slightly exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO)'s recommended guideline of 0.2 {mu}g Hg/g for vulnerable populations with high rates of fish consumption. Two individuals of the piscivorous fish species Lates microlepis (0.54, 0.78 {mu}g/g ww) and a Polypterus congicus (1.3 {mu}g/g ww) exceeded the international marketing limit value of 0.5 {mu}g/g ww. Because C. theodorae and L. microlepis are also important market fish species, there is a need to monitor mercury concentrations in internationally marketed fish from Lake Tanganikya to ensure that those fish do not present a risk to human consumers.

  8. Mercury biomagnification in the food web of Lake Tanganyika (Tanzania, East Africa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.; Verburg, Piet; Dixon, D.G.; Hecky, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    Lake Tanganyika is a globally important lake with high endemic biodiversity. Millions of people in the lake basin depend on several fish species for consumption. Due to the importance of fish consumption as an exposure route of mercury to humans, we sampled Lake Tanganyika in 2000 to assess total mercury concentrations and biomagnification of total mercury through the food web. Stable nitrogen and carbon isotope analyses of food web structure indicate a complex food web with overlapping omnivory with some specialist fish species. Stable nitrogen isotope analyses further confirm that mercury is biomagnifying through the Tanganyika food web at rates similar to those seen in Lakes Malawi and Victoria, the other two African Great Lakes. Most collected fish species and all invertebrate species had mercury concentrations below 0.2 μg Hg/g wet weight. However, several fish species, Ctenochromis horei (average 0.15 μg/g ww), Neolamprologus boulengeri (0.2 μg/g ww) , Bathybates spp.spp. (0.21 μg/g ww), Mastacembelus cunningtoni (0.22 μg/g ww) and Clarias theodorae (0.22 μg/g ww) approached or slightly exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO)'s recommended guideline of 0.2 μg Hg/g for vulnerable populations with high rates of fish consumption. Two individuals of the piscivorous fish species Lates microlepis (0.54, 0.78 μg/g ww) and a Polypterus congicus (1.3 μg/g ww) exceeded the international marketing limit value of 0.5 μg/g ww. Because C. theodorae and L. microlepis are also important market fish species, there is a need to monitor mercury concentrations in internationally marketed fish from Lake Tanganikya to ensure that those fish do not present a risk to human consumers

  9. Evolution of feeding specialization in Tanganyikan scale-eating cichlids: a molecular phylogenetic approach

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    Nishida Mutsumi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cichlid fishes in Lake Tanganyika exhibit remarkable diversity in their feeding habits. Among them, seven species in the genus Perissodus are known for their unique feeding habit of scale eating with specialized feeding morphology and behaviour. Although the origin of the scale-eating habit has long been questioned, its evolutionary process is still unknown. In the present study, we conducted interspecific phylogenetic analyses for all nine known species in the tribe Perissodini (seven Perissodus and two Haplotaxodon species using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP analyses of the nuclear DNA. On the basis of the resultant phylogenetic frameworks, the evolution of their feeding habits was traced using data from analyses of stomach contents, habitat depths, and observations of oral jaw tooth morphology. Results AFLP analyses resolved the phylogenetic relationships of the Perissodini, strongly supporting monophyly for each species. The character reconstruction of feeding ecology based on the AFLP tree suggested that scale eating evolved from general carnivorous feeding to highly specialized scale eating. Furthermore, scale eating is suggested to have evolved in deepwater habitats in the lake. Oral jaw tooth shape was also estimated to have diverged in step with specialization for scale eating. Conclusion The present evolutionary analyses of feeding ecology and morphology based on the obtained phylogenetic tree demonstrate for the first time the evolutionary process leading from generalised to highly specialized scale eating, with diversification in feeding morphology and behaviour among species.

  10. Paleolimnological investigations of anthropogenic environmental change in Lake Tanganyika: I. An introduction to the project

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    Cohen, A.S.; Palacios-Fest, M. R.; McGill, J.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Verschuren, D.; Sinyinza, R.; Songori, T.; Kakagozo, B.; Syampila, M.; O'Reilly, C. M.; Alin, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated paleolimnological records from a series of river deltas around the northeastern rim of Lake Tanganyika, East Africa (Tanzania and Burundi) in order to understand the history of anthropogenic activity in the lake's catchment over the last several centuries, and to determine the impact of these activities on the biodiversity of littoral and sublittoral lake communities. Sediment pollution caused by increased rates of soil erosion in deforested watersheds has caused significant changes in aquatic communities along much of the lake's shoreline. We analyzed the effects of sediment discharge on biodiversity around six deltas or delta complexes on the east coast of Lake Tanganyika: the Lubulungu River delta, Kabesi River delta, Nyasanga/Kahama River deltas, and Mwamgongo River delta in Tanzania; and the Nyamuseni River delta and Karonge/Kirasa River deltas in Burundi. Collectively, these deltas and their associated rivers were chosen to represent a spectrum of drainage-basin sizes and disturbance levels. By comparing deltas that are similar in watershed attributes (other than disturbance levels), our goal was to explore a series of historical "experiments" at the watershed scale, with which we could more clearly evaluate hypotheses of land use or other effects on nearshore ecosystems. Here we discuss these deltas, their geologic and physiographic characteristics, and the field procedures used for coring and sampling the deltas, and various indicators of anthropogenic impact. ?? Springer 2005.

  11. Thermophilic Sulfate Reduction in Hydrothermal Sediment of Lake Tanganyika, East-Africa

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    ELSGAARD, L.; PRIEUR, D.; MUKWAYA, GM

    1994-01-01

    at up to 70 and 75 degrees C, with optima at 63 and 71 degrees C, respectively. Several sporulating thermophilic enrichments were morphologically similar to Desulfotomaculum spp. Dissimilatory sulfate reduction in the studied hydrothermal area of Lake Tanganyika apparently has an upper temperature limit...

  12. Preliminary Nearshore Sedimentation Rate Analysis of the Tuungane Project Northern Mahale Conservation Area, Lake Tanganyika (Tanzania)

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    Smiley, R. A.; McGlue, M. M.; Yeager, K. M.; Soreghan, M. J.; Lucas, J.; Kimirei, I.; Mbonde, A.; Limbu, P.; Apse, C.

    2017-12-01

    The combined effects of climate change, overfishing, and sediment pollution are altering Lake Tanganyika's littoral fisheries in profoundly negative ways. One method for conserving critical fish resources and safeguarding biodiversity in Lake Tanganyika is by establishing small-scale nearshore protected zones, which can be administrated by lakeshore villagers organized into beach management units (BMUs). Each BMU endeavors to manage offshore "no-catch" protected zones, prohibit the use of illegal fishing gear, and promote sustainable agriculture that abates erosion in the lake watershed, in order to mitigate sediment pollution in the lake. We adopted a limnogeological approach to assist in characterizing the littoral zone associated with BMUs in the northern Mahale region of Lake Tanganyika (Tanzania), a critical conservation area for the Nature Conservancy's Tuungane Project (https://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/regions/africa/wherewework/tuungane-project.xml). We hypothesized that BMUs with heavy onshore agricultural activity would experience relatively high offshore sedimentation rates, due to enhanced sediment-laden runoff in the wet season. Such changes are predicted to alter benthic substrates and degrade habitat available for fish spawning. We mapped bathymetry and sediment types along a 29 km2 area of the littoral zone using high-resolution geophysical tools, and assessed short-term sedimentation rates using sediment cores and radionuclide geochronology (210Pb). Initial results from 210Pb analyses show that sedimentation rates at the mud-line ( 85-100 m water depth) are relatively slow but spatially variable in the northern Mahale area. Offshore of the Kalilani village BMU, linear sedimentation rates are 0.50 mm/yr. By contrast, sedimentation rates offshore from the Igualula village BMU are 0.90-1.30 mm/yr. Higher sedimentation rates near Igualula are consistent with greater sediment inputs from the nearby Lagosa River and its watershed, which has been

  13. Spatio-temporal dynamics of phytoplankton and primary production in Lake Tanganyika using a MODIS based bio-optical time series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergamino, N; Horion, Stéphanie; Stenuite, S

    2010-01-01

    dynamics throughout the lake. In the present work, daily MODIS-AQUA satellite measurements were used to estimate chlorophyll-a concentrations and the diffuse attenuation coefficient (K490) for surface waters. The spatial regionalisation of Lake Tanganyika, based on Empirical Orthogonal Functions...

  14. Hidden biodiversity in an ancient lake: phylogenetic congruence between Lake Tanganyika tropheine cichlids and their monogenean flatworm parasites.

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    Vanhove, Maarten P M; Pariselle, Antoine; Van Steenberge, Maarten; Raeymaekers, Joost A M; Hablützel, Pascal I; Gillardin, Céline; Hellemans, Bart; Breman, Floris C; Koblmüller, Stephan; Sturmbauer, Christian; Snoeks, Jos; Volckaert, Filip A M; Huyse, Tine

    2015-09-03

    The stunning diversity of cichlid fishes has greatly enhanced our understanding of speciation and radiation. Little is known about the evolution of cichlid parasites. Parasites are abundant components of biodiversity, whose diversity typically exceeds that of their hosts. In the first comprehensive phylogenetic parasitological analysis of a vertebrate radiation, we study monogenean parasites infecting tropheine cichlids from Lake Tanganyika. Monogeneans are flatworms usually infecting the body surface and gills of fishes. In contrast to many other parasites, they depend only on a single host species to complete their lifecycle. Our spatially comprehensive combined nuclear-mitochondrial DNA dataset of the parasites covering almost all tropheine host species (N = 18), reveals species-rich parasite assemblages and shows consistent host-specificity. Statistical comparisons of host and parasite phylogenies based on distance and topology-based tests demonstrate significant congruence and suggest that host-switching is rare. Molecular rate evaluation indicates that species of Cichlidogyrus probably diverged synchronically with the initial radiation of the tropheines. They further diversified through within-host speciation into an overlooked species radiation. The unique life history and specialisation of certain parasite groups has profound evolutionary consequences. Hence, evolutionary parasitology adds a new dimension to the study of biodiversity hotspots like Lake Tanganyika.

  15. New Progress on Radiocarbon Geochronology in Southern Lake Tanganyika (East Africa)

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    McGlue, M. M.; Soreghan, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Our limnogeological research in Lake Tanganyika focuses on elucidating the patterns of sediment accumulation on deepwater horsts, outer platforms, and littoral environments in the lake's southern basin ( 6-8°S latitude). Here, we present new radiocarbon (14C) dates from high-quality surface sediment cores, in order to make comparisons with previously published age models, to address the presence and spatiotemporal variability of a reservoir effect, and to constrain sedimentation rates and facies at sites that may be important targets for future scientific drilling. Plant macrofossils are rare in deepwater sediment cores, so charcoal and bulk organic matter have been the primary materials used for dating. On the Kavala Island Ridge (KIR) horst, initial core descriptions revealed variations in laminae presence, thickness, and chemistry. Sediment cores from the KIR at 172m water depth consist of thickly laminated diatom oozes. Charcoal from the bases of these cores returned median ages of 2.1-2.2 cal ka, suggesting linear accumulation rates on the order of 0.51 mm/yr. By contrast, a core from 420 m water depth on the KIR exhibited very thin laminations and diatom layers were much less prominent. Charcoal at the base of this core produced a median age of 8.1 cal ka, suggesting a linear accumulation rate of 0.11 mm/yr. These initial results suggest that sedimentation rates may vary considerably over sublacustrine horst blocks. We will test this initial discovery with additional sedimentation rate information from the Kalya and Nitiri horsts. In addition, we report new 14C dates made on both dead and live-collected shells of the endemic gastropod Neothauma tanganyicense. These shells form vast accumulations along shallow-water platforms of the lake and form an important substrate for a number of other endemic species. The discovery of living snails in southern Lake Tanganyika may allow for the development of a species-specific reservoir correction. A limited N

  16. Ancyrocephalidae (Monogenea) of Lake Tanganyika: does the Cichlidogyrus parasite fauna of Interochromis loocki (Teleostei, Cichlidae) reflect its host’s phylogenetic affinities?

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    Pariselle, A.; Van Steenberge, M.; Snoeks, J.; Volckaert, F.A.M.; Huyse, T.; Vanhove, M.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    The faunal diversity of Lake Tanganyika, with its fish species flocks and its importance as a cradle and reservoir of ancient fish lineages seeding other radiations, has generated a considerable scientific interest in the fields of evolution and biodiversity. The Tropheini, an endemic Tanganyikan

  17. Comparing the Performance of Protected and Unprotected Areas in Conserving Freshwater Fish Abundance and Biodiversity in Lake Tanganyika, Tanzania

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    Emmanuel Andrew Sweke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas have been shown to conserve aquatic resources including fish, but few studies have been conducted of protected areas in freshwater environments. This is particularly true of Lake Tanganyika, Tanzania. To better conserve the lake’s biodiversity, an understanding of the role played by protected areas in conserving fish abundance and diversity is needed. Sampling of fish and environmental parameters was performed within the Mahale Mountains National Park (MMNP and nearby unprotected areas at depths between 5 m and 10 m. Twelve replicates of fish sampling were performed at each site using gillnets set perpendicularly to the shore. Mann-Whitney tests were performed, and the total amount of species turnover was calculated. A total of 518 individual fish from 57 species were recorded in the survey. The fish weight abundance was fivefold greater in the MMNP than in the unprotected areas. Fish abundance and diversity were higher in the MMNP than in the unprotected areas and decreased with distance from it. Our findings confirmed the importance of the protected area in conserving fish resources in Lake Tanganyika. The study provides baseline information for management of the resources and guiding future studies in the lake and other related ecosystems. Management approaches that foster awareness and engage with communities surrounding the MMNP are recommended for successful conservation of the resources in the region.

  18. Hydrothermal vents in Lake Tanganyika harbor spore-forming thermophiles with extremely rapid growth

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    Elsgaard, Lars; Prieur, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A thermophilic anaerobic bacterium was isolated from a sublacustrine hydrothermal vent site in Lake Tanganyika (East Africa) with recorded fluid temperatures of 66–103 °C and pH values of 7.7–8.9. The bacterium (strain TR10) was rod-shaped, about 1 by 5 μm in size, and readily formed distal...... and peptone. The optimum temperature for growth was 60 °C, while minimum and maximum temperatures were 40 and 75 °C. The pH response was alkalitolerant with optimum pH at 7.4 and 8.5 depending on the growth medium. The distinct feature of rapid proliferation and endospore formation may allow the novel...

  19. Evolutionary history of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid tribe Lamprologini (Teleostei: Perciformes) derived from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data

    OpenAIRE

    Sturmbauer, Christian; Salzburger, Walter; Duftner, Nina; Schelly, Robert; Koblmueller, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Lake Tanganyika comprises a cichlid species flock with substrate-breeding and mouthbrooding lineages. While sexual selection via mate choice on male mating color is thought to boost speciation rates in mouthbrooding cichlids, this is not the case in substrate-breeding lamprologines, which mostly form stable pairs and lack sexual dichromatism. We present a comprehensive reconstruction of the evolution of the cichlid tribe Lamprologini, based upon mtDNA sequences and multilocus nuclear DNA (AFL...

  20. Using lead isotopes and trace element records from two contrasting Lake Tanganyika sediment cores to assess watershed – Lake exchange

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    Odigie, Kingsley; Cohen, A.D.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Flegal, R

    2014-01-01

    Lead isotopic and trace element records of two contrasting sediment cores were examined to reconstruct historic, industrial contaminant inputs to Lake Tanganyika, Africa. Observed fluxes of Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in age-dated sediments collected from the lake varied both spatially and temporally over the past two to four centuries. The fluxes of trace elements were lower (up to 10-fold) at a mid-lake site (MC1) than at a nearshore site (LT-98-58), which is directly downstream from the Kahama and Nyasanga River watersheds and adjacent to the relatively pristine Gombe Stream National Park. Trace element fluxes at that nearshore site did not measurably change over the last two centuries (1815–1998), while the distal, mid-lake site exhibited substantial changes in the fluxes of trace elements – likely caused by changes in land use – over that period. For example, the flux of Pb increased by ∼300% from 1871 to 1991. That apparent accelerated weathering and detrital mobilization of lithogenic trace elements was further evidenced by (i) positive correlations (r = 0.77–0.99, p factors (EF operations within the lake’s watershed over the past century. The data also indicate that the mid-lake site is a much more sensitive and useful recorder of environmental changes than the nearshore site. Furthermore, the lead isotopic compositions of sediment at the sites differed spatially, indicating that the Pb (and other trace elements by association) originated from different natural sources at the two locations.

  1. Climate warming reduces fish production and benthic habitat in Lake Tanganyika, one of the most biodiverse freshwater ecosystems

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    Cohen, Andrew S.; Gergurich, Elizabeth L.; Kraemer, Benjamin M.; McGlue, Michael M.; McIntyre, Peter B.; Russell, James M.; Simmons, Jack D.; Swarzenski, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Warming climates are rapidly transforming lake ecosystems worldwide, but the breadth of changes in tropical lakes is poorly documented. Sustainable management of freshwater fisheries and biodiversity requires accounting for historical and ongoing stressors such as climate change and harvest intensity. This is problematic in tropical Africa, where records of ecosystem change are limited and local populations rely heavily on lakes for nutrition. Here, using a ∼1,500-y paleoecological record, we show that declines in fishery species and endemic molluscs began well before commercial fishing in Lake Tanganyika, Africa’s deepest and oldest lake. Paleoclimate and instrumental records demonstrate sustained warming in this lake during the last ∼150 y, which affects biota by strengthening and shallowing stratification of the water column. Reductions in lake mixing have depressed algal production and shrunk the oxygenated benthic habitat by 38% in our study areas, yielding fish and mollusc declines. Late-20th century fish fossil abundances at two of three sites were lower than at any other time in the last millennium and fell in concert with reduced diatom abundance and warming water. A negative correlation between lake temperature and fish and mollusc fossils over the last ∼500 y indicates that climate warming and intensifying stratification have almost certainly reduced potential fishery production, helping to explain ongoing declines in fish catches. Long-term declines of both benthic and pelagic species underscore the urgency of strategic efforts to sustain Lake Tanganyika’s extraordinary biodiversity and ecosystem services.

  2. Separated by sand, fused by dropping water: habitat barriers and fluctuating water levels steer the evolution of rock-dwelling cichlid populations in Lake Tanganyika.

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    Koblmüller, Stephan; Salzburger, Walter; Obermüller, Beate; Eigner, Eva; Sturmbauer, Christian; Sefc, Kristina M

    2011-06-01

    The conditions of phenotypic and genetic population differentiation allow inferences about the evolution, preservation and loss of biological diversity. In Lake Tanganyika, water level fluctuations are assumed to have had a major impact on the evolution of stenotopic littoral species, though this hypothesis has not been specifically examined so far. The present study investigates whether subtly differentiated colour patterns of adjacent Tropheus moorii populations are maintained in isolation or in the face of continuous gene flow, and whether the presumed influence of water level fluctuations on lacustrine cichlids can be demonstrated in the small-scale population structure of the strictly stenotopic, littoral Tropheus. Distinct population differentiation was found even across short geographic distances and minor habitat barriers. Population splitting chronology and demographic histories comply with our expectation of old and rather stable populations on steeper sloping shore, and more recently established populations in a shallower region. Moreover, population expansions seem to coincide with lake level rises in the wake of Late Pleistocene megadroughts ~100 KYA. The imprint of hydrologic events on current population structure in the absence of ongoing gene flow suggests that phenotypic differentiation among proximate Tropheus populations evolves and persists in genetic isolation. Sporadic gene flow is effected by lake level fluctuations following climate changes and controlled by the persistence of habitat barriers during lake level changes. Since similar demographic patterns were previously reported for Lake Malawi cichlids, our data furthermore strengthen the hypothesis that major climatic events synchronized facets of cichlid evolution across the East African Great Lakes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Ancyrocephalidae (Monogenea of Lake Tanganyika: I: Four new species of Cichlidogyrus from Ophthalmotilapia ventralis (Teleostei: Cichlidae, the first record of this parasite family in the basin

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    Maarten P. M. Vanhove

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Examination of gill parasites from Ophthalmotilapia ventralis (Boulenger, 1898 in Lake Tanganyika (Africa revealed the presence of four new species of Monogenea, all members of Cichlidogyrus Paperna, 1960 (Ancyrocephalidae. In view of the systematic importance of haptoral structure, the fish host shows a remarkable diversity of morphological groups. Cichlidogyrus vandekerkhovei sp. nov. and C. makasai sp. nov. are especially characterized by the unusual length of the dorsal transverse bar auricles, while C. sturmbaueri sp. nov. is distinguished by the unique shape of the accessory piece of its male copulatory organ. Importantly, C. centesimus sp. nov. displays a number of features new to the genus, namely a spirally coiled thickening at the end of the penis, the absence of an accessory piece in the genital apparatus, and a hitherto unknown uncinuli configuration in the haptor. This is the first record of ancyrocephalid parasites from the Tanganyika basin. Some mechanisms possibly contributing to this yet unknown diversity are discussed, identifying topics deserving further scientific scrutiny.

  4. Reticulate phylogeny of gastropod-shell-breeding cichlids from Lake Tanganyika – the result of repeated introgressive hybridization

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    Blanc Michel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tribe Lamprologini is the major substrate breeding lineage of Lake Tanganyika's cichlid species flock. Among several different life history strategies found in lamprologines, the adaptation to live and breed in empty gastropod shells is probably the most peculiar. Although shell-breeding arose several times in the evolutionary history of the lamprologines, all obligatory and most facultative shell-breeders belong to the so called "ossified group", a monophyletic lineage within the lamprologine cichlids. Since their distinctive life style enables these species to live and breed in closest vicinity, we hypothesized that these cichlids might be particularly prone to accidental hybridization, and that introgression might have affected the evolutionary history of this cichlid lineage. Results Our analyses revealed discrepancies between phylogenetic hypotheses based on mitochondrial and nuclear (AFLP data. While the nuclear phylogeny was congruent with morphological, behavioral and ecological characteristics, several species – usually highly specialized shell-breeders – were placed at contradicting positions in the mitochondrial phylogeny. The discordant phylogenies strongly suggest repeated incidents of introgressive hybridization between several distantly related shell-breeding species, which reticulated the phylogeny of this group of cichlids. Long interior branches and high bootstrap support for many interior nodes in the mitochondrial phylogeny argue against a major effect of ancient incomplete lineage sorting on the phylogenetic reconstruction. Moreover, we provide morphological and genetic (mtDNA and microsatellites evidence for ongoing hybridization among distantly related shell-breeders. In these cases, the territorial males of the inferred paternal species are too large to enter the shells of their mate, such that they have to release their sperm over the entrance of the shell to fertilize the eggs. With sperm

  5. Contrasting parasite communities among allopatric colour morphs of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid Tropheus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeymaekers, Joost A M; Hablützel, Pascal I; Grégoir, Arnout F; Bamps, Jolien; Roose, Anna K; Vanhove, Maarten P M; Van Steenberge, Maarten; Pariselle, Antoine; Huyse, Tine; Snoeks, Jos; Volckaert, Filip A M

    2013-02-14

    Adaptation to different ecological environments is thought to drive ecological speciation. This phenomenon culminates in the radiations of cichlid fishes in the African Great Lakes. Multiple characteristic traits of cichlids, targeted by natural or sexual selection, are considered among the driving factors of these radiations. Parasites and pathogens have been suggested to initiate or accelerate speciation by triggering both natural and sexual selection. Three prerequisites for parasite-driven speciation can be inferred from ecological speciation theory. The first prerequisite is that different populations experience divergent infection levels. The second prerequisite is that these infection levels cause divergent selection and facilitate adaptive divergence. The third prerequisite is that parasite-driven adaptive divergence facilitates the evolution of reproductive isolation. Here we investigate the first and the second prerequisite in allopatric chromatically differentiated lineages of the rock-dwelling cichlid Tropheus spp. from southern Lake Tanganyika (Central Africa). Macroparasite communities were screened in eight populations belonging to five different colour morphs. Parasite communities were mainly composed of acanthocephalans, nematodes, monogeneans, copepods, branchiurans, and digeneans. In two consecutive years (2011 and 2012), we observed significant variation across populations for infection with acanthocephalans, nematodes, monogeneans of the genera Gyrodactylus and Cichlidogyrus, and the copepod Ergasilus spp. Overall, parasite community composition differed significantly between populations of different colour morphs. Differences in parasite community composition were stable in time. The genetic structure of Tropheus populations was strong and showed a significant isolation-by-distance pattern, confirming that spatial isolation is limiting host dispersal. Correlations between parasite community composition and Tropheus genetic differentiation were

  6. Comparative support for the expensive tissue hypothesis: Big brains are correlated with smaller gut and greater parental investment in Lake Tanganyika cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Masahito; Husby, Arild; Kotrschal, Alexander; Hayward, Alexander; Buechel, Séverine D; Zidar, Josefina; Løvlie, Hanne; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-01-01

    The brain is one of the most energetically expensive organs in the vertebrate body. Consequently, the energetic requirements of encephalization are suggested to impose considerable constraints on brain size evolution. Three main hypotheses concerning how energetic constraints might affect brain evolution predict covariation between brain investment and (1) investment into other costly tissues, (2) overall metabolic rate, and (3) reproductive investment. To date, these hypotheses have mainly been tested in homeothermic animals and the existing data are inconclusive. However, there are good reasons to believe that energetic limitations might play a role in large-scale patterns of brain size evolution also in ectothermic vertebrates. Here, we test these hypotheses in a group of ectothermic vertebrates, the Lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes. After controlling for the effect of shared ancestry and confounding ecological variables, we find a negative association between brain size and gut size. Furthermore, we find that the evolution of a larger brain is accompanied by increased reproductive investment into egg size and parental care. Our results indicate that the energetic costs of encephalization may be an important general factor involved in the evolution of brain size also in ectothermic vertebrates. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Modeling the Sedimentary Infill of Lakes in the East African Rift: A Case Study of Multiple versus Single Rift Basin Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Scholz, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    The sedimentary basins in the East African Rift are considered excellent modern examples for investigating sedimentary infilling and evolution of extensional systems. Some lakes in the western branch of the rift have formed within single-segment systems, and include Lake Albert and Lake Edward. The largest and oldest lakes developed within multi-segment systems, and these include Lake Tanganyika and Lake Malawi. This research aims to explore processes of erosion and sedimentary infilling of the catchment area in single-segment rift (SSR) and multi-segment rift (MSR) systems. We consider different conditions of regional precipitation and evaporation, and assess the resulting facies architecture through forward modeling, using state-of-the-art commercial basin modeling software. Dionisos is a three-dimensional numerical stratigraphic forward modeling software program, which simulates basin-scale sediment transport based on empirical water- and gravity-driven diffusion equations. It was classically used to quantify the sedimentary architecture and basin infilling of both marine siliciclastic and carbonate environments. However, we apply this approach to continental rift basin environments. In this research, two scenarios are developed, one for a MSR and the other for a SSR. The modeled systems simulate the ratio of drainage area and lake surface area observed in modern Lake Tanganyika and Lake Albert, which are examples of MSRs and SSRs, respectively. The main parameters, such as maximum subsidence rate, water- and gravity-driven diffusion coefficients, rainfall, and evaporation, are approximated using these real-world examples. The results of 5 million year model runs with 50,000 year time steps show that MSRs are characterized by a deep water lake with relatively modest sediment accumulation, while the SSRs are characterized by a nearly overfilled lake with shallow water depths and thick sediment accumulation. The preliminary modeling results conform to the features

  8. Lateralized Feeding Behavior is Associated with Asymmetrical Neuroanatomy and Lateralized Gene Expressions in the Brain in Scale-Eating Cichlid Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyuk Je; Schneider, Ralf F; Manousaki, Tereza; Kang, Ji Hyoun; Lein, Etienne; Franchini, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Lateralized behavior (“handedness”) is unusual, but consistently found across diverse animal lineages, including humans. It is thought to reflect brain anatomical and/or functional asymmetries, but its neuro-molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Lake Tanganyika scale-eating cichlid fish, Perissodus microlepis show pronounced asymmetry in their jaw morphology as well as handedness in feeding behavior—biting scales preferentially only from one or the other side of their victims. This makes them an ideal model in which to investigate potential laterality in neuroanatomy and transcription in the brain in relation to behavioral handedness. After determining behavioral handedness in P. microlepis (preferred attack side), we estimated the volume of the hemispheres of brain regions and captured their gene expression profiles. Our analyses revealed that the degree of behavioral handedness is mirrored at the level of neuroanatomical asymmetry, particularly in the tectum opticum. Transcriptome analyses showed that different brain regions (tectum opticum, telencephalon, hypothalamus, and cerebellum) display distinct expression patterns, potentially reflecting their developmental interrelationships. For numerous genes in each brain region, their extent of expression differences between hemispheres was found to be correlated with the degree of behavioral lateralization. Interestingly, the tectum opticum and telencephalon showed divergent biases on the direction of up- or down-regulation of the laterality candidate genes (e.g., grm2) in the hemispheres, highlighting the connection of handedness with gene expression profiles and the different roles of these brain regions. Hence, handedness in predation behavior may be caused by asymmetric size of brain hemispheres and also by lateralized gene expressions in the brain. PMID:29069363

  9. Global Lakes Sentinel Services: Evaluation of Chl-a Trends in Deep Clear Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzaniga, Ilaria; Giardino, Claudia; Bresciani, Mariano; Poser, Kathrin; Peters, Steef; Hommersom, Annelies; Schenk, Karin; Heege, Thomas; Philipson, Petra; Ruescas, Ana; Bottcher, Martin; Stelzer, Kerstin

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is the analysis of trend in the trophic level evolution in clear deep lakes which, being characterised by good quality state, are important socio- economic resources for their regions. The selected lakes are situated in Europe (Garda, Maggiore, Constance and Vättern), North America (Michigan) and Africa (Malawi and Tanganyika) and cover a range of eco- regions (continental, perialpine, boreal, rift valley) distributed globally.To evaluate trophic level tendency we mainly focused on chlorophyll-a concentrations (chl-a) which is a direct proxy of trophic status. The chl-a concentrations were obtained from 5216 cloud-free MERIS imagery from 2002 to 2012.The 'GLaSS RoIStats tool' available within the GLaSS project was used to extract chl-a in a number of region of interests (ROI) located in pelagic waters as well as some few other stations depending on lakes morphology. For producing the time-series trend, these extracted data were analysed with the Seasonal Kendall test.The results overall show almost stable conditions with a slight increase in concentration for lakes Maggiore, Constance, and the Green Bay of Lake Michigan; a slight decrease for lakes Garda and Tanganyika and absolutely stable conditions for lakes Vättern and Malawi.The results presented in this work show the great capability of MERIS to perform trend tests analysis on trophic status with focus on chl-a concentration. Being chl-a also a key parameter in water quality monitoring plans, this study also supports the managing practices implemented worldwide for using the water of the lakes.

  10. Lateralized Feeding Behavior is Associated with Asymmetrical Neuroanatomy and Lateralized Gene Expressions in the Brain in Scale-Eating Cichlid Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyuk Je; Schneider, Ralf F; Manousaki, Tereza; Kang, Ji Hyoun; Lein, Etienne; Franchini, Paolo; Meyer, Axel

    2017-11-01

    Lateralized behavior ("handedness") is unusual, but consistently found across diverse animal lineages, including humans. It is thought to reflect brain anatomical and/or functional asymmetries, but its neuro-molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Lake Tanganyika scale-eating cichlid fish, Perissodus microlepis show pronounced asymmetry in their jaw morphology as well as handedness in feeding behavior-biting scales preferentially only from one or the other side of their victims. This makes them an ideal model in which to investigate potential laterality in neuroanatomy and transcription in the brain in relation to behavioral handedness. After determining behavioral handedness in P. microlepis (preferred attack side), we estimated the volume of the hemispheres of brain regions and captured their gene expression profiles. Our analyses revealed that the degree of behavioral handedness is mirrored at the level of neuroanatomical asymmetry, particularly in the tectum opticum. Transcriptome analyses showed that different brain regions (tectum opticum, telencephalon, hypothalamus, and cerebellum) display distinct expression patterns, potentially reflecting their developmental interrelationships. For numerous genes in each brain region, their extent of expression differences between hemispheres was found to be correlated with the degree of behavioral lateralization. Interestingly, the tectum opticum and telencephalon showed divergent biases on the direction of up- or down-regulation of the laterality candidate genes (e.g., grm2) in the hemispheres, highlighting the connection of handedness with gene expression profiles and the different roles of these brain regions. Hence, handedness in predation behavior may be caused by asymmetric size of brain hemispheres and also by lateralized gene expressions in the brain. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. Evolutionary relationships in the sand-dwelling cichlid lineage of lake tanganyika suggest multiple colonization of rocky habitats and convergent origin of biparental mouthbrooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblmüller, Stephan; Salzburger, Walter; Sturmbauer, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The cichlid species flock of Lake Tanganyika is comprised of seven seeding lineages that evolved in step with changes of the lake environment. One seeding lineage diversified into at least six lineages within a short period of time. Our study focuses on the diversification of one of these lineages, the Ectodini, comprising highly specialized, sand- and rock-dwelling species. They display two distinct breeding styles: maternal and biparental mouthbrooding. By analyzing three mtDNA gene segments in 30 species representing all 13 described genera, we show that the Ectodini rapidly diversified into four clades at the onset of their radiation. The monotypic genus Grammatotria is likely to represent the most ancestral split, followed by the almost contemporary origin of three additional clades, the first comprising the benthic genus Callochromis, the second comprising the benthic genera Asprotilapia, Xenotilapia, Enantiopus, and Microdontochromis, and the third comprising the semi-pelagic genera Ophthalmotilapia, Cardiopharynx, Cyathopharynx, Ectodus, Aulonocranus, Lestradea, and Cunningtonia. Our study confirms the benthic and sand-dwelling life-style as ancestral. Rocky habitats were colonized independently in the Xenotilapia- and Ophthalmotilapia-clade. The Xenotilapia-clade comprises both maternal and biparental mouthbrooders. Their mode of breeding appears to be highly plastic: biparental mouthbrooding either evolved once in the common ancestor of the clade, to be reverted at least three times, or evolved at least five times independently from a maternally mouthbrooding ancestor. Furthermore, the genera Xenotilapia, Microdontochromis, Lestradea, and Ophthalmotilapia appeared paraphyletic in our analyses, suggesting the need of taxonomic revision.

  12. A pharyngeal jaw evolutionary innovation facilitated extinction in Lake Victoria cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Matthew D; Borstein, Samuel R; Neches, Russell Y; Buescher, Heinz H; Seehausen, Ole; Wainwright, Peter C

    2015-11-27

    Evolutionary innovations, traits that give species access to previously unoccupied niches, may promote speciation and adaptive radiation. Here, we show that such innovations can also result in competitive inferiority and extinction. We present evidence that the modified pharyngeal jaws of cichlid fishes and several marine fish lineages, a classic example of evolutionary innovation, are not universally beneficial. A large-scale analysis of dietary evolution across marine fish lineages reveals that the innovation compromises access to energy-rich predator niches. We show that this competitive inferiority shaped the adaptive radiation of cichlids in Lake Tanganyika and played a pivotal and previously unrecognized role in the mass extinction of cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria after Nile perch invasion. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Levels and patterns of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) from four different lakes in Tanzania: geographical differences and implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polder, A; Müller, M B; Lyche, J L; Mdegela, R H; Nonga, H E; Mabiki, F P; Mbise, T J; Skaare, J U; Sandvik, M; Skjerve, E; Lie, E

    2014-08-01

    In Tanzania fish is one of the most important protein sources for the rapidly increasing population. Wild fish is threatened by overfishing and pollution from agriculture, industries, mining, household effluents and vector control. To monitor possible implications for public health, the geographical differences of the occurrence and levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in tilapia fish (Oreochromis sp.) from four different Tanzanian lakes were investigated in 2011. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyls (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) were determined in pooled samples of tilapia muscle from Lake (L) Victoria, L. Tanganyika, L. Nyasa (also called L. Malawi) and L. Babati in Tanzania in 2011. Levels of Σ-DDTs (274 ng/g lipid weight (lw)) and sum of 7 indicator PCBs (Σ-7PCBs) (17 ng/g lw) were significantly higher in tilapia from L. Tanganyika compared to the other lakes. The highest levels of Σ-endosulfan (94 ng/g lw) were detected in tilapia from L. Victoria. Toxaphenes were detected in low levels in fish from L. Tanganyika and L. Babati. Results revealed a geographic difference in the use of DDT and endosulfan between L. Victoria and L. Tanganyika. Low ratios of DDE/DDT in tilapia from L. Tanganyika indicated an on-going use of DDT in the area. Median levels of ΣBDEs, including BDE-209, were highest in L. Victoria (19.4 ng/g lw) and BDE-209 was present in 68% of the samples from this lake. The presence of BDE-209 indicates increasing influence of imported products from heavy industrialized countries. The measured POP levels in the studied tilapia were all below MRLs of EU or were lower than recommended levels, and thus the fish is considered as safe for human consumption. They may, however, pose a risk to the fish species and threaten biodiversity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Scales for Experience of Eating During in Childhood, Eating-related Coping Skills, and Desirable Dietary Habits

    OpenAIRE

    江坂,美佐子; 田中,宏二

    2015-01-01

     We conducted a survey on a total of 261 first- and second-year university and junior college students (92 men, 169 women), and created scales for experience of eating during in childhood, eating-related coping skills, and desirable dietary habits. The scale for experience of eating during in childhood comprised nine items and two factors (experience of enjoying eating at home and connection to dietary education at school). The scale for eating-related coping skills comprised seven items and ...

  15. The reward-based eating drive scale: a self-report index of reward-based eating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elissa S Epel

    Full Text Available Why are some individuals more vulnerable to persistent weight gain and obesity than are others? Some obese individuals report factors that drive overeating, including lack of control, lack of satiation, and preoccupation with food, which may stem from reward-related neural circuitry. These are normative and common symptoms and not the sole focus of any existing measures. Many eating scales capture these common behaviors, but are confounded with aspects of dysregulated eating such as binge eating or emotional overeating. Across five studies, we developed items that capture this reward-based eating drive (RED. Study 1 developed the items in lean to obese individuals (n = 327 and examined changes in weight over eight years. In Study 2, the scale was further developed and expert raters evaluated the set of items. Study 3 tested psychometric properties of the final 9 items in 400 participants. Study 4 examined psychometric properties and race invariance (n = 80 women. Study 5 examined psychometric properties and age/gender invariance (n = 381. Results showed that RED scores correlated with BMI and predicted earlier onset of obesity, greater weight fluctuations, and greater overall weight gain over eight years. Expert ratings of RED scale items indicated that the items reflected characteristics of reward-based eating. The RED scale evidenced high internal consistency and invariance across demographic factors. The RED scale, designed to tap vulnerability to reward-based eating behavior, appears to be a useful brief tool for identifying those at higher risk of weight gain over time. Given the heterogeneity of obesity, unique brief profiling of the reward-based aspect of obesity using a self-report instrument such as the RED scale may be critical for customizing effective treatments in the general population.

  16. A fully consistent and conservative vertically adaptive coordinate system for SLIM 3D v0.4 with an application to the thermocline oscillations of Lake Tanganyika

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delandmeter, Philippe; Lambrechts, Jonathan; Legat, Vincent; Vallaeys, Valentin; Naithani, Jaya; Thiery, Wim; Remacle, Jean-François; Deleersnijder, Eric

    2018-03-01

    The discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element method is well suited for the modelling, with a relatively small number of elements, of three-dimensional flows exhibiting strong velocity or density gradients. Its performance can be highly enhanced by having recourse to r-adaptivity. Here, a vertical adaptive mesh method is developed for DG finite elements. This method, originally designed for finite difference schemes, is based on the vertical diffusion of the mesh nodes, with the diffusivity controlled by the density jumps at the mesh element interfaces. The mesh vertical movement is determined by means of a conservative arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation. Though conservativity is naturally achieved, tracer consistency is obtained by a suitable construction of the mesh vertical velocity field, which is defined in such a way that it is fully compatible with the tracer and continuity equations at a discrete level. The vertically adaptive mesh approach is implemented in the three-dimensional version of the geophysical and environmental flow Second-generation Louvain-la-Neuve Ice-ocean Model (SLIM 3D; www.climate.be/slim). Idealised benchmarks, aimed at simulating the oscillations of a sharp thermocline, are dealt with. Then, the relevance of the vertical adaptivity technique is assessed by simulating thermocline oscillations of Lake Tanganyika. The results are compared to measured vertical profiles of temperature, showing similar stratification and outcropping events.

  17. Development and validation of the Stirling Eating Disorder Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G J; Power, K G; Miller, H R; Freeman, C P; Yellowlees, A; Dowds, T; Walker, M; Parry-Jones, W L

    1994-07-01

    The development and reliability/validity check of an 80-item, 8-scale measure for use with eating disorder patients is presented. The Stirling Eating Disorder Scales (SEDS) assess anorexic dietary behavior, anorexic dietary cognitions, bulimic dietary behavior, bulimic dietary cognitions, high perceived external control, low assertiveness, low self-esteem, and self-directed hostility. The SEDS were administered to 82 eating disorder patients and 85 controls. Results indicate that the SEDS are acceptable in terms of internal consistency, reliability, group validity, and concurrent validity.

  18. Positive and negative emotional eating have different associations with overeating and binge eating: Construction and validation of the Positive-Negative Emotional Eating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultson, Hedvig; Kukk, Katrin; Akkermann, Kirsti

    2017-09-01

    Research on emotional eating mostly focuses on negative emotions. Much less is known about how positive emotions relate to overeating and binge eating (BE). The aim of the current study was to construct a scale for positive and negative emotional eating and to assess its predictive validity. In study 1, the Positive-Negative Emotional Eating Scale (PNEES) was constructed and tested on 531 women, who also completed Eating Disorders Assessment Scale (EDAS). Results showed that a two-factor model constituting Positive emotional eating (PNEES-P) and Negative emotional eating (PNEES-N) fit the data well. PNEES-N also showed good convergent validity in assessing binge eating, correlating highly with EDAS subscale Binge eating. Further, a path analysis showed that after controlling for the mediating effect of PNEES-N, PNEES-P continued to significantly predict binge eating. In study 2 (N = 60), experience sampling method was used to assess overeating and BE in the natural environment. Palmtop computers were given to participants for a three-day study period that prompted them with questions regarding emotional experience, overeating, and BE. Results indicated that PNEES-P significantly predicted overeating, whereas PNEES-N predicted overeating and BE episodes only in a subsample of women who had experienced at least one overeating or BE episode. Thus, positive and negative emotional eating might have different relations with overeating and BE, with the latter being more characteristic of the severity/frequency of overeating and BE. New assessment tools that in addition to negative emotional eating also address positive emotional eating could be of potential help in planning intervention. Further, the tendency to overeat in response to positive emotions could be integrated into current models of eating disorders, especially when addressing relapse prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. (centropomidae) stock in lift-net fishery in lake tanganyika, kigoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Catch per unit effort was similar between wet and dry seasons ... fluctuations in its abundance in the Kigoma ... so its use as a measure of fishing effort ... individual fishes were put in an ogive model ... A: Seasonal variations in total CPUE for Lates stappersii in Kigoma area of Lake ... Compared with other components of the.

  20. Development and validation of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale: a brief self-report measure of anorexia, bulimia, and binge-eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, E; Telch, C F; Rizvi, S L

    2000-06-01

    This article describes the development and validation of a brief self-report scale for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. Study 1 used a panel of eating-disorder experts and provided evidence for the content validity of this scale. Study 2 used data from female participants with and without eating disorders (N = 367) and suggested that the diagnoses from this scale possessed temporal reliability (mean kappa = .80) and criterion validity (with interview diagnoses; mean kappa = .83). In support of convergent validity, individuals with eating disorders identified by this scale showed elevations on validated measures of eating disturbances. The overall symptom composite also showed test-retest reliability (r = .87), internal consistency (mean alpha = .89), and convergent validity with extant eating-pathology scales. Results implied that this scale was reliable and valid in this investigation and that it may be useful for clinical and research applications.

  1. Comparing Effects of Lake- and Watershed-Scale Influences on Communities of Aquatic Invertebrates in Shallow Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Mark A.; Herwig, Brian R.; Zimmer, Kyle D.; Fieberg, John; Vaughn, Sean R.; Wright, Robert G.; Younk, Jerry A.

    2012-01-01

    Constraints on lake communities are complex and are usually studied by using limited combinations of variables derived from measurements within or adjacent to study waters. While informative, results often provide limited insight about magnitude of simultaneous influences operating at multiple scales, such as lake- vs. watershed-scale. To formulate comparisons of such contrasting influences, we explored factors controlling the abundance of predominant aquatic invertebrates in 75 shallow lakes in western Minnesota, USA. Using robust regression techniques, we modeled relative abundance of Amphipoda, small and large cladocera, Corixidae, aquatic Diptera, and an aggregate taxon that combined Ephemeroptera-Trichoptera-Odonata (ETO) in response to lake- and watershed-scale characteristics. Predictor variables included fish and submerged plant abundance, linear distance to the nearest wetland or lake, watershed size, and proportion of the watershed in agricultural production. Among-lake variability in invertebrate abundance was more often explained by lake-scale predictors than by variables based on watershed characteristics. For example, we identified significant associations between fish presence and community type and abundance of small and large cladocera, Amphipoda, Diptera, and ETO. Abundance of Amphipoda, Diptera, and Corixidae were also positively correlated with submerged plant abundance. We observed no associations between lake-watershed variables and abundance of our invertebrate taxa. Broadly, our results seem to indicate preeminence of lake-level influences on aquatic invertebrates in shallow lakes, but historical land-use legacies may mask important relationships. PMID:22970275

  2. The Validation of Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Khabir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eating disorder is a common problem in teenage girls and young women. In clinical situations, brief screening is necessary to recognize the patients. The present research aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS. Methods: The study sample included 431 females selected from among the females referring to Shiraz’s sport clubs using convenience sampling. The participants in this research responded to the EDDS that was translated by the researcher and their BMI index was calculated. Results: The internal consistency coefficients, and Spearman-Brown and Guttmann spilt-half correlations were 0.84, 0.82 and 0.83, respectively. The findings showed that the agreement rate of the instrument with the clinician’s diagnosis and confirmatory factor analysis, and the correlation between each question and the whole score were appropriate. Conclusion: In general, the results of this research showed that the Persian version of Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS has appropriate validity and reliability and can be used in clinical and research situations for the assessment of eating disorder.

  3. Silica-scaled chrysophytes of Lake Baikal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Bessudova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The list of silica-scaled chrysophytes of Lake Baikal has been enlarged using electron microscopy. It has been supplemented with 12 species and 2 forms. Spiniferomonas takahashii has been observed for the first time in the water bodies of Russia. According to our data, the list of silica-scaled chrysophytes of Lake Baikal includes 25 species and intra-species taxa: Chrysosphaerella – 3, Paraphysomonas – 2, Clathromonas – 1, Spiniferomonas – 7, Mallomonas – 8 and Synura – 4. We have also analyzed their seasonal dynamics and observed algal species that are dominant in spring, summer and autumn.

  4. Development and Validation of the Eating Loss of Control Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Kerstin K.; Roberto, Christina A.; Barnes, Rachel D.; White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent objective bulimic episodes (OBE) are a defining diagnostic characteristic of binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN). OBEs are characterized by experiencing loss of control (LOC) while eating an unusually large quantity of food. Despite nosological importance and complex heterogeneity across patients, measurement of LOC has been assessed dichotomously (present/absent). This study describes the development and initial validation of the Eating Loss of Control Scale (ELOCS), a self-report questionnaire that examines the complexity of the LOC construct. Participants were 168 obese treatment-seeking individuals with BED who completed the Eating Disorder Examination interview and self-report measures. Participants rated their LOC-related feelings or behaviors on continuous Likert-type scales and reported the number of LOC episodes in the past 28 days. Principal component analysis identified a single-factor, 18-item scale, which demonstrated good internal reliability (α=0.90). Frequency of LOC episodes was significantly correlated with frequency of OBEs and subjective bulimic episodes. The ELOCS demonstrated good convergent validity and was significantly correlated with greater eating pathology, greater emotion dysregulation, greater depression, and lower self-control, but not with BMI. The findings suggest that the ELOCS is a valid self-report questionnaire that may provide important clinical information regarding experiences of LOC in obese persons with BED. Future research should examine the ELOCS in other eating disorders and non-clinical samples. PMID:24219700

  5. Development and Preliminary Validation of the Salzburg Emotional Eating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Reichenberger, Julia; Blechert, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Existing self-report questionnaires for the assessment of emotional eating do not differentiate between specific types of emotions and between increased or decreased food intake in response to these emotions. Therefore, we developed a new measure of emotional eating-the Salzburg Emotional Eating Scale (SEES)-for which higher scores indicate eating more than usual in response to emotions and lower scores indicate eating less than usual in response to emotions. In study 1, a pool of items describing 40 emotional states was used. Factor analysis yielded four factors, which represented both positive ( happiness subscale) and negative emotions ( sadness, anger , and anxiety subscales). Subsequently, the scale was reduced to 20 items (5 items for each subscale) and its four-factor structure was replicated in studies 2 and 3. In all three studies, internal consistencies of each subscale were α > 0.70 and mean subscale scores significantly differed from each other such that individuals reported the strongest tendency to eat more than usual when being sad and the strongest tendency to eat less than usual when being anxious (sadness > happiness > anger > anxiety). Higher scores on the happiness subscale related to lower scores on the negative emotions subscales, lower body mass index (BMI), and lower eating pathology. In contrast, higher scores on the negative emotions subscales related to lower scores on the happiness subscale, higher BMI, and higher eating pathology. The SEES represents a useful measure for the investigation of emotional eating by increasing both specificity (differentiation between specific emotional states) and breadth (differentiation between increase and decrease of food intake) in the assessment of the emotion-eating relationship.

  6. Development and validation of an Eating Disorders Symptom Impact Scale (EDSIS for carers of people with eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankins Matthew

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family members of relatives with eating disorders experience high levels of distress due to the difficulties in their care giving role. However no measures have been developed to measure the specific impact that an individual with an eating disorder has on family life. The aim of this study was to develop a measure to assess the specific caregiving burden of both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. A secondary aim was to examine whether this measure was sensitive to change. Methods A new scale, the Eating Disorders Symptom Impact Scale (EDSIS, was generated by a panel of clinicians and researchers based upon quantitative and qualitative work with carers and reviewed by a panel of "expert carers". A cross-sectional study was conducted among carers of relatives with an eating disorder to examine the properties of the new scale. In addition, participants from an ongoing pre-and-post design study completed several self-report questionnaires to assess the sensitivity of the EDSIS to change. Results A sample of 196 carers of relatives with an eating disorder aged 25–68 compted the scale. A 24-item EDSIS scale was derived with four factors: nutrition, guilt, dysregulated behaviour and social isolation. These explained 58.4% of the variance in carer distress. Reliability was acceptable (Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.84 to 0.90. The convergent validity of the EDSIS subscales was moderately supported by correlations with a general caregiving measure (Experience of Caregiving Inventory (ECI, r = 0.42 to 0.60, psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, r = 0.33 and perceived functioning of the relative (Children Global Assessment Scale (CGAS, r = -30. A sample of 57 primary caregivers completed pre-post intervention assessments and the overall scale (t = 2.3, p Conclusion The EDSIS instrument has good psychometric properties and may be of value to assess the impact of eating disorder symptoms on family members. It

  7. Global Scale Remote Sensing Monitoring of Endorheic Lake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuderi, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    Semi-arid regions of the world contain thousands of endorheic lakes in large shallow basins. Due to their generally remote locations few are continuously monitored. Documentation of recent variability is essential to assessing how endorheic lakes respond to short-term meteorological conditions and longer-term decadal-scale climatic variability and is critical in determining future disturbance of hydrological regimes with respect to predicted warming and drying in the mid-latitudes. Short- and long-term departures from climatic averages, rapid environmental shifts and increased population pressures may result in significant fluctuations in the hydrologic budgets of these lakes and adversely impact endorheic lake/basin ecosystems. Information on flooding variability is also critical in estimating changes in P/E balances and on the production of exposed and easily deflated surfaces that may impact dust loading locally and regionally. In order to provide information on how these lakes respond we need to understand how entire systems respond hydrologically to different climatic inputs. This requires monitoring and analysis of regional to continental-scale systems. To date, this level of monitoring has not been achieved in an operational system. In order to assess the possibility of creating a global-scale lake inundation database we analyzed two contrasting lake systems in western North America (Mexico and New Mexico, USA) and China (Inner Mongolia). We asked two major questions: 1) is it possible to quickly and accurately quantify current lake inundation events in near real time using remote sensing? and, 2) is it possible to differentiate variable meteorological sources and resultant lake inundation responses using this type of database? With respect to these results we outline an automated lake monitoring approach using MODIS data and real-time processing systems that may provide future global monitoring capabilities.

  8. Personality correlates of obese eating behaviour: Swedish universities Scales of Personality and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfhag, K

    2005-12-01

    To study the relationship between personality characteristics and eating behaviour in obese patients. The participants were 45 patients with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 39 kg/m2. Eating behaviour was measured with the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) also taking the subscales Flexible Control and Rigid Control into account, and Personality was assessed with the Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP). In linear regression analyses the personality characteristic greater Lack of Assertiveness could explain 17% of Disinhibited eating and 13% of Hunger scores, whereas less Lack of Assertiveness could explain 12% of Flexible Control. BMI was negatively related to one of the personality characteristics, Adventure Seeking. A lacking ability to be socially self-assertive and confident characterized obese patients with more problematic eating behaviours that imply a risk for over consumption of food. A greater self-assertiveness was found in patients with a relatively more efficient eating strategy such as flexible control over eating.

  9. Maladaptive eating behavior assessment among bariatric surgery candidates: Evaluation of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gail A; Hawkins, Misty A W; Duncan, Jennifer; Rummell, Christina M; Perkins, Shannon; Crowther, Janis H

    2017-07-01

    Eating pathology among bariatric surgery candidates is common and associated with adverse outcomes. However, its assessment is complicated by the inconsistent use of standardized measures. We addressed this by examining the use of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS) in a large bariatric sample (N = 343). To evaluate the EDDS among bariatric surgery candidates via examination of: (1) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) and fifth edition (DSM-5) rates of binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and maladaptive eating behaviors, and (2) the relationship between response biases and self-reported eating disorder symptoms. Participants were bariatric surgery candidates at a large public hospital in the Midwest. As part of a larger preoperative evaluation, 343 patients seeking bariatric surgery completed the EDDS and measures of problematic response bias. Approximately 16% of the sample met full threshold criteria for binge eating disorder using DSM-5 criteria. Using the DSM-IV-TR, rates were lower but still substantial at 13%. Rates for bulimia nervosa were 8% (DSM-5) and 6% (DSM-IV-TR). The majority (66.1%) of participants reported at least one binge-eating episode per week. The most commonly used compensatory behavior was fasting (20.4%), followed by excessive exercise (11.7%), laxative use (5.6%), and vomiting (1.8%). An inverse relationship between severity of the eating symptomatology and problematic response bias emerged. The EDDS shows promise as a screening tool that uses diagnostic criteria to provide rates of binge eating and eating psychopathology among surgical candidates. Our findings suggest that subsequent validation studies of this measure are needed, should address potential response bias concerns, and should employ clear definitions of binge eating to promote standardization of eating pathology assessment in the bariatric population. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric

  10. Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale: Additional Evidence of Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Martinez, Erin

    2004-01-01

    The authors conducted 4 studies investigating the reliability and validity of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (HDDS; E. Stice, C. F. Telch, & S. L. Rizvi, 2000), a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Study 1 found that the HDDS showed criterion validity with interview-based…

  11. German version of the intuitive eating scale: Psychometric evaluation and application to an eating disordered population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyck, Zoé; Herbert, Beate M; Happ, Christian; Kleveman, Gillian V; Vögele, Claus

    2016-10-01

    Intuitive eating has been described to represent an adaptive eating behaviour that is characterised by eating in response to physiological hunger and satiety cues, rather than situational and emotional stimuli. The Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) has been developed to measure such attitudes and behaviours on four subscales: unconditional permission to eat (UPE), eating for physical rather than emotional reasons (EPR), reliance on internal hunger and satiety cues (RHSC), and body-food choice congruence (B-FCC). The present study aimed at validating the psychometric properties of the German translation of the IES-2 in a large German-speaking sample. A second objective was to assess levels of intuitive eating in participants with an eating disorder diagnosis (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or binge eating disorder). The proposed factor structure of the IES-2 could be confirmed for the German translation of the questionnaire. The total score and most subscale scores were negatively related to eating disorder symptomatology, problems in appetite and emotional awareness, body dissatisfaction, and self-objectification. Women with eating disorders had significantly lower values on all IES-2 subscale scores and the total score than women without an eating disorder diagnosis. Women with a binge eating disorder (BED) diagnosis had higher scores on the UPE subscale compared to participants with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), and those diagnosed with AN had higher scores on the EPR subscale than individuals with BN or BED. We conclude that the German IES-2 constitutes a useful self-report instrument for the assessment of intuitive eating in German-speaking samples. Further studies are warranted to evaluate psychometric properties of the IES-2 in different samples, and to investigate its application in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development and validation of the Accommodation and Enabling Scale for Eating Disorders (AESED for caregivers in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treasure Janet

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Families of people with eating disorders are often caught up in rule bound eating and safety behaviours that characterise the illness. The main aim of this study was to develop a valid and specific scale to measure family accommodation in the context of having a relative with an eating disorder. Methods A new scale, the Accommodation and Enabling Scale for Eating Disorders (AESED, was jointly generated by professionals and expert carers through qualitative analysis. In the first stage, this instrument was given to 201 family members of relatives diagnosed with an eating disorder, with additional self-report measures including the Experience of Caregiving Inventory (ECI, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and the Family Questionnaire (FQ. In the second stage, the sensitivity of the AESED to change was tested in a pre-and-post design study with a new sample of 116 caregivers, using a DVDs-distance skills training for caregivers. Results A 33 item instrument was derived consisting of five factors: Avoidance and Modifying Routine, Reassurance Seeking, Meal Ritual, Control of Family and Turning a Blind Eye, which together explained 60.1% of the variance. This scale had good psychometric properties in terms of Cronbach's alpha which ranged from 0.77 to 0.92. Regarding the convergent validity, most of the AESED subscales was moderately supported by correlations with anxiety (HADS; r = 0.24 to 0.48 and depression levels (HADS; r = 0.17 to 0.47, negative caregiving (ECI; r = 0.18 to 0.45, and expressed emotion levels (FQ; r = 0.17 to 0.51. Pre-post intervention assessments showed that the overall AESED scale (d = 0.38 and the avoidance and modifying routine (d = 0.52, meal ritual (d = 0.27 and control of the family (d = 0.49 subscales were sensitive to change. Conclusion Internal consistency was good and initial validity of the scale was adequate, it was able to discriminate differences between clinical variables, however

  13. Emotional Eating Scale for Children and Adolescents: Psychometric Characteristics in a Spanish Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpina, Conxa; Cebolla, Ausias; Botella, Cristina; Lurbe, Empar; Torro, Maria-Isabel

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to validate the Emotional Eating Scale version for children (EES-C) in a Spanish population and study the differences in emotional eating among children with binge eating (BE), overeating (OE), and no episodes of disordered eating (NED). The questionnaire was completed by 199 children aged 9 to 16 years. Confirmatory…

  14. Small-scale distribution and diel vertical migration of zooplankton in a shallow lake (Lake Naardermeer, the Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerbin, S.; Balayla, D.; Van de Bund, W.J.

    2003-01-01

    Small scale distribution and diurnal migration of zooplankton were investigated in lake Naardermeer, a shallow lake largely covered by uniform Chara beds. For sampling, pattern samplers with a number of inverted funnels facing towards the lake bottom and held in a frame were used. Samplers were

  15. Niche divergence facilitated by fine-scale ecological partitioning in a recent cichlid fish adaptive radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Antonia G P; Rüber, Lukas; Newton, Jason; Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K; Balarin, John D; Bruun, Kristoffer; Day, Julia J

    2016-12-01

    Ecomorphological differentiation is a key feature of adaptive radiations, with a general trend for specialization and niche expansion following divergence. Ecological opportunity afforded by invasion of a new habitat is thought to act as an ecological release, facilitating divergence, and speciation. Here, we investigate trophic adaptive morphology and ecology of an endemic clade of oreochromine cichlid fishes (Alcolapia) that radiated along a herbivorous trophic axis following colonization of an isolated lacustrine environment, and demonstrate phenotype-environment correlation. Ecological and morphological divergence of the Alcolapia species flock are examined in a phylogenomic context, to infer ecological niche occupation within the radiation. Species divergence is observed in both ecology and morphology, supporting the importance of ecological speciation within the radiation. Comparison with an outgroup taxon reveals large-scale ecomorphological divergence but shallow genomic differentiation within the Alcolapia adaptive radiation. Ancestral morphological reconstruction suggests lake colonization by a generalist oreochromine phenotype that diverged in Lake Natron to varied herbivorous morphologies akin to specialist herbivores in Lakes Tanganyika and Malawi. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Primary production in a tropical large lake: The role of phytoplankton composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darchambeau, F.; Sarmento, H.; Descy, J.-P.

    2014-01-01

    Phytoplankton biomass and primary production in tropical large lakes vary at different time scales, from seasons to centuries. We provide a dataset made of 7 consecutive years of phytoplankton biomass and production in Lake Kivu (Eastern Africa). From 2002 to 2008, bi-weekly samplings were performed in a pelagic site in order to quantify phytoplankton composition and biomass, using marker pigments determined by HPLC. Primary production rates were estimated by 96 in situ 14 C incubations. A principal component analysis showed that the main environmental gradient was linked to a seasonal variation of the phytoplankton assemblage, with a clear separation between diatoms during the dry season and cyanobacteria during the rainy season. A rather wide range of the maximum specific photosynthetic rate (P Bm ) was found, ranging between 1.15 and 7.21 g carbon g −1 chlorophyll a h −1 , and was best predicted by a regression model using phytoplankton composition as an explanatory variable. The irradiance at the onset of light saturation (I k ) ranged between 91 and 752 μE m −2 s −1 and was linearly correlated with the mean irradiance in the mixed layer. The inter-annual variability of phytoplankton biomass and production was high, ranging from 53 to 100 mg chlorophyll a m −2 (annual mean) and from 143 to 278 g carbon m −2 y −1 , respectively. The degree of seasonal mixing determined annual production, demonstrating the sensitivity of tropical lakes to climate variability. A review of primary production of other African great lakes allows situating Lake Kivu productivity in the same range as that of lakes Tanganyika and Malawi, even if mean phytoplankton biomass was higher in Lake Kivu. - Highlights: • We provide a 7-year dataset of primary production in a tropical great lake. • Specific photosynthetic rate was determined by community composition. • Annual primary production varied between 143 and 278 mg C m −2 y −1 . • Pelagic production was highly

  17. Screening Obese Adolescents for Binge Eating Disorder in Primary Care: The Adolescent Binge Eating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamay-Weber, Catherine; Combescure, Christophe; Lanza, Lydia; Carrard, Isabelle; Haller, Dagmar M

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the performance of a simple and developmentally appropriate 10-item questionnaire (Adolescent Binge Eating Scale) for the prediction of binge eating disorder (BED) diagnosis in adolescents seen for obesity. We evaluated the performance of the questionnaire in comparison with a clinical interview, in a population of adolescents being seen for obesity. The ? 2 or Fisher exact tests were used. There were 94 adolescents aged 12-18 years (59.6% girls) who completed the study. The questionnaire demonstrated a good association with the clinical interview and distinguished different levels of risk for having a BED: participants who responded positively to questions 1 or 2 and had more than 6 positive answers to the 8 additional questions had a high risk of subclinical and clinical BED (83.3%); participants with 3 or fewer positive answers had a low risk of clinical BED (4%). The Adolescent Binge Eating Scale questionnaire is a potential screening tool to identify adolescents with obesity at high risk of BED and guide referral to a specialist to clarify the diagnosis and provide adequate care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Patterns and multi-scale drivers of phytoplankton species richness in temperate peri-urban lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catherine, Arnaud; Selma, Maloufi; Mouillot, David; Troussellier, Marc; Bernard, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Local species richness (SR) is a key characteristic affecting ecosystem functioning. Yet, the mechanisms regulating phytoplankton diversity in freshwater ecosystems are not fully understood, especially in peri-urban environments where anthropogenic pressures strongly impact the quality of aquatic ecosystems. To address this issue, we sampled the phytoplankton communities of 50 lakes in the Paris area (France) characterized by a large gradient of physico-chemical and catchment-scale characteristics. We used large phytoplankton datasets to describe phytoplankton diversity patterns and applied a machine-learning algorithm to test the degree to which species richness patterns are potentially controlled by environmental factors. Selected environmental factors were studied at two scales: the lake-scale (e.g. nutrients concentrations, water temperature, lake depth) and the catchment-scale (e.g. catchment, landscape and climate variables). Then, we used a variance partitioning approach to evaluate the interaction between lake-scale and catchment-scale variables in explaining local species richness. Finally, we analysed the residuals of predictive models to identify potential vectors of improvement of phytoplankton species richness predictive models. Lake-scale and catchment-scale drivers provided similar predictive accuracy of local species richness (R"2 = 0.458 and 0.424, respectively). Both models suggested that seasonal temperature variations and nutrient supply strongly modulate local species richness. Integrating lake- and catchment-scale predictors in a single predictive model did not provide increased predictive accuracy; therefore suggesting that the catchment-scale model probably explains observed species richness variations through the impact of catchment-scale variables on in-lake water quality characteristics. Models based on catchment characteristics, which include simple and easy to obtain variables, provide a meaningful way of predicting phytoplankton

  19. Patterns and multi-scale drivers of phytoplankton species richness in temperate peri-urban lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catherine, Arnaud, E-mail: arnocat@mnhn.fr [UMR7245 MCAM MNHN-CNRS, Muséum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CC 39, 12 rue Buffon, F-75231 Paris, Cedex 05 (France); Selma, Maloufi, E-mail: maloufi@mnhn.fr [UMR7245 MCAM MNHN-CNRS, Muséum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CC 39, 12 rue Buffon, F-75231 Paris, Cedex 05 (France); Mouillot, David, E-mail: david.mouillot@univ-montp2.fr [UMR 9190 MARBEC UM2-CNRS-IRD-UM1-IFREMER, CC 93, Place Eugène Bataillon, Université de Montpellier 2, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Troussellier, Marc, E-mail: troussel@univ-montp2.fr [UMR 9190 MARBEC UM2-CNRS-IRD-UM1-IFREMER, CC 93, Place Eugène Bataillon, Université de Montpellier 2, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Bernard, Cécile, E-mail: cbernard@mnhn.fr [UMR7245 MCAM MNHN-CNRS, Muséum National d' Histoire Naturelle, CC 39, 12 rue Buffon, F-75231 Paris, Cedex 05 (France)

    2016-07-15

    Local species richness (SR) is a key characteristic affecting ecosystem functioning. Yet, the mechanisms regulating phytoplankton diversity in freshwater ecosystems are not fully understood, especially in peri-urban environments where anthropogenic pressures strongly impact the quality of aquatic ecosystems. To address this issue, we sampled the phytoplankton communities of 50 lakes in the Paris area (France) characterized by a large gradient of physico-chemical and catchment-scale characteristics. We used large phytoplankton datasets to describe phytoplankton diversity patterns and applied a machine-learning algorithm to test the degree to which species richness patterns are potentially controlled by environmental factors. Selected environmental factors were studied at two scales: the lake-scale (e.g. nutrients concentrations, water temperature, lake depth) and the catchment-scale (e.g. catchment, landscape and climate variables). Then, we used a variance partitioning approach to evaluate the interaction between lake-scale and catchment-scale variables in explaining local species richness. Finally, we analysed the residuals of predictive models to identify potential vectors of improvement of phytoplankton species richness predictive models. Lake-scale and catchment-scale drivers provided similar predictive accuracy of local species richness (R{sup 2} = 0.458 and 0.424, respectively). Both models suggested that seasonal temperature variations and nutrient supply strongly modulate local species richness. Integrating lake- and catchment-scale predictors in a single predictive model did not provide increased predictive accuracy; therefore suggesting that the catchment-scale model probably explains observed species richness variations through the impact of catchment-scale variables on in-lake water quality characteristics. Models based on catchment characteristics, which include simple and easy to obtain variables, provide a meaningful way of predicting phytoplankton

  20. The spatial scale for cisco recruitment dynamics in Lake Superior during 1978-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Benjamin J.; Hansen, Michael J.; Gorman, Owen T.

    2012-01-01

    The cisco Coregonus artedi was once the most abundant fish species in the Great Lakes, but currently cisco populations are greatly reduced and management agencies are attempting to restore the species throughout the basin. To increase understanding of the spatial scale at which density‐independent and density‐dependent factors influence cisco recruitment dynamics in the Great Lakes, we used a Ricker stock–recruitment model to identify and quantify the appropriate spatial scale for modeling age‐1 cisco recruitment dynamics in Lake Superior. We found that the recruitment variation of ciscoes in Lake Superior was best described by a five‐parameter regional model with separate stock–recruitment relationships for the western, southern, eastern, and northern regions. The spatial scale for modeling was about 260 km (range = 230–290 km). We also found that the density‐independent recruitment rate and the rate of compensatory density dependence varied among regions at different rates. The density‐independent recruitment rate was constant among regions (3.6 age‐1 recruits/spawner), whereas the rate of compensatory density dependence varied 16‐fold among regions (range = −0.2 to −2.9/spawner). Finally, we found that peak recruitment and the spawning stock size that produced peak recruitment varied among regions. Both peak recruitment (0.5–7.1 age‐1 recruits/ha) and the spawning stock size that produced peak recruitment (0.3–5.3 spawners/ha) varied 16‐fold among regions. Our findings support the hypothesis that the factors driving cisco recruitment operate within four different regions of Lake Superior, suggest that large‐scale abiotic factors are more important than small‐scale biotic factors in influencing cisco recruitment, and suggest that fishery managers throughout Lake Superior and the entire Great Lakes basin should address cisco restoration and management efforts on a regional scale in each lake.

  1. Does lake size matter? Combining morphology and process modeling to examine the contribution of lake classes to population-scale processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Luke A.; Read, Jordan S.; Hanson, Paul C.; Stanley, Emily H.

    2014-01-01

    With lake abundances in the thousands to millions, creating an intuitive understanding of the distribution of morphology and processes in lakes is challenging. To improve researchers’ understanding of large-scale lake processes, we developed a parsimonious mathematical model based on the Pareto distribution to describe the distribution of lake morphology (area, perimeter and volume). While debate continues over which mathematical representation best fits any one distribution of lake morphometric characteristics, we recognize the need for a simple, flexible model to advance understanding of how the interaction between morphometry and function dictates scaling across large populations of lakes. These models make clear the relative contribution of lakes to the total amount of lake surface area, volume, and perimeter. They also highlight the critical thresholds at which total perimeter, area and volume would be evenly distributed across lake size-classes have Pareto slopes of 0.63, 1 and 1.12, respectively. These models of morphology can be used in combination with models of process to create overarching “lake population” level models of process. To illustrate this potential, we combine the model of surface area distribution with a model of carbon mass accumulation rate. We found that even if smaller lakes contribute relatively less to total surface area than larger lakes, the increasing carbon accumulation rate with decreasing lake size is strong enough to bias the distribution of carbon mass accumulation towards smaller lakes. This analytical framework provides a relatively simple approach to upscaling morphology and process that is easily generalizable to other ecosystem processes.

  2. Primary production in a tropical large lake: The role of phytoplankton composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darchambeau, F., E-mail: francois.darchambeau@ulg.ac.be [Chemical Oceanography Unit, University of Liège, Liège (Belgium); Sarmento, H., E-mail: hugo.sarmento@gmail.com [Department of Hydrobiology, Federal University of São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil); Descy, J.-P., E-mail: jean-pierre.descy@unamur.be [Research Unit in Environmental and Evolutionary Biology, University of Namur, Namur (Belgium)

    2014-03-01

    Phytoplankton biomass and primary production in tropical large lakes vary at different time scales, from seasons to centuries. We provide a dataset made of 7 consecutive years of phytoplankton biomass and production in Lake Kivu (Eastern Africa). From 2002 to 2008, bi-weekly samplings were performed in a pelagic site in order to quantify phytoplankton composition and biomass, using marker pigments determined by HPLC. Primary production rates were estimated by 96 in situ {sup 14}C incubations. A principal component analysis showed that the main environmental gradient was linked to a seasonal variation of the phytoplankton assemblage, with a clear separation between diatoms during the dry season and cyanobacteria during the rainy season. A rather wide range of the maximum specific photosynthetic rate (P{sub Bm}) was found, ranging between 1.15 and 7.21 g carbon g{sup −1} chlorophyll a h{sup −1}, and was best predicted by a regression model using phytoplankton composition as an explanatory variable. The irradiance at the onset of light saturation (I{sub k}) ranged between 91 and 752 μE m{sup −2} s{sup −1} and was linearly correlated with the mean irradiance in the mixed layer. The inter-annual variability of phytoplankton biomass and production was high, ranging from 53 to 100 mg chlorophyll a m{sup −2} (annual mean) and from 143 to 278 g carbon m{sup −2} y{sup −1}, respectively. The degree of seasonal mixing determined annual production, demonstrating the sensitivity of tropical lakes to climate variability. A review of primary production of other African great lakes allows situating Lake Kivu productivity in the same range as that of lakes Tanganyika and Malawi, even if mean phytoplankton biomass was higher in Lake Kivu. - Highlights: • We provide a 7-year dataset of primary production in a tropical great lake. • Specific photosynthetic rate was determined by community composition. • Annual primary production varied between 143 and 278 mg C m

  3. Environmental variables measured at multiple spatial scales exert uneven influence on fish assemblages of floodplain lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembkowski, Daniel J.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the interaction between environmental variables measured at three different scales (i.e., landscape, lake, and in-lake) and fish assemblage descriptors across a range of over 50 floodplain lakes in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley of Mississippi and Arkansas. Our goal was to identify important local- and landscape-level determinants of fish assemblage structure. Relationships between fish assemblage structure and variables measured at broader scales (i.e., landscape-level and lake-level) were hypothesized to be stronger than relationships with variables measured at finer scales (i.e., in-lake variables). Results suggest that fish assemblage structure in floodplain lakes was influenced by variables operating on three different scales. However, and contrary to expectations, canonical correlations between in-lake environmental characteristics and fish assemblage structure were generally stronger than correlations between landscape-level and lake-level variables and fish assemblage structure, suggesting a hierarchy of influence. From a resource management perspective, our study suggests that landscape-level and lake-level variables may be manipulated for conservation or restoration purposes, and in-lake variables and fish assemblage structure may be used to monitor the success of such efforts.

  4. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Proximate compositions of five economically-important fish species from Lake Victoria and Lake. Tanganyika ... the fish species desirable for consumption during this period. These fish ..... Functional ... Journal of Animal Ecology, 40 : 633-652.

  5. Emotional Eating Is Not What You Think It Is and Emotional Eating Scales Do Not Measure What You Think They Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Peggy; Jansen, Anita

    2016-01-01

    In eating research, it is common practice to group people into different eater types, such as emotional, external and restrained eaters. This categorization is generally based on scores on self-report questionnaires. However, recent studies have started to raise questions about the validity of such questionnaires. In the realm of emotional eating, a considerable number of studies, both in the lab and in naturalistic settings, fail to demonstrate increased food intake in emotional situations in self-described emotional eaters. The current paper provides a review of experimental and naturalistic studies investigating the relationships between self-reported emotional eater status, mood, and food consumption. It is concluded that emotional eating scales lack predictive and discriminative validity; they cannot be assumed to measure accurately what they intend to measure, namely increased food intake in response to negative emotions. The review is followed by a discussion of alternative interpretations of emotional eating scores that have been suggested in the past few years, i.e., concerned eating, uncontrolled eating, a tendency to attribute overeating to negative affect, and cue-reactive eating. PMID:28008323

  6. Hierarchical multi-scale classification of nearshore aquatic habitats of the Great Lakes: Western Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, J.E.; Castiglione, C.

    2010-01-01

    Classification is a valuable conservation tool for examining natural resource status and problems and is being developed for coastal aquatic habitats. We present an objective, multi-scale hydrospatial framework for nearshore areas of the Great Lakes. The hydrospatial framework consists of spatial units at eight hierarchical scales from the North American Continent to the individual 270-m spatial cell. Characterization of spatial units based on fish abundance and diversity provides a fish-guided classification of aquatic areas at each spatial scale and demonstrates how classifications may be generated from that framework. Those classification units then provide information about habitat, as well as biotic conditions, which can be compared, contrasted, and hierarchically related spatially. Examples within several representative coastal or open water zones of the Western Lake Erie pilot area highlight potential application of this classification system to management problems. This classification system can assist natural resource managers with planning and establishing priorities for aquatic habitat protection, developing rehabilitation strategies, or identifying special management actions.

  7. Construct validity of the emotional eating scale adapted for children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, A; Tanofsky-Kraff, M; Shomaker, L B; Ranzenhofer, L M; Matheson, B E; Cassidy, O L; Zocca, J M; Kozlosky, M; Yanovski, S Z; Yanovski, J A

    2012-07-01

    Emotional eating, defined as eating in response to a range of negative emotions, is common in youths. Yet, there are few easily administered and well-validated methods to assess emotional eating in pediatric populations. The current study tested the construct validity of the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) Adapted for Children and Adolescents (EES-C) by examining its relationship to observed emotional eating at laboratory test meals. A total of 151 youths (8-18 years) participated in two multi-item lunch buffet meals on separate days. They ate ad libitum after being instructed to 'eat as much as you would at a normal meal' or to 'let yourself go and eat as much as you want'. State negative affect was assessed immediately before each meal. The EES-C was completed 3 months, on average, before the first test meal. Among youths with high EES-C total scores, but not low EES-C scores, higher pre-meal state negative affect was related to greater total energy intake at both meals, with and without the inclusion of age, race, sex and body mass index (BMI) standard deviation as covariates (psmeals designed to capture both normal and disinhibited eating. Future research is required to evaluate the construct validity of the EES-C in the natural environment and the predictive validity of the EES-C longitudinally.

  8. A separate lowstand lake at the northern edge of Lake Tanganyika? Evidence from phylogeographic patterns in the cichlid genus Tropheus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sturmbauer, C.; Börger, C.; Van Steenberge, M.; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 791, č. 1 (2017), s. 51-68 ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : AFLP * Control region * Hybridization * Lake level fluctuations * mtDNA sequences * Secondary admixis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Marine biology, freshwater biology, limnology Impact factor: 2.056, year: 2016

  9. Tectonic inheritance in the development of the Kivu - north Tanganyika rift segment of the East African Rift System: role of pre-existing structures of Precambrian to early Palaeozoic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvaux, Damien; Fiama Bondo, Silvanos; Ganza Bamulezi, Gloire

    2017-04-01

    The present architecture of the junction between the Kivu rift basin and the north Tanganyika rift basin is that of a typical accommodation zone trough the Ruzizi depression. However, this structure appeared only late in the development of the Western branch of the East African Rift System and is the result of a strong control by pre-existing structures of Precambrian to early Palaeozoic origin. In the frame of a seismic hazard assessment of the Kivu rift region, we (Delvaux et al., 2016) constructed homogeneous geological, structural and neotectonic maps cross the five countries of this region, mapped the pre-rift, early rift and Late Quaternary faults and compiled the existing knowledge on thermal springs (assumed to be diagnostic of current tectonic activity along faults). We also produced also a new catalogue of historical and instrumental seismicity and defined the seismotectonic characteristics (stress field, depth of faulting) using published focal mechanism data. Rifting in this region started at about 11 Ma by initial doming and extensive fissural basaltic volcanism along normal faults sub-parallel to the axis of the future rift valley, as a consequence of the divergence between the Nubia and the Victoria plate. In a later stage, starting around 8-7 Ma, extension localized along a series of major border faults individualizing the subsiding tectonic basins from the uplifting rift shoulders, while lava evolved towards alkali basaltic composition until 2.6 Ma. During this stage, initial Kivu rift valley was extending linearly in a SSW direction, much further than its the actual termination at Bukavu, into the Mwenga-Kamituga graben, up to Namoya. The SW extremity of this graben was linked via a long oblique transfer zone to the central part of Lake Tanganyika, itself reactivating an older ductile-brittle shear zone. In the late Quaternary-early Holocene, volcanism migrated towards the center of the basin, with the development of the Virunga volcanic massif

  10. Quaternary ostracodes and molluscs from the Rukwa Basin (Tanzania) and their evolutionary and paleobiogeographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Andrew S.; Van Bocxlaer, Bert; Todd, Jonathan A.; McGlue, Michael; Michel, Ellinor; Nkotagu, Hudson H.; Grove, A.T.; Delvaux, Damien

    2013-01-01

    Much of the spectacular biodiversity of the African Great Lakes is endemic to single lake basins so that the margins of these basins or their lakes coincide with biogeographic boundaries. Longstanding debate surrounds the evolution of these endemic species, the stability of bioprovinces, and the exchange of faunas between them over geologic time as the rift developed. Because these debates are currently unsettled, we are uncertain of how much existing distribution patterns are determined by modern hydrological barriers versus reflecting past history. This study reports on late Quaternary fossils from the Rukwa Basin and integrates geological and paleoecological data to explore faunal exchange between freshwater bioprovinces, in particular with Lake Tanganyika. Lake Rukwa's water level showed large fluctuations over the last 25 ky, and for most of this period the lake contained large habitat diversity, with different species assemblages and taphonomic controls along its northern and southern shores. Comparison of fossil and modern invertebrate assemblages suggests faunal persistence through the Last Glacial Maximum, but with an extirpation event that occurred in the last 5 ky. Some of the molluscs and ostracodes studied here are closely related to taxa (or part of clades) that are currently endemic to Lake Tanganyika, but others testify to wider and perhaps older faunal exchanges between the Rukwa bioprovince and those of Lake Malawi and the Upper Congo (in particular Lake Mweru). The Rukwa Basin has a long history of rifting and lacustrine conditions and, at least temporarily, its ecosystems appear to have functioned as satellites to Lake Tanganyika in which intralacustrine speciation occurred. Paleontological studies of the Rukwa faunas are particularly relevant because of the basin's important role in the late Cenozoic biogeography of tropical Africa, and because many of the molecular traces potentially revealing this history would have been erased in the late

  11. Cross-cultural validity of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2. Psychometric evaluation in a sample of the general French population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Géraldine M; Méjean, Caroline; Bellisle, France; Andreeva, Valentina A; Sautron, Valérie; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    Intuitive eating is an adaptive dietary behavior that emphasizes eating in response to physiological hunger and satiety cues. The Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) measures such attitudes and behaviors. The aim of the present study was to adapt the IES-2 to the French context and to test its psychometric properties in 335 women and 297 men participating in the NutriNet-Santé study. We evaluated the construct validity of the IES-2 by testing hypotheses with regard to its factor structure, relationships with scores of the revised 21-item Three Factor Eating Questionnaire and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, and differences between "a priori" relevant subgroups. First, the exploratory factor analysis revealed three main dimensions: Eating for Physical Rather than Emotional Reasons, Reliance on Hunger and Satiety Cues, and Unconditional Permission to Eat. Second-order confirmatory factor analysis upheld the 3-factor solution influenced by a broader intuitive eating dimension. IES-2 total score was negatively related to cognitive restraint (r = -0.31, P < 0.0001), emotional eating (r = -0.58, P < 0.0001), uncontrolled eating (r = -0.40, P < 0.0001), and depressive symptoms (r = -0.20, P < 0.0001). IES-2 subscales showed similar correlations. Women had lower scores than did men for the IES-2 total scale (3.3 in women vs. 3.5 in men, P < 0.0001), Eating for Physical Reasons, and Unconditional Permission to Eat subscales. Current or former dieters had lower scores on the IES-2 total scale and on all subscales than did those who had never dieted (all P < 0.01). Finally, results showed satisfactory reliability for the IES-2 total scores (internal consistency = 0.85 and test-retest reliability = 0.79 over a mean 8-week period) and for its subscales. Thus, the French IES-2 can be considered a useful instrument for assessing adult intuitive eating behaviors in empirical and epidemiological studies in the

  12. Demography and genome divergence of lake and stream populations of an East African cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Bernd; Roesti, Marius; Böhne, Astrid; Roth, Olivia; Salzburger, Walter

    2017-10-01

    Disentangling the processes and mechanisms underlying adaptive diversification is facilitated by the comparative study of replicate population pairs that have diverged along a similar environmental gradient. Such a setting is realized in a cichlid fish from southern Lake Tanganyika, Astatotilapia burtoni, which occurs within the lake proper as well as in various affluent rivers. Previously, we demonstrated that independent lake and stream populations show similar adaptations to the two habitat regimes. However, little is known about the evolutionary and demographic history of the A. burtoni populations in question and the patterns of genome divergence among them. Here, we apply restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) to examine the evolutionary history, the population structure and genomic differentiation of lake and stream populations in A. burtoni. A phylogenetic reconstruction based on genome-wide molecular data largely resolved the evolutionary relationships among populations, allowing us to re-evaluate the independence of replicate lake-stream population clusters. Further, we detected a strong pattern of isolation by distance, with baseline genomic divergence increasing with geographic distance and decreasing with the level of gene flow between lake and stream populations. Genome divergence patterns were heterogeneous and inconsistent among lake-stream population clusters, which is explained by differences in divergence times, levels of gene flow and local selection regimes. In line with the latter, we only detected consistent outlier loci when the most divergent lake-stream population pair was excluded. Several of the thus identified candidate genes have inferred functions in immune and neuronal systems and show differences in gene expression between lake and stream populations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Hydroclimatic variability in the Lake Mondsee region and its relationships with large-scale climate anomaly patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbu, Norel; Ionita, Monica; Swierczynski, Tina; Brauer, Achim; Kämpf, Lucas; Czymzik, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Flood triggered detrital layers in varved sediments of Lake Mondsee, located at the northern fringe of the European Alps (47°48'N,13°23'E), provide an important archive of regional hydroclimatic variability during the mid- to late Holocene. To improve the interpretation of the flood layer record in terms of large-scale climate variability, we investigate the relationships between observational hydrological records from the region, like the Mondsee lake level, the runoff of the lake's main inflow Griesler Ache, with observed precipitation and global climate patterns. The lake level shows a strong positive linear trend during the observational period in all seasons. Additionally, lake level presents important interannual to multidecadal variations. These variations are associated with distinct seasonal atmospheric circulation patterns. A pronounced anomalous anticyclonic center over the Iberian Peninsula is associated with high lake levels values during winter. This center moves southwestward during spring, summer and autumn. In the same time, a cyclonic anomaly center is recorded over central and western Europe. This anomalous circulation extends southwestward from winter to autumn. Similar atmospheric circulation patterns are associated with river runoff and precipitation variability from the region. High lake levels are associated with positive local precipitation anomalies in all seasons as well as with negative local temperature anomalies during spring, summer and autumn. A correlation analysis reveals that lake level, runoff and precipitation variability is related to large-scale sea surface temperature anomaly patterns in all seasons suggesting a possible impact of large-scale climatic modes, like the North Atlantic Oscillation and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation on hydroclimatic variability in the Lake Mondsee region. The results presented in this study can be used for a more robust interpretation of the long flood layer record from Lake Mondsee sediments

  14. SEASONAL DIFFERENCES IN SPATIAL SCALES OF CHLOROPHYLL-A CONCENTRATION IN LAKE TAIHU,CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Spatial distribution of chlorophyll-a (chla concentration in Lake Taihu is non-uniform and seasonal variability. Chla concentration retrieval algorithms were separately established using measured data and remote sensing images (HJ-1 CCD and MODIS data in October 2010, March 2011, and September 2011. Then parameters of semi- variance were calculated on the scale of 30m, 250m and 500m for analyzing spatial heterogeneity in different seasons. Finally, based on the definitions of Lumped chla (chlaL and Distributed chla (chlaD, seasonal model of chla concentration scale error was built. The results indicated that: spatial distribution of chla concentration in spring was more uniform. In summer and autumn, chla concentration in the north of the lake such as Meiliang Bay and Zhushan Bay was higher than that in the south of Lake Taihu. Chla concentration on different scales showed the similar structure in the same season, while it had different structure in different seasons. And inversion chla concentration from MODIS 500m had a greater scale error. The spatial scale error changed with seasons. It was higher in summer and autumn than that in spring. The maximum relative error can achieve 23%.

  15. Molecular diversity and phylogenetic relationships of the gastropod ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The freshwater snails belonging to the genus Melanoides Olivier, 1804 are widespread across tropical regions of the world and endemic species have evolved in the African Lakes Malawi, Mweru and Tanganyika. The endemic Melanoides species of Lake Malawi have been investigated several times during the last century ...

  16. Eating traits questionnaires as a continuum of a single concept. Uncontrolled eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainik, Uku; Neseliler, Selin; Konstabel, Kenn; Fellows, Lesley K; Dagher, Alain

    2015-07-01

    Research on eating behaviour has identified several potentially relevant eating-related traits captured by different questionnaires. Often, these questionnaires predict Body Mass Index (BMI), but the relationship between them has not been explicitly studied. We studied the unity and diversity of questionnaires capturing five common eating-related traits: Power of Food, Eating Impulsivity, emotional eating, Disinhibition, and binge eating in women from Estonia (n = 740) and Canada (n = 456). Using bifactor analysis, we showed that a) these questionnaires are largely explained by a single factor, and b) relative to this shared factor, only some questionnaires offered additional variance in predicting BMI. Hence, these questionnaires seemed to characterise a common factor, which we label Uncontrolled Eating. Item Response Theory techniques were then applied to demonstrate that c) within this common factor, the questionnaires could be placed on a continuum of Uncontrolled Eating. That is, Eating Impulsivity focused on the milder degree, Power of Food Scale, emotional eating scales, and Disinhibition on intermediate degrees, and the Binge Eating Scale on the most severe degrees of Uncontrolled Eating. In sum, evidence from two samples showed that questionnaires capturing five common BMI-related traits largely reflected the same underlying latent trait - Uncontrolled Eating. In Estonia, some questionnaires focused on different severities of this common construct, supporting a continuum model of Uncontrolled Eating. These findings provide a starting point for developing better questionnaires of the neurobehavioural correlates of obesity, and provide a unifying perspective from which to view the existing literature. R scripts and data used for the analysis are provided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of Thermal Structure of Arctic Lakes at Local and Regional Scales Using in Situ and Multidate Landsat-8 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Liu, Hongxing; Hinkel, Kenneth; Yu, Bailang; Beck, Richard; Wu, Jianping

    2017-11-01

    The Arctic coastal plain is covered with numerous thermokarst lakes. These lakes are closely linked to climate and environmental change through their heat and water budgets. We examined the intralake thermal structure at the local scale and investigated the water temperature pattern of lakes at the regional scale by utilizing extensive in situ measurements and multidate Landsat-8 remote sensing data. Our analysis indicates that the lake skin temperatures derived from satellite thermal sensors during most of the ice-free summer period effectively represent the lake bulk temperature because the lakes are typically well-mixed and without significant vertical stratification. With the relatively high-resolution Landsat-8 thermal data, we were able to quantitatively examine intralake lateral temperature differences and gradients in relation to geographical location, topography, meteorological factors, and lake morphometry for the first time. Our results suggest that wind speed and direction not only control the vertical stratification but also influences lateral differences and gradients of lake surface temperature. Wind can considerably reduce the intralake temperature gradient. Interestingly, we found that geographical location (latitude, longitude, distance to the ocean) and lake morphometry (surface size, depth, volume) not only control lake temperature regionally but also affect the lateral temperature gradient and homogeneity level within each individual lake. For the Arctic coastal plain, at regional scales, inland and southern lakes tend to have larger horizontal temperature differences and gradients compared to coastal and northern lakes. At local scales, large and shallow lakes tend to have large lateral temperature differences relative to small and deep lakes.

  18. Eating styles in the morbidly obese: restraint eating, but not emotional and external eating, predicts dietary behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, Amy; Hevey, David

    2013-01-01

    The research explored (1) the relationships between self-reported eating style (restraint, emotional and external eating) and dietary intake and (2) emotional eater status as a moderator of food intake when emotional, in a morbidly obese population. A sample of 57 obese participants (BMI: M = 51.84, SD = 8.66) completed a five-day food diary together with a reflective diary, which assessed eating style and positive and negative affect daily. A dietician-scored food pyramid analysis of intake. Restraint eating was the only predictor (negative) of overall food intake and the variable most strongly associated with the consumption of top-shelf foods. Emotional and external eating were unrelated to food intake. Emotional eater status did not moderate food intake in response to positive and negative mood states. The findings indicated largely analogous relationships between eating style and dietary intake in this obese sample compared with previous results from healthy populations. The lack of predictive validity for emotional eating scales (when emotional) raises questions over people's ability to adequately assess their eating style and consequently, the overall validity of emotional eater scales.

  19. [Development of the pregnancy nutrition knowledge scale and its relationship with eating habits in pregnant women visiting community health center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae Won

    2009-02-01

    This study was done to develop a pregnancy nutrition knowledge scale and to examine the relationships between pregnancy nutrition knowledge and eating habits in pregnant women. With convenient sampling, 189 pregnant women who used community health centers for their ante-natal care were recruited. Data were collected using a self administered questionnaire including items on pregnancy nutrition knowledge (18 items) developed by researcher and items on eating habits (14 items). Cronbach's alpha and exploratory factor analysis were examined to test reliability and construct validity of the scale. Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to identify the relationship between pregnancy nutrition knowledge and eating habits. Cronbach's alpha of 18 items was .80. In factor analysis using principal components, 6 factors explained 65% of the total variance. The level of pregnancy nutrition knowledge was not sufficient but correlations between pregnancy nutrition knowledge and some of eating habits were significant. Specifically, pregnancy nutrition knowledge was positively correlated with good eating habits and negatively with bad eating habits. The pregnancy nutrition knowledge scale developed in this study is acceptable for nutrition education led by nurses. Pregnancy nutrition knowledge and eating habits are considered as major variables for ante-natal nutrition education. In future studies, explorations are needed on dietary intake and physiological indices in pregnant women, comparison of women at risk with those not at risk, and development of nutritional education programs for pregnant women.

  20. Computing the transport time scales of a stratified lake on the basis of Tonolli’s model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pilotti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a simple model to evaluate the transport time scales in thermally stratified lakes that do not necessarily completely mix on a regular annual basis. The model is based on the formalization of an idea originally proposed in Italian by Tonolli in 1964, who presented a mass balance of the water initially stored within a lake, taking into account the known seasonal evolution of its thermal structure. The numerical solution of this mass balance provides an approximation to the water age distribution for the conceptualised lake, from which an upper bound to the typical time scales widely used in limnology can be obtained. After discussing the original test case considered by Tonolli, we apply the model to Lake Iseo, a deep lake located in the North of Italy, presenting the results obtained on the basis of a 30 year series of data.

  1. The Mindful Eating Behavior Scale: Development and Psychometric Properties in a Sample of Dutch Adults Aged 55 Years and Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkens, Laura H H; van Strien, Tatjana; Barrada, Juan Ramón; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Visser, Marjolein

    2018-04-11

    Earlier scales on mindful eating do not measure mindful eating independent from emotional or external eating, or mindful eating in common situations. The objective was to develop a new instrument to measure the attention element of mindful eating, the Mindful Eating Behavior Scale (MEBS), and to compute the internal structure, reliabilities, and convergent validity of this scale. A cross-sectional ancillary study within the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam was conducted between fall 2014 and spring 2015. Participants were 1,227 Dutch adults aged 55 years and older from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. A selection of 20 items from existing instruments was used to design an initial version of the MEBS. The internal structure of the MEBS was evaluated using an exploratory structural equation modeling approach on half of the sample and confirmatory factor analysis on the whole sample to develop the final version of the scale. The measurement invariance of the scores was tested with respect to sex, age, and body mass index. Reliabilities of subscales were determined with Cronbach's α. To test convergent validity, the scores of the new scale were correlated with theoretically relevant variables. Two items were deleted because of low item loadings and one item because of high correlated uniqueness. The final confirmatory factor analysis model with 17 items and four domains (Focused Eating, Hunger and Satiety Cues, Eating with Awareness, and Eating without Distraction) showed good fit (comparative fit index=0.97, Tucker-Lewis index=0.96, and root mean square error of approximation=0.04). Measurement invariance was found for sex, age, and body mass index. Cronbach's α values were medium to high (.70 to .89). Most correlations were in the expected directions, which indicated good preliminary convergent validity. The MEBS was successfully developed consisting of 17 items and four domains. Because of low interfactor correlations, a total score combining the four

  2. Eating attitudes of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and obesity without eating disorder female patients: differences and similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, M S; Koritar, P; Pisciolaro, F; Mancini, M; Cordás, T A; Scagliusi, F B

    2014-05-28

    The objective was to compare eating attitudes, conceptualized as beliefs, thoughts, feelings, behaviors and relationship with food, of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) patients and a group of obese (OBS) without eating disorders (ED). Female patients from an Eating Disorder (ED) Unit with AN (n=42), BN (n=52) and BED (n=53) and from an obesity service (n=37) in Brazil answered the Disordered Eating Attitude Scale (DEAS) which evaluate eating attitudes with 5 subscales: relationship with food, concerns about food and weight gain, restrictive and compensatory practices, feelings toward eating, and idea of normal eating. OBS patients were recruited among those without ED symptoms according to the Binge Eating Scale and the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns. ANOVA was used to compare body mass index and age between groups. Bonferroni test was used to analyze multiple comparisons among groups. AN and BN patients presented more dysfunctional eating attitudes and OBS patients less dysfunctional (peating." BED patients were worst than OBS for "Relationship with food" and as dysfunctional as AN patients - besides their behavior could be considered the opposite. Differences and similarities support a therapeutic individualized approach for ED and obese patients, call attention for the theoretical differences between obesity and ED, and suggest more research focused on eating attitudes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Lake nutrient stoichiometry is less predictable than nutrient concentrations at regional and sub-continental scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sarah M; Oliver, Samantha K; Lapierre, Jean-Francois; Stanley, Emily H; Jones, John R; Wagner, Tyler; Soranno, Patricia A

    2017-07-01

    Production in many ecosystems is co-limited by multiple elements. While a known suite of drivers associated with nutrient sources, nutrient transport, and internal processing controls concentrations of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in lakes, much less is known about whether the drivers of single nutrient concentrations can also explain spatial or temporal variation in lake N:P stoichiometry. Predicting stoichiometry might be more complex than predicting concentrations of individual elements because some drivers have similar relationships with N and P, leading to a weak relationship with their ratio. Further, the dominant controls on elemental concentrations likely vary across regions, resulting in context dependent relationships between drivers, lake nutrients and their ratios. Here, we examine whether known drivers of N and P concentrations can explain variation in N:P stoichiometry, and whether explaining variation in stoichiometry differs across regions. We examined drivers of N:P in ~2,700 lakes at a sub-continental scale and two large regions nested within the sub-continental study area that have contrasting ecological context, including differences in the dominant type of land cover (agriculture vs. forest). At the sub-continental scale, lake nutrient concentrations were correlated with nutrient loading and lake internal processing, but stoichiometry was only weakly correlated to drivers of lake nutrients. At the regional scale, drivers that explained variation in nutrients and stoichiometry differed between regions. In the Midwestern U.S. region, dominated by agricultural land use, lake depth and the percentage of row crop agriculture were strong predictors of stoichiometry because only phosphorus was related to lake depth and only nitrogen was related to the percentage of row crop agriculture. In contrast, all drivers were related to N and P in similar ways in the Northeastern U.S. region, leading to weak relationships between drivers and stoichiometry

  4. Analysis of Dynamic Changeof Hong Jiannao Lake Based on Scaled Soil Moisture Monitoring Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, H.; Liu, Y.

    2018-04-01

    to climate change and human activities, Hong Jiannao Lake located in the arid and semi-arid area of China, it played a very important role in the regulation of the local climate, the balance of water resources and the maintenance of biological diversity. Hongjiannao Lake area in recent years continues to shrink, it was urgent to get the Hongjiannao Lake area change trend. This article take Hongjiannao Lake as study object using MODIS image of NIR and Red wavelength reflectivity data, selected April to October of 2000-2014,consturcted scale of SMMI (S-SMMI) based on soil moisture monitoring index (SMMI). The result indicated that lake area reduced from 46.9 km2 in 2000 to 27.8 km2 in 2014, average decay rate is 1.3 km2/a. The lake's annual change showed a trend of periodic change. In general, the lake area began to increase slowly each year in April, and the area of the lake area reached the maximum, and then decreased gradually in June to July. Finally, we analysed the main driving factors included natural, man-made, and underground mining which lead to the lake area shrink.

  5. LAGOS-NE: a multi-scaled geospatial and temporal database of lake ecological context and water quality for thousands of US lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Linda C; Beauchene, Michael; Bednar, Karen E; Bissell, Edward G; Boudreau, Claire K; Boyer, Marvin G; Bremigan, Mary T; Carpenter, Stephen R; Carr, Jamie W; Christel, Samuel T; Claucherty, Matt; Conroy, Joseph D; Downing, John A; Dukett, Jed; Filstrup, Christopher T; Funk, Clara; Gonzalez, Maria J; Green, Linda T; Gries, Corinna; Halfman, John D; Hamilton, Stephen K; Hanson, Paul C; Henry, Emily N; Herron, Elizabeth M; Hockings, Celeste; Jackson, James R; Jacobson-Hedin, Kari; Janus, Lorraine L; Jones, William W; Jones, John R; Keson, Caroline M; King, Katelyn B S; Kishbaugh, Scott A; Lathrop, Barbara; Latimore, Jo A; Lee, Yuehlin; Lottig, Noah R; Lynch, Jason A; Matthews, Leslie J; McDowell, William H; Moore, Karen E B; Neff, Brian P; Nelson, Sarah J; Oliver, Samantha K; Pace, Michael L; Pierson, Donald C; Poisson, Autumn C; Pollard, Amina I; Post, David M; Reyes, Paul O; Rosenberry, Donald O; Roy, Karen M; Rudstam, Lars G; Sarnelle, Orlando; Schuldt, Nancy J; Scott, Caren E; Smith, Nicole J; Spinelli, Nick R; Stachelek, Joseph J; Stanley, Emily H; Stoddard, John L; Stopyak, Scott B; Stow, Craig A; Tallant, Jason M; Thorpe, Anthony P; Vanni, Michael J; Wagner, Tyler; Watkins, Gretchen; Weathers, Kathleen C; Webster, Katherine E; White, Jeffrey D; Wilmes, Marcy K; Yuan, Shuai

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the factors that affect water quality and the ecological services provided by freshwater ecosystems is an urgent global environmental issue. Predicting how water quality will respond to global changes not only requires water quality data, but also information about the ecological context of individual water bodies across broad spatial extents. Because lake water quality is usually sampled in limited geographic regions, often for limited time periods, assessing the environmental controls of water quality requires compilation of many data sets across broad regions and across time into an integrated database. LAGOS-NE accomplishes this goal for lakes in the northeastern-most 17 US states. LAGOS-NE contains data for 51 101 lakes and reservoirs larger than 4 ha in 17 lake-rich US states. The database includes 3 data modules for: lake location and physical characteristics for all lakes; ecological context (i.e., the land use, geologic, climatic, and hydrologic setting of lakes) for all lakes; and in situ measurements of lake water quality for a subset of the lakes from the past 3 decades for approximately 2600–12 000 lakes depending on the variable. The database contains approximately 150 000 measures of total phosphorus, 200 000 measures of chlorophyll, and 900 000 measures of Secchi depth. The water quality data were compiled from 87 lake water quality data sets from federal, state, tribal, and non-profit agencies, university researchers, and citizen scientists. This database is one of the largest and most comprehensive databases of its type because it includes both in situ measurements and ecological context data. Because ecological context can be used to study a variety of other questions about lakes, streams, and wetlands, this database can also be used as the foundation for other studies of freshwaters at broad spatial and ecological scales. PMID:29053868

  6. LAGOS-NE: a multi-scaled geospatial and temporal database of lake ecological context and water quality for thousands of US lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soranno, Patricia A; Bacon, Linda C; Beauchene, Michael; Bednar, Karen E; Bissell, Edward G; Boudreau, Claire K; Boyer, Marvin G; Bremigan, Mary T; Carpenter, Stephen R; Carr, Jamie W; Cheruvelil, Kendra S; Christel, Samuel T; Claucherty, Matt; Collins, Sarah M; Conroy, Joseph D; Downing, John A; Dukett, Jed; Fergus, C Emi; Filstrup, Christopher T; Funk, Clara; Gonzalez, Maria J; Green, Linda T; Gries, Corinna; Halfman, John D; Hamilton, Stephen K; Hanson, Paul C; Henry, Emily N; Herron, Elizabeth M; Hockings, Celeste; Jackson, James R; Jacobson-Hedin, Kari; Janus, Lorraine L; Jones, William W; Jones, John R; Keson, Caroline M; King, Katelyn B S; Kishbaugh, Scott A; Lapierre, Jean-Francois; Lathrop, Barbara; Latimore, Jo A; Lee, Yuehlin; Lottig, Noah R; Lynch, Jason A; Matthews, Leslie J; McDowell, William H; Moore, Karen E B; Neff, Brian P; Nelson, Sarah J; Oliver, Samantha K; Pace, Michael L; Pierson, Donald C; Poisson, Autumn C; Pollard, Amina I; Post, David M; Reyes, Paul O; Rosenberry, Donald O; Roy, Karen M; Rudstam, Lars G; Sarnelle, Orlando; Schuldt, Nancy J; Scott, Caren E; Skaff, Nicholas K; Smith, Nicole J; Spinelli, Nick R; Stachelek, Joseph J; Stanley, Emily H; Stoddard, John L; Stopyak, Scott B; Stow, Craig A; Tallant, Jason M; Tan, Pang-Ning; Thorpe, Anthony P; Vanni, Michael J; Wagner, Tyler; Watkins, Gretchen; Weathers, Kathleen C; Webster, Katherine E; White, Jeffrey D; Wilmes, Marcy K; Yuan, Shuai

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the factors that affect water quality and the ecological services provided by freshwater ecosystems is an urgent global environmental issue. Predicting how water quality will respond to global changes not only requires water quality data, but also information about the ecological context of individual water bodies across broad spatial extents. Because lake water quality is usually sampled in limited geographic regions, often for limited time periods, assessing the environmental controls of water quality requires compilation of many data sets across broad regions and across time into an integrated database. LAGOS-NE accomplishes this goal for lakes in the northeastern-most 17 US states.LAGOS-NE contains data for 51 101 lakes and reservoirs larger than 4 ha in 17 lake-rich US states. The database includes 3 data modules for: lake location and physical characteristics for all lakes; ecological context (i.e., the land use, geologic, climatic, and hydrologic setting of lakes) for all lakes; and in situ measurements of lake water quality for a subset of the lakes from the past 3 decades for approximately 2600-12 000 lakes depending on the variable. The database contains approximately 150 000 measures of total phosphorus, 200 000 measures of chlorophyll, and 900 000 measures of Secchi depth. The water quality data were compiled from 87 lake water quality data sets from federal, state, tribal, and non-profit agencies, university researchers, and citizen scientists. This database is one of the largest and most comprehensive databases of its type because it includes both in situ measurements and ecological context data. Because ecological context can be used to study a variety of other questions about lakes, streams, and wetlands, this database can also be used as the foundation for other studies of freshwaters at broad spatial and ecological scales. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. LAGOS-NE: a multi-scaled geospatial and temporal database of lake ecological context and water quality for thousands of US lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soranno, Patricia A.; Bacon, Linda C.; Beauchene, Michael; Bednar, Karen E.; Bissell, Edward G.; Boudreau, Claire K.; Boyer, Marvin G.; Bremigan, Mary T.; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Carr, Jamie W.; Cheruvelil, Kendra S.; Christel, Samuel T.; Claucherty, Matt; Collins, Sarah M.; Conroy, Joseph D.; Downing, John A.; Dukett, Jed; Fergus, C. Emi; Filstrup, Christopher T.; Funk, Clara; Gonzalez, Maria J.; Green, Linda T.; Gries, Corinna; Halfman, John D.; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Hanson, Paul C.; Henry, Emily N.; Herron, Elizabeth M.; Hockings, Celeste; Jackson, James R.; Jacobson-Hedin, Kari; Janus, Lorraine L.; Jones, William W.; Jones, John R.; Keson, Caroline M.; King, Katelyn B.S.; Kishbaugh, Scott A.; Lapierre, Jean-Francois; Lathrop, Barbara; Latimore, Jo A.; Lee, Yuehlin; Lottig, Noah R.; Lynch, Jason A.; Matthews, Leslie J.; McDowell, William H.; Moore, Karen E.B.; Neff, Brian; Nelson, Sarah J.; Oliver, Samantha K.; Pace, Michael L.; Pierson, Donald C.; Poisson, Autumn C.; Pollard, Amina I.; Post, David M.; Reyes, Paul O.; Rosenberry, Donald; Roy, Karen M.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Sarnelle, Orlando; Schuldt, Nancy J.; Scott, Caren E.; Skaff, Nicholas K.; Smith, Nicole J.; Spinelli, Nick R.; Stachelek, Joseph J.; Stanley, Emily H.; Stoddard, John L.; Stopyak, Scott B.; Stow, Craig A.; Tallant, Jason M.; Tan, Pang-Ning; Thorpe, Anthony P.; Vanni, Michael J.; Wagner, Tyler; Watkins, Gretchen; Weathers, Kathleen C.; Webster, Katherine E.; White, Jeffrey D.; Wilmes, Marcy K.; Yuan, Shuai

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the factors that affect water quality and the ecological services provided by freshwater ecosystems is an urgent global environmental issue. Predicting how water quality will respond to global changes not only requires water quality data, but also information about the ecological context of individual water bodies across broad spatial extents. Because lake water quality is usually sampled in limited geographic regions, often for limited time periods, assessing the environmental controls of water quality requires compilation of many data sets across broad regions and across time into an integrated database. LAGOS-NE accomplishes this goal for lakes in the northeastern-most 17 US states.LAGOS-NE contains data for 51 101 lakes and reservoirs larger than 4 ha in 17 lake-rich US states. The database includes 3 data modules for: lake location and physical characteristics for all lakes; ecological context (i.e., the land use, geologic, climatic, and hydrologic setting of lakes) for all lakes; and in situ measurements of lake water quality for a subset of the lakes from the past 3 decades for approximately 2600–12 000 lakes depending on the variable. The database contains approximately 150 000 measures of total phosphorus, 200 000 measures of chlorophyll, and 900 000 measures of Secchi depth. The water quality data were compiled from 87 lake water quality data sets from federal, state, tribal, and non-profit agencies, university researchers, and citizen scientists. This database is one of the largest and most comprehensive databases of its type because it includes both in situ measurements and ecological context data. Because ecological context can be used to study a variety of other questions about lakes, streams, and wetlands, this database can also be used as the foundation for other studies of freshwaters at broad spatial and ecological scales.

  8. The role of sensation seeking and motivations for eating in female and male adolescents who binge eat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Pompili, Sara; Baumgartner, Emma; Baiocco, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Although different personality traits have been associated with the onset and maintenance of binge eating, the role of sensation seeking is still not well documented. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of sensation seeking and motivations for eating in male and female adolescents who binge eat. 336 adolescents (196 boys and 140 girls, mean age 17.48) completed a survey composed of Binge Eating Scale, Motivation for Eating Scale, and Brief Sensation Seeking Scale. Our results showed that for female adolescents, binge eating was significantly correlated with age, body mass index (BMI), Environmental and Emotional Eating. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that BMI was a significant positive predictor of binge eating; Emotional and Physical Eating accounted for 34% of the variance. For male adolescents, binge eating was significantly correlated with age, BMI, Boredom susceptibility, Experience seeking, environmental, Social and Emotional Eating. The most significant variables that contribute to binge symptoms, were age and BMI (that accounted for 16% of the variance), Experience seeking and Boredom susceptibility (11%) and emotional eating (18%). Our results provided support for emotional motivations as significant triggers for binge eating behavior in both male and female adolescents. Although two sensation seeking dimensions were significant predictors of binge eating in males, sensation seeking was not associated to binge eating in the female subsample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of land use on lake nutrients: The importance of scale, hydrologic connectivity, and region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soranno, Patricia A.; Cheruvelil, Kendra Spence; Wagner, Tyler; Webster, Katherine E.; Bremigan, Mary Tate

    2015-01-01

    Catchment land uses, particularly agriculture and urban uses, have long been recognized as major drivers of nutrient concentrations in surface waters. However, few simple models have been developed that relate the amount of catchment land use to downstream freshwater nutrients. Nor are existing models applicable to large numbers of freshwaters across broad spatial extents such as regions or continents. This research aims to increase model performance by exploring three factors that affect the relationship between land use and downstream nutrients in freshwater: the spatial extent for measuring land use, hydrologic connectivity, and the regional differences in both the amount of nutrients and effects of land use on them. We quantified the effects of these three factors that relate land use to lake total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) in 346 north temperate lakes in 7 regions in Michigan, USA. We used a linear mixed modeling framework to examine the importance of spatial extent, lake hydrologic class, and region on models with individual lake nutrients as the response variable, and individual land use types as the predictor variables. Our modeling approach was chosen to avoid problems of multi-collinearity among predictor variables and a lack of independence of lakes within regions, both of which are common problems in broad-scale analyses of freshwaters. We found that all three factors influence land use-lake nutrient relationships. The strongest evidence was for the effect of lake hydrologic connectivity, followed by region, and finally, the spatial extent of land use measurements. Incorporating these three factors into relatively simple models of land use effects on lake nutrients should help to improve predictions and understanding of land use-lake nutrient interactions at broad scales.

  10. Effects of recharge, Upper Floridan aquifer heads, and time scale on simulated ground-water exchange with Lake Starr, a seepage lake in central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swancar, Amy; Lee, Terrie Mackin

    2003-01-01

    Lake Starr and other lakes in the mantled karst terrain of Florida's Central Lake District are surrounded by a conductive surficial aquifer system that receives highly variable recharge from rainfall. In addition, downward leakage from these lakes varies as heads in the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer change seasonally and with pumpage. A saturated three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model was used to simulate the effects of recharge, Upper Floridan aquifer heads, and model time scale on ground-water exchange with Lake Starr. The lake was simulated as an active part of the model using high hydraulic conductivity cells. Simulated ground-water flow was compared to net ground-water flow estimated from a rigorously derived water budget for the 2-year period August 1996-July 1998. Calibrating saturated ground-water flow models with monthly stress periods to a monthly lake water budget will result in underpredicting gross inflow to, and leakage from, ridge lakes in Florida. Underprediction of ground-water inflow occurs because recharge stresses and ground-water flow responses during rainy periods are averaged over too long a time period using monthly stress periods. When inflow is underestimated during calibration, leakage also is underestimated because inflow and leakage are correlated if lake stage is maintained over the long term. Underpredicted leakage reduces the implied effect of ground-water withdrawals from the Upper Floridan aquifer on the lake. Calibrating the weekly simulation required accounting for transient responses in the water table near the lake that generated the greater range of net ground-water flow values seen in the weekly water budget. Calibrating to the weekly lake water budget also required increasing the value of annual recharge in the nearshore region well above the initial estimate of 35 percent of the rainfall, and increasing the hydraulic conductivity of the deposits around and beneath the lake. To simulate the total

  11. An empirical evaluation of the translation to Brazilian Portuguese of the Loss of Control over Eating Scale (LOCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Q. da Luz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loss of control over eating is a key feature of the most prevalent eating disorders. The Loss of Control over Eating Scale (LOCES enables a thorough assessment of loss of control over eating. Objective This study empirically evaluated the translation of the LOCES from English to Brazilian Portuguese. Methods The scale was translated to Brazilian Portuguese and back translated to English in order to check accuracy of the translation. Two hundred and ninety-three medicine and nursing students, 60 males and 233 females, 18-55 years old, with mean body mass index (BMI 23.2 kg/m2 (SD 4.1, recruited between August and December 2014, answered the Brazilian Portuguese LOCES. An exploratory factor analysis was performed. Results Exploratory factor analysis of the Brazilian Portuguese LOCES showed three distinct factors of the loss of control over eating (disgust/negative sensations, cognitive experiences/dissociation, and “positive” effects as well as moderate consistency with previous reports of exploratory factor analysis of the English version. Discussion This study showed satisfactory translation of the LOCES from English to Brazilian Portuguese, which is now ready for further validation.

  12. Motives for eating tasty foods associated with binge-eating. Results from a student and a weight-loss seeking population☆

    OpenAIRE

    Boggiano, M.M.; Burgess, E.E.; Turan, B.; Soleymani, T.; Daniel, S.; Vinson, L.D.; Lokken, K.L.; Wingo, B.C.; Morse, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS) to determine if and what motives for eating tasty foods (e.g., junk food, fast food, and desserts) are associated with binge-eating in two diverse populations. BMI and scores on the PEMS, Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), and Binge-eating Scale (BES) were obtained from 247 undergraduates at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) and 249 weight-loss seeking patients at the UAB EatRight program. Regression analyse...

  13. Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate Effects on Binge Eating Behaviour and Obsessive-Compulsive and Impulsive Features in Adults with Binge Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Susan L; Mitchell, James E; Wilfley, Denise; Gasior, Maria; Ferreira-Cornwell, M Celeste; McKay, Michael; Wang, Jiannong; Whitaker, Timothy; Hudson, James I

    2016-05-01

    In a published 11-week, placebo-controlled trial, 50 and 70 mg/d lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX), but not 30 mg/d LDX, significantly reduced binge eating days (primary endpoint) in adults with binge eating disorder (BED). This report provides descriptions of LDX effects on secondary endpoints (Binge Eating Scale [BES]; Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire [TFEQ]; Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for Binge Eating [Y-BOCS-BE]; and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, version 11 [BIS-11]) from that study. Week 11 least squares mean treatment differences favoured all LDX doses over placebo on the BES (p ≤ 0.03), TFEQ Disinhibition and Hunger subscales (all p binge eating severity and obsessive-compulsive and impulsive features of BED in addition to binge eating days. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  14. Psychometric evaluation of the German version of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzanska, Ulrike Alexandra; Warschburger, Petra

    2017-10-01

    Intuitive eating is based on a strong physical connection with the body, aligned to internal cues of hunger and satiety, and a low preoccupation with food. The aim of this study was to provide a German version of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) and to examine its psychometric properties with data collected from 532 participants aged 18-91 years. The IES-2 was translated into German following the World Health Organization guidelines (2016). Cronbach's alpha as a measure of internal consistency was 0.89 for the IES-2 total score, as well as 0.73 - 0.92 for the IES-2 subscale scores. For group differences, the results were as hypothesized: men had higher IES-2 scores than women, and participants with under- and average weight showed higher IES-2 scores than participants with overweight and obesity. Participants without a dieting history had higher IES-2 scores than former or current dieters. In line with our hypotheses regarding construct validity, the IES-2 score had negative associations with emotional eating, restraint eating, external eating, binge eating and eating disorder symptomatology, as well as positive associations with self-efficacy and mental health-related quality of life. Second-order confirmatory factor analysis replicated the four-factor solution, with intuitive eating as a higher-order factor. These findings demonstrate that the German version of the IES-2 is a useful tool to assess intuitive eating in the general German population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Eating Disorder Quality of Life Scale (EDQLS) in ethnically diverse college women: an exploratory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoury, Liya M; Rozalski, Vincent; Barchard, Kimberly A; Warren, Cortney S

    2018-03-01

    Extant research suggests that disordered eating is common in college women and is associated with decreased quality of life. The Eating Disorder Quality of Life Scale (EDQLS) examines impairment to disordered eating-related quality of life, but has not been validated in college women. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine the reliability, validity, and factor structure of the EDQLS in a diverse sample of 971 college women. Students from a large United States university completed questionnaires examining disordered eating and the EDQLS online. The EDQLS demonstrated excellent internal consistency and good convergent validity with the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDEQ). Contrary to the original 12-domain design of the EDQLS, principal component analyses suggested five factors that mapped onto the following constructs: (1) Positive Emotionality; (2) Body/Weight Dissatisfaction; (3) Disordered Eating Behaviors; (4) Negative Emotionality; and (5) Social Engagement. However, 15 of the 40 items loaded onto multiple factors. Total scores on the EDQLS are reliable and valid when used with diverse samples of college women, but some revisions are needed to create subscales than can justifiably be used in clinical practice.

  16. The Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale: psychometric features within a clinical population and a cut-off point to differentiate clinical patients from healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbenborg, M.A.M.; Danner, U.N.; Larsen, J.K.; van der Veer, N.; van Elburg, A.A.; de Ridder, D.T.; Evers, C.; Stice, E.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    The Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS) is a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Research has provided evidence of the reliability and validity of this scale in non-clinical populations. Our study is the first to examine the

  17. Fine-scale acoustic telemetry reveals unexpected lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, spawning habitats in northern Lake Huron, North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Thomas; Farha, Steve A.; Thompson, Henry T.; Holbrook, Christopher; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Riley, Stephen; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji; Krueger, Charles C.

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, spawning habitat in the Laurentian Great Lakes have used time- and labour-intensive survey methods and have focused on areas with historic observations of spawning aggregations and on habitats prejudged by researchers to be suitable for spawning. As an alternative, we used fine-scale acoustic telemetry to locate, describe and compare lake trout spawning habitats. Adult lake trout were implanted with acoustic transmitters and tracked during five consecutive spawning seasons in a 19–27 km2 region of the Drummond Island Refuge, Lake Huron, using the VEMCO Positioning System. Acoustic telemetry revealed discrete areas of aggregation on at least five reefs in the study area, subsequently confirmed by divers to contain deposited eggs. Notably, several identified spawning sites would likely not have been discovered using traditional methods because either they were too small and obscure to stand out on a bathymetric map or because they did not conform to the conceptual model of spawning habitat held by many biologists. Our most unique observation was egg deposition in gravel and rubble substrates located at the base of and beneath overhanging edges of large boulders. Spawning sites typically comprised <10% of the reef area and were used consistently over the 5-year study. Evaluation of habitat selection from the perspective of fish behaviour through use of acoustic transmitters offers potential to expand current conceptual models of critical spawning habitat.

  18. How many species of cichlid fishes are there in African lakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, G F; Seehausen, O; Knight, M E; Allender, C J; Robinson, R L

    2001-03-01

    The endemic cichlid fishes of Lakes Malawi, Tanganyika and Victoria are textbook examples of explosive speciation and adaptive radiation, and their study promises to yield important insights into these processes. Accurate estimates of species richness of lineages in these lakes, and elsewhere, will be a necessary prerequisite for a thorough comparative analysis of the intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing rates of diversification. This review presents recent findings on the discoveries of new species and species flocks and critically appraises the relevant evidence on species richness from recent studies of polymorphism and assortative mating, generally using behavioural and molecular methods. Within the haplochromines, the most species-rich lineage, there are few reported cases of postzygotic isolation, and these are generally among allopatric taxa that are likely to have diverged a relatively long time in the past. However, many taxa, including many which occur sympatrically and do not interbreed in nature, produce viable, fertile hybrids. Prezygotic barriers are more important, and persist in laboratory conditions in which environmental factors have been controlled, indicating the primary importance of direct mate preferences. Studies to date indicate that estimates of alpha (within-site) diversity appear to be robust. Although within-species colour polymorphisms are common, these have been taken into account in previous estimates of species richness. However, overall estimates of species richness in Lakes Malawi and Victoria are heavily dependent on the assignation of species status to allopatric populations differing in male colour. Appropriate methods for testing the specific status of allopatric cichlid taxa are reviewed and preliminary results presented.

  19. Eating habits, knowledge about cancer prevention and the HPLP scale in Turkish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Hafize Ozturk; Ceber, Esin; Sogukpinar, Neriman; Saydam, Birsen Karaca; Otles, Semih; Ozenturk, Gulsun

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional status and healthy lifestyle are important factors not only in cancer etiology but also for prevention efforts. A good nutritional status contributes to a healthy life with high economic, social and cultural level. Unhealthy eating habits are part of risky behavior seen from adolescence. The present study was therefore carried out to determine eating habits, level of knowledge about cancer prevention and behavior of a group of adolescents. Data were collected using questionnaire covering eating habits and knowledge of adolescents on prevention from cancer, and special scale (HPLP) to determine the related behavior. Three hundred sixty six of 390 students volunteered for study. Eating habits and the level of cancer prevention knowledge were similar for both genders, except for the exercise issue. The mean total points of adolescents in the Health Promotion Behavior and Subscales was 113,63. While spiritual growth had the highest score in HPLP subscale, exercise had a minimal score. Exercise was the only HPLP subscale with a statistically significant difference between male and female genders. Although they have some information, the adolescents surveyed did not have preventive skills relative to their practical life. In general in order to ensure cancer prevention and a healthy life style social, cultural and sportive activities should be encouraged and educational programmes supporting these goals should be designed and applied for all stages of life, starting in early childhood.

  20. Organochlorine compounds in bald eagle and common loon eggs from Androscoggin Lake and the Androscoggin River watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Reduced productivity has been documented in fish‐eating birds inhabiting Androscoggin Lake in west‐central Maine. The cause of reduced productivity of fish‐eating...

  1. Emotion regulation difficulties in disordered eating: Examining the psychometric properties of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale among Spanish adults and its interrelations with personality and eating disorder severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines eWolz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aims of the study were to 1 validate the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS in a sample of Spanish adults with and without eating disorders, and 2 explore the role of emotion regulation difficulties in eating disorders, including its mediating role in the relation between key personality traits and ED severity Methods: 134 patients (121 female, mean age = 29 years with anorexia nervosa (n = 30, bulimia nervosa (n = 54, binge eating (n = 20, or Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorders (n = 30 and 74 healthy control participants (51 female, mean age = 21 years reported on general psychopathology, eating disorder severity, personality traits and difficulties in emotion regulation. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to examine the psychometrics of the DERS in this Spanish sample (Aim 1. Additionally, to examine the role of emotion regulation difficulties in eating disorders (Aim 2, differences in emotion regulation difficulties across eating disorder subgroups were examined and structural equation modeling was used to explore the interrelations among emotion regulation, personality traits, and eating disorder severity. Results: Results support the validity and reliability of the DERS within this Spanish adult sample and suggest that this measure has a similar factor structure in this sample as in the original sample. Moreover, emotion regulation difficulties were found to differ as a function of eating disorder subtype and to mediate the relation between two specific personality traits (i.e., high harm avoidance and low self-directedness and eating disorder severity. Conclusions: Personality traits of high harm avoidance and low self-directedness may increase vulnerability to eating disorder pathology indirectly, through emotion regulation difficulties.

  2. Organic sedimentation in modern lacustrine systems: A case study from Lake Malawi, East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Barry J. Katz,; Christopher A. Scholz,; Peter K. Swart,

    2015-01-01

    inorganic sediment from less dense OM and allows terrestrial OM to preferentially be transported farther offshore. The conclusion is that for the organic carbon content in these regions to be elevated a mixed terrestrial-lacustrine origin is required. The hydrodynamic separation of mineral and organic constituents is most pronounced in regions with shallow bathymetric gradients, consistent with previous findings from Lake Tanganyika.

  3. The Relationship between Eating and Lifestyle Habits and Cancer in Van Lake Region: Another Endemic Region for Esophageal and Gastric Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Sebahattin; Yılmaz, E Murat; Özden, Ferhat; Kotan, Cetin; Okut, Hayrettin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the relationship between esophageal and gastric cancers commonly seen in Van Lake region and the traditional eating habits of the geography. Materials and Methods. Esophageal and gastric cancer cases, who underwent surgery between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013, were examined. Pathology reports of the patients and presence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) were recorded. Surveys were filled by face to face meeting or telephone call. Control group was created with randomly selected individuals without any cancer diagnosis having age, gender, and socioeconomic characteristics similar to patient group. All data were analyzed using SAS.9.3 statistical programme. Results. Compared with the control group, herby cheese consumption (a component of eating habits) and smoking were significantly higher in the patient group (P gender, and significant difference was found between the groups (P = 0.0013). As a result of the analysis with logistic regression more than 150 gr of herby cheese consumption per day was found to increase the cancer risk (odds ratio 1.017; 95% CI: 1.012-1.022). Conclusion. A high consumption of herby cheese, cooking bread on tandoor, and heavy smoking were seen to be important risk factors for esophageal and gastric cancers.

  4. First insights into the diversity of gill monogeneans of 'Gnathochromis' and Limnochromis (Teleostei, Cichlidae) in Burundi: do the parasites mirror host ecology and phylogenetic history?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kmentová, N.; Gelnar, M.; Koblmüller, Stephan; Vanhove, M. P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, e1629 (2016), e1629 ISSN 2167-8359 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Cichlidogyrus * Ectoparasites * Lake Tanganyika * Limnochromini * Tropheini Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.177, year: 2016

  5. Development of Long Chain Alkyl Diol δD as a Paleohydrological Proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, A.; Russell, J. M.; Cordero, D.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding past hydroclimate is important to better understand and prepare for future climate changes. Past hydrological change is often studied through δD of lipid biomarkers preserved in sediment. Long chain alkyl diols are lipid biomarkers that are widely distributed in lake and marine sediments. These compounds are produced by certain species of diatoms and algae (Eustigmatophytes). Diol δD is expected to record relative precipitation and evaporation, and other lake surface processes. This would be a valuable addition to the repertoire of organic compounds used for hydrologic reconstruction, such as leaf waxes which record precipitation. While long chain alkyl diols present an opportunity to expand the range of compounds available for compound specific isotope analysis, studies of diol δD are scarce. This study aims to compare diol and leaf wax δD records from Lake Tanganyika spanning approximately the past 20 kyrs in order to elucidate the controlling factors on diol δD values and evaluate the effectiveness of such a record as a paleohydrological proxy. If viable, diol δD records could be used to gain a deeper understanding of past climates. δD leaf wax records have been previously measured in Lake Tanganyika cores (Tierney et al., 2008). This study measures δD of long chain alkyl diols from the same cores in order to compare records. Our current measurements show significant deviations of the diol record from the leaf wax record at times when large magnitude changes in the leaf wax record are occurring, such as a less pronounced Younger Dryas and a more gradual decrease in δD values after Heinrich 1 than the sudden shift expressed by the leaf wax record. In addition to generating a diol δD record through time at Lake Tanganyika, we have also measured diol δD in surface sediments from several east African lakes in order to examine the potential for a proxy calibration. A positive correlation between diol and lake water δD has been observed

  6. Millennial-scale variability in Holocene aquatic productivity from Burial Lake, Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenbinder, Matthew S.; Abbott, Mark B.; Stoner, Joseph S.; Ortiz, Joseph D.; Finney, Bruce P.; Dorfman, Jason M.; Stansell, Nathan D.

    2018-05-01

    Holocene records of lacustrine primary production are commonly used to reconstruct past changes in environmental and climatic conditions. While several methods exist to infer paleoproductivity trends, few studies to date have applied multiple geochemical indices in the same core sequence from Arctic lakes to evaluate their fidelity and sensitivity to specific climate variables over long (Holocene length) timescales. In this study, we evaluate sub-century to millennial-scale fluctuations in paleoproductivity over the Holocene using geochemical (biogenic opal and sedimentary chlorin) analyses of sediments from Burial Lake in the western Brooks Range, Alaska. Large fluctuations in opal and related proxies occur at millennial timescales over the last 10,000 years. We interpret the changes in opal to result from variability in diatom productivity, which is indirectly mediated by climate primarily through changes in the duration of the ice-free growing season and the availability of limiting nutrients at this oligotrophic, tundra lake. Comparison of the opal and sedimentary chlorin record, which is correlated with TOC, shows contrasting patterns on both short (century to multi-century) and relatively long (millennial) time scales. The concentration of opal far exceeds that of TOC and variations in sediment dry bulk density, driven by changes in the accumulation of opal, are likely responsible in part for the variations in sedimentary chlorin. Further, C/N ratio values indicate a mixed algal-terrestrial source of sedimentary organic matter. This result highlights the complexity in the climatic interpretation of sedimentary chlorin as an index of whole lake production, because the signal is prone to dilution/concentration from opal and also reflects a combination of aquatic and terrestrial production. Time series analysis of the productivity records indicates the presence of a significant ∼1500-yr oscillation in opal concentration, which has been found in North Atlantic

  7. Local to regional scale industrial heavy metal pollution recorded in sediments of large freshwater lakes in central Europe (lakes Geneva and Lucerne) over the last centuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thevenon, Florian; Graham, Neil D.; Chiaradia, Massimo; Arpagaus, Philippe; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2011-01-01

    This research first focuses on the spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals from contrasting environments (highly polluted to deepwater sites) of Lake Geneva. The mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) records from two deepwater sites show that the heavy metal variations before the industrial period are primarily linked to natural weathering input of trace elements. By opposition, the discharge of industrial treated wastewaters into Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva during the second part of the 20th century, involved the sedimentation of highly metal-contaminated sediments in the area surrounding the WWTP outlet pipe discharge. Eventually, a new Pb isotope record of sediments from Lake Lucerne identifies the long-term increasing anthropogenic lead pollution after ca. 1500, probably due to the development of metallurgical activities during the High Middle Ages. These data furthermore allows to compare the recent anthropogenic sources of water pollution from three of the largest freshwater lakes of Western Europe (lakes Geneva, Lucerne, and Constance). High increases in Pb and Hg highlight the regional impact of industrial pollution after ca. 1750–1850, and the decrease of metal pollution in the 1980s due to the effects of remediation strategies such as the implementation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, at all the studied sites, the recent metal concentrations remain higher than pre-industrial levels. Moreover, the local scale pollution data reveal two highly contaminated sites (> 100 μg Pb/g dry weight sediment) by industrial activities, during the late-19th and early-20th centuries (Lake Lucerne) and during the second part of the 20th century (Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva). Overall, the regional scale pollution history inferred from the three large and deep perialpine lakes points out at the pollution of water systems by heavy metals during the last two centuries due to the discharge of industrial effluents. Highlights: ► Natural sources dominated trace element

  8. Eating styles in major depressive disorder: Results from a large-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paans, Nadine P G; Bot, Mariska; van Strien, Tatjana; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Visser, Marjolein; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2018-02-01

    Depressed persons have been found to present disturbances in eating styles, but it is unclear whether eating styles are different in subgroups of depressed patients. We studied the association between depressive disorder, severity, course and specific depressive symptom profiles and unhealthy eating styles. Cross-sectional and course data from 1060 remitted depressed patients, 309 currently depressed patients and 381 healthy controls from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety were used. Depressive disorders (DSM-IV based psychiatric interview) and self-reported depressive symptoms (Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology) were related to emotional, external and restrained eating (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire) using analyses of covariance and linear regression. Remitted and current depressive disorders were significantly associated with higher emotional eating (Cohen's d = 0.40 and 0.60 respectively, p eating (Cohen's d = 0.20, p = 0.001 and Cohen's d = 0.32, p eating styles between depression course groups were observed. Associations followed a dose-response association, with more emotional and external eating when depression was more severe (both p-values eating (p depressive symptoms, neuro-vegetative depressive symptoms contributed relatively more to emotional and external eating, while mood and anxious symptoms contributed relatively less to emotional and external eating. No depression associations were found with restrained eating. Intervention programs for depression should examine whether treating disordered eating specifically in those with neuro-vegetative, atypical depressive symptoms may help prevent or minimize adverse health consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Real-time sampling of reasons for hedonic food consumption: Further validation of the Palatable Eating Motives Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M. Boggiano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Highly palatable foods play a salient role in obesity and binge-eating, and if habitually eaten to deal with intrinsic and extrinsic factors unrelated to metabolic need, may compromise adaptive coping and interpersonal skills. This study used event sampling methodology (ESM to examine whether individuals who report eating palatable foods primarily to cope, to enhance reward, to be social, or to conform, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS, actually eat these foods primarily for the motive(s they report on the PEMS. Secondly this study examined if the previously reported ability of the PEMS Coping motive to predict BMI would replicate if the real-time (ESM-reported coping motive was used to predict BMI. A total of 1691 palatable eating events were collected from 169 college students over 4 days. Each event included the day, time, and types of tasty foods or drinks consumed followed by a survey that included an abbreviated version of the PEMS, hunger as an additional possible motive, and a question assessing general perceived stress during the eating event. Two-level mixed modeling confirmed that ESM-reported motives correlated most strongly with their respective PEMS motives and that all were negatively associated with eating for hunger. While stress surrounding the eating event was strongly associated with the ESM-coping motive, its inclusion in the model as a predictor of this motive did not abolish the significant association between ESM and PEMS Coping scores. Regression models confirmed that scores on the ESM-coping motive predicted BMI. These findings provide ecological validity for the PEMS to identify true-to-life motives for consuming palatable foods. This further adds to the utility of the PEMS in individualizing, and hence improving, treatment strategies for obesity, binge-eating, dietary nutrition, coping, reward acquisition, and psychosocial skills.

  10. Body image and nonsuicidal self-injury: Validation of the Body Investment Scale in participants with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, J H; Cañabate, M; García-Alandete, J; Llorca, G; Real-López, M; Beltrán, M; Pérez, S

    2018-01-01

    The Body Investment Scale (BIS) assesses body image feelings, body care, protection of the body, and comfort in touch, in order to identify and distinguish participants with self-harming and self-destructive tendencies. However, the psychometric properties of the BIS were not analysed in participants diagnosed with eating disorders. The main objective of the present study is to confirm the factor structure of the Spanish version of the BIS and analyse its psychometric properties in a sample composed of women diagnosed with eating disorders. Participants were 250 Spanish women between 12 and 60 years old (M = 26.05, SD = 11.97) diagnosed with eating disorders. A confirmatory factor analysis showed a poor fit of the original BIS. The final model showed an acceptable 4-factor structure (Body Feelings, α = .88; Body Touch, α = .82; Body Protection, α = .77; Body Care, α = .68), with a good fit to the data (SBχ 2 (246)  = 393.21, CFI = .906, IFI = .908, RMSEA = .049). The relationships between the BIS and both the Purpose-In-Life Test-10 Items and Beck Hopelessness Scale were analysed, as well as differences in the BIS score according to nonsuicidal self-injuries and suicidal ideation in the past year. The BIS is an appropriate instrument to assess the body investment dimension of body image in women with eating disorders. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. To eat or not to eat-international experiences with eating during hemodialysis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Brandon; Benner, Deborah; Burgess, Mary; Stasios, Maria; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Wilund, Kenneth R

    2014-11-01

    Providing food or nutrition supplements during hemodialysis (HD) may be associated with improved nutritional status and reduced mortality; however, despite these potential benefits, eating practices vary across countries, regions, and clinics. Understanding present clinic practices and clinician experiences with eating during HD may help outline best practices in this controversial area. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine clinical practices and experiences related to eating during HD treatment. We surveyed clinicians about their clinic practices during the 2014 International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism Conference. We received 73 responses from six continents. Respondents were primarily dietitians (71%) working at units housed in a hospital (63%). Sixty-one clinics (85%) allowed patients to eat during treatment, with 47 of these patients (65%) actively encouraging eating. Fifty-three clinics (73%) provided food during HD. None of the nine clinics from North America, however, provided food during treatment. The majority (47 clinics; 64%) provided supplements during treatment. Clinics in the hospital setting were more likely to provide food during treatment, whereas outpatient clinics were less likely to provide nutrition supplements (P≤ 0.05 for both). We also asked clinicians about their experience with six commonly cited reasons to restrict eating during treatment using a four-point scale. Clinicians responded they observed the following conditions "rarely" or "never": choking (98%), reduced Kt/V (98%), infection control issues (96%), spills or pests (83%), gastrointestinal issues (71%), and hypotension (62%). Our results indicate that while eating is common during treatment in some areas, disparities may exist in global practices, and most of the proposed negative sequelae of eating during HD are not frequently observed in clinical practice. Whether these disparities in practice can explain global differences in albumin warrants

  12. Controls of dissolved organic matter quality: Evidence from a large-scale boreal lake survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothawala, D.N.; Stedmon, Colin; Müller, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Inland waters transport large amounts of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from terrestrial environments to the oceans, but DOM also reacts en route, with substantial water column losses by mineralization and sedimentation. For DOM transformations along the aquatic continuum, lakes play an important...... role as they retain waters in the landscape allowing for more time to alter DOM. We know DOM losses are significant at the global scale, yet little is known about how the reactivity of DOM varies across landscapes and climates. DOM reactivity is inherently linked to its chemical composition. We used...... analyzed in relation to lake chemistry, catchment, and climate characteristics. Land cover, particularly the percentage of water in the catchment, was a primary factor explaining variability in PARAFAC components. Likewise, lake water retention time influenced DOM quality. These results suggest...

  13. Local to regional scale industrial heavy metal pollution recorded in sediments of large freshwater lakes in central Europe (lakes Geneva and Lucerne) over the last centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenon, Florian; Graham, Neil D; Chiaradia, Massimo; Arpagaus, Philippe; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2011-12-15

    This research first focuses on the spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals from contrasting environments (highly polluted to deepwater sites) of Lake Geneva. The mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) records from two deepwater sites show that the heavy metal variations before the industrial period are primarily linked to natural weathering input of trace elements. By opposition, the discharge of industrial treated wastewaters into Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva during the second part of the 20th century, involved the sedimentation of highly metal-contaminated sediments in the area surrounding the WWTP outlet pipe discharge. Eventually, a new Pb isotope record of sediments from Lake Lucerne identifies the long-term increasing anthropogenic lead pollution after ca. 1500, probably due to the development of metallurgical activities during the High Middle Ages. These data furthermore allows to compare the recent anthropogenic sources of water pollution from three of the largest freshwater lakes of Western Europe (lakes Geneva, Lucerne, and Constance). High increases in Pb and Hg highlight the regional impact of industrial pollution after ca. 1750-1850, and the decrease of metal pollution in the 1980s due to the effects of remediation strategies such as the implementation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, at all the studied sites, the recent metal concentrations remain higher than pre-industrial levels. Moreover, the local scale pollution data reveal two highly contaminated sites (>100 μg Pb/g dry weight sediment) by industrial activities, during the late-19th and early-20th centuries (Lake Lucerne) and during the second part of the 20th century (Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva). Overall, the regional scale pollution history inferred from the three large and deep perialpine lakes points out at the pollution of water systems by heavy metals during the last two centuries due to the discharge of industrial effluents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Eating disorder beliefs and behaviours across eating disorder diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Steven; Goss, Ken

    2014-01-01

    To test for differences between diagnostic groups on the severity of eating disorder beliefs and behaviours, evaluate the clinical significance of such differences, and assess the extent to which these beliefs and behaviours may be present at clinically significant levels across eating disorder diagnoses. 136 adult women outpatients (aged 18-65, with a BMI over 15) were diagnosed with an eating disorder and completed the Stirling Eating Disorder Scale. The expected pattern of statistically significant differences was found between diagnostic groups on anorexic dietary beliefs and behaviours and bulimic dietary beliefs and behaviours. A high percentage of participants in each diagnostic group scored above the clinical cut-off on the eating disorder belief and behaviour measures and a very high percentage of participants in each group reported clinically significant levels of restricting beliefs. Transdiagnostic or functional analytic approaches to treatment planning may lead to more effective interventions than current, diagnostically-based, care pathways. The high prevalence of restricting beliefs reported suggested that this may need to be a key focus for intervention for the majority of individuals presenting with an eating disorder. © 2013.

  15. An overview of the Gyrodactylus (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) species parasitizing African catfishes, and their morphological and molecular diversity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikrylová, I.; Blažek, Radim; Vanhove, M. P. M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 3 (2012), s. 1185-1200 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Monogenea * South Africa * Lake Tanganyika * Cichlid fishes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.852, year: 2012

  16. Relationship between work-family conflict and unhealthy eating: Does eating style matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukri, Madihah; Jones, Fiona; Conner, Mark

    2018-04-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that work-family conflict is implicated in poor eating patterns. Yet, the underlying mechanism remains unexplored. The objectives of the present study were to demonstrate the interplay between work-family conflict, eating style, and unhealthy eating, and to test whether body mass index (BMI) and its interactions further explicate the relationships. In this study, 586 Malaysian adults (normal weight n = 437, overweight n = 149) completed a questionnaire, which included demographic variables, work-family scales, eating style measures, namely, restrained, emotional or external eating and reported food intake. As hypothesized, results showed that family-to-work conflict (FWC), emotional eating and external eating were positively related to unhealthy food consumption. In addition, emotional eating was found to moderate the impact of FCW on eating. These findings are consistent with research that has revealed emotional eating can indeed increase the positive association between stress such as conflict and unhealthy food choices. However, we found no clear support for the interactive effects of BMI. Our research builds on the findings of existing research as it demonstrates the role of eating style in explaining the association between work-family conflict and unhealthy eating. This conclusion has potential implications for appropriate interventions and calls for the enhancement of various policies to tackle obesity and other health problems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Eat for life: a work site feasibility study of a novel mindfulness-based intuitive eating intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Hannah E; Rossy, Lynn; Mintz, Laurie B; Schopp, Laura

    2014-01-01

    To examine the efficacy of a novel intervention for problematic eating behaviors and body dissatisfaction. Participants enrolled in the intervention or waitlist comparison group were assessed at pre and post 10 weeks. Midwestern university. One hundred twenty-four female employees or partners/spouses. Eat for Life is a 10-week group intervention integrating mindfulness and intuitive eating skills. Self-report questionnaires included the Intuitive Eating Scale, Body Appreciation Scale, Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, Questionnaire for Eating Disorder Diagnoses, and an author-constructed supplemental and demographic questionnaire. Analyses of covariance and ordinal regression measured group differences. Structural equation modeling examined mediation effects. Results . Significant differences between groups were observed for body appreciation (F1,121 = 40.17, p = .000, partial eta squared = .25), intuitive eating (F1,121 = 67.44, p = .000, partial eta squared = .36), and mindfulness (F1,121 = 30.50, p = .000, partial eta squared = .20), with mean scores significantly higher in the intervention group than waitlist comparison group after 10 weeks. The intervention group was 3.65 times more likely to be asymptomatic for disordered eating than the comparison group. Mindfulness served as a partial mediator. The study provides support for an intervention combining intuitive eating and mindfulness for treatment of problematic eating behaviors and body dissatisfaction, with limitations including self-selection and lack of active control group.

  18. The Relationship between Eating and Lifestyle Habits and Cancer in Van Lake Region: Another Endemic Region for Esophageal and Gastric Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, S.; Kotan, C.; Ylmaz, E. M.

    2015-01-01

    To examine the relationship between esophageal and gastric cancers commonly seen in Van Lake region and the traditional eating habits of the geography. Materials and Methods. Esophageal and gastric cancer cases, who underwent surgery between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013, were examined. Pathology reports of the patients and presence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) were recorded. Surveys were filled by face to face meeting or telephone call. Control group was created with randomly selected individuals without any cancer diagnosis having age, gender, and socioeconomic characteristics similar to patient group. All data were analyzed using SAS.9.3 statistical programme. Results. Compared with the control group, herby cheese consumption (a component of eating habits) and smoking were significantly higher in the patient group (P<0.001). Tandoor exposure is compared in terms of female gender, and significant difference was found between the groups (P=0.0013). As a result of the analysis with logistic regression more than 150 gr of herby cheese consumption per day was found to increase the cancer risk (odds ratio 1.017; 95% CI: 1.012-1.022). Conclusion. A high consumption of herby cheese, cooking bread on tandoor, and heavy smoking were seen to be important risk factors for esophageal and gastric cancers.

  19. Regional-scale analysis of lake outburst hazards in the southwestern Pamir, Tajikistan, based on remote sensing and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mergili

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the hazards emanating from the sudden drainage of alpine lakes in South-Western Tajik Pamir. In the last 40 yr, several new lakes have formed in the front of retreating glacier tongues, and existing lakes have grown. Other lakes are dammed by landslide deposits or older moraines. In 2002, sudden drainage of a glacial lake in the area triggered a catastrophic debris flow. Building on existing approaches, a rating scheme was devised allowing quick, regional-scale identification of potentially hazardous lakes and possible impact areas. This approach relies on GIS, remote sensing and empirical modelling, largely based on medium-resolution international datasets. Out of the 428 lakes mapped in the area, 6 were rated very hazardous and 34 hazardous. This classification was used for the selection of lakes requiring in-depth investigation. Selected cases are presented and discussed in order to understand the potentials and limitations of the approach used. Such an understanding is essential for the appropriate application of the methodology for risk mitigation purposes.

  20. Local to regional scale industrial heavy metal pollution recorded in sediments of large freshwater lakes in central Europe (lakes Geneva and Lucerne) over the last centuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thevenon, Florian, E-mail: Florian.Thevenon@yahoo.fr [Institute F.-A. Forel, University of Geneva, Versoix (Switzerland); Graham, Neil D. [Institute F.-A. Forel, University of Geneva, Versoix (Switzerland); Chiaradia, Massimo [Department of Mineralogy, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Arpagaus, Philippe; Wildi, Walter; Pote, John [Institute F.-A. Forel, University of Geneva, Versoix (Switzerland)

    2011-12-15

    This research first focuses on the spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals from contrasting environments (highly polluted to deepwater sites) of Lake Geneva. The mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) records from two deepwater sites show that the heavy metal variations before the industrial period are primarily linked to natural weathering input of trace elements. By opposition, the discharge of industrial treated wastewaters into Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva during the second part of the 20th century, involved the sedimentation of highly metal-contaminated sediments in the area surrounding the WWTP outlet pipe discharge. Eventually, a new Pb isotope record of sediments from Lake Lucerne identifies the long-term increasing anthropogenic lead pollution after ca. 1500, probably due to the development of metallurgical activities during the High Middle Ages. These data furthermore allows to compare the recent anthropogenic sources of water pollution from three of the largest freshwater lakes of Western Europe (lakes Geneva, Lucerne, and Constance). High increases in Pb and Hg highlight the regional impact of industrial pollution after ca. 1750-1850, and the decrease of metal pollution in the 1980s due to the effects of remediation strategies such as the implementation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, at all the studied sites, the recent metal concentrations remain higher than pre-industrial levels. Moreover, the local scale pollution data reveal two highly contaminated sites (> 100 {mu}g Pb/g dry weight sediment) by industrial activities, during the late-19th and early-20th centuries (Lake Lucerne) and during the second part of the 20th century (Vidy Bay of Lake Geneva). Overall, the regional scale pollution history inferred from the three large and deep perialpine lakes points out at the pollution of water systems by heavy metals during the last two centuries due to the discharge of industrial effluents. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Natural sources

  1. Impacts of nutrients and pesticides from small- and large-scale agriculture on the water quality of Lake Ziway, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teklu, Berhan M.; Hailu, Amare; Wiegant, Daniel A.; Scholten, Bernice S.; Brink, van den Paul J.

    2018-01-01

    The area around Lake Ziway in Ethiopia is going through a major agricultural transformation with both small-scale farmers and large horticultural companies using pesticides and fertilisers at an increased rate. To be able to understand how this influences the water quality of Lake Ziway, water

  2. Impacts of nutrients and pesticides from small- and large-scale agriculture on the water quality of Lake Ziway, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teklu, Berhan M.; Hailu, Amare; Wiegant, Daniel A.; Scholten, Bernice S.; Brink, van den Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    The area around Lake Ziway in Ethiopia is going through a major agricultural transformation with both small-scale farmers and large horticultural companies using pesticides and fertilisers at an increased rate. To be able to understand how this influences the water quality of Lake Ziway, water

  3. Using the mood disorder questionnaire and bipolar spectrum diagnostic scale to detect bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder among eating disorder patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Screening scales for bipolar disorder including the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale (BSDS) have been plagued by high false positive rates confounded by presence of borderline personality disorder. This study examined the accuracy of these scales for detecting bipolar disorder among patients referred for eating disorders and explored the possibility of simultaneous assessment of co-morbid borderline personality disorder. Methods Participants were 78 consecutive female patients who were referred for evaluation of an eating disorder. All participants completed the mood and eating disorder sections of the SCID-I/P and the borderline personality disorder section of the SCID-II, in addition to the MDQ and BSDS. Predictive validity of the MDQ and BSDS was evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis of the Area Under the Curve (AUC). Results Fifteen (19%) and twelve (15%) patients fulfilled criteria for bipolar II disorder and borderline personality disorder, respectively. The AUCs for bipolar II disorder were 0.78 (MDQ) and 0.78 (BDSD), and the AUCs for borderline personality disorder were 0.75 (MDQ) and 0.79 (BSDS). Conclusions Among patients being evaluated for eating disorders, the MDQ and BSDS show promise as screening questionnaires for both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. PMID:23443034

  4. Reliability and Validity of the Persian Version of Compulsive Eating Scale (CES in Overweight or Obese Women and its Relationship with Some Body Composition and Dietary Intake Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Ali Mostafavi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Compulsive or binge eating is a kind of disturbed eating behavior, which is mostly observed among dieting women, and is integrated with appetite disorder, and uncontrolled eating of plenty of junk food. The Compulsive Eating Scale (CES created first by Kagan & Squires in 1984, is an eight-item self-reporting instrument that is made to measure the severity of binge eating disorder. The aim of this study was to provide the reliability and validity of the Persian version of Compulsive Eating Scale (CES among overweight and obese women in Iran. Method: One hundred and twenty six (N = 126 overweight and obese women consented to participate in this study. We estimated the anthropometric indices, including body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, a total body fat percentage, and visceral fat level with body analyzer all in standard situations. Then, the participants completed the CES. Next, to assess concurrent validity, Beck Depression Inventory, Spielberger anxiety scale, appetite visual analogue rating scale, Food Craving questionnaire, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18, and Restraint eating visual analogue rating scale were performed simultaneously. To assess test-retest reliability, CES was repeated for all the participants two weeks later. Moreover, we reported the internal consistency and factor analysis of this questionnaire. Furthermore, we estimated the concurrent correlation of CES with logically relevant questionnaires and body composition and anthropometric indices.Results: Based on the reliability analysis and factor analysis of the principal component by Varimax rotation, we extracted two factors: eating because of negative feelings, and overeating. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of the CES was 0.85 (Cronbach alpha of the factors was 0.85, and 0.74, respectively. The test-retest correlation of the CES was 0.89. Also, the split-half reliability of the questionnaire was established with the correlation

  5. Comparative growth models of big-scale sand smelt (Atherina boyeri Risso, 1810 sampled from Hirfanll Dam Lake, Klrsehir, Ankara, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Benzer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this current publication the growth characteristics of big-scale sand smelt data were compared for population dynamics within artificial neural networks and length-weight relationships models. This study aims to describe the optimal decision of the growth model of big-scale sand smelt by artificial neural networks and length-weight relationships models at Hirfanll Dam Lake, Klrsehir, Turkey. There were a total of 1449 samples collected from Hirfanll Dam Lake between May 2015 and May 2016. Both model results were compared with each other and the results were also evaluated with MAPE (mean absolute percentage error, MSE (mean squared error and r2 (coefficient correlation data as a performance criterion. The results of the current study show that artificial neural networks is a superior estimation tool compared to length-weight relationships models of big-scale sand smelt in Hirfanll Dam Lake.

  6. Scale and watershed features determine lake chemistry patterns across physiographic regions in the far north of Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef MacLeod

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the far north of Ontario (>50°N latitude, like climate warming and increased industrial development, will have direct effects on watershed characteristics and lakes. To better understand the nature of remote northern lakes that span the Canadian Shield and Hudson Bay Lowlands, and to address the pressing need for limnological data for this vast, little-studied area of Ontario, lake chemistry surveys were conducted during 2011-2012. Lakes at the transition between these physiographic regions displayed highly variable water chemistry, reflecting the peatland landscape with a mix of bog and fen watersheds, and variations in the extent of permafrost. In the transition area, Shield and Lowlands lakes could not be clearly differentiated based on water chemistry; peat cover decouples, to varying degrees, the lakes from the influences of bedrock and surficial deposits. Regional chemistry differences were apparent across a much broader area of northern Ontario, due to large-scale spatial changes in geology and in the extent of peatlands and permafrost.  Shield lakes in the far northwest of Ontario had Ca, Mg, and TP concentrations markedly higher than those of many Lowlands lakes and previously studied Shield lakes south of 50°N, related to an abundance of lacustrine and glacial end-moraine deposits in the north.

  7. Millennial-Scale Asian Monsoon Influenced Longjie Lake Evolution during Marine Isotope Stage 3, Upper Stream of Changjiang (Yangtze River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaozhu Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Millennial-scale climate change in Asian monsoon region during MIS 3 has been studied using stalagmite, loess, and peat sediments. However, records from more materials are essential to further illustrate dynamics of these events. In the present study, a time-series of grain size covering 60–30 ka was reconstructed from lake sediments in the Yunnan Province, southwestern China. The time-series contains 14 obvious millennial-scale events during the period. On millennial-scale, the grain size record is generally consistent with mean stalagmite δ18O from Hulu Cave, grain size of Gulang loess sequence, Chinese Loess Plateau, and Greenland ice core δ18O. The results show that the millennial-scale variation was well compared with the Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO events, indicating that those global events were well documented in lake sediments in the Asian monsoon region. Because the grain size can be used as a proxy for water discharge, we suggest that signal of the DO events might be transmitted to lake evolution by Asian monsoon.

  8. Emotional eating and temperamental traits in Eating Disorders: A dimensional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotella, Francesco; Mannucci, Edoardo; Gemignani, Sara; Lazzeretti, Lisa; Fioravanti, Giulia; Ricca, Valdo

    2018-03-23

    Growing evidence shows that temperamental features and emotional dysregulation are linked to Eating Disorders (EDs). Aim of this study was to explore the possible relationship between temperament and emotional eating (EE) from a dimensional standpoint, and the association of specific temperamental dimensions with overeating triggered by specific emotions. We enrolled 253 women with Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder. Of those, 189 (74.7%), 73 (28.8%), and 80 (31.6%) reported binge eating, purging, or restrictive behaviors, respectively (the categories are not mutually exclusive). Participants completed the Emotional Eating Scale (EES), the Temperament and Character Inventory, the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Higher Persistence scores were found in the Restriction group, while the Binge group reported lower Persistence and higher Novelty Seeking scores. The Purge group showed lower Reward Dependence, Self Directedness and Cooperativeness scores. Patients with Purge also reported lower BMI and higher scores on EDE-Q restriction and eating concern subscales as well as higher scores for all SCL 90-R subscales. Patterns of association between temperamental traits and specific emotions were found in each group. Therefore, some temperamental features could be considered predictors of specific associations between emotions and the tendency to eat. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. 'I can't accept that feeling': Relationships between interoceptive awareness, mindfulness and eating disorder symptoms in females with, and at-risk of an eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattimore, Paul; Mead, Bethan R; Irwin, Leanne; Grice, Lorna; Carson, Ruth; Malinowski, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Mindfulness based therapies (MBTs) for eating disorders show potential benefit for outcomes yet evidence is scarce regarding the mechanisms by which they influence remission from symptoms. One way that mindfulness approaches create positive outcomes is through enhancement of emotion regulation skills. Maladaptive emotion regulation is a key psychological feature of all eating disorders. The aim of the current study was to identify facets of emotion regulation involved in the relationship between mindfulness and maladaptive eating behaviours. In three cross-sectional studies, clinical (n=39) and non-clinical (n=137 and 119) female participants completed: 1) the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) eating specific scales (drive-for-thinness and bulimia) and the EDI psychological symptom scales (emotion dysregulation and interoceptive deficits); and 2) mindfulness, impulsivity, and emotion regulation questionnaires. In all samples mindfulness was significantly and inversely associated with EDI eating and psychological symptom scales, and impulsivity. In non-clinical samples interoceptive deficits mediated the relationship between mindfulness and EDI eating specific scales. Non-acceptance of emotional experience, a facet of interoceptive awareness, mediated the relationship between mindfulness and eating specific EDI scores. Further investigations could verify relationships identified so that mindfulness based approaches can be optimised to enhance emotion regulation skills in sufferers, and those at-risk, of eating disorders. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Binge eating disorder: Links with personality and emotionality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorard, G; Khorramian-Pour, M

    2017-04-01

    Our two objectives were: (1) to investigate the relationship between binge eating disorder, dimensions of personality (according to the Big Five model of Costa and McCrae) and those of emotionality in the "tripartite" model of emotions of Watson and Clark; (2) to evaluate the correspondence between the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2) scores. Four self-administered questionnaires were completed on a shared doc website: the EDI-2, the BES, the BFI-Fr (Big Five Inventory-French version) and the EPN-31 (Positive and Negative Emotionality Scale). The analyses were conducted in a sample of 101 participants (36 men and 65 women), aged 20-59 years (mean age=35.28±9.76) from the general population. We found that 11% of the participants had moderate to severe binge eating disorder. Among them, nearly 4% were overweight and 4% were obese. The correlations analyses indicated that binge eating disorder was associated with two dimensions of personality, the neuroticism (P=0.001) and the consciousness (P=0.010), and with the emotions of joy (P=0.008), tenderness (P=0.036), fear (P=0.011), shame (Pbinge eating disorder get higher scores on EDI-2 subscales: search for thinness (P=0.001), bulimia (Pbinge eating disorder is associated with negative affectivity both as a personality dimension and as an emotional feeling. The patterns of associations, observed with the EDI scale, seem to confirm the good convergent validity of the Binge Eating Scale. Thus, like other eating disorders, emotional functioning should be a prime target for prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2016 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Eating styles in major depressive disorder: Results from a large-scale study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paans, N.P.G.; Bot, M.; Strien, T. van; Brouwer, I.A.; Visser, M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2018-01-01

    Depressed persons have been found to present disturbances in eating styles, but it is unclear whether eating styles are different in subgroups of depressed patients. We studied the association between depressive disorder, severity, course and specific depressive symptom profiles and unhealthy eating

  12. Eating styles in major depressive disorder : Results from a large-scale study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paans, Nadine P G; Bot, Mariska; van Strien, Tatjana; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Visser, Marjolein; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    Depressed persons have been found to present disturbances in eating styles, but it is unclear whether eating styles are different in subgroups of depressed patients. We studied the association between depressive disorder, severity, course and specific depressive symptom profiles and unhealthy eating

  13. Personality Assessment Inventory profiles of university students with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Michael Wm; Lamborn, Paige

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are complex disorders that involve medical and psychological symptoms. Understanding the psychological factors associated with different eating disorders is important for assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. This study sought to determine on which of the 22 Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) differed, and whether the PAI can be used to classify eating disorder subtypes. Because we were interested in both whether the PAI could be used to differentiate eating disorder subtypes from each other, as well as from other disorders, we also included a group of patients with major depression. The three eating disorder groups did differ significantly from each other, and from the patients with depression, on a number of the PAI scales. Only two PAI scales (Anxiety and Depression), however, exceeded a T-score of 70 for the patients with anorexia nervosa, no scales exceeded a T-score of 70 for the patients with bulimia nervosa or EDNOS, and only two exceeded a T-score of 70 for the patients with depression (Depression and Suicide). A discriminant function analysis revealed an overall correct classification between the groups of 81.6%. The PAI helps to understand the psychological factors associated with eating disorders and can be used to assist with assessment. Continued investigation using the PAI in an eating disordered population is supported.

  14. Relationships between clinical scales and binge eating days in adults with moderate to severe binge eating disorder in two Phase III studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrome, Leslie; Kando, Judith C; Bliss, Caleb

    2018-01-01

    In two Phase III studies, lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) reduced binge eating (BE) days/week in adults with moderate to severe binge eating disorder (BED) and was associated with improvement based on the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) scale. In this study, post hoc analyses examined the relationships between clinical observations and clinical rating scales in individuals with BED. NCT01718483 (ClinicalTrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01718483); NCT01718509 (ClinicalTrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01718509). Two 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies randomized (1:1) adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Fourth Edition, Text Revision, BED criteria and with protocol-defined moderate to severe BED (study 1, N=383; study 2, N=390) to placebo or dose-optimized LDX (50 or 70 mg). Assessments included the number of BE days/week, CGI-Severity (CGI-S) and CGI-I scores, and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for Binge Eating (Y-BOCS-BE) total scores. For these post hoc analyses, data were pooled across studies and treatment arms. Statistical assessments included Spearman correlations and equipercentile linking analyses (ELA). Reported P -values are nominal (descriptive and not adjusted for multiplicity). At baseline, nominally significant correlations with CGI-S scores were reported for BE days/week ( r =0.374; P <0.0001) and Y-BOCS-BE total scores ( r =0.319; P <0.0001). Baseline ELA for CGI-S further characterized this relationship: a CGI-S score of 4 (moderately ill) corresponding to 3.504 BE days/week and a Y-BOCS-BE total score of 18.6. Nominally significant correlations with CGI-I scores were reported for changes from baseline at study endpoint for BE days/week ( r =0.647; P <0.0001) and Y-BOCS-BE total scores ( r =0.741; P <0.0001). ELA for CGI-I scores at study endpoint showed that a CGI-I score of 1 (very much improved) corresponds to a reduction from baseline of 4.504 BE days/week and 19.4 points for Y

  15. A mineral magnetic and scaled-chrysophyte paleolimnological study of two northeastern Pennsylvania lakes: records of fly ash deposition, land-use change and paleorainfall variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, K.P.; Lyons, J.C.; Silver, P.A.; Lott, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    A combined mineral magnetic and scaled chrysophyte study of lake sediments from Lake Lacawac and Lake Giles in northeastern Pennsylvania was conducted to determined the effects of land-use and sediment source changes on the variation of pH, conductivity, and alkalinity inferred from biotic changes

  16. Zonisamide Combined with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Giovanni; Lo Sauro, Carolina; Rotella, Carlo M.; Faravelli, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Binge eating disorder is a serious, prevalent eating disorder that is associated with overweight. Zonisamide is an antiepileptic drug that can promote weight loss. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of zonisamide as augmentation to individual cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of binge eating disorder patients. Design: controlled open study. Participants: Twenty four threshold and subthreshold binge eating disorder patients were enrolled in the cognitive behavioral therapy treatment group, and 28 patients in the cognitive behavioral therapy plus zonisamide group. Measurements: At the beginning (T0), at the end (T1) of treatment, and one year after the end of treatment (T2), body mass index was measured and Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Binge Eating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were administered. Results. At T1 the cognitive behavioral therapy plus zonisamide group showed a higher mean reduction of body mass index, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, and Binge Eating Scale scores. At T2, the cognitive behavior therapy group regained weight, while the cognitive behavioral therapy plus zonisamide group reduced their body mass and showed a higher reduction in binge eating frequency and Binge Eating Scale, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire Restraint, and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory scores. Conclusion. The zonisamide augmentation to individual cognitive behavior therapy can improve the treatment of binge eating disorder patients, reducing body weight and the number of binge eating episodes. These results are maintained one year after the end of treatment. PMID:20049147

  17. Large Lakes Dominate CO2 Evasion From Lakes in an Arctic Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocher-Ros, Gerard; Giesler, Reiner; Lundin, Erik; Salimi, Shokoufeh; Jonsson, Anders; Karlsson, Jan

    2017-12-01

    CO2 evasion from freshwater lakes is an important component of the carbon cycle. However, the relative contribution from different lake sizes may vary, since several parameters underlying CO2 flux are size dependent. Here we estimated the annual lake CO2 evasion from a catchment in northern Sweden encompassing about 30,000 differently sized lakes. We show that areal CO2 fluxes decreased rapidly with lake size, but this was counteracted by the greater overall coverage of larger lakes. As a result, total efflux increased with lake size and the single largest lake in the catchment dominated the CO2 evasion (53% of all CO2 evaded). By contrast, the contribution from the smallest ponds (about 27,000) was minor (evasion at the landscape scale.

  18. Risk of Abnormal Eating Attitudes among Turkish Dietetic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiziltan, Gul; Karabudak, Efsun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes among Turkish dietetic students and the relations between nutrition education and eating attitudes. The study population was 568 female university students (248 dietetic students, 320 non-dietetic students). Two scales were used: Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26)…

  19. Eating behaviour, body image, and self-esteem of adolescent girls in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Kah Leng; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Samah, Bahaman Abu

    2008-06-01

    This cross-sectional study was undertaken with 489 secondary school girls, ages 15-17 years, to examine disordered eating behaviours of adolescent girls in Malaysia and to estimate associations with body weight, body-size discrepancy, and self-esteem. Dietary restraint, binge eating, body image, and self-esteem were assessed using the Restrained Eating scale of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, the Binge Scale Questionnaire, the Contour Drawing Rating Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, respectively. Pearson correlations estimated associations between variables. There were 3.1% underweight, 9.8% at risk of being overweight, and 8.6% overweight girls. A total of 87.3% were dissatisfied with their own body size. Dietary restraint and binge eating were reported by 36.0% and 35.4%, respectively. Body Mass Index (r = .34, p self-esteem (r = -.20, p < .001) was significantly associated only with binge eating.

  20. DNR 24K Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Medium scale lake polygons derived from the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) polygons and MnDOT Basemap lake delineations. Integrated with the DNR 24K Streams...

  1. Relationship among obesity, depression, and emotional eating in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarevich, Irina; Irigoyen Camacho, María Esther; Velázquez-Alva, María Del Consuelo; Zepeda Zepeda, Marco

    2016-12-01

    Depressive symptoms are often associated with obesity, and emotional eating may play a considerable role in weight gain. This study aimed to examine the association among depression symptoms, emotional eating, and body mass index (BMI) in Mexican college students; and to assess emotional eating as mediator between depressive symptoms and BMI. A total of 1453 students at a public university in Mexico City completed the scale Self-Efficacy in Emotion- and Stress- Related Eating of the Eating and Appraisal Due to Emotions and Stress Questionnaire (EADES) to assess emotional eating, and the scale created by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies (CES-D) to identify depressive symptoms. Weight and height were measured to calculate BMI. Structural equation models (SEM) were used to assess emotional eating as mediator between depressive symptoms and BMI by sex. Depressive symptoms were associated with emotional eating in both men (Beta = -0.33, p obesity prevention and treatment strategies applied to young adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Eating pathology, emotion regulation, and emotional overeating in obese adults with Binge Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianini, Loren M; White, Marney A; Masheb, Robin M

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship among emotional regulation, emotional overeating, and general eating pathology in a treatment seeking sample of adults with Binge Eating Disorder (BED). The sample was composed of 326 adults (248 women, 78 men) who were obese and met DSM-IV-TR criteria for BED. Prior to treatment, participants completed the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Emotional Overeating Questionnaire (EOQ), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) as part of a larger assessment battery. A series of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that difficulties with emotion regulation accounted for unique variance in both emotional overeating and general eating pathology above and beyond sex and negative affect. Emotion regulation may play a significant role in the maintenance of emotional overeating and eating pathology in obese adults with BED. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of a zoning-based environmental-ecological-coupled model for lakes to assess lake restoration effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengjia; Zou, Changxin; Zhao, Yanwei

    2017-04-01

    Environmental/ecological models are widely used for lake management as they provide a means to understand physical, chemical and biological processes in highly complex ecosystems. Most research focused on the development of environmental (water quality) and ecological models, separately. Limited studies were developed to couple the two models, and in these limited coupled models, a lake was regarded as a whole for analysis (i.e., considering the lake to be one well-mixed box), which was appropriate for small-scale lakes and was not sufficient to capture spatial variations within middle-scale or large-scale lakes. This paper seeks to establish a zoning-based environmental-ecological-coupled model for a lake. The Baiyangdian Lake, the largest freshwater lake in Northern China, was adopted as the study case. The coupled lake models including a hydrodynamics and water quality model established by MIKE21 and a compartmental ecological model used STELLA software have been established for middle-sized Baiyangdian Lake to realize the simulation of spatial variations of ecological conditions. On the basis of the flow field distribution results generated by MIKE21 hydrodynamics model, four water area zones were used as an example for compartmental ecological model calibration and validation. The results revealed that the developed coupled lake models can reasonably reflected the changes of the key state variables although there remain some state variables that are not well represented by the model due to the low quality of field monitoring data. Monitoring sites in a compartment may not be representative of the water quality and ecological conditions in the entire compartment even though that is the intention of compartment-based model design. There was only one ecological observation from a single monitoring site for some periods. This single-measurement issue may cause large discrepancies particularly when sampled site is not representative of the whole compartment. The

  4. Resilience Scale-25 Spanish version: validation and assessment in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Las Hayas, Carlota; Calvete, Esther; Gómez del Barrio, Andrés; Beato, Luís; Muñoz, Pedro; Padierna, Jesús Ángel

    2014-08-01

    To validate into Spanish the Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale - 25 (RS-25), assess and compare the scores on the scale among women from the general population, eating disorder (ED) patients and recovered ED patients. This is a cross-sectional study. ED participants were invited to participate by their respective therapists. The sample from the general population was gathered via an open online survey. Participants (N general population=279; N ED patients=124; and N recovered ED patients=45) completed the RS-25, the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale-BREF and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Mean age of participants ranged from 28.87 to 30.42years old. Statistical analysis included a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis and ANOVA. The two-factor model of the RS-25 produced excellent fit indexes. Measurement invariance across samples was generally supported. The ANOVA found statistically significant differences in the RS-25 mean scores between the ED patients (Mean=103.13, SD=31.32) and the recovered ED participants (Mean=138.42, SD=22.26) and between the ED patients and the general population participants (Mean=136.63, SD=19.56). The Spanish version of the RS-25 is a psychometrically sound measurement tool in samples of ED patients. Resilience is lower in people diagnosed with ED than in recovered individuals and the general population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bi-directional associations between child fussy eating and parents' pressure to eat: Who influences whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Pauline W; de Barse, Lisanne M; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Franco, Oscar H; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-07-01

    Fussy eating is common in young children, often raising concerns among parents. The use of pressuring feeding practices may provoke or worsen child fussiness, but these practices could equally be a parent's response to child fussy eating. In longitudinal analyses, we assessed directionality in the relation between fussy eating and parent's pressure to eat across childhood. Study participants were 4845 mother-child dyads from the population-based Generation R cohort in the Netherlands. The Child Behavior Checklist was used to assess fussy eating (2 items) at child ages 1½, 3 and 6years. Parents' pressure to eat was assessed with the Child Feeding Questionnaire (4 items) when children were 4years old. All scale scores were standardized. Linear regression analyses indicated that preschoolers' fussy eating prospectively predicted higher levels of parents' pressure to eat at child age 4years, independently of confounders (adjusted B=0.24, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.27). Pressure to eat at 4years also predicted more fussiness in children at age 6years, independently of confounders and of fussy eating at baseline (adjusted B=0.14, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.17). Path analyses indicated that the relation from fussy eating at 3years to parenting one year later was stronger than from pressure at 4years to fussy eating two years later (pparental pressuring feeding strategies being developed in response to children's food avoidant behaviors, but also seemingly having a counterproductive effect on fussiness. Thus, the use of pressure to eat should be reconsidered, while providing parents alternative techniques to deal with their child's fussy eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Eating Attitudes and Their Psychological Correlates among Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Murat; Asci, F. Hulya; Karabudak, Efsun; Kiziltan, Gul

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the eating attitudes and psychological characteristics of Turkish late adolescents. Seven hundred eighty-three university students were administered the Eating Attitudes Test, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Social Physique Anxiety Scale. More than one in ten (9.2% of the males and 13.1% of the…

  7. Let them eat cake!

    OpenAIRE

    Samson, Audrey; Gallardo, Francisco; FRAUD, -

    2017-01-01

    Let them eat cake!' is a food-led event serving an edible imaginary of a Facebook profile. In early 2012, Facebook conducted massive scale emotional contagion by manipulating the emotional expressions in the News Feeds of 689,003 users. This exemplifies how the governability and the biopolitics of everyday life flow through the many layers of shared images, liked videos, protocols, and hyperlinks, all orchestrated by the Facebook News Feed algorithm. 'Let them eat cake!' proposes a gustatory ...

  8. Validation of the modified Parenting Strategies for Eating and Physical Activity Scale-Diet (PEAS-Diet) in Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Sandra C; Arredondo, Elva M; Horton, Lucy A; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2016-03-01

    Research shows that Latino parenting practices influence children's dietary and weight outcomes. Most studies use parent-reported data, however data from children may provide additional insight into how parents influence their children's diet and weight outcomes. The Parenting Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale (PEAS) has been validated in Latino adults, but not in children. This study evaluated the factor structure and concurrent and predictive validity of a modified version of the PEAS (PEAS-Diet) among Latino children. Data were collected from 361 children ages 7-13 from Imperial County, California, enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to promote healthy eating. The PEAS-Diet included 25 candidate items targeting six parenting practices pertaining to children's eating behaviors: (a) monitoring; (b) disciplining; (c) control; (d) permissiveness; (e) reinforcing; and (f) limit-setting. Children were on average ten years old (±2), 50% boys, 93% self-identified as Latino, 81% were US-born, and 55% completed English versus Spanish-language interviews. Using varimax rotation on baseline data with the total sample, six items were removed due to factor loadings .32 on more than one component). Parallel analysis and interpretability suggested a 5-factor solution explaining 59.46% of the variance. The subscale "limit-setting" was removed from the scale. The final scale consisted of 19 items and 5 subscales. Internal consistency of the subscales ranged from α = .63-.82. Confirmatory factor analyses provided additional evidence for the 5-factor scale using data collected 4 and 6 months post-baseline among the control group (n = 164, n = 161, respectively). Concurrent validity with dietary intake was established for monitoring, control, permissiveness, and reinforcing subscales in the expected directions. Predictive validity was not established. Results indicated that with the reported changes, the interview-administered PEAS-Diet is valid among Latino

  9. Eating behavior and psychological profile: associations between daughters with distinct eating disorders and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Velázquez, Verónica; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha; Méndez, Juan Pablo; García-García, Eduardo; Reidl-Martínez, Lucy María

    2017-09-06

    Associations of eating behaviors and psychological profile between mothers and daughters with eating disorders exist, but it is important to dissect the influence of the mother in each specific disorder since all eating disorders must be seen or treated not as one entity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of eating behavior and psychological profile between mothers and daughters with different eating disorders and a control group. The study group included young girls with anorexia nervosa (AN, n = 30), bulimia nervosa (BN, n = 30), binge eating disorder (BED, n = 19), and a control group of women (Non-ED, n = 54) together with their mothers. BMI was calculated for dyads and Eating Disorder Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Toronto Alexithymia Scale and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire were applied. The differences between dyads were tested by Student's t test and Pearson's correlation was used to study the association between BMI, variables of eating behavior and psychological profile in each dyad. The study found significant inverse correlations between the AN dyad; some correlations between the BN dyad, and the highest positive correlations exist in BED dyad, especially in eating behavior. Finally, between the control dyads, low but significant correlations were found in the majority of cases. The study concluded that the associations between mothers and daughters with distinct eating disorders varied depending on the specific diagnosis of the daughter, indicating it is necessary to analyze them individually, given that there may be different implications for treatment.

  10. A High-Resolution Biogenic Silica Record From Lake Titicaca, Peru-Bolivia: South American Millennial-Scale Climate Variability From 18-60 Kya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdahl, E. J.; Fritz, S. C.; Stevens, L. R.; Baker, P. A.; Seltzer, G. O.

    2004-12-01

    Sediments recovered from a deep basin in Lake Titicaca, Peru-Boliva, were analyzed for biogenic silica (BSi) content by extraction of freeze dried sediments in 1% sodium carbonate. Sediments were dated using an age model developed from multiple 14C dates on bulk sediments. The BSi record shows distinct fluctuations in concentration and accumulation rate from 18 to 60 kya. Multi-taper method spectral analysis reveals a significant millennial-scale component to these fluctuations centered at 1370 years. High BSi accumulation rates correlate with enhanced benthic diatom preservation, suggesting that the BSi record is related to variations in lake water level. Modern-day Lake Titicaca lake level and precipitation are strongly related to northern equatorial Atlantic sea surface temperatures, with cooler SSTs related to wetter conditions. Subsequently, the spectral behavior of the GRIP ice core δ 18O record was investigated in order to estimate coherency and linkages between North Atlantic and tropical South American climate. GRIP data exhibit a significant 1370-year spectral peak which comprises approximately 26% of the total variability in the record. Despite a high degree of coherency between millennial-scale periodicities in Lake Titicaca BSi and GRIP δ 18O records, the Lake Titicaca silica record does not show longer term cooling cycles characteristic of D-O cycles found in the GRIP record. Rather, the Lake Titicaca record is highly periodic and more similar in nature to several Antarctic climate proxy records. These results suggest that while South American tropical climate varies in phase with North Atlantic climate, additional forcing mechanisms are manifest in the region which may include tropical Pacific and Southern Ocean variability.

  11. Why we eat what we eat : Psychological influences on eating behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sproesser, Gurdrun

    2012-01-01

    The present dissertation addresses psychological influences on eating behavior.Understanding why people eat what they eat in everyday life, that is, motives for eating behavior, is crucial for the development of interventions to promote normal eating and to prevent eating disorders. Furthermore, enhancing knowledge about both, individual and situational factors facilitating (pull factors) or impeding (push factors) healthy eating is essential for the prevention and treatment of obesity and it...

  12. Emotional eating and eating psychopathology in nonclinical groups: a cross-cultural comparison of women in Japan and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, G; Matoba, M

    1999-11-01

    Emotional eating is associated with eating psychopathology among Western populations. It is not known whether the same conclusions hold in non-Western cultures, where norms for emotional expression differ. This study examined whether emotional eating has the same eating psychopathology correlates in different cultures. Three groups of nonclinical women were compared-Japanese living in Japan; Japanese living in the United Kingdom; and British living in the United Kingdom. They completed an Emotional Eating Scale and the Eating Disorders Inventory. There were different patterns of association between emotional eating and eating attitudes in the three groups. British women showed a strong linkage, Japanese women living in Japan showed no association, and Japanese women in the United Kingdom showed an intermediate pattern. Emotional eating may be less of an index of eating psychopathology in non-Western cultures. However, there appears to be an acculturative process, linking the two when one enters a Western culture. This cross-cultural difference may have implications for the targeting of therapies, although this conclusion requires support from further research. Copyright 1999 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. ­Orbital-scale variations in Indo-Pacific hydroclimate during the mid- to late Pleistocene from Lake Towuti, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J. M.; Vogel, H.; Bijaksana, S.; Melles, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Indo-Pacific region plays a critical role in the Earth's climate system. Changes in local insolation, greenhouse gas concentrations, ice volume, and local sea level are all hypothesized to exert a dominant control on Indo-Pacific hydroclimate, yet existing records from the region are generally short and exhibit fundamental differences in orbital-scale patterns that limit our understanding of the regional climate responses to orbital-scale forcings. In 2015 we conducted an ICDP drilling program on Lake Towuti, located near the equator in central Indonesia, one of the only terrestrial sedimentary archives in the region that continuously spans multiple glacial-interglacial cycles. We recovered over 1,000 meters of core including cores though the entire sediment sequence to bedrock. Previously published organic geochemical reconstructions of vegetation from relatively short, 60 kyr long piston from Lake Towuti exhibit strong drying during the Last Glacial Maximum, indicating that central Indonesian hydroclimate is sensitive to forcing from high-latitude ice-sheets. New, inorganic geochemical and mineralogical reconstructions of lake level also indicate a strong half-precessional climate signal during the last 60 kyr in which lake level highstands occur during austral and boreal summer insolation maxima, suggesting that equatorial rainfall varies in response to remote (likely subtropical) insolation forcing of the Asian monsoons. However, the short length of these records limits our understanding of the regional hydroclimatic response to the full range of global climate boundary conditions experienced during the late Quaternary. This presentation will discuss results from the last 60 kyr and present new geochemical reconstructions from the upper 100 m of core from Lake Towuti, dated using magnetic paleointensity, tephrachronology, and optically-stimulated luminescence to span the last 500 kyr BP.

  14. Spatial and temporal genetic diversity of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchill)) from Lake Huron and Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Wendylee; Ebener, Mark P.; Mohr, Lloyd; Hartman, Travis; Johnson, Jim; Roseman, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchill)) are important commercially, culturally, and ecologically in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Stocks of lake whitefish in the Great Lakes have recovered from low levels of abundance in the 1960s. Reductions in abundance, loss of habitat and environmental degradation can be accompanied by losses of genetic diversity and overall fitness that may persist even as populations recover demographically. Therefore, it is important to be able to identify stocks that have reduced levels of genetic diversity. In this study, we investigated patterns of genetic diversity at microsatellite DNA loci in lake whitefish collected between 1927 and 1929 (historical period) and between 1997 and 2005 (contemporary period) from Lake Huron and Lake Erie. Genetic analysis of lake whitefish from Lakes Huron and Erie shows that the amount of population structuring varies from lake to lake. Greater genetic divergences among collections from Lake Huron may be the result of sampling scale, migration patterns and demographic processes. Fluctuations in abundance of lake whitefish populations may have resulted in periods of increased genetic drift that have resulted in changes in allele frequencies over time, but periodic genetic drift was not severe enough to result in a significant loss of genetic diversity. Migration among stocks may have decreased levels of genetic differentiation while not completely obscuring stock boundaries. Recent changes in spatial boundaries to stocks, the number of stocks and life history characteristics of stocks further demonstrate the potential of coregonids for a swift and varied response to environmental change and emphasise the importance of incorporating both spatial and temporal considerations into management plans to ensure that diversity is preserved.

  15. Contributions of cognitive inflexibility to eating disorder and social anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Jean; Yiu, Angelina; Eneva, Kalina; Taylor Dryman, M; Heimberg, Richard G; Chen, Eunice Y

    2016-04-01

    Eating disorders and social anxiety are highly co-occurring. These disorders share fears of social evaluation, possibly maintained by similar cognitive content and styles, including an inability to adapt or flexibly respond to unexpected conditions. However, the role of cognitive inflexibility in eating disorders in relation to social anxiety has not been explored. In this study, the link between eating disorder symptoms and cognitive inflexibility, while accounting for social anxiety, is examined. Participants (N=461) were undergraduates who completed the Detail and Flexibility Questionnaire 12-item Cognitive Rigidity subscale, the Eating Disorders Diagnostic Scale, and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale. Eating disorder symptoms and social anxiety were both positively correlated with cognitive inflexibility. After controlling for social anxiety, the relationship between eating disorder symptoms and cognitive inflexibility remained robust. Further examination of cognitive inflexibility in eating disorders and comorbid social anxiety in clinical samples is warranted. We suggest future directions for examining cognitive inflexibility as a trans-diagnostic construct important to eating disorders and frequently comorbid disorders, consistent with NIMH Research Domain Criteria. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Eating disorder symptoms in middle-aged and older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Kummer, Kai K; Pope, Harrison G

    2016-10-01

    Few studies have assessed symptoms of eating disorders in older men. We administered anonymous questionnaires to 470 men, aged 40-75 years, in and around Innsbruck, Austria, to assess eating behavior, body image, and exercise activities. We defined current eating disorder symptoms (EDS) as (1) BMI men, 32 (6.8%) reported one of the four eating disorder symptoms. The 32 men with eating disorder symptoms, compared to the 438 men with normal eating, showed significantly greater pathology on scales assessing eating behavior, exercise addiction, satisfaction with body shape, and weight. However, the EDE-Q cutoff score for eating disturbance identified only three (9%) of the EDS men. Symptoms of disordered eating, sometimes involving purging via excessive exercise, do occur in older men, and may be missed by conventional instruments. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:953-957). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. An integrated system dynamics model developed for managing lake water quality at the watershed scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Benoit, Gaboury; Liu, Tao; Liu, Yong; Guo, Huaicheng

    2015-05-15

    A reliable system simulation to relate socioeconomic development with water environment and to comprehensively represent a watershed's dynamic features is important. In this study, after identifying lake watershed system processes, we developed a system dynamics modeling framework for managing lake water quality at the watershed scale. Two reinforcing loops (Development and Investment Promotion) and three balancing loops (Pollution, Resource Consumption, and Pollution Control) were constituted. Based on this work, we constructed Stock and Flow Diagrams that embedded a pollutant load model and a lake water quality model into a socioeconomic system dynamics model. The Dianchi Lake in Yunnan Province, China, which is the sixth largest and among the most severely polluted freshwater lakes in China, was employed as a case study to demonstrate the applicability of the model. Water quality parameters considered in the model included chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP). The business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and three alternative management scenarios on spatial adjustment of industries and population (S1), wastewater treatment capacity construction (S2), and structural adjustment of agriculture (S3), were simulated to assess the effectiveness of certain policies in improving water quality. Results showed that S2 is most effective scenario, and the COD, TN, and TP concentrations in Caohai in 2030 are 52.5, 10.9, and 0.8 mg/L, while those in Waihai are 9.6, 1.2, and 0.08 mg/L, with sustained development in the watershed. Thus, the model can help support the decision making required in development and environmental protection strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Associations of Adolescent Emotional and Loss of Control Eating with 1-year Changes in Disordered Eating, Weight and Adiposity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojek, Monika M. K.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Kelly, Nichole R.; Thompson, Katherine A.; Mehari, Rim D.; Marwitz, Shannon E.; Demidowich, Andrew P.; Galescu, Ovidiu A.; Brady, Sheila M.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Adolescent emotional-eating, referring to eating in response to negative affective states, is frequently reported by those with loss of control (LOC) eating. Although LOC eating has been shown to predict exacerbated disordered eating and excess weight/adiposity gain, the extent to which emotional-eating, either alone or in combination with LOC, predicts adverse outcomes has not been determined. Thus, we examined associations of baseline emotional-eating with changes in disordered eating, BMI, and adiposity over 1-year, and to what degree the presence or absence of baseline LOC moderated these associations. Methods 189 non-treatment-seeking youth (15.4±1.4y; 66% female; 67% non-Hispanic White, 38% overweight [BMI ≥85th %ile]) completed the emotional-eating Scale for Children/Adolescents and the Eating Disorder Examination interview at baseline and again at 1-year. Air displacement plethysmography assessed adiposity at both time points. Results Baseline emotional-eating alone was not significantly associated with the development of objective binge eating or changes in disordered eating attitudes, BMI or adiposity 1-year later. However, baseline emotional-eating interacted with the presence of baseline LOC in the prediction of 1-year outcomes. Among adolescents with LOC eating, greater baseline emotional-eating was related to increased disordered eating attitudes (p=.03), BMI (p=.04), and adiposity (p=.04) at 1-year, after correcting for false discovery rate. Discussion Emotional-eating among youth also reporting LOC was associated with adverse outcomes over 1-year. Adolescents who report both behaviors may represent a subset of individuals at especially high risk for exacerbated disordered eating and excess weight gain. PMID:27753140

  19. The interrater reliability of rating non-exercise activity of inpatients with eating disorders using a visual analogue scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloum, A; Johnston, M; Lundrigan, M; Birmingham, C L

    2008-12-01

    Non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) is the energy expended by body movement, other than sleeping, eating or sports-like activities. The obese have been reported to have a lower NEAT (walking, standing, and fidgeting) than controls. We hypothesize that an elevated NEAT could explain why some patients with anorexia nervosa are resistant to weight gain. To evaluate the interrater reliability of a rating of non-exercise activity of inpatients with eating disorders (ED) using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Health care providers were asked to rate the non-exercise activity of inpatients by marking a VAS. Eight patients were individually rated by 10 clinicians. Results were analyzed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cohen's multi-rater kappa statistic (kappa). The ICC(3,k) was 0.257 (pexercise activity and physiological measurements should be used.

  20. Academic examination stress increases disordered eating symptomatology in female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costarelli, V; Patsai, A

    2012-09-01

    It is well documented that stress and anxiety can affect eating behaviour and food intake in humans. The purpose of the current study was to explore the possible effect of academic examination stress on disordered eating attitudes, emotional eating, restraint eating, body image, anxiety levels and self-esteem in a group of female university students. The interrelationships of the above parameters were also examined. Sixty Greek female university students, 18-25 years old, have been recruited and completed, on two separate occasions: a) during an examination stress period, and b) during a control period, the following questionnaires: the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Rosenberg Self- Esteem Scale, the Body Image Pictorial Instrument Scale (COLLINS) and a specially designed General Background Questionnaire. Subjects reported significantly higher levels of disordered eating attitudes (EAT-26, p=0.01), higher levels of anxiety (p=0.000) and lower levels of self-esteem (p=0.016) during the examination stress period compared to the control period. Disordered eating attitudes (EAT-26) were significantly positively correlated with emotional eating (p=0.04) and restrained eating (p=0.010) and negatively correlated with levels of self-esteem (p=0.05) and perceived desired body image (p=0.008) during the exam stress period. Finally, EAT-26 was significantly positively correlated with levels of anxiety in both study periods. Academic examination stress seems to increase disordered eating symptomatology in female university students and is associated with lower levels of self-esteem, an important finding which warrants further investigation.

  1. Perfectionism in anorexia nervosa: variation by clinical subtype, obsessionality, and pathological eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmi, K A; Sunday, S R; Strober, M; Kaplan, A; Woodside, D B; Fichter, M; Treasure, J; Berrettini, W H; Kaye, W H

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of perfectionism as a phenotypic trait in anorexia nervosa and its relevance across clinical subtypes of this illness. The Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and the perfectionism subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory were administered to 322 women with a history of anorexia nervosa who were participating in an international, multicenter genetic study of anorexia nervosa. All participants were additionally interviewed with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and the Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale. Mean differences on dependent measures among women with anorexia nervosa and comparison subjects were examined by using generalized estimating equations. Persons who had had anorexia nervosa had significantly higher total scores on the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale than did the healthy comparison subjects. In addition, scores of the anorexia subjects on the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 perfectionism subscale exceeded Eating Disorder Inventory-2 normative data. For the anorexia nervosa participants, the total score on the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 perfectionism subscale score were highly correlated. Total score on the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale was also significantly related to the total score and the motivation-for-change subscale score of the Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale. These data show that perfectionism is a robust, discriminating characteristic of anorexia nervosa. Perfectionism is likely to be one of a cluster of phenotypic trait variables associated with a genetic diathesis for anorexia nervosa.

  2. Brain injury and severe eating difficulties at admission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Annette; Kaae Kristensen, Hanne

    Objective: The objective of this pilot study was to explore and interpret the way that individuals with acquired brain injury, admitted to inpatient neurorehabilitation with severe eating difficulties, experienced eating nine to fifteen months after discharge. Methods: Four individuals with acqui......Objective: The objective of this pilot study was to explore and interpret the way that individuals with acquired brain injury, admitted to inpatient neurorehabilitation with severe eating difficulties, experienced eating nine to fifteen months after discharge. Methods: Four individuals...... with acquired brain injury were interviewed via qualitative semi-structured interviews. An explorative study was conducted to study eating difficulties. Qualitative content analysis was used. Results: Four main themes emerged from the analysis: personal values related to eating, swallowing difficulties, eating......-of-life. The preliminary findings provide knowledge regarding the patient perspective of adapting to and developing new strategies for activities related to eating, however, further prospective, longitudinal research in a larger scale and with repeated interviews is needed....

  3. [Lack of assertiveness in patients with eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar A, Rosa; Manzo G, Rodrigo; Casanova Z, Dunny

    2006-03-01

    Low self-assertion has been noted as an important feature among patients with eating disorders. To verify, in a female population, if assertiveness is related or has a predictive capacity for the development of eating disorders. An structured clinical interview, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40) and the Rathus Assertiveness Scale (RAS) were administered to 62 patients that fulfilled the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for eating disorders and to 120 female students without eating problems. Patients with eating disorders ranked significantly higher on the EAT-40 and its factors (p assertiveness on the RAS (p Assertiveness measured by RAS and its factors was inversely related to EAT-40 and its items (r= -0.21). The predictive capability of the lack of self-assertion in the development of an eating disorder reached 53%, when patients with eating disorders and subjects at risk were considered together and compared to students without such disorder. Lack of assertiveness is a significant trait in patients with eating disorders; it may worsen its outcome and even perpetuate symptoms. Low self-assertion may be considered a predictive factor in the development of an eating disorder and must be managed from a preventive or therapeutic point of view.

  4. Understanding the roles of self-esteem, self-compassion, and fear of self-compassion in eating disorder pathology: an examination of female students and eating disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Allison C; Vimalakanthan, Kiruthiha; Carter, Jacqueline C

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the relative contributions of self-compassion, fear of self-compassion, and self-esteem in eating disorder pathology. One-hundred and fifty-five female undergraduate students and 97 females entering eating disorder treatment completed the Self-Compassion Scale, Fears of Compassion Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. T-tests revealed that the patient group had lower mean self-compassion and higher mean fear of self-compassion than the student group. When controlling for self-esteem, high fear of self-compassion emerged as the strongest predictor of eating disorder pathology in the patient group, whereas low self-compassion was the strongest predictor in the student group. These preliminary results suggest that targeting fear of self-compassion may be important when intervening with individuals suffering from an eating disorder, whereas building self-compassion may be a valuable approach for eating disorder prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Great Lakes clams find refuge from zebra mussels in restored, lake-connected marsh (Ohio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2004-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, more than 95 percent of the freshwater clams once found in Lake Erie have died due to the exotic zebara mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). Zebra mussels attach themselves to native clams in large numbers, impeding the ability of the clams to eat and burrow. However, in 1996, we discovered a population of native clams in Metzger Marsh in western Lake Erie (about 50 miles [80 km] east of Toledo) that were thriving despite the longtime presence of zebra mussel in surrounding waters. At that time, Metzger Marsh was undergoing extensive restoration, including construction of a dike to replace the eroded barrier beach and of a water-control structure to maintain hydrologic connections with the lake (Wilcox and Whillans 1999). The restoration plan called for a drawdown of water levels to promote plant growth from the seedbank -- a process that would also destroy most of the clam population. State and federal resource managers recommended removing as many clams as possible to a site that was isolated from zebra mussels, and then returning them to the marsh after it was restored. We removed about 7,000 native clams in 1996 and moved them back to Metzger Marsh in 1999.

  6. Validity of the Eating Attitude Test among Exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen J; Lane, Andrew M; Matheson, Hilary

    2004-12-01

    exercise participants, and that future research is needed to investigate eating attitudes among samples of exercisers. Key PointsValidity of psychometric measures should be thoroughly investigated. Researchers should not assume that a scale validation on one sample will show the same validity coefficients in a different population.The Eating Attitude Test is a commonly used scale. The present study shows a revised 21-item scale was suitable for exercisers.Researchers using the Eating Attitude Test should use subscales of Dieting, Oral control, Food pre-occupation, and Bulimia.Future research should involve qualitative techniques and interview exercise participants to explore the nature of eating attitudes.

  7. Treating floodplain lakes of large rivers as study units for variables that vary within lakes; an evaluation using chlorophyll a and inorganic suspended solids data from floodplain lakes of the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, B.R.; Rogala, J.R.; Houser, J.N.

    2013-01-01

    Contiguous floodplain lakes ('lakes') have historically been used as study units for comparative studies of limnological variables that vary within lakes. The hierarchical nature of these studies implies that study variables may be correlated within lakes and that covariate associations may differ not only among lakes but also by spatial scale. We evaluated the utility of treating lakes as study units for limnological variables that vary within lakes based on the criteria of important levels of among-lake variation in study variables and the observation of covariate associations that vary among lakes. These concerns were selected, respectively, to ensure that lake signatures were distinguishable from within-lake variation and that lake-scale effects on covariate associations might provide inferences not available by ignoring those effects. Study data represented chlorophyll a (CHL) and inorganic suspended solids (ISS) data from lakes within three reaches of the Upper Mississippi River. Sampling occurred in summer from 1993 through 2005 (except 2003); numbers of lakes per reach varied from 7 to 19, and median lake area varied from 53 to 101 ha. CHL and ISS levels were modelled linearly, with lake, year and lake x year effects treated as random. For all reaches, the proportions of variation in CHL and ISS attributable to differences among lakes (including lake and lake x year effects) were substantial (range: 18%-73%). Finally, among-lake variation in CHL and ISS was strongly associated with covariates and covariate effects that varied by lakes or lake-years (including with vegetation levels and, for CHL, log(ISS)). These findings demonstrate the utility of treating floodplain lakes as study units for the study of limnological variables and the importance of addressing hierarchy within study designs when making inferences from data collected within floodplain lakes.

  8. Improving Assessment of the Spectrum of Reward-Related Eating: The RED-13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley E. Mason

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A diversity of scales capture facets of reward-related eating (RRE. These scales assess food cravings, uncontrolled eating, addictive behavior, restrained eating, binge eating, and other eating behaviors. However, these scales differ in terms of the severity of RRE they capture. We sought to incorporate the items from existing scales to broaden the 9-item Reward-based Eating Drive scale (RED-9; Epel et al., 2014, which assesses three dimensions of RRE (lack of satiety, preoccupation with food, and lack of control over eating, in order to more comprehensively assess the entire spectrum of RRE. In a series of 4 studies, we used Item Response Theory models to consider candidate items to broaden the RED-9. Studies 1 and 2 evaluated the abilities of additional items from existing scales to increase the RED-9’s coverage across the spectrum of RRE. Study 3 evaluated candidate items identified in Studies 1 and 2 in a new sample to assess the extent to which they accounted for more variance in areas less well-covered by the RED-9. Study 4 tested the ability of the RED-13 to provide consistent coverage across the range of the RRE spectrum. The resultant RED-13 accounted for greater variability than the RED-9 by reducing gaps in coverage of RRE in middle-to-low ranges. Like the RED-9, the RED-13 was positively correlated with BMI. The RED-13 was also positively related to a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes as well as cravings for sweet and savory foods. In summary, the RED-13 is a brief self-report measure that broadly captures the spectrum of RRE and may be a useful tool for identifying individuals at risk for overweight or obesity.

  9. Eating behavior, depression, and self-esteem in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomori, M; Rus-Makovec, M

    2000-05-01

    In a representative sample of 4700 Slovene high school students, we examined their eating behavior and its correlations with some psychosocial and psychological characteristics with the aim of identifying the main risk factors for disordered eating. Using a questionnaire which also included Zung's Self-rating Depression Scale and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, we compared girls (n = 2507) and boys (n = 2193) with regard to their satisfaction with their body weight, weight-reducing activities, and frequency of binge eating. We assessed their family relationships, abuse of alcohol and other psychoactive drugs, suicidal ideation, and suicidal tendences, as well as their level of depression and self-esteem. The results showed significant differences between girls and boys, between groups of those who were satisfied and those who were dissatisfied with their body weight, and also between groups which indulged in frequent binge eating and those which did not. Within a general population of adolescents, there is a substantial number of subjects with disordered eating behavior, some part of whom are at high risk for eating disorders.

  10. Methods of evaluating ore processing and effluent treatment for Cigar Lake ore at the Rabbit Lake Mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, C.R.

    2002-01-01

    Cigar Lake is the second-largest, high grade uranium orebody in the world. Mineable reserves for Cigar Lake Phase 1 are estimated at 191 million pounds U 3 O 8 with a grade of 25.6% U 3 O 8 . Subject to regulatory approval, Cameco intends to process the majority of ore from Cigar Lake in the Rabbit Lake mill. Cameco initiated a programme to study the processing of Cigar Lake ore and the treatment of the resulting waste streams. Laboratory and follow-up pilot scale ore leaching tests with Cigar Lake ore samples were performed. Tailings and effluents were generated from the products of the pilot scale leach tests. Mill process tailings were blended with ground waste rock. Using these materials, geotechnical and geochemical properties, including long term tailings pore water characteristics, will be evaluated. In addition, proposed changes to the mill waste treatment operations were developed to deal with increased levels of arsenic and radium in the waste streams. This paper describes the methods and techniques Cameco used in this programme. (author)

  11. Psychometric properties of the eating disorder examination-questionnaire in Japanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Tomoyo; Yoshida, Toshiyuki; Komaki, Gen

    2017-01-01

    Although the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire version 6.0 (EDE-Q) is one of the most widely used questionnaires for eating disorders in Western countries, no research has addressed the psychometric properties of the EDE-Q in a Japanese sample. We explored the factor structure of the EDE-Q and examined the internal consistency of the derived scales for Japanese participants (Study I), the convergent validity with other eating disorder-related psychological measures (Study II) and the distinction between the derived two body image-related factors with psychological measures (StudyIII). The EDE-Q was administered to 1,430 undergraduate students in Study I and in Study II was subsequently assessed by two self-report measures of eating pathology, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) for 558 undergraduate students and the Eating Disorders Inventory-II (EDI-II) 111. In StudyIII, another 225 undergraduate students participated in an examination of the relationships of the derived body image-related subscales of the EDE-Q with the psychological measures of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Public Self-Consciousness Scale, and Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale. Exploratory factor analysis of the EDE-Q identified four meaningful factors. Of the original four EDE-Q factors, "Restriction" and "Eating Concern" were retained. However, the other two factors, "Shape" and "Weight" Concerns, were combined into two different factors: "Fear of Obesity" and "Self-Esteem Based on Shape and Weight". Internal consistency of the derived four factors was adequate, and the relationships with EDI-II and EAT-26 measures demonstrated convergent validity. Analysis of the distinction between "Fear of Obesity" and "Self-Esteem Based on Shape and Weight" revealed that only "Self-Esteem Based on Shape and Weight" was significantly associated with the measures assessing psychopathology related to eating disorders. This study describes restructured factors of the EDE

  12. Zooplankton communities in a large prealpine lake, Lake Constance: comparison between the Upper and the Lower Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard MAIER

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The zooplankton communities of two basins of a large lake, Lake Constance, were compared during the years 2002 and 2003. The two basins differ in morphology, physical and chemical conditions. The Upper Lake basin has a surface area of 470 km2, a mean depth of 100 and a maximum depth of 250 m; the Lower Lake basin has a surface area of 62 km2, a mean depth of only 13 and a maximum depth of 40 m. Nutrient, chlorophyll-a concentrations and mean temperatures are somewhat higher in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. Total abundance of rotifers (number per m2 lake surface was higher and rotifer development started earlier in the year in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. Total abundance of crustaceans was higher in the Upper Lake in the year 2002; in the year 2003 no difference in abundance could be detected between the lake basins, although in summer crustacean abundance was higher in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. Crustacean communities differed significantly between lake basins while there was no apparent difference in rotifer communities. In the Lower Lake small crustaceans, like Bosmina spp., Ceriodaphnia pulchella and Thermocyclops oithonoides prevailed. Abundance (number per m2 lake surface of predatory cladocerans, large daphnids and large copepods was much lower in the Lower than in the Upper Lake, in particular during the summer months. Ordination with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS separated communities of both lakes along gradients that correlated with temperature and chlorophyll a concentration. Clutches of copepods were larger in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. No difference could be detected in clutch size of large daphnids between lake basins. Our results show that zooplankton communities in different basins of Lake Constance can be very different. They further suggest that the lack of large crustaceans in particular the lack of large predatory cladocerans in the Lower Lake can have negative effects on growth and

  13. Distribution of tritium in a chronically contaminated lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.

    1978-01-01

    White Oak Lake located on the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation receives a continuous input of tritium from operating facilities and waste disposal operations at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The purpose of this paper was (1) to determine the distribution and concentration of tritium in an aquatic environment which has received releases of tritium significantly greater than expected releases from nuclear power plants, and (2) to determine the effect of fluctuating tritium concentrations in ambient water on the concentration of tritium in fish. Aquatic biota from White Oak Lake were analyzed for tissue water tritium and tissue bound tritium. Except for one plant species, the ratio of tissue water tritium to lake water tritium ranged from 0.80 to 1.02. The tissue water tritium in Gambusia affinis, the mosquito fish, followed closely the significant changes in tritium concentration in lake water. The turnover of tissue water tritium was very rapid; Gambusia from White Oak Lake eliminated 50% of their tissue water tritium in 14 min. The ratio of the specific activity of the tissue bound tritium to the specific activity of the lake water was greatest for the larger species of fish but never exceeded unity. The radiation dose to man from tritium which could be acquired through the aquatic food chain was relatively small when compared to other pathways. The whole body dose to a hypothetical individual taking in concentrations of tritium measured in White Oak Lake was 1.8 mrem/yr from eating fish and 10.0 mrem/yr from drinking water

  14. Centennial-scale vegetation and climate changes in the Middle Atlas, Morocco: new insights from multi-proxy investigations at Lake Sidi Ali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, William; Campbell, Jennifer; Joannin, Sebastien; Mischke, Steffen; Zielhofer, Christoph; de Batist, Marc; Mikdad, Abdes

    2016-04-01

    The karstic lakes of the Middle Atlas, Morocco, represent a valuable archive of environmental and climatic change for Northwest Africa. Here we present the results of centennial-scale palynological and charcoal analyses as part of a multiproxy palaeolimnological study of sediment cores from Lake Sidi Ali in the Middle Atlas, Morocco (33° 03 N, 05° 00 W; 2,080 m a.s.l.). Supported by absolute dating including 23 more than twenty AMS 14C dates on pollen concentrates, the record covers the entire Holocene and offers insights into vegetation and climate change at a regionally unprecedented centennial-scale. Pollen assemblages are dominated by steppic herbs, evergreen oaks (Quercus), junipers (Cupressaceae) and Atlantic cedar (Cedrus atlantica). A long-term evolution of the montane vegetation is recorded, reflecting progressive changes in the dominant arboreal taxa and leading to the full establishment of the emblematic cedar forests of the area during the mid-Holocene by 6000 cal BP. Orbital-scale changes in seasonality and growing season moisture availability linked to declining summer insolation are implicated, with a transition from (a) warm, dry summers associated with summer drought tolerant taxa especially evergreen Quercus, high algal productivity in the lake, and high background levels of microcharcoal reflecting distant fire activity during the early Holocene, to (b) cool, relatively humid summers with dominance of montane conifers, declining algal productivity in the lake, and episodic local fire activity during the mid- to late Holocene. Superimposed on the long-term environmental changes are recurrent centennial-scale fluctuations in vegetation composition, reflecting competitive dynamics between the major taxa, initially between steppic and arboreal elements, and later between the major tree taxa. Parallels with hydrological proxies including stable O and C isotopes suggest common responses to climatic drivers (fluctuations in moisture sources and

  15. Psychometric Evaluation and Norms for the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) in a Clinical Eating Disorders Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tiffany A; Berner, Laura A; Jones, Michelle D; Reilly, Erin E; Cusack, Anne; Anderson, Leslie K; Kaye, Walter H; Wierenga, Christina E

    2017-09-01

    Altered interoceptive awareness (IA) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of eating disorders; however, few comprehensive self-report measures of IA exist in eating disorders. The present study sought to validate the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA), originally developed to assess IA in individuals practicing mind-body therapies, in an eating disorder sample. Adult and adolescent patients (n = 376) completed assessments upon admission to a partial hospital programme. Analyses examined the factor structure of the MAIA, scale means, scale-scale correlations, internal consistency and construct validity. Analyses also examined associations between MAIA subscales and eating disorder symptoms. Results supported the original eight-factor structure of the MAIA. Internal consistency was acceptable, and the scales converged with associated measures. Importantly, Not Distracting, Self-regulation, Body Listening and Trusting were most strongly associated with eating disorder symptoms. Results support use of the MAIA among eating disorders and provide further support for the relevance of IA in eating disorders. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  16. Measuring Outcomes for Dysphagia: Validity and Reliability of the European Portuguese Eating Assessment Tool (P-EAT-10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Dália Santos; Ferreira, Pedro Lopes; Reis, Elizabeth Azevedo; Lopes, Inês Sousa

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and the reliability of the European Portuguese version of the EAT-10 (P-EAT-10). This research was conducted in three phases: (i) cultural and linguistic adaptation; (ii) feasibility and reliability test; and (iii) validity tests. The final sample was formed by a cohort of 520 subjects. The P-EAT-10 index was compared for socio-demographic and clinic variables. It was also compared for both dysphagic and non-dysphagic groups as well as for the results of the 3Oz wst. Lastly, the P-EAT-10 scores were correlated with the EuroQol Group Portuguese EQ-5D index. The Cronbach's α obtained for the P-EAT-10 scale was 0.952 and it remained excellent even if any item was deleted. The item-total and the intraclass correlation coefficients were very good. The P-EAT-10 mean of the non-dysphagic cohort was 0.56 and that of the dysphagic cohort was 14.26, the mean comparison between the 3Oz wst groups and the P-EAT-10 scores were significant. A significant higher perception of QoL was also found among the non-dysphagic subjects. P-EAT-10 is a valid and reliable measure that may be used to document dysphagia which makes it useful both for screening in clinical practice and in research.

  17. Hydro-climatic trends and water resource management implications based on multi-scale data for the Lake Victoria region, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutsouris, A J; Destouni, G; Jarsjoe, J; Lyon, S W

    2010-01-01

    Unreliable rainfall may be a main cause of poverty in rural areas, such as the Kisumu district by Lake Victoria in Kenya. Climate change may further increase the negative effects of rainfall uncertainty. These effects could be mitigated to some extent through improved and adaptive water resource management and planning, which relies on our interpretations and projections of the coupled hydro-climatic system behaviour and its development trends. In order to identify and quantify the main differences and consistencies among such hydro-climatic assessments, this study investigates trends and exemplifies their use for important water management decisions for the Lake Victoria drainage basin (LVDB), based on local scale data for the Orongo village in the Kisumu district, and regional scale data for the whole LVDB. Results show low correlation between locally and regionally observed hydro-climatic trends, and large differences, which in turn affects assessments of important water resource management parameters. However, both data scales converge in indicating that observed local and regional hydrological discharge trends are primarily driven by local and regional water use and land use changes.

  18. Cormorant predation overlaps with fish communities and commercial-fishery interest in a Swedish lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovegård, K. M.; Öhman, K.; Mikkelsen, Jørgen Skole

    2017-01-01

    The increase of the fish-eating cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) in Europe has resulted in conflicts with fisheries. In Lake Roxen, Sweden, cormorants are blamed for causing a decrease in fishery catches. To study and describe the potential effects that cormorants may have had on fish in ...

  19. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and psychological comorbidity in eating disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, L; Martinotti, G; Carenti, M L; Romo, L; Oumaya, M; Pham-Scottez, A; Rouillon, F; Gorwood, P; Janiri, L

    2017-05-22

    There is some evidence that eating disorders (ED) and Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share common clinical features and that ADHD might contribute to the severity of eating disorders. A greater understanding of how the presence of comorbid ADHD may affect the psychopathological framework of eating disorder seems of primary importance. The aim of our study was to evaluate rates of ADHD in three ED subgroups of inpatients: anorexia nervosa restricting type (AN-R), anorexia nervosa binge-eating/purging type (AN-BP) and bulimia nervosa (BN). The secondary aim was the evaluation of the associated psychological characteristics. The sample consisted of 73 females inpatients (mean age 28.07 ± 7.30), all with longstanding histories of eating disorder (ED). The presence of a diagnosis of ADHD was evaluated in a clinical interview based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. The following psychometric instruments were used: the eating attitude test (EAT-40), the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE), the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2), the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), the Brown Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (BADDS), the Hamilton scales for Anxiety (HAM-A) and Depression (HAM-D), and the Barrat Impulsivity Scale (BIS-10). Among the three ED subgroups, 13 patients reported comorbidity with ADHD; three in the AN-R subtype, nine in the AN-BP and one in the BN. The remaining 60 patients (n = 34 AN-R; n = 19 AN-BP; n = 7 BN) presented only a diagnosis of ED. The EAT (p = 0.04) and HAM-A (p = 0.02) mean scores were significantly higher in patients with comorbid ADHD. In our study the comorbidity between ADHD and ED appeared to be frequent, particularly among patients with AN-BP. ED inpatients with higher level of anxiety and more abnormal eating attitudes and bulimic symptoms should be assessed for potentially associated ADHD.

  20. The relationship between compulsive buying, eating disorder symptoms, and temperament in a sample of female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Laurence; Bijttebier, Patricia; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina; Mueller, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between compulsive buying (CB), eating disorder symptoms, and temperament (controlling for depression) in a sample of female students. We assessed 211 female undergraduate students using the Compulsive Buying Scale, the Eating Disorder Inventory, the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System scales, the Adult Temperament Questionnaire, and the Physical Health Questionnaire-Depression. The results show a positive association between CB and the Eating Disorder Inventory-II drive for thinness and bulimia subscales. Both CB and eating disorder symptoms were related to low levels of effortful control. Finally, CB was also related to high levels of Behavioral Activation Scale reactivity (impulsivity), whereas eating disorder symptoms (especially drive for thinness) were more strongly related to high levels of Behavioral Inhibition Scale reactivity (anxiety). The implications of these findings for the treatment of CB and eating disorder symptoms will be discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Binge Eating Disorder and Night Eating Syndrome: A Comparative Study of Disordered Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kelly C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Stunkard, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    The authors compared eating patterns, disordered eating, features of eating disorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eating disorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several…

  2. Eating tasty food to cope. Longitudinal association with BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggiano, M M; Wenger, L E; Turan, B; Tatum, M M; Morgan, P R; Sylvester, M D

    2015-04-01

    The goals of this study were to determine if a change in certain motives to eat highly palatable food, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), could predict a change in body mass index (BMI) over time, to assess the temporal stability of these motive scores, and to test the reliability of previously reported associations between eating tasty foods to cope and BMI. BMI, demographics, and scores on the PEMS and the Binge Eating Scale were obtained from 192 college students. Test-retest analysis was performed on the PEMS motives in groups varying in three gap times between tests. Regression analyses determined what PEMS motives predicted a change in BMI over two years. The results replicated previous findings that eating palatable food for Coping motives (e.g., to forget about problems, reduce negative feelings) is associated with BMI. Test-retest correlations revealed that motive scores, while somewhat stable, can change over time. Importantly, among overweight participants, a change in Coping scores predicted a change in BMI over 2 years, such that a 1-point change in Coping predicted a 1.76 change in BMI (equivalent to a 10.5 lb. change in body weight) independent of age, sex, ethnicity, and initial binge-eating status (Cohen's f(2) effect size = 1.44). The large range in change of Coping scores suggests it is possible to decrease frequency of eating to cope by more than 1 scale point to achieve weight losses greater than 10 lbs. in young overweight adults, a group already at risk for rapid weight gain. Hence, treatments aimed specifically at reducing palatable food intake for coping reasons vs. for social, reward, or conformity reasons, should help achieve a healthier body weight and prevent obesity if this motive-type is identified prior to significant weight gain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The relationship between compulsive buying and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James E; Redlin, Jennifer; Wonderlich, Steve; Crosby, Ross; Faber, Ron; Miltenberger, Ray; Smyth, Joshua; Stickney, Marci; Gosnell, Blake; Burgard, Melissa; Lancaster, Kathy

    2002-07-01

    Compulsive buying has received increased research attention in the last decade. The disorder has high rates of comorbidity for other disorders, including eating disorders. This study explored the possible relationship between compulsive buying and eating disorders. Twenty women who scored in the pathological range on a measure of compulsive buying and 20 controls were recruited via the media. Various measures of psychopathology and eating disorder symptoms were administered to both groups. Compulsive buyers were significantly more likely to have a higher lifetime history of substance abuse or dependence. No differences existed between normal controls and compulsive buyers in prevalence of current or lifetime eating disorders, nor were there differences in scores of eating-related psychopathology. This work failed to demonstrate an increased risk for eating disorder in compulsive buyers, although a higher rate of substance dependence or abuse and higher scores on pathological personality dimension scales were seen.

  4. Recollections of pressure to eat during childhood, but not picky eating, predict young adult eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jordan M; Galloway, Amy T; Webb, Rose Mary; Martz, Denise M; Farrow, Claire V

    2016-02-01

    Picky eating is a childhood behavior that vexes many parents and is a symptom in the newer diagnosis of Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) in adults. Pressure to eat, a parental controlling feeding practice aimed at encouraging a child to eat more, is associated with picky eating and a number of other childhood eating concerns. Low intuitive eating, an insensitivity to internal hunger and satiety cues, is also associated with a number of problem eating behaviors in adulthood. Whether picky eating and pressure to eat are predictive of young adult eating behavior is relatively unstudied. Current adult intuitive eating and disordered eating behaviors were self-reported by 170 college students, along with childhood picky eating and pressure through retrospective self- and parent reports. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that childhood parental pressure to eat, but not picky eating, predicted intuitive eating and disordered eating symptoms in college students. These findings suggest that parental pressure in childhood is associated with problematic eating patterns in young adulthood. Additional research is needed to understand the extent to which parental pressure is a reaction to or perhaps compounds the development of problematic eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The importance of lake-specific characteristics for water quality across the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Emily K; Patil, Vijay P; Oliver, Samantha K; Hetherington, Amy L; Brentrup, Jennifer A; Zwart, Jacob A; Winters, Kirsten M; Corman, Jessica R; Nodine, Emily R; Woolway, R Iestyn; Dugan, Hilary A; Jaimes, Aline; Santoso, Arianto B; Hong, Grace S; Winslow, Luke A; Hanson, Paul C; Weathers, Kathleen C

    2015-06-01

    Lake water quality is affected by local and regional drivers, including lake physical characteristics, hydrology, landscape position, land cover, land use, geology, and climate. Here, we demonstrate the utility of hypothesis testing within the landscape limnology framework using a random forest algorithm on a national-scale, spatially explicit data set, the United States Environmental Protection Agency's 2007 National Lakes Assessment. For 1026 lakes, we tested the relative importance of water quality drivers across spatial scales, the importance of hydrologic connectivity in mediating water quality drivers, and how the importance of both spatial scale and connectivity differ across response variables for five important in-lake water quality metrics (total phosphorus, total nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon, turbidity, and conductivity). By modeling the effect of water quality predictors at different spatial scales, we found that lake-specific characteristics (e.g., depth, sediment area-to-volume ratio) were important for explaining water quality (54-60% variance explained), and that regionalization schemes were much less effective than lake specific metrics (28-39% variance explained). Basin-scale land use and land cover explained between 45-62% of variance, and forest cover and agricultural land uses were among the most important basin-scale predictors. Water quality drivers did not operate independently; in some cases, hydrologic connectivity (the presence of upstream surface water features) mediated the effect of regional-scale drivers. For example, for water quality in lakes with upstream lakes, regional classification schemes were much less effective predictors than lake-specific variables, in contrast to lakes with no upstream lakes or with no surface inflows. At the scale of the continental United States, conductivity was explained by drivers operating at larger spatial scales than for other water quality responses. The current regulatory practice of using

  6. [Cognitions in eating disorders and their assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiber, R; Mirabel-Sarron, C; Urdapilleta, I

    2005-01-01

    to food cues indicates that bulimics were more responsive to sight, smell and taste of their favourite binge food, and a greater responsivity was associated with increasing -cue salience. Eating disorder patients appear to have internalised a mediated social rule concerning "good food" and make drastic selections thus removing the possibility of choice of foodstuffs. b) Experimental processes: temporal factors in the processing of threat seem to be of importance in patients with high levels of eating psychopathology. There is no evidence for preattentive processing biases among anorectics. Changes in information processing speed after treatment were not linked to treatment condition or treatment response. c) Judgement and emotions: in eating disorder patients, distortions of depressogenic nature are found that influence the cognitive style; thoughts about eating, weight and shape are characterised by negative affective tone; negative emotions could account for bulimic behaviour; anxiety and distress are correlated to thought control strategies. Information treating seems to be impaired in a non-homogeneous way. d) Cognitive schemas are seriously maladaptive and not well investigated. In eating disorder patients, core beliefs are absolute, unconditional and dichotomous cognitions about oneself and the world. There are only few studies in this field moreover showing controversial results. Core beliefs can explain links between personality disorders and eating psychopathology. Pathological core beliefs have to be taken in to account because they influence the outcome and the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy. Third, the last part of this paper summarises actually available rating scales eva-luating distorted cognitions in eating disorders. There are different methods for evaluation: specific and non-specific self-report questionnaires, thought-sampling procedures, -methods derived from cognitive psychology. The Mizes Anorectic Cognition questionnaire (MAC) is a

  7. Basin-scale simulation of current and potential climate changed hydrologic conditions in the Lake Michigan Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Daniel E.; Walker, John F.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) is the largest public investment in the Great Lakes in two decades. A task force of 11 Federal agencies developed an action plan to implement the initiative. The U.S. Department of the Interior was one of the 11 agencies that entered into an interagency agreement with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as part of the GLRI to complete scientific projects throughout the Great Lakes basin. The U.S. Geological Survey, a bureau within the Department of the Interior, is involved in the GLRI to provide scientific support to management decisions as well as measure progress of the Great Lakes basin restoration efforts. This report presents basin-scale simulated current and forecast climatic and hydrologic conditions in the Lake Michigan Basin. The forecasts were obtained by constructing and calibrating a Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) model of the Lake Michigan Basin; the PRMS model was calibrated using the parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis (PEST) software suite. The calibrated model was used to evaluate potential responses to climate change by using four simulated carbon emission scenarios from eight general circulation models released by the World Climate Research Programme’s Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3. Statistically downscaled datasets of these scenarios were used to project hydrologic response for the Lake Michigan Basin. In general, most of the observation sites in the Lake Michigan Basin indicated slight increases in annual streamflow in response to future climate change scenarios. Monthly streamflows indicated a general shift from the current (2014) winter-storage/snowmelt-pulse system to a system with a more equally distributed hydrograph throughout the year. Simulated soil moisture within the basin illustrates that conditions within the basin are also expected to change on a monthly timescale. One effect of increasing air temperature as a result of the changing

  8. Eutrophication potential of Payette Lake, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Paul F.

    1997-01-01

    Payette Lake was studied during water years 1995-96 to determine the 20.5-square-kilometer lake's assimilative capacity for nutrients and, thus, its eutrophication potential. The study included quantification of hydrologic and nutrient budgets, characterization of water quality in the limnetic and littoral zones, development of an empirical nutrient load/lake response model, and estimation of the limnological effects of a large-scale forest fire in the lake's 373-square-kilometer watershed during the autumn of 1994. Streamflow from the North Fork Payette River, the lake's primary tributary, delivered about 73 percent of the lake's inflow over the 2 years. Outflow from the lake, measured since 1908, was 128 and 148 percent of the long-term average in 1995 and 1996, respectively. The larger volumes of outflow reduced the long-term average water-

  9. Biomagnification of mercury through lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) food webs of lakes with different physical, chemical and biological characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidd, Karen A., E-mail: kiddk@unbsj.ca [Canadian Rivers Institute and Biology Department, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB, Canada E2L 4L5 (Canada); Muir, Derek C.G., E-mail: derek.muir@ec.gc.ca [Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, Canada L7R 4A6 (Canada); Evans, Marlene S., E-mail: marlene.evans@ec.gc.ca [Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 3H5 (Canada); Wang, Xioawa, E-mail: xiaowa.wang@ec.gc.ca [Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, Canada L7R 4A6 (Canada); Whittle, Mike [Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, Canada L7R 4A6 (Canada); Swanson, Heidi K., E-mail: heidikswanson@yahoo.ca [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2E9 (Canada); Johnston, Tom, E-mail: tjohnston@laurentian.ca [Cooperative Freshwater Ecology Unit, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, and Biology Department, Laurentian University, Sudbury, ON, Canada P3E 2C6 (Canada); Guildford, Stephanie, E-mail: sguildfo@d.umn.edu [Department of Biology and Large Lakes Observatory, University of Minnesota Duluth, 2205 5th St., Duluth, MN, 55812 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) biomagnification in aquatic ecosystems remains a concern because this pollutant is known to affect the health of fish-eating wildlife and humans, and the fish themselves. The 'rate' of mercury biomagnification is being assessed more frequently using stable nitrogen isotope ratios ({delta}{sup 15}N), a measure of relative trophic position of biota within a food web. Within food webs and across diverse systems, log-transformed Hg concentrations are significantly and positively related to {delta}{sup 15}N and the slopes of these models vary from one study to another for reasons that are not yet understood. Here we compared the rates of Hg biomagnification in 14 lake trout lakes from three provinces in Canada to understand whether any characteristics of the ecosystems explained this among-system variability. Several fish species, zooplankton and benthic invertebrates were collected from these lakes and analyzed for total Hg (fish only), methyl Hg (invertebrates) and stable isotopes ({delta}{sup 15}N; {delta}{sup 13}C to assess energy sources). Mercury biomagnification rates varied significantly across systems and were higher for food webs of larger (surface area), higher nutrient lakes. However, the slopes were not predictive of among-lake differences in Hg in the lake trout. Results indicate that among-system differences in the rates of Hg biomagnification seen in the literature may be due, in part, to differences in ecosystem characteristics although the mechanisms for this variability are not yet understood. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury biomagnifies through aquatic food webs to toxic levels in top predator fishes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Among-system differences in mercury transfer through food webs occur but have not been explained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diverse lakes supporting lake trout were compared to understand the ecosystem processes that affect mercury biomagnification. Black

  10. Restaurant eating in nonpurge binge-eating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Gayle M

    2006-11-01

    This study describes restaurant-eating behaviors for nonpurge binge-eating women in comparison to dieters. Restaurant-eating behaviors were determined from a content analysis of 14-day food diaries using a convenience sample of 71 women who reported binging without purging and 46 dieters without a recent binge history. Comparing bingers to dieters, there were no significant differences in frequency of eating out, dessert consumption at restaurants, or fast food eating. Bingers more often perceived restaurant eating to be uncontrolled and excessive. Both bingers and dieters consumed significantly more calories (226-253 kcal) and fat (10.4-16.0 gm) on restaurant days. Extra calories consumed on restaurant-eating days may contribute to weight gain over time, especially with frequent restaurant eating. Restaurants may present a high-risk food environment for bingers and dieters, contributing to loss of control and excess consumption.

  11. An Assessment of Sub-Meter Scale Spatial Variability of Arcellinida (Testate Lobose Amoebae) Assemblages in a Temperate Lake: Implications for Limnological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Riley E; Nasser, Nawaf A; Patterson, R Timothy; Gregory, Braden R B; Roe, Helen M; Reinhardt, Eduard G

    2018-03-04

    Arcellinida (testate lobose amoebae), a group of benthic protists, were examined from 46 sediment-water interface samples collected from oligotrophic Oromocto Lake, New Brunswick, Canada. To assess (1) assemblage homogeneity at a sub-meter spatial scale and (2) the necessity for collecting samples from multiple stations during intra-lake surveys; multiple samples were collected from three stations (quadrats 1, 2, and 3) across the north basin of Oromocto Lake, with quadrat 1 (n = 16) being the furthest to the west, quadrat 2 (n = 15) situated closer to the center of the basin, and quadrat 3 (n = 15) positioned 300 m south of the mouth of Dead Brook, an inlet stream. Results from cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis identified two major Arcellinida assemblages, A1 and A2, the latter containing two sub-assemblages (A2a and A2b). Redundancy analysis and variance partitioning results indicated that seven statistically significant environmental variables (K, S, Sb, Ti, Zn, Fe, and Mn) explained 41.5% of the total variation in the Arcellinida distribution. Iron, Ti and K, indicators of detrital runoff, had the greatest influence on assemblage variance. The results of this study reveal that closely spaced samples (~ 10 cm) in an open-water setting are comprised of homogenous arcellinidan assemblages, indicating that replicate sampling is not required. The results, however, must be tempered with respect to the various water properties and physical characteristics that comprise individual lakes as collection of several samples may likely be necessary when sampling multiple sites of a lake basin characterized by varying water depths (e.g., littoral zone vs. open water), or lakes impacted by geogenic or anthropogenic stressors (e.g., eutrophication, or industrial contamination).

  12. Personality Assessment Inventory profiles of university students with eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    MacGregor, Michael Wm; Lamborn, Paige

    2014-01-01

    Background Eating disorders are complex disorders that involve medical and psychological symptoms. Understanding the psychological factors associated with different eating disorders is important for assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. Methods This study sought to determine on which of the 22 Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) differed, and whether the PAI can be used to classify e...

  13. The predictability of a lake phytoplankton community, over time-scales of hours to years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Mridul K.; Fontana, Simone; Reyes, Marta

    2018-01-01

    monitoring data (biological, physical and chemical) to assess the predictability of phytoplankton cell density in one lake across an unprecedented range of time-scales. Communities were highly predictable over hours to months: model R2 decreased from 0.89 at 4 hours to 0.74 at 1 month, and in a long......Forecasting changes to ecological communities is one of the central challenges in ecology. However, nonlinear dependencies, biotic interactions and data limitations have limited our ability to assess how predictable communities are. Here, we used a machine learning approach and environmental...

  14. You are how you eat : Decelerated eating may protect from obesity and eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Zandian, Modjtaba

    2009-01-01

    On a new framework for anorexia nervosa, learning to eat is central intervention; as patients regain a normal pattern of eating their problems dissolve. Mandometer®, a development of previous methods, allows simultaneous recording of eating rate and the development of satiety as well as experimental manipulation of eating rate. By measuring eating behavior during the course of a meal with this method, women were divided into those eating at a decelerated rate and those eatin...

  15. The usefulness of body image tests in the prevention of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Chie; Uemoto, Masaharu; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Maeda, Kiyoshi

    2007-01-01

    Individual psychological factors such as mental conditions and self-esteem and family relational factors are thought to be predisposing factors in the development of eating disorders. In this study, we conducted a survey of 12-15 year-old public junior high school students to extract factors related to abnormal eating behavior and determine what information could be used by schools to prevent eating disorders. Self-descriptive surveys were distributed and collected during homeroom time at school. The survey consisted of the 26-item Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) to measure the degree of abnormal eating behavior, Stunkard, Sorensen and Schlusinger's Body Image Scale to determine predisposing factors, the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale III (FACES III), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. 483 students (263 boys and 220 girls) participated in the survey. School-year height and weight data was used to calculate BMI. Approximately 7% of girls and 3% of boys showed clear indications of abnormal eating behavior. We found no direct relationship between abnormal eating behavior and family factors in this study, but an indirect relationship was suggested through other factors such as psychological complaints and self-esteem. There were relationships between abnormal eating behavior and the individual factors of psychological complaints, current and ideal body image, and low self-esteem. Furthermore, cluster analysis showed that there were students with high BMI who thought of themselves as fat, as well as students who perceived themselves as fat despite having average BMI. These students had a high frequency of abnormal eating behaviors, a great deal of psychological complaints, and low self-esteem. An understanding of BMI, along with body image, is essential for students who feel that they are overweight. Schools can practice preventative education by teaching these students about healthy body weight and by screening for the eating

  16. Eating disorder severity and functional impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annika Helgadóttir; Hoyt, William T.; Poulsen, Stig Bernt

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim was to examine duration of illness and body mass index as possible moderators of the relationship between eating disorder severity and functional impairment, as well as psychological distress as a possible mediator of this relationship. Methods: The study included 159 patients...... was measured with the Sheehan Disability Scale, and psychological distress was measured with the Symptom Check List-90-R. Duration of illness and body mass index were assessed clinically. Results: Duration of illness significantly moderated the relationship between eating disorder severity and functional...... impairment; the relationship was strongest for patients with a shorter duration of illness. Psychological distress partly mediated the relationship between eating disorder severity and functional impairment. Duration of illness significantly moderated the relationship between psychological distress...

  17. Eating behaviour patterns in Chinese children aged 12-18 months and association with relative weight - factorial validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Ying-Ting

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eating behaviours have been suggested relating to obesity development. The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ is a parent-report measure constructed to assess multiple dimensions of eating behavior for children. This study aimed to test the validity of the Chinese version of Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ in Chinese children aged 12-18 months. We examined factor structure and the reliability of the Chinese version of the CEBQ, the associations between children's eating behaviours and children's weight (BMI SDS were assessed. Methods 219 questionnaires were filled out by the caregivers, approached in community health care centers in two cities in China. BMI of each child was calculated and converted to BMI SDS. Factor validation (Principal Component Analysis, exploratory factor analysis on all CEBQ items was performed and gender difference in eating behaviours was examined. Correlations between eating behaviours and the child's BMI SDS were analyzed by linear regression analysis controlling for gender, parental combined weight, and education. Results The factor analysis revealed a seven-factor solution, with factor 'food responsiveness' (FR split into two. 'Satiety responsiveness' (SR and 'Enjoyment of food' (EF factors were not detected. Interestingly, boys scored higher than girls in the FR scales, whereas girls had a higher score in 'food fussiness' (FF scale. Conclusions We conclude that although a valuable psychometric instrument, CEBQ might be affected by age and cultural differences. Therefore, adjusting it in order to fit the Chinese population was suggested. We did not find an association between eating behaviours and children's BMI SDS, when it was controlled for gender and parental weight.

  18. Factors associated with healthy and unhealthy workplace eating behaviours in individuals with overweight/obesity with and without binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, S L; Barber, J A; Burger, A; Barnes, R D

    2018-04-01

    Most Americans spend an average of 8 hours per day in the workplace. Current understanding of eating behaviours in the workplace and their association with overweight, obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) is limited. Workplace eating behaviours and weight-related self-efficacy were examined in a sample of 98 individuals with overweight or obesity, with or without BED. Participants completed the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire, Work and Social Adjustment Scale, Worker's Perception of Environmental Factors, and a Workplace Questionnaire. Eating unplanned food occurred on average 2.43 times per week (SD = 3.37), and eating unplanned food even when meals were brought from home occurred on average 1.28 times per week (SD = 1.84). Individuals with BED purchased lunch even when they brought food from home significantly more frequently than did individuals without BED. Those with BED also reported significantly poorer work and social adjustment related to binge eating as compared with those without BED. The most significant barriers to healthy eating in the workplace were coworker influence, eating more food in general and more junk food in response to stress, eating unplanned food at work and time constraints. These factors may be important to target in weight-loss treatment to increase individuals' weight loss success. As individuals with BED may be the most vulnerable to eating unplanned foods, clinicians may want to focus on this potential barrier in BED treatment.

  19. Hydrologic-energy balance constraints on the Holocene lake-level history of lake Titicaca, South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, H.D.; Dunbar, R.B. [Stanford University, Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2004-09-01

    A basin-scale hydrologic-energy balance model that integrates modern climatological, hydrological, and hypsographic observations was developed for the modern Lake Titicaca watershed (northern Altiplano, South America) and operated under variable conditions to understand controls on post-glacial changes in lake level. The model simulates changes in five environmental variables (air temperature, cloud fraction, precipitation, relative humidity, and land surface albedo). Relatively small changes in three meteorological variables (mean annual precipitation, temperature, and/or cloud fraction) explain the large mid-Holocene lake-level decrease ({proportional_to}85 m) inferred from seismic reflection profiling and supported by sediment-based paleoproxies from lake sediments. Climatic controls that shape the present-day Altiplano and the sediment-based record of Holocene lake-level change are combined to interpret model-derived lake-level simulations in terms of changes in the mean state of ENSO and its impact on moisture transport to the Altiplano. (orig.)

  20. Hydrologic-energy balance constraints on the Holocene lake-level history of lake Titicaca, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, H. D.; Dunbar, R. B.

    2004-09-01

    A basin-scale hydrologic-energy balance model that integrates modern climatological, hydrological, and hypsographic observations was developed for the modern Lake Titicaca watershed (northern Altiplano, South America) and operated under variable conditions to understand controls on post-glacial changes in lake level. The model simulates changes in five environmental variables (air temperature, cloud fraction, precipitation, relative humidity, and land surface albedo). Relatively small changes in three meteorological variables (mean annual precipitation, temperature, and/or cloud fraction) explain the large mid-Holocene lake-level decrease (˜85 m) inferred from seismic reflection profiling and supported by sediment-based paleoproxies from lake sediments. Climatic controls that shape the present-day Altiplano and the sediment-based record of Holocene lake-level change are combined to interpret model-derived lake-level simulations in terms of changes in the mean state of ENSO and its impact on moisture transport to the Altiplano.

  1. Stennis visits Lake Cormorant school

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Alexis Harry, assistant director of Astro Camp at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, talks with students at Lake Cormorant (Miss.) Elementary School during a 'Living and Working in Space' presentation March 30. Stennis hosted the school presentation during a visit to the Oxford area. Harry, who also is a high school biology teacher in Slidell, La., spent time discussing space travel with students and answering questions they had about the experience, including queries about how astronauts eat, sleep and drink in space. The presentation was sponsored by the NASA Office of External Affairs and Education at Stennis. For more information about NASA education initiatives, visit: http://education.ssc.nasa.gov/.

  2. Time scales of change in chemical and biological parameters after engineered levee breaches adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Wood, Tamara M.; Parcheso, Francis; Cameron, Jason M.; Asbill, Jessica R.; Carlson, Rick A.; Fend, Steven V.

    2012-01-01

    Eight sampling trips were coordinated after engineered levee breaches hydrologically reconnected both Upper Klamath Lake and Agency Lake, Oregon, to adjacent wetlands. The reconnection, by a series of explosive blasts, was coordinated by The Nature Conservancy to reclaim wetlands that had for approximately seven decades been leveed for crop production. Sets of nonmetallic porewater profilers (U.S. Patent 8,051,727 B1; November 8, 2011; http://www.uspto.gov/web/patents/patog/ week45/OG/html/1372-2/US08051727-20111108.html.) were deployed during these trips in November 2007, June 2008, May 2009, July 2009, May 2010, August 2010, June 2011, and July 2011 (table 1). Deployments temporally spanned the annual cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and spatially involved three lake and four wetland sites. Spatial and temporal variation in solute benthic flux was determined by the field team, using the profilers, over an approximately 4-year period beginning 3 days after the levee breaches. The highest flux to the water column of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was detected in the newly flooded wetland, contrasting negative or insignificant DOC fluxes at adjacent lake sites. Over the multiyear study, DOC benthic fluxes dissipated in the reconnected wetlands, converging to values similar to those for established wetlands and to the adjacent lake (table 2). In contrast to DOC, benthic sources of soluble reactive phosphorus, ammonium, dissolved iron and manganese from within the reconnected wetlands were consistently elevated (that is, significant in magnitude relative to riverine and established-wetland sources) indicating a multi-year time scale for certain chemical changes after the levee breaches (table 2). Colonization of the reconnected wetlands by aquatic benthic invertebrates during the study trended toward the assemblages in established wetlands, providing further evidence of a multiyear transition of this area to permanent aquatic habitat (table 3). Both the

  3. Development and validation of green eating behaviors, stage of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy scales in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Kathryn E; Greene, Geoffrey W; Redding, Colleen A; Paiva, Andrea L; Lofgren, Ingrid; Nash, Jessica T; Kobayashi, Hisanori

    2014-01-01

    To develop and validate an instrument to assess environmentally conscious eating (Green Eating [GE]) behavior (BEH) and GE Transtheoretical Model constructs including Stage of Change (SOC), Decisional Balance (DB), and Self-efficacy (SE). Cross-sectional instrument development survey. Convenience sample (n = 954) of 18- to 24-year-old college students from a northeastern university. The sample was randomly split: (N1) and (N2). N1 was used for exploratory factor analyses using principal components analyses; N2 was used for confirmatory analyses (structural modeling) and reliability analyses (coefficient α). The full sample was used for measurement invariance (multi-group confirmatory analyses) and convergent validity (BEH) and known group validation (DB and SE) by SOC using analysis of variance. Reliable (α > .7), psychometrically sound, and stable measures included 2 correlated 5-item DB subscales (Pros and Cons), 2 correlated SE subscales (school [5 items] and home [3 items]), and a single 6-item BEH scale. Most students (66%) were in Precontemplation and Contemplation SOC. Behavior, DB, and SE scales differed significantly by SOC (P development and preliminary validation of this 25-item GE instrument provides a basis for assessment as well as development of tailored interventions for college students. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Comparison of Eating Attitudes Between Vegans/Vegetarians and Nonvegans/Nonvegetarians in Terms of Orthorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiçekoğlu, Pınar; Tunçay, Güzin Yasemin

    2018-04-01

    This descriptive study was performed to compare signs of orthorexia nervosa and eating habits and attitudes of vegans/vegetarians and nonvegans/nonvegetarians. The study sample included 62 people, of whom 31 were vegan/vegetarian and 31 were nonvegan/nonvegetarian. Data were gathered with a personal characteristics form, Orthorexia Nervosa Evaluation Scale-11, Eating Attitudes Test-40 and Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory. There were not any significant differences between scores for Orthorexia Nervosa Evaluation Scale-11, Eating Attitudes Test-40 and Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (p>0,05). As scores for Orthorexia Nervosa Evaluation Scale-11 decreased, predisposition to orthorexia nervosa increased. Therefore, although correlation coefficients were negative, they were considered positive. There was a significant, negative relation between Eating Habits Test-40 scores and Orthorexia Nervosa Evaluation Scale-11 scores (r=-0.290, p=0.002) and between Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory scores and Orthorexia Nervosa Evaluation Scale-11 scores (r=-0.319, p=0.012). As poor eating habits and obsessive symptoms increased, so did orthorectic symptoms. In light of obtained results, it seems that people become vegan/vegetarian mainly for ethical reasons and that veganism/vegetarianism is not associated with obsession of healthy eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Contributions of mindful eating, intuitive eating, and restraint to BMI, disordered eating, and meal consumption in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lisa M; Reilly, Erin E; Schaumberg, Katherine; Dmochowski, Sasha; Anderson, Drew A

    2016-03-01

    Mindful eating and intuitive eating are promoted as means to circumvent potentially maladaptive dietary restraint while maintaining a healthy weight. Although theoretically related, no studies have examined the correlations between intuitive eating, mindful eating, and restraint in the same sample. This study sought to examine these constructs and their correlations with body mass index (BMI), eating-disordered behaviors, and meal consumption in a college sample. Participants (N = 125) completed a laboratory taste-test meal and measures of each eating-related construct using the EDDS, IES, MEQ, and TFEQ-Restraint Subscale. Mindful eating, intuitive eating, and restraint were not strongly correlated. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that restraint and intuitive eating accounted for significant variance in disordered eating and BMI. Elevated restraint was associated with increased BMI and disordered eating; elevated intuitive eating was associated with decreased BMI and disordered eating. Mindful eating did not correlate with any outcome variables. Follow-up analyses suggested that specific intuitive eating subscales accounted for unique variance in the relation between intuitive eating and disordered eating. Intuitive eating was the only construct that was significantly associated with meal consumption. Intuitive eating and restraint appear to be only weakly correlated, and each is differentially associated with meal consumption. Mindful eating does not appear to relate to outcome variables.

  6. Understanding Eating Disorders, Anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge-Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Javascript on. Photo: iStock Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating , are among ... There are three main types of eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. People ...

  7. Prediction of BMI by impulsivity, eating behavior and activity level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xiaxia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Discuss the relationship between the impulsivity, eating behavior and activity level and the body mass index (BMI. Method: Test 147 female college students with the impulsivity questionnaire (BIS-11 and BIS/BAS, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DBEQ, Sitting Time Scale (STS and Exercising Time Scale (ETS. Results: (1 The correlation analysis indicates that BMI and impulsivity (r = 0.43 and 0.52 have a significant positive correlation with the sitting time (r = 0.61 and a significant negative correlation with the activity level (r= −0.49. (2 The path analysis indicates that the reward sensitivity directly affects BMI and indirectly affects BMI through the activity level as well; the eating behavior has an insignificantly direct impact on BMI, because its impact is generated by the intermediary role of induced diet. Conclusion: (1 The impulsivity, eating behavior and activity level are closely related to BMI; (2 the activity level, sitting time and induced diet play an intermediary role between the impulsivity and BMI.

  8. Investigation of Residence and Travel Times in a Large Floodplain Lake with Complex Lake-River Interactions: Poyang Lake (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunliang Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Most biochemical processes and associated water quality in lakes depends on their flushing abilities. The main objective of this study was to investigate the transport time scale in a large floodplain lake, Poyang Lake (China. A 2D hydrodynamic model (MIKE 21 was combined with dye tracer simulations to determine residence and travel times of the lake for various water level variation periods. The results indicate that Poyang Lake exhibits strong but spatially heterogeneous residence times that vary with its highly seasonal water level dynamics. Generally, the average residence times are less than 10 days along the lake’s main flow channels due to the prevailing northward flow pattern; whereas approximately 30 days were estimated during high water level conditions in the summer. The local topographically controlled flow patterns substantially increase the residence time in some bays with high spatial values of six months to one year during all water level variation periods. Depending on changes in the water level regime, the travel times from the pollution sources to the lake outlet during the high and falling water level periods (up to 32 days are four times greater than those under the rising and low water level periods (approximately seven days.

  9. Watershed vs. within-lake drivers of nitrogen: phosphorus dynamics in shallow lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginger, Luke J; Zimmer, Kyle D; Herwig, Brian R; Hanson, Mark A; Hobbs, William O; Small, Gaston E; Cotner, James B

    2017-10-01

    managed for the clear-water state due to increased value as wildlife habitat. However, our results indicate lake state also influences N biogeochemistry, such that managing shallow lakes for the clear-water state may also mitigate excess N levels at a landscape scale. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. Portuguese validation of the children's eating attitudes test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Del Carmen Bento Teixeira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT is the most widely used instrument for evaluating eating disorders in adults and adolescents in a variety of cultures and samples. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT. METHOD: Nine hundred and fifty-six Portuguese secondary students (565 girls and 391 boys answered the ChEAT. The test-retest reliability was obtained with data from 206 participants from the total sample who re-answered the questionnaire after 4-6 weeks. Psychometric analyses were carried out for the total sample and separately for girls and boys. RESULTS: Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were satisfactory. Principal components factorial analysis yielded four factors in the total sample, accounting for 42.35% of the total variance. Factor structure was similar in the total sample and in both genders. Factors were labelled: F1 "Fear of Getting Fat", F2 "Restrictive and Purgative Behaviours", F3 "Food Preoccupation" and F4 "Social Pressure to Eat". The concurrent validity, explored using the Contour Drawing Figure Rating Scale (CDRS was high. DISCUSSION: The Portuguese version of the ChEAT is a valid and useful instrument for the evaluation of abnormal eating attitudes and behaviours among Portuguese adolescents.

  11. Lake ecosystem response to climate change 8200 years ago. A multi-proxy study at Lake Højby Sø, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Noe-Nygaard, Nanna

    2009-01-01

    of climate and the effects of human activities. These problems also complicate the prediction of possible future climate influence on lake ecology. A way of circumventing these problems is the use of lake sediment records which contain a wealth of information about past lake history over long time scales...... productivity as reflected by high algal pigment accumulation rates in the period c. 8400–7950 cal yr BP. After c. 7950 cal yr BP algal productivity declined somewhat but the lake did not return to its pre-8400 cal yr BP conditions remaining a more productive and nutrient rich lake than before the climate...... was of more importance for lake ecosystem process than the change in air temperature....

  12. A Study on the Socialization of Dining : IV Students Eating Out, Eating Habits and Eating Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    西脇, 泰子; Yasuko, Nishiwaki; 聖徳学園女子短期大学; Shotoku Gakuen Women's Junior College

    1993-01-01

    This survey was conducted on this school's students, with a view to looking at changes in eating habits, centered on eating out. How studests perceptions regarding their eating habits outside the home were measured and evaluated. Results included the following : 1. Eating out has increased. Most respondents replied that eating out was more convenient. 2. Many students have little knowledge regarding a well-balanced, nutritious meal. They have poor eating habits. 3. Few students eat breakfast....

  13. Why we eat what we eat. The Eating Motivation Survey (TEMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Britta; Sproesser, Gudrun; Strohbach, Stefanie; Schupp, Harald T

    2012-08-01

    Understanding why people select certain food items in everyday life is crucial for the creation of interventions to promote normal eating and to prevent the development of obesity and eating disorders. The Eating Motivation Survey (TEMS) was developed within a frame of three different studies. In Study 1, a total of 331 motives for eating behavior were generated on the basis of different data sources (previous research, nutritionist interviews, and expert discussions). In Study 2, 1250 respondents were provided with a set of motives from Study 1 and the Eating Motivation Survey was finalized. In Study 3, a sample of 1040 participants filled in the Eating Motivation Survey. Confirmatory factor analysis with fifteen factors for food choice yielded a satisfactory model fit for a full (78 items) and brief survey version (45 items) with RMSEA .048 and .037, 90% CI .047-.049 and .035-.039, respectively. Factor structure was generally invariant across random selected groups, gender, and BMI, which indicates a high stability for the Eating Motivation Survey. On the mean level, however, significant differences in motivation for food choice associated with gender, age, and BMI emerged. Implications of the fifteen distinct motivations to choose foods in everyday life are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa

    2015-02-01

    Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders.

  15. Life History Strategy and Disordered Eating Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Salmon

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A sample of female undergraduates completed a packet of questionnaires consisting of the Arizona Life History Battery, a modified version of the Eating Disorders Inventory, the Behavioral Regulation scales from the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, and two measures of Female Intrasexual Competitiveness that distinguished between competition for mates and competition for status. As predicted, Executive Functions completely mediated the relation between Slow Life History Strategy and Disordered Eating Behavior. Surprisingly, however, the relation between Female Intrasexual Competitiveness (competition for mates and competition for status and Disordered Eating Behavior was completely spurious, with executive functions serving as a common cause underlying the inhibition of both Disordered Eating Behavior and Female Intrasexual Competitiveness. The protective function of Slow Life History Strategy with respect to Disordered Eating Behavior apparently resides in a higher degree of Behavioral Regulation, a type of Executive Function. The enhanced Behavioral Regulation or self-control, of individuals with a Slow Life History Strategy is also protective against hazardously escalated levels of Female Intrasexual Competitiveness.

  16. Nocturnal Eating: Association with Binge Eating, Obesity, and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Rosselli, Francine; Wilson, G. Terence; Perrin, Nancy; Harvey, Kate; DeBar, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine clinical correlates of nocturnal eating, a core behavioral symptom of night eating syndrome. Method Data from 285 women who had participated in a two-stage screening for binge eating were utilized. Women (n = 41) who reported one or more nocturnal eating episodes in the past 28 days on the Eating Disorder Examination and women who did not report nocturnal eating (n =244) were compared on eating disorder symptomatology, Body Mass Index (BMI), and on measures of psychosocial adjustment. Results Nocturnal eaters were significantly more likely to report binge eating and differed significantly from non-nocturnal eaters (with responses indicating greater disturbance) on weight and shape concern, eating concern, self-esteem, depression, and functional impairment, but not on BMI or dietary restraint. Group differences remained significant in analyses adjusting for binge eating. Conclusions This study confirms the association between nocturnal eating and binge eating previously found in treatment seeking samples yet also suggests that the elevated eating disorder symptoms and decreased psychosocial adjustment observed in nocturnal eaters is not simply a function of binge eating. PMID:19708071

  17. Validation of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) in a sample of Spanish women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cebolla, A.; Barrada, J.R.; van Strien, T.; Oliver, E.; Banos, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) was developed to measure eating styles that may contribute to or attenuate the development of overweight. It comprises three scales that measure emotional, external and restrained eating. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the internal structure

  18. Validation of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) in a sample of Spanish women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cebolla, A.; Barrada, J.R.; Strien, T. van; Oliver, E.; Baños, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) was developed to measure eating styles that may contribute to or attenuate the development of overweight. It comprises three scales that measure emotional, external and restrained eating. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the internal structure

  19. [Design and validation of a scale to assess self-regulation of eating habits in Mexican university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Uscanga, Yolanda; Lagunes Córdoba, Roberto; Morales-Romero, Jaime; Romo-González, Tania

    2015-03-01

    Healthy eating habits promote wellness and prevent disease, however, despite the intention to change a bad habit, people often fail in theirattempts. This is due, since the performance of a change requires self-regulation skills that allow to observe, to evaluate and to take an action, in a constant motivation during the all the process; not only theknowledge about proper nutrition. The objective of this study was to design and validate an instrument to evaluate the level of self-regulation for eating habits in college students.62 items were written and evaluated by four expert judges. Two applications of the instrument were performed to 487 subjects. An unweighted least squares factor analysis whit direct Oblimin rotation was performed. The items saturated in more than one factor were discarded, as well as those who had a loading factor less than 0.40 or commonality less than 0.30. It was obtained an instrument integrated by 14 items grouped into three factors, which explained the 46.9% of the variance: self-reaction, self-observation and self-evaluation. Cronbach's alpha yielded a high reliability coefficient (α = 0.874).The results show that the scale is a valid and reliable tool to measure of self-regulation of eating habits in college students. Its applications include the diagnostic of a population and the evaluation of interventions aimed to improving nutrition based on the assumption that the processes of change require sustained self-regulation skills in people protective effect against increases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

  20. Lakes on Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrol, Nathalie A

    2014-01-01

    On Earth, lakes provide favorable environments for the development of life and its preservation as fossils. They are extremely sensitive to climate fluctuations and to conditions within their watersheds. As such, lakes are unique markers of the impact of environmental changes. Past and current missions have now demonstrated that water once flowed at the surface of Mars early in its history. Evidence of ancient ponding has been uncovered at scales ranging from a few kilometers to possibly that of the Arctic ocean. Whether life existed on Mars is still unknown; upcoming missions may find critic

  1. Eating Disorder Inventory-3, validation in Swedish patients with eating disorders, psychiatric outpatients and a normal control sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman-Carlsson, Erika; Engström, Ingemar; Norring, Claes; Nevonen, Lauri

    2015-02-01

    The Eating Disorder Inventory-3 (EDI-3) is designed to assess eating disorder psychopathology and the associated psychological symptoms. The instrument has been revised and has not yet been validated for Swedish conditions in its current form. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity and reliability of this inventory and present national norms for Swedish females. Data from patients with eating disorders (n = 292), psychiatric outpatients (n = 140) and normal controls (n = 648), all females, were used to study the internal consistency, the discriminative ability, and the sensitivity and specificity of the inventory using preliminary cut-offs for each subscale and diagnosis separately. Swedish norms were compared with those from Denmark, USA, Canada, Europe and Australian samples. The reliability was acceptable for all subscales except Asceticism among normal controls. Analysis of variance showed that the EDI-3 discriminates significantly between eating disorders and normal controls. Anorexia nervosa was significantly discriminated from bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified on the Eating Disorder Risk Scales. Swedish patients scored significantly lower than patients from other countries on the majority of the subscales. Drive for Thinness is the second best predictor for an eating disorder. The best predictor for anorexia nervosa was Interoceptive Deficits and Bulimia for the other diagnoses. Conclusions/clinical implications: The EDI-3 is valid for use with Swedish patients as a clinical assessment tool for the treatment planning and evaluation of patients with eating-related problems. However, it still exist some uncertainty regarding its use as a screening tool.

  2. Association Among Internet Usage, Body Image and Eating Behaviors of Secondary School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpradub, Natthakarn; Kiatrungrit, Komsan; Hongsanguansri, Sirichai; Pavasuthipaisit, Chosita

    2017-08-25

    Presently, the internet plays a big role in daily life, especially for adolescents. In this age group, they are more concerned about their face and body shape. Despite the numerous studies on the effect traditional media has on body image, very few have focused on the effect of newer forms of media (e.g. online media). And almost none have looked at the relationship between time spent online and body image. To study the associations between time spent on the internet, body image satisfaction and eating behaviors of students grades 7 to 12 in the Thai educational system. The sample group included 620 students, who were selected using simple random sampling from 6 secondary schools in Bangkok. Data were collected using the Media and Internet use behavior questionnaires, The Body-Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults: Thai version (BESAA), Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS: males only), The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: Thai version, Eating Attitude Test-26: Thai version (EAT-26) and the eating behaviors at risk of obesity questionnaire. Mean (sd) age of the sample was 15.7 (1.9) years, 246 participants (39.7%) were male and 374 (60.3%) were female. Using the internet and social networks for content related to body image and eating behaviors, was negatively associated with body image satisfaction but positively associated with inappropriate eating attitudes/behaviors, binging, purging, use of laxatives/diuretics and drive for muscularity with respect to behaviors and attitudes, and was associated with eating behaviors that carried a risk for obesity. Time spent on internet, especially engaged in activities related to self-image, and eating attitudes and behaviors, were associated with a decrease in body image satisfaction and problematic eating behaviors.

  3. Recent lake ice-out phenology within and among lake districts of Alaska, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, Christopher D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Grosse, Guido

    2013-01-01

    The timing of ice-out in high latitudes is a fundamental threshold for lake ecosystems and an indicator of climate change. In lake-rich regions, the loss of ice cover also plays a key role in landscape and climatic processes. Thus, there is a need to understand lake ice phenology at multiple scales. In this study, we observed ice-out timing on 55 large lakes in 11 lake districts across Alaska from 2007 to 2012 using satellite imagery. Sensor networks in two lake districts validated satellite observations and provided comparison with smaller lakes. Over this 6 yr period, the mean lake ice-out for all lakes was 27 May and ranged from 07 May in Kenai to 06 July in Arctic Coastal Plain lake districts with relatively low inter-annual variability. Approximately 80% of the variation in ice-out timing was explained by the date of 0°C air temperature isotherm and lake area. Shoreline irregularity, watershed area, and river connectivity explained additional variation in some districts. Coherence in ice-out timing within the lakes of each district was consistently strong over this 6 yr period, ranging from r-values of 0.5 to 0.9. Inter-district analysis of coherence also showed synchronous ice-out patterns with the exception of the two arctic coastal districts where ice-out occurs later (June–July) and climatology is sea-ice influenced. These patterns of lake ice phenology provide a spatially extensive baseline describing short-term temporal variability, which will help decipher longer term trends in ice phenology and aid in representing the role of lake ice in land and climate models in northern landscapes.

  4. Health implications of radionuclide levels in cattle raised near U mining and milling facilities in Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapham, S.C.; Millard, J.B.; Samet, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine radionuclide tissue levels in cattle raised near U mining and milling facilities. Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, has been the site of extensive U mining for 30 y and contains several underground U mines, a processing mill, and two large U tailings piles. Ten cows were purchased from two grazing areas in Ambrosia Lake and ten control animals were purchased from Crownpoint, New Mexico. Muscle, liver, kidney, and bone tissue taken from these animals, and environmental samples, including water, grasses and soil collected from the animals' grazing areas, were analyzed for 238 U, 234 U, 230 Th, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, and 210 Po. Mean radionuclide levels in cattle tissue and environmental samples from Ambrosia Lake were higher in almost every comparison than those found in respective controls. Liver and kidney tissues were particularly elevated in 226 Ra and 210 Po. Radiation dose commitments from eating cattle tissue with these radionuclide concentrations were calculated. We concluded that the health risk to the public from eating exposed cattle is minimal, unless large amounts of this tissue, especially liver and kidney, are ingested

  5. Prevalence of eating disorders and eating attacks in narcolepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Dahmen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Norbert Dahmen, Julia Becht, Alice Engel, Monika Thommes, Peter TonnPsychiatry Department, University of Mainz, GermanyAbstract: Narcoleptic patients suffer frequently from obesity and type II diabetes. Most patients show a deficit in the energy balance regulating orexinergic system. Nevertheless, it is not known, why narcoleptic patients tend to be obese. We examined 116 narcoleptic patients and 80 controls with the structured interview for anorectic and bulimic eating disorders (SIAB to test the hypothesis that typical or atypical eating attacks or eating disorders may be more frequent in narcoleptic patients. No difference in the current prevalence of eating disorders bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or anorexia nervosa was found, nor was the frequency of eating attacks higher in the narcolepsy group. We conclude that present eating disorders and eating attacks as defined in DSM IV are not the reason for the observed differences in body composition. Additional factors, such as basal metabolic rates and lifestyle factors need to be considered.Keywords: narcolepsy, eating disorder, SIAB, bulimia, anorexia, eating attack

  6. Measuring and evaluating morphological asymmetry in fish: distinct lateral dimorphism in the jaws of scale-eating cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Hiroki; Yasugi, Masaki; Takeuchi, Yuichi; Takahashi, Satoshi; Hori, Michio

    2013-11-01

    The left-right asymmetry of scale-eating Tanganyikan cichlids is described as a unilateral topographical shift of the quadratomandibular joints. This morphological laterality has a genetic basis and has therefore been used as a model for studying negative frequency-dependent selection and the resulting oscillation in frequencies of two genotypes, lefty and righty, in a population. This study aims were to confirm this laterality in Perissodus microlepis Boulenger and P. straeleni (Poll) and evaluate an appropriate method for measuring and testing the asymmetry. Left-right differences in the height of the mandible posterior ends (HMPE) and the angle between the neurocranium and vertebrae of P. microlepis and P. straeleni were measured on skeletal specimens. Snout-bending angle was also measured using a dorsal image of the same individuals following a previous method. To define which distribution model, fluctuating asymmetry (FA), directional asymmetry (DA), or antisymmetry (AS), best fit to the lateral asymmetry of the traits, we provided an R package, IASD. As a result, HMPE and neurocranium-vertebrae angle of both species were best fitted to AS, suggesting that P. microlepis and P. straeleni showed a distinct dimorphism in these traits, although snout-bending angle of P. microlepis was best fitted to FA. Measurement error was low for HMPE comparing the snout-bending angle in P. microlepis, indicating that measuring HMPE is a more accurate method. The scale-eating tribe Perissodini showed distinct antisymmetry in the jaw skeleton and neurocranium-vertebrae angle, and this laterality remains a valid marker for further evolutionary studies.

  7. Glacial lakes of the Central and Patagonian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ryan; Glasser, Neil F.; Reynolds, John M.; Harrison, Stephan; Anacona, Pablo Iribarren; Schaefer, Marius; Shannon, Sarah

    2018-03-01

    The prevalence and increased frequency of high-magnitude Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) in the Chilean and Argentinean Andes suggests this region will be prone to similar events in the future as glaciers continue to retreat and thin under a warming climate. Despite this situation, monitoring of glacial lake development in this region has been limited, with past investigations only covering relatively small regions of Patagonia. This study presents new glacial lake inventories for 1986, 2000 and 2016, covering the Central Andes, Northern Patagonia and Southern Patagonia. Our aim was to characterise the physical attributes, spatial distribution and temporal development of glacial lakes in these three sub-regions using Landsat satellite imagery and image datasets available in Google Earth and Bing Maps. Glacial lake water volume was also estimated using an empirical area-volume scaling approach. Results reveal that glacial lakes across the study area have increased in number (43%) and areal extent (7%) between 1986 and 2016. Such changes equate to a glacial lake water volume increase of 65 km3 during the 30-year observation period. However, glacial lake growth and emergence was shown to vary sub-regionally according to localised topography, meteorology, climate change, rate of glacier change and the availability of low gradient ice areas. These and other factors are likely to influence the occurrence of GLOFs in the future. This analysis represents the first large-scale census of glacial lakes in Chile and Argentina and will allow for a better understanding of lake development in this region, as well as, providing a basis for future GLOF risk assessments.

  8. Early land use and centennial scale changes in lake-water organic carbon prior to contemporary monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Jacob, Carsten; Tolu, Julie; Bigler, Christian; Yang, Handong; Bindler, Richard

    2015-05-26

    Organic carbon concentrations have increased in surface waters across parts of Europe and North America during the past decades, but the main drivers causing this phenomenon are still debated. A lack of observations beyond the last few decades inhibits a better mechanistic understanding of this process and thus a reliable prediction of future changes. Here we present past lake-water organic carbon trends inferred from sediment records across central Sweden that allow us to assess the observed increase on a centennial to millennial time scale. Our data show the recent increase in lake-water carbon but also that this increase was preceded by a landscape-wide, long-term decrease beginning already A.D. 1450-1600. Geochemical and biological proxies reveal that these dynamics coincided with an intensification of human catchment disturbance that decreased over the past century. Catchment disturbance was driven by the expansion and later cessation of widespread summer forest grazing and farming across central Scandinavia. Our findings demonstrate that early land use strongly affected past organic carbon dynamics and suggest that the influence of historical landscape utilization on contemporary changes in lake-water carbon levels has thus far been underestimated. We propose that past changes in land use are also a strong contributing factor in ongoing organic carbon trends in other regions that underwent similar comprehensive changes due to early cultivation and grazing over centuries to millennia.

  9. Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Eating Attitudes Test in Young Female Patients with Eating Disorders in Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Qing; Chan, Raymond C K; Li, Xiaoping; Arcelus, Jon; Yue, Ling; Huang, Jiabin; Gu, Lian; Fan, Qing; Zhang, Haiyin; Xiao, Zeping; Chen, Jue

    2017-11-01

    The study aimed to investigate the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the eating attitudes test (EAT-26) among female adolescents and young adults in Mainland China. This scale was administered to 396 female eating disorder patients and 406 noneating disorder healthy controls, in addition 35 healthy controls completed a retest after a 4-week intervals. Tests for reliability, convergent validity and receiver operating characteristic analysis were performed to detect the psychometric properties. The EAT-26 demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.822-0.922), test-retest reliability (interclass correlation coefficient = 0.817) and convergent validity(r = 0.450-0.750). The receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the cut-off 14 for anorexia nervosa and 15 for bulimia nervosa represented good compromises with approximate sensitivity (0.66-0.68) and specificity (0.85-0.86). Our findings provided evidence that the Chinese version of the EAT-26 was a psychometrically reliable and valid self-rating instrument for identifying people suffering from an eating disorder in Mainland China. A clinical cut-off range between 14 and 15 could be used, but caution should be exercised because of the low sensitivity of the tool. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  10. Eating Attitudes, Perfectionism and Body-esteem of Elite Male Judoists and Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaire, Edith; Rouveix, Matthieu; Pannafieux, Christelle; Ferrand, Claude

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that male athletes who feel pressured to maintain a specific body weight present an elevated risk of subclinical eating disorders. Twelve judoists (19.5 ± 0.5 yr), fifteen cyclists (21.2 ± 2.8 yr) and seventeen non- competitive students matched for BMI and used as controls (21.8 ± 1.8 yr) were studied using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). The Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Body Esteem Scale and the Profile of Mood States were also used to evaluate the relationships between eating disorders and psychological characteristics. Athletes completed the tests during their competitive period and controls completed the same scales at the same time. Scores obtained on EAT-26 differed significantly from the control group on EAT (p athletes used weight loss methods. Self-induced vomiting, use of laxatives and diet pills were reported by 4%, 10%, and 8.5% of them, respectively. Increasing exercise was the primary method used by controls to lose body weight. Athletes reported greater negative feelings about their physical appearance and their Body Weight Satisfaction than controls (p athletes. Body-esteem Appearance and depression accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in Dieting scores. There was no difference in perfectionism and mood between athletes and controls. This study highlights that these athletes may tread a fine line between optimal competitive attitudes and detrimental health behaviors. Key pointsPrevalence of eating disorders has become a growing concern among athletic populations, but very little information is available concerning male athletes.This study highlights that these athletes may tread a fine line between optimal competitive attitudes and detrimental health behaviors.

  11. Global lake response to the recent warming hiatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Luke A.; Leach, Taylor H.; Rose, Kevin C.

    2018-05-01

    Understanding temporal variability in lake warming rates over decadal scales is important for understanding observed change in aquatic systems. We analyzed a global dataset of lake surface water temperature observations (1985‑2009) to examine how lake temperatures responded to a recent global air temperature warming hiatus (1998‑2012). Prior to the hiatus (1985‑1998), surface water temperatures significantly increased at an average rate of 0.532 °C decade‑1 (±0.214). In contrast, water temperatures did not change significantly during the hiatus (average rate ‑0.087 °C decade‑1 ±0.223). Overall, 83% of lakes in our dataset (129 of 155) had faster warming rates during the pre-hiatus period than during the hiatus period. These results demonstrate that lakes have exhibited decadal-scale variability in warming rates coherent with global air temperatures and represent an independent line of evidence for the recent warming hiatus. Our analyses provide evidence that lakes are sentinels of broader climatological processes and indicate that warming rates based on datasets where a large proportion of observations were collected during the hiatus period may underestimate longer-term trends.

  12. Restrained eating and self-esteem in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnjak, Suzana; Atsiz, Semra; Ditzen, Beate; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    There has been limited research about disordered eating in middle-aged women, and to date, few data exist about restrained eating behavior in postmenopausal women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine eating behavior with a specific focus on menopause as an associated factor in restrained eating. Beyond this, we were interested in how postmenopausal status and self-esteem would interact to determine eating patterns in women in middle age. We conducted an online survey in women aged between 40 and 66. Eating behavior was assessed with the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) in premenopausal (N = 318) and postmenopausal women (N = 250). All participants rated their self-esteem using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) and reported their weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference. 15.7% of all participants showed clinically meaningful scores on restrained eating. Postmenopausal women showed significantly higher scores on the EDE-Q subscale of restrained eating as compared to premenopausal women, but when controlling for body mass index, however, this finding was no longer significant. Further exploratory analyses suggest that particularly low or high self-esteem levels are associated with restrained eating. Self-esteem might serve as a mediator between menopausal status and restrained eating, however results of these additional analyses were inconsistent. Restrained eating may appear in middle-aged women. Particularly in postmenopausal women, restrained eating might be associated with lower and higher self-esteem.

  13. Positive and negative eating expectancies in disordered eating among women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayaki, Jumi; Free, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    Deficits in emotion regulation are known to characterize disordered eating patterns including binge eating, purging, and dietary restraint, though much of this work has been conducted exclusively on women. Eating expectancies, or expectations regarding reinforcement from food and eating, constitute one cognitive mechanism that is thought to serve as a proximal influence on eating behavior. Previous research shows that eating to manage negative affect (a negative eating expectancy) is associated with eating pathology in women, but less is known about eating as a reward or for pleasure (a positive eating expectancy). In addition, no prior work has examined eating expectancies among men. This study examines the role of emotion regulation and eating expectancies on disordered eating in women and men. Participants were 121 female and 80 male undergraduates who completed self-report measures of emotion regulation, eating expectancies, and disordered eating. In women, body mass index (BMI), emotion regulation, and eating to manage negative affect directly predicted disordered eating in the final multivariate model, whereas eating for pleasure or reward was inversely associated with disordered eating. However, in men, emotion regulation predicted disordered eating, but not when eating expectancies were added to the model. In the final model, only BMI and eating to manage negative affect contributed significantly to the variance in disordered eating. These findings suggest that some correlates of eating pathology, particularly eating expectancies, may vary by gender. Future research should continue to examine gender differences in the explanatory mechanisms underlying disordered eating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. I Hear You Eat and Speak: Automatic Recognition of Eating Condition and Food Type, Use-Cases, and Impact on ASR Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantke, Simone; Weninger, Felix; Kurle, Richard; Ringeval, Fabien; Batliner, Anton; Mousa, Amr El-Desoky; Schuller, Björn

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new recognition task in the area of computational paralinguistics: automatic recognition of eating conditions in speech, i. e., whether people are eating while speaking, and what they are eating. To this end, we introduce the audio-visual iHEARu-EAT database featuring 1.6 k utterances of 30 subjects (mean age: 26.1 years, standard deviation: 2.66 years, gender balanced, German speakers), six types of food (Apple, Nectarine, Banana, Haribo Smurfs, Biscuit, and Crisps), and read as well as spontaneous speech, which is made publicly available for research purposes. We start with demonstrating that for automatic speech recognition (ASR), it pays off to know whether speakers are eating or not. We also propose automatic classification both by brute-forcing of low-level acoustic features as well as higher-level features related to intelligibility, obtained from an Automatic Speech Recogniser. Prediction of the eating condition was performed with a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier employed in a leave-one-speaker-out evaluation framework. Results show that the binary prediction of eating condition (i. e., eating or not eating) can be easily solved independently of the speaking condition; the obtained average recalls are all above 90%. Low-level acoustic features provide the best performance on spontaneous speech, which reaches up to 62.3% average recall for multi-way classification of the eating condition, i. e., discriminating the six types of food, as well as not eating. The early fusion of features related to intelligibility with the brute-forced acoustic feature set improves the performance on read speech, reaching a 66.4% average recall for the multi-way classification task. Analysing features and classifier errors leads to a suitable ordinal scale for eating conditions, on which automatic regression can be performed with up to 56.2% determination coefficient.

  15. Sediment filtration can reduce the N load of the waste water discharge - a full-scale lake experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, Sanni L.; Saarenheimo, Jatta; Karvinen, Anu; Rissanen, Antti J.; Ropponen, Janne; Juntunen, Janne; Tiirola, Marja

    2016-04-01

    European commission has obliged Baltic states to reduce nitrate load, which requires high investments on the nitrate removal processes and may increase emissions of greenhouse gases, e.g. N2O, in the waste water treatment plants. We used ecosystem-scale experimental approach to test a novel sediment filtration method for economical waste water N removal in Lake Keurusselkä, Finland between 2014 and 2015. By spatially optimizing the waste water discharge, the contact area and time of nitrified waste water with the reducing microbes of the sediment was increased. This was expected to enhance microbial-driven N transformation and to alter microbial community composition. We utilized 15N isotope pairing technique to follow changes in the actual and potential denitrification rates, nitrous oxide formation and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) in the lake sediments receiving nitrate-rich waste water input and in the control site. In addition, we investigated the connections between observed process rates and microbial community composition and functioning by using next generation sequencing and quantitative PCR. Furthermore, we estimated the effect of sediment filtration method on waste water contact time with sediment using the 3D hydrodynamic model. We sampled one year before the full-scale experiment and observed strong seasonal patterns in the process rates, which reflects the seasonal variation in the temperature-related mixing patterns of the waste water within the lake. During the experiment, we found that spatial optimization enhanced both actual and potential denitrification rates of the sediment. Furthermore, it did not significantly promote N2O emissions, or N retention through DNRA. Overall, our results indicate that sediment filtration can be utilized as a supplemental or even alternative method for the waste water N removal.

  16. A metabolism-based whole lake eutrophication model to estimate the magnitude and time scales of the effects of restoration in Upper Klamath Lake, south-central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wherry, Susan A.; Wood, Tamara M.

    2018-04-27

    A whole lake eutrophication (WLE) model approach for phosphorus and cyanobacterial biomass in Upper Klamath Lake, south-central Oregon, is presented here. The model is a successor to a previous model developed to inform a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for phosphorus in the lake, but is based on net primary production (NPP), which can be calculated from dissolved oxygen, rather than scaling up a small-scale description of cyanobacterial growth and respiration rates. This phase 3 WLE model is a refinement of the proof-of-concept developed in phase 2, which was the first attempt to use NPP to simulate cyanobacteria in the TMDL model. The calibration of the calculated NPP WLE model was successful, with performance metrics indicating a good fit to calibration data, and the calculated NPP WLE model was able to simulate mid-season bloom decreases, a feature that previous models could not reproduce.In order to use the model to simulate future scenarios based on phosphorus load reduction, a multivariate regression model was created to simulate NPP as a function of the model state variables (phosphorus and chlorophyll a) and measured meteorological and temperature model inputs. The NPP time series was split into a low- and high-frequency component using wavelet analysis, and regression models were fit to the components separately, with moderate success.The regression models for NPP were incorporated in the WLE model, referred to as the “scenario” WLE (SWLE), and the fit statistics for phosphorus during the calibration period were mostly unchanged. The fit statistics for chlorophyll a, however, were degraded. These statistics are still an improvement over prior models, and indicate that the SWLE is appropriate for long-term predictions even though it misses some of the seasonal variations in chlorophyll a.The complete whole lake SWLE model, with multivariate regression to predict NPP, was used to make long-term simulations of the response to 10-, 20-, and 40-percent

  17. Eating attitudes, body esteem, perfectionism and anxiety of judo athletes and nonathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouveix, M; Bouget, M; Pannafieux, C; Champely, S; Filaire, E

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence and relationships between disordered eating, menstrual irregularity, musculoskeletal injuries and psychological characteristics in 24 judo athletes (12 females and 12 males) and 31 controls (14 females and 17 males). All these parameters were assessed by a health/medical, dieting and menstrual history questionnaire, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), the Multidimensional perfectionism scale, the Rosenberg Self-esteem, the Body esteem scale, and the Profile of Mood States. Body mass index (BMI) was also computed. Twenty-five percent of female athletes would be "at risk" of EDs (EAT-26 > 20) and 0 % in the other sample groups. Bone injuries sustained over the judo athlete career were reported by 25 % of females and 33.3 % of males, while 35.7 % of the female controls reported bone injuries. The total frequency of menstrual dysfunction among judo athletes was 58.3 %, while 7.1 % of female controls reported oligoamenorrhea. Regression analyses showed that BE-Weight Satisfaction and BMI contributed to 54.6 % and 17 % of the variance, respectively, in the prediction of log-transformed Global EAT scores among female judo athletes. These data indicate that while the prevalence of clinical eating disorders is low in judo athletes, many are "at risk" for an eating disorder, which places them at an increased risk for menstrual irregularity and bone injuries. This study also highlights the relevance of body esteem to eating disorder symptoms.

  18. Food neophobia, life satisfaction and family eating habits in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Höger, Yesli; Orellana, Ligia; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán; Sepúlveda, José; Sanchez, Mercedes; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo; Denegri, Marianela; Grunert, Klaus G; Salinas-Oñate, Natalia

    2017-04-03

    The aim of this study was to categorize university students based on their association between food neophobia and levels of subjective well-being, in general and in the food domain, and their perception of their family's eating habits. A survey was conducted among 372 university students from southern Chile. The questionnaire included the Food Neophobia Scale (FNS), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL), Health-related Quality of Life Index (HRQOL-4), and Family Eating Habits Questionnaire (FEHQ). Three student types were distinguished by cluster analysis: Group 1 (26.9%) had the highest scores on the FNS, SWLS and SWFL. Group 2 (40.8%) had a high score on the FNS but the lowest scores on the SWLS and SWFL. Group 3 (32.3%) had the lowest FNS score and high scores on the SWLS and SWFL. Group 2 stood out in having a low score on the FEHQ's component for cohesiveness of family eating. These results suggest that both neophobic and non-neophobic students have positive levels of satisfaction with life and food-related life, and that satisfaction among neophobic students is related to family eating patterns, especially cohesiveness in family eating.

  19. Attachment style and emotional eating in bariatric surgery candidates: The mediating role of difficulties in emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube-Schiff, Marlene; Van Exan, Jessica; Tanaka, Rika; Wnuk, Susan; Hawa, Raed; Sockalingam, Sanjeev

    2015-08-01

    Difficulties with emotion regulation is a hypothesized mechanism through which attachment insecurity may affect emotional eating. No studies have yet investigated this effect in the bariatric population. Because many obese individuals engage in emotional eating, difficulty regulating emotion may be an important underlying mechanism through which attachment insecurity is linked to emotional eating in bariatric surgery candidates. In this cross-sectional study, 1393 adult bariatric surgery candidates from the Toronto Western Hospital were recruited to complete the Emotional Eating Scale (EES), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD7), Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), and the Experiences for Close Relationships 16-item Scale (ECR-16) in order to explore the mediating role of emotion regulation on the relationship between attachment insecurity and emotional eating. Path analysis within a structural equation modeling framework examined direct and indirect effects of attachment insecurity on emotional eating. The indices of this overall model indicated that the specified set of direct and indirect pathways and corresponding correlations were a good fit with the data (RMSEAemotional eating were significant. Findings suggest that difficulties in emotion regulation may be an important mechanism to consider when examining the association between attachment insecurity and emotional eating in adult bariatric surgery candidates. Although causality cannot be concluded, these results shed light on the important role that emotion regulation may have in predicting problematic eating in bariatric patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. It's not just what you eat but when: The impact of eating a meal during simulated shift work on driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Charlotte C; Dorrian, Jill; Grant, Crystal L; Pajcin, Maja; Coates, Alison M; Kennaway, David J; Wittert, Gary A; Heilbronn, Leonie K; Della Vedova, Chris B; Banks, Siobhan

    2017-01-01

    Shiftworkers have impaired performance when driving at night and they also alter their eating patterns during nightshifts. However, it is unknown whether driving at night is influenced by the timing of eating. This study aims to explore the effects of timing of eating on simulated driving performance across four simulated nightshifts. Healthy, non-shiftworking males aged 18-35 years (n = 10) were allocated to either an eating at night (n = 5) or no eating at night (n = 5) condition. During the simulated nightshifts at 1730, 2030 and 0300 h, participants performed a 40-min driving simulation, 3-min Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT-B), and recorded their ratings of sleepiness on a subjective scale. Participants had a 6-h sleep opportunity during the day (1000-1600 h). Total 24-h food intake was consistent across groups; however, those in the eating at night condition ate a large meal (30% of 24-h intake) during the nightshift at 0130 h. It was found that participants in both conditions experienced increased sleepiness and PVT-B impairments at 0300 h compared to 1730 and 2030 h (p performance, shiftworkers should consider restricting food intake during the night.

  1. Nonnormative eating behavior and psychopathology in prebariatric patients with binge-eating disorder and night eating syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldofski, Sabrina; Tigges, Wolfgang; Herbig, Beate; Jurowich, Christian; Kaiser, Stefan; Stroh, Christine; de Zwaan, Martina; Dietrich, Arne; Rudolph, Almut; Hilbert, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Binge-eating disorder (BED) as a distinct eating disorder category and night eating syndrome (NES) as a form of Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorders were recently included in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). This study sought to investigate the prevalence of BED and NES and associations with various forms of nonnormative eating behavior and psychopathology in prebariatric patients. Within a consecutive multicenter registry study, patients in 6 bariatric surgery centers in Germany were recruited. Overall, 233 prebariatric patients were assessed using the Eating Disorder Examination and self-report questionnaires. Assessment was unrelated to clinical procedures. Diagnostic criteria for full-syndrome BED and NES were currently met by 4.3% and 8.2% of prebariatric patients, respectively. In addition, 8.6% and 6.9% of patients met subsyndromal BED and NES criteria, respectively. Co-morbid BED and NES diagnoses were present in 3.9% of patients. In comparison to patients without any eating disorder symptoms, patients with BED and NES reported greater emotional eating, eating in the absence of hunger, and more symptoms of food addiction. Moreover, differences between patients with BED and NES emerged with more objective binge-eating episodes and higher levels of eating concern, weight concern, and global eating disorder psychopathology in patients with BED. BED and NES were shown to be prevalent among prebariatric patients, with some degree of overlap between diagnoses. Associations with nonnormative eating behavior and psychopathology point to their clinical significance and discriminant validity. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An improved active contour model for glacial lake extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H.; Chen, F.; Zhang, M.

    2017-12-01

    Active contour model is a widely used method in visual tracking and image segmentation. Under the driven of objective function, the initial curve defined in active contour model will evolve to a stable condition - a desired result in given image. As a typical region-based active contour model, C-V model has a good effect on weak boundaries detection and anti noise ability which shows great potential in glacial lake extraction. Glacial lake is a sensitive indicator for reflecting global climate change, therefore accurate delineate glacial lake boundaries is essential to evaluate hydrologic environment and living environment. However, the current method in glacial lake extraction mainly contains water index method and recognition classification method are diffcult to directly applied in large scale glacial lake extraction due to the diversity of glacial lakes and masses impacted factors in the image, such as image noise, shadows, snow and ice, etc. Regarding the abovementioned advantanges of C-V model and diffcults in glacial lake extraction, we introduce the signed pressure force function to improve the C-V model for adapting to processing of glacial lake extraction. To inspect the effect of glacial lake extraction results, three typical glacial lake development sites were selected, include Altai mountains, Centre Himalayas, South-eastern Tibet, and Landsat8 OLI imagery was conducted as experiment data source, Google earth imagery as reference data for varifying the results. The experiment consequence suggests that improved active contour model we proposed can effectively discriminate the glacial lakes from complex backgound with a higher Kappa Coefficient - 0.895, especially in some small glacial lakes which belongs to weak information in the image. Our finding provide a new approach to improved accuracy under the condition of large proportion of small glacial lakes and the possibility for automated glacial lake mapping in large-scale area.

  3. BINGE EATING DISORDER AND QUALITY OF LIFE OF CANDIDATES TO BARIATRIC SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ana Júlia Rosa Barcelos; Pinto, Sônia Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Obesity decreases the quality of life, which is aggravated by the association of comorbidities, and the binge eating disorder is directly related to body image and predisposes to overweight. Evaluate association between the presence and the level of binge eating disorder and the quality of life of the obese candidates for bariatric surgery. Cross-sectional study analyzing anthropometric data (weight and height) and socioeconomics (age, sex, marital status, education and income). The application of Binge Eating Scale was held for diagnosis of Binge Eating Disorder and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-From Health Survey to assess the quality of life. Total sample studied was 96 patients, mean age 38.15±9.6 years, 80.2% female, 67.7% married, 41% with complete and incomplete higher education, 77.1% with lower income or equal to four the minimum salary, 59.3% with grade III obesity. Binge eating disorder was observed in 44.2% of patients (29.9% moderate and 14.3% severe), and these had the worst scores in all domains of quality of life SF36 scale; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Only the nutritional status presented significant statistically association with the presence of binge eating disorder. High prevalence of patients with binge eating disorder was found and they presented the worst scores in all domains of quality of life.

  4. Mindfulness trait, eating behaviours and body uneasiness: a case-control study of binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compare, A; Callus, E; Grossi, E

    2012-12-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is a complex and multifaceted eating disorder, and the literature indicates that BED patients show greater difficulty in identifying and making sense of emotional states, and that they have limited access to emotion regulation strategies. Findings show many links between mindfulness and emotional regulation, however there has been no previous research on mindfulness traits in BED patients. One hundred fifty BED patients (N=150: women=98, men=52; age 49.3±4.1) were matched for gender, age, marital status and educational level with 150 non-bingeing obese and 150 normal-weight subjects. All were assessed with the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), Binge Eating Scale (BES), Objective bulimic episodes (EDE-OBEs) and Body Uneasiness Test (BUT). For all the participants past or current meditation experience was an exclusion criteria. Findings showed that Mindfulness-global, Non reactivity to experience, Acting with awareness, Describing with words and Observation of experience scores were significantly lower in BED than control groups (pmindfulness measures, the obese control group did not differ from the normal weight control group. Moreover, correlations showed that mindfulness was more widely negatively correlated with the BED's OBEs, BES and BUT-GSI scores. Meanwhile, binge eating behaviours, frequency and severity (OBEs and BES) were more negatively correlated with action (Nonreactivity- to-experience and Acting-with-awareness scores). Body Uneasiness was more negatively correlated with mental processes (Describing-with-words and Observation-ofexperience) and mindfulness features. Implications on understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of problematic eating in BED were considered. Moreover, clinical considerations on treatment targets of mindfulnessbased eating awareness training were discussed.

  5. Body weight status, eating behavior, sensitivity to reward/punishment, and gender: relationships and interdependencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eDietrich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate body weight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire- TFEQ (Stunkard and Messick, 1985, sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the BIS/BAS Scales (Carver and White, 1994 and self-reported impulsivity (based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (Patton et al., 1995. We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between restrained eating and BMI. This relationship was moderated by the level of disinhibited eating. Independent of eating behavior, BIS and BAS responsiveness were associated with BMI in a gender-specific manner with negative relationships for men and positive relationships for women. Together, eating behavior and BIS/BAS responsiveness accounted for a substantial proportion of BMI variance (men: ~25%, women: ~32%. A direct relationship between self-reported impulsivity and BMI was not observed. In summary, our results demonstrate a system of linear and non-linear relationships between the investigated factors and BMI. Moreover, body weight status was not only associated with eating behavior (cognitive restraint and disinhibition, but also with personality factors not inherently related to an eating context (BIS/BAS. Importantly, these relationships differ between men and women.

  6. Eating disorder features and quality of life: Does gender matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Allison F; Stefano, Emily C; Cicero, David C; Latner, Janet D; Mond, Jonathan M

    2016-10-01

    This study examined whether gender moderates the associations between eating disorder features and quality-of-life impairment and whether eating disorder features can explain gender differences in quality of life in a sample of undergraduate students. The SF-12 Physical and Mental Component Summary Scales were used to measure health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) was used to quantify eating disorder behaviors and cognitions. These self-report forms were completed by undergraduate men and women (n = 709). Gender was a significant predictor of mental HRQoL, such that women in this sample reported poorer mental HRQoL than men. Eating disorder cognitions were the strongest predictor of undergraduate students' mental and physical HRQoL, while binge eating negatively predicted their physical HRQoL only. Gender was not found to moderate the associations between eating disorder features and HRQoL, and eating disorder cognitions were found to mediate the association between gender and mental HRQoL such that a proportion of the difference between undergraduate men and women's mental HRQoL was attributable to eating disorder cognitions. This study provided further evidence of the significant impact of eating disorder features, particularly eating disorder cognitions, on HRQoL. The finding that gender did not moderate the relationships between eating disorder features and HRQoL indicates the importance of investigating these features in both men and women in future research.

  7. Etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Filgueiras, Juliana Fernandes; Oliveira, Fernanda da Costa; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to construct an etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls. A total of 1,358 adolescent girls from four cities participated. The study used psychometric scales to assess disordered eating behaviors, body dissatisfaction, media pressure, self-esteem, mood, depressive symptoms, and perfectionism. Weight, height, and skinfolds were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (%F). Structural equation modeling explained 76% of variance in disordered eating behaviors (F(9, 1,351) = 74.50; p = 0.001). The findings indicate that body dissatisfaction mediated the relationship between media pressures, self-esteem, mood, BMI, %F, and disordered eating behaviors (F(9, 1,351) = 59.89; p = 0.001). Although depressive symptoms were not related to body dissatisfaction, the model indicated a direct relationship with disordered eating behaviors (F(2, 1,356) = 23.98; p = 0.001). In conclusion, only perfectionism failed to fit the etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls.

  8. Peripheral Endocannabinoid Responses to Hedonic Eating in Binge-Eating Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Maria Monteleone

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reward mechanisms are likely implicated in the pathophysiology of binge-eating behaviour, which is a key symptom of binge-eating disorder (BED. Since endocannabinoids modulate food-related reward, we aimed to investigate the responses of anandamide (AEA and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG to hedonic eating in patients with BED. Peripheral levels of AEA and 2-AG were measured in 7 obese BED patients before and after eating favorite (hedonic eating and non-favorite (non-hedonic eating foods. We found that plasma levels of AEA progressively decreased after eating the non-favorite food and significantly increased after eating the favorite food, whereas plasma levels of 2-AG did not differ significantly between the two test conditions, although they showed a trend toward significantly different time patterns. The changes in peripheral AEA levels were positively correlated to the subjects’ sensations of the urge to eat and the pleasantness while eating the presented food, while changes in peripheral 2-AG levels were positively correlated to the subjects’ sensation of the pleasantness while eating the presented food and to the amount of food they would eat. These results suggest the occurrence of distinctive responses of endocannabinoids to food-related reward in BED. The relevance of such findings to the pathophysiology of BED remains to be elucidated.

  9. Exploring the relationship between facets of mindfulness and eating pathology in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M; Gratz, Kim L; Tull, Matthew T

    2011-01-01

    Although researchers have examined the efficacy of acceptance- and mindfulness-based interventions in the treatment of eating disorders, few studies have explored the association between trait mindfulness and eating pathology. Therefore, the purpose of the current investigation was to examine the unique associations between multiple facets of mindfulness (acting with awareness, nonreactivity, nonjudgment, describing, and observing) and eating pathology. Undergraduate women (N = 276) completed the Eating Attitudes Test-26, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, and the 21-item version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that four mindfulness facets (awareness, nonreactivity, nonjudgment, and describing) were uniquely associated with eating pathology above and beyond anxiety and depression symptoms. Results are discussed with regard to the potential role of various facets of trait mindfulness in eating pathology as well as the possible utility of mindfulness-based treatments for eating disorders.

  10. Forecasting cyanobacteria dominance in Canadian temperate lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Anurani D; Paterson, Andrew M; Dillon, Peter J; Winter, Jennifer G; Palmer, Michelle; Somers, Keith M

    2015-03-15

    Predictive models based on broad scale, spatial surveys typically identify nutrients and climate as the most important predictors of cyanobacteria abundance; however these models generally have low predictive power because at smaller geographic scales numerous other factors may be equally or more important. At the lake level, for example, the ability to forecast cyanobacteria dominance is of tremendous value to lake managers as they can use such models to communicate exposure risks associated with recreational and drinking water use, and possible exposure to algal toxins, in advance of bloom occurrence. We used detailed algal, limnological and meteorological data from two temperate lakes in south-central Ontario, Canada to determine the factors that are closely linked to cyanobacteria dominance, and to develop easy to use models to forecast cyanobacteria biovolume. For Brandy Lake (BL), the strongest and most parsimonious model for forecasting % cyanobacteria biovolume (% CB) included water column stability, hypolimnetic TP, and % cyanobacteria biovolume two weeks prior. For Three Mile Lake (TML), the best model for forecasting % CB included water column stability, hypolimnetic TP concentration, and 7-d mean wind speed. The models for forecasting % CB in BL and TML are fundamentally different in their lag periods (BL = lag 1 model and TML = lag 2 model) and in some predictor variables despite the close proximity of the study lakes. We speculate that three main factors (nutrient concentrations, water transparency and lake morphometry) may have contributed to differences in the models developed, and may account for variation observed in models derived from large spatial surveys. Our results illustrate that while forecast models can be developed to determine when cyanobacteria will dominate within two temperate lakes, the models require detailed, lake-specific calibration to be effective as risk-management tools. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Binge Eating Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senol Turan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Binge Eating Disorder, characterized by frequent and persistent overeating episodes that are accompanied by feeling of loss of control over eating without regular compensatory behaviors and was identified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition as a new eating disorder category. Binge Eating Disorder is the most common eating disorder among adults. Binge Eating Disorder is associated with significant morbidity, including medical complications related to obesity, eating disorder psychopathology, psychiatric comorbidity; reduced quality of life, and impaired social functioning. Current treatments of Binge Eating Disorder include pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy and bariatric surgery. In this review, the definition, epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, and also mainly treatment of Binge Eating Disorder are discussed.

  12. Examining weight and eating behavior by sexual orientation in a sample of male veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankoff, Sarah M; Richards, Lauren K; Bartlett, Brooke; Wolf, Erika J; Mitchell, Karen S

    2016-07-01

    Eating disorders are understudied in men and in sexual minority populations; however, extant evidence suggests that gay men have higher rates of disordered eating than heterosexual men. The present study examined the associations between sexual orientation, body mass index (BMI), disordered eating behaviors, and food addiction in a sample of male veterans. Participants included 642 male veterans from the Knowledge Networks-GfK Research Panel. They were randomly selected from a larger study based on previously reported trauma exposure; 96% identified as heterosexual. Measures included the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale, the Yale Food Addiction Scale, and self-reported height and weight. Heterosexual and sexual minority men did not differ significantly in terms of BMI. However, gay and bisexual men (n=24) endorsed significantly greater eating disorder symptoms and food addiction compared to heterosexual men. Our findings that sexual minority male veterans may be more likely to experience eating disorder and food addiction symptoms compared to heterosexual male veterans highlight the importance of prevention, assessment, and treatment efforts targeted to this population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Recovery from eating disorders: psychometric properties of a patient-related measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenvinge JH

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Gunn Pettersen,1 Kari-Brith Thune-Larsen,2 Jan H Rosenvinge31Department of Health and Care Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway; 2Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; 3Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, NorwayAbstract: Although there are numerous lists of items covering clinically valid aspects of recovery from eating disorders, these lists are on the nominal level: the potential for multidimensional development has not been explored. Such exploration is the purpose of the present study. The subjects included in the study were 152 female clinicians, 1052 females randomly selected from the general population, and 184 eating-disorder patients. All subjects rated 17 recovery items on a 10-point scale in terms of their relevance and importance. They also completed measures of knowledge about eating disorders and their own eating problems, in addition to providing information about their age and personal acquaintance with eating disorders. Fourteen recovery-item scores were sample unspecific, and hence all samples tended to judge the majority of items in a similar manner. The 17 items successfully formed three separate factors covering specific eating-disorder symptoms, as well as social and psychological issues. The clinician and general population sample analyzed together provided a more condensed scale comprising two factors (specific eating-disorder symptoms and psychosocial factors, with each factor having three items. This factor structure was successfully replicated using the patient-validation sample. The findings indicate an empirical basis for a valid recovery measure that may be suitable in future outcome research.Keywords: eating disorders, recovery, outcome, outcome measures

  14. EATING ATTITUDES, PERFECTIONISM AND BODY-ESTEEM OF ELITE MALE JUDOISTS AND CYCLISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Filaire

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the hypothesis that male athletes who feel pressured to maintain a specific body weight present an elevated risk of subclinical eating disorders. Twelve judoists (19.5 ± 0.5 yr, fifteen cyclists (21.2 ± 2.8 yr and seventeen non- competitive students matched for BMI and used as controls (21.8 ± 1.8 yr were studied using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26. The Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Body Esteem Scale and the Profile of Mood States were also used to evaluate the relationships between eating disorders and psychological characteristics. Athletes completed the tests during their competitive period and controls completed the same scales at the same time. Scores obtained on EAT-26 differed significantly from the control group on EAT (p < 0.01, Dieting (p < 0.01, and Bulimia scores (p < 0.05. Sixty percent of the athletes used weight loss methods. Self-induced vomiting, use of laxatives and diet pills were reported by 4%, 10%, and 8.5% of them, respectively. Increasing exercise was the primary method used by controls to lose body weight. Athletes reported greater negative feelings about their physical appearance and their Body Weight Satisfaction than controls (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, respectively. Our results also showed that depression mood accounted for 73% of the variance in Bulimia scores and for 64% of the variance in Global EAT scores in athletes. Body-esteem Appearance and depression accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in Dieting scores. There was no difference in perfectionism and mood between athletes and controls. This study highlights that these athletes may tread a fine line between optimal competitive attitudes and detrimental health behaviors

  15. Turkish version of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2: Validity and reliability among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Murat; Karaca, Kezban Esen; Saglam, Duygu; Arıtıcı, Gozde; Cengiz, Ecem; Köksal, Selen; Buyukkaragoz, Aylin Hasbay

    2017-07-01

    Intuitive Eating is defined as "the dynamic process-integrating attunement of mind, body, and food". The purpose of this study was, therefore, adapt the IES-2 to the Turkish language and reliability and validity of IES-2 among Turkish populations. We also examined the instrument's internal consistency and test-retest reliability and analysed the relationships between the IES-2 and several variables so as to evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity. Three hundred seventy-seven undergraduate and postgraduate women and men between the ages of 19-31 years (mean 22.3, SD = 3.53) attending two large private universities in Istanbul, Turkey. The best solution from the principal factors analysis of the 23 items of the IES-2 revealed four factors corresponding to the four subscales (F1: Eating for physical rather than emotional reasons; F2: Unconditional permission to eat; F3: Reliance on hunger and satiety cues; F4: Body-food choice congruence), as reported by the authors of the questionnaire. Bartlett's test of sphericity gave X 2  = 9043.49 (p Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin index was 0.87 (KMO were 0.89 for women and 0.83 for men). The test-retest reliability of the IES-2 was 0.88 for the IES-2 total score. The IES-2 had a = 0.82. These findings support the notion that intuitive eating is a viable concept for university students and the IES can be used to examine adaptive eating behaviors in this population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Diurnal sampling reveals significant variation in CO2 emission from a tropical productive lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, P C J; Barbosa, F A R

    2014-08-01

    It is well accepted in the literature that lakes are generally net heterotrophic and supersaturated with CO2 because they receive allochthonous carbon inputs. However, autotrophy and CO2 undersaturation may happen for at least part of the time, especially in productive lakes. Since diurnal scale is particularly important to tropical lakes dynamics, we evaluated diurnal changes in pCO2 and CO2 flux across the air-water interface in a tropical productive lake in southeastern Brazil (Lake Carioca) over two consecutive days. Both pCO2 and CO2 flux were significantly different between day (9:00 to 17:00) and night (21:00 to 5:00) confirming the importance of this scale for CO2 dynamics in tropical lakes. Net heterotrophy and CO2 outgassing from the lake were registered only at night, while significant CO2 emission did not happen during the day. Dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature trends over the diurnal cycle indicated the dependence of CO2 dynamics on lake metabolism (respiration and photosynthesis). This study indicates the importance of considering the diurnal scale when examining CO2 emissions from tropical lakes.

  17. [Experiences with the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R21 in young men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeglédi, Edit

    2017-09-01

    Eating behaviours play a crucial role in the development of obesity. To conduct a psychometric analysis of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R21 and to investigate the correlates of obesogenic eating behaviours among males. Participants of the cross-sectional questionnaire-based study were male university students (n = 239, mean of age: 20.3 years, SD = 2.78 years). self-reported body weight and body height, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R21, Trait Anxiety Scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results of confirmatory factor analysis supported the theoretical model of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R21 (χ 2 (186) = 366.1, peating behaviours, such as uncontrolled eating, cognitive restraint, and emotional eating. Results support the construct validity and reliability of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R21 among males and highlight the importance of taking psychological factors into account in the prevention of obesity. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(37): 1469-1477.

  18. Eating behaviors, body image, perfectionism, and self-esteem in a sample of Portuguese girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Eating disorders are an increasingly prevalent health problem among adolescent girls. It is well known that biological, psychosocial, and family-related factors interact in the development of this group of disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between these variables are still poorly understood, especially in Portuguese adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between eating behaviors, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, and perfectionism in a sample of Portuguese girls. Method: A community sample of 575 Portuguese girls attending secondary school, answered self-report questionnaires including data on weight, height, and the Portuguese versions of the Contour Figures Rating Scale, the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale, the Children Eating Attitudes Test, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. SPSS version 20.0 for Windows was used for statistical analyses. Results: High scores in the Children Eating Attitudes Test were associated with significantly higher levels of body dissatisfaction (r = 0.339, socially prescribed perfectionism (r = 0.175, self-oriented perfectionism (r = 0.211, and low self-esteem (r = -0.292 (all p < 0.001. Self-oriented perfectionism partially mediated the relation between body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors. Conclusion: In this sample, dysfunctional eating behaviors appeared to correlate strongly with body dissatisfaction, low self-esteem, and perfectionism in girls. These themes should be addressed among female adolescents in the community.

  19. Links Among Eating Disorder Characteristics, Exercise Patterns, and Psychological Attributes in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie J. Brehm

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined associations among eating disorder characteristics, excessive exercise, and selected psychological attributes in college students (N = 499. Male and female participants were recruited from university psychology courses and administered the Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire (OEQ, Mental Health Inventory, Eating Self-Efficacy Scale, Revised Restraint Scale, and Eating Disorder Inventory. Results confirmed the multidimensionality of excessive exercise for both males and females. Profiles of male and female exercisers were developed based on the clustering of scores on the OEQ’s factor analytically derived subscales. Specific qualitative aspects of exercise (e.g., emotionality and obsession, rather than the quantity of exercise, were found to be associated with eating disorder traits and, for some groups, psychological distress (PD. For other groups, such as female excessive exercisers, exercise seems to act as a coping mechanism, thereby lessening PD and enhancing well-being.

  20. Examining Duration of Binge Eating Episodes in Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber-Gregory, Deanna N.; Lavender, Jason M.; Engel, Scott G.; Wonderlich, Steve A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Simonich, Heather; Crow, Scott; Durkin, Nora; Mitchell, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The primary goal of this paper is to examine and clarify characteristics of binge eating in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED), particularly the duration of binge eating episodes, as well as potential differences between individuals with shorter compared to longer binge eating episodes. Method Two studies exploring binge eating characteristics in BED were conducted. Study 1 examined differences in clinical variables among individuals (N = 139) with BED who reported a short (binge duration. Study 2 utilized an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design to examine the duration and temporal pattern of binge eating episodes in the natural environment in a separate sample of nine women with BED. Results Participants in Study 1 who were classified as having long duration binge eating episodes displayed greater symptoms of depression and lower self-esteem, but did not differ on other measures of eating disorder symptoms, compared to those with short duration binge eating episodes. In Study 2, the average binge episode duration was approximately 42 minutes, and binge eating episodes were most common during the early afternoon and evening hours, as well as more common on weekdays versus weekends. Discussion Past research on binge episode characteristics, particularly duration, has been limited to studies of binge eating episodes in BN. This study contributes to the existing literature on characteristics of binge eating in BED. PMID:23881639

  1. Disordered eating attitudes: demographic and clinico ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Psychiatry, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, PMB12003, ... attitudes among undergraduate students of two higher institutions in Lagos, Nigeria. .... as a profile of the eating attitudes of the sub-scale scores ..... lar studies conducted in Iran, Brazil and Canada where ..... Educational Research and Evaluation.

  2. Obesity, eating behaviour and mental health among university students in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarevich, Irina; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Velázquez-Alva, María del Consuelo

    2013-11-01

    Psychological factors are important in the development of obesity; however these are frequently underestimated in intervention programs. To examine the association of mental health with altered eating behavior related to weigh gain, and with abdominal obesity among college students in order to provide more comprehensive guidelines for intervention programs. A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,122 university students (from a total population of 1,820 freshmen students) at the Metropolitan Autonomous University, Mexico City. Body mass index and waist circumference (WC) were recorded. A six items questionnaire was applied to assess altered eating behavior. Self-reported questionnaires for depression (Beck Depression Inventory), anxiety (General Anxiety Disorder Scale of Carrol and Davidson), and impulsiveness symptoms (Plutchik Impulsivity Scale) were used. Multiple logistic regression models were performed. An increased WC was associated with depression symptoms (OR=1.4), female sex (OR=1.5), and age (OR=1.1). Students with altered eating behaviors showed elevated levels of impulsivity (e.g. have difficulties to stop eating, OR=4.2) and depression (e.g. have problem to eat at regular times, OR=6.98). In addition, higher WC was associated with female sex, parents' obesity, and unhealthy eating behaviors (e.g. have difficulties to stop eating, OR=1.42; and constantly feel hungry, and eat too much, OR=2.25). Although preventive programs directed at development of adequate eating habits and physical activity are considered a key component of intervention programs, strategies for the management of emotions, the promotion of positive mood and impulsivity-reduction techniques are a necessary complement for a comprehensive approach to overweight and obesity. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. Breaking the Silence: Disordered Eating and Big Five Traits in College Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovi, Abigail S; Li, Yue; Martin, Jessica L

    2016-11-01

    Men remain largely underrepresented in the eating disorder literature and few studies have investigated risk factors for disordered eating among men. The current study examined associations between Big Five personality traits and eating disorder symptoms in a sample of college men (N = 144). Participants completed the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale and Ten Item Personality Inventory online. Results suggested that openness was positively associated with purging-type behaviors and that emotional stability was positively related to symptoms of anorexia nervosa and global eating pathology. Findings highlight the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms among college men and suggest that these symptoms are associated with a different constellation of personality traits than is typically reported among women. Implications for targeted prevention and intervention programs and future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Adults with Celiac Disease

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    V. Passananti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Symptoms of celiac disease negatively impact social activities and emotional state. Aim was to investigate the prevalence of altered eating behaviour in celiac patients. Methods. Celiac patients and controls completed a dietary interview and the Binge Eating Staircases, Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2, Eating Attitudes Test, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, State Trait Anxiety Inventory Forma Y (STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2, and Symptom Check List (SCL-90. Results. One hundred celiac adults and 100 controls were not statistically different for gender, age, and physical activity. STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2, Somatization, Interpersonal, Sensitivity, and Anxiety scores of the SLC-90 were higher in CD patients than controls. EDI-2 was different in pulse thinness, social insecurity, perfectionism, inadequacy, ascetisms, and interpersonal diffidence between CD and HC women, whilst only in interceptive awareness between CD and HC men. A higher EAT-26 score was associated with the CD group dependently with gastrointestinal symptoms. The EAT26 demonstrated association between indices of diet-related disorders in both CD and the feminine gender after controlling for anxiety and depression. Conclusion. CD itself and not gastrointestinal related symptoms or psychological factors may contribute pathological eating behavior in celiac adults. Eating disorders appear to be more frequent in young celiac women than in CD men and in HC.

  5. Class and eating: Family meals in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Ewa

    2017-09-01

    This paper examines social differentiation in eating patterns in Britain. It focuses on family meals among individuals with under-age children. Eating with family members has been associated with improvement in wellbeing, nutritional status, and school performance of the children. Modern lifestyles may pose a challenge to commensal eating for all groups, but the scale of the impact varies between social classes, with some groups at higher risk of shortening or skipping family meal time. Eating patterns are differentiated by individual's social class; they have also been associated with educational attainment, work schedules, and household composition. The objective of this study is to disaggregate the effect of these variables. Using data from the 2014/2015 UK Time Use Survey I analyse the net effect of social class, education, income, work and family characteristics on the frequency and duration of family meals. Individuals in the highest occupational class dedicate more time overall to family meals. However, class effect becomes insignificant when other variables, such as education or income, are controlled for. This study finds that higher educated individuals have more frequent family meals, and more affluent individuals spend more time at the table with their household members. Work characteristics are associated with frequency of meals, but not with their duration. Finally, household composition matters for how people eat. Parents of younger children eat with their family members more frequently than parents of teenagers. Single parents, a notoriously time-poor category, spend the least amount of time eating with their families and have fewer commensal meals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. SCREENING FOR EARLY DETECTION OF EATING DISORDERS

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    Elisaveta Pavlova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eating Disorders (EDs are characterized by a persistent disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that significantly impairs physical health or psychosocial functioning. EDs are caused by a complex interaction of genetic, biological, behavioral, psychological, and social factors. Their epidemiology is rising for the past decades, and EDs affect all races, social levels and both genders. Due to the long and expensive treatment, chronic course, and the fact that most of the sufferers do not realize the need for therapy or do not seek treatment, the demand on developing prevention programs, early detection and assessment is essential. Despite the fact, that many new EDs screening tools were developed already, there is a great lack of validated screening instruments, adapted to the Bulgarian conditions. Objects and methods: Our study aimed at eliciting a comprehensive battery for screening of not only specific ED pathology, but also some risk factors, such as negative body image, weight and depressive symptoms. The object of our study consisted of 201 females, aged 18 to 45 (mean 24.65. SCOOF- questionnaire, Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS-5, Body Image Questionnaire-34 and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were applied. Results: Our preliminary results show that approximately 45% of the tested subjects show some of the: negative body image, eating disorders’ clinical pathology, distorted eating patterns, subclinical eating disorders pathology, overweight/obesity, or depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Our ongoing efforts in area of research also are aimed at developing and refining strategies for preventing and treating ED among adolescents and adults.

  7. Intuitive eating: associations with physical activity motivation and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, Julie; Campbell Nielson, Amy; Hunt, Anne; Leiker, Jason J

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether university women who demonstrated internal motivation related to eating behavior may also be internally motivated to participate in regular physical activity (PA) and have a lower body mass index (BMI) when controlling for age. Traditional approaches for health promotion related to healthy weight include restrictive eating and exercise prescription. Examining motivation for eating and PA may prove an effective alternative for achieving or maintaining healthy weight for university women. Design was a cross-sectional study. Study setting was a large, public university in the western United States. Subjects . Study subjects were 200 undergraduate women with a mean age of 19 years, mostly white (90%) and of healthy weight (69%, with a BMI range of 18.5-24.9). Study measures were the Intuitive Eating Scale and the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire. Correlations and regression models were used. Intuitive eating was examined in the sample as a whole and among subgroups of respondents grouped based on tertile rankings of intuitive eating scores. There was evidence that women who demonstrated internal motivation related to eating were also internally motivated to participate in regular PA. Women who reported being internally motivated to eat were significantly more likely to engage in PA for pleasure and to view PA as part of their self-concept. Women who reported high levels of intuitive eating had significantly lower BMI scores than those reporting medium or low levels when controlling for age. For women to achieve or maintain a healthy weight, it may be best for health professionals to examine motivation for eating and PA rather than the encouragement of restrictive eating and exercise prescriptions.

  8. Food neophobia, life satisfaction and family eating habits in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Schnettler

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to categorize university students based on their association between food neophobia and levels of subjective well-being, in general and in the food domain, and their perception of their family's eating habits. A survey was conducted among 372 university students from southern Chile. The questionnaire included the Food Neophobia Scale (FNS, Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL, Health-related Quality of Life Index (HRQOL-4, and Family Eating Habits Questionnaire (FEHQ. Three student types were distinguished by cluster analysis: Group 1 (26.9% had the highest scores on the FNS, SWLS and SWFL. Group 2 (40.8% had a high score on the FNS but the lowest scores on the SWLS and SWFL. Group 3 (32.3% had the lowest FNS score and high scores on the SWLS and SWFL. Group 2 stood out in having a low score on the FEHQ's component for cohesiveness of family eating. These results suggest that both neophobic and non-neophobic students have positive levels of satisfaction with life and food-related life, and that satisfaction among neophobic students is related to family eating patterns, especially cohesiveness in family eating.

  9. Multi-scale temporal and spatial variation in genotypic composition of Cladophora-borne Escherichia coli populations in Lake Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgley, Brian D; Ferguson, John; Vanden Heuvel, Amy; Kleinheinz, Gregory T; McDermott, Colleen M; Sandrin, Todd R; Kinzelman, Julie; Junion, Emily A; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N; Whitman, Richard L; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    High concentrations of Escherichia coli in mats of Cladophora in the Great Lakes have raised concern over the continued use of this bacterium as an indicator of microbial water quality. Determining the impacts of these environmentally abundant E. coli, however, necessitates a better understanding of their ecology. In this study, the population structure of 4285 Cladophora-borne E. coli isolates, obtained over multiple three day periods from Lake Michigan Cladophora mats in 2007-2009, was examined by using DNA fingerprint analyses. In contrast to previous studies that have been done using isolates from attached Cladophora obtained over large time scales and distances, the extensive sampling done here on free-floating mats over successive days at multiple sites provided a large dataset that allowed for a detailed examination of changes in population structure over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. While Cladophora-borne E. coli populations were highly diverse and consisted of many unique isolates, multiple clonal groups were also present and accounted for approximately 33% of all isolates examined. Patterns in population structure were also evident. At the broadest scales, E. coli populations showed some temporal clustering when examined by year, but did not show good spatial distinction among sites. E. coli population structure also showed significant patterns at much finer temporal scales. Populations were distinct on an individual mat basis at a given site, and on individual days within a single mat. Results of these studies indicate that Cladophora-borne E. coli populations consist of a mixture of stable, and possibly naturalized, strains that persist during the life of the mat, and more unique, transient strains that can change over rapid time scales. It is clear that further study of microbial processes at fine spatial and temporal scales is needed, and that caution must be taken when interpolating short term microbial dynamics from results obtained

  10. Night Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz Tuncel; Fatma Özlem Orhan

    2009-01-01

    Hunger is an awakening related biological impulse. The relationship between hunger and sleep is moderated by the control of homeostatic and circadian rhytms of the body. Abnormal eating behavior during sleep period could result from different causes. Abnormal eating during the main sleep period has been categorized as either night eating syndrome or sleep related eating disorder. Night eating syndrome (NES) is an eating disorder characterised by the clinical features of morning anorexia, even...

  11. Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of-control eating Women are more likely than men to have eating disorders. They usually start in the teenage years and often occur along with depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse. Eating disorders can ...

  12. HUNGARIAN EXPERIENCES WITH THE BELIEFS ABOUT ATTRACTIVENESS SCALE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeglédi, Edit; Szabo, Kornélia

    2016-03-30

    Sociocultural influences regarding bodily appearance and their psychological consequences play a considerable role in the development and maintenance of body image disturbance and eating disorders. The purpose of the study was to explore the psychometric properties of the Beliefs About Attractiveness Scale-Revised and its correlates among young adults in Hungary. In our cross-sectional online study, participants were 18-35 years old (N = 820, 40% male). self-reported anthropometric data, Beliefs About Attractiveness Scale-Revised, Eating Disorder Inventory, SCOFF questionnaire, Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3, and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. The exploratory factor analysis showed that the fit indices of the three-factor solution are acceptable (χ²(₁₇₁)) = 5124.8, p scales were confirmed. Among those who were at risk of developing an eating disorder, all of the measured beliefs were significantly greater than among those who were not at risk (thin: Z = 6.501, p Scale-Revised is a reliable, valid measure and we suggest its introduction into Hungarian research. Relationships between beliefs about attractiveness and self- esteem, body image and eating disorders suggest intervention opportunities in with regards to prevention and treatment of eating disorders.

  13. Eating Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Prevalence and Effect on Treatment Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Tobiassen, Linn Graham

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Additional aims were to assess whether having comorbid eating disorders could influence the treatment outcome for OCD, and if symptoms of eating disorders were reduced after treatment for OCD. The sample consisted of 93 patients with a primary diagnosis of OCD. The patients underwent assessment with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Beck Depress...

  14. Orthorexia nervosa: a frequent eating disordered behavior in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-García, C; Papaianni, M C; Caglioti, F; Procopio, L; Nisticò, C G; Bombardiere, L; Ammendolia, A; Rizza, P; De Fazio, P; Capranica, L

    2012-12-01

    Striving for enhancing athletic performance, many sportsmen undergo rigid dietary habits, which could lead to eating disorders (EDs) or Orthorexia Nervosa (ON), a psychopathological condition characterized by the obsession for high quality food. The aim of the study was to examine the occurrence of ON in athletes and to verify the relationship between ON and EDs. Five-hundred-seventy-seven athletes and 217 matched controls were administered the following tests: ORTO-15, Eating Attitude Test 26 (EAT-26), Body Uneasiness Test (BUT) and Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale (YBC-EDS). High positivity to ORTO-15 (28%) and EAT-26 (14%) emerged in athletes, whereas a high rate of BUT positivity was evident among controls (21%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that independent predictors of ON are previous dieting, age, positivity to YBC-EDS, positivity to EAT-26, competition level, and number of YBC-EDS preoccupations and rituals. Sharing many features with both EDs and Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum, ON represents a crossroad between these pathologic conditions and might compromise the health state of an athlete. Therefore, coaches should consider important to detect symptoms of EDs and ON in their athletes.

  15. Putting the brakes on the "drive to eat": Pilot effects of naltrexone and reward based eating on food cravings among obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Ashley E.; Laraia, Barbara; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Hecht, Frederick M.; Lustig, Robert H.; Puterman, Eli; Adler, Nancy; Dallman, Mary; Kiernan, Michaela; Gearhardt, Ashley N.; Epel, Elissa S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Obese individuals vary in their experience of food cravings and tendency to engage in reward-driven eating, both of which can be modulated by the neural reward system rather than physiological hunger. We examined two predictions in a sample of obese women: (1) whether opioidergic blockade reduced food-craving intensity, and (2) whether opioidergic blockade reduced an association between food-craving intensity and reward-driven eating, which is a trait-like index of three factors (lack of control over eating, lack of satiation, preoccupation with food). Methods Forty-four obese, pre-menopausal women completed the Reward-based Eating Drive (RED) scale at study start and daily food-craving intensity on 5 days on which they ingested either a pill-placebo (2 days), a 25mg naltrexone dose (1 day), or a standard 50mg naltrexone dose (2 days). Results Craving intensity was similar under naltrexone and placebo doses. The association between food-craving intensity and reward-driven eating significantly differed between placebo and 50mg naltrexone doses. Reward-driven eating and craving intensity were significantly positively associated under both placebo doses. As predicted, opioidergic blockade (for both doses 25mg and 50mg naltrexone) reduced this positive association between reward-driven eating and craving intensity to non-significance. Conclusions Opioidergic blockade did not reduce craving intensity; however, blockade reduced an association between trait-like reward-driven eating and daily food-craving intensity, and may help identify an important endophenotype within obesity. PMID:26164674

  16. Factors associated with eating out of home in Vietnamese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachat, Carl; Khanh, Le Nguyen Bao; Huynh, Thi Thanh Tuyen; Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Nago, Eunice; Roberfroid, Dominique; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2011-12-01

    Eating out of home (OH) is nutritionally important in some developing countries. This study identifies the factors associated with eating OH in Vietnamese adolescents. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional cluster survey of 502 adolescents in rural and urban areas in Vietnam. Factors associated with eating OH were recorded with a Likert scale and analysed using factor analysis. Data on eating OH was collected using a frequency questionnaire and a 1-day 24h recall. A first pattern "Convenience" incorporated preparation time, price, variety, taste, proximity and social aspects as items associated with eating OH. A second pattern "Nutritional and food safety concerned" reflected concerns with regard to hygiene, fat and salt content of the food prepared OH. Adolescents characterised by the convenience pattern were more likely (OR=1.51, Peat OH more frequently. The highest tertile of the Nutritional and food safety concerned pattern was less likely (OR=0.61, P=0.03) to eat OH compared to lower tertiles. Both patterns were not associated with the % energy from eating OH per day. Convenience and to a lesser extent Nutritional and food safety concerns are significant factors associated with the frequency of eating OH in Vietnamese adolescents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of milnacipran on binge eating – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun’ichi Noma

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Shun’ichi Noma1, Teruhisa Uwatoko1, Haruka Yamamoto2, Takuji Hayashi11Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Toyooka Hospital, Hyogo, JapanAbstract: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are effective in the treatment of bulimia nervosa. There have been relatively few studies of the efficacy of specific serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of eating disorders. Twenty-five outpatients with binge eating episodes, diagnosed as anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type, bulimia nervosa/purging type, or bulimia nervosa/non-purging type, were treated with milnacipran and 20 patients completed the 8-week study. Symptom severity was evaluated using the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE self-rating scale before administration of milnacipran and after 1, 4, and 8 weeks treatment. The scores improved after 8 weeks, especially drive to, and regret for, binge eating. Milnacipran was more effective in patients without purging and in younger patients, while there was no difference in the efficacy of milnacipran among subtypes of eating disorders.Keywords: milnacipran, specific serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, binge eating, vomiting, eating disorder, pharmacotherapy

  18. [Validation of the Physical Appearance Comparison Scale (PACS) in a German Sample: Psychometric Properties and Association with Eating Behavior, Body Image and Self-Esteem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claire Mölbert, Simone; Hautzinger, Martin; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin

    2017-02-01

    The Physical Appearance Comparison Scale (PACS [14]) is the most commonly used validated measure of body-related social comparison habits. Here we investigate reliability and construct validity of the PACS in a German sample. Participants (n=75 men, n=75 women and n=25 women with a confirmed diagnosis of anorexia nervosa) completed the PACS along with measures of eating disorder pathology, body image and self-esteem. Results show an adequate internal consistency of the PACS for the female subgroups and medium to high correlations with eating disorder pathology, body image and self-esteem. PACS total score differed significantly between groups, with men scoring lowest and women with anorexia nervosa scoring highest. We conclude that the PACS is a sufficiently reliable and valid measure of body-related social comparison habits in women. In men, it should only be used with special care. The PACS is generally suitable to promote patient studies testing the role of social comparisons for the patho-mechanisms of eating disorders. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Inhibition of eating behavior: negative cognitive effects of dieting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, K E; Chiovari, P

    1998-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that dieters would score higher than nondieters in terms of food rumination. Two hundred and thirty one college undergraduates completed the Eating Obsessive-Compulsiveness Scale (EOCS) and responded to a questionnaire that inquired about dieting status. Subjects also completed measures that tapped neuroticism and social desirability. Results showed that current dieters were significantly more obsessed with thoughts of eating and food than were nondieters. Neither dieting status nor EOCS scale scores were related to neuroticism or social desirability. These results are consistent with previous theory and research suggesting that inhibition of appetitive behaviors can have negative cognitive effects. Moreover, they indicate a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

  20. Night Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Tuncel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Hunger is an awakening related biological impulse. The relationship between hunger and sleep is moderated by the control of homeostatic and circadian rhytms of the body. Abnormal eating behavior during sleep period could result from different causes. Abnormal eating during the main sleep period has been categorized as either night eating syndrome or sleep related eating disorder. Night eating syndrome (NES is an eating disorder characterised by the clinical features of morning anorexia, evening hyperphagia, and insomnia with awakenings followed by nocturnal food ingestion. Recently night eating syndrome, conceptualized as a delayed circadian intake of food. Sleep-related eating disorder, thought to represent a parasomnia and as such included within the revised International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2, and characterized by nocturnal partial arousals associated with recurrent episodes of involuntary food consumption and altered levels of consciousness. Whether, however, sleep-related eating disorder and night eating syndrome represent different diseases or are part of a continuum is still debated. This review summarizes their characteristics, treatment outcomes and differences between them.

  1. The Brine Shrimp Artemia Survives in Diluted Water of Lake Bunyampaka, an Inland Saline Lake in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sserwadda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ugandan aquaculture is in the process of development; however, it requires access to an affordable live food source, such as brine shrimp Artemia. This study fits within a broader feasibility study of domestic Artemia production in salt lakes. Since Uganda is a landlocked country, the only opportunity for live water food sources lies in the salt lakes in the west of the country. This study used saline water from one of these lakes, Lake Bunyampaka (salinity 72 mg L−1. Two Artemia strains, i.e., the Great Salt Lake strain, which is the dominant strain on the market, and the Vinh Chau strain, which is by far the most inoculated strain in the world, were assayed for their survival, growth, and reproduction in diluted Lake Bunyampaka water, using natural seawater as control. The organisms were fed live freshly cultured microalgae Tetraselmis suecica ad libitum. Our study revealed that the Vinh Chau strain performed especially well in Lake Bunyampaka water diluted to 50 g L−1. The data presented in this study generate the first useful information for the future inoculation of Artemia in Lake Bunyampaka in Uganda, and hence domestic Artemia production in the country; however, further larger-scale laboratory work, followed by field trials, is still needed.

  2. Eating behaviours in preadolescence are associated with body dissatisfaction and mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Anja; Olsen, Else Marie; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka

    2016-01-01

    Preadolescence is a key period in the early stages of eating disorder development. The aim of the present study was, firstly, to investigate restrained, emotional and external eating in a general population-based sample of 11–12 year olds. Secondly, we sought to explore how these eating behaviours...... The Eating Pattern Inventory for Children (EPI-C) and The Children's Figure Rating Scale. Mental disorders were assessed using the online version of the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) based on parental replies with final DSM-IV diagnoses determined by experienced child- and adolescent...... in both genders, but was only associated with mental disorders in girls. External eating was significantly associated with body dissatisfaction and neurodevelopmental disorders in both genders, but was only associated with overweight in girls. Our findings show that problematic eating behaviours can...

  3. Replication of a Modified Factor Structure for the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire: Extension to Clinical Eating Disorder and Non-clinical Samples in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Paulo P P; Grilo, Carlos M; Crosby, Ross D

    2018-01-01

    Psychometric investigations of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) have generally not supported the original scale structure. The present study tested an alternative brief factor structure in two large Portuguese samples: (1) a non-clinical sample of N = 4117 female students and (2) a treatment-seeking sample of N = 609 patients diagnosed with eating disorders. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a poor fit for the original EDE-Q structure in both the non-clinical and the clinical samples but revealed a good fit for the alternative 7-item 3-factor structure (dietary restraint, shape/weight overvaluation and body dissatisfaction). Factor loadings were invariant across samples and across the different specific eating disorder diagnoses in the clinical sample. These confirmatory factor analysis findings, which replicate findings from studies with diverse predominately overweight/obese samples, supported a modified 7-item, 3-factor structure for the EDE-Q. The reliable findings across different non-clinical and clinical eating disorder groups provide confidence regarding the potential utility of this brief version. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  4. Differences in Emotion Regulation Difficulties Across Types of Eating Disorders During Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbach, Noam; Sher, Helene; Bohon, Cara

    2017-11-04

    Emotion regulation appears to play a key role in eating disorders. However, prior attempts to associate specific emotion regulation abilities with specific types of eating disorders resulted in inconsistent findings. Moreover, far less is known about emotion regulation in eating disorders during adolescence, a critical period of emotional development. The current study addresses this gap, comparing emotion regulation characteristics between adolescents with restrictive types of eating disorders and those with binge eating or purging types of eating disorders. Ninety-eight adolescents with eating disorders (49 with restrictive and 49 with binge eating/purging eating disorders) completed a set of questionnaires including the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). The results revealed that binge eating/purging types of eating disorders were associated with greater difficulties in a variety of emotion regulation dimensions including impulse control, goal-directed behavior and access to effective emotion regulation strategies. Awareness and clarity of emotions were also worse in the binge eating/purging types of eating disorders, but this difference did not remain when comorbid psychopathology measures were controlled for. Moreover, the emotion regulation profile of adolescents with anorexia nervosa-binging/purging type was more similar to that of adolescents with bulimia nervosa than to that of adolescents with anorexia nervosa-restrictive type. While both restrictive and binge eating/purging eating disorders have been associated with emotion regulation difficulties, the current study shows that the presence of binge eating or purging episodes is linked with greater severity of emotion regulation deficits among adolescents with eating disorders.

  5. Disordered eating attitudes and body shame among athletes, exercisers and sedentary female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankauskiene, R; Pajaujiene, S

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the disordered eating attitudes and sociocultural body ideals internalization among university athletes (N.=98), exercisers (N.=125) and sedentary (N.=81) undergraduate female students. The mean age (SD) of the sample was 20.17 (2.00). The students completed Eating Attitude Test - 26, Body Areas Satisfaction subscale of the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, Body Shame subscale from the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale, Rosenberg Self- Esteem Scale, Appearance subscale from the Motives for Physical Activity Measure--Revised, reported their physical activity and fluid manipulation-related behaviour. We observed no significant differences in disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem and fluid manipulation-related behaviour among athletes, exercisers and sedentary female students. Body shame predicted disordered eating in all groups of women. Students high in body shame reported higher levels of disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, appearance-related exercise motives, fluid manipulation-related behaviour and lower self-esteem, regardless of their physical activity level. The results show that internalization of the sociocultural body standards provide a mechanism through which different physical activity levels are associated with negative eating and physical activity-related outcomes in college-aged women.

  6. Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research Training Small Business Research Labs at NIMH Labs at NIMH Home Research ... About Eating Disorders More Publications About Eating Disorders Research Results PubMed: Journal Articles about Eating Disorders Contact Us The National ...

  7. Eating behavior and eating disorders in adults before bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James E; King, Wendy C; Courcoulas, Anita; Dakin, George; Elder, Katherine; Engel, Scott; Flum, David; Kalarchian, Melissa; Khandelwal, Saurabh; Pender, John; Pories, Walter; Wolfe, Bruce

    2015-03-01

    To describe eating patterns, prevalence of problematic eating behaviors, and determine factors associated with binge eating disorder (BED), before bariatric surgery. Before surgery, 2,266 participants (median age 46 years; 78.6% female; 86.9% white; median body mass index 45.9 kg/m(2) ) of the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 (LABS-2) study completed eating behavior survey items in the self-administered LABS-2 Behavior form. Other measures included the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, the LABS-2 Psychiatric and Emotional Test Survey, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12, the Short Form-36 Health Survey, and Impact of Weight Quality of Life-Lite Survey. The majority (92.1%) of participants reported eating dinner regularly, whereas just over half (54.0%) reported eating breakfast regularly. Half of the participants reported eating at least four meals/week at restaurants; two meals/week were fast food. Loss of control eating was reported by 43.4%, night eating syndrome by 17.7%; 15.7% satisfied criteria for binge eating disorder (BED), 2% for bulimia nervosa. Factors that independently increased the odds of BED were being a college graduate, eating more times per day, taking medication for psychiatric or emotional problems, and having symptoms of alcohol use disorder, lower self-esteem and greater depressive symptoms. Before undergoing bariatric surgery a substantial proportion of patients report problematic eating behaviors. Several factors associated with BED were identified, most suggesting other mental health problems, including higher levels of depressive symptomotology. The strengths of this study include the large sample size, the multi-center design and use of standardized assessment practices. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. LIMNOLOGY, LAKE BASINS, LAKE WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre GÂŞTESCU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Limnology is a border discipline between geography, hydrology and biology, and is also closely connected with other sciences, from it borrows research methods. Physical limnology (the geography of lakes, studies lake biotopes, and biological limnology (the biology of lakes, studies lake biocoenoses. The father of limnology is the Swiss scientist F.A. Forel, the author of a three-volume entitled Le Leman: monographie limnologique (1892-1904, which focuses on the geology physics, chemistry and biology of lakes. He was also author of the first textbook of limnology, Handbuch der Seenkunde: allgemeine Limnologie,(1901. Since both the lake biotope and its biohydrocoenosis make up a single whole, the lake and lakes, respectively, represent the most typical systems in nature. They could be called limnosystems (lacustrine ecosystems, a microcosm in itself, as the American biologist St.A. Forbes put it (1887.

  9. Palaeolimnological evidence of vulnerability of Lake Neusiedl (Austria) toward climate related changes since the last "vanished-lake" stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolotti, Monica; Milan, Manuela; Boscaini, Adriano; Soja, Gerhard; Herzig, Alois

    2013-04-01

    The palaeolimnological reconstruction of secular evolution of Euroepan Lakes with key socio-economical relevance respect to large (climate change) and local scale (land use, tourism) environmental changes, represents one of the objectives of the project EuLakes (European Lakes Under Environmental Stressors, Supporting lake governance to mitigate the impact of climate change, Reg. N. 2CE243P3), launched in 2010 within the Central European Inititiative. The project consortium comprises lakes of different morphology and prevalent human uses, including the meso-eutrophic Lake Neusiedl, the largest Austrian lake (total area 315 km2), and the westernmost shallow (mean depth 1.2 m) steppe lake of the Euro-Asiatic continent. The volume of Lake Neusiedl can potentially change over the years, in relation with changing balance between atmospheric precipitation and lake water evapotranspiration. Changing water budget, together with high lake salinity and turbidity, have important implications over the lake ecosystem. This contribution illustrates results of the multi-proxi palaeolimnological reconstruction of ecologial changes occurred in Lake Neusiedl during the last ca. 140 years, i.e. since the end of the last "vanished-lake" stage (1865-1871). Geochemical and biological proxies anticipate the increase in lake productivity of ca. 10 years (1950s) respect to what reported in the literature. Diatom species composition indicate a biological lake recovery in the late 1980s, and suggest a second increment in lake productivity since the late 1990s, possibly in relation with the progressive increase in the nitrogen input from agriculture. Abundance of diatoms typical of brackish waters indicated no significant long-term change in lake salinity, while variations in species toleranting dessiccation confirm the vulnerability of Lake Neusiedl toward climate-driven changes in the lake water balance. This fragility is aggravated by the the semi-arid climate conditions of the catchemnt

  10. Tracheostomy tube - eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trach - eating ... take your first bites. Certain factors may make eating or swallowing harder, such as: Changes in the ... easier to swallow. Suction the tracheostomy tube before eating. This will keep you from coughing while eating, ...

  11. Course and predictors of maternal eating disorders in the postpartum period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoph, Cecilie; Holle, Ann Von; Zerwas, Stephanie; Torgersen, Leila; Tambs, Kristian; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Bulik, Cynthia M; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate course and predictors of eating disorders in the postpartum period. Method A total of 77,807 women, participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), completed questionnaires during pregnancy including items covering DSM-IV criteria for pre-pregnancy anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS-P), and binge eating disorder (BED). Additional questionnaires were completed at 18 and 36 months postpartum. Results Proportions of women remitting at 18 months and 36 months postpartum were 50% and 59% for AN, 39% and 30% for BN, 46% and 57% for EDNOS-P, and 45% and 42% for BED, respectively. However, disordered eating persisted in a substantial proportion of women meeting criteria for either full or subthreshold eating disorders. BN during pregnancy increased the risk for continuation of BN. BMI and psychological distress were significantly associated with course of BED. Discussion This is the first large-scale population-based study on course of eating disorders in the postpartum period. The results indicated that disordered eating persists in a substantial proportion of women with pre-pregnancy eating disorders. Health care professionals working with women in this phase of life need to pay specific attention to eating disorder symptoms and behaviors. PMID:23307499

  12. Intellectual functioning of adolescent and adult patients with eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilder, Christina M. T.; van Elburg, Annemarie A.; Snellen, Wim M.; Sternheim, Lot C.; Hoek, Hans W.; Danner, Unna N.

    ObjectiveIntelligence is a known vulnerability marker in various psychiatric disorders. In eating disorders (ED) intelligence has not been studied thoroughly. Small-scale studies indicate that intelligence levels might be above general population norms, but larger scale studies are lacking. The aim

  13. Biometry, histology, and morphometry of the digestive system of wild crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreíza Ramos Heleno

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous is found throughout Brazil. It has a nocturnal habit and can be seen on roadsides, where it looks for remains of run over animals and, therefore, it is also a victim of roadkill. This study aimed to characterize the macro and microscopic anatomy of the digestive system of the crab-eating fox. It helps to carry out medical and surgical procedures, besides important information on the feeding strategies, especially for wild individuals needing veterinary care after rescue in cases of running over, burnings, and floods caused by the filling of hydroelectric reservoir lakes or even in projects on captive breeding and restocking. Samples were collected from the digestive system of three wild animals in the region of Guarapuava-PR region. The crab-eating foxes under study were longer than the average reported for the species, had a shorter intestine, and a lower small intestine/body length ratio than other carnivores, besides other anatomical and histological characteristics different from those found in the literature on carnivores.

  14. Prevalence and correlates of DSM-5 eating disorders in patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Susan L; Crow, Scott; Blom, Thomas J; Biernacka, Joanna M; Winham, Stacey J; Geske, Jennifer; Cuellar-Barboza, Alfredo B; Bobo, William V; Prieto, Miguel L; Veldic, Marin; Mori, Nicole; Seymour, Lisa R; Bond, David J; Frye, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    To determine prevalence rates and clinical correlates of current DSM-5 eating disorders in patients with bipolar disorder (BP). Prevalence rates of current DSM-5- and DSM-IV-defined binge eating disorder (BED), bulimia nervosa (BN), and anorexia nervosa (AN) were assessed with the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS) in 1092 patients with BP. Psychiatric illness burden was evaluated with five proxy measures of BP illness severity. Medical illness burden was evaluated with the Cumulative Index Rating Scale (CIRS). Twenty-seven percent of patients had a current DSM-5 eating disorder: 12% had BED, 15% had BN, and 0.2% had AN. Rates of DSM-5-defined BED and BN were higher than clinical diagnosis rates and rates of DSM-IV-defined BED and BN. Compared with BP patients without an eating disorder, BP patients with a DSM-5 eating disorder were younger and more likely to be women; had an earlier age of onset of BP; had higher EDDS composite scores and higher degrees of suicidality, mood instability, and anxiety disorder comorbidity; and had a higher mean BMI, higher rate of obesity, and higher CIRS total scores. In a logistic regression model controlling for previously identified correlates of an eating disorder, younger age, female gender, and higher BMI remained significantly associated with an eating disorder. The EDDS has not been validated in BP patients. DSM-5-defined BED and BN are common in BP patients, possibly more common than DSM-IV-defined BED and BN, and associated with greater psychiatric and general medical illness burden. Further studies assessing DSM-5 eating disorders in people with BP are greatly needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Study of Eating Disorders and Body Image Among Elite Martial Arts Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Taheri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Study objective: The competitive sports environment can enhance social and cultural pressure towards having ideal body weight in weight-sensitive sports. The close relationship between body image and performance makes the elite athletes vulnerable to eating disorders. Thus, the purpose of this research was to study eating disorders and body image among weight-class elite athletes. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with elite martial arts athletes (Karate, Taekwondo, and Judo who were considered to be of higher risk for eating disorders. 63 elite martial arts male athletes (18.59 ± 5.29 yrs, and 63 non-athlete persons (17.3 ± 3.4 yrs were recruited. Body Mass Index (BMI, Waist Hip Ratio (WHR, and Percent Body Fat (PBF were measured using caliper and meter. Eating Disorder Diagnosis Scale (EDDS and Body Image Rating Scale (BIRS were used to study eating disorders and body image among elite martial arts athletes. Results: no sign of clinical EDDS were found among the investigated athletes, and non-athletes. There were significant differences in total score of EDDS (p=0.001, eating disorder and weight concern subscales (respectively p=0.012, p=0.001 in athletes and non-athletes. Furthermore, compared with the non-athlete group, elite athlete group with middle, good, and great body images scored higher on total score and all subscales of EDDS (p ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The results from our study show the presence of worriment about eating disorder especially body weight and eating concern in elite athletes and the early detection of it may prevent progression to severe eating disorders.

  16. lakemorpho: Calculating lake morphometry metrics in R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, Jeffrey; Stachelek, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Metrics describing the shape and size of lakes, known as lake morphometry metrics, are important for any limnological study. In cases where a lake has long been the subject of study these data are often already collected and are openly available. Many other lakes have these data collected, but access is challenging as it is often stored on individual computers (or worse, in filing cabinets) and is available only to the primary investigators. The vast majority of lakes fall into a third category in which the data are not available. This makes broad scale modelling of lake ecology a challenge as some of the key information about in-lake processes are unavailable. While this valuable in situ information may be difficult to obtain, several national datasets exist that may be used to model and estimate lake morphometry. In particular, digital elevation models and hydrography have been shown to be predictive of several lake morphometry metrics. The R package lakemorpho has been developed to utilize these data and estimate the following morphometry metrics: surface area, shoreline length, major axis length, minor axis length, major and minor axis length ratio, shoreline development, maximum depth, mean depth, volume, maximum lake length, mean lake width, maximum lake width, and fetch. In this software tool article we describe the motivation behind developing lakemorpho , discuss the implementation in R, and describe the use of lakemorpho with an example of a typical use case.

  17. Eating disorders among women of childbearing age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Maria Bień

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nutrition is one of the fundamental human needs, which allows for the proper functioning of the body. Nowadays, people are increasingly turning attention to the type and quantity of food intake, in order to preserve health and slim. Rigorous adherence to the principles of nutrition only healthy meals can lead to disorder orthorexia nervosa, which can lead to many complications (such as weight loss, vitamin deficiencies and mineral, hormonal disorders, psychological problems. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of eating disorders such orthorexia nervosa in women of childbearing age and to check whether there is a relationship between the occurrence of eating disorders and a global orientation of life of respondents. Material and method. The study included 280 women aged between 18 and 35 years old who voluntarily joined the study. The study used the questionnaire technique, consisting of the author's questionnaire and standardized research tools (ORTO-15 Questionnaire, the SCOFF Eating Disorders Questionnaire and the Sense of Coherence Scale SOC-29. Results. After conducting these studies found an association between the occurrence of eating disorders such as orthorexia nervosa to religion, and between type of eating disorder anorexia and bulimia and marital status, and body mass index (BMI. It was also shown that the lower the overall level of sense of coherence and its components is more common in individuals at risk of developing anorexia or bulimia. Conclusion. There is a relationship between the occurrence of eating disorders such as orthorexia nervosa to religion. There is a relationship between the occurrence of eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia marital status and body mass index of women.

  18. 3D modelling of interaction of strongly nonlinear internal seiches with a concave lake topography and a phenomenon of the "lake monsters".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terletska, Kateryna; Maderich, Vladimir; Brovchenko, Igor; Jung, Kyung Tae

    2013-04-01

    In the freshwater lakes in moderate latitudes stratification occurs as a result of the seasonal warming of the surface water layer. Than the intense wind surges (usually in autumn) tilt the surface and generate long basin-scale low-frequency standing internal waves (seiches). Depending on the initial interface tilt and stratification wide spectra of possible flow regimes can be observed [1]-[2].They varied from small amplitude symmetric seiches to large amplitude nonlinear waves.Nonlinearity leads to an asymmetry of internal waves and appearance of the surge or bore and further disintegration of it on a sequence of solitary waves. In present study degeneration of the strongly nonlinear internal seiches in elongated lakes with a concave "spoon-like" topography is investigated.Two different three-dimensional non-hydrostatic free-surface numerical models are used to investigate degeneration of large internal waves and its subsequent interaction with the concave lake slope. One of this model is non-hydrostatic model [3] and the other is a well-known MIT model. At first we consider idealized elongated elliptic-shape lake with the dimension of 5 km X 1 km with the maximal depth 30 m. The stratification in lake is assumed to be given in a form of the tangent function with a density difference between upper and lower layers 2 kgm-3 . It is assumed that motion in such lake is initiated by inclination of thermocline on a certain angle. Than lake adjusts to return to its original state producing internal seiches which begin interacting with a bottom topography. The process of degeneration of internal seiches in the lake with concave ends consist of chain of elementary processes: 1) steeping of long basin scale large amplitude wave, that evolve into internal surge, 2) surge interact with concave lake ends that leads the concentration of the flow and formation of down slope bottom jet along the lake axis, 3) due to cumulative effect local velocity in the jet accelerates up to

  19. Perceived eating norms and children's eating behaviour: An informational social influence account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharps, Maxine; Robinson, Eric

    2017-06-01

    There is initial evidence that beliefs about the eating behaviour of others (perceived eating norms) can influence children's vegetable consumption, but little research has examined the mechanisms explaining this effect. In two studies we aimed to replicate the effect that perceived eating norms have on children's vegetable consumption, and to explore mechanisms which may underlie the influence of perceived eating norms on children's vegetable consumption. Study 1 investigated whether children follow perceived eating norms due to a desire to maintain personal feelings of social acceptance. Study 2 investigated whether perceived eating norms influence eating behaviour because eating norms provide information which can remove uncertainty about how to behave. Across both studies children were exposed to vegetable consumption information of other children and their vegetable consumption was examined. In both studies children were influenced by perceived eating norms, eating more when led to believe others had eaten a large amount compared to when led to believe others had eaten no vegetables. In Study 1, children were influenced by a perceived eating norm regardless of whether they felt sure or unsure that other children accepted them. In Study 2, children were most influenced by a perceived eating norm if they were eating in a novel context in which it may have been uncertain how to behave, as opposed to an eating context that children had already encountered. Perceived eating norms may influence children's eating behaviour by removing uncertainty about how to behave, otherwise known as informational social influence. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Motivation to change in eating disorders: clinical and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasnovas, C; Fernández-Aranda, F; Granero, R; Krug, I; Jiménez-Murcia, S; Bulik, C M; Vallejo-Ruiloba, J

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the clinical impact of the motivational stage of change on the psychopathology and symptomatology of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS). The participants were 218 eating disorder (ED) patients (58 AN, 95 BN and 65 EDNOS), consecutively admitted to our hospital. All patients fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for these disorders. Assessment measures included the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI), Bulimic Investigation Test Edinburgh (BITE), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), four analogue scales of motivational stage, as well as a number of other clinical and psychopathological indices. Our results indicated higher motivation for change in BN than in AN and EDNOS patients (p EDNOS (p EDNOS patients are most resistant to change and the younger these patients are, the less likely they are to be motivated to change their disturbed eating behaviour. 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association

  1. Eating patterns in patients with spectrum binge eating disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Kate; Rosselli, Francine; Wilson, G. Terence; DeBar, Lynn L.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We sought to describe meal and snack frequencies of individuals with recurrent binge eating and examine the association between these eating patterns and clinical correlates. Method Data from 106 women with a minimum diagnosis of recurrent binge eating were utilized. Meal and snack frequencies were correlated with measures of weight, eating disorder features, and depression. Participants who ate breakfast every day (n=25) were compared with those who did not (n=81) on the same measures. Results Breakfast was the least, and dinner the most, commonly consumed meal. Evening snacking was the most common snacking occasion. Meal patterns were not significantly associated with clinical correlates; however, evening snacking was associated with binge eating. Discussion Our findings largely replicated those reported in earlier research. More research is needed to determine the role of breakfast consumption in binge eating. PMID:21661003

  2. Are all models susceptible to dysfunctional cognitions about eating and body image? The moderating role of personality styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasczyk-Schiep, Sybilla; Sokoła, Kaja; Fila-Witecka, Karolina; Kazén, Miguel

    2016-06-01

    We investigated dysfunctional cognitions about eating and body image in relation to personality styles in a group of professional models. Dysfunctional cognitions in professional models (n = 43) and a control group (n = 43) were assessed with the 'Eating Disorder Cognition Questionnaire' (EDCQ), eating attitudes with the 'Eating Attitudes Test' (EAT), and personality with the 'Personality Styles and Disorders Inventory' (PSDI-S). Models had higher scores than controls on the EDCQ and EAT and on nine scales of the PSDI-S. Moderation analyses showed significant interactions between groups and personality styles in predicting EDCQ scales: The ambitious/narcissistic style was related to "negative body and self-esteem", the conscientious/compulsive style to "dietary restraint", and the spontaneous/borderline style to "loss of control in eating". The results indicate that not all models are susceptible to dysfunctional cognitions about eating and body image. Models are at a higher risk of developing negative automatic thoughts and dysfunctional assumptions relating to body size, shape and weight, especially if they have high scores on the above personality styles.

  3. Internet-Based Motivation Program for Women With Eating Disorders: Eating Disorder Pathology and Depressive Mood Predict Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Rieger, Elizabeth; Schmidt, Ulrike; Kosfelder, Joachim; Hechler, Tanja; Schulte, Dietmar; Vocks, Silja

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the main problems of Internet-delivered interventions for a range of disorders is the high dropout rate, yet little is known about the factors associated with this. We recently developed and tested a Web-based 6-session program to enhance motivation to change for women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or related subthreshold eating pathology. Objective The aim of the present study was to identify predictors of dropout from this Web program. Methods A total of 179 women took part in the study. We used survival analyses (Cox regression) to investigate the predictive effect of eating disorder pathology (assessed by the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire; EDE-Q), depressive mood (Hopkins Symptom Checklist), motivation to change (University of Rhode Island Change Assessment Scale; URICA), and participants’ age at dropout. To identify predictors, we used the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method. Results The dropout rate was 50.8% (91/179) and was equally distributed across the 6 treatment sessions. The LASSO analysis revealed that higher scores on the Shape Concerns subscale of the EDE-Q, a higher frequency of binge eating episodes and vomiting, as well as higher depression scores significantly increased the probability of dropout. However, we did not find any effect of the URICA or age on dropout. Conclusions Women with more severe eating disorder pathology and depressive mood had a higher likelihood of dropping out from a Web-based motivational enhancement program. Interventions such as ours need to address the specific needs of women with more severe eating disorder pathology and depressive mood and offer them additional support to prevent them from prematurely discontinuing treatment. PMID:24686856

  4. Internet-based motivation program for women with eating disorders: eating disorder pathology and depressive mood predict dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Brachel, Ruth; Hötzel, Katrin; Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Rieger, Elizabeth; Schmidt, Ulrike; Kosfelder, Joachim; Hechler, Tanja; Schulte, Dietmar; Vocks, Silja

    2014-03-31

    One of the main problems of Internet-delivered interventions for a range of disorders is the high dropout rate, yet little is known about the factors associated with this. We recently developed and tested a Web-based 6-session program to enhance motivation to change for women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or related subthreshold eating pathology. The aim of the present study was to identify predictors of dropout from this Web program. A total of 179 women took part in the study. We used survival analyses (Cox regression) to investigate the predictive effect of eating disorder pathology (assessed by the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire; EDE-Q), depressive mood (Hopkins Symptom Checklist), motivation to change (University of Rhode Island Change Assessment Scale; URICA), and participants' age at dropout. To identify predictors, we used the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method. The dropout rate was 50.8% (91/179) and was equally distributed across the 6 treatment sessions. The LASSO analysis revealed that higher scores on the Shape Concerns subscale of the EDE-Q, a higher frequency of binge eating episodes and vomiting, as well as higher depression scores significantly increased the probability of dropout. However, we did not find any effect of the URICA or age on dropout. Women with more severe eating disorder pathology and depressive mood had a higher likelihood of dropping out from a Web-based motivational enhancement program. Interventions such as ours need to address the specific needs of women with more severe eating disorder pathology and depressive mood and offer them additional support to prevent them from prematurely discontinuing treatment.

  5. limnological studies of the pelagic zone of lake tanganyika at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    result of advection of deep water into the metalimnion (Plisnier et al. 1999, Coulter. 1963) and also decomposition of dead organic matter. In October, heavy scums of. Anabaena spp. were observed in the study area (Hecky and Kling 1981). Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations in the euphotic zone ranged between 26 µg N l-1 in.

  6. Combining lake and watershed characteristics with Landsat TM data for remote estimation of regional lake clarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Ian M.; Loftin, Cyndy; Sader, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Water clarity is a reliable indicator of lake productivity and an ideal metric of regional water quality. Clarity is an indicator of other water quality variables including chlorophyll-a, total phosphorus and trophic status; however, unlike these metrics, clarity can be accurately and efficiently estimated remotely on a regional scale. Remote sensing is useful in regions containing a large number of lakes that are cost prohibitive to monitor regularly using traditional field methods. Field-assessed lakes generally are easily accessible and may represent a spatially irregular, non-random sample of a region. We developed a remote monitoring program for Maine lakes >8 ha (1511 lakes) to supplement existing field monitoring programs. We combined Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) brightness values for TM bands 1 (blue) and 3 (red) to estimate water clarity (secchi disk depth) during 1990–2010. Although similar procedures have been applied to Minnesota and Wisconsin lakes, neither state incorporates physical lake variables or watershed characteristics that potentially affect clarity into their models. Average lake depth consistently improved model fitness, and the proportion of wetland area in lake watersheds also explained variability in clarity in some cases. Nine regression models predicted water clarity (R2 = 0.69–0.90) during 1990–2010, with separate models for eastern (TM path 11; four models) and western Maine (TM path 12; five models that captured differences in topography and landscape disturbance. Average absolute difference between model-estimated and observed secchi depth ranged 0.65–1.03 m. Eutrophic and mesotrophic lakes consistently were estimated more accurately than oligotrophic lakes. Our results show that TM bands 1 and 3 can be used to estimate regional lake water clarity outside the Great Lakes Region and that the accuracy of estimates is improved with additional model variables that reflect

  7. Personality and coping in patients with eating disorders and obesity / Personalidade e coping em pacientes com transtornos alimentares e obesidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Tomaz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the differential use of coping and personality trait of patients with eating disorders (anorexia, bulimia, and Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified - EDNOS, obesity as well as in subjects from the general population. 109 subjects participated in the study (60 with eating disorder or obesity diagnostics; 49 from the general population. The instruments were Personality Trait Scale, Coping Response Inventory and Eating Attitudes Scale (EAS. It was observed significant differences on EAS according to the type of population, demonstrating this instrument's adequacy as psychopathological screening for eating disorders. Moreover, individuals presenting high neuroticism and who discharge their emotion to cope with their problems have more inadequate eating attitudes as shown by EAS (R=0.291, p=0.011. These results are discussed through theories related to the Big Five personality traits, coping, eating disorders and obesity.

  8. Psychological and psychopathological variables associated with eating disorders (ED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fernández-Delgado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare some psychological and psychopathological variables usually associated with different types of patients with eating disorders (ED. A total of 22 variables (psychological, psychopathological and specifically related to TCA were analyzed in three groups of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN, bulimia nervosa (BN and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS. Method: The sample consisted of 76 patients diagnosed with ED (mean age 20.13 ± 6.28 years; 69 women and 7 men. The following questionnaires were administered: Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (SES, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R, Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ, Body Appreciation Scale (BAS, Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2 and Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP. Results: Generally no significant differences between groups, except for the variables related to the BSQ and EDI-2 questionnaires, were found. The study of the correlations among the different variables specifically related to eating disorders and others, showed differences between groups. Conclusions: The present study shows few differences with respect to psychopathological symptoms among the different types of ED. Bearing in mind future studies, it would be interesting to use a bigger sample size, to include more men, and to distinguish between restricted/purging types of ED.

  9. Treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder complicated by comorbid eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, H Blair; Wetterneck, Chad T; Cahill, Shawn P; Steinglass, Joanna E; Franklin, Martin E; Leonard, Rachel C; Weltzin, Theodore E; Riemann, Bradley C

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) commonly co-occur, but there is little data for how to treat these complex cases. To address this gap, we examined the naturalistic outcome of 56 patients with both disorders, who received a multimodal treatment program designed to address both problems simultaneously. A residential treatment program developed a cognitive-behavioral approach for patients with both OCD and an eating disorder by integrating exposure and response prevention (ERP) treatment for OCD with ERP strategies targeting eating pathology. Patients also received a supervised eating plan, medication management, and social support. At admission and discharge, patients completed validated measures of OCD severity (the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale--Self Report [Y-BOCS-SR]), eating disorder severity (the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire), and depressive severity (the Beck Depression Inventory II [BDI-II]). Body mass index (BMI) was also measured. Paired-sample t-tests examined change on these measures. Between 2006 and 2011, 56 individuals completed all study measures at admission and discharge. Mean length of stay was 57 days (SD = 27). Most (89%) were on psychiatric medications. Significant decreases were observed in OCD severity, eating disorder severity, and depression. Those with bulimia nervosa showed more improvement than those with anorexia nervosa. BMI significantly increased, primarily among those underweight at admission. Simultaneous treatment of OCD and eating disorders using a multimodal approach that emphasizes ERP techniques for both OCD and eating disorders can be an effective treatment strategy for these complex cases.

  10. In-Lake Processes Offset Increased Terrestrial Inputs of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Color to Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Stephan J.; Kothawala, Dolly; Futter, Martyn N.; Liungman, Olof; Tranvik, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Increased color in surface waters, or browning, can alter lake ecological function, lake thermal stratification and pose difficulties for drinking water treatment. Mechanisms suggested to cause browning include increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and iron concentrations, as well as a shift to more colored DOC. While browning of surface waters is widespread and well documented, little is known about why some lakes resist it. Here, we present a comprehensive study of Mälaren, the third largest lake in Sweden. In Mälaren, the vast majority of water and DOC enters a western lake basin, and after approximately 2.8 years, drains from an eastern basin. Despite 40 years of increased terrestrial inputs of colored substances to western lake basins, the eastern basin has resisted browning over this time period. Here we find the half-life of iron was far shorter (0.6 years) than colored organic matter (A420 ; 1.7 years) and DOC as a whole (6.1 years). We found changes in filtered iron concentrations relate strongly to the observed loss of color in the western basins. In addition, we observed a substantial shift from colored DOC of terrestrial origin, to less colored autochthonous sources, with a substantial decrease in aromaticity (-17%) across the lake. We suggest that rapid losses of iron and colored DOC caused the limited browning observed in eastern lake basins. Across a wider dataset of 69 Swedish lakes, we observed greatest browning in acidic lakes with shorter retention times (< 1.5 years). These findings suggest that water residence time, along with iron, pH and colored DOC may be of central importance when modeling and projecting changes in brownification on broader spatial scales. PMID:23976946

  11. Psychological well-being in out-patients with eating disorders: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomba, Elena; Offidani, Emanuela; Tecuta, Lucia; Schumann, Romana; Ballardini, Donatella

    2014-04-01

    Positive functioning is widely neglected in research on eating disorders (EDs). The aim of this exploratory study was to assess psychological well-being (PWB) in out-patients with ED and in controls. The authors assessed PWB in 245 out-patients with EDs [105 with bulimia nervosa (BN), 57 with anorexia nervosa (AN), and 83 with binge eating disorder (BED) who met DSM-IV-TR] and 60 controls. They tested whether PWB was associated with eating attitude test (EAT) scores and if such associations differed among ED groups while taking into account confounding variables. Significant differences between groups in all PWB scales were found. While individuals with BN reported significantly lower scores in all PWB dimensions than healthy controls, patients with BED scored significantly lower than controls in PWB autonomy, environmental mastery, and self-acceptance scales. Patients with AN showed similar scores to controls in all PWB dimensions, except for positive relationships and self-acceptance. In all ED groups, most PWB dimensions resulted significantly and negatively associated with EAT scales, except for AN where oral control was found to positively correlate with a high sense of purpose in life. All results were maintained even after adjusting for possible confounding variables. Patients with EDs reported an impairment in PWB. The paucity of PWB was not necessarily dependent on the presence of high levels of psychological distress and on the severity of the disorder. Such assessments may therefore yield a more comprehensive evaluation in this clinical population. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Sleep-Related Eating Disorder: A Case Report of a Progressed Night Eating Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Shahabuddin Hoseini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Night eating syndrome is a common disorder in eating behaviors that occurs in close relation to the night time sleep cycle. Although eating disorders are common in society, night eating syndrome has been left neglected by health care professionals. In this report we present a case of eating disorder that exhibits some novel features of night eating syndrome. Our case was a progressed type of eating disorder which may increase awareness among physicians about sleep-related eating disorders.

  13. Evaporation variability of Nam Co Lake in the Tibetan Plateau and its role in recent rapid lake expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Szilagyi, Jozsef; Niu, Guo-Yue; Zhang, Yinsheng; Zhang, Teng; Wang, Binbin; Wu, Yanhong

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that the majority of the lakes in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) started to expand rapidly since the late 1990s. However, the causes are still not well known. For Nam Co, being a closed lake with no outflow, evaporation (EL) over the lake surface is the only way water may leave the lake. Therefore, quantifying EL is key for investigating the mechanism of lake expansion in the TP. EL can be quantified by Penman- and/or bulk-transfer-type models, requiring only net radiation, temperature, humidity and wind speed for inputs. However, interpolation of wind speed data may be laden with great uncertainty due to extremely sparse ground meteorological observations, the highly heterogeneous landscape and lake-land breeze effects. Here, evaporation of Nam Co Lake was investigated within the 1979-2012 period at a monthly time-scale using the complementary relationship lake evaporation (CRLE) model which does not require wind speed data. Validations by in-situ observations of E601B pan evaporation rates at the shore of Nam Co Lake as well as measured EL over an adjacent small lake using eddy covariance technique suggest that CRLE is capable of simulating EL well since it implicitly considers wind effects on evaporation via its vapor transfer coefficient. The multi-year average of annual evaporation of Nam Co Lake is 635 mm. From 1979 to 2012, annual evaporation of Nam Co Lake expressed a very slight decreasing trend. However, a more significant decrease in EL occurred during 1998-2008 at a rate of -12 mm yr-1. Based on water-level readings, this significant decrease in lake evaporation was found to be responsible for approximately 4% of the reported rapid water level increase and areal expansion of Nam Co Lake during the same period.

  14. Implicit attitudes toward eating stimuli differentiate eating disorder and non-eating disorder groups and predict eating disorder behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, April R; Forrest, Lauren N; Velkoff, Elizabeth A; Ribeiro, Jessica D; Franklin, Joseph

    2018-04-01

    The current study tested whether people with and without eating disorders (EDs) varied in their implicit attitudes toward ED-relevant stimuli. Additionally, the study tested whether implicit evaluations of ED-relevant stimuli predicted ED symptoms and behaviors over a 4-week interval. Participants were people without EDs (N = 85) and people seeking treatment for EDs (N = 92). All participants completed self-report questionnaires and a version of the affect misattribution procedure (AMP) at baseline. The AMP indexed implicit evaluations of average body stimuli, eating stimuli, and ED-symptom stimuli. Participants with EDs completed weekly follow-up measures of ED symptoms and behaviors for 4 weeks. Contrary to predictions, the anorexia nervosa (AN) group did not differ from the no ED group on implicit attitudes toward ED-symptom stimuli, and the bulimia nervosa (BN) group had less positive implicit attitudes toward ED-symptom stimuli relative to the no ED group. In line with predictions, people with AN and BN had more negative implicit attitudes toward average body and eating stimuli relative to the no ED group. In addition, among the ED group more negative implicit attitudes toward eating stimuli predicted ED symptoms and behaviors 4 weeks later, over and above baseline ED symptoms and behaviors. Taken together, implicit evaluations of eating stimuli differentiated people with AN and BN from people without EDs and longitudinally predicted ED symptoms and behaviors. Interventions that increase implicit liking of eating-related stimuli may reduce ED behaviors. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. ADOLESCENTS’ HEALTHY EATING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne

    understanding of adolescent healthy eating. Based on this, the thesis presents three research questions which are investigated in three research papers. The research questions are: 1. Which roles do parents and adolescents have in healthy eating socialisation? 2. How does the social influence from parents...... and family members’ roles regarding healthy eating socialisation is underexposed, the study aimed at exploring adolescents’ and parents’ awareness of and involvement in healthy eating and investigated how they related it to their roles in the healthy eating socialisation taking place within the family...... or a cooperative one helping parents. Parents initiated dialogues with family members about healthy eating and felt responsible as role models often fulfilling the adolescents’ demands and acknowledging their help. The findings confirm that parents still have the upper hand, when it comes to healthy eating...

  16. Broad-scale lake expansion and flooding inundates essential wood bison habitat in northwestern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, J. M.; Korosi, J.; Thienpont, J. R.; Pisaric, M. F.; Kokelj, S.; Smol, J. P.; Simpson, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change-induced landscape alterations have consequences for vulnerable wildlife. In high-latitude regions, dramatic changes in water levels have been linked to climate warming. While most attention has focused on shrinking Arctic lakes, here, we document the opposite scenario: extensive lake expansion in Canada's Northwest Territories that has implications for the conservation of ecologically-important wood bison. We quantified lake area changes since 1986 using remote sensing techniques, and recorded a net gain of > 500 km2, from 5.7% to 11% total water coverage. Inter-annual variability in water level was significantly correlated to the Pacific/North American pattern teleconnection and the summer sea surface temperature anomaly. Historical reconstructions using proxy data archived in dated sediment cores showed that recent lake expansion is outside the range of natural variability of these ecosystems over at least the last 300 years. Lake expansion resulted in increased allochthonous carbon transport, as shown unequivocally by increases in lignin-derived phenols, but with a greater proportional increase in the contribution of organic matter from phytoplankton, as a result of increased open-water habitat. We conclude that complex hydrological changes occurring as a result of recent climatic change have resulted in rapid and widespread lake expansion that may significantly affect at-risk wildlife populations. This study is based on results we reported in Nature Communications in 2017 (DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14510).

  17. Metal accumulation by submerged macrophytes in eutrophic lakes at the watershed scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wei; Wu, Haoping; Hao, Beibei; Liu, Guihua

    2013-10-01

    Metal concentrations (Al, Ba, Ca, K, Li, Mg, Na, Se, Sr and Ti) in submerged macrophytes and corresponding water and sediments were studied in 24 eutrophic lakes along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River (China). Results showed that these eutrophic lakes have high metal concentrations in both water and sediments because of human activities. Average concentrations of Al and Na in tissues of submerged macrophytes were very high in sampled eutrophic lakes. By comparison, Ceratophyllum demersum and Najas marina accumulated more metals (e.g. Ba, Ca, K, Mg, Na, Sr and Ti). Strong positive correlations were found between metal concentrations in tissues of submerged macrophytes, probably because of co-accumulation of metals. The concentrations of Li, Mg, Na and Sr in tissues of submerged macrophytes significantly correlated with their corresponding water values, but not sediment values.

  18. The moderating role of resilience on the relationship between perceived stress and binge eating symptoms among young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Idia B; Hardin, Robin; Kamody, Rebecca C; Herbozo, Sylvia; Kaufman, Caroline

    2018-04-01

    Adolescence and young adulthood are developmental periods during the life course that are sometimes associated with heightened stress and engagement in binge eating. Binge eating has been linked to psychiatric comorbidity, poorer physical health, and lower quality of life. However, less is known about protective factors that could buffer against binge eating behaviors. The current study examined the moderating role of resilience on the relationship between perceived stress and binge eating symptoms among emerging adult female college students. Participants were 297 young adult women aged 18-25 years (M age  = 19.22, SD = 1.51; 52% self-identifying as a racial/ethnic minority) with Body Mass Index ranging from 15 to 66 (M BMI  = 25.01, SD = 6.18). Women completed this cross-sectional study while they were attending universities in the Western or Southern United States. Participants provided demographic and height/weight information, and completed the following measures: Perceived Stress Scale, Binge Eating Scale, and Brief Resilience Scale. Higher perceived stress was significantly associated with more severe binge eating symptoms (b = 0.31; p relationship between perceived stress and binge eating symptoms varied by resilience level (b = -0.16; p stress were more likely to engage in binge eating relative to women experiencing low stress; however, resilience attenuated this association. Resilience could be targeted to reduce the negative effects of perceived stress on eating behaviors in young women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Loss of control eating and eating disorders in adolescents before bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzinger, Linsey M; Gowey, Marissa A; Zeller, Meg; Jenkins, Todd M; Engel, Scott G; Rofey, Dana L; Inge, Thomas H; Mitchell, James E

    2016-10-01

    This study assessed loss of control (LOC) eating and eating disorders (EDs) in adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery for severe obesity. Preoperative baseline data from the Teen Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS) multisite observational study (n = 242; median BMI = 51 kg/m 2 ; mean age= 17; 76% female adolescents; 72% Caucasian) included anthropometric and self-report questionnaires, including the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R), the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Kids (IWQOL-Kids) RESULTS: LOC eating (27%) was common and ED diagnoses included binge-eating disorder (7%), night eating syndrome (5%), and bulimia nervosa (1%). Compared to those without LOC eating, those with LOC eating reported greater depressive symptomatology and greater impairment in weight-related quality of life. Before undergoing bariatric surgery, adolescents with severe obesity present with problematic disordered eating behaviors and meet diagnostic criteria for EDs. LOC eating, in particular, was associated with several negative psychosocial factors. Findings highlight targets for assessment and intervention in adolescents before bariatric surgery. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:947-952). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Fathers and mothers with eating-disorder psychopathology: Associations with child eating-disorder behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydecker, Janet A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective A limited literature suggests an association between maternal eating disorders and child feeding difficulties, and notes maternal concern about inadvertently transmitting eating disorders. Thus, parents may be an important target for eating-disorder research to guide the development of clinical programs. Methods The current study examined differences in child eating-disorder behaviors and parental feeding practices between a sample of parents (42 fathers, 130 mothers) exhibiting core features of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, or purging disorder, and a matched sample of parents (n=172) reporting no eating-disorder characteristics. Results Parents with eating-disorder psychopathology were significantly more likely than parents without eating-disorder characteristics to report child binge-eating and compulsive exercise. Parents with eating-disorder psychopathology reported greater perceived feeding responsibility, greater concern about their child’s weight, and more monitoring of their child’s eating than parents without eating-disorder characteristics; however, they did not differ significantly in restriction of their child’s diet and pressure-to-eat. Child body mass index z-scores did not differ between parents with versus without eating-disorder characteristics. Conclusion Our findings suggest some important differences between parents with and without core eating-disorder psychopathology, which could augment clinical interventions for patients with eating disorders who are parents, or could guide pediatric eating-disorder prevention efforts. However, because our study was cross-sectional, findings could indicate increased awareness of or sensitivity to eating-disorder behaviors rather than a psychosocial cause of those behaviors. Longitudinal research and controlled trials examining prevention and intervention can clarify and address these clinical concerns. PMID:27302549

  1. The German Version of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties, Measurement Invariance, and Population-Based Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagl, Michaela; Hilbert, Anja; de Zwaan, Martina; Braehler, Elmar; Kersting, Anette

    The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire is an internationally widely used instrument assessing different eating styles that may contribute to weight gain and overweight: emotional eating, external eating, and restraint. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the 30-item German version of the DEBQ including its measurement invariance across gender, age, and BMI-status in a representative German population sample. Furthermore, we examined the distribution of eating styles in the general population and provide population-based norms for DEBQ scales. A representative sample of the German general population (N = 2513, age ≥ 14 years) was assessed with the German version of the DEBQ along with information on sociodemographic characteristics and body weight and height. The German version of the DEQB demonstrates good item characteristics and reliability (restraint: α = .92, emotional eating: α = .94, external eating: α = .89). The 3-factor structure of the DEBQ could be replicated in exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and results of multi-group confirmatory factor analyses supported its metric and scalar measurement invariance across gender, age, and BMI-status. External eating was the most prevalent eating style in the German general population. Women scored higher on emotional and restrained eating scales than men, and overweight individuals scored higher in all three eating styles compared to normal weight individuals. Small differences across age were found for external eating. Norms were provided according to gender, age, and BMI-status. Our findings suggest that the German version of the DEBQ has good reliability and construct validity, and is suitable to reliably measure eating styles across age, gender, and BMI-status. Furthermore, the results demonstrate a considerable variation of eating styles across gender and BMI-status.

  2. The Associations of Eating-related Attitudinal Balance with Psychological Well-being and Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglestad, Paul T.; Bruening, Meg; Graham, Dan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R.

    2014-01-01

    This study used balance theory to illuminate the relations of eating-related attitudinal consistency between self and friends to psychological well-being and eating behaviors. It was hypothesized that attitudinal inconsistency, relative to consistency, would predict lower well-being and poorer eating habits. A population-based sample of 2287 young adults participating in Project EAT-III (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults) completed measures of psychological well-being, eating behaviors, and eating-related attitudes from the standpoint of self and friends. Of participants who cared about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (fewer fruits and vegetables and more sugary beverages per day) than those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating. Conversely, among participants who did not care about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (more snacks per day) than those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating. In accord with balance theory, young adults who perceived inconsistent eating attitudes between themselves and their friends had lower psychological well-being and generally less-healthy eating behaviors than people who perceived consistent eating attitudes. PMID:24587589

  3. Acute hunger modifies responses on the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire hunger and disinhibition, but not restraint, scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Martin R; McCrickerd, Keri

    2017-03-01

    It is widely assumed that responses on the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) represent long-term (trait) attitudes to eating behaviour. However, the questionnaire requires agreement with a number of food related statements, and it is possible that some are easier to agree with when assessed hungry than sated. To test this potential state-dependency, participants completed a 100 mm visual analogue scale rating of their current hunger at the time they completed the TFEQ. Data were collected from two cohorts: Cohort 1 (507 women and 119 men) completed both measures on paper, while the hunger rating was computerised in Cohort 2 (179 women). Regression analysis revealed significant effects of rated hunger on scores on the hunger (TFEQ-H) and disinhibition (TFEQ-D) but not restraint (TFEQ-R) subscales, with higher TFEQ-H and TFEQ-D scores when participants were more hungry. In addition, 61 women and two men from Cohort 1 completed the measures on two separate occasions. Here, scores on TFEQ-H were higher on days when these participants were hungrier, but no differences in TFEQ-D or TFEQ-R were found. Overall these data suggest TFEQ-H could be interpreted as an indirect measure of current hunger, that scores on TFEQ-D are partly moderated by hunger but TFEQ-R is a more trait-like measure of restraint. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Eating when there is not enough to eat: eating behaviors and perceptions of food among food-insecure youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widome, Rachel; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J; Haines, Jess; Story, Mary

    2009-05-01

    We explored differences in adolescents' eating habits, perceptions, and dietary intakes by food security status. As part of Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), we surveyed 4746 multiethnic middle and high school students in 31 primarily urban schools in the Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, area during the 1998-1999 academic year. Participants completed in-class surveys. We used multiple regression analysis to characterize associations between behaviors, perceptions, nutritional intake, and food security status. Compared with food-secure youths, food-insecure youths were more likely to perceive that eating healthfully was inconvenient and that healthy food did not taste good. Additionally, food-insecure youths reported eating more fast food but fewer family meals and breakfasts per week than did youths who were food secure. Food-insecure and food-secure youths perceived similar benefits from eating healthfully (P = .75). Compared with those who were food secure, food-insecure youths had higher fat intakes (P Food-insecure youths were more likely to have a body mass index above the 95th percentile. The eating patterns of food-insecure adolescents differ in important ways from the eating patterns of those who are food secure. Policies and interventions focusing on improving the foods that these youths eat deserve further examination.

  5. Subjective assessment of acute mountain sickness: investigating the relationship between the Lake Louise Self-Report, a visual analogue scale and psychological well-being scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frühauf, Anika; Burtscher, Martin; Pocecco, Elena; Faulhaber, Martin; Kopp, Martin

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing discussion how to assess acute mountain sickness (AMS) in real life conditions. Next to more-item scales with a cut off like the Lake Louise Self-Report (LLS), some authors suggested to use visual analog scales (VAS) to assess AMS. This study tried to contribute to this question using VAS items used for the Subjective Ratings of Drug Effects, including an additional single item for AMS. Furthermore, we investigated if instruments developed to assess psychological well-being might predict AMS assessed via LLS or VAS. 32 (19 Female) adult persons with known AMS susceptibility filled in questionnaires (Feeling Scale, Felt Arousal Scale, Activation Deactivation Check List, LLS, VAS) at a height of 3650 m above sea level. Correlation and regression analysis suggest a moderate to high relationship between the LLS score and the VAS items, including one VAS item asking for the severity of AMS, as well as psychological well-being. In conclusion, using VAS items to assess AMS can be a more precise alternative to questionnaires like LLS, for people knowledgeable with AMS. Furthermore, researchers should be aware that psychological well-being might be an important parameter influencing the assessment of AMS.

  6. The audience eats more if a movie character keeps eating: An unconscious mechanism for media influence on eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuo; Shapiro, Michael A; Wansink, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Media's presentation of eating is an important source of influence on viewers' eating goals and behaviors. Drawing on recent research indicating that whether a story character continues to pursue a goal or completes a goal can unconsciously influence an audience member's goals, a scene from a popular movie comedy was manipulated to end with a character continuing to eat (goal ongoing) or completed eating (goal completed). Participants (N = 147) were randomly assigned to a goal status condition. As a reward, after viewing the movie clip viewers were offered two types of snacks: ChexMix and M&M's, in various size portions. Viewers ate more food after watching the characters continue to eat compared to watching the characters complete eating, but only among those manipulated to identify with a character. Viewers were more likely to choose savory food after viewing the ongoing eating scenes, but sweet dessert-like food after viewing the completed eating scenes. The results extend the notion of media influence on unconscious goal contagion and satiation to movie eating, and raise the possibility that completing a goal can activate a logically subsequent goal. Implications for understanding media influence on eating and other health behaviors are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Eating disorders and food addiction in men with heroin use disorder: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canan, Fatih; Karaca, Servet; Sogucak, Suna; Gecici, Omer; Kuloglu, Murat

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence estimates of binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, and food addiction in men with heroin use disorder and a matched sample of control participants. A group of 100 men with heroin use disorder, consecutively admitted to a detoxification and therapy unit, were screened for DSM-5 eating disorders, along with a group of 100 male controls of similar age, education, and body mass index. The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), the Barratt Impulsivity Scale-version 11, and the Eating Attitudes Test were used for data collection. Patients were also evaluated for various aspects of heroin use disorder (e.g., craving) using the Addiction Profile Index. Binge eating disorder that met DSM-5 criteria was more prevalent in patients with heroin use disorder (21%) than in control subjects (8%) (odds ratio 3.1, 95% confidence interval 1.3-7.3; p disorder (28%) than among control participants (12%) (odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 1.4-6.1; p eating disorder and food addiction are highly frequent in men with heroin use disorder. Screening for binge eating disorder and food addiction in patients with substance use disorder is important, as interventions may improve treatment outcome in this patient group.

  8. Eruptive behavior of the Marum/Mbwelesu lava lake, Vanuatu and comparisons with lava lakes on Earth and Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radebaugh, Jani; Lopes, Rosaly M.; Howell, Robert R.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.

    2016-08-01

    Observations from field remote sensing of the morphology, kinematics and temperature of the Marum/Mbwelesu lava lake in the Vanuatu archipelago in 2014 reveal a highly active, vigorously erupting lava lake. Active degassing and fountaining observed at the 50 m lava lake led to large areas of fully exposed lavas and rapid ( 5 m/s) movement of lava from the centers of upwelling outwards to the lake margins. These rapid lava speeds precluded the formation of thick crust; there was never more than 30% non-translucent crust. The lava lake was observed with several portable, handheld, low-cost, near-infrared imagers, all of which measured temperatures near 1000 °C and one as high as 1022 °C, consistent with basaltic temperatures. Fine-scale structure in the lava fountains and cooled crust was visible in the near infrared at 5 cm/pixel from 300 m above the lake surface. The temperature distribution across the lake surface is much broader than at more quiescent lava lakes, peaking 850 °C, and is attributed to the highly exposed nature of the rapidly circulating lake. This lava lake has many characteristics in common with other active lava lakes, such as Erta Ale in Ethiopia, being confined, persistent and high-temperature; however it was much more active than is typical for Erta Ale, which often has > 90% crust. Furthermore, it is a good analogue for the persistent, high-temperature lava lakes contained within volcanic depressions on Jupiter's moon Io, such as Pele, also believed from spacecraft and ground-based observations to exhibit similar behavior of gas emission, rapid overturn and fountaining.

  9. Eating behaviors, body image, perfectionism, and self-esteem in a sample of Portuguese girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Maria D; Pereira, Ana T; Marques, Mariana V; Saraiva, Jorge M; Macedo, António F de

    2016-02-05

    Eating disorders are an increasingly prevalent health problem among adolescent girls. It is well known that biological, psychosocial, and family-related factors interact in the development of this group of disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between these variables are still poorly understood, especially in Portuguese adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between eating behaviors, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, and perfectionism in a sample of Portuguese girls. A community sample of 575 Portuguese girls attending secondary school, answered self-report questionnaires including data on weight, height, and the Portuguese versions of the Contour Figures Rating Scale, the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale, the Children Eating Attitudes Test, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. SPSS version 20.0 for Windows was used for statistical analyses. High scores in the Children Eating Attitudes Test were associated with significantly higher levels of body dissatisfaction (r = 0.339), socially prescribed perfectionism (r = 0.175), self-oriented perfectionism (r = 0.211), and low self-esteem (r = -0.292) (all p self-esteem, and perfectionism in girls. These themes should be addressed among female adolescents in the community.

  10. Embodiment Mediates the Relationship between Avoidant Attachment and Eating Disorder Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Castellini, Giovanni; Ricca, Valdo; Volpe, Umberto; De Riso, Francesco; Nigro, Massimiliano; Zamponi, Francesco; Mancini, Milena; Stanghellini, Giovanni; Monteleone, Palmiero; Treasure, Janet; Maj, Mario

    2017-11-01

    The overvaluation of body shape and weight of persons with eating disorders (EDs) is putatively explained by a disturbance in the way they experience their own body (embodiment). Moreover, attachment disorders seem to promote the use of body as source for self-definition. Therefore, we assessed the role of embodiment in the connection between attachment styles and ED psychopathology. One-hundred and thirteen ED patients and 117 healthy subjects completed the Identity and Eating Disorders (IDEA) Questionnaire, the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale. Eating disorder patients displayed IDEA, EDI-2 and Experiences in Close Relationships scores significantly higher than controls. IDEA total and subtotal scores mediated entirely the influence of avoidant attachment on EDI-2 interoceptive awareness and impulsivity. These findings demonstrate a relationship between insecure attachment and disorders of identity and embodiment and point to embodiment as a possible mediator between avoidant attachment and specific ED psychopathological traits. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  11. Prevalence of eating disorders in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W; Rupp, Claudia I; Lackner-Seifert, Kerstin; Frey, Nadja; Whitworth, Alexandra B; Pope, Harrison G; Kinzl, Johann

    2014-04-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders (ED) in middle-aged women. We mailed anonymous questionnaires to 1,500 Austrian women aged 40-60 years, assessing ED (defined by DSM-IV), subthreshold ED, body image, and quality of life. We broadly defined "subthreshold ED" by the presence of either (1) binge eating with loss of control or (2) purging behavior, without requiring any of the other usual DSM-IV criteria for frequency or severity of these symptoms. Of the 715 (48%) responders, 33 [4.6%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.3-6.4%] reported symptoms meeting full DSM-IV criteria for an ED [bulimia nervosa = 10; binge eating disorder = 11; eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) = 12]. None displayed anorexia nervosa. Another 34 women (4.8%; CI: 3.4-6.6%) displayed subthreshold ED. These women showed levels of associated psychopathology virtually equal to the women with full-syndrome diagnoses. ED appear common in middle-aged women, with a preponderance of binge eating disorder and EDNOS diagnoses as compared to the "classical" diagnoses of anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Interestingly, middle-aged women with even very broadly defined subthreshold ED showed distress and impairment comparable to women with full-scale ED. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Correlation of weight-based objectifying experiences with depression and eating disorder in overweight women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Khabir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out to investigate the correlation of self-objectification, internalized weight bias and body image concern with depression and eating disorder Methods: A total of 200 female students with overweight and obesity were selected using convenience random sampling among female students with overweight and obesity referring to Shiraz sport clubs in 2013. They responded to Stigmatizing Situations Inventory (SSI, Trait Self- Objectification Questionnaire (TSOQ, Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS, Body Image Concern Inventory (BICI, Center for Epidemiological Studies- Depression Scale (CES-D and Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS. Data were analyzed by structural equation modeling (SEM. Results: Result showed that self-objectification, internalized weight bias and body image concern can mediate the relationship of weight-based objectifying experiences with depression and eating disorder. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that fitness index of the proposed model can acceptably fit the data.

  13. Psychopathology and hormonal disturbances in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaola D’Arista

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Our aim was to study the relationship between hormonal disturbances and psychopathology in Eating Disorders (ED.

    Methods: Forty-nine women diagnosed as Eating Disorders according to DSM-IV were subjected to control plasma levels of TSH, FT3, FT4, LH, FSH, 17beta-estradiol, prolactin, cortisol, DHEAS, GH and IGF-1. They were also administered by SCL-90R, BAT, DES II questionnaires. We applied multivariate regression models.

    Results: Our results highlight a statistically significant relation between LH, FSH and prolactin decreased levels, mood and thought disturbances (subscales 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9 of SCL-90r which are associated to Body Attitude ( BAT total scale and Dissociative Experiences (DES II total scale.

    Conclusions: Decreased sexual hormones levels could have a role in ED psychological disturbances, not inquired yet

  14. Identifying Watershed Regions Sensitive to Soil Erosion and Contributing to Lake Eutrophication—A Case Study in the Taihu Lake Basin (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen; Ma, Ronghua; He, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Taihu Lake in China is suffering from severe eutrophication partly due to non-point pollution from the watershed. There is an increasing need to identify the regions within the watershed that most contribute to lake water degradation. The selection of appropriate temporal scales and lake indicators is important to identify sensitive watershed regions. This study selected three eutrophic lake areas, including Meiliang Bay (ML), Zhushan Bay (ZS), and the Western Coastal region (WC), as well as multiple buffer zones next to the lake boundary as the study sites. Soil erosion intensity was designated as a watershed indicator, and the lake algae area was designated as a lake quality indicator. The sensitive watershed region was identified based on the relationship between these two indicators among different lake divisions for a temporal sequence from 2000 to 2012. The results show that the relationship between soil erosion modulus and lake quality varied among different lake areas. Soil erosion from the two bay areas was more closely correlated with water quality than soil erosion from the WC region. This was most apparent at distances of 5 km to 10 km from the lake, where the r2 was as high as 0.764. Results indicate that soil erosion could be used as an indicator for identifying key watershed protection areas. Different lake areas need to be considered separately due to differences in geographical features, land use, and the corresponding effects on lake water quality. PMID:26712772

  15. Identifying Watershed Regions Sensitive to Soil Erosion and Contributing to Lake Eutrophication--A Case Study in the Taihu Lake Basin (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen; Ma, Ronghua; He, Bin

    2015-12-24

    Taihu Lake in China is suffering from severe eutrophication partly due to non-point pollution from the watershed. There is an increasing need to identify the regions within the watershed that most contribute to lake water degradation. The selection of appropriate temporal scales and lake indicators is important to identify sensitive watershed regions. This study selected three eutrophic lake areas, including Meiliang Bay (ML), Zhushan Bay (ZS), and the Western Coastal region (WC), as well as multiple buffer zones next to the lake boundary as the study sites. Soil erosion intensity was designated as a watershed indicator, and the lake algae area was designated as a lake quality indicator. The sensitive watershed region was identified based on the relationship between these two indicators among different lake divisions for a temporal sequence from 2000 to 2012. The results show that the relationship between soil erosion modulus and lake quality varied among different lake areas. Soil erosion from the two bay areas was more closely correlated with water quality than soil erosion from the WC region. This was most apparent at distances of 5 km to 10 km from the lake, where the r² was as high as 0.764. Results indicate that soil erosion could be used as an indicator for identifying key watershed protection areas. Different lake areas need to be considered separately due to differences in geographical features, land use, and the corresponding effects on lake water quality.

  16. Eating Disorder Examination – Differences in eating disorder pathology between men and women with eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Maja Schølarth; Clausen, Loa; Rokkedal, Kristian

    Objective In general eating disorder pathology in men shows more similarities than differences compared to women though with an overall lower level of pathology. In community studies men have been found to have more excessive exercise and more binge eating and in clinical populations men have been...... found to have more vomiting. Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) is “the golden standard” of diagnostic interviewing in eating disorder but analysis of gender differences in scores on the EDE have never been reported. The present study aim to explore gender differences on the EDE among adolescents...

  17. Eating Disorders: Facts about Eating Disorders and the Search for Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Melissa

    Eating disorders involve serious disturbances in eating behavior, such as extreme and unhealthy reduction of food intake or severe overeating, as well as feelings of distress or extreme concern about body shape or weight. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are the two main types of eating disorders. Eating disorders frequently co-occur with…

  18. Eating attitudes among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maor, Noga Roguin; Sayag, Shlomit; Dahan, Rachel; Hermoni, Doron

    2006-09-01

    Israeli youth lead 27 western countries in dieting. The prevalence of eating disorders has been rising in the last 30 years, causing social problems and medical complications. To examine the prevalence of eating disorders among high school students in a region in northern Israel (Misgav) and to examine the relationship between the parents' employment status and the subject's eating disorder. A structured questionnaire was administered to collect demographic data. The short version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to evaluate the subject's attitudes toward and preoccupation with food, dieting, eating, physical appearance, and personal control over eating. Of 360 students approached, 283 (78%) completed the self-report EAT-26. One of every 5 females and one in every 20 males had an abnormal eating attitude. The rate of pathologic EAT-26 results, 20.8%, falls within the high range of similar community-based samples of female adolescents. There were no differences in EAT-26 score between students with an employed or unemployed mother; however, there was a trend for higher EAT-26 scores among those whose father was unemployed (21.4% vs. 12.7%, chi2 = 0.14). The findings support our hypothesis of a relatively high rate of abnormal eating attitudes (as reflected by high EAT-26 score) in this population. Another possible risk factor is having an unemployed father, which warrants further research and attention. Our next step is to introduce an intervention program in the school and to study its effect.

  19. Controls on the geochemical evolution of Prairie Pothole Region lakes and wetlands over decadal time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Martin B.; Mills, Christopher T.; Mushet, David M.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Rover, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    One hundred sixty-seven Prairie Pothole lakes, ponds and wetlands (largely lakes) previously analyzed chemically during the late 1960’s and early to mid-1970’s were resampled and reanalyzed in 2011–2012. The two sampling periods differed climatically. The earlier sampling took place during normal to slightly dry conditions, whereas the latter occurred during and immediately following exceptionally wet conditions. As reported previously in Mushet et al. (2015), the dominant effect was expansion of the area of these lakes and dilution of their major ions. However, within that context, there were significant differences in the evolutionary pathways of major ions. To establish these pathways, we employed the inverse modeling computer code NetpathXL. This code takes the initial and final lake composition and, using mass balance constrained by the composition of diluting waters, and input and output of phases, calculates plausible geochemical evolution pathways. Despite the fact that in most cases major ions decreased, a subset of the lakes had an increase in SO42−. This distinction is significant because SO42− is the dominant anion in a majority of Prairie Pothole Region wetlands and lakes. For lakes with decreasing SO42−, the proportion of original lake water required for mass balance was subordinate to rainwater and/or overland flow. In contrast, lakes with increasing SO42− between the two sampling episodes tended to be dominated by original lake water. This suite of lakes tended to be smaller and have lower initial SO42−concentrations such that inputs of sulfur from dissolution of the minerals gypsum or pyrite had a significant impact on the final sulfur concentration given the lower dilution factors. Thus, our study provides context for how Prairie Pothole Region water bodies evolve geochemically as climate changes. Because wetland geochemistry in turn controls the ecology of these water bodies, this research contributes to the prediction of the

  20. An association between the internalization of body image, depressive symptoms and restrictive eating habits among young males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Meireles, Juliana Fernandes Filgueiras; Paes, Santiago Tavares; Dias, Fernanda Coelho; Cipriani, Flávia Marcele; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2015-11-01

    The scope of this study was to analyze the relationship between the internalization of body image and depressive symptoms with restrictive eating habits among young males. Three hundred and eighty-three male adolescents, aged between twelve and seventeen, took part in this survey. The "Overall Internalization" and "Athletic Internalization" sub-scales taken from the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) were used to evaluate the internalization of body images. The Major Depression Inventory (MDI) was used to evaluate depressive symptoms. The "Diet" sub-scale from the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to evaluate restrictive eating habits. The logistic regression findings indicated 2.01 times greater chances of youngsters with a high level of overall internalization adopting restrictive eating habits (Wald = 6.16; p = 0.01) when compared with those with low levels. On the other hand, the regression model found no significant association between "Athletic Internalization" (Wald = 1.16; p = 0.23) and depressive symptoms (Wald = 0.81; p = 0.35) with eating restrictions. The findings made it possible to conclude that only overall internalization was related to eating restrictions among young males.

  1. DIET AND REPRODUCTION OF LARGEMOUTH BASS IN A RECENTLY INTRODUCED POPULATION, LAKE BRACCIANO (CENTRAL ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINELLI A.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns a study of some aspects of largemouth bass ecology in an Italian lake (Lake Bracciano. We assessed the success and possible impact of its recent introduction (1998 upon the fish community. From October 2001 to September 2002, 162 individuals were caught, measured, aged and submitted to biopsy (stomach and gonads were removed. Four age classes, from 0 + to 3 +, were observed in the population. Largemouth bass feeding activity was high in June, mostly eating fish (55.7%, crustaceans (in particular Palaemonetes antennarius, 37.5%, insects (4.5% and molluscs (2.3%. The G.S.I. values showed an autumnal breeding period (from December to February rather than the spring-summer one frequently described in North America. Moreover, bass attained sexual maturity during the second year of life (1 +. These differences could be related to its recent introduction and the apparent success could represent a problem for other species in the Lake.

  2. Depressive mood, eating disorder symptoms, and perfectionism in female college students: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villamisar, Domingo; Dattilo, John; Del Pozo, Araceli

    2012-01-01

    Although perfectionism has long been established as an important risk factor for depressive mood and eating disorders, the mechanisms through which this temperamental predisposition mediates the relationship between depressive mood and eating disorder symptoms are still relatively unclear. In this study we hypothesized that both perfectionism dimensions, self-oriented perfectionism and socially prescribed perfectionism, would mediate the relationship between current symptoms of depression and eating disorders in a non-clinical sample of Spanish undergraduate females. Two hundred sixteen female undergraduate students of the University Complutense of Madrid (Spain) completed the Spanish versions of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), OBQ-44, and BDI-II and BAI. Results demonstrated the importance of socially prescribed perfectionism in mediation of the relationship between depressive mood and symptoms of eating disorders. Socially prescribed perfectionism mediates the relationship between depressive mood and eating disorder symptoms for female college students.

  3. Time trends in population prevalence of eating disorder behaviors and their relationship to quality of life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Mitchison

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine temporal trends in the burden of eating disorder (ED features, as estimated by the composite of their prevalence and impact upon quality of life (QoL over a period of 10 years. METHODOLOGY: Representative samples of 3010 participants in 1998 and 3034 participants in 2008 from the South Australian adult population were assessed for endorsement of ED features (objective binge eating, extreme dieting, and purging were assessed in both years; subjective binge eating and extreme weight/shape concerns were also assessed in 2008 and QoL using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF-36. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 1998 to 2008 significant increases in the prevalence of objective binge eating (2.7% to 4.9%, p0.05. Multiple linear regressions found that in 1998 only objective binge eating significantly predicted scores on the mental health summary scale of the SF-36; however, in 2008 extreme weight/shape concerns, extreme dieting, and subjective binge eating were also significant predictors. Objective binge eating and extreme dieting were significant predictors of scores on the physical health summary scale of the SF-36 in both 1998 and 2008. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The prevalence of ED behaviors increased between 1998 and 2008, while their impact on QoL remained stable. This suggests an overall increase in the burden of disordered eating from 1998 to 2008. Given that binge eating and extreme dieting predict impairment in QoL, the necessity of interventions to prevent both under- and over-eating is reinforced.

  4. Illness perception in eating disorders and psychosocial adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles Marcos, Yolanda; Terol Cantero, Ma Carmen; Romero Escobar, Cristina; Pagán Acosta, Gonzalo

    2007-09-01

    The current study is based on the framework of the Self-Regulatory Model of Illness (SRM). The aim of this work was to examine perception of illness in eating disorder (ED) patients and investigate whether illness perception is related to psychosocial adaptation in these patients. A total of 98 female ED patients completed the specific eating disorders Spanish version of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) and a range of adjustment variables including the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale (PAIS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD). ED patients reported a moderate number of physical symptoms, and perceived their illness as controllable, treatable, highly distressing, as a chronic condition and with serious consequences. Emotional representation was the most significant dimension related to emotional adjustment. Illness identity and cure dimensions were the most significant dimensions associated with psychosocial adaptation. This study shows that patients' illness perceptions are related to illness adaptation. Illness identity was associated with emotional and psychosocial adjustment, and having faith that treatment may control the illness was related to positive benefits for ED. These results suggest that a psychological intervention, which addresses patients' illness representations, may assist in their adjustment to ED. 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association

  5. Lay Perceptions of Healthy Eating Styles and Their Health Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizireanu, Mariya; Hruschka, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    This study examined perceptions of healthy eating styles among US respondents to determine whether eating styles are defined as a distinct set of people's healthy eating beliefs and how different aspects of eating styles are perceived to affect health. In-person pile sort activities were used to identify key dimensions of healthy eating beliefs, and online surveys were used to confirm these dimensions and examine perceived health benefits of healthy eating styles. The pile-sorting activity recruited 48 US participants in the Phoenix metropolitan area via social media and snowball sampling. Online surveys recruited US participants via Amazon Mechanical Turk (survey 1, n = 70; survey 2, n = 283). The researchers used an exploratory visualizing technique (multidimensional scaling) to analyze pile sort data; Property Filling (PROFIT) analysis was used to analyze online survey 1; paired sample t test and repeated-measures ANOVA were used to analyze online survey 2. Eating styles are a distinct set of beliefs within lay models of healthful diets (P management. In addition to educating the public about choosing healthy food characteristics, health and nutrition professionals may need to address people's beliefs regarding healthy eating styles to identify gaps and misconceptions. Future research is needed to examine the relationships between such beliefs and corresponding behaviors, as well as whether these behaviors result in any health benefits. Copyright © 2018 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Body satisfaction, emotional intelligence, and the development of disturbed eating: a survey of Taiwanese students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yueching; Lin, Jing-Shan; Chang, Yu-Jhen

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between adolescents' emotional intelligence and the tendency to develop an eating disorder. Senior high school students in Taiwan were recruited for the study. A 3- part anonymous questionnaire measured demographic information, body weight satisfaction, and expectation of body weight. Students also completed the Adolescent Emotional Intelligence Scale and the Eating Disorders Attitude- 26 Test (EAT-26). Height and weight were also measured. The mean of EAT-26 score was 8.66 ± 7.36, and 8.6% students were at high risk to develop eating disorders. Gender, body weight, body dissatisfaction and the expected body shape were significantly related to disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours. Scores of EAT-26 were positively correlated with emotional perception, emotional expression, and emotional application. Disturbed eating behaviours exist among adolescents in Taiwan, and these behaviours may be related to emotional intelligence. However further studies with larger samples are needed.

  7. Chronic inhibition, self-control and eating behavior: test of a 'resource depletion' model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin S Hagger

    Full Text Available The current research tested the hypothesis that individuals engaged in long-term efforts to limit food intake (e.g., individuals with high eating restraint would have reduced capacity to regulate eating when self-control resources are limited. In the current research, body mass index (BMI was used as a proxy for eating restraint based on the assumption that individuals with high BMI would have elevated levels of chronic eating restraint. A preliminary study (Study 1 aimed to provide evidence for the assumed relationship between eating restraint and BMI. Participants (N = 72 categorized into high or normal-range BMI groups completed the eating restraint scale. Consistent with the hypothesis, results revealed significantly higher scores on the weight fluctuation and concern for dieting subscales of the restraint scale among participants in the high BMI group compared to the normal-range BMI group. The main study (Study 2 aimed to test the hypothesized interactive effect of BMI and diminished self-control resources on eating behavior. Participants (N = 83 classified as having high or normal-range BMI were randomly allocated to receive a challenging counting task that depleted self-control resources (ego-depletion condition or a non-depleting control task (no depletion condition. Participants then engaged in a second task in which required tasting and rating tempting cookies and candies. Amount of food consumed during the taste-and-rate task constituted the behavioral dependent measure. Regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect of these variables on amount of food eaten in the taste-and-rate task. Individuals with high BMI had reduced capacity to regulate eating under conditions of self-control resource depletion as predicted. The interactive effects of BMI and self-control resource depletion on eating behavior were independent of trait self-control. Results extend knowledge of the role of self-control in regulating eating

  8. [DAILY AND ABNORMAL EATING BEHAVIORS IN A COMMUNITY SAMPLE OF CHILEAN ADULTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda-Montecinos, Camila; Saldaña, Carmina; Andrés Valle, Ana

    2015-08-01

    this research aimed to characterize the daily eating behavior in a sample of Chilean adults according to their Body Mass Index (BMI) and gender and to analyze the possible links between these variables and abnormal eating behaviors. 657 participants (437 women and 220 men, age range 18-64 years) were evaluated with a battery of self-administered questionnaires. Mean BMI was 25.50 kg/m2 (women 24.96 kg/m2, men 26.58 kg/m2), being significantly higher the mean of BMI in the men group, being the BMI mean of the total sample and that of the male group in the overweight range. participants with overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), in contrast with normal-weight group, tended to do more frequently the following behaviors: skip meals, follow a diet, eat less homemade food, eat faster and in greater quantities, in addition to do a greater number of abnormal eating behaviors of various kinds and to rate significantly higher in clinical scales that evaluated eating restraint and overeating. Men showed significantly more eating behaviors linked with overeating, and women performed more behaviors related with eating restraint and emotional eating. the results suggest that, besides "what" people eat, "how" people eat, in terms of specific behaviors, may contribute to the rapid increase of overweight in Chilean population. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Microplastics in Inland African Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Farhan; Mayoma, Bahati Sosthenes; Biginagwa, Fares John

    2017-01-01

    As the birthplace of our species, the African continent holds a unique place in human history. Upon entering a new epoch, the Anthropocene defined by human-driven influences on earth systems, and with the recognition that plastic pollution is one of the hallmarks of this new age, remarkably little...... is known about the presence, sources, and fate of plastics (and microplastics (MPs)) within African waters. Research in marine regions, most notably around the coast of South Africa, describes the occurrence of MPs in seabirds and fish species. More recently environmental sampling studies in the same area...... have quantified plastics in both the water column and sediments. However, despite Africa containing some of the largest and deepest of the world’s freshwater lakes, including Lakes Victoria and Tanganyika as part of the African Great Lakes system, and notable freshwater rivers, such as the River Congo...

  10. Microplastic pollution in lakes and lake shoreline sediments - A case study on Lake Bolsena and Lake Chiusi (central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Elke Kerstin; Paglialonga, Lisa; Czech, Elisa; Tamminga, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Rivers and effluents have been identified as major pathways for microplastics of terrestrial sources. Moreover, lakes of different dimensions and even in remote locations contain microplastics in striking abundances. This study investigates concentrations of microplastic particles at two lakes in central Italy (Lake Bolsena, Lake Chiusi). A total number of six Manta Trawls have been carried out, two of them one day after heavy winds occurred on Lake Bolsena showing effects on particle distribution of fragments and fibers of varying size categories. Additionally, 36 sediment samples from lakeshores were analyzed for microplastic content. In the surface waters 2.68 to 3.36 particles/m(3) (Lake Chiusi) and 0.82 to 4.42 particles/m(3) (Lake Bolsena) were detected, respectively. Main differences between the lakes are attributed to lake characteristics such as surface and catchment area, depth and the presence of local wind patterns and tide range at Lake Bolsena. An event of heavy winds and moderate rainfall prior to one sampling led to an increase of concentrations at Lake Bolsena which is most probable related to lateral land-based and sewage effluent inputs. The abundances of microplastic particles in sediments vary from mean values of 112 (Lake Bolsena) to 234 particles/kg dry weight (Lake Chiusi). Lake Chiusi results reveal elevated fiber concentrations compared to those of Lake Bolsena what might be a result of higher organic content and a shift in grain size distribution towards the silt and clay fraction at the shallow and highly eutrophic Lake Chiusi. The distribution of particles along different beach levels revealed no significant differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of the menstrual cycle, eating disorders and self-esteem of Polish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosdzol-Cop, Agnieszka; Bąk-Sosnowska, Monika; Sajdak, Dominika; Białka, Agnieszka; Kobiołka, Agnieszka; Franik, Grzegorz; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2017-03-01

    Eating disorders are an important factor in menstrual cycle disorders in girls. Moreover, low self-esteem among adolescent girls may be a risk factor for eating disorders. The aim of the study was to assess the menstrual cycle, eating habits and self-esteem of Polish adolescents. The study was conducted from January 2014 to March 2015 and included 623 girls, aged 15-19, from randomly selected junior high schools in Silesia, Poland, in which their menstrual cycle, risk of eating disorders and self-esteem were evaluated. A five-part questionnaire was used to assess basic demographic data, lifestyle and physical activity, gynecological history, as well as Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES) and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26). Irregular menstrual cycles were observed in 236 (37.88%) girls; 5.20% presented secondary amenorrhea. Based on the EAT-26 test, 101 (16.21%) girls were indicated being at risk for an eating disorder. Low self-esteem was observed in 340 (54.57%) study girls on the base of SES. Girls with irregular menses had higher scores on the EAT-26 test in subscales: EAT-overall score, EAT-diet and EAT-bulimia, while lower scores on the SES. In our study, we did not observe a significant relationship between exercise intensity, body mass, BMI and menstrual cycle regularity. Low self-esteem among adolescent girls may be a risk factor for eating disorders which could interrupt the menstrual cycle.

  12. Emotional Eating, Binge Eating and Animal Models of Binge-Type Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Robert; Chami, Rayane; Treasure, Janet

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the role that hedonic factors, emotions and self-regulation systems have over eating behaviours from animal models to humans. Evidence has been found to suggest that for some high-risk individuals, obesity/binge eating may develop as an impulsive reaction to negative emotions that over time becomes a compulsive habit. Animal models highlight the neural mechanisms that might underlie this process and suggest similarities with substance use disorders. Emotional difficulties and neurobiological factors have a role in the aetiology of eating and weight disorders. Precise treatments targeted at these mechanisms may be of help for people who have difficulties with compulsive overeating.

  13. What do we know about Indonesian tropical lakes? Insights from high frequency measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi Santoso, Arianto; Triwisesa, Endra; Fakhrudin, Muh.; Harsono, Eko; Agita Rustini, Hadiid

    2018-02-01

    When measuring ecological variables in lakes, sampling frequency is critical in capturing an environmental pattern. Discrete sampling of traditional monitoring programs is likely to result in vital knowledge gaps in understanding any processes particularly those with fine temporal scale characteristics. The development of high frequency measurements offer a sophisticated range of information in recording any events in lakes at a finer time scale. We present physical indices of a tropical deep Lake Maninjau arrayed from OnLine Monitoring System (OLM). It is revealed that Lake Maninjau mostly has a diurnal thermal stratification pattern. The calculated lake stability (Schmidt stability), however, follows a seasonal pattern; low in December-January and around August, and high in May and September. Using a 3D numerical model simulation (ELCOM), we infer how wind and solar radiation intensity control lake’s temperature profiles. In this review, we highlight the needs of high frequency measurement establishment in Indonesian tropical lakes to better understand the unique processes and to support the authorities’ decision making in maximizing the provision of ecosystem services supplied by lakes and reservoirs.

  14. Picky eating: Associations with child eating characteristics and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Klazine; Deming, Denise M; Lesniauskas, Ruta; Carr, B Thomas; Reidy, Kathleen C

    2016-08-01

    Food rejection behaviors such as picky eating are of concern for many parents and attempts to increase healthy food intake can cause distress at mealtimes. An important limitation in most of the picky eating studies is that they cover few characteristics of picky eating behaviors and use limited measures of food intake. The objective of this study was to explore the associations between picky eating, child eating characteristics, and food intake among toddlers 12-47.9 months old (n = 2371) using data from the 2008 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS). Logistic regression was used to examine associations between demographic and feeding characteristics and picky eater status. Differences in food group intake between picky and non-picky eaters were analyzed. Picky eaters were more likely to be neophobic, texture resistant, and to eat only favorite foods, In addition, the parents of picky eaters tend to offer new food a greater number of times than those of non-picky eaters before deciding that the child does not like it. Picky eaters showed significant lower intakes of eggs, burritos/tacos/enchiladas/nachos and sandwiches than non-picky eaters. Picky eaters consumed fewer vegetables from the "other vegetables" category and less raw vegetables than non-picky eaters. Neophobia, eating only favorite foods and difficulties with texture are all important characteristics of picky eaters which need to be integrated in studies measuring picky eating behaviors. Food intake of picky eaters differs only slightly from non-picky eaters. Because picky eating is a major parental concern, feeding strategies and advice related to the relevant characteristics of picky eating behavior need to be developed and assessed for their effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. The relationship between alexithymia and maladaptive perfectionism in eating disorders: a mediation moderation analysis methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsero, S; Ruggiero, G M; Scarone, S; Bertelli, S; Sassaroli, S

    2011-09-01

    This work aimed to explore the relationship between alexithymia and maladaptive perfectionism in the psychological process leading to eating disorders (ED). Forty-nine individuals with ED and 49 controls completed the Concern over Mistakes subscale of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Perfectionism subscale of the Eating Disorders Inventory, the total score of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and the Drive for Thinness, Bulimia, and Body Dissatisfaction subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory. We tested a model in which alexythimia is the independent variable and perfectionism is the possible mediator or moderator. Analyses confirmed the assumed model. In addition, it emerged that perfectionism played a mediating or moderating role when measured by different instruments. This result suggested that different instruments measured subtly different aspects of the same construct. Results could suggest that alexithymia is a predisposing factor for perfectionism, which in turn may lead to the development of eating disorders.

  16. Factors affecting fish biodiversity in floodplain lakes of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Dembkowski, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    River-floodplain ecosystems offer some of the most diverse and dynamic environments in the world. Accordingly, floodplain habitats harbor diverse fish assemblages. Fish biodiversity in floodplain lakes may be influenced by multiple variables operating on disparate scales, and these variables may exhibit a hierarchical organization depending on whether one variable governs another. In this study, we examined the interaction between primary variables descriptive of floodplain lake large-scale features, suites of secondary variables descriptive of water quality and primary productivity, and a set of tertiary variables descriptive of fish biodiversity across a range of floodplain lakes in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley of Mississippi and Arkansas (USA). Lakes varied considerably in their representation of primary, secondary, and tertiary variables. Multivariate direct gradient analyses indicated that lake maximum depth and the percentage of agricultural land surrounding a lake were the most important factors controlling variation in suites of secondary and tertiary variables, followed to a lesser extent by lake surface area. Fish biodiversity was generally greatest in large, deep lakes with lower proportions of watershed agricultural land. Our results may help foster a holistic approach to floodplain lake management and suggest the framework for a feedback model wherein primary variables can be manipulated for conservation and restoration purposes and secondary and tertiary variables can be used to monitor the success of such efforts.

  17. Eating tasty foods to cope, enhance reward, socialize or conform: What other psychological characteristics describe each of these motives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggiano, Mary M; Wenger, Lowell E; Burgess, Emilee E; Tatum, Mindy M; Sylvester, Maria D; Morgan, Phillip R; Morse, Kathryn E

    2017-03-01

    Psychological characteristics associated with eating motives of the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS) were identified in 192 undergraduates. Coping was characterized by greater BMI, emotion-triggered eating, and eating concern and also by binge-eating and perceived stress reactivity in females. Reward Enhancement was characterized by greater BMI, anxiety- and depression-eating in females and by anger/frustration-eating in males. Conformity was strongly characterized by binge-eating and by failure-based stress and all eating disorder traits in females and by anger/frustration- and anxiety-eating in males. The sex-divergent patterns of these traits across PEMS motives highlight the heterogeneity of hedonic eating. The traits may also be maintaining the motives, hence adresseing them should improve treatments for obesity, binge-eating, and foster healthier coping, reward, and psychosocial interactions.

  18. Sleep and Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M

    2016-10-01

    Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia.

  19. Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... himself. Understanding Binge Eating If you gorged on chocolate during Halloween or ate so much pumpkin pie ... binge eating, doctors may prescribe medications along with therapy and nutrition advice. People with binge eating disorder ...

  20. The relation of hedonic hunger and restrained eating to lateralized frontal activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, S R; Feig, E H; Kounios, J; Erickson, B; Berkowitz, S; Lowe, M R

    2016-09-01

    Asymmetrical alpha activation in the prefrontal cortex (frontal asymmetry) in electroencephalography (EEG) has been related to eating behavior. Prior studies linked dietary restraint with right frontal asymmetry [1] and disinhibition with left frontal asymmetry [2]. The current study simultaneously assessed restrained eating and hedonic hunger (drive for food reward in the absence of hunger) in relation to frontal asymmetry. Resting-state EEG and measures of restrained eating (Revised Restraint Scale; RRS) and hedonic hunger (Power of Food Scale; PFS) were assessed in 61 non-obese adults. Individually, hedonic hunger predicted left asymmetry. However, PFS and RRS were correlated (r=0.48, phunger exhibited left asymmetry irrespective of RRS scores; among those low in PFS, only those high in RRS showed right asymmetry. Results were consistent with literature linking avoidant behaviors (restraint) with right-frontal asymmetry and approach behaviors (binge eating) with left-frontal asymmetry. It appears that a strong drive toward palatable foods predominates at a neural level even when restraint is high. Findings suggest that lateralized frontal activity is an indicator of motivation both to consume and to avoid consuming highly palatable foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lake Granbury and Lake Whitney Assessment Initiative Final Scientific/Technical Report Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, B. L. [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Roelke, Daniel [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Brooks, Bryan [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Grover, James [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-10-11

    A team of Texas AgriLife Research, Baylor University and University of Texas at Arlington researchers studied the biology and ecology of Prymnesium parvum (golden algae) in Texas lakes using a three-fold approach that involved system-wide monitoring, experimentation at the microcosm and mesocosm scales, and mathematical modeling. The following are conclusions, to date, regarding this organism's ecology and potential strategies for mitigation of blooms by this organism. In-lake monitoring revealed that golden algae are present throughout the year, even in lakes where blooms do not occur. Compilation of our field monitoring data with data collected by Texas Parks and Wildlife and Brazos River Authority (a period spanning a decade) revealed that inflow and salinity variables affect bloom formations. Thresholds for algae populations vary per lake, likely due to adaptations to local conditions, and also to variations in lake-basin morphometry, especially the presence of coves that may serve as hydraulic storage zones for P. parvum populations. More specifically, our in-lake monitoring showed that the highly toxic bloom that occurred in Lake Granbury in the winter of 2006/2007 was eliminated by increased river inflow events. The bloom was flushed from the system. The lower salinities that resulted contributed to golden algae not blooming in the following years. However, flushing is not an absolute requirement for bloom termination. Laboratory experiments have shown that growth of golden algae can occur at salinities ~1-2 psu but only when temperatures are also low. This helps to explain why blooms are possible during winter months in Texas lakes. Our in-lake experiments in Lake Whitney and Lake Waco, as well as our laboratory experiments, revealed that cyanobacteria, or some other bacteria capable of producing algicides, were able to prevent golden algae from blooming. Identification of this organism is a high priority as it may be a key to managing golden algae

  2. Mechanisms underlying recovery of zooplankton in Lake Orta after liming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Piscia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to improve the understanding of the large-scale mechanisms underlying the recovery of the zooplankton of Lake Orta from historical contamination, following reduced input of ammonia and metals and the subsequent 1989/90 liming intervention. The industrial pollution had been severe and long-lasting (1929-1990. Zooplankton biodiversity has improved, but most of the new taxa appearing in our counts are rotifers, while many calanoids and the large cladoceran predators (Bythotrephes and Leptodora that are common in the nearby Lake Maggiore, were still absent from Lake Orta 17 years after liming. To aid understanding of the large-scale mechanisms controlling changes in annual richness, we assessed the annual persistence (P of Crustacea and Rotifera taxa as an estimator of whether propagules that survived introduction, as result of the natural recolonization process, also thrived. We found that the rate of introduction of zooplankton colonists and their persistence in the water column of Lake Orta changed from 1971 to 2007. New rotifer taxa appeared in the lake after the mid-1980s, when discharge of toxic substances decreased, but their annual persistence was low (P<0.5 until the turn of the century. The numerical values of rotifer and crustacean persistence in Lake Orta were unexpectedly high in 2001 and 2007 (0.55 and 0.72 for rotifers, 0.85 and 0.86 for crustacean, respectively, much higher than in limed lakes in Sudbury, Canada, and in adjacent Lake Maggiore. We hypothesize this could be related to the lack of Cladoceran predators and zooplanktivorous fish in the pelagic waters of Lake Orta.

  3. Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory-2 restructured form (MMPI-2-RF) scale score differences in bariatric surgery candidates diagnosed with binge eating disorder versus BMI-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Ryan J; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Ashton, Kathleen; Heinberg, Leslie J

    2014-04-01

    Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is among the most common psychiatric disorders in bariatric surgery candidates. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) is a broadband, psychological test that includes measures of emotional and behavioral dysfunction, which have been associated with BED behaviors in bariatric surgery candidates; however these studies have lacked appropriate controls. In the current study, we compared MMPI-2-RF scale scores of bariatric surgery patients diagnosed with BED (BED+) with BMI-matched controls without BED (BED-). Three-hundred and seven BED+ participants (72.64% female and 67.87% Caucasian; mean BMI of 51.36 kg/m(2) [SD = 11.94]) were drawn from a large, database (N = 1304). Three-hundred and seven BED- participants were matched on BMI and demographics (72.64% female, 68.63% Caucasian, and mean BMI of 51.30 kg/m(2) [SD = 11.70]). The BED+ group scored significantly higher on measures of Demoralization, Low Positive Emotions, and Dysfunctional Negative Emotions and scored lower on measures of Antisocial Behaviors, reflecting behavioral constraint. Optimal T-Score cutoffs were below the traditional 65 T score for several MMPI-2-RF scales. MMPI-2-RF externalizing measures also added incrementally to differentiating between the groups beyond the Binge Eating Scale (BES). BED+ individuals produced greater elevations on a number of MMPI-2-RF internalizing scales and externalizing scales. Use of the test in conjunction with a clinical interview and other self-report data can further aid the clinician in guiding patients to appropriate treatment to optimize outcome. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The evolving genetic foundations of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, K L; Kaye, W H; Strober, M

    2001-06-01

    Data described earlier are clear in establishing a role for genes in the development of eating abnormalities. Estimates from the most rigorous studies suggest that more than 50% of the variance in eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors can be accounted for by genetic effects. These high estimates indicate a need for studies identifying the specific genes contributing to this large proportion of variance. Twin and family studies suggest that several heritable characteristics that are commonly comorbid with AN and BN may share genetic transmission with these disorders, including anxiety disorders or traits, body weight, and possibly major depression. Moreover, some developmental research suggests that the genes involved in ovarian hormones or the genes that these steroids affect also may be genetically linked to eating abnormalities. Molecular genetic research of these disorders is in its infant stages. However, promising areas for future research have already been identified (e.g., 5-HT2A receptor gene, UCP-2/UCP-3 gene, and estrogen receptor beta gene), and several large-scale linkage and association studies are underway. These studies likely will provide invaluable information regarding the appropriate phenotypes to be included in genetic studies and the genes with the most influence on the development of these disorders.

  5. Variability in methane emissions from West Siberia's shallow boreal lakes on a regional scale and its environmental controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Sabrekov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Small lakes represent an important source of atmospheric CH4 from northern wetlands. However, spatiotemporal variations in flux magnitudes and the lack of knowledge about their main environmental controls contribute large uncertainty into the global CH4 budget. In this study, we measured methane fluxes from small lakes using chambers and bubble traps. Field investigations were carried out in July–August 2014 within the West Siberian middle and southern taiga zones. The average and median of measured methane chamber fluxes were 0.32 and 0.30 mgCH4 m−2 h−1 for middle taiga lakes and 8.6 and 4.1 mgCH4 m−2 h−1 for southern taiga lakes, respectively. Pronounced flux variability was found during measurements on individual lakes, between individual lakes and between zones. To analyze these differences and the influences of environmental controls, we developed a new dynamic process-based model. It shows good performance with emission rates from the southern taiga lakes and poor performance for individual lakes in the middle taiga region. The model shows that, in addition to well-known controls such as temperature, pH and lake depth, there are significant variations in the maximal methane production potential between these climatic zones. In addition, the model shows that variations in gas-filled pore space in lake sediments are capable of controlling the total methane emissions from individual lakes. The CH4 emissions exhibited distinct zonal differences not only in absolute values but also in their probability density functions: the middle taiga lake fluxes were best described by a lognormal distribution while the southern taiga lakes followed a power-law distribution. The latter suggests applicability of self-organized criticality theory for methane emissions from the southern taiga zone, which could help to explain the strong variability within individual lakes.

  6. Tooth erosion and eating disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Hermont

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eating disorders are associated with the highest rates of morbidity and mortality of any mental disorders among adolescents. The failure to recognize their early signs can compromise a patient's recovery and long-term prognosis. Tooth erosion has been reported as an oral manifestation that might help in the early detection of eating disorders. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to search for scientific evidence regarding the following clinical question: Do eating disorders increase the risk of tooth erosion? METHODS: An electronic search addressing eating disorders and tooth erosion was conducted in eight databases. Two independent reviewers selected studies, abstracted information and assessed its quality. Data were abstracted for meta-analysis comparing tooth erosion in control patients (without eating disorders vs. patients with eating disorders; and patients with eating disorder risk behavior vs. patients without such risk behavior. Combined odds ratios (ORs and a 95% confidence interval (CI were obtained. RESULTS: Twenty-three papers were included in the qualitative synthesis and assessed by a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Fourteen papers were included in the meta-analysis. Patients with eating disorders had more risk of tooth erosion (OR = 12.4, 95%CI = 4.1-37.5. Patients with eating disorders who self-induced vomiting had more risk of tooth erosion than those patients who did not self-induce vomiting (OR = 19.6, 95%CI = 5.6-68.8. Patients with risk behavior of eating disorder had more risk of tooth erosion than patients without such risk behavior (Summary OR = 11.6, 95%CI = 3.2-41.7. CONCLUSION: The scientific evidence suggests a causal relationship between tooth erosion and eating disorders and purging practices. Nevertheless, there is a lack of scientific evidence to fulfill the basic criteria of causation between the risk behavior for eating disorders and tooth erosion.

  7. The "social" facilitation of eating without the presence of others: Self-reflection on eating makes food taste better and people eat more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Ryuzaburo; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2017-10-01

    Food tastes better and people eat more of it when eaten with company than alone. Although several explanations have been proposed for this social facilitation of eating, they share the basic assumption that this phenomenon is achieved by the existence of co-eating others. Here, we demonstrate a similar "social" facilitation of eating in the absence of other individuals. Elderly participants tasted a piece of popcorn alone while in front of a mirror (which reflects the participant themselves eating popcorn) or in front of a wall-reflecting monitor, and were found to eat more popcorn and rate it better tasting in the self-reflecting condition than in the monitor condition. Similar results were found for younger adults. The results suggest that the social facilitation of eating does not necessarily require the presence of another individual. Furthermore, we observed a similar "social" facilitation of eating even when participants ate a piece of popcorn in front of a static picture of themselves eating, suggesting that static visual information of "someone" eating food is sufficient to produce the "social" facilitation of eating. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Childhood hyperactivity/inattention and eating disturbances predict binge eating in adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Calzo, Jerel P.; Horton, Nicholas J.; Field, Alison E.; Crosby, Ross D.; Solmi, Francesca; Micali, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Background Identifying childhood predictors of binge eating and understanding risk mechanisms could help improve prevention and detection efforts. The aim of this study was to examine whether features of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as childhood eating disturbances, predicted binge eating later in adolescence. Method We studied specific risk factors for the development of binge eating during mid-adolescence among 7,120 males and females from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a cohort study of children in the United Kingdom, using data from multiple informants to develop structural equation models. Repeated assessment of eating disturbances during childhood (mid-childhood overeating, late-childhood overeating, and early-adolescent strong desire for food), as well as teacher and parent reported hyperactivity/inattention during mid- and late-childhood, were considered as possible predictors of mid-adolescent binge eating. Results Prevalence of binge eating during mid-adolescence in our sample was 11.6%. The final model of predictors of binge eating during mid-adolescence included direct effects of late-childhood overeating (standardized estimate: 0.145, 95% CI: 0.038, 0.259; p=0.009) and early-adolescent strong desire for food (standardized estimate: 0.088, 95% CI: −0.002, 0.169; p=0.05). Hyperactivity/inattention during late-childhood indirectly predicted binge eating during mid-adolescence (standardized estimate: 0.085, 95% CI: 0.007, 0.128; p=0.03) via late-childhood overeating and early-adolescent strong desire for food. Conclusions Our findings indicate that early ADHD symptoms, in addition to an overeating phenotype, contribute to risk for adolescent binge eating. These findings lend support to the potential role of hyperactivity/inattention in the development of overeating and binge eating. PMID:26098685

  9. Childhood hyperactivity/inattention and eating disturbances predict binge eating in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneville, K R; Calzo, J P; Horton, N J; Field, A E; Crosby, R D; Solmi, F; Micali, N

    2015-01-01

    Identifying childhood predictors of binge eating and understanding risk mechanisms could help improve prevention and detection efforts. The aim of this study was to examine whether features of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as childhood eating disturbances, predicted binge eating later in adolescence. We studied specific risk factors for the development of binge eating during mid-adolescence among 7120 males and females from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a cohort study of children in the UK, using data from multiple informants to develop structural equation models. Repeated assessment of eating disturbances during childhood (mid-childhood overeating, late-childhood overeating and early-adolescent strong desire for food), as well as teacher- and parent-reported hyperactivity/inattention during mid- and late childhood, were considered as possible predictors of mid-adolescent binge eating. Prevalence of binge eating during mid-adolescence in our sample was 11.6%. The final model of predictors of binge eating during mid-adolescence included direct effects of late-childhood overeating [standardized estimate 0.145, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.038–0.259, p = 0.009] and early-adolescent strong desire for food (standardized estimate 0.088, 95% CI −0.002 to 0.169, p = 0.05). Hyperactivity/inattention during late childhood indirectly predicted binge eating during mid-adolescence (standardized estimate 0.085, 95% CI 0.007–0.128, p = 0.03) via late-childhood overeating and early-adolescent strong desire for food. Our findings indicate that early ADHD symptoms, in addition to an overeating phenotype, contribute to risk for adolescent binge eating. These findings lend support to the potential role of hyperactivity/inattention in the development of overeating and binge eating.

  10. Emotional Eating Mediates the Relationship Between Role Stress and Obesity in Clergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manister, Nancy N; Gigliotti, Eileen

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between role stress, emotional eating, and obesity in clergy. A random sample of United States Lutheran Church Missouri Synod clergy who met the study criteria (N = 430), response rate 38%, completed the Role Stress and Emotional Eating Behavior Scales, and self-reported height and weight for Body Mass Index (BMI) calculation. Obesity was high (81.4% overweight/obese, 36.7% obese), and emotional eating partially mediated the relationship between role stress and obesity. This study tested relations of the Neuman Systems Model. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Military-related trauma is associated with eating disorder symptoms in male veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arditte Hall, Kimberly A; Bartlett, Brooke A; Iverson, Katherine M; Mitchell, Karen S

    2017-11-01

    Eating disorders are understudied among male veterans, who may be at increased risk due to the high rates of trauma exposure and experiences of multiple traumatization in this population. This study sought to examine the associations between specific types of trauma (i.e., childhood physical abuse, adult physical assault, childhood sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, and military-related trauma) and eating disorder symptoms in a large, nationally-representative sample of trauma-exposed male veterans. Survey data were collected from N = 642 male veterans. Traumatic experiences in childhood and adulthood were assessed using the Trauma History Screen and the National Stressful Events Survey. Eating disorder symptoms were assessed with the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale. Analyses also controlled for age and body mass index. Multiple traumatization was associated with increased eating disorder symptoms. However, military-related trauma was the only trauma type that was uniquely associated with eating disorder symptoms when controlling for other trauma types. Examination of different types of military-related trauma indicated that this association was not driven by exposure to combat. Noncombat, military-related trauma was associated with eating disorder symptom severity in male veterans. Results highlight the need for better assessment of eating disorder symptoms in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. [Acute tryptophan depletion in eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Marsa, M; Lozano, C; Herranz, A S; Asensio-Vegas, M J; Martín, O; Revert, L; Saiz-Ruiz, J; Carrasco, J L

    2006-01-01

    This work describes the rational bases justifying the use of acute tryptophan depletion technique in eating disorders (ED) and the methods and design used in our studies. Tryptophan depletion technique has been described and used in previous studies safely and makes it possible to evaluate the brain serotonin activity. Therefore it is used in the investigation of hypotheses on serotonergic deficiency in eating disorders. Furthermore, and given the relationship of the dysfunctions of serotonin activity with impulsive symptoms, the technique may be useful in biological differentiation of different subtypes, that is restrictive and bulimic, of ED. 57 female patients with DSM-IV eating disorders and 20 female controls were investigated with the tryptophan depletion test. A tryptophan-free amino acid solution was administered orally after a two-day low tryptophan diet to patients and controls. Free plasma tryptophan was measured at two and five hours following administration of the drink. Eating and emotional responses were measured with specific scales for five hours following the depletion. A study of the basic characteristics of the personality and impulsivity traits was also done. Relationship of the response to the test with the different clinical subtypes and with the temperamental and impulsive characteristics of the patients was studied. The test was effective in considerably reducing plasma tryptophan in five hours from baseline levels (76%) in the global sample. The test was well tolerated and no severe adverse effects were reported. Two patients withdrew from the test due to gastric intolerance. The tryptophan depletion test could be of value to study involvement of serotonin deficits in the symptomatology and pathophysiology of eating disorders.

  13. Adolescents' Perceptions of Healthy Eating and Communication about Healthy Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus group interview sessions…

  14. The regional and global significance of nitrogen removal in lakes and reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, J.A.; Maranger, R.J.; Alexander, Richard B.; Giblin, A.E.; Jacinthe, P.-A.; Mayorga, Emilio; Seitzinger, S.P.; Sobota, D.J.; Wollheim, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Human activities have greatly increased the transport of biologically available nitrogen (N) through watersheds to potentially sensitive coastal ecosystems. Lentic water bodies (lakes and reservoirs) have the potential to act as important sinks for this reactive N as it is transported across the landscape because they offer ideal conditions for N burial in sediments or permanent loss via denitrification. However, the patterns and controls on lentic N removal have not been explored in great detail at large regional to global scales. In this paper we describe, evaluate, and apply a new, spatially explicit, annual-scale, global model of lentic N removal called NiRReLa (Nitrogen Retention in Reservoirs and Lakes). The NiRReLa model incorporates small lakes and reservoirs than have been included in previous global analyses, and also allows for separate treatment and analysis of reservoirs and natural lakes. Model runs for the mid-1990s indicate that lentic systems are indeed important sinks for N and are conservatively estimated to remove 19.7 Tg N year-1 from watersheds globally. Small lakes (<50 km2) were critical in the analysis, retaining almost half (9.3 Tg N year -1) of the global total. In model runs, capacity of lakes and reservoirs to remove watershed N varied substantially at the half-degree scale (0-100%) both as a function of climate and the density of lentic systems. Although reservoirs occupy just 6% of the global lentic surface area, we estimate they retain ~33% of the total N removed by lentic systems, due to a combination of higher drainage ratios (catchment surface area:lake or reservoir surface area), higher apparent settling velocities for N, and greater average N loading rates in reservoirs than in lakes. Finally, a sensitivity analysis of NiRReLa suggests that, on-average, N removal within lentic systems will respond more strongly to changes in land use and N loading than to changes in climate at the global scale. ?? 2008 Springer Science

  15. First attempt to apply whole-lake food-web manipulation on a large scale in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donk, van E.; Grimm, M.P.; Gulati, R.D.; Heuts, P.G.M.; Kloet, de W.A.; Liere, van L.

    1990-01-01

    Lake Breukeleveen is a compartment of the eutrophic Loosdrecht lakes system. In Lake Loosdrecht (dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria), due to water management measures taken from 1970-1984 (sewerage systems, dephosphorization) the external P load has been reduced from 1.2g m-2y-1 to 0.35g m-2y-1.

  16. Gender differences in the relationship between impulsivity and disordered eating behaviors and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundahl, Alyssa; Wahlstrom, Laura C; Christ, Christa C; Stoltenberg, Scott F

    2015-08-01

    We investigated relationships among gender, impulsivity and disordered eating in healthy college students. Participants (N=1223) were healthy, undergraduate men (28.5%) and women (71.5%), who completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale - Version 11 (BIS-11) and a four-factor version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-16). As predicted, mean scores on all four EAT-16 factors were significantly higher for women than for men. Attentional impulsivity was related to poorer self-perception of body shape, more dieting, and a greater preoccupation with food for the sample as a whole. Moreover, motor impulsivity was related to poorer self-perceptions of body shape and a greater preoccupation with food. However, no gender differences emerged in the relationship between impulsivity and disordered eating attitudes. This study elucidates the role of impulsivity in disordered eating behaviors among non-clinical college students. For both women and men, attentional and motor impulsivity were related to disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. Overall, these findings suggest that different facets of impulsivity are related to disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in a non-clinical college population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Implicit out-group preference is associated with eating disorders symptoms amongst Emirati females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Justin; Quadflieg, Susanne; O'Hara, Lily

    2016-04-01

    Studies exploring the relationship between acculturation and eating disorders symptoms have proven equivocal. Socially desirable responding associated with the use of explicit measures may account for these mixed findings. This study explores the relationship between in-group identity, acculturation and eating disorders symptoms using both implicit and explicit assessments. Emirati female college students (N=94) completed an affective priming task (APT) designed to implicitly assess Emirati in-group evaluations. Participants also completed explicit measures, including the Westernization Survey and the Multicomponent In-group Identification Scale. Eating disorders symptoms were assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test. Only implicit in-group evaluations were correlated with eating disorders symptoms. Specifically, increases in in-group preference were associated with lower levels of eating disorders symptomatology. Furthermore, participants with an actual out-group preference had significantly higher levels of eating disorders symptomatology compared with those demonstrating an in-group preference. These findings support the acculturative stress hypothesis, and suggest that the relationship between eating disorders and acculturation may be better understood with reference to implicit rather than explicit in-group evaluations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Eating attitudes, self-esteem and social physique anxiety among Iranian females who participate in fitness programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargari, B P; Khadem-Haghighian, M; Taklifi, E; Hamed-Behzad, M; Shahraki, M

    2010-03-01

    Today, women's participation in sports has substantially increased. This growth has been accompanied by concerns about health risks, as eating disorders, and psychological features, as self-esteem (SE) and social physique anxiety (SPA). The purpose of this study was to determine disordered eating attitudes and their relation to SE, SPA, as well as body weight, and body mass index (BMI), in Iranian females who participate in fitness programs. Subjects were 250 females, aged 14-51 years, who participated in fitness programs. Eating attitude test-26 (EAT-26), Rosenberg's self esteem scale (RSES), and social physique anxiety scale (SPAS), were used. Body weight and height were measured, and then Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. According to BMI cut-offs, 36% of subjects were overweight or obese. 28.4% and 19.6% of subjects were disordered eating attitudes (EAT-26>or=20) and low self-esteem (RSES<15), respectively. Disordered eating attitude subjects had lower SE and higher SPA, body weight and BMI than normal subjects (P<0.05). The low SE group had higher SPAS than normal one (P<0.02). In bivariate analysis, EAT-26 score was correlated negatively with RSES (r=-0.13, P<0.04) and positively with body weight, BMI, and SPAS (r=0.40, 0.42, and 0.47, respectively, P<0.001). SPAS had positive correlation with body weight and BMI (r=0.22, 0.19, It can be concluded that disordered eating attitudes are prevalent among Iranian females who participate in fitness programs. In this group, high SPA, body weight and BMI, and low SE accompany disordered eating attitudes.

  19. Decadal oscillation of lakes and aquifers in the upper Great Lakes region of North America: hydroclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watras, C.J.; Read, J.S.; Holman, K.D.; Liu, Z.; Song, Y.-Y.; Watras, A.J.; Morgan, S.; Stanley, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    We report a unique hydrologic time-series which indicates that water levels in lakes and aquifers across the upper Great Lakes region of North America have been dominated by a climatically-driven, near-decadal oscillation for at least 70 years. The historical oscillation (~13y) is remarkably consistent among small seepage lakes, groundwater tables and the two largest Laurentian Great Lakes despite substantial differences in hydrology. Hydrologic analyses indicate that the oscillation has been governed primarily by changes in the net atmospheric flux of water (P-E) and stage-dependent outflow. The oscillation is hypothetically connected to large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns originating in the mid-latitude North Pacific that support the flux of moisture into the region from the Gulf of Mexico. Recent data indicate an apparent change in the historical oscillation characterized by a ~12y downward trend beginning in 1998. Record low water levels region-wide may mark the onset of a new hydroclimatic regime.

  20. Local wisdom in preservation of Lake Toba ecosystems (study on Toba Lake community in the Village of Silalahi I, Sub District of Silahisabungan, Dairi Regency, North Sumatera Province)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdani Harahap, R.; Humaizi

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to analyze the perception of Batak Toba community in Silalahi I Village, Silahisabungan Subdistrict to the existence of Lake Toba, local wisdom owned by Batak Toba community in Silalahi I Village, Silahisabungan Sub District in order to preserve Lake Toba and recommend policy to revitalize it which is still running, which runs partially or which has not been done at all. The type of research used in this research is descriptive research with qualitative analysis. Data collection was conducted by interviews with key informants and informants i.e. community leaders, religious leaders and customary leaders in the study sites. The results showed that the perception of the Silalahi I Village community of Silahiabungan subdistrict to the existence of Lake Toba is a source of life. That means Lake Toba is a source of sustenance, a source of livelihood such as a place to fish, where to put floating net cages and as a sustenance of tourism activities. The form of local wisdom in preserving the area of Lake Toba is the existence of some sacred places such as Nauli basa, Partonunan stone (Deang Namora), that the entire area of Lake Toba called Tao Silalahi controlled by aunty (Namboru) Deang Namora is a purified area so prohibited spit, wearing jewelry, doing immoral, bathing over 6 o’clock, bringing and eating pork or dogs, bathing naked in the lake, laughing until laughing, and for women if there is a long hair should tie and If you want to take a bath must first permit the grandmother (oppung) guard lake. All local wisdom is still done because they still believe, although there is also rarely done. An effective way to revitalize the existing wisdom locals is to continue to perform the ritual or ceremony of the Statue of Silahisabungan once a year, and continue to obey the advice given by the King of Silahisabungan called Poda sagu-sagu marlangan.

  1. Laboratory estimation of net trophic transfer efficiencies of PCB congeners to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from its prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; David, Solomon R.

    2014-01-01

    A technique for laboratory estimation of net trophic transfer efficiency (γ) of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to piscivorous fish from their prey is described herein. During a 135-day laboratory experiment, we fed bloater (Coregonus hoyi) that had been caught in Lake Michigan to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) kept in eight laboratory tanks. Bloater is a natural prey for lake trout. In four of the tanks, a relatively high flow rate was used to ensure relatively high activity by the lake trout, whereas a low flow rate was used in the other four tanks, allowing for low lake trout activity. On a tank-by-tank basis, the amount of food eaten by the lake trout on each day of the experiment was recorded. Each lake trout was weighed at the start and end of the experiment. Four to nine lake trout from each of the eight tanks were sacrificed at the start of the experiment, and all 10 lake trout remaining in each of the tanks were euthanized at the end of the experiment. We determined concentrations of 75 PCB congeners in the lake trout at the start of the experiment, in the lake trout at the end of the experiment, and in bloaters fed to the lake trout during the experiment. Based on these measurements, γ was calculated for each of 75 PCB congeners in each of the eight tanks. Mean γ was calculated for each of the 75 PCB congeners for both active and inactive lake trout. Because the experiment was replicated in eight tanks, the standard error about mean γ could be estimated. Results from this type of experiment are useful in risk assessment models to predict future risk to humans and wildlife eating contaminated fish under various scenarios of environmental contamination.

  2. Eating disorders and circadian eating pattern: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardi, Fabiana; Harb, Ana Beatriz Cauduro; Levandovski, Rosa Maria; Hidalgo, Maria Paz Loayza

    2009-01-01

    Este artigo tem como objetivo revisar aspectos relacionados a transtornos alimentares e suas relações com as alterações no ritmo circadiano. Realizou-se uma busca sistematizada das informações nas bases de dados PubMed usando os seguintes descritores: eating disorders, circadian rhythm, night eating syndrome, binge eating disorder e sleep patterns. Os transtornos alimentares, como a síndrome do comer noturno e o transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica, têm sido considerados e relacionados...

  3. Comparing men and women with binge-eating disorder and co-morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydecker, Janet A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2018-03-01

    This study examined differences in clinical presentation of men and women with binge-eating disorder (BED) who participated in treatment research at a medical-school based program. Participants were 682 adults (n = 182 men, n = 500 women) with DSM-IV-defined BED. Doctoral-level research clinicians assessed eating-disorder psychopathology, including BED diagnosis, using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID) and Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) interview. Research clinicians measured height and weight and participants completed a battery of established self-report measures. Men had significantly higher body mass index (BMI) than women; women had significantly higher eating-disorder psychopathology (EDE scales and global score) and depression than men. Differences in eating-disorder psychopathology and depression remained higher for women than men after adjusting for race/ethnicity and BMI. Frequency of binge-eating episodes, subjective binge-eating episodes, and overeating episodes did not differ significantly by sex. Women had younger ages of onset for dieting and binge-eating behaviors than men but ages of onset for obesity and BED did not significantly differ between men and women. There are some sex differences in clinical presentation and age-of-onset timeline of adults with BED. Men and women develop obesity and BED (at diagnostic threshold) around the same age but women begin dieting and binge-eating behaviors earlier than men. At presentation for treatment for BED, men and women did not differ in binge-eating frequency and although men and women differed significantly on BMI and eating-disorder psychopathology, the magnitude of these differences was quite modest. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Stress Related Overeating Among College Students: Development of a Mood Eating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Linda J.; Hawkins, Raymond C.

    The hypothesis that negative emotional life states accompanying life stresses are associated with overeating and weight gain cannot be adequately tested solely by laboratory analogue studies. Naturalistic, short-term longitudinal designs are needed in which individuals susceptible to mood eating can be identified prior to a stressful event and…

  5. Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Gucciardi, Enza; Celasun, Nalan; Ahmad, Farah; Stewart, Donna E

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Health Issue Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. Key Issues Eating disorders are primarily a problem among women. In Ontario in 1995, over 90% of reported hospitalized cases of anorexia and bulimia were women. In addition to eating disorders, preoccupation with weight, body image and...

  6. Eating patterns of US adults: Meals, snacks, and time of eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ashima K

    2018-03-21

    The objective of this paper is to update knowledge of eating patterns of US adults with sex and ethnicity specific estimates and discuss the implications of reported patterns with respect to current resurgence of interest in the topic. The eating patterns data were from the NHANES 2009-2014 (n = 15,341 adults). Overall, American adults reported 4.96 ± 0.03 eating episodes in the recall. Women were more likely to report each of the three main meals and all three meals plus one or more snacks relative to men (P < 0.0001). Relative to other ethnic groups, non-Hispanic blacks were less likely to report each meal or a snack or all three meals, and the foods reported for meals and snacks were higher in energy density (P = 0.0001). Of the three meals, the dinner meal, and among snacks, the after-dinner snack, were reported by the highest percentage of Americans; these two eating episodes provided nearly 45% of the 24-h energy intake. The average dinnertime was 6:24 pm, and the average time of the last eating episode of the 24-h ingestive period was 8:18 pm. Given these findings, adoption of eating patterns that advocate less frequent eating and shift in the time of eating are likely to present a challenge. We know little about the validity of eating patterns determined from 24-h recalls or questionnaire instruments. The extent of within person variability and reporting errors in different eating pattern components also need further research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictors of quality of life in patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, J; Padierna, A; Loroño, A; Muñoz, P; Quintana, J M

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this study were to analyse the quality of life (QoL) of a broad sample of patients with eating disorders (ED) and to identify potential factors that predict QoL. This prospective cohort study involved 528 patients diagnosed with ED and treated over a 15-year period in the Eating Disorders Outpatient Clinic. Information on sociodemographic and clinical data were gathered. Patients completed five self-administered instruments: the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26); the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS); the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); the Short-Form 12 (SF-12); and the Quality of Life in ED-short form (HeRQoLED-s). Descriptive, univariate analyses and multivariate linear regression models were applied to identify factors associated with QoL. Predictive variables for a low level of QoL in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) included antidepressant treatment (P=0.009), substance abuse disorder, (P=0.03) and other organic comorbidities (Peating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS), they included anxiolytic treatment (P=0.003), having circulatory disease (P=0.001), more years since start of ED treatment (P=0.03) and living alone (P<0.0001). We found a significant difference in QoL between the diagnostic ED groups. With regard to the variables predicting QoL in ED patients, the findings of this study suggest that organic or psychiatric comorbidities and some data of social normality might be more relevant to QoL in ED than age, type of compensatory behaviour, BMI or number of visits to hospital emergency department. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Pre-Kindergarten Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Tim

    This 25-item scale for rating prekindergarten children concerns personal and cognitive skills. Directions for using the scale are provided. Personal skills include personal hygiene, communication skills, eating habits, relationships with the teacher, peer relations, and personal behavior. Cognitive skills rated are verbal skills, object…

  9. Spatiotemporal variability of carbon dioxide and methane in a eutrophic lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loken, Luke; Crawford, John; Schramm, Paul; Stadler, Philipp; Stanley, Emily

    2017-04-01

    Lakes are important regulators of global carbon cycling and conduits of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere; however, most efflux estimates for individual lakes are based on extrapolations from a single location. Within-lake variability in carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) arises from differences in water sources, physical mixing, and local transformations; all of which can be influenced by anthropogenic disturbances and vary at multiple temporal and spatial scales. During the 2016 open water season (March - December), we mapped surface water concentrations of CO2 and CH4 weekly in a eutrophic lake (Lake Mendota, WI, USA), which has a predominately agricultural and urban watershed. In total we produced 26 maps of each gas based on 10,000 point measurements distributed across the lake surface. Both gases displayed relatively consistent spatial patterns over the stratified period but exhibited remarkable heterogeneity on each sample date. CO2 was generally undersaturated (global mean: 0.84X atmospheric saturation) throughout the lake's pelagic zone and often differed near river inlets and shorelines. The lake was routinely extremely supersaturated with CH4 (global mean: 105X atmospheric saturation) with greater concentrations in littoral areas that contained organic-rich sediments. During fall mixis, both CO2 and CH4 increased substantially, and concentrations were not uniform across the lake surface. CO2 and CH4 were higher on the upwind side of the lake due to upwelling of enriched hypolimnetic water. While the lake acted as a modest sink for atmospheric CO2 during the stratified period, the lake released substantial amounts of CO2 during turnover and continually emitted CH4, offsetting any reduction in atmospheric warming potential from summertime CO2 uptake. These data-rich maps illustrate how lake-wide surface concentrations and lake-scale efflux estimates based on single point measurements diverge from spatially weighted calculations. Both gases are not

  10. Exploring the perceived usefulness of practical food groups in day treatment for individuals with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddiscombe, Rachel J; Scanlan, Justin Newton; Ross, Jessica; Horsfield, Sarah; Aradas, Jessica; Hart, Susan

    2018-04-01

    Recovery from eating disorders is a challenging process. Emerging literature suggests that occupational therapists may provide a useful contribution in delivering purposeful eating-related interventions as a potential treatment to support sustained cognitive and behavioural changes for individuals with eating disorders. This study aimed to evaluate participants' perceptions of the contribution of occupational therapy practical food groups (food based outings and cooking groups) in supporting their functional recovery. Individuals attended practical food groups as part of standard treatment at an outpatient eating disorders day program. Ninety-nine participants completed questionnaires at discharge and up to three follow-up points (6, 12 and 24 months). Questions related to practical food groups were analysed, exploring participants' experiences and perceived usefulness of groups using rating-scale and open-ended questions. Open-ended responses were analysed using thematic analysis. Descriptive statistics were calculated for responses to rating-scale questions. At discharge, participants rated the importance and usefulness of practical food groups as high (4.73 and 4.43 on 5-point scales, respectively), but tended to rate their enjoyment of the groups lower (3.50 on a 5-point scale). Some skill transfer was typically reported by participants at discharge (3.92 on a 5-point scale). One core theme, 'success through participation', emerged from qualitative comments. Six subthemes were also identified: helpful components of practical food groups; perceived benefit of exposure; impact of applying cognitive and behavioural skills; challenges affecting participation; facilitating adaptation; and influence of eating disorders on challenging feared foods. This study highlights that participation in practical food groups was perceived as useful in assisting individuals to improve eating behaviours and, in some circumstances, transfer these skills into their lives outside of

  11. The Stream-Catchment (StreamCat) and Lake-Catchment ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/MethodsLake and stream conditions respond to both natural and human-related landscape features. Characterizing these features within contributing areas (i.e., delineated watersheds) of streams and lakes could improve our understanding of how biological conditions vary spatially and improve the use, management, and restoration of these aquatic resources. However, the specialized geospatial techniques required to define and characterize stream and lake watersheds has limited their widespread use in both scientific and management efforts at large spatial scales. We developed the StreamCat and LakeCat Datasets to model, predict, and map the probable biological conditions of streams and lakes across the conterminous US (CONUS). Both StreamCat and LakeCat contain watershed-level characterizations of several hundred natural (e.g., soils, geology, climate, and land cover) and anthropogenic (e.g., urbanization, agriculture, mining, and forest management) landscape features for ca. 2.6 million stream segments and 376,000 lakes across the CONUS, respectively. These datasets can be paired with field samples to provide independent variables for modeling and other analyses. We paired 1,380 stream and 1,073 lake samples from the USEPAs National Aquatic Resource Surveys with StreamCat and LakeCat and used random forest (RF) to model and then map an invertebrate condition index and chlorophyll a concentration, respectively. Results/ConclusionsThe invertebrate

  12. Eating disorders and body image concerns as influenced by family and media among university students in Sharjah, UAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Hadia; Hasan, Hayder A; Najm, Lina; Zaurub, Sara; Jami, Faridah; Javadi, Fahimeh; Deeb, Lina Adeeb; Iskandarani, Amani

    2018-01-01

    Eating disorders (ED) can be influenced by psychological and socio-cultural factors. The aim of this study was to explore the association between parental and media influences and body image concerns as factors in the onset of ED. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 662 students (407 women and 255 men) attending one of three universities in United Arab Emirates (UAE). The study employed an online self-administered questionnaire with validated scales: Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), Media Influences Scale, and Family Influences Scale (FIS). About 33% of the sample had EAT- 26 scores >=20 and 45% showed mild to marked concerns about their body shape. Women students were significantly more concerned about their shape, and more influenced by media than men. There were significant differences in the means of all scores, except for media influence, among the four BMI groups. The EAT-26 score showed strongest correlation with BSQ (r=0.48), followed by FIS, Media and BMI (r=0.419, r=0.276 and r=0.18 respectively). The BSQ was the best predictor of ED and was inversely associated with the EAT-26 score (B=-1.51, OR=0.219, 95% CI: 0.152-0.316, pmedia and families exert on the development of ED among young adults. These findings provide baseline data for future longitudinal studies to investigate factors influencing ED.

  13. Terrestrial CDOM in Lakes of Yamal Peninsula: Connection to Lake and Lake Catchment Properties

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    Yury Dvornikov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze interactions in lake and lake catchment systems of a continuous permafrost area. We assessed colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM absorption at 440 nm (a(440CDOM and absorption slope (S300–500 in lakes using field sampling and optical remote sensing data for an area of 350 km2 in Central Yamal, Siberia. Applying a CDOM algorithm (ratio of green and red band reflectance for two high spatial resolution multispectral GeoEye-1 and Worldview-2 satellite images, we were able to extrapolate the a(λCDOM data from 18 lakes sampled in the field to 356 lakes in the study area (model R2 = 0.79. Values of a(440CDOM in 356 lakes varied from 0.48 to 8.35 m−1 with a median of 1.43 m−1. This a(λCDOM dataset was used to relate lake CDOM to 17 lake and lake catchment parameters derived from optical and radar remote sensing data and from digital elevation model analysis in order to establish the parameters controlling CDOM in lakes on the Yamal Peninsula. Regression tree model and boosted regression tree analysis showed that the activity of cryogenic processes (thermocirques in the lake shores and lake water level were the two most important controls, explaining 48.4% and 28.4% of lake CDOM, respectively (R2 = 0.61. Activation of thermocirques led to a large input of terrestrial organic matter and sediments from catchments and thawed permafrost to lakes (n = 15, mean a(440CDOM = 5.3 m−1. Large lakes on the floodplain with a connection to Mordy-Yakha River received more CDOM (n = 7, mean a(440CDOM = 3.8 m−1 compared to lakes located on higher terraces.

  14. Frequency of pain and eating disorders among professional and amateur dancers

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    Maria Angélica Kurpel Diogo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The pursuit of perfection can cause anxiety and lead dancers to exceed their physical limits. The aim here was to evaluate the prevalence of pain symptoms and eating disorders among professional and amateur dancers. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational cross-sectional study; Curitiba, PR, Brazil. METHODS: Data on 150 professional and non-professional practitioners of ballet, jazz and street dance were collected through specific questionnaires: Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26, Bulimic Investigatory Test Edinburgh (BITE and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-T-6 (STAI-T-6. RESULTS: Pain was observed in 58.6% of the sample, equally between professionals and amateurs (P = 0.19. Ballet dancers had more lower-limb pain than the other groups (P = 0.05. EAT-26 showed a tendency towards more eating disorders among the amateurs (P = 0.06. Higher risk of eating disorders was found among ballet dancers (P = 0.004 and jazz practitioners (P = 0.02 than among street dancers. Amateurs had more symptoms on the BITE scale (P < 0.0001, more pain (P = 0.002 and higher anxiety (P < 0.0001. Eating disorders were more common among females (P = 0.01 and singles (P = 0.02. Professionals were more satisfied with their own body image than amateurs (P < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Pain symptoms were found in almost half of the sample, equally among professionals and amateurs as well as between the three dance styles. Female and singles had more eating disorders. Those with eating disorders had higher levels of pain and anxiety.

  15. Selecting fish-based metrics responding to human pressures in French natural lakes and reservoirs: towards the development of a fish-based index (FBI) for French lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Launois, L.; Veslot, J.; Irz, P.; Argillier, C.

    2010-01-01

    1.Fish-based indices of biotic integrity (IBI) have been developed for many lotic systems but remain scarce for lakes. The goal of the present study was to assess the responses of lentic fish assemblages to anthropogenic pressures when environmental variability was controlled for, and to compare them between French natural lakes and reservoirs. 2.Environmental features, catchment-scale anthropogenic descriptors and fish data were collected from 30 natural lakes and 59 reservoirs throughout...

  16. Sleep, eating disorder symptoms, and daytime functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tromp MD

    2016-01-01

    : Participants who score positive for eating disorders scored significantly higher on sleep disorder scales, and reported significantly more impairment of daytime functioning.Keywords: eating disorders, sleep disorders, insomnia, apnea, circadian rhythm disorder, daytime functioning

  17. The Associations of Eating-related Attitudinal Balance with Psychological Well-being and Eating Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Fuglestad, Paul T.; Bruening, Meg; Graham, Dan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R.

    2013-01-01

    This study used balance theory to illuminate the relations of eating-related attitudinal consistency between self and friends to psychological well-being and eating behaviors. It was hypothesized that attitudinal inconsistency, relative to consistency, would predict lower well-being and poorer eating habits. A population-based sample of 2287 young adults participating in Project EAT-III (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults) completed measures of psychological well-being, eating behaviors, and...

  18. Eating disorders symptoms in sexual minority women: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneguzzo, Paolo; Collantoni, Enrico; Gallicchio, Davide; Busetto, Paolo; Solmi, Marco; Santonastaso, Paolo; Favaro, Angela

    2018-07-01

    Although the literature consistently shows increased levels of psychological distress in the gay population, less evidence-and with contrasting findings-is available with regard to lesbian women. The aim of the present study is to review the literature in the eating disorders (EDs) field in order to provide further data on the frequency of EDs symptoms in sexual minority women. A systematic review of the studies identified by electronic database search (PubMed, Ovid, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar) up to August 2017. Fourty-five studies were found, conducted on 372,256 women. Only 7 studies investigated patients with lifetime diagnosis of ED. As for the symptomatology of EDs, 39 studies were found, which presented huge differences in the scales used for the assessment (e.g., Eating Disorders Inventory and Eating Attitudes Test-26). A higher number of diagnoses of EDs were found in sexual minority women, with a symptomatology characterized by higher occurrence of binge eating and purging, as well as lower body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness, compared with heterosexual peers. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  19. The relation of eating problems and amenorrhea in ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, J; Warren, M P; Hamilton, L H

    1987-02-01

    Exercise-induced amenorrhea has received considerable attention in the medical literature. The combination of exercise and low body weight is thought to exert synergistic effects in the pathogenesis of amenorrhea, while the role of dieting and eating problems, another possible causative mechanism, has not been examined. A sample of 55 adult dancers in national and regional classical ballet companies was studied; their mean age was 24.7 yr. Fifty-six percent of the dancers had delayed menarche (age 14 or later) and 19% of the sample were currently amenorrheic (5 months or longer). One-third of the dancers reported having had an eating problem (self-reported anorexia nervosa or bulimia). Amenorrhea and reported eating problems were significantly related: 50% of amenorrheics reported anorexia nervosa while 13% of the normals did. In addition, prolonged amenorrhea was significantly related to dieting (as measured by EAT-26 scales, a measure of dieting behavior). As expected, leanness and absolute weight also were related to prolonged amenorrhea. Amenorrhea in this sample of adult dancers was not related to current activity level or age at which training began. Thus, eating problems may be one factor in the pathogenesis of prolonged amenorrhea in certain athletic groups.

  20. Mummy Lake: An unroofed ceremonial structure within a large-scale ritual landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Larry V.; Griffin, Eleanor R.; Stein, J.R.; Friedman, R. A.; Andrae, S. W.

    2014-01-01

    The structure at Mesa Verde National Park known historically as Mummy Lake and more recently as Far View Reservoir is not part of a water collection, impoundment, or redistribution system. We offer an alternative explanation for the function of Mummy Lake. We suggest that it is an unroofed ceremonial structure, and that it serves as an essential component of a Chacoan ritual landscape. A wide constructed avenue articulates Mummy Lake with Far View House and Pipe Shrine House. The avenue continues southward for approximately 6 km where it apparently divides connecting with Spruce Tree House and Sun Temple/Cliff Palace. The avenue has previously been interpreted as an irrigation ditch fed by water impounded at Mummy Lake; however, it conforms in every respect to alignments described as Chacoan roads. Tree-ring dates indicate that the construction of Spruce Tree House and Cliff Palace began about A.D. 1225, roughly coincident with the abandonment of the Far View community. This pattern of periodically relocating the focus of an Anasazi community by retiring existing ritual structures and linking them to newly constructed facilities by means of broad avenues was first documented by Fowler and Stein (1992) in Manuelito Canyon, New Mexico. Periods of intense drought appear to have contributed to the relocation of prehistoric Native Americans from the Far View group to Cliff Palace/Spruce Tree House in the mid-13th century and eventually to the abandonment of all Anasazi communities in southwestern Colorado in the late-13th century.

  1. Mindfulness and eating behaviour styles in morbidly obese males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwens, M A; Schiffer, A A; Visser, L I; Raeijmaekers, N J C; Nyklíček, I

    2015-04-01

    Morbid obesity is a highly prevalent condition that is associated with a high risk of various diseases and high health care costs. Understanding determinants of eating behaviours that are characteristic of many morbidly obese persons is important for the development of new interventions aimed at changing eating behaviour after bariatric surgery. Dispositional mindfulness seems promising as one such potential determinant. Therefore, the association between mindfulness and eating behaviour was examined in females and males with morbid obesity. Outpatients with morbid obesity who were candidates for bariatric surgery (N = 335; 78.8% female) completed the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ), the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in addition to the collection of relevant demographic and medical data. Three separate multiple regression analyses with three eating behaviour styles (restrained, emotional, external) as dependent variables showed that mindfulness was positively associated with restrained eating behaviour (Beta = .28, p ≤ .001), and negatively associated with emotional (Beta = -.22, p ≤ .001) and external (Beta = -.32, p ≤ .001) eating behaviours, independent of sex, age, educational level, Body Mass Index and affective symptoms. Dispositional mindfulness was associated with more restrained, and less emotional and external eating behaviour in morbidly obese outpatients, above and beyond affective symptoms. Future studies, establishing the causal direction of the associations, are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fatigue and symptoms of eating disorders in professional dancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Cristina Feitosa Rodrigues

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2017v19n1p96   The aim of this study was to make a comparison between fatigue and eating disorders in professional dancers in Brazil. Overall, 108 Classical Ballet or Contemporary Dance dancers (28.6 ± 7.7 years (49 women and 59 men of companies from São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul participated in this study. The following validated instruments were used (Eating Attitudes Test; Bulimic Inventory Test Edinburgh; Yoshitake Fatigue Questionnaire, general Information. Results: 16% of dancers have symptoms of anorexia; 25% in the symptomatic bulimia scale and 30% in the bulimia scale. Significant data were identified in the comparison of bulimia nervosa scales with fatigue domains; on the symptomatic scale with drowsiness and lack of attention at work domain (p = 0.015, on the severity scale with fatigue projections to the body domain (p = 0.014, and in both scales in the impaired concentration and attention domain (p = 0.003 and p = 0.047 and in the general fatigue score (p = 0.016. Dancers with higher scores for difficulty in concentration and attention are 1.558 (95% CI 1.113 to 2.179 times more likely to have symptoms of bulimia. This study showed that there is a relationship between fatigue and symptoms of bulimia.

  3. Unraveling the complex local-scale flows influencing ozone patterns in the southern Great Lakes of North America

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    I. Levy

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the complexity of various processes influencing summertime ozone levels in the southern Great Lakes region of North America. Results from the Border Air Quality and Meteorology (BAQS-Met field campaign in the summer of 2007 are examined with respect to land-lake differences and local meteorology using a large array of ground-based measurements, aircraft data, and simulation results from a high resolution (2.5 km regional air-quality model, AURAMS.

    Analyses of average ozone mixing ratio from the entire BAQS-Met intensive campaign period support previous findings that ozone levels are higher over the southern Great Lakes than over the adjacent land. However, there is great heterogeneity in the spatial distribution of surface ozone over the lakes, particularly over Lake Erie during the day, with higher levels located over the southwestern end of the lake. Model results suggest that some of these increased ozone levels are due to local emission sources in large nearby urban centers. While an ozone reservoir layer is predicted by the AURAMS model over Lake Erie at night, the land-lake differences in ozone mixing ratios are most pronounced during the night in a shallow inversion layer of about 200 m above the surface. After sunrise, these differences have a limited effect on the total mass of ozone over the lakes and land during the day, though they do cause elevated ozone levels in the lake-breeze air in some locations.

    The model also predicts a mean vertical circulation during the day with an updraft over Detroit-Windsor and downdraft over Lake St. Clair, which transports ozone up to 1500 m above ground and results in high ozone over the lake.

    Oscillations in ground-level ozone mixing ratios were observed on several nights and at several ground monitoring sites, with amplitudes of up to 40 ppbv and time periods of 15–40 min. Several possible mechanisms for these oscillations are discussed, but a

  4. Eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontić Olga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient’s health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one’s own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases.

  5. Risk behaviors for eating disorder in adolescents and adults with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Tucunduva Philippi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the frequency of risk behaviors for eating disorder (ED in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D and their association with gender, nutritional status, variables related to T1D, and body satisfaction. Method: 189 individuals with T1D (12-56 years old answered the Bulimic Investigation Test (BITE, the Eating Attitude Test (EAT, the Binge Eating Scale (BES, Stunkard's Figure Rating Scale, and questions regarding control of T1D. Association between ED risk behaviors and the selected variables was assessed with the chi-square test and Student's t-test; factors that influenced the risk of ED were identified by means of logistic regression. Results: Of the patients with T1D, 58.7% were at risk of ED (45, 40, and 16% according to the EAT, BITE and BES, respectively. There were significant differences between groups with and without risk for ED related to BMI (p = 0.009, gender (p = 0.001, insulin omission (p = 0.003, use of the carbohydrate counting method (p = 0.019, and body dissatisfaction (p = 0.001. The risk of ED was nine times higher in patients who reduced or omitted insulin (p = 0.036. Conclusions: Patients with T1D demonstrated a high frequency of body dissatisfaction and ED risk behaviors; the omission or reduction of insulin was an important risk factor.

  6. Modelling land cover change effects on catchment-to-lake sediment transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hugh; Peñuela Fernández, Andres; Sellami, Haykel; Sangster, Heather; Boyle, John; Chiverrell, Richard; Riley, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Measurements of catchment soil erosion and sediment transfer to streams and lakes are limited and typically short duration (physical and social records coupled with high-resolution, sub-annual simulations of catchment-to-lake soil erosion and sedimentation. This choice of modelling period represents a compromise between the length of record and data availability for model parameterisation. We combine historic datasets for climate and land cover from four lake catchments in Britain with a fully revised catchment-scale modelling approach based on the Morgan-Morgan-Finney model, called MMF-TWI, that incorporates new elements representing plant growth, soil water balance and variable runoff and sediment contributing areas. The catchments comprise an intensively-farmed lowland agricultural catchment and three upland catchments. Historic change simulations were compared with sedimentation rates determined from multiple dated cores taken from each lake. Our revised modelling approach produced generally comparable rates of lake sediment flux to those based on sediment archives. Moreover, these centennial scale records form the basis for examining hypothetical scenarios linked to changes in crop rotation (lowland) and riparian re-afforestation (uplands), as well as providing an extended historic baseline against which to compare future climate effects on runoff, erosion and lake sediment delivery.

  7. Orthorexic and restrained eating behaviour in vegans, vegetarians, and individuals on a diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthels, Friederike; Meyer, Frank; Pietrowsky, Reinhard

    2018-04-01

    Orthorexic eating behaviour, restrained eating, and veganism/vegetarianism are food selection strategies sharing several characteristics. Since there are no studies investigating their interrelationships, aim of the present study was to analyse orthorexic and restrained eating behaviour in (1) a sample of vegans and vegetarians and (2) a sample of individuals on a diet to lose weight. Division of samples according to pre-defined criteria in (1) vegans (n = 114), vegetarians (n = 63), individuals with rare meat consumption (n = 83) and individuals with frequent meat consumption (n = 91) and in (2) participants on a diet with dietary change (n = 104), without dietary change (n = 37) and a control group of individuals not on a diet (n = 258). Orthorexic eating behaviour was assessed with the Düsseldorfer Orthorexie Skala and restrained eating was assessed with the Restraint Eating Scale. Vegans and vegetarians do not differ in orthorexic eating behaviour, but both groups score higher in orthorexic eating behaviour than individuals consuming red meat. There are no differences regarding restrained eating. Individuals on a diet with dietary change score higher in both orthorexic and restrained eating, than individuals without dietary change and individuals not on a diet. Individuals who restrict their eating behaviour, either predominantly due to ethical reasons or with the intention to lose weight, display more orthorexic eating behaviour than individuals not limiting their food consumption. Further research is needed to investigate whether veganism, vegetarianism, or frequent dieting behaviour serve as risk factors for orthorexia. Level V, cross-sectional descriptive study.

  8. Are parents' anxiety and depression related to child fussy eating?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barse, Lisanne M; Cano, Sebastian Cardona; Jansen, Pauline W

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between parental anxiety and depression with child fussy eating-that is, consistent rejection of particular food items. Design This study was embedded in Generation R, a prospective cohort from fetal life onwards in the Netherlands. Setting Population-based. P......Objective To examine the association between parental anxiety and depression with child fussy eating-that is, consistent rejection of particular food items. Design This study was embedded in Generation R, a prospective cohort from fetal life onwards in the Netherlands. Setting Population......-based. Participants 4746 4-year-old children and their parents. Exposure Parental internalising problems (ie, symptoms of anxiety and depression) were assessed with the Brief Symptoms Inventory during pregnancy and the preschool period (child age 3 years). Main outcome measure The food fussiness scale of the Children......'s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Results Maternal anxiety during pregnancy and during the child's preschool period was related to higher food fussiness sum-scores in children. For instance, per point on the anxiety scale in pregnancy, children had on average a 1.02 higher sum-score (95% CI 0.59 to 1...

  9. Eating disordered patients: personality, alexithymia, and implications for primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beales, D L; Dolton, R

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eating disorders are becoming more apparent in primary care. Descriptions of character traits related to people with eating disorders are rarely reported in the primary care literature and there is little awareness of the implications of alexithymia--a concept that defines the inability to identify or express emotion. We hypothesised that many individuals with active eating disorders have alexithymic traits and a tendency to somatize their distress. AIM: To analyse the character traits and degree of alexithymia of a selected group of women with active eating disorders and in recovery, and to recommend responses by members of the primary care team that might meet the needs of such individuals. METHOD: Letters were sent to 200 female members of the Eating Disorders Association who had agreed to participate in research. Seventy-nine women volunteered to complete four postal questionnaires. This gave a response rate of 38.5%. Responders were categorised into three groups--anorexic, bulimic, and recovered--using the criteria of the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI-2). The results of the 16PF5 Personality Inventory (16PF5) and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and correlated using Pearson's correlation. A biographical questionnaire was also completed. RESULTS: In all three subgroups, high scores were achieved on the 16PF5 on 'apprehension and social sensitivity', while there were significant differences in the scores for 'privateness': a scale that measures the ability to talk about feelings and confide in others. On the TAS-20, 65% of the anorexic and 83% of the bulimic group scored in the alexithymic range compared with 33% of the recovered group. There was a significant negative correlation between alexithymia and social skills such as 'social and emotional expressivity' on the 16PF5. CONCLUSION: The results of this study emphasise the difference between those with active eating disorders who

  10. Binge eating disorder and night eating syndrome in adults with type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) among applicants to the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study. The Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) were used to screen patients. Phone int...

  11. Examining associations between adolescent binge eating and binge eating in parents and friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Wall, Melanie M; Choo, Tse-Hwei J; Bruening, Meg; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-04-01

    Binge eating is prevalent among adolescents, but little is known about how parents and friends may influence such behaviors. This study examined associations between adolescent binge eating behaviors, and similar behaviors in their parents and friends. Participants were 2,770 target adolescent boys and girls who had at least one friend and/or parent who also participated. Logistic regression, stratified by gender, examined associations between parents' and friends' self-reported binge eating, and similar behaviors in target adolescents. Girls' binge eating was associated with their male friends' (odds ratio = 2.33; p = 0.03) and fathers' binge eating (odds ratio = 3.38; p = 0.02), but not with their female friends' or mothers' binge eating (p > 0.05). For boys, binge eating was not associated with parents' or friends' behavior. Adolescent girls' binge eating is associated with similar behaviors in their other-sex parents and friends. Results should be replicated, and mechanisms explaining this relation should be further explored. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Investigation Of The Relationship of Eating Attitudes With Thought Shape Fusion, Gender and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan OKUMUSOGLU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain patologies are accepted as characterized with relevant certain cognitive distortions. Eating Disorders and Obssessive Compulsive Disorders (OCD are related in terms of comorbidite, existence of similar distortions and intrusive thoughts. Distorted cognitions related with body shape and weight are associated with eating disorders and the distorted cognition which was conceptualised as thought shape fusion is accepted as a version of thought action fusion which is commonly seen at OCD. Because of its practical and theoretical relevance the aim of the present study is investigation of the relationship of eating attitudes of individuals with thought shape fusion cognitive distortion and gender and body mass index (BMI. Participants are 73 university students with age range 18-28 (58 male. Eating Attitudes Test (EAT and Thought Shape Fusion Scale (TSFS have been used for data collection. A positive correlation was found between TSFS and EAT (r= 0.53, p=0.01 and TSFS and BMI (r=0,34, p=0,01. According to stepwise regression analysis primary predictor of TSFS scores are EAT scores; %28 of the variance of the TSFS was explained by EAT scores and when BMI and gender variables are added the explained variance is %47. Women differed with significantly higher means in terms of EAT scores. Groups were formed according to pathology cut point of EAT scale (≥30 and the group above the cut point differed with significantly higher TSFS mean scores. Results of the present study seems parallel with the claims which associates eating disorders with distorted cognitions which are expressions of intrusive thoughts similar to OCD and associated with characteristics of eating disorders as overrating of food, body weight and shape. Findings are evaluated as having practical and theoretical significance. It is hoped that after supported with future studies the findings of the present study will be useful by adding to the existing knowledge in the field which

  13. Timing of lake-level changes for a deep last-glacial Lake Missoula: optical dating of the Garden Gulch area, Montana, USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Larry N.; Sohbati, Reza; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

    2018-01-01

    Glaciolacustrine sediments in the Clark Fork River valley at Garden Gulch, near Drummond, Montana, USA record highstand positions of the ice-dammed glacial Lake Missoula and repeated subaerial exposure. During these highstands the lake was at greater than 65% of its recognized maximum capacity......-level fluctuation, occurred over time scales of decades to ∼2 ka. Bioturbated sandy slopewash dated at 10.6 ± 0.9 ka and 11.9 ± 1.2 ka unconformably overlies the upper glaciolacustrine deposits. The uppermost sediments, above the glaciolacustrine section, are younger than the Glacier Peak tephra (13.7-13.4 cal ka B...... the lake's highstand position due to ice-dam failure likely led to scour in the downstream portions of the glacial Lake Missoula basin and megafloods in the Channeled Scabland....

  14. The northern lakes of Egypt: Encounters with a wetland environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmenter, B.M.

    1991-01-01

    Five lakes fringe the northern coast of Egypt. Together they represent 25% of the remaining wetland habitat in the Mediterranean basin. Residents of these lakes traditionally exploited a wide variety of resources. Today these lakes face a number of threats to their existence, including large-scale reclamation and water pollution. Agricultural authorities, engineers, fishery managers, and conservationists in Egypt and abroad debate about how best to manage and develop the lake region's resources, but few of these groups understand or communicate with one another, or with residents of lake communities. This study explores how these various groups encounter the coastal lakes of Egypt, focusing particularly on Lakes Manzala and Burullus. Its purpose is to explore the ways in which the lakes, their resources and their inhabitants have been evaluated, and to analyze how underlying preconceptions, goals and structures of professional discourse influence such evaluations. The thesis is that environmental management is in reality not a rational plan but a process. Egypt is currently attempting to develop a coherent strategy to remedy its environmental problems without adversely affecting economic growth

  15. Family meals and disordered eating in adolescents: longitudinal findings from project EAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Eisenberg, Marla E; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Story, Mary; Larson, Nicole I

    2008-01-01

    To examine 5-year longitudinal associations between family meal frequency and disordered eating behaviors in adolescents. Longitudinal study. Participants from 31 Minnesota schools completed in-class assessments in 1999 (time 1) and mailed surveys in 2004 (time 2). Adolescents (N=2516) who completed Project EAT (Eating Among Teens)-I (time 1) and -II (time 2) assessments. Time 1 family meal frequency and time 2 disordered eating behaviors, including extreme weight control behaviors (self-induced vomiting and use of laxatives, diet pills, or diuretics), less extreme unhealthy weight control behaviors (eating very little, fasting, using food substitutes, skipping meals, or smoking), binge eating, and chronic dieting. Among adolescent girls, time 1 regular family meals (> or = 5 meals/wk) were associated with lower prevalences of time 2 extreme weight control behaviors (odds ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.97), even after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, body mass index, family connectedness, parental encouragement to diet, and extreme weight control behaviors at time 1. Associations with other disordered eating behaviors were also suggestive of a protective effect of family meals in unadjusted analyses but were not statistically significant in adjusted analyses. Among adolescent boys, regular family meals did not predict lower levels of disordered eating behaviors. The high prevalence of disordered eating behaviors among adolescent girls and the protective role of family meals suggest a need for interventions aimed at promoting family meals. Further exploration of predictors of disordered eating behaviors in adolescent boys and the role of family meals is warranted.

  16. A structured literature review on the role of mindfulness, mindful eating and intuitive eating in changing eating behaviours: effectiveness and associated potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Janet M; Smith, Nicola; Ashwell, Margaret

    2017-12-01

    The role of mindfulness, mindful eating and a newer concept of intuitive eating in modulating eating habits is an area of increasing interest. In this structured literature review, a summary of the current evidence is presented, together with details of interventions undertaken and the tools to measure outcomes. It is broad in scope given the emerging evidence base in this area. The review yielded sixty-eight publications: twenty-three interventions in obese/overweight populations; twenty-nine interventions in normal-weight populations; sixteen observational studies, three of which were carried out in overweight/obese populations. Mindfulness-based approaches appear most effective in addressing binge eating, emotional eating and eating in response to external cues. There is a lack of compelling evidence for the effectiveness of mindfulness and mindful eating in weight management. Mindfulness-based approaches may prevent weight gain. Reduced food intake was seen in some of the studies in overweight and obese populations, but this was less apparent in the studies in normal-weight populations. The evidence base for intuitive eating is limited to date and further research is needed to examine its potential in altering eating behaviours. Mindfulness appears to work by an increased awareness of internal, rather than external, cues to eat. Mindfulness and mindful eating have the potential to address problematic eating behaviours and the challenges many face with controlling their food intake. Encouraging a mindful eating approach would seem to be a positive message to be included in general weight management advice to the public.

  17. Validity of the Eating Attitudes Test: a study of Mexican eating disorders patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Rayón, G; Mancilla-Díaz, J M; Vázquez-Arévalo, R; Unikel-Santoncini, C; Caballero-Romo, A; Mercado-Corona, D

    2004-12-01

    To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Mexican version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40) in clinical and control populations in Mexico City. 276 female patients with eating disorders [52 with anorexia nervosa (AN), 102 with bulimia nervosa (BN) and 122 with eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS)] and a comparison group of 280 normal control female subjects completed the EAT. The EAT had an adequate level of internal consistency in the clinical sample (Cronbach's alpha=0.90). Total score was significantly correlated with criterion group membership (r=0.77, pBulimia, 3) Drive of thinness, 4) Food preoccupation and 5) Perceived social pressure. This study provides evidence that the Mexican version of the EAT is an economical, reliable and potentially useful instrument for research in this field.

  18. Assessment of Motivational Cognitions in Diabetes Self-Care: the Motivation Thought Frequency Scales for Glucose Testing, Physical Activity and Healthy Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Sophie C; Kavanagh, David J; Gericke, Christian A; King, Neil; May, Jon; Andrade, Jackie

    2017-06-01

    There is a need for improved measurement of motivation for diabetes self-care. The Elaborated Intrusion Theory of Desire offers a coherent framework for understanding and identifying the cognitive-affective events that constitute the subjective experience of motivation and may therefore inform the development of such an instrument. Recent research has shown the resultant Motivation Thought Frequency scale (MTF) to have a stable factor structure (Intensity, Incentives Imagery, Self-Efficacy Imagery, Availability) when applied to physical activity, excessive snacking or alcohol use in the general population. The current study aimed to confirm the four-factor structure of the MTF for glucose testing, physical activity and healthy eating in people with type 2 diabetes. Associations with self-reports of concurrent diabetic self-care behaviours were also examined. Confirmatory factor analyses tested the internal structure, and multiple regressions assessed the scale's relationship with concurrent self-care behaviours. The MTF was completed by 340 adults with type 2 diabetes, and 237 from that sample also reported self-care behaviours. Separate MTFs assessed motivation for glucose testing, physical activity and healthy eating. Self-care was assessed using questions from the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities. The MTF for each goal achieved an acceptable fit on all indices after selected errors within factors were allowed to intercorrelate. Intensity and Self-Efficacy Imagery provided the strongest and most consistent correlations with relevant self-care behaviours. Results provide preliminary support for the MTF in a diabetes sample. Testing of its sensitivity to change and its predictive utility over time is needed.

  19. A core eating network and its modulations underlie diverse eating phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Jing|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411887548; Papies, Esther K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304832766; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2016-01-01

    We propose that a core eating network and its modulations account for much of what is currently known about the neural activity underlying a wide range of eating phenomena in humans (excluding homeostasis and related phenomena). The core eating network is closely adapted from a network that Kaye,

  20. Sanctuaries for lake trout in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jon G.; Eshenroder, Randy L.; Hartman, Wilbur L.

    1987-01-01

    Populations of lake trout, severely depleted in Lake Superior and virtually extirpated from the other Great Lakes because of sea lamprey predation and intense fishing, are now maintained by annual plantings of hatchery-reared fish in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario and parts of Lake Superior. The extensive coastal areas of the Great Lakes and proximity to large populations resulted in fishing pressure on planted lake trout heavy enough to push annual mortality associated with sport and commercial fisheries well above the critical level needed to reestablish self-sustaining stocks. The interagency, international program for rehabilitating lake trout includes controlling sea lamprey abundance, stocking hatchery-reared lake trout, managing the catch, and establishing sanctuaries where harvest is prohibited. Three lake trout sanctuaries have been established in Lake Michigan: the Fox Island Sanctuary of 121, 500 ha, in the Chippewa-Ottawa Treaty fishing zone in the northern region of the lake; the Milwaukee Reef Sanctuary of 160, 000 ha in midlake, in boundary waters of Michigan and Wisconsin; and Julian's Reef Sanctuary of 6, 500 ha, in Illinois waters. In northern Lake Huron, Drummond Island Sanctuary of 55, 000 ha is two thirds in Indian treaty-ceded waters in Michigan and one third in Ontario waters of Canada. A second sanctuary, Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef Sanctuary, in central Lake Huron contains 168, 000 ha. Sanctuary status for the Canadian areas remains to be approved by the Provincial government. In Lake Superior, sanctuaries protect the spawning grounds of Gull Island Shoal (70, 000 ha) and Devils Island Shoal (44, 000 ha) in Wisconsin's Apostle Island area. These seven sanctuaries, established by the several States and agreed upon by the States, Indian tribes, the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Province of Ontario, contribute toward solving an interjurisdictional fishery problem.

  1. Cycling of modern autochthonous organic matter dominates carbon flow in lakes of north central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogard, M.; Striegl, R. G.; Holtgrieve, G. W.; Kuhn, C.; Dornblaser, M.; Butman, D. E.

    2017-12-01

    Boreal and subarctic regions of the world are warming faster than anywhere else on earth, and undergoing rapid climatic and hydrologic changes. Much of this landscape is underlain by organic carbon (OC)-rich permafrost, and it is hypothesized that climate-induced environmental changes could positively reinforce climatic shifts via an increased delivery of terrestrial OC to aquatic networks. Increased OC terrestrial OC export could potentially result in greater aquatic OC mineralization and greenhouse gas production. Currently, a lack of ecosystem-level data precludes our understanding of aquatic OC processing for the vast majority of this remote northern area. To address this knowledge gap, we quantified whole-lake metabolism, limnological-, and hydrological characteristics across multiple seasons in a diverse set of lakes in the Yukon River Basin (YRB), Alaska. Intense gross primary production (GPP) and autotrophic net ecosystem production (NEP = GPP - respiration [R]) was common across lakes in spring, followed by a spatially synchronous shift toward heterotrophy (NEP origin, suggesting shifts in NEP were fueled by the recently fixed, lake OC. By scaling our metabolic estimates to the entire YRB, we found mineralization of terrestrial OC in lakes likely accounts for < 1% of terrestrial net primary production on an annual scale. We conclude that flows of autochthonous OC drive C cycling in most YRB lakes, that ancient permafrost-OC currently contributes little to heterotrophic processes in YRB lakes, and that the lakes play little role in remineralizing terrestrial organic material at the whole-catchment scale.

  2. LakeSST: Lake Skin Surface Temperature in French inland water bodies for 1999-2016 from Landsat archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, Jordi; Reynaud, Nathalie; Rebière, Delphine; Peroux, Tiphaine; Tormos, Thierry; Danis, Pierre-Alain

    2018-04-01

    The spatial and temporal coverage of the Landsat satellite imagery make it an ideal resource for the monitoring of water temperature over large territories at a moderate spatial and temporal scale at a low cost. We used Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 archive images to create the Lake Skin Surface Temperature (LakeSST) data set, which contains skin water surface temperature data for 442 French water bodies (natural lakes, reservoirs, ponds, gravel pit lakes and quarry lakes) for the period 1999-2016. We assessed the quality of the satellite temperature measurements by comparing them to in situ measurements and taking into account the cool skin and warm layer effects. To estimate these effects and to investigate the theoretical differences between the freshwater and seawater cases, we adapted the COARE 3.0 algorithm to the freshwater environment. We also estimated the warm layer effect using in situ data. At the reservoir of Bimont, the estimated cool skin effect was about -0.3 and -0.6 °C most of time, while the warm layer effect at 0.55 m was negligible on average, but could occasionally attain several degrees, and a cool layer was often observed in the night. The overall RMSE of the satellite-derived temperature measurements was about 1.2 °C, similar to other applications of satellite images to estimate freshwater surface temperatures. The LakeSST data can be used for studies on the temporal evolution of lake water temperature and for geographical studies of temperature patterns. The LakeSST data are available at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1193745" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1193745.

  3. Gender Role Orientation with Health Literacy and Self-Efficacy for Healthy Eating among Japanese Workers in Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Chizuru; Ishikawa, Hirono; Okada, Masafumi; Kato, Mio; Okuhara, Tsuyoshi; Kiuchi, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Gender role, independent of biological sex, affects health. However, research on healthy eating that considers the importance of gender norms is scarce. People who are androgynous and have high masculinity and femininity are reported to have better health practices than other people. The present study aimed to examine the differences in health literacy (HL) and self-efficacy for healthy eating by gender role in Japanese men and women. Participants were 629 men and women aged 25-34 years, recruited via a Japanese Internet research company database. Participants were categorized into four gender role groups using the Japanese Gender Role Index. HL and self-efficacy for healthy eating were assessed using the healthy eating literacy (HEL) scale and the healthy eating and weight self-efficacy (HEWSE) scale. Analysis of variance with Bonferroni-adjusted post hoc tests and hierarchical multiple regression were used to test the research hypotheses. We found that the Androgynous group had significantly higher HEL and HEWSE scores than the Feminine and Undifferentiated groups. The Masculine group scored significantly higher on both measures than the Undifferentiated group. Being Androgynous (HEL: β = 0.34, p gender role orientation and individual HL and self-efficacy for healthy eating. These findings may be relevant for promoting healthy eating from the perspective of gender norms.

  4. Repeated trans-watershed hybridization among haplochromine cichlids (Cichlidae) was triggered by Neogene landscape evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, Julia; Swartz, Ernst Roelof; Vreven, Emmanuel; Snoeks, Jos; Cotterill, Fenton Peter David; Misof, Bernhard; Schliewen, Ulrich Kurt

    2012-11-07

    The megadiverse haplochromine cichlid radiations of the East African lakes, famous examples of explosive speciation and adaptive radiation, are according to recent studies, introgressed by different riverine lineages. This study is based on the first comprehensive mitochondrial and nuclear DNA dataset from extensive sampling of riverine haplochromine cichlids. It includes species from the lower River Congo and Angolan (River Kwanza) drainages. Reconstruction of phylogenetic hypotheses revealed the paradox of clearly discordant phylogenetic signals. Closely related mtDNA haplotypes are distributed thousands of kilometres apart and across major African watersheds, whereas some neighbouring species carry drastically divergent mtDNA haplotypes. At shallow and deep phylogenetic layers, strong signals of hybridization are attributed to the complex Late Miocene/Early Pliocene palaeohistory of African rivers. Hybridization of multiple lineages across changing watersheds shaped each of the major haplochromine radiations in lakes Tanganyika, Victoria, Malawi and the Kalahari Palaeolakes, as well as a miniature species flock in the Congo basin (River Fwa). On the basis of our results, introgression occurred not only on a spatially restricted scale, but massively over almost the whole range of the haplochromine distribution. This provides an alternative view on the origin and exceptional high diversity of this enigmatic vertebrate group.

  5. Technologies for lake restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut KLAPPER

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Lakes are suffering from different stress factors and need to be restored using different approaches. The eutrophication remains as the main water quality management problem for inland waters: both lakes and reservoirs. The way to curb the degradation is to stop the nutrient sources and to accelerate the restoration with help of in-lake technologies. Especially lakes with a long retention time need (eco- technological help to decrease the nutrient content in the free water. The microbial and other organic matter from sewage and other autochthonous biomasses, causes oxygen depletion, which has many adverse effects. In less developed countries big reservoirs function as sewage treatment plants. Natural aeration solves problems only partly and many pollutants tend to accumulate in the sediments. The acidification by acid rain and by pyrite oxidation has to be controlled by acid neutralizing technologies. Addition of alkaline chemicals is useful only for soft waters, and technologies for (microbial alkalinization of very acidic hardwater mining lakes are in development. The corrective measures differ from those in use for eutrophication control. The salinization and water shortage mostly occurs if more water is used than available. L. Aral, L. Tschad, the Dead Sea or L. Nasser belong to waters with most severe environmental problems on a global scale. Their hydrologic regime needs to be evaluated. The inflow of salt water at the bottom of some mining lakes adds to stability of stratification, and thus accumulation of hydrogen sulphide in the monimolimnion of the meromictic lakes. Destratification, which is the most used technology, is only restricted applicable because of the dangerous concentrations of the byproducts of biological degradation. The contamination of lakes with hazardous substances from industry and agriculture require different restoration technologies, including subhydric isolation and storage, addition of nutrients for better self

  6. Eating Disorders in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available According to International Classification of Diseases by World Health Organization, eating disorders are behavioural syndromes associated with physiological disturbances [1]. Eating disorders include anorexia nervosa, atypical anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, atypical bulimia nervosa, overeating associated with other psychological disturbances and vomiting associated with other psychological disturbances [1]. Maladaptive eating pattern and inadequate physical activity are seen in adolescents with eating disorders and obesity [2]. Those with comorbid eating disorder and obesity have a poorer prognosis and are at higher risk for future medical problems.

  7. Emotion suppression, emotional eating, and eating behavior among parent-adolescent dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rebecca A; Green, Paige A; Oh, April Y; Hennessy, Erin; Dwyer, Laura A

    2017-10-01

    Emotion suppression may lead to ironic increases in emotional experience. More important, suppression is a transactional process, creating stress and disrupting interactions for the suppressor and those in social interactions with individuals who are suppressing emotion. However, no research has examined the behavioral consequences of emotion suppression in close relationships. We examine the possibility that emotion suppression will predict eating behaviors as a secondary emotion regulatory strategy among 1,556 parent-adolescent dyads (N = 3,112), consistent with evidence suggesting that suppression influences eating at the individual-level. Actor-partner interdependence models and structural equation modeling demonstrate that one's own emotion suppression was associated with emotional eating; greater consumption of hedonic-low nutrient, high energy dense-foods; and lower consumption of fruits and vegetables (actor effects). One's partner's emotion suppression was also independently associated with one's own emotional eating; lower consumption of fruits and vegetables; and greater consumption of hedonic foods (partner effects), although this association was most consistent for adolescents' suppression and parents' eating (compared with the converse). These analyses suggest that dyadic emotion regulatory processes have implications on eating behavior. Moreover, analyses suggest that emotion suppression has potential implications on eating behaviors of others within close relationships with a suppressor, consistent with the notion that emotion regulation is a transactional process. These findings suggest that interventions to improve eating habits of parents and their adolescent children should consider dyadic emotion regulatory processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Solar and atmospheric forcing on mountain lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoto, Tomi P; Nevalainen, Liisa

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the influence of long-term external forcing on aquatic communities in Alpine lakes. Fossil microcrustacean (Cladocera) and macrobenthos (Chironomidae) community variability in four Austrian high-altitude lakes, determined as ultra-sensitive to climate change, were compared against records of air temperature, North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and solar forcing over the past ~400years. Summer temperature variability affected both aquatic invertebrate groups in all study sites. The influence of NAO and solar forcing on aquatic invertebrates was also significant in the lakes except in the less transparent lake known to have remained uniformly cold during the past centuries due to summertime snowmelt input. The results suggest that external forcing plays an important role in these pristine ecosystems through their impacts on limnology of the lakes. Not only does the air temperature variability influence the communities but also larger-scale external factors related to atmospheric circulation patterns and solar activity cause long-term changes in high-altitude aquatic ecosystems, through their connections to hydroclimatic conditions and light environment. These findings are important in the assessment of climate change impacts on aquatic ecosystems and in greater understanding of the consequences of external forcing on lake ontogeny. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mindfulness-based eating awareness training for treating binge eating disorder: the conceptual foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristeller, Jean L; Wolever, Ruth Q

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the conceptual foundation of mindfulness-based eating awareness training (MB-EAT). It provides an overview of key therapeutic components as well as a brief review of current research. MB-EAT is a group intervention that was developed for treatment of binge eating disorder (BED) and related issues. BED is marked by emotional, behavioral and physiological disregulation in relation to food intake and self-identity. MB-EAT involves training in mindfulness meditation and guided mindfulness practices that are designed to address the core issues of BED: controlling responses to varying emotional states; making conscious food choices; developing an awareness of hunger and satiety cues; and cultivating self-acceptance. Evidence to date supports the value of MB-EAT in decreasing binge episodes, improving one's sense of self-control with regard to eating, and diminishing depressive symptoms.

  10. Emotion Regulation as a Transdiagnostic Feature Among Eating Disorders: Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Vintró-Alcaraz, Cristina; Sánchez, Isabel; Riesco, Nadine; Agüera, Zaida; Granero, Roser; Jiménez-Múrcia, Susana; Menchón, José M; Treasure, Janet; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Emotion regulation (ER) difficulties are observed in eating disorders (EDs). However, few studies have explored ER before and after treatment. The aims are as follows: to explore ER difficulties across ED types and a healthy control (HC) group (Study 1) and to assess pretreatment and post-treatment changes among ED types (Study 2). In Study 1, adult women with EDs (n = 438) and HC (n = 126) completed an assessment including Eating Disorders Inventory-2, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Patients in Study 2 (n = 69) were also reassessed after treatment. All ED types reported worse ER compared with HC (p eating disorder might be enhanced by targeting ER skills. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  11. Relationship between needs driving eating occasions and eating behavior in midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Noriko; Degeneffe, Dennis; Vue, Houa; Ghosh, Koel; Reicks, Marla

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the relationship between type of eating occasion based on need state segments experienced by 200 midlife women (46+/-6 years) and food group, nutrient, and energy intake. Women completed an Eating Occasion Questionnaire for 3 eating occasions over a 3-day period for which they maintained diet records. Cluster analysis segmented 559 eating occasions into six need states. Energy, total fat, and cholesterol consumption per occasion were highest in "routine family meal" occasions of which more than 60% were dinner and eaten at home with their children. The percentage of eating occasions in which fruits/vegetables were eaten was also highest in "routine family meal," followed by "healthy regimen." More than half of "indulgent escape" eating occasions occurred away from home and about one-third were experienced as a snack. Saturated fat and sweets intakes were the highest in the "indulgent escapes" occasions. Eating occasions experienced by women according to needs surrounding the occasion should be considered when developing tailored interventions to improve intake.

  12. Evolution of alkaline lakes - Lake Van case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman Meyer, Felix; Viehberg, Finn; Bahroun, Sonya; Wolf, Annabel; Immenhauser, Adrian; Kwiecien, Ola

    2017-04-01

    Lake Van in Eastern Anatolia (Turkey) is the largest terminal soda lake on Earth. The lake sedimentary profile covers ca. 600 ka (Stockhecke et al. 2014) Based on lithological changes, the presence of freshwater microfossils and close-to-freshwater pH value in the pore water, members of ICDP PALEOVAN concluded that Lake Van might have started as an open lake. Here we show paleontological and geochemical evidence in favour of this idea and constrain the time, when Lake Van likely transformed into a closed lake. Additionally we provide the first conceptual model of how this closure may have happened. Our archives of choice are inorganic and biogenic carbonates, separated by wet sieving. We identified microfossil assemblages (fraction > 125 µm) and performed high-resolution oxygen isotope (delta18O) and elemental (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca) analyses of the fraction plants growing in the photic zone as food supply. These two aspects point to an increasing salinity in a shallowing lake. The delta18O values of inorganic carbonates are relatively low during the initial phase of Lake Van and increase abruptly (ca. 7‰) after 530 ka BP. At approximately the same time combination of Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca data suggest first occurrence of aragonite. Again, these findings suggest geochemical changes of the lake water concurrent with transition documented by microfossils. Comparison between Lake Van and Lake Ohrid (Lacey et al. 2016) delta18O data, precludes regional climate change (e.g.: increased evaporation) as the main driver of observed changes. With no evidence for increased volcanic or tectonic activity (e.g.: tephra layers, deformation structures, slumping) in the Lake Van sedimentary profile around 530 ka, it seems unlikely that a pyroclastic flow blocked the outflow of the lake. Alternatively, a portion of inflow has been diverged which might have caused a change in the hydrological balance and lake level falling below its outlet. However, as no geomorphological data confirming this

  13. The Science Behind the Academy for Eating Disorders' Nine Truths About Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumberg, Katherine; Welch, Elisabeth; Breithaupt, Lauren; Hübel, Christopher; Baker, Jessica H; Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Ehrlich, Stefan; Mustelin, Linda; Ghaderi, Ata; Hardaway, Andrew J; Bulik-Sullivan, Emily C; Hedman, Anna M; Jangmo, Andreas; Nilsson, Ida A K; Wiklund, Camilla; Yao, Shuyang; Seidel, Maria; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2017-11-01

    In 2015, the Academy for Eating Disorders collaborated with international patient, advocacy, and parent organizations to craft the 'Nine Truths About Eating Disorders'. This document has been translated into over 30 languages and has been distributed globally to replace outdated and erroneous stereotypes about eating disorders with factual information. In this paper, we review the state of the science supporting the 'Nine Truths'. The literature supporting each of the 'Nine Truths' was reviewed, summarized and richly annotated. Most of the 'Nine Truths' arise from well-established foundations in the scientific literature. Additional evidence is required to further substantiate some of the assertions in the document. Future investigations are needed in all areas to deepen our understanding of eating disorders, their causes and their treatments. The 'Nine Truths About Eating Disorders' is a guiding document to accelerate global dissemination of accurate and evidence-informed information about eating disorders. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  14. Promotion orientation explains why future-oriented people exercise and eat healthy: evidence from the two-factor consideration of future consequences-14 scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joireman, Jeff; Shaffer, Monte J; Balliet, Daniel; Strathman, Alan

    2012-10-01

    The authors extended research linking individual differences in consideration of future consequences (CFC) with health behaviors by (a) testing whether individual differences in regulatory focus would mediate that link and (b) highlighting the value of a revised, two-factor CFC-14 scale with subscales assessing concern with future consequences (CFC-Future) and concern with immediate consequences (CFC-Immediate) proper. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the revised CFC-14 scale supported the presence of two highly reliable factors (CFC-Future and CFC-Immediate; αs from .80 to .84). Moreover, structural equation modeling showed that those high in CFC-Future engage in exercise and healthy eating because they adopt a promotion orientation. Future use of the two-factor CFC-14 scale is encouraged to shed additional light on how concern with future and concern with immediate consequences (proper) differentially impact the way people resolve a host of intertemporal dilemmas (e.g., health, financial, and environmental behavior).

  15. [Self-esteem: a comparison study between eating disorders and social phobia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiber, R; Vera, L; Mirabel-Sarron, C; Guelfi, J-D

    2003-01-01

    Eating disorder patients evidenced very often a low self-esteem. Self-esteem in eating disorder patients is excessively based on body dissatisfaction. In eating disorders there seems to be a link between body image dissatisfaction and social anxiety. We hypothesised: self-esteem would be as low in eating disorder patients as in social phobia patients; self-esteem would be lower in eating disorder patients with social phobia than in patients with social phobia alone; self-esteem would be lower in eating disorder patients with depressive cognitions than in social phobia patients with depressive cognitions; self-esteem could have different characteristics in the two disorders; self-esteem would be as low in anorexia as in bulimia; 103 eating disorder patients (33 restrictive anorectics, 34 anorectics-bulimics, 36 bulimics) and 26 social phobia patients diagnosed according to DSM IV and ICD-10 criteria have been investigated by the Self-Esteem Inventory of Coopersmith, the Assertiveness Schedule of Rathus, the Fear Survey Schedule of Wolpe (FSS III) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Patients were free of medication and presented no episode of major depression according to DSM IV criteria. Evaluations took place before any psychotherapy. Self-esteem in eating disorder patients is reduced at the same level as in social phobia patients; 86.1% of the total sample and 84.5% of the eating disorder patients have a very low self-esteem (score 33 in the SEI). Eating disorder patients have significantly higher scores in the Social (p=0.016) and Professional (p=0.0225) sub-scales of the SEI than social phobia patients. Eating disorder patients show higher scores on the Assertiveness Schedule of Rathus (p=0.0013) than social phobia patients. Eating disorder patients disclose higher scores on the BDI (p=0.0003) but eating disorder patients with depressive cognitions do not differ from social phobia patients with depressive cognitions in the level of self-esteem. The FSS III

  16. Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA): clinical norms and functional impairment in male and female adults with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Camilla Lindvall; Stedal, Kristin; Rø, Øyvind

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to collect clinical normative data for the Clinical Impairment Assessment questionnaire (CIA) and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) from adult patients with eating disorders (EDs). This study also examined unique contributions of eating disorder (ED) symptoms on levels of ED-related impairment. A sample of 667 patients, 620 females and 47 males, was recruited from six specialist centres across Norway. The majority of the sample (40.3%) was diagnosed with eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS), 34.5% had bulimia nervosa (BN), and 25.2% were diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN). There were significant differences for global EDE-Q and CIA scores between females and males. In the female sample, significant differences were found on several EDE-Q sub-scales between the AN and BN group, and between the AN and EDNOS group. No significant differences were found between the diagnostic groups on the CIA. In the male sample, no significant differences were found between diagnostic groups on the EDE-Q or CIA. A multiple regression analysis revealed that 46.8% of the variance in impairment as measured by the CIA was accounted for by ED symptoms. Body mass index, Eating Concern, Shape/Weight Concern, and binge eating served as significant, unique predictors of impairment. The results from the present study contribute to the interpretation of EDE-Q and CIA scores in ED samples.

  17. Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and...

  18. What's that you're eating? Social comparison and eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivy, Janet

    2017-01-01

    People seem to have a basic drive to assess the correctness of their opinions, abilities, and emotions. Without absolute indicators of these qualities, people rely on a comparison of themselves with others. Social comparison theory can be applied to eating behavior. For example, restrained eaters presented with a standard slice of pizza ate more of a subsequent food if they thought that they had gotten a bigger slice of pizza than others (i.e., had broken their diets), whereas unrestrained eaters ate less. Social influences on eating such as modeling and impression formation also rely on comparison of one's own eating to others. Comparing one's food to others' meals generally influences eating, affect, and satisfaction.

  19. Social safeness and disordered eating: Exploring underlying mechanisms of body appreciation and inflexible eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Catarina; Ferreira, Cláudia; Mendes, Ana Laura; Trindade, Inês A

    2017-06-01

    Feelings of social safeness and connectedness have been associated with adaptive emotion regulation processes and well-being indicators. Further, literature has demonstrated that interpersonal experiences play an important role in the etiology and maintenance of body and eating psychopathology. However, the study of the role of social variables and emotion regulation processes in the engagement in inflexible eating rules and eating psychopathology is still in its early stages. The current study aims to fill some gaps within the literature and explore the mediator role of body appreciation and inflexible eating rules in the link between social safeness and disordered eating. Participants were 253 women, aged between 18 and 50 years old, who completed a series of online self-report measures. Results from the tested path analysis model showed that social safeness holds a significant effect on eating psychopathology, through the mechanisms of body appreciation and inflexible eating rules. Also, results suggested that women who present higher levels of social safeness tend to present a more positive and respectful attitude towards their body and decreased adoption of inflexible eating rules, which seem to explain lower levels of disordered eating behaviours. These findings seem to present empirical support for the development of intervention programs that promote a positive, affectionate and healthy relationship with one's body image, in order to prevent the inflexible adherence to eating rules and disordered eating behaviours.