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Sample records for lake powell center

  1. Lake tourism fatalities: a 46-year history of death at Lake Powell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, Travis W

    2018-05-01

    This study investigates tourist mortality at Lake Powell over a 46-year period. To date no comprehensive long-term investigation examining the relationship between the lake environment and tourist mortality exists. A retrospective study was conducted of all tourist fatalities between 1959 and 2005. There were 351 fatal incidents resulting in 386 deaths between 1959 and 2005. Over the 46-year period, the average number of fatalities was 8.4 (±5.26) per year. Out of all fatalities, 282 were classified as accidental, 80 were classified as natural deaths, 13 were suicides and 5 were classified as homicides. Males accounted for 80% of fatalities and tourists aged 20-29 years and 10-19 years accounted for 36% of all fatalities. The highest number of fatalities was recorded in July (74), May (64), August (63) and June (59). Out of all accidental deaths, boating (29%) and swimming (22%) were the most common pre-death activities. High winds capsizing boats and carbon monoxide poisoning from boat engines were common factors contributing to 31 boating fatalities. Fatigue and exhaustion contributed to 22 swimming deaths. Recreational boating and swimming account for over half of all accidental deaths. Tourists visiting Lake Powell for recreational purposes should be informed of the risks associated with the lake environment.

  2. The correlation and quantification of airborne spectroradiometer data to turbidity measurements at Lake Powell, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    A water sampling program was accomplished at Lake Powell, Utah, during June 1975 for correlation to multispectral data obtained with a 500-channel airborne spectroradiometer. Field measurements were taken of percentage of light transmittance, surface temperature, pH and Secchi disk depth. Percentage of light transmittance was also measured in the laboratory for the water samples. Analyses of electron micrographs and suspended sediment concentration data for four water samples located at Hite Bridge, Mile 168, Mile 150 and Bullfrog Bay indicated differences in the composition and concentration of the particulate matter. Airborne spectroradiometer multispectral data were analyzed for the four sampling locations. The results showed that: (1) as the percentage of light transmittance of the water samples decreased, the reflected radiance increased; and (2) as the suspended sediment concentration (mg/l) increased, the reflected radiance increased in the 1-80 mg/l range. In conclusion, valuable qualitative information was obtained on surface turbidity for the Lake Powell water spectra. Also, the reflected radiance measured at a wavelength of 0.58 micron was directly correlated to the suspended sediment concentration.

  3. Scoping Summary Report: Development of Lower Basin Shortage Guidelines and Coordinated Management Strategies for Lake Powell and Lake Mead, Particularly Under Low Reservoir Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation

    2006-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) acting on behalf of the Secretary of the Department of the Interior (Secretary) proposes to take action to adopt specific Colorado River Lower Basin shortage guidelines and coordinated reservoir management strategies to address operations of Lake Powell and Lake Mead, particularly under low reservoir conditions. This proposed Action will provide a greater degree of certainty to all water users and managers in the Colorado River Basin by providing more d...

  4. The presence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and inorganic elements in water and lakebed materials and the potential for bioconcentration in biota at established sampling sites on Lake Powell, Utah and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonauer, Kurt T.; Hart, Robert J.; Antweiler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    The National Park Service is responsible for monitoring the effects of visitor use on the quality of water, lakebed material (bottom sediments), and biota, in Lake Powell, Utah and Arizona. A sampling program was begun in 2010 to assess the presence, distribution, and concentrations of organic and inorganic compounds in the water column and bottom sediment. In response to an Environmental Impact Statement regarding personal watercraft and as a continuation from previous studies by the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, water samples were collected and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using semipermeable membrane devices and inorganic elements using a fixed-bottle sampler deployed at established monitoring sites during 2010 and 2011. Lakebed material samples were also analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and inorganic elements, some of which could be harmful to aquatic biota if present at concentrations above established aquatic life criteria. Of the 44 PAH compounds analyzed, 26 individual compounds were detected above the censoring limit in the water column by semipermeable membrane devices. The highest number of compounds detected were at Lone Rock Beach, Wahweap Marina, Rainbow Bridge National Monument, and Antelope Marina which are all located in the southern part of Lake Powell where visitation and boat use is high. Because PAHs can remain near their source, the potential for bioconcentration is highest near these sites. The PAH compound found in the highest concentration was phenol (5,902 nanograms per liter), which is included in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s priority pollutants list. The dissolved inorganic chemistry of water samples measured at the sampling sites in Lake Powell defined three different patterns of elements: (1) concentrations were similar between sites in the upper part of the lake near Farley Canyon downstream to Halls Crossing Marina, a

  5. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  6. Biological data for water in Lake Powell and from Glen Canyon Dam releases, Utah and Arizona, 1990–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernieu, William S.

    2015-10-06

    Biological samples from various locations on Lake Powell and in the Colorado River in the tail water downstream of Glen Canyon Dam were collected by the Bureau of Reclamation and U.S. Geological Survey from December 1990 through December 2009 as part of a long-term water-quality monitoring program that began in 1964. These samples consisted of discrete (1-m deep) chlorophyll samples, discrete (1-m deep) wholewater phytoplankton samples, and 30-m vertically composited zooplankton samples filtered through an 80-µm plankton net. Chlorophyll concentration was determined by acetone extraction followed by trichromatic spectroscopy on 2,051 samples. Phytoplankton analysis consisted of identification to the genus or species level, enumeration, and estimation of biovolume on 1,397 samples. Phytoplankton analysis identified 646 different phytoplankton taxa. Zooplankton analysis consisted of identification to the genus or species level, enumeration, and estimation of biomass from 1,898 samples. Zooplankton analysis identified 114 different zooplankton taxa.

  7. Art, Boys, and the Boy Scout Movement: Lord Baden-Powell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, F. Graeme; Dancer, Andrea A.

    2007-01-01

    Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell (1857-1941), founder of the Boy Scout Movement in 1907, was a British military hero during the Boer War. Within an ethos and era of empire-building, athleticism, soldier-heroes and the pursuit of "manliness," Baden-Powell valued the arts and adapted his artistic skill to his wartime and Scouting activities. His…

  8. Enoch Powell, Empires, Immigrants and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Sally

    2018-01-01

    2018 marks the 50th anniversary of Enoch Powell's infamous "Rivers of Blood" speech, an intervention that is still viewed as one of the most incendiary statements of the perceived decay and violence likely to follow legislation intended to assure minoritised British citizens of equal rights regardless of their ethnic origin. In this…

  9. PAGES-Powell North America 2k database

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, N.

    2014-12-01

    Syntheses of paleoclimate data in North America are essential for understanding long-term spatiotemporal variability in climate and for properly assessing risk on decadal and longer timescales. Existing reconstructions of the past 2,000 years rely almost exclusively on tree-ring records, which can underestimate low-frequency variability and rarely extend beyond the last millennium. Meanwhile, many records from the full spectrum of paleoclimate archives are available and hold the potential of enhancing our understanding of past climate across North America over the past 2000 years. The second phase of the Past Global Changes (PAGES) North America 2k project began in 2014, with a primary goal of assembling these disparate paleoclimate records into a unified database. This effort is currently supported by the USGS Powell Center together with PAGES. Its success requires grassroots support from the community of researchers developing and interpreting paleoclimatic evidence relevant to the past 2000 years. Most likely, fewer than half of the published records appropriate for this database are publicly archived, and far fewer include the data needed to quantify geochronologic uncertainty, or to concisely describe how best to interpret the data in context of a large-scale paleoclimatic synthesis. The current version of the database includes records that (1) have been published in a peer-reviewed journal (including evidence of the record's relationship to climate), (2) cover a substantial portion of the past 2000 yr (>300 yr for annual records, >500 yr for lower frequency records) at relatively high resolution (<50 yr/observation), and (3) have reasonably small and quantifiable age uncertainty. Presently, the database includes records from boreholes, ice cores, lake and marine sediments, speleothems, and tree rings. This poster presentation will display the site locations and basic metadata of the records currently in the database. We invite anyone with interest in

  10. Toxicological evaluation of a lake ecosystem contaminated with crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twigg, D.; Ramey, B.

    1995-01-01

    Winona Lake on the Daniel Boone National Forest in Powell County, Kentucky, was used from the mid 1950's to 1987 as a water source for water-injection oil drilling and as a brine disposal site. The lake was contaminated with excessive amounts of crude oil. A multi phase investigation was conducted, including chemical analysis of water and sediment, water toxicity tests using a cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia, sediment toxicity tests using an amphipod, Hyalella azteca, and a faunal survey of the communities of the lake and stream both above and below the lake. The sediment was laden with petroleum hydrocarbons (4.1 parts per thousand), while the water showed no contamination. The C dubia test results showed no significant water toxicity. The contaminated sediment adjacent to the dam produced 75% mortality in H. azteca. The faunal survey indicated little or no impact on the upstream and downstream communities but the lake community was highly impacted, especially the benthos. Pollution tolerant Chaoborus sp. were the only organisms collected from sediment samples dredged from the lake. Contamination was limited to the sediment within the lake but the impact on the entire lake community was severe

  11. Baden-Powell on teeth: a centenary perspective of a pioneer of preventive dental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, J

    2008-01-12

    In the era when dental care, particularly preventive dental health, did not enjoy a high public profile, Lieut-General (later Lord) Robert Baden-Powell (1857-1941) was an influential advocate for the care of the teeth. He was a pioneer in a targeted outreach to youth, specifically boys and young men, emphasising the importance of dental health as an essential part of total body health and fitness. In his book, Scouting for boys, first published on 1 May 1908, he described personal accounts of the consequences of the neglect of oral hygiene and presented advice on how to make an effective 'camp tooth-brush' in order that dental hygiene would not be compromised even under the exigencies of conditions away from home. Baden-Powell wrote explicitly that daily dental hygiene was the single most important 'one civilised thing [teenage youths] could do', irrespective of one's physical circumstances. Scouting for boys was for more than five decades the world's best seller in English, after the Bible. It has run to, and now surpasses, 60 million copies in 30 languages and has been published in 35 editions. It is believed that Baden-Powell's frank and direct exhortations to preserve the teeth, with simple and direct advice on food and what today would be called oral hygiene, have been read by 350 million people throughout the world. His advocacy reached out to boys and young men as it does today to youths of both sexes in that 'window of opportunity' when life-long habits of healthcare are being inculcated and when important components of secondary dentition are forming. This paper is a centenary perspective of Baden-Powell's pioneering advocacy of modern preventive dental health.

  12. Utilization of a Marketing Strategy at Naval Regional Medical Center Great Lakes, Great Lakes, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    22 Analysis of the Mare.....................22 Development of the Marketing Mix .. .......... 29 A Marketing Mix --Recommendations...problem. Marketing strategy, marketing mix and ultimately the marketing orientation will allow hospitals to persevere and possibly thrive in a somewhat...market are currently being met at Naval Regional Medical Center Great Lakes. The fourth objective is to demonstrate an appropriate marketing mix for

  13. Eddy Powell 1939 - 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    We were saddened to learn that Eddy Powell had passed away on Saturday 26 July after a long illness. Eddy had so many friends at CERN and made such a contribution to the Organisation that it is impossible that his passing goes without comment. Eddy was born in England on 4 August 1939 and, after serving his apprenticeship with the U.K. Ministry of Defence, he joined CERN in September 1965. As an electrical design draftsman with the Synchro-cyclotron Division he played an important role in the upgrades of that machine in the early 1970's, particularly on the RF systems and later on the development of the ISOLDE facility. This brought him into close contact with many of the technical support services in CERN and, unlike many of his compatriots, he acquired a remarkably good fluency in French. Always inquisitive on the physics carried out at CERN, he spent a great deal of time learning from physicists and engineers at all levels. When he felt sufficiently confident he became a CERN Guide for general public visit...

  14. Risks of vaginal breech delivery at term compared with elective cesarean section - reply to comments by Walker and Powell, and Sholapurkar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlemmix, Floortje; Mol, Ben Willem; Kok, Marjolein

    2015-01-01

    We thank both Walker and Powell (1), as well as Sholapurkar (2) for their interest in our work. Walker and Powell note that the risk of neonatal mortality for planned vaginal breech delivery (VBD) in our study is lower than the mortality reported in the term breech trial and comparable to the risk

  15. USA peab senist kurssi jätkama / Colin L. Powell ; tõlk. Marek Laane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Powell, Colin L.

    2003-01-01

    USA riigisekretär Colin Powell kinnitab, et Ameerika Ühendriikidel tuleb Iraagis ja Afganistanis jätkata demokratiseerimispoliitikat. Artikkel on kirjutataud Colin Powelli 10. nov. City College of New Yorkis peetud kõne põhjal

  16. Nonlinear convective flow of Powell-Erying magneto nanofluid with Newtonian heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Qayyum

    Full Text Available Objective of present article is to describe magnetohydrodynamic (MHD non-linear convective flow of Powell-Erying nanofluid over a stretching surface. Characteristics of Newtonian heat and mass conditions in this attempt is given attention. Heat and mass transfer analysis is examined in the frame of thermal radiation and chemical reaction. Brownian motion and thermophoresis concept is introduced due to presence of nanoparticles. Nonlinear equations of momentum, energy and concentration are transformed into dimensionless expression by invoking suitable variables. The series solutions are obtained through homotopy analysis method (HAM. Impact of embedded variables on the velocity, temperature and nanoparticles concentration is graphically presented. Numerical values of skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are computed and analyzed. It is concluded that velocity field enhances for fluid variable while reverse situation is noticed regarding Hartman number. Temperature and heat transfer rate behave quite reverse for Prandtl number. It is also noted that the concentration and local Sherwood number have opposite behavior in the frame of Brownian motion. Keywords: Powell-Erying nanofluid, Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD, Nonlinear convection, Thermal radiation, Chemical reaction, Newtonian heat and mass conditions

  17. Surface-water and ground-water quality in the Powell Creek and Armstrong Creek Watersheds, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, July-September 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeone, Daniel G.; Low, Dennis J.

    2003-01-01

    Powell Creek and Armstrong Creek Watersheds are in Dauphin County, north of Harrisburg, Pa. The completion of the Dauphin Bypass Transportation Project in 2001 helped to alleviate traffic congestion from these watersheds to Harrisburg. However, increased development in Powell Creek and Armstrong Creek Watersheds is expected. The purpose of this study was to establish a baseline for future projects in the watersheds so that the effects of land-use changes on water quality can be documented. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) (2002) indicates that surface water generally is good in the 71 perennial stream miles in the watersheds. PADEP lists 11.1 stream miles within the Armstrong Creek and 3.2 stream miles within the Powell Creek Watersheds as impaired or not meeting water-quality standards. Siltation from agricultural sources and removal of vegetation along stream channels are cited by PADEP as likely factors causing this impairment.

  18. Synthetic Biology and the Moral Significance of Artificial Life: A Reply to Douglas, Powell and Savulescu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    I discuss the moral significance of artificial life within synthetic biology via a discussion of Douglas, Powell and Savulescu's paper 'Is the creation of artificial life morally significant'. I argue that the definitions of 'artificial life' and of 'moral significance' are too narrow. Douglas, Powell and Savulescu's definition of artificial life does not capture all core projects of synthetic biology or the ethical concerns that have been voiced, and their definition of moral significance fails to take into account the possibility that creating artificial life is conditionally acceptable. Finally, I show how several important objections to synthetic biology are plausibly understood as arguing that creating artificial life in a wide sense is only conditionally acceptable. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Final report. Conceptual studies nuclear energy center Lake Hartwell, S.C., Phase III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This document summarizes a conceptual study on the feasibility and practicality of developing a nuclear energy center (NEC) at a specific site in the SSEB region. The site selected for this conceptual study is at Lake Hartwell, South Carolina. The conceptual NEC at Lake Hartwell consists of twelve nuclear electric generating units, arranged on the site in four clusters of three units each, known as triads. The nominal distance between triads was selected as 2-1/2 miles. Each unit was assumed to be a 1250 MW(e). The total electric output of 15,000 MWe would be transmitted to five major utilities in South Carolina, North Carolina, and Georgia. The basic finding was that the concept of a NEC on the Lake Hartwell site is feasible, but further analysis of institutional issues and possible legislation would be required

  20. Significance of population centers as sources of gaseous and dissolved PAHs in the lower Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Carrie A; Khairy, Mohammed A; Muir, Derek C G; Lohmann, Rainer

    2014-07-15

    Polyethylene passive samplers (PEs) were used to measure concentrations of gaseous and dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the air and water throughout the lower Great Lakes during summer and fall of 2011. Atmospheric Σ15PAH concentrations ranged from 2.1 ng/m3 in Cape Vincent (NY) to 76.4 ng/m3 in downtown Cleveland (OH). Aqueous Σ18PAH concentrations ranged from 2.4 ng/L at an offshore Lake Erie site to 30.4 ng/L in Sheffield Lake (OH). Gaseous PAH concentrations correlated strongly with population within 3-40 km of the sampling site depending on the compound considered, suggesting that urban centers are a primary source of gaseous PAHs (except retene) in the lower Great Lakes region. The significance of distant population (within 20 km) versus local population (within 3 km) increased with subcooled liquid vapor pressure. Most dissolved aqueous PAHs did not correlate significantly with population, nor were they consistently related to river discharge, wastewater effluents, or precipitation. Air-water exchange calculations implied that diffusive exchange was a source of phenanthrene to surface waters, while acenaphthylene volatilized out of the lakes. Comparison of air-water fluxes with temperature suggested that the significance of urban centers as sources of dissolved PAHs via diffusive exchange may decrease in warmer months.

  1. MHD biconvective flow of Powell Eyring nanofluid over stretched surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Faiza; Shafiq, Anum; Zhao, Lifeng; Naseem, Anum

    2017-06-01

    The present work is focused on behavioral characteristics of gyrotactic microorganisms to describe their role in heat and mass transfer in the presence of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) forces in Powell-Eyring nanofluids. Implications concerning stretching sheet with respect to velocity, temperature, nanoparticle concentration and motile microorganism density were explored to highlight influential parameters. Aim of utilizing microorganisms was primarily to stabilize the nanoparticle suspension due to bioconvection generated by the combined effects of buoyancy forces and magnetic field. Influence of Newtonian heating was also analyzed by taking into account thermophoretic mechanism and Brownian motion effects to insinuate series solutions mediated by homotopy analysis method (HAM). Mathematical model captured the boundary layer regime that explicitly involved contemporary non linear partial differential equations converted into the ordinary differential equations. To depict nanofluid flow characteristics, pertinent parameters namely bioconvection Lewis number Lb, traditional Lewis number Le, bioconvection Péclet number Pe, buoyancy ratio parameter Nr, bioconvection Rayleigh number Rb, thermophoresis parameter Nt, Hartmann number M, Grashof number Gr, and Eckert number Ec were computed and analyzed. Results revealed evidence of hydromagnetic bioconvection for microorganism which was represented by graphs and tables. Our findings further show a significant effect of Newtonian heating over a stretching plate by examining the coefficient values of skin friction, local Nusselt number and the local density number. Comparison was made between Newtonian fluid and Powell-Eyring fluid on velocity field and temperature field. Results are compared of with contemporary studies and our findings are found in excellent agreement with these studies.

  2. Clinical treatment planning optimization by Powell's method for gamma unit treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yulong; Shu Huazhong; Bao Xudong; Luo Limin; Bai Yi

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: This article presents a new optimization method for stereotactic radiosurgery treatment planning for gamma unit treatment system. Methods and Materials: The gamma unit has been utilized in stereotactic radiosurgery for about 30 years, but the usual procedure for a physician-physicist team to design a treatment plan is a trial-and-error approach. Isodose curves are viewed on two-dimensional computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) image planes, which is not only time consuming but also seldom achieves the optimal treatment plan, especially when the isocenter weights are regarded. We developed a treatment-planning system on a computer workstation in which Powell's optimization method is realized. The optimization process starts with the initial parameters (the number of iso centers as well as corresponding 3D iso centers' coordinates, collimator sizes, and weight factors) roughly determined by the physician-physicist team. The objective function can be changed to consider protection of sensitive tissues. Results: We use the plan parameters given by a well-trained physician-physicist team, or ones that the author give roughly as the initial parameters for the optimization procedure. Dosimetric results of optimization show a better high dose-volume conformation to the target volume compared to the doctor's plan. Conclusion: This method converges quickly and is not sensitive to the initial parameters. It achieves an excellent conformation of the estimated isodose curves with the contours of the target volume. If the initial parameters are varied, there will be a little difference in parameters' configuration, but the dosimetric results proved almost to be the same

  3. Executive summary. Conceptual studies nuclear energy center Lake Hartwell, S.C., Phase III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This document summarizes a conceptual study on the feasibility and practicality of developing a nuclear energy center (NEC) at a specific site in the SSEB region. The site selected for this conceptual study is at Lake Hartwell, South Carolina. The conceptual NEC at Lake Hartwell consists of twelve 1250-MW(e) LWRs arranged on the site in four cluster of three units each, know as triads. The nominal distance between triads was selected as 2-1/2 miles. The total electric output of 15,000 MWe to be generated by the NEC would be transmitted to five major utilities in South Carolina, North Carolina, and Georgia. Objective of the study was to assess the technical, socioeconomic, environmental, and institutional issues relating to the NEC at the conceptual study site. The basic finding was that the concept of a NEC on the Lake Hartwell site is feasible, but further analysis of institutional issues and possible legislation would be required

  4. On accelerated flow of MHD powell-eyring fluid via homotopy analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Faisal; Viswanathan, K. K.; Aziz, Zainal Abdul

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this article is to obtain the approximate analytical solution for incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow for Powell-Eyring fluid induced by an accelerated plate. Both constant and variable accelerated cases are investigated. Approximate analytical solution in each case is obtained by using the Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM). The resulting nonlinear analysis is carried out to generate the series solution. Finally, Graphical outcomes of different values of the material constants parameters on the velocity flow field are discussed and analyzed.

  5. A Field Guide to Outdoor Learning in Powell County, Biome Descriptions, Field Activities, Field Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell County High School, Deer Lodge, MT.

    Serving as a guide to the outdoor areas of Powell County, Montana, and the surrounding area, this resource book is useful for teachers who wish to explore the out-of-doors with their students, particularly those interested in nature studies. Its aim is to produce a citizenry that is knowledgeable concerning the biophysical environment and its…

  6. A numerical investigation of the boundary layer flow of an Eyring-Powell fluid over a stretching sheet via rational Chebyshev functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parand, Kourosh; Mahdi Moayeri, Mohammad; Latifi, Sobhan; Delkhosh, Mehdi

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a spectral method based on the four kinds of rational Chebyshev functions is proposed to approximate the solution of the boundary layer flow of an Eyring-Powell fluid over a stretching sheet. First, by using the quasilinearization method (QLM), the model which is a nonlinear ordinary differential equation is converted to a sequence of linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). By applying the proposed method on the ODEs in each iteration, the equations are converted to a system of linear algebraic equations. The results indicate the high accuracy and convergence of our method. Moreover, the effects of the Eyring-Powell fluid material parameters are discussed.

  7. Lake Michigan Storm: Wave and Water Level Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    does appear the ice implementation does well to replicate either iced (flagged for ice coverage), or for a low wave energy environment. Granted there...Jensen, D.T. Resio, R.A. Luettich, C. Dawson, V.J. Cardone , A.T. Cox, M.D. Powell, H.J. Westerink, and H.J. Roberts. (2010). “A high resolution coupled...coast,” In Preparation, US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS. ERDC/CHL TR-12-26 310 Jensen, R.E., V.J. Cardone , and A.T

  8. Analysis of Eyring-Powell Fluid in Helical Screw Rheometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Siddiqui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the flow of an incompressible, isothermal Eyring-Powell fluid in a helical screw rheometer. The complicated geometry of the helical screw rheometer is simplified by “unwrapping or flattening” the channel, lands, and the outside rotating barrel, assuming the width of the channel is larger as compared to the depth. The developed second order nonlinear differential equations are solved by using Adomian decomposition method. Analytical expressions are obtained for the velocity profiles, shear stresses, shear at wall, force exerted on fluid, volume flow rates, and average velocity. The effect of non-Newtonian parameters, pressure gradients, and flight angle on the velocity profiles is noticed with the help of graphical representation. The observation confirmed the vital role of involved parameters during the extrusion process.

  9. MHD flow of Powell-Eyring nanofluid over a non-linear stretching sheet with variable thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hayat

    Full Text Available This research explores the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD boundary layer flow of Powell-Eyring nanofluid past a non-linear stretching sheet of variable thickness. An electrically conducting fluid is considered under the characteristics of magnetic field applied transverse to the sheet. The mathematical expressions are accomplished via boundary layer access, Brownian motion and thermophoresis phenomena. The flow analysis is subjected to a recently established conditions requiring zero nanoparticles mass flux. Adequate transformations are implemented for the reduction of partial differential systems to the ordinary differential systems. Series solutions for the governing nonlinear flow of momentum, temperature and nanoparticles concentration have been executed. Physical interpretation of numerous parameters is assigned by graphical illustrations and tabular values. Moreover the numerical data of drag coefficient and local heat transfer rate are executed and discussed. It is investigated that higher wall thickness parameter results in the reduction of velocity distribution. Effects of thermophoresis parameter on temperature and concentration profiles are qualitatively similar. Both the temperature and concentration profiles are enhanced for higher values of thermophoresis parameter. Keywords: MHD, Variable thicked surface, Powell-Eyring nanofluid, Zero mass flux conditions

  10. The Powell Volcano Remote Sensing Working Group Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reath, K.; Pritchard, M. E.; Poland, M. P.; Wessels, R. L.; Biggs, J.; Carn, S. A.; Griswold, J. P.; Ogburn, S. E.; Wright, R.; Lundgren, P.; Andrews, B. J.; Wauthier, C.; Lopez, T.; Vaughan, R. G.; Rumpf, M. E.; Webley, P. W.; Loughlin, S.; Meyer, F. J.; Pavolonis, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Hazards from volcanic eruptions pose risks to the lives and livelihood of local populations, with potential global impacts to businesses, agriculture, and air travel. The 2015 Global Assessment of Risk report notes that 800 million people are estimated to live within 100 km of 1400 subaerial volcanoes identified as having eruption potential. However, only 55% of these volcanoes have any type of ground-based monitoring. The only methods currently available to monitor these unmonitored volcanoes are space-based systems that provide a global view. However, with the explosion of data techniques and sensors currently available, taking full advantage of these resources can be challenging. The USGS Powell Center Volcano Remote Sensing Working Group is working with many partners to optimize satellite resources for global detection of volcanic unrest and assessment of potential eruption hazards. In this presentation we will describe our efforts to: 1) work with space agencies to target acquisitions from the international constellation of satellites to collect the right types of data at volcanoes with forecasting potential; 2) collaborate with the scientific community to develop databases of remotely acquired observations of volcanic thermal, degassing, and deformation signals to facilitate change detection and assess how these changes are (or are not) related to eruption; and 3) improve usage of satellite observations by end users at volcano observatories that report to their respective governments. Currently, the group has developed time series plots for 48 Latin American volcanoes that incorporate variations in thermal, degassing, and deformation readings over time. These are compared against eruption timing and ground-based data provided by the Smithsonian Institute Global Volcanism Program. Distinct patterns in unrest and eruption are observed at different volcanoes, illustrating the difficulty in developing generalizations, but highlighting the power of remote sensing

  11. Lake or Pond WBID

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The VT DEC (Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation) manages an inventory of lake and pond information. The "Lakes and Ponds Inventory" stores the Water...

  12. A new nonlinear conjugate gradient coefficient under strong Wolfe-Powell line search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Nur Syarafina; Mamat, Mustafa; Rivaie, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    A nonlinear conjugate gradient method (CG) plays an important role in solving a large-scale unconstrained optimization problem. This method is widely used due to its simplicity. The method is known to possess sufficient descend condition and global convergence properties. In this paper, a new nonlinear of CG coefficient βk is presented by employing the Strong Wolfe-Powell inexact line search. The new βk performance is tested based on number of iterations and central processing unit (CPU) time by using MATLAB software with Intel Core i7-3470 CPU processor. Numerical experimental results show that the new βk converge rapidly compared to other classical CG method.

  13. Geophysical investigation of sentinel lakes in Lake, Seminole, Orange, and Volusia Counties, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Christopher; Flocks, James; Davis, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    edges to approximately 12 ohm-m in the center. These well-defined areas may indicate a "ravel" zone of increased porosity or clay content. Within Lake Helen (Volusia County), a parallel set of seismic reflectors within a host of chaotic reflectors may represent fill within a large sinkhole. The feature extends to more than 50 meters (m) deep and contains very steep pinnacles within the center. Seismic data in Lake Helen are supported by high resistivity values from adjacent continuous resistivity profiles that show possible center collapse within the lake and infilling of sandy material. When used together, HRSP and DC resistivity techniques provide a composite image of structure and lithology to detect potential conduits for fluid flow.

  14. Lake-wide distribution of Dreissena in Lake Michigan, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Guy W.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Holuszko, Jeffrey D.

    2001-01-01

    The Great Lakes Science Center has conducted lake-wide bottom trawl surveys of the fish community in Lake Michigan each fall since 1973. These systematic surveys are performed at depths of 9 to 110 m at each of seven index sites around Lake Michigan. Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) populations have expanded to all survey locations and at a level to sufficiently contribute to the bottom trawl catches. The quagga (Dreissena bugensis), recently reported in Lake Michigan, was likely in the catches though not recognized. Dreissena spp. biomass ranged from about 0.6 to 15 kg/ha at the various sites in 1999. Dreissenid mussels were found at depths of 9 to 82 m, with their peak biomass at 27 to 46 m. The colonization of these exotic mussels has ecological implications as well as potential ramifications on the ability to sample fish consistently and effectively with bottom trawls in Lake Michigan.

  15. Microbiology of Lonar Lake and other soda lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Antony, Chakkiath; Kumaresan, Deepak; Hunger, Sindy; Drake, Harold L; Murrell, J Colin; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2013-01-01

    Soda lakes are saline and alkaline ecosystems that are believed to have existed throughout the geological record of Earth. They are widely distributed across the globe, but are highly abundant in terrestrial biomes such as deserts and steppes and in geologically interesting regions such as the East African Rift valley. The unusual geochemistry of these lakes supports the growth of an impressive array of microorganisms that are of ecological and economic importance. Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria and Archaea belonging to all major trophic groups have been described from many soda lakes, including lakes with exceptionally high levels of heavy metals. Lonar Lake is a soda lake that is centered at an unusual meteorite impact structure in the Deccan basalts in India and its key physicochemical and microbiological characteristics are highlighted in this article. The occurrence of diverse functional groups of microbes, such as methanogens, methanotrophs, phototrophs, denitrifiers, sulfur oxidizers, sulfate reducers and syntrophs in soda lakes, suggests that these habitats harbor complex microbial food webs that (a) interconnect various biological cycles via redox coupling and (b) impact on the production and consumption of greenhouse gases. Soda lake microorganisms harbor several biotechnologically relevant enzymes and biomolecules (for example, cellulases, amylases, ectoine) and there is the need to augment bioprospecting efforts in soda lake environments with new integrated approaches. Importantly, some saline and alkaline lake ecosystems around the world need to be protected from anthropogenic pressures that threaten their long-term existence. PMID:23178675

  16. An optimized knife-edge method for on-orbit MTF estimation of optical sensors using powell parameter fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lu; Gao, Kun; Gong, Chen; Zhu, Zhenyu; Guo, Yue

    2017-08-01

    On-orbit Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) is an important indicator to evaluate the performance of the optical remote sensors in a satellite. There are many methods to estimate MTF, such as pinhole method, slit method and so on. Among them, knife-edge method is quite efficient, easy-to-use and recommended in ISO12233 standard for the wholefrequency MTF curve acquisition. However, the accuracy of the algorithm is affected by Edge Spread Function (ESF) fitting accuracy significantly, which limits the range of application. So in this paper, an optimized knife-edge method using Powell algorithm is proposed to improve the ESF fitting precision. Fermi function model is the most popular ESF fitting model, yet it is vulnerable to the initial values of the parameters. Considering the characteristics of simple and fast convergence, Powell algorithm is applied to fit the accurate parameters adaptively with the insensitivity to the initial parameters. Numerical simulation results reveal the accuracy and robustness of the optimized algorithm under different SNR, edge direction and leaning angles conditions. Experimental results using images of the camera in ZY-3 satellite show that this method is more accurate than the standard knife-edge method of ISO12233 in MTF estimation.

  17. Grey Wolf Optimizer Based on Powell Local Optimization Method for Clustering Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One heuristic evolutionary algorithm recently proposed is the grey wolf optimizer (GWO, inspired by the leadership hierarchy and hunting mechanism of grey wolves in nature. This paper presents an extended GWO algorithm based on Powell local optimization method, and we call it PGWO. PGWO algorithm significantly improves the original GWO in solving complex optimization problems. Clustering is a popular data analysis and data mining technique. Hence, the PGWO could be applied in solving clustering problems. In this study, first the PGWO algorithm is tested on seven benchmark functions. Second, the PGWO algorithm is used for data clustering on nine data sets. Compared to other state-of-the-art evolutionary algorithms, the results of benchmark and data clustering demonstrate the superior performance of PGWO algorithm.

  18. Water-quality and lake-stage data for Wisconsin lakes, water year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteufel, S. Bridgett; Robertson, Dale M.

    2017-05-25

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a database for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. To make these data available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series. The locations of water-quality and lake-stage stations in Wisconsin for water year 2014 are shown in figure 1. A water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. It is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Thus, the periodOctober 1, 2013, through September 30, 2014, is called “water year 2014.”The purpose of this report is to provide information about the chemical and physical characteristics of Wisconsin lakes. Data that have been collected at specific lakes, and information to aid in the interpretation of those data, are included in this report. Data collected include measurements of in-lake water quality and lake stage. Time series of Secchi depths, surface total phosphorus, and chlorophyll a concentrations collected during nonfrozen periods are included for many lakes. Graphs of vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance are included for sites where these parameters were measured. Descriptive information for each lake includes the location of the lake, area of the lake’s watershed, period for which data are available, revisions to previously published records, and pertinent remarks. Additional data, such as streamflow and water quality in tributary and outlet streams of some of the lakes, are published online at http://nwis.waterdata.usgs.gov/wi/nwis.Water-resources data, including stage and discharge data at most streamflow-gaging stations, are available online. The Wisconsin Water Science Center’s home page is at https://www.usgs.gov/centers/wisconsin-water-science-center. Information

  19. Playa Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital dataset provides information about the spatial distribution of soil units associated with playa lakes. Specific soil types have been designated by the...

  20. Uranium and base metal dispersion studies in the Maquire Lake area, Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopuck, V.J.; Lehto, D.A.W.; Alley, D.W.

    1980-03-01

    The objective of this study was to study uranium and base metal dispersion in various sample media occurring in the Maguire Lake area of Saskatchewan: bedrock, overburden, lake water, and lake sediments. Factors controlling partitioning of metals among various sample media were investigated, and lake sediment data were interpreted in terms of the factors to determine the significance of lake sediment data in indicating local mineralization. The association between organic matter contents and metal contents was found to vary between lake-center and nearshore sediments. Nickel, cobalt and zinc in lake sediments are strongly controlled by hydroxide precipitation and are less dependent on bedrock type. The concentration of Fe in center-lake sediments appears to reflect only the physicochemical parameters in the lake. Uranium and copper are strongly controlled by and preferentially concentrated in the organic matter; however, in center-lake sediments with >12 percent organic matter, U and Cu strongly reflect rock type

  1. Weinberger-Powell and transformation perceptions of American power from the fall of Saigon to the fall of Baghdad

    OpenAIRE

    Abonadi, Earl E. K.

    2006-01-01

    Throughout American history, policymakers have struggled with the use of American military power. The Limited War argument holds that the use of force needs to remain an option to support American diplomacy. The Never Again argument, meanwhile, holds that the use of American military power should be undertaken only in the face of threats against vital national interests. The most influential Never Again argument has been the 1984 Weinberger Doctrine, later expanded to the Weinberger-Powell Do...

  2. Assessment of multiple sources of anthropogenic and natural chemical inputs to a morphologically complex basin, Lake Mead, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Michael R.; Van Metre, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Lakes with complex morphologies and with different geologic and land-use characteristics in their sub-watersheds could have large differences in natural and anthropogenic chemical inputs to sub-basins in the lake. Lake Mead in southern Nevada and northern Arizona, USA, is one such lake. To assess variations in chemical histories from 1935 to 1998 for major sub-basins of Lake Mead, four sediment cores were taken from three different parts of the reservoir (two from Las Vegas Bay and one from the Overton Arm and Virgin Basin) and analyzed for major and trace elements, radionuclides, and organic compounds. As expected, anthropogenic contaminant inputs are greatest to Las Vegas Bay reflecting inputs from the Las Vegas urban area, although concentrations are low compared to sediment quality guidelines and to other USA lakes. One exception to this pattern was higher Hg in the Virgin Basin core. The Virgin Basin core is located in the main body of the lake (Colorado River channel) and is influenced by the hydrology of the Colorado River, which changed greatly with completion of Glen Canyon Dam upstream in 1963. Major and trace elements in the core show pronounced shifts in the early 1960s and, in many cases, gradually return to concentrations more typical of pre-1960s by the 1980s and 1990s, after the filling of Lake Powell. The Overton Arm is the sub-basin least effected by anthropogenic contaminant inputs but has a complex 137Cs profile with a series of large peaks and valleys over the middle of the core, possibly reflecting fallout from nuclear tests in the 1950s at the Nevada Test Site. The 137Cs profile suggests a much greater sedimentation rate during testing which we hypothesize results from greatly increased dust fall on the lake and Virgin and Muddy River watersheds. The severe drought in the southwestern USA during the 1950s might also have played a role in variations in sedimentation rate in all of the cores. ?? 2009.

  3. Exponentially varying viscosity of magnetohydrodynamic mixed convection Eyring-Powell nanofluid flow over an inclined surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imad; Fatima, Sumreen; Malik, M. Y.; Salahuddin, T.

    2018-03-01

    This paper explores the theoretical study of the steady incompressible two dimensional MHD boundary layer flow of Eyring-Powell nanofluid over an inclined surface. The fluid is considered to be electrically conducting and the viscosity of the fluid is assumed to be varying exponentially. The governing partial differential equations (PDE's) are reduced into ordinary differential equations (ODE's) by applying similarity approach. The resulting ordinary differential equations are solved successfully by using Homotopy analysis method. The impact of pertinent parameters on velocity, concentration and temperature profiles are examined through graphs and tables. Also coefficient of skin friction, Sherwood and Nusselt numbers are illustrated in tabular and graphical form.

  4. Water-quality and lake-stage data for Wisconsin lakes, water years 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteufel, S. Bridgett; Robertson, Dale M.

    2017-05-25

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local and other agencies, collects data at selected lakes throughout Wisconsin. These data, accumulated over many years, provide a data base for developing an improved understanding of the water quality of lakes. To make these data available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series. The locations of water-quality and lake-stage stations in Wisconsin for water year 2012 are shown in figure 1. A water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. It is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Thus, the period October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2012, is called “water year 2012.”The purpose of this report is to provide information about the chemical and physical characteristics of Wisconsin lakes. Data that have been collected at specific lakes, and information to aid in the interpretation of those data, are included in this report. Data collected include measurements of in-lake water quality and lake stage. Time series of Secchi depths, surface total phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations collected during non-frozen periods are included for all lakes. Graphs of vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance are included for sites where these parameters were measured. Descriptive information for each lake includes: location of the lake, area of the lake’s watershed, period for which data are available, revisions to previously published records, and pertinent remarks. Additional data, such as streamflow and water quality in tributary and outlet streams of some of the lakes, are published online at http://nwis.waterdata.usgs.gov/wi/nwis.Water-resources data, including stage and discharge data at most streamflow-gaging stations, are available online. The Wisconsin Water Science Center’s home page is at https://www.usgs.gov/centers/wisconsin-water-science-center. Information on

  5. An Efficient Hybrid Conjugate Gradient Method with the Strong Wolfe-Powell Line Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alhawarat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjugate gradient (CG method is an interesting tool to solve optimization problems in many fields, such as design, economics, physics, and engineering. In this paper, we depict a new hybrid of CG method which relates to the famous Polak-Ribière-Polyak (PRP formula. It reveals a solution for the PRP case which is not globally convergent with the strong Wolfe-Powell (SWP line search. The new formula possesses the sufficient descent condition and the global convergent properties. In addition, we further explained about the cases where PRP method failed with SWP line search. Furthermore, we provide numerical computations for the new hybrid CG method which is almost better than other related PRP formulas in both the number of iterations and the CPU time under some standard test functions.

  6. Theoretical investigation of the doubly stratified flow of an Eyring-Powell nanomaterial via heat generation/absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Ijaz; Waqas, M.; Alsaedi, A.; Hayat, T.; Khan, M. Imran

    2017-11-01

    The mixed convective flow of an Eyring-Powell nanomaterial in a doubly stratified medium is addressed in this paper. The stretching surface has varying thickness. The nanofluid model given by Buongiorno is utilized in the formulation of energy and concentration expressions. Heat generation is also retained. Ordinary differential systems are obtained by utilizing the transformations procedure. Homotopy series solutions containing exponentially functions are developed. Significant characteristics of influential variables for velocity, temperature, nanoparticle concentration, skin friction coefficient and Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are reported through graphs and tables. It is found that stratification phenomenon leads to a decay in temperature and nanoparticle concentration.

  7. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  8. Dragon Lake, Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Nicknamed 'Dragon Lake,' this body of water is formed by the Bratskove Reservoir, built along the Angara river in southern Siberia, near the city of Bratsk. This image was acquired in winter, when the lake is frozen. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on December 19, 1999. This is a natural color composite image made using blue, green, and red wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  9. Warfighter Effectiveness Research Center Biannual Newsletter. Volume 1, Issue 2, June 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    leadership assess- ment. The project is funded by ARI and the WERC PI is Capt Steve Raymer . Dr. Robert Patterson Visits from AFRL Dr. Robert Patterson...Systems Dr. Robert Patterson (AFRL) Potpourri Series Researcher Profile: Captain Katrina Powell Captain Katrina Powell graduated from the Virginia

  10. Real-estate lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, David A.; Spieker, Andrew Maute

    1971-01-01

    Since the dawn of civilization waterfront land has been an irresistible attraction to man. Throughout history he has sought out locations fronting on oceans, rivers, and lakes. Originally sought for proximity .to water supply and transportation, such locations are now sought more for their esthetic qualities and for recreation. Usable natural waterfront property is limited, however, and the more desirable sites in many of our urban areas have already been taken. The lack of available waterfront sites has led to the creation of many artificial bodies of water. The rapid suburbanization that has characterized urban growth in America since the end of World War II, together with increasing affluence and le-isure time, has created a ready market for waterfront property. Accordingly, lake-centered subdivisions and developments dot the suburban landscape in many of our major urban areas. Literally thousands of lakes surrounded by homes have materialized during this period of rapid growth. Recently, several "new town" communities have been planned around this lake-centered concept. A lake can be either an asset or a liaoility to a community. A clean, clear, attractively landscaped lake is a definite asset, whereas a weed-choked, foul-smelling mudhole is a distinct liability. The urban environment poses both problems and imaginative opportunities in the development of lakes. Creation of a lake causes changes in all aspects of the environment. Hydrologic systems and ecological patterns are usually most severely altered. The developer should be aware of the potential changes; it is not sufficient merely to build a dam across a stream or to dig a hole in the ground. Development of Gl a successful lake requires careful planning for site selection and design, followed by thorough and cc ntinual management. The purpose of this report is to describe the characteristics of real-estate lakes, to pinpoint potential pmblems, and to suggest possible planning and management guidelines

  11. Application of Powell's optimization method to surge arrester circuit models' parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christodoulou, C.A.; Stathopulos, I.A. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 9 Iroon Politechniou St., Zografou Campus, 157 80 Athens (Greece); Vita, V.; Ekonomou, L.; Chatzarakis, G.E. [A.S.PE.T.E. - School of Pedagogical and Technological Education, Department of Electrical Engineering Educators, N. Heraklion, 141 21 Athens (Greece)

    2010-08-15

    Powell's optimization method has been used for the evaluation of the surge arrester models parameters. The proper modelling of metal-oxide surge arresters and the right selection of equivalent circuit parameters are very significant issues, since quality and reliability of lightning performance studies can be improved with the more efficient representation of the arresters' dynamic behavior. The proposed approach selects optimum arrester model equivalent circuit parameter values, minimizing the error between the simulated peak residual voltage value and this given by the manufacturer. Application of the method in performed on a 120 kV metal oxide arrester. The use of the obtained optimum parameter values reduces significantly the relative error between the simulated and manufacturer's peak residual voltage value, presenting the effectiveness of the method. (author)

  12. Lake Chad, Chad, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Hydrologic and ecologic changes in the Lake Chad Basin are shown in this Oct 1992 photograph. In space photo documentation, Lake Chad was at its greatest area extent (25,000 sq. km.) during Gemini 9 in June 1966 (see S66-38444). Its reduction during the severe droughts from 1968 to 1974 was first noted during Skylab (1973-1974). After the drought began again in 1982, the lake reached its minimum extent (1,450 sq. km.) in Space Shuttle photographs taken in 1984 and 1985. In this STS-52 photograph, Lake Chad has begun to recover. The area of the open water and interdunal impoundments in the southern basin (the Chari River Basin) is estimated to be 1,900 to 2100 sq. km. Note the green vegetation in the valley of the K'Yobe flow has wetted the northern lake basin for the first time in several years. There is evidence of biomass burning south of the K'Yobe Delta and in the vegetated interdunal areas near the dike in the center of the lake. Also note the dark 'Green Line' of the Sahel (the g

  13. LAKE-0: a model for the simulation of nuclides transfer in lake scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Olivares, A.; Aguero, A.; Pinedo, P.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents documentation and a user's manual for the program LAKE-0, a mathematical model of nuclides transfer in lake scenarios. Mathematical equations and physical principles used to develop the code are presented in section 2. The program use is presented in section 3 including input data sets and output data. Section 4 presents two example problems, and some results. The complete program listing including comments is presented in Appendix A. Nuclides are assumed to center the lake via atmospheric deposition and carried by the water runoff and the dragged sediments from the adjacent catchment. The dynamics of the nuclides inside the lake is based in the model proposed by Codell (11) as modified in (5). The removal of concentration from the lake water is due to out flow from the lake and to the transfer of activity to the button sediments. The model has been applied to the Esthwaite Water (54 degree celsius 2 l'N, 03 degree celsius 00'W at 65 m. asi.) in the frame of the VAMP Aquatic Working Group (8) and to Devoke Water (5 21.5'N, 03H8'W at 230 m. asi.). (Author). 13 refs

  14. Glacial lakes in the Horgos river basin and their outbreak risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Medeu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The river Khorgos (in Kazakhstan – Korgas is a boundary river between Kazakhstan and China. Its basin is located in the central part of southern slope of Dzhungarskiy (Zhetysu Alatau range. According to agreement between Kazakhstan and China at the boundary transition of Khorgos in the floodplain of the river Khorgos the large Center of Frontier Cooperation is erected. Estimation of safety of the mentioned object including connection with possible glacial lakes outbursts has the importance of political-economical value. Nowadays development of glacial lakes in the overhead part of Khorgos river basin has reached apogee. As a roof we can mention the maximum of total glacial lakes area (1,7 million m² in 41 lakes and emptied kettles of former glacial lakes. Six lakes reached highly dangerous outburst stage: the volume of lakes reached some million m³, maximum depth up to 30–40 m. Focal ground filtration of the water from lakes takes place. Development of glacial lakes in Khorgos river basin will continue, and these lakes give and will give real danger for the Center of Frontier Cooperation in case of outburst of naturally dammed lake Kazankol with the similar mechanism of Issyk lake outburst, occurred in 1963 in ZailijskiyAlatau (Ile Alatau.

  15. Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, John F.

    2009-01-01

    The Grand Canyon of the Colorado River, one of the world's most spectacular gorges, is a premier U.S. National Park and a World Heritage Site. The canyon supports a diverse array of distinctive plants and animals and contains cultural resources significant to the region's Native Americans. About 15 miles upstream of Grand Canyon National Park sits Glen Canyon Dam, completed in 1963, which created Lake Powell. The dam provides hydroelectric power for 200 wholesale customers in six western States, but it has also altered the Colorado River's flow, temperature, and sediment-carrying capacity. Over time this has resulted in beach erosion, invasion and expansion of nonnative species, and losses of native fish. Public concern about the effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations prompted the passage of the Grand Canyon Protection Act of 1992, which directs the Secretary of the Interior to operate the dam 'to protect, mitigate adverse impacts to, and improve values for which Grand Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area were established...' This legislation also required the creation of a long-term monitoring and research program to provide information that could inform decisions related to dam operations and protection of downstream resources.

  16. LAKE-0: a model for the simulation of nuclides transfer in lake scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Olivares, A.; Aguero, A.; Pinedo, P.

    1994-07-01

    This report presents documentation and a user's manual for the program LAKE-0, a mathematical model of nuclides transfer in lake scenarios. Mathematical equations and physical principles used to develop the code are presented in section 2. The program use is presented in section 3 including input data sets and output data. Section 4 presents two example problems, and some results. The complete program listing including comments is presented in Appendix A. Nuclides are assumed to center the lake via atmospheric deposition and carried by the water runoff and the dragged sediments from the adjacent catchment. The dynamics of the nuclides inside the lake is based in the model proposed by Codell (11) as modified in (5). The removal of concentration from the lake water is due to out flow from the lake and to the transfer of activity to the button sediments. The model has been applied to the Esthwaite Water (54 degree celsius 2 l'N, 03 degree celsius 00'W at 65 m. asi.) in the frame of the VAMP Aquatic Working Group (8) and to Devoke Water (5 21.5'N, 03H8'W at 230 m. asi.). (Author). 13 refs.

  17. Chaos control of Hastings–Powell model by combining chaotic motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danca, Marius-F., E-mail: danca@rist.ro [Romanian Institute of Science and Technology, 400487 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Chattopadhyay, Joydev, E-mail: joydev@isical.ac.in [Agricultural and Ecological Research Unit Indian Statistical Institute, 203, B. T. Road, Kolkata 700 108 (India)

    2016-04-15

    In this paper, we propose a Parameter Switching (PS) algorithm as a new chaos control method for the Hastings–Powell (HP) system. The PS algorithm is a convergent scheme that switches the control parameter within a set of values while the controlled system is numerically integrated. The attractor obtained with the PS algorithm matches the attractor obtained by integrating the system with the parameter replaced by the averaged value of the switched parameter values. The switching rule can be applied periodically or randomly over a set of given values. In this way, every stable cycle of the HP system can be approximated if its underlying parameter value equalizes the average value of the switching values. Moreover, the PS algorithm can be viewed as a generalization of Parrondo's game, which is applied for the first time to the HP system, by showing that losing strategy can win: “losing + losing = winning.” If “loosing” is replaced with “chaos” and, “winning” with “order” (as the opposite to “chaos”), then by switching the parameter value in the HP system within two values, which generate chaotic motions, the PS algorithm can approximate a stable cycle so that symbolically one can write “chaos + chaos = regular.” Also, by considering a different parameter control, new complex dynamics of the HP model are revealed.

  18. Chaos control of Hastings-Powell model by combining chaotic motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danca, Marius-F; Chattopadhyay, Joydev

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a Parameter Switching (PS) algorithm as a new chaos control method for the Hastings-Powell (HP) system. The PS algorithm is a convergent scheme that switches the control parameter within a set of values while the controlled system is numerically integrated. The attractor obtained with the PS algorithm matches the attractor obtained by integrating the system with the parameter replaced by the averaged value of the switched parameter values. The switching rule can be applied periodically or randomly over a set of given values. In this way, every stable cycle of the HP system can be approximated if its underlying parameter value equalizes the average value of the switching values. Moreover, the PS algorithm can be viewed as a generalization of Parrondo's game, which is applied for the first time to the HP system, by showing that losing strategy can win: "losing + losing = winning." If "loosing" is replaced with "chaos" and, "winning" with "order" (as the opposite to "chaos"), then by switching the parameter value in the HP system within two values, which generate chaotic motions, the PS algorithm can approximate a stable cycle so that symbolically one can write "chaos + chaos = regular." Also, by considering a different parameter control, new complex dynamics of the HP model are revealed.

  19. Chaos control of Hastings–Powell model by combining chaotic motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danca, Marius-F.; Chattopadhyay, Joydev

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a Parameter Switching (PS) algorithm as a new chaos control method for the Hastings–Powell (HP) system. The PS algorithm is a convergent scheme that switches the control parameter within a set of values while the controlled system is numerically integrated. The attractor obtained with the PS algorithm matches the attractor obtained by integrating the system with the parameter replaced by the averaged value of the switched parameter values. The switching rule can be applied periodically or randomly over a set of given values. In this way, every stable cycle of the HP system can be approximated if its underlying parameter value equalizes the average value of the switching values. Moreover, the PS algorithm can be viewed as a generalization of Parrondo's game, which is applied for the first time to the HP system, by showing that losing strategy can win: “losing + losing = winning.” If “loosing” is replaced with “chaos” and, “winning” with “order” (as the opposite to “chaos”), then by switching the parameter value in the HP system within two values, which generate chaotic motions, the PS algorithm can approximate a stable cycle so that symbolically one can write “chaos + chaos = regular.” Also, by considering a different parameter control, new complex dynamics of the HP model are revealed.

  20. Photography in the boundaries of the visible. From Santiago Ramón y Cajal to Cecil Frank Powell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco López-Cantos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyze the use of photographic technologies of two renowned researchers whose investigation results would have been impossible to carry out, as occurs in Galileo a few centuries before with the use of imaging techniques, without the use of photography: Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Cecil Frank Powell, Nobel Prize winners in medicine in 1906 and in physics in 1950, respectively. These researchers were selected, first, because of their close relation with photography and, second, to clearly illustrate the gradual transgression of scientific photographic representation starting in the late nineteenth century from the visible to the invisible.

  1. Whiting in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Satellites provide a view from space of changes on the Earth's surface. This series of images from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aboard the Orbview-2 satellite shows the dramatic change in the color of Lake Michigan during the summer. The bright color that appears in late summer is probably caused by calcium carbonate-chalk-in the water. Lake Michigan always has a lot of calcium carbonate in it because the floor of the lake is limestone. During most of the year the calcium carbonate remains dissolved in the cold water, but at the end of summer the lake warms up, lowering the solubility of calcium carbonate. As a result, the calcium carbonate precipitates out of the water, forming clouds of very small solid particles that appear as bright swirls from above. The phenomenon is appropriately called a whiting event. A similar event occured in 1999, but appears to have started later and subsided earlier. It is also possible that a bloom of the algae Microcystis is responsible for the color change, but unlikely because of Lake Michigan's depth and size. Microcystis blooms have occured in other lakes in the region, however. On the shore of the lake it is possible to see the cities of Chicago, Illinois, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Both appear as clusters of gray-brown pixels. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  2. Optimization of a 5 kW solar powered alpha stirling engine using Powell's method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamekhi, A. [Numeric Method Development Co., Shemiranat, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aliabadi, A. [MAPNA Group, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-08-13

    Many types of Stirling engines have been built in a variety of forms and sizes since its invention in 1816. The Stirling engine offers maximum efficiency; maximum power; and minimum costs. In this study, a solar powered alpha Stirling engine was simulated using a second order method. The paper presented the governing equations, including conservation of mass; pressure losses inside the heat exchangers; pressure losses inside the regenerator; and heat transfer in the heat exchangers. Methods to optimize the parameters in order to improve engine efficiency were also discussed. The study showed that the geometric parameter of the engine influences engine performance considerably. After 20 iterations of Powell's method for engine optimization, the engine performance was optimized to the value of 25.4 percent. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  3. Radiation effect on boundary layer flow of an Eyring–Powell fluid over an exponentially shrinking sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmat Ara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine the steady boundary layer flow of an Eyring–Powell model fluid due to an exponentially shrinking sheet. In addition, the heat transfer process in the presence of thermal radiation is considered. Using usual similarity transformations the governing equations have been transformed into non-linear ordinary differential equations. Homotopy analysis method (HAM is employed for the series solutions. The convergence of the obtained series solutions is carefully analyzed. Numerical values of the temperature gradient are presented and discussed. It is observed that velocity increases with an increase in mass suction S. In addition, for the temperature profiles opposite behavior is observed for increment in suction. Moreover, the thermal boundary layer thickness decreases due to increase in Prandtl number Pr and thermal radiation R.

  4. Flow of an Erying-Powell fluid over a stretching sheet in presence of chemical reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Ilyas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the flow of an incompressible Erying-Powell fluid bounded by a linear stretching surface. The mass transfer analysis in the presence of destructive /generative chemical reactions is also analyzed. A similarity transformation is used to transform the governing partial differential equations into ordinary differential equations. Computations for dimensionless velocity and concentration fields are performed by an efficient approach namely the homotopy analysis method (HAM and numerical solution is obtained by shooting technique along with Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg integration scheme. Graphical results are prepared to illustrate the details of flow and mass transfer characteristics and their dependence upon the physical parameters. The values for gradient of mass transfer are also evaluated and analyzed. A comparison of the present solutions with published results in the literature is performed and the results are found to be in excellent agreement.

  5. Eruptive behavior of the Marum/Mbwelesu lava lake, Vanuatu and comparisons with lava lakes on Earth and Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radebaugh, Jani; Lopes, Rosaly M.; Howell, Robert R.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.

    2016-08-01

    Observations from field remote sensing of the morphology, kinematics and temperature of the Marum/Mbwelesu lava lake in the Vanuatu archipelago in 2014 reveal a highly active, vigorously erupting lava lake. Active degassing and fountaining observed at the 50 m lava lake led to large areas of fully exposed lavas and rapid ( 5 m/s) movement of lava from the centers of upwelling outwards to the lake margins. These rapid lava speeds precluded the formation of thick crust; there was never more than 30% non-translucent crust. The lava lake was observed with several portable, handheld, low-cost, near-infrared imagers, all of which measured temperatures near 1000 °C and one as high as 1022 °C, consistent with basaltic temperatures. Fine-scale structure in the lava fountains and cooled crust was visible in the near infrared at 5 cm/pixel from 300 m above the lake surface. The temperature distribution across the lake surface is much broader than at more quiescent lava lakes, peaking 850 °C, and is attributed to the highly exposed nature of the rapidly circulating lake. This lava lake has many characteristics in common with other active lava lakes, such as Erta Ale in Ethiopia, being confined, persistent and high-temperature; however it was much more active than is typical for Erta Ale, which often has > 90% crust. Furthermore, it is a good analogue for the persistent, high-temperature lava lakes contained within volcanic depressions on Jupiter's moon Io, such as Pele, also believed from spacecraft and ground-based observations to exhibit similar behavior of gas emission, rapid overturn and fountaining.

  6. Hematologic evaluation of employees with leukopenia. Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiken, G A; Marsh, W L; Heath, V C; Long, H L; Weatherly, T L; Seal, G M

    1988-12-01

    Evaluation of 86 employees with a history of leukopenia at the Naval Weapons Center (NWC), China Lake, California, was done by exposure questionnaires, medical histories, physical examinations, peripheral blood smear, and bone marrow evaluations, including morphologic examination, stem cell culture, and cytogenetics. Forty-eight subjects were found to be leukopenic at the time of the study, and two subjects were found to have hairy cell leukemia. All subjects had positive exposure histories and were healthy at the time of the study. Review of peripheral smears identified the patients with marrow abnormalities. Bone marrow cultures revealed several patients with possible marrow suppression. Chromosome studies were not diagnostic. Five-year follow-up health questionnaires revealed no significant health problems; the two workers with hairy cell leukemia are alive and fully functional. Leukopenia in itself does not appear to be a risk factor for poor health, and it is unknown whether or not it may be a useful screening tool to identify workers at risk in toxic environments. Careful evaluation of blood cell counts and peripheral smears should be sufficient to identify people with potential marrow abnormalities.

  7. Great Lakes rivermouths: a primer for managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul; Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Between the North American Great Lakes and their tributaries are the places where the confluence of river and lake waters creates a distinct ecosystem: the rivermouth ecosystem. Human development has often centered around these rivermouths, in part, because they provide a rich array of ecosystem services. Not surprisingly, centuries of intense human activity have led to substantial pressures on, and alterations to, these ecosystems, often diminishing or degrading their ecological functions and associated ecological services. Many Great Lakes rivermouths are the focus of intense restoration efforts. For example, 36 of the active Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) are rivermouths or areas that include one or more rivermouths. Historically, research of rivermouth ecosystems has been piecemeal, focused on the Great Lakes proper or on the upper reaches of tributaries, with little direct study of the rivermouth itself. Researchers have been divided among disciplines, agencies and institutions; and they often work independently and use disparate venues to communicate their work. Management has also been fragmented with a focus on smaller, localized, sub-habitat units and socio-political or economic elements, rather than system-level consideration. This Primer presents the case for a more holistic approach to rivermouth science and management that can enable restoration of ecosystem services with multiple benefits to humans and the Great Lakes ecosystem. A conceptual model is presented with supporting text that describes the structures and processes common to all rivermouths, substantiating the case for treating these ecosystems as an identifiable class.1 Ecological services provided by rivermouths and changes in how humans value those services over time are illustrated through case studies of two Great Lakes rivermouths—the St. Louis River and the Maumee River. Specific ecosystem services are identified in italics throughout this Primer and follow definitions described

  8. Effects of the exotic zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on metal cycling in Lake Erie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klerks, P.L. [Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Dept. of Biology, Lafayette, Louisiana (United States)]. E-mail: klerks@usl.edu; Fraleigh, P.C.; Lawniczak, J.E. [Univ. of Toledo, Dept. of Biology, Toledo, Ohio (United States)

    1997-07-15

    This research demonstrated the impact of high densities of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on the cycling of copper, nickel, and zinc in a lake environment. Experiments with mussels on sedimentation traps in western Lake Erie and with mussels in flow-through tanks receiving Lake Erie water showed that zebra mussels remove metals from the water column, incorporate metals in their tissues, and deposit metals on the lake bottom. Removal of metals from the water column was estimated at 10-17%{center_dot}day{sup -1} of the amounts present. This material was largely deposited on the lake bottom; zebra mussels more than doubled the rate at which metals were being added to the lake bottom. Metal biodeposition rates were extremely high (e.g., 50 mg Zn{center_dot}m{sup -2}{center_dot}day{sup -1}) in high-turbidity areas with elevated metal levels. Two factors contributed to metal biodeposition by zebra mussels. First, their production of feces and pseudofeces increased the rate at which suspended matter was being added to the sediment (accounting for 92% of the increased metal biodeposition). Second, the material coming out of suspension had higher metal concentrations when zebra mussels were present (constituting 8% of the increased biodeposition). (author)

  9. Influence of permafrost on lake terraces of Lake Heihai (NE Tibetan Plateau)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockot, Gregori; Hartmann, Kai; Wünnemann, Bernd

    2013-04-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is one of the key regions for climatic global change. Besides the poles the TP is the third highest storage of frozen water in glaciers. Here global warming is three times higher than in the rest of the world. Additionally the TP provides water for billions of people and influences the moisture availability from the Indian and East Asian monsoon systems. During the Holocene extent and intensity of the monsoonal systems changed. Hence, in the last decades, a lot of work was done to reconstruct timing and frequency of monsoonal moisture, to understand the past and give a better forecast for the future. Comparative workings often show very heterogeneous patterns of timing and frequency of the Holocene precipitation and temperature maximum, emphasizing the local importance of catchment dynamics. In this study we present first results of lake Heihai (36°N, 93°15'E, 4500m a.s.l.), situated at the north-eastern border of the TP. The lake is surrounded by a broad band of near-shore lake sediments, attesting a larger lake extent in the past. These sediments were uplifted by permafrost, reaching nowadays heights ca. +8 meters above present lake level. Due to the uplift one of the main inflows was blocked and the whole hydrology of the catchment changed. To quantify the uplift of permafrost Hot Spot Analysis were accomplished at a DEM of the near-shore area. As a result regions of high permafrost uplift and those which mirror the original height of lake ground were revealed. The most obvious uplift took place in the northern and western part of the lake, where the four uplift centers are located. In contrast the southern and eastern areas show a rather degraded pattern (probably by fluvial erosion, thermokarst, etc.). The ancient lake bottom, without permafrost uplift was estimated to be 4-6 meters above the modern lake level. For a better understanding of permafrost interaction inside the terrace bodies a 5m sediment profile was sampled and

  10. A post-Calumet shoreline along southern Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, D.K.; Thompson, T.A.; Booth, R.K.

    2007-01-01

    The southern shore of Lake Michigan is the type area for many of ancestral Lake Michigan's late Pleistocene lake phases, but coastal deposits and features of the Algonquin phase of northern Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, and Lake Superior are not recognized in the area. Isostatic rebound models suggest that Algonquin phase deposits should be 100 m or more below modern lake level. A relict shoreline, however, exists along the lakeward margin of the Calumet Beach that was erosional west of Deep River and depositional east of the river. For this post-Calumet shoreline, the elevation of basal foreshore deposits east of Deep River and the base of the scarp west of Deep River indicate a slightly westward dipping water plane that is centered at ???184 m above mean sea level. Basal foreshore elevations also indicate that lake level fell ???2 m during the development of the shoreline. The pooled mean of radiocarbon dates from the surface of the peat below post-Calumet shoreline foreshore deposits indicate that the lake transgressed over the peat at 10,560 ?? 70 years B.P. Pollen assemblages from the peat are consistent with this age. The elevation and age of the post-Calumet shoreline are similar to the Main Algonquin phase of Lake Huron. Recent isostatic rebound models do not adequately address a high-elevation Algonquin-age shoreline along the southern shore of Lake Michigan, but the Goldthwait (1908) hinge-line model does. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  11. LIMNOLOGY, LAKE BASINS, LAKE WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre GÂŞTESCU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Limnology is a border discipline between geography, hydrology and biology, and is also closely connected with other sciences, from it borrows research methods. Physical limnology (the geography of lakes, studies lake biotopes, and biological limnology (the biology of lakes, studies lake biocoenoses. The father of limnology is the Swiss scientist F.A. Forel, the author of a three-volume entitled Le Leman: monographie limnologique (1892-1904, which focuses on the geology physics, chemistry and biology of lakes. He was also author of the first textbook of limnology, Handbuch der Seenkunde: allgemeine Limnologie,(1901. Since both the lake biotope and its biohydrocoenosis make up a single whole, the lake and lakes, respectively, represent the most typical systems in nature. They could be called limnosystems (lacustrine ecosystems, a microcosm in itself, as the American biologist St.A. Forbes put it (1887.

  12. Reconstructing Heat Fluxes Over Lake Erie During the Lake Effect Snow Event of November 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, L.; Fujisaki-Manome, A.; Gronewold, A.; Anderson, E. J.; Spence, C.; Chen, J.; Shao, C.; Posselt, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Lofgren, B. M.; Schwab, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    The extreme North American winter storm of November 2014 triggered a record lake effect snowfall (LES) event in southwest New York. This study examined the evaporation from Lake Erie during the record lake effect snowfall event, November 17th-20th, 2014, by reconstructing heat fluxes and evaporation rates over Lake Erie using the unstructured grid, Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM). Nine different model runs were conducted using combinations of three different flux algorithms: the Met Flux Algorithm (COARE), a method routinely used at NOAA's Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (SOLAR), and the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE); and three different meteorological forcings: the Climate Forecast System version 2 Operational Analysis (CFSv2), Interpolated observations (Interp), and the High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR). A few non-FVCOM model outputs were also included in the evaporation analysis from an atmospheric reanalysis (CFSv2) and the large lake thermodynamic model (LLTM). Model-simulated water temperature and meteorological forcing data (wind direction and air temperature) were validated with buoy data at three locations in Lake Erie. The simulated sensible and latent heat fluxes were validated with the eddy covariance measurements at two offshore sites; Long Point Lighthouse in north central Lake Erie and Toledo water crib intake in western Lake Erie. The evaluation showed a significant increase in heat fluxes over three days, with the peak on the 18th of November. Snow water equivalent data from the National Snow Analyses at the National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center showed a spike in water content on the 20th of November, two days after the peak heat fluxes. The ensemble runs presented a variation in spatial pattern of evaporation, lake-wide average evaporation, and resulting cooling of the lake. Overall, the evaporation tended to be larger in deep water than shallow water near the shore. The lake-wide average evaporations

  13. VT Lake Champlain (extracted from VHDCARTO) - polygon

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) LKCH5K is an extract of Lake Champlain that is derived from VHDCARTO. The following metadata is from VHDCARTO.VHDCARTO is a simplified version of...

  14. Mapping ecosystem services in a Great Lakes estuary supports local decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estuaries of the Laurentian Great Lakes provide a concentrated supply of ecosystem goods and services from which humans benefit. As long-term centers of human activity, most estuaries of the Great Lakes and have a legacy of chemical contamination, degraded habitats, and non-point...

  15. Estimating Spring Condensation on the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A.; Welp, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes region provides opportunities for shipping, recreation, and consumptive water use to a large part of the United States and Canada. Water levels in the lakes fluctuate yearly, but attempts to model the system are inadequate because the water and energy budgets are still not fully understood. For example, water levels in the Great Lakes experienced a 15-year low period ending in 2013, the recovery of which has been attributed partially to decreased evaporation and increased precipitation and runoff. Unlike precipitation, the exchange of water vapor between the lake and the atmosphere through evaporation or condensation is difficult to measure directly. However, estimates have been constructed using off-shore eddy covariance direct measurements of latent heat fluxes, remote sensing observations, and a small network of monitoring buoys. When the lake surface temperature is colder than air temperature as it is in spring, condensation is larger than evaporation. This is a relatively small component of the net annual water budget of the lakes, but the total amount of condensation may be important for seasonal energy fluxes and atmospheric deposition of pollutants and nutrients to the lakes. Seasonal energy fluxes determine, and are influenced by, ice cover, water and air temperatures, and evaporation in the Great Lakes. We aim to quantify the amount of spring condensation on the Great Lakes using the National Center for Atmospheric Prediction North American Regional Reanalysis (NCEP NARR) Data for Winter 2013 to Spring 2017 and compare the condensation values of spring seasons following high volume, high duration and low volume, low duration ice cover.

  16. Comparison of evaporation at two central Florida lakes, April 2005–November 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swancar, Amy

    2015-09-25

    Evaporation from April 2005 through October 2007 at two central Florida lakes, one close to the Gulf of Mexico and one in the center of the peninsula, was 4.043 and 4.111 meters (m), respectively; evaporation for 2006 was 1.534 and 1.538 m, respectively. Although annual evaporation rates at the two lakes were similar, there were monthly differences between the two lakes because of changes in stored heat; the shallower Lake Calm (mean depth 3 m) stored less heat and exchanged heat more rapidly than the deeper Lake Starr (mean depth 5 m).

  17. His Majesty Carl XVI Gustav, King of Sweden, Honorary President of the World Scout Foundation, and about 80 fellows, on the occasion of the 48th World Baden-Powell Fellowship Event on Saturday, 18th September 2004

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2004-01-01

    His Majesty Carl XVI Gustav, King of Sweden, Honorary President of the World Scout Foundation, and about 80 fellows, on the occasion of the 48th World Baden-Powell Fellowship Event on Saturday, 18th September 2004

  18. Regional groundwater-flow model of the Lake Michigan Basin in support of Great Lakes Basin water availability and use studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, D.T.; Hunt, R.J.; Reeves, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    A regional groundwater-flow model of the Lake Michigan Basin and surrounding areas has been developed in support of the Great Lakes Basin Pilot project under the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Availability and Use Program. The transient 2-million-cell model incorporates multiple aquifers and pumping centers that create water-level drawdown that extends into deep saline waters. The 20-layer model simulates the exchange between a dense surface-water network and heterogeneous glacial deposits overlying stratified bedrock of the Wisconsin/Kankakee Arches and Michigan Basin in the Lower and Upper Peninsulas of Michigan; eastern Wisconsin; northern Indiana; and northeastern Illinois. The model is used to quantify changes in the groundwater system in response to pumping and variations in recharge from 1864 to 2005. Model results quantify the sources of water to major pumping centers, illustrate the dynamics of the groundwater system, and yield measures of water availability useful for water-resources management in the region. This report is a complete description of the methods and datasets used to develop the regional model, the underlying conceptual model, and model inputs, including specified values of material properties and the assignment of external and internal boundary conditions. The report also documents the application of the SEAWAT-2000 program for variable-density flow; it details the approach, advanced methods, and results associated with calibration through nonlinear regression using the PEST program; presents the water-level, drawdown, and groundwater flows for various geographic subregions and aquifer systems; and provides analyses of the effects of pumping from shallow and deep wells on sources of water to wells, the migration of groundwater divides, and direct and indirect groundwater discharge to Lake Michigan. The report considers the role of unconfined conditions at the regional scale as well as the influence of salinity on groundwater flow

  19. Thin, Conductive Permafrost Surrounding Lake Fryxell Indicates Salts From Past Lakes, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, N.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Gooseff, M. N.; Myers, K. F.; Doran, P. T.; Auken, E.; Dugan, H. A.; Mikucki, J.; Virginia, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    In the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV), permafrost should be thick and liquid water rare. However, despite the well below zero mean annual temperature in this cryospheric desert, liquid water can be found in lakes, summer melt streams, subglacial outflow, and - recent work has shown - underneath anomalously thin permafrost. In part, this niche hydrosphere is maintained by the presence of salts, which depress the freezing point of water to perhaps as cold as -10° Celsius. We detected widespread salty water across the MDV in lakes and at depth using a helicopter-borne Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) sensor. By using the presence of brines to mark the transition from frozen permafrost (near the surface) to unfrozen ground (at depth), we have created a map of permafrost thickness in Lower Taylor Valley (LTV), a large MDV with a complex history of glaciation and occupation by lakes. Our results show that permafrost is thinner ( 200m) than would be expected based on geothermal gradient measurements (up to 1000m), a result of the freezing point depression caused by salt and potentially enhanced by an unfinished transient freezing process. Near Lake Fryxell, a large, brackish lake in the center of LTV, permafrost is very thin (about 30-40m) and notably more electrically conductive than more distal permafrost. This thin ring of conductive permafrost surrounding the lake basin most likely reflects the high presence of salts in the subsurface, preventing complete freezing. These salts may be a remnant of the salty bottom waters of a historic larger lake (LGM glacially dammed Lake Washburn) or the remnant of salty basal water from a past advance of Taylor Glacier, which now sits many km up-valley but is known to contain brines which currently flow onto the surface and directly into the subsurface aquifer.

  20. Hydroclimatic variability in the Lake Mondsee region and its relationships with large-scale climate anomaly patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbu, Norel; Ionita, Monica; Swierczynski, Tina; Brauer, Achim; Kämpf, Lucas; Czymzik, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Flood triggered detrital layers in varved sediments of Lake Mondsee, located at the northern fringe of the European Alps (47°48'N,13°23'E), provide an important archive of regional hydroclimatic variability during the mid- to late Holocene. To improve the interpretation of the flood layer record in terms of large-scale climate variability, we investigate the relationships between observational hydrological records from the region, like the Mondsee lake level, the runoff of the lake's main inflow Griesler Ache, with observed precipitation and global climate patterns. The lake level shows a strong positive linear trend during the observational period in all seasons. Additionally, lake level presents important interannual to multidecadal variations. These variations are associated with distinct seasonal atmospheric circulation patterns. A pronounced anomalous anticyclonic center over the Iberian Peninsula is associated with high lake levels values during winter. This center moves southwestward during spring, summer and autumn. In the same time, a cyclonic anomaly center is recorded over central and western Europe. This anomalous circulation extends southwestward from winter to autumn. Similar atmospheric circulation patterns are associated with river runoff and precipitation variability from the region. High lake levels are associated with positive local precipitation anomalies in all seasons as well as with negative local temperature anomalies during spring, summer and autumn. A correlation analysis reveals that lake level, runoff and precipitation variability is related to large-scale sea surface temperature anomaly patterns in all seasons suggesting a possible impact of large-scale climatic modes, like the North Atlantic Oscillation and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation on hydroclimatic variability in the Lake Mondsee region. The results presented in this study can be used for a more robust interpretation of the long flood layer record from Lake Mondsee sediments

  1. Stable isotope ratios in swale sequences of Lake Superior as indicators of climate and lake level fluctuations during the Late Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shruti; Mora, G.; Johnston, J.W.; Thompson, T.A.

    2005-01-01

    Beach ridges along the coastline of Lake Superior provide a long-term and detailed record of lake level fluctuations for the past 4000 cal BP. Although climate change has been invoked to explain these fluctuations, its role is still in debate. Here, we reconstruct water balance by employing peat samples collected from swale deposits present between beach ridge sequences at two locations along the coastline of Lake Superior. Carbon isotope ratios for Sphagnum remains from these peat deposits are used as a proxy for water balance because the presence or absence of water films on Sphagnum controls the overall isotope discrimination effects. Consequently, increased average water content in Sphagnum produces elevated ??13C values. Two maxima of Sphagnum ??13C values interpreted to reflect wetter conditions prevailed from 3400 to 2400 cal BP and from about 1900 to 1400 cal BP. There are two relatively short drier periods as inferred from low Sphagnum ??13C values: one is centered at about 2300 cal BP, and one begins at 1400 cal BP. A good covariance was found between Sphagnum ??13C values and reconstructed lake-levels for Lake Michigan in which elevated carbon isotope values correlate well with higher lake levels. Based on this covariance, we conclude that climate exerts a strong influence on lake levels in Lake Superior for the past 4000 cal BP. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Dreissena Risk Assessment for the Colorado River Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Theodore A.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary Nonnative zebra and quagga mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena bugensis, respectively; see photo above) were accidentally introduced to the Great Lakes in the 1980s and subsequently spread to watersheds of the Eastern United States (Strayer and others, 1999). The introduction of Dreissena mussels has been economically costly and has had large and far-reaching ecological impacts on these systems. Quagga mussels were found in Lakes Mead and Havasu in January 2007. Given the likelihood that quagga mussels and, eventually, zebra mussels will be introduced to Lake Powell and the Colorado River at Lees Ferry, it is important to assess the risks that introduction of Dreissena mussels pose to the Colorado River ecosystem (here defined as the segment of river from just below Glen Canyon Dam to Diamond Creek; hereafter CRE). In this report, I assess three different types of risks associated with Dreissena and the CRE: (1) the risk that Dreissena will establish at high densities in the CRE, (2) the risk of ecological impacts should Dreissena establish at high densities in the CRE or in Lake Powell, and (3) the risk that Dreissena will be introduced to tributaries of the CRE. The risk of Dreissena establishing within the CRE is low, except for the Lees Ferry tailwater reach where the risk appears high. Dreissena are unlikely to establish at high densities within the CRE or its tributaries because of high suspended sediment, high ratios of suspended inorganic:organic material, and high water velocities, all of which interfere with the ability of Dreissena to effectively filter feed. The rapids of Grand Canyon may represent a large source of mortality to larval Dreissena, which would limit their ability to disperse and colonize downstream reaches of the CRE. In contrast, conditions within the Lees Ferry tailwater generally appear suitable for Dreissena establishment, with the exception of high average water velocity. If Dreissena establish within the

  3. Microplastic pollution in lakes and lake shoreline sediments - A case study on Lake Bolsena and Lake Chiusi (central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Elke Kerstin; Paglialonga, Lisa; Czech, Elisa; Tamminga, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Rivers and effluents have been identified as major pathways for microplastics of terrestrial sources. Moreover, lakes of different dimensions and even in remote locations contain microplastics in striking abundances. This study investigates concentrations of microplastic particles at two lakes in central Italy (Lake Bolsena, Lake Chiusi). A total number of six Manta Trawls have been carried out, two of them one day after heavy winds occurred on Lake Bolsena showing effects on particle distribution of fragments and fibers of varying size categories. Additionally, 36 sediment samples from lakeshores were analyzed for microplastic content. In the surface waters 2.68 to 3.36 particles/m(3) (Lake Chiusi) and 0.82 to 4.42 particles/m(3) (Lake Bolsena) were detected, respectively. Main differences between the lakes are attributed to lake characteristics such as surface and catchment area, depth and the presence of local wind patterns and tide range at Lake Bolsena. An event of heavy winds and moderate rainfall prior to one sampling led to an increase of concentrations at Lake Bolsena which is most probable related to lateral land-based and sewage effluent inputs. The abundances of microplastic particles in sediments vary from mean values of 112 (Lake Bolsena) to 234 particles/kg dry weight (Lake Chiusi). Lake Chiusi results reveal elevated fiber concentrations compared to those of Lake Bolsena what might be a result of higher organic content and a shift in grain size distribution towards the silt and clay fraction at the shallow and highly eutrophic Lake Chiusi. The distribution of particles along different beach levels revealed no significant differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparison between dispersed nuclear power plants and a nuclear energy center at a hypothetical site on Kentucky Lake, Tennessee. Vol. III. Environmental considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, F.C.; Gray, D.D.; Hyndman, J.R.; Sisman, O.; Suffern, J.S.; Tyrrell, P.A.; West, D.C.

    1976-02-01

    The thermal, ecological, and social impacts of a 40-reactor NEC are compared to impacts from four 10-reactor NECs and ten 4-reactor power plants. The comparison was made for surrogate sites in western Tennessee. The surrogate site for the 40-reactor NEC is located on Kentucky Lake. A layout is postulated for ten clusters of four reactors each with 2.5-mile spacing between clusters. The plants use natural-draft cooling towers. A transmission system is proposed for delivering the power (48,000 MW) to five load centers. Comparable transmission systems are proposed for the 10-reactor NECs and the 4-reactor dispersed sites delivering power to the same load centers.

  5. VT Impervious Surfaces for the Lake Champlain Basin - 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) High-resolution impervious surfaces dataset for the Lake Champlain Basin, Vermont and New York. Two impervious classes were mapped: (1)...

  6. Using Multi-Objective Optimization to Explore Robust Policies in the Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, E.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Zagona, E. A.; Prairie, J. R.; Jerla, C.; Butler, A.

    2017-12-01

    The long term reliability of water deliveries in the Colorado River Basin has degraded due to the imbalance of growing demand and dwindling supply. The Colorado River meanders 1,450 miles across a watershed that covers seven US states and Mexico and is an important cultural, economic, and natural resource for nearly 40 million people. Its complex operating policy is based on the "Law of the River," which has evolved since the Colorado River Compact in 1922. Recent (2007) refinements to address shortage reductions and coordinated operations of Lakes Powell and Mead were negotiated with stakeholders in which thousands of scenarios were explored to identify operating guidelines that could ultimately be agreed on. This study explores a different approach to searching for robust operating policies to inform the policy making process. The Colorado River Simulation System (CRSS), a long-term water management simulation model implemented in RiverWare, is combined with the Borg multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) to solve an eight objective problem formulation. Basin-wide performance metrics are closely tied to system health through incorporating critical reservoir pool elevations, duration, frequency and quantity of shortage reductions in the objective set. For example, an objective to minimize the frequency that Lake Powell falls below the minimum power pool elevation of 3,490 feet for Glen Canyon Dam protects a vital economic and renewable energy source for the southwestern US. The decision variables correspond to operating tiers in Lakes Powell and Mead that drive the implementation of various shortage and release policies, thus affecting system performance. The result will be a set of non-dominated solutions that can be compared with respect to their trade-offs based on the various objectives. These could inform policy making processes by eliminating dominated solutions and revealing robust solutions that could remain hidden under conventional analysis.

  7. Lake St. Clair: Storm Wave and Water Level Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    R. A. Luettich, C. Dawson, V. J. Cardone , A. T. Cox, M. D. Powell, H. J. Westerink, and H. J. Roberts. 2010. A high resolution coupled riverine flow...Storm Wave and Water Level Modeling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Tyler J. Hesser

  8. VT Northern Forest Lands - Lakes and Ponds area polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) These data identify shorelines of lakes and ponds ten (10) acres and larger. The shorelines are classified according to their development status....

  9. VT Northern Forest Lands - Lakes and Ponds boundary lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) These data identify shorelines of lakes and ponds ten (10) acres and larger. The shorelines are classified according to their development status....

  10. 2001 USACE LRE Topobathy Lidar: Lake Ontario (NY)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Office for Coastal Management received the 2001 Lake Ontario dataset with 2 separate metadata records in 2013 on a hard-drive device from the USGS Center for...

  11. Terrestrial CDOM in Lakes of Yamal Peninsula: Connection to Lake and Lake Catchment Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Dvornikov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze interactions in lake and lake catchment systems of a continuous permafrost area. We assessed colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM absorption at 440 nm (a(440CDOM and absorption slope (S300–500 in lakes using field sampling and optical remote sensing data for an area of 350 km2 in Central Yamal, Siberia. Applying a CDOM algorithm (ratio of green and red band reflectance for two high spatial resolution multispectral GeoEye-1 and Worldview-2 satellite images, we were able to extrapolate the a(λCDOM data from 18 lakes sampled in the field to 356 lakes in the study area (model R2 = 0.79. Values of a(440CDOM in 356 lakes varied from 0.48 to 8.35 m−1 with a median of 1.43 m−1. This a(λCDOM dataset was used to relate lake CDOM to 17 lake and lake catchment parameters derived from optical and radar remote sensing data and from digital elevation model analysis in order to establish the parameters controlling CDOM in lakes on the Yamal Peninsula. Regression tree model and boosted regression tree analysis showed that the activity of cryogenic processes (thermocirques in the lake shores and lake water level were the two most important controls, explaining 48.4% and 28.4% of lake CDOM, respectively (R2 = 0.61. Activation of thermocirques led to a large input of terrestrial organic matter and sediments from catchments and thawed permafrost to lakes (n = 15, mean a(440CDOM = 5.3 m−1. Large lakes on the floodplain with a connection to Mordy-Yakha River received more CDOM (n = 7, mean a(440CDOM = 3.8 m−1 compared to lakes located on higher terraces.

  12. Aspects of developed heat and mass flux models on 3D flow of Eyring-Powell fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Tanzila; Nadeem, S.

    The variable thermal conductivity impacts and generalized Fourier's and Fick's laws over an exponentially stretching surface are reported in this paper. Another heat flux idea involving mystery of heat conduction is exploited which is not quite the same as the usual literature. Such idea has been utilized as a part of perspective of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux theory. The characteristic of temperature and concentration relaxation features are described. Other than this, chemical reactions are additionally considered. To solve the system of six highly non-linear coupled differential equations, a numerical technique bvp4c is adopted. The skin friction coefficient for three dimensional Eyring-Powell fluid model is calculated. From the present analysis we observe that the temperature and concentration profiles declines for higher values of thermal and concentration relaxation parameters. Also, for higher values of strength of reaction parameters, the concentration profile decreases. Current effort for three dimensional Cattaneo-Christov double diffusion and homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions over an exponentially stretching surface does not yet exist in the literature.

  13. Cyanobacterial bloom in the world largest freshwater lake Baikal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namsaraev, Zorigto; Melnikova, Anna; Ivanov, Vasiliy; Komova, Anastasia; Teslyuk, Anton

    2018-02-01

    Lake Baikal is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and holds 20% of the world’s freshwater reserves. On July 26, 2016, a cyanobacterial bloom of a green colour a few kilometers in size with a bad odor was discovered by local people in the Barguzinsky Bay on the eastern shore of Lake Baikal. Our study showed very high concentration of chlorophyll a (41.7 g/m3) in the sample of bloom. We found that the bloom was dominated by a nitrogen-fixing heterocystous cyanobacteria of the genus Dolichospermum. The mass accumulation of cyanobacteria in the lake water with an extremely high chlorophyll a concentration can be explained by a combination of several factors: the discharge of biologicaly-available nutrients, including phosphorus, into the water of Lake Baikal; low wind speed and weak water mixing; buoyant cyanobacterial cells on the lake surface, which drifted towards the eastern coast, where the maximum concentration of chlorophyll a was recorded. In the center of the Barguzinsky Bay and in the open part of Lake Baikal, according to satellite data, the chlorophyll a concentration is several orders of magnitude lower than at the shoreline.

  14. Status and trends in the fish community of Lake Superior, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Owen T.; Evrard, Lori M.; Cholwek, Gary A.; Vinson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Great Lakes Science Center has conducted daytime nearshore bottom trawl surveys of Lake Superior (15-80 m bathymetric depth zone) each spring since 1978 and an offshore survey (>80 m) since 2011 to provide long-term trends of relative abundance and biomass of the fish community. In 2012, 72 nearshore and 34 offshore stations were sampled with a 12-m Yankee bottom trawl.

  15. Sanctuaries for lake trout in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jon G.; Eshenroder, Randy L.; Hartman, Wilbur L.

    1987-01-01

    Populations of lake trout, severely depleted in Lake Superior and virtually extirpated from the other Great Lakes because of sea lamprey predation and intense fishing, are now maintained by annual plantings of hatchery-reared fish in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario and parts of Lake Superior. The extensive coastal areas of the Great Lakes and proximity to large populations resulted in fishing pressure on planted lake trout heavy enough to push annual mortality associated with sport and commercial fisheries well above the critical level needed to reestablish self-sustaining stocks. The interagency, international program for rehabilitating lake trout includes controlling sea lamprey abundance, stocking hatchery-reared lake trout, managing the catch, and establishing sanctuaries where harvest is prohibited. Three lake trout sanctuaries have been established in Lake Michigan: the Fox Island Sanctuary of 121, 500 ha, in the Chippewa-Ottawa Treaty fishing zone in the northern region of the lake; the Milwaukee Reef Sanctuary of 160, 000 ha in midlake, in boundary waters of Michigan and Wisconsin; and Julian's Reef Sanctuary of 6, 500 ha, in Illinois waters. In northern Lake Huron, Drummond Island Sanctuary of 55, 000 ha is two thirds in Indian treaty-ceded waters in Michigan and one third in Ontario waters of Canada. A second sanctuary, Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef Sanctuary, in central Lake Huron contains 168, 000 ha. Sanctuary status for the Canadian areas remains to be approved by the Provincial government. In Lake Superior, sanctuaries protect the spawning grounds of Gull Island Shoal (70, 000 ha) and Devils Island Shoal (44, 000 ha) in Wisconsin's Apostle Island area. These seven sanctuaries, established by the several States and agreed upon by the States, Indian tribes, the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Province of Ontario, contribute toward solving an interjurisdictional fishery problem.

  16. Evolution of alkaline lakes - Lake Van case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman Meyer, Felix; Viehberg, Finn; Bahroun, Sonya; Wolf, Annabel; Immenhauser, Adrian; Kwiecien, Ola

    2017-04-01

    Lake Van in Eastern Anatolia (Turkey) is the largest terminal soda lake on Earth. The lake sedimentary profile covers ca. 600 ka (Stockhecke et al. 2014) Based on lithological changes, the presence of freshwater microfossils and close-to-freshwater pH value in the pore water, members of ICDP PALEOVAN concluded that Lake Van might have started as an open lake. Here we show paleontological and geochemical evidence in favour of this idea and constrain the time, when Lake Van likely transformed into a closed lake. Additionally we provide the first conceptual model of how this closure may have happened. Our archives of choice are inorganic and biogenic carbonates, separated by wet sieving. We identified microfossil assemblages (fraction > 125 µm) and performed high-resolution oxygen isotope (delta18O) and elemental (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca) analyses of the fraction plants growing in the photic zone as food supply. These two aspects point to an increasing salinity in a shallowing lake. The delta18O values of inorganic carbonates are relatively low during the initial phase of Lake Van and increase abruptly (ca. 7‰) after 530 ka BP. At approximately the same time combination of Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca data suggest first occurrence of aragonite. Again, these findings suggest geochemical changes of the lake water concurrent with transition documented by microfossils. Comparison between Lake Van and Lake Ohrid (Lacey et al. 2016) delta18O data, precludes regional climate change (e.g.: increased evaporation) as the main driver of observed changes. With no evidence for increased volcanic or tectonic activity (e.g.: tephra layers, deformation structures, slumping) in the Lake Van sedimentary profile around 530 ka, it seems unlikely that a pyroclastic flow blocked the outflow of the lake. Alternatively, a portion of inflow has been diverged which might have caused a change in the hydrological balance and lake level falling below its outlet. However, as no geomorphological data confirming this

  17. Complex Drilling Logistics for Lake El’gygytgyn, NE Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Melles,

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Lake El’gygytgyn was formed by astrophysical chance when a meteorite struck the Earth 100 km north of the Arctic Circle in Chukotka 3.6 Myrs ago (Layer, 2000 on the drainage divide between the Arctic Ocean and the Bering Sea. The crater measures ~18 km in diameter and lies nearly in the center of what was to become Beringia, the largestcontiguous landscape in the Arctic to have escaped continental scale glaciation. Within the crater rim today, Lake El’gygytgyn is 12 km in diameter and 170 m deep, enclosing 350–400 m of sediment deposited since the time of impact (Gebhardt et al., 2006. This setting makes the lake ideal for paleoclimate and impact research.

  18. Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and...

  19. Thermokarst lake methanogenesis along a complete talik profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Heslop

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermokarst (thaw lakes emit methane (CH4 to the atmosphere formed from thawed permafrost organic matter (OM, but the relative magnitude of CH4 production in surface lake sediments vs. deeper thawed permafrost horizons is not well understood. We assessed anaerobic CH4 production potentials from various depths along a 590 cm long lake sediment core that captured the entire sediment package of the talik (thaw bulb beneath the center of an interior Alaska thermokarst lake, Vault Lake, and the top 40 cm of thawing permafrost beneath the talik. We also studied the adjacent Vault Creek permafrost tunnel that extends through ice-rich yedoma permafrost soils surrounding the lake and into underlying gravel. Our results showed CH4 production potentials were highest in the organic-rich surface lake sediments, which were 151 cm thick (mean ± SD: 5.95 ± 1.67 μg C–CH4 g dw−1 d−1; 125.9 ± 36.2 μg C–CH4 g C−1org d−1. High CH4 production potentials were also observed in recently thawed permafrost (1.18 ± 0.61 μg C–CH4g dw−1 d−1; 59.60± 51.5 μg C–CH4 g C−1org d−1 at the bottom of the talik, but the narrow thicknesses (43 cm of this horizon limited its overall contribution to total sediment column CH4 production in the core. Lower rates of CH4 production were observed in sediment horizons representing permafrost that has been thawing in the talik for a longer period of time. No CH4 production was observed in samples obtained from the permafrost tunnel, a non-lake environment. Our findings imply that CH4 production is highly variable in thermokarst lake systems and that both modern OM supplied to surface sediments and ancient OM supplied to both surface and deep lake sediments by in situ thaw and shore erosion of yedoma permafrost are important to lake CH4 production.

  20. Thermokarst lake methanogenesis along a complete talik profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, J.K.; Walter Anthony, K.M.; Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Martinez-Cruz, K.; Bondurant, A.; Grosse, G.; Jones, Miriam C.

    2015-01-01

    Thermokarst (thaw) lakes emit methane (CH4) to the atmosphere formed from thawed permafrost organic matter (OM), but the relative magnitude of CH4 production in surface lake sediments vs. deeper thawed permafrost horizons is not well understood. We assessed anaerobic CH4 production potentials from various depths along a 590 cm long lake sediment core that captured the entire sediment package of the talik (thaw bulb) beneath the center of an interior Alaska thermokarst lake, Vault Lake, and the top 40 cm of thawing permafrost beneath the talik. We also studied the adjacent Vault Creek permafrost tunnel that extends through ice-rich yedoma permafrost soils surrounding the lake and into underlying gravel. Our results showed CH4 production potentials were highest in the organic-rich surface lake sediments, which were 151 cm thick (mean ± SD: 5.95 ± 1.67 μg C–CH4 g dw−1 d−1; 125.9 ± 36.2 μg C–CH4 g C−1org d−1). High CH4 production potentials were also observed in recently thawed permafrost (1.18 ± 0.61 μg C–CH4g dw−1 d−1; 59.60± 51.5 μg C–CH4 g C−1org d−1) at the bottom of the talik, but the narrow thicknesses (43 cm) of this horizon limited its overall contribution to total sediment column CH4 production in the core. Lower rates of CH4 production were observed in sediment horizons representing permafrost that has been thawing in the talik for a longer period of time. No CH4 production was observed in samples obtained from the permafrost tunnel, a non-lake environment. Our findings imply that CH4production is highly variable in thermokarst lake systems and that both modern OM supplied to surface sediments and ancient OM supplied to both surface and deep lake sediments by in situ thaw and shore erosion of yedoma permafrost are important to lake CH4 production.

  1. Lake whitefish diet, condition, and energy density in Lake Champlain and the lower four Great Lakes following dreissenid invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Seth J.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Lantry, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis support some of the most valuable commercial freshwater fisheries in North America. Recent growth and condition decreases in Lake Whitefish populations in the Great Lakes have been attributed to the invasion of the dreissenid mussels, zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha and quagga mussels D. bugensis, and the subsequent collapse of the amphipod, Diporeia, a once-abundant high energy prey source. Since 1993, Lake Champlain has also experienced the invasion and proliferation of zebra mussels, but in contrast to the Great Lakes, Diporeia were not historically abundant. We compared the diet, condition, and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain after the dreissenid mussel invasion to values for those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Lake Whitefish were collected using gill nets and bottom trawls, and their diets were quantified seasonally. Condition was estimated using Fulton's condition factor (K) and by determining energy density. In contrast to Lake Whitefish from some of the Great Lakes, those from Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish did not show a dietary shift towards dreissenid mussels, but instead fed primarily on fish eggs in spring, Mysis diluviana in summer, and gastropods and sphaeriids in fall and winter. Along with these dietary differences, the condition and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain were high compared with those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario after the dreissenid invasion, and were similar to Lake Whitefish from Lake Erie; fish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario consumed dreissenids, whereas fish from Lake Erie did not. Our comparisons of Lake Whitefish populations in Lake Champlain to those in the Great Lakes indicate that diet and condition of Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish were not negatively affected by the dreissenid mussel invasion.

  2. High-levels of microplastic pollution in a large, remote, mountain lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Free, Christopher M.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Mason, Sherri A.; Eriksen, Marcus; Williamson, Nicholas J.; Boldgiv, Bazartseren

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We quantified pelagic microplastic pollution in Lake Hovsgol, Mongolia. • Lake Hovsgol is more polluted with microplastics than Lakes Huron and Superior. • Microplastics came from consumer goods; no microbeads/few pellets were observed. • Microplastics were sourced from population centers and distributed by the winds. • Without waste management, even small populations can heavily pollute large lakes. - Abstract: Despite the large and growing literature on microplastics in the ocean, little information exists on microplastics in freshwater systems. This study is the first to evaluate the abundance, distribution, and composition of pelagic microplastic pollution in a large, remote, mountain lake. We quantified pelagic microplastics and shoreline anthropogenic debris in Lake Hovsgol, Mongolia. With an average microplastic density of 20,264 particles km −2 , Lake Hovsgol is more heavily polluted with microplastics than the more developed Lakes Huron and Superior in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Fragments and films were the most abundant microplastic types; no plastic microbeads and few pellets were observed. Household plastics dominated the shoreline debris and were comprised largely of plastic bottles, fishing gear, and bags. Microplastic density decreased with distance from the southwestern shore, the most populated and accessible section of the park, and was distributed by the prevailing winds. These results demonstrate that without proper waste management, low-density populations can heavily pollute freshwater systems with consumer plastics

  3. Glacial lake inventory and lake outburst potential in Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Maxim A; Sabitov, Timur Y; Tomashevskaya, Irina G; Glazirin, Gleb E; Chernomorets, Sergey S; Savernyuk, Elena A; Tutubalina, Olga V; Petrakov, Dmitriy A; Sokolov, Leonid S; Dokukin, Mikhail D; Mountrakis, Giorgos; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Stoffel, Markus

    2017-08-15

    Climate change has been shown to increase the number of mountain lakes across various mountain ranges in the World. In Central Asia, and in particular on the territory of Uzbekistan, a detailed assessment of glacier lakes and their evolution over time is, however lacking. For this reason we created the first detailed inventory of mountain lakes of Uzbekistan based on recent (2002-2014) satellite observations using WorldView-2, SPOT5, and IKONOS imagery with a spatial resolution from 2 to 10m. This record was complemented with data from field studies of the last 50years. The previous data were mostly in the form of inventories of lakes, available in Soviet archives, and primarily included localized in-situ data. The inventory of mountain lakes presented here, by contrast, includes an overview of all lakes of the territory of Uzbekistan. Lakes were considered if they were located at altitudes above 1500m and if lakes had an area exceeding 100m 2 . As in other mountain regions of the World, the ongoing increase of air temperatures has led to an increase in lake number and area. Moreover, the frequency and overall number of lake outburst events have been on the rise as well. Therefore, we also present the first outburst assessment with an updated version of well-known approaches considering local climate features and event histories. As a result, out of the 242 lakes identified on the territory of Uzbekistan, 15% are considered prone to outburst, 10% of these lakes have been assigned low outburst potential and the remainder of the lakes have an average level of outburst potential. We conclude that the distribution of lakes by elevation shows a significant influence on lake area and hazard potential. No significant differences, by contrast, exist between the distribution of lake area, outburst potential, and lake location with respect to glaciers by regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Geophysical Investigation of a Thermokarst Lake Talik in Continuous Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, A.; Parsekian, A.; Arp, C. D.; Jones, B. M.; Babcock, E.; Bondurant, A. C.

    2016-12-01

    On the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of northern Alaska, shallow thermokarst lakes cover up to 25% of the landscape. These lakes occupy depressions created by the subsidence of thawed, ice-rich permafrost. Areas of unfrozen sediment, or taliks, can form under lakes that have a mean annual bottom temperature greater than 0°C. The geometry of these taliks, as well as the processes that create them, are important for understanding interactions between surface water, groundwater, and carbon cycling. Non-invasive geophysical methods are a useful means to study talik sediments as borehole studies yield few data points, and the contrast between unfrozen and frozen sediments is an ideal geophysical target. To study talik configuration associated with an actively expanding thermokarst lake, we conducted a geophysical transect across Peatball Lake. This lake has an estimated initiation age of 1400 calendar years BP. Over the past 60 years, lake surface area has increased through thermal and mechanical shoreline erosion. A talik of previously unknown thickness likely exists below Peatball Lake. We conducted a transect of transient electromagnetic soundings across the lake extending into the surrounding terrestrial environment. Since permafrost has relatively high resistivity compared to talik sediments, the interpreted electrical structure of the subsurface likely reflects talik geometry. We also conducted nuclear magnetic resonance soundings at representative locations along the transect. These measurements can provide data on sub-lake sediment properties including water content. Together, these measurements resolve the talik structure across the lake transect and showed evidence of varying talik thicknesses from the lake edge to center. These is no evidence of a talik at the terrestrial control sites. These results can help constrain talik development models and thus provide insight into Arctic and permafrost processes in the face of a changing climate.

  5. Aspects of developed heat and mass flux models on 3D flow of Eyring-Powell fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzila Hayat

    Full Text Available The variable thermal conductivity impacts and generalized Fourier’s and Fick’s laws over an exponentially stretching surface are reported in this paper. Another heat flux idea involving mystery of heat conduction is exploited which is not quite the same as the usual literature. Such idea has been utilized as a part of perspective of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux theory. The characteristic of temperature and concentration relaxation features are described. Other than this, chemical reactions are additionally considered.To solve the system of six highly non-linear coupled differential equations, a numerical technique bvp4c is adopted. The skin friction coefficient for three dimensional Eyring-Powell fluid model is calculated. From the present analysis we observe that the temperature and concentration profiles declines for higher values of thermal and concentration relaxation parameters. Also, for higher values of strength of reaction parameters, the concentration profile decreases. Current effort for three dimensional Cattaneo-Christov double diffusion and homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions over an exponentially stretching surface does not yet exist in the literature. Keywords: Three dimensional flow, Cattaneo-Christov double diffusion, Homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions, Variable thermal conductivity, Exponentially stretching surface

  6. Recomposing mined lands: Landscape as arena for education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessman, S.

    1998-01-01

    This project is an hypothetical design using landscape architectural principles and processes for land use in the near distant future. The site is the Powell River Project 1,700 acres of surface-mined coal country in southwestern Virginia. In this design, the author challenges the boundaries of normative reclamation and makes a case for using landscape architectural planning and design in reclamation decisions. The power of design is that it integrates the technical with the cultural and enables wider consideration for post-mining uses. The author's theses is that landscape can be the best teacher and influence of people's attitudes about their environment history and cultural conditions. To make informed decisions, a populace must understand these issues. In the design the Powell River Project landscape is a system composed of interrelated parts; actively mined areas, reclaimed areas (pre- and post- 1997), the nascent Education Center within the Project, the Powell River watershed, and nearby towns. This whole extends well beyond the Project's bounds out into the Appalachian region of Virginia's southwestern counties. The project design recomposes the parts in a way that considers both near-term uses and long-term economic growth potential. Phase 1 is a clearly defined and strengthened Education center and expansion of the Center's regional presence. Phase 2 is the development of the Norton-Wise-Powell River Project Triangle into a focus of regional cultural, economic and environmental affairs

  7. Lake-level frequency analysis for Devils Lake, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Gregg J.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    1996-01-01

    Two approaches were used to estimate future lake-level probabilities for Devils Lake. The first approach is based on an annual lake-volume model, and the second approach is based on a statistical water mass-balance model that generates seasonal lake volumes on the basis of seasonal precipitation, evaporation, and inflow. Autoregressive moving average models were used to model the annual mean lake volume and the difference between the annual maximum lake volume and the annual mean lake volume. Residuals from both models were determined to be uncorrelated with zero mean and constant variance. However, a nonlinear relation between the residuals of the two models was included in the final annual lakevolume model.Because of high autocorrelation in the annual lake levels of Devils Lake, the annual lake-volume model was verified using annual lake-level changes. The annual lake-volume model closely reproduced the statistics of the recorded lake-level changes for 1901-93 except for the skewness coefficient. However, the model output is less skewed than the data indicate because of some unrealistically large lake-level declines. The statistical water mass-balance model requires as inputs seasonal precipitation, evaporation, and inflow data for Devils Lake. Analysis of annual precipitation, evaporation, and inflow data for 1950-93 revealed no significant trends or long-range dependence so the input time series were assumed to be stationary and short-range dependent.Normality transformations were used to approximately maintain the marginal probability distributions; and a multivariate, periodic autoregressive model was used to reproduce the correlation structure. Each of the coefficients in the model is significantly different from zero at the 5-percent significance level. Coefficients relating spring inflow from one year to spring and fall inflows from the previous year had the largest effect on the lake-level frequency analysis.Inclusion of parameter uncertainty in the model

  8. Lake trout in northern Lake Huron spawn on submerged drumlins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Stephen C.; Binder, Thomas; Wattrus, Nigel J.; Faust, Matthew D.; Janssen, John; Menzies, John; Marsden, J. Ellen; Ebener, Mark P.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji X.; Tucker, Taaja R.; Hansen, Michael J.; Thompson, Henry T.; Muir, Andrew M.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations of spawning lake trout Salvelinus namaycush near Drummond Island in northern Lake Huron indicate that lake trout use drumlins, landforms created in subglacial environments by the action of ice sheets, as a primary spawning habitat. From these observations, we generated a hypothesis that may in part explain locations chosen by lake trout for spawning. Most salmonines spawn in streams where they rely on streamflows to sort and clean sediments to create good spawning habitat. Flows sufficient to sort larger sediment sizes are generally lacking in lakes, but some glacial bedforms contain large pockets of sorted sediments that can provide the interstitial spaces necessary for lake trout egg incubation, particularly if these bedforms are situated such that lake currents can penetrate these sediments. We hypothesize that sediment inclusions from glacial scavenging and sediment sorting that occurred during the creation of bedforms such as drumlins, end moraines, and eskers create suitable conditions for lake trout egg incubation, particularly where these bedforms interact with lake currents to remove fine sediments. Further, these bedforms may provide high-quality lake trout spawning habitat at many locations in the Great Lakes and may be especially important along the southern edge of the range of the species. A better understanding of the role of glacially-derived bedforms in the creation of lake trout spawning habitat may help develop powerful predictors of lake trout spawning locations, provide insight into the evolution of unique spawning behaviors by lake trout, and aid in lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes.

  9. Lake sturgeon population characteristics in Rainy Lake, Minnesota and Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, W.E.; Kallemeyn, L.W.; Willis, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    Rainy Lake contains a native population of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens that has been largely unstudied. The aims of this study were to document the population characteristics of lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake and to relate environmental factors to year-class strength for this population. Gill-netting efforts throughout the study resulted in the capture of 322 lake sturgeon, including 50 recaptures. Lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake was relatively plump and fast growing compared with a 32-population summary. Population samples were dominated by lake sturgeon between 110 and 150 cm total length. Age–structure analysis of the samples indicated few younger (<10 years) lake sturgeon, but the smallest gill net mesh size used for sampling was 102 mm (bar measure) and would not retain small sturgeon. Few lake sturgeon older than age 50 years were captured, and maximum age of sampled fish was 59 years. Few correlations existed between lake sturgeon year-class indices and both annual and monthly climate variables, except that mean June air temperature was positively correlated with year-class strength. Analysis of Rainy Lake water elevation and resulting lake sturgeon year-class strength indices across years yielded consistent but weak negative correlations between late April and early June, when spawning of lake sturgeon occurs. The baseline data collected in this study should allow Rainy Lake biologists to establish more specific research questions in the future.

  10. Zooplankton communities in a large prealpine lake, Lake Constance: comparison between the Upper and the Lower Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard MAIER

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The zooplankton communities of two basins of a large lake, Lake Constance, were compared during the years 2002 and 2003. The two basins differ in morphology, physical and chemical conditions. The Upper Lake basin has a surface area of 470 km2, a mean depth of 100 and a maximum depth of 250 m; the Lower Lake basin has a surface area of 62 km2, a mean depth of only 13 and a maximum depth of 40 m. Nutrient, chlorophyll-a concentrations and mean temperatures are somewhat higher in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. Total abundance of rotifers (number per m2 lake surface was higher and rotifer development started earlier in the year in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. Total abundance of crustaceans was higher in the Upper Lake in the year 2002; in the year 2003 no difference in abundance could be detected between the lake basins, although in summer crustacean abundance was higher in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. Crustacean communities differed significantly between lake basins while there was no apparent difference in rotifer communities. In the Lower Lake small crustaceans, like Bosmina spp., Ceriodaphnia pulchella and Thermocyclops oithonoides prevailed. Abundance (number per m2 lake surface of predatory cladocerans, large daphnids and large copepods was much lower in the Lower than in the Upper Lake, in particular during the summer months. Ordination with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS separated communities of both lakes along gradients that correlated with temperature and chlorophyll a concentration. Clutches of copepods were larger in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. No difference could be detected in clutch size of large daphnids between lake basins. Our results show that zooplankton communities in different basins of Lake Constance can be very different. They further suggest that the lack of large crustaceans in particular the lack of large predatory cladocerans in the Lower Lake can have negative effects on growth and

  11. Geologic map of Medicine Lake volcano, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.

    2011-01-01

    Medicine Lake volcano forms a broad, seemingly nondescript highland, as viewed from any angle on the ground. Seen from an airplane, however, treeless lava flows are scattered across the surface of this potentially active volcanic edifice. Lavas of Medicine Lake volcano, which range in composition from basalt through rhyolite, cover more than 2,000 km2 east of the main axis of the Cascade Range in northern California. Across the Cascade Range axis to the west-southwest is Mount Shasta, its towering volcanic neighbor, whose stratocone shape contrasts with the broad shield shape of Medicine Lake volcano. Hidden in the center of Medicine Lake volcano is a 7 km by 12 km summit caldera in which nestles its namesake, Medicine Lake. The flanks of Medicine Lake volcano, which are dotted with cinder cones, slope gently upward to the caldera rim, which reaches an elevation of nearly 8,000 ft (2,440 m). The maximum extent of lavas from this half-million-year-old volcano is about 80 km north-south by 45 km east-west. In postglacial time, 17 eruptions have added approximately 7.5 km3 to its total estimated volume of 600 km3, and it is considered to be the largest by volume among volcanoes of the Cascades arc. The volcano has erupted nine times in the past 5,200 years, a rate more frequent than has been documented at all other Cascades arc volcanoes except Mount St. Helens.

  12. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Erie: a case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Floyd C.; Muth, Kenneth M.; Kenyon, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) once thrived in the deep waters of eastern Lake Erie. The impact of nearly 70 years of unregulated exploitation and over 100 years of progressively severe cultural eutrophication resulted in the elimination of lake trout stocks by 1950. Early attempts to restore lake trout by stocking were unsuccessful in establishing a self-sustaining population. In the early 1980s, New York's Department of Environmental Conservation, Pennsylvania's Fish and Boat Commission, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service entered into a cooperative program to rehabilitate lake trout in the eastern basin of Lake Erie. After 11 years of stocking selected strains of lake trout in U.S. waters, followed by effective sea lamprey control, lake trout appear to be successfully recolonizing their native habitat. Adult stocks have built up significantly and are expanding their range in the lake. Preliminary investigations suggest that lake trout reproductive habitat is still adequate for natural reproduction, but natural recruitment has not been documented. Future assessments will be directed toward evaluation of spawning success and tracking age-class cohorts as they move through the fishery.

  13. Short of War: Major USAF Contingency Operations, 1947-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Evacuation Control Center at Tan Son Nhut. They collaborated with Col. Garvin McCurdy, USAF, DAO Air Attache, and Brig. Gen. Richard T. Drury , USAF, Pacific...cargo went by air until ships could arrive. Once they did, sea lift quickly surpassed airlift in terms of tonnage delivered . General Colin L. Powell...Roland I . Haitian Democracy Restored, 1991-1995 . New York: University Press of America, 1995. Powell, Colin L. My American Journey. New York: Random

  14. Managing A Lake/Aquifer System-Science, Policy, and the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    Lake Isabel is a small (312 ha) natural lake located in central North Dakota in the glaciated Missouri Coteau. The average lake depth is about 1.8 m with a maximum depth of about 3.6 to 4.6 m. The lake overlies the Central Dakota aquifer complex which is comprised of three sand and gravel aquifer units that are either directly or indirectly (through leakage) hydraulically connected to the lake. The aquifer is a major water source for center pivot irrigation. During the 2001-2008 drought, lower lake levels reduced lake recreation, including leaving many boat docks unusable. Lake homeowners attribute lake level decline to irrigation pumping and believe that irrigation should be curtailed. There is no water right associated with Lake Isabel because there are no constructed works associated with the lake. Therefore, under North Dakota statute the lake cannot be protected as a prior (senior) appropriator. The lake does have standing under the public interest as defined by North Dakota statute. Evaluation of the public interest involves the integration of both science and policy. Is it in the best interest of the people of the state to prohibit ground water withdrawals for irrigation to protect the lake? This is a policy decision, not a scientific decision. The basis of the policy decision should include an economic analysis of the irrigated crops, fish, wildlife, recreation, and lake property. In addition, priority of use and lake level history should be considered. The issue can likely be resolved without scientific controversy arising from hydrologic system uncertainty. If the decision is to protect the lake at some level, the issue becomes “scientized” and the following questions need to be answered: 1) Does irrigation pumping effect changes in lake levels? 2) Is our level of scientific understanding sufficient to determine what volume of irrigation pumping will cause what amount of lake level change? 3) Given aquifer lag time response to changes in pumping and

  15. The Economic Impact of Ten Cultural Institutions on the Economy of the Salt Lake SMSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwi, David

    The impact of 10 cultural institutions on the Salt Lake City economy was determined by measuring their 1978 direct and indirect financial effects. The institutions are Ballet West, Pioneer Memorial Theatre, Repertory Dance Theatre, Salt Lake City Art Center, Theatre 138, Tiffany's Attic, Utah Museum of Fine Arts, Utah Symphony, Utah Opera Company,…

  16. Holocene Lake-Level Fluctuations of Lake Aricota, Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placzek, Christa; Quade, Jay; Betancourt, Julio L.

    2001-09-01

    Lacustrine deposits exposed around Lake Aricota, Peru (17° 22‧S), a 7.5-km2 lake dammed by debris flows, provide a middle to late Holocene record of lake-level fluctuations. Chronological context for shoreline deposits was obtained from radiocarbon dating of vascular plant remains and other datable material with minimal 14C reservoir effects (<350 yr). Diatomites associated with highstands several meters above the modern lake level indicate wet episodes. Maximum Holocene lake level was attained before 6100 14C yr B.P. and ended ∼2700 14C yr B.P. Moderately high lake levels occurred at 1700 and 1300 14C yr B.P. The highstand at Lake Aricota during the middle Holocene is coeval with a major lowstand at Lake Titicaca (16°S), which is only 130 km to the northeast and shares a similar climatology. Comparisons with other marine and terrestrial records highlight emerging contradictions over the nature of mid-Holocene climate in the central Andes.

  17. The diversity of benthic mollusks of Lake Victoria and Lake Burigi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molluscan diversity, abundance and distribution in sediments of Lake Victoria and its satellite lake, Lake Burigi, were investigated. The survey was carried out in January and February 2002 for Lake Victoria and in March and April 2002 for Lake Burigi. Ten genera were recorded from four zones of Lake Victoria while only ...

  18. Dynamics of biogeochemical sulfur cycling in Mono Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, A. A.; Fairbanks, D.; Wells, M.; Fullerton, K. M.; Bao, R.; Johnson, H.; Speth, D. R.; Stamps, B. W.; Miller, L.; Sessions, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    Mono Lake, California is a closed-basin soda lake (pH 9.8) with high sulfate (120mM), and is an ideal natural laboratory for studying microbial sulfur cycling. Mono Lake is typically thermally stratified in summer while mixing completely in winter. However, large snowmelt inputs may induce salinity stratification that persists for up to five years, causing meromixis. During the California drought of 2014-16, the lake has mixed thoroughly each winter, but the abundant 2017 snowmelt may usher in a multi-year stratification. This natural experiment provides an opportunity to investigate the temporal relationship between microbial sulfur cycling and lake biogeochemistry. We analyzed water samples from five depths at two stations in May of 2017, before the onset of meromixis. Water column sulfate isotope values were generally constant with depth, centering at a δ34SVCDT of 17.39 ± 0.06‰. Organic sulfur isotopes were consistently lighter than lake sulfate, with a δ34SVCDT of 15.59 ± 0.56‰. This significant offset between organic and inorganic sulfur contradicts the minimal isotope effect associated with sulfate assimilation. Sediment push core organic values were further depleted, ranging between δ34SVCDT of -8.94‰ and +0.23‰, implying rapid turnover of Mono Lake sulfur pools. Both lipid biomarkers and 16S rRNA gene amplicons identify Picocystis salinarum, a unicellular green alga, as the dominant member of the microbial community. However, bacterial biomarkers and 16S rRNA genes point to microbes capable of sulfur cycling. We found that dsrA increased with depth (R2 = 0.9008, p reducers and sulfide oxidizers after >1 year of stratification. We saw no evidence in May of 2017 of sulfate reducing bacteria across the oxycline. Additionally, no sulfide was detectable in lake bottom waters despite oxygen below 6.25 µM. Preliminary results suggest a dynamic interplay between sulfide oxidation, sulfate reduction, and the onset of lake stratification. Additional

  19. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Great Lakes Region 4 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  20. Characteristics of petroleum contaminants and their distribution in Lake Taihu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jixiang; Fang, Jia; Cao, Jingjing

    2012-08-31

    Taihu Lake is a typical plain eutrophic shallow lake. With rapidly economic development of the lake area, the petroleum products and oil wastewater produced in various processes have been inevitably discharged into Taihu Lake. As the major fresh water resource in the economically developed region of Yangtze River Delta, the water quality and environmental condition of Taihu Lake have the direct bearing on the natural environment and sustainable development of economy in this region. For this reason we carried out the study to explore the composition, distribution characteristics and sources of petroleum contaminants in Taihu Lake. The aim of this study was to provide the basis for standard management and pollution control of the Taihu Lake environment. The result showed that water samples from near industrial locations were of relatively higher petroleum contaminants concentrations. The oil pollutants concentrations in different areas of Lake Taihu ranged from 0.106 mg/L to 1.168 mg/L, and the sequence of total contents distribution characteristics of petroleum pollutants from high to low in different regions of Taihu Lake was: "Dapu", "Xiaomeikou", "Zhushan Bay", "Lake center", "Qidu". The results showed that total concentrations of n-alkanes and PAHs ranged from 0.045 to 0.281 mg/L and from 0.011 to 0.034 mg/L respectively. In the same region, the concentrations of hydrocarbon pollutants in the surface and bottom of the lake were higher than that in the middle. This paper reached a conclusion that the petroleum contaminants in Taihu Lake mainly derived from petroleum pollution caused by human activities as indicated by OEP, bimodal distribution, CPI, Pr/Ph ratio, the LMW/HMW ratio and other evaluation indices for sources of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

  1. VT Land Cover Land Use for Vermont and Lake Champlain Basin - 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Landuse/Landcover for Vermont and the Lake Champlain Basin derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper Imagery (early 1990s). Note: Minor corrections...

  2. Spatial and temporal genetic diversity of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchill)) from Lake Huron and Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Wendylee; Ebener, Mark P.; Mohr, Lloyd; Hartman, Travis; Johnson, Jim; Roseman, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchill)) are important commercially, culturally, and ecologically in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Stocks of lake whitefish in the Great Lakes have recovered from low levels of abundance in the 1960s. Reductions in abundance, loss of habitat and environmental degradation can be accompanied by losses of genetic diversity and overall fitness that may persist even as populations recover demographically. Therefore, it is important to be able to identify stocks that have reduced levels of genetic diversity. In this study, we investigated patterns of genetic diversity at microsatellite DNA loci in lake whitefish collected between 1927 and 1929 (historical period) and between 1997 and 2005 (contemporary period) from Lake Huron and Lake Erie. Genetic analysis of lake whitefish from Lakes Huron and Erie shows that the amount of population structuring varies from lake to lake. Greater genetic divergences among collections from Lake Huron may be the result of sampling scale, migration patterns and demographic processes. Fluctuations in abundance of lake whitefish populations may have resulted in periods of increased genetic drift that have resulted in changes in allele frequencies over time, but periodic genetic drift was not severe enough to result in a significant loss of genetic diversity. Migration among stocks may have decreased levels of genetic differentiation while not completely obscuring stock boundaries. Recent changes in spatial boundaries to stocks, the number of stocks and life history characteristics of stocks further demonstrate the potential of coregonids for a swift and varied response to environmental change and emphasise the importance of incorporating both spatial and temporal considerations into management plans to ensure that diversity is preserved.

  3. Lake Carnegie, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Ephemeral Lake Carnegie, in Western Australia, fills with water only during periods of significant rainfall. In dry years, it is reduced to a muddy marsh. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on May 19, 1999. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, infrared, and red wavelengths. The image has also been sharpened using the sensor's panchromatic band. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch. This image is part of the ongoing Landsat Earth as Art series.

  4. Peristaltic flow of Powell-Eyring fluid in curved channel with heat transfer: A useful application in biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hina, S; Mustafa, M; Hayat, T; Alsaedi, A

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we explore the heat transfer characteristics in the peristaltic transport of Powell-Eyring fluid inside a curved channel with complaint walls. The study has motivation toward the understanding of blood flow in microcirculatory system. Formulation is developed in the existence of velocity slip and temperature jump conditions. Perturbation approach has been utilized to present series expressions of axial velocity and temperature distributions. Streamlines are prepared to analyze the interesting phenomenon of trapping. Moreover, the plots of heat transfer coefficient for a broad range of embedded parameters are presented and discussed. The results indicate that slip effects substantially influence the velocity and temperature distributions. Axial flow accelerates when slip parameter is incremented. Temperature rises and wall heat flux grows when viscous dissipation effect is strengthened. In contrast to the planar channels, here velocity and temperature functions do not exhibit symmetry with respect to the central line. In addition, bolus size and its shape are different in upper and lower portions of the channel. Heat transfer coefficient enlarges when the curvature effects are reduced. The behaviors of wall tension and wall mass parameters on the profiles are qualitatively similar. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Energy density of lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis in Lakes Huron and Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothoven, S.A.; Nalepa, T.F.; Madenjian, C.P.; Rediske, R.R.; Schneeberger, P.J.; He, J.X.

    2006-01-01

    We collected lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis off Alpena and Tawas City, Michigan, USA in Lake Huron and off Muskegon, Michigan USA in Lake Michigan during 2002–2004. We determined energy density and percent dry weight for lake whitefish from both lakes and lipid content for Lake Michigan fish. Energy density increased with increasing fish weight up to 800 g, and then remained relatively constant with further increases in fish weight. Energy density, adjusted for weight, was lower in Lake Huron than in Lake Michigan for both small (≤800 g) and large fish (>800 g). Energy density did not differ seasonally for small or large lake whitefish or between adult male and female fish. Energy density was strongly correlated with percent dry weight and percent lipid content. Based on data from commercially caught lake whitefish, body condition was lower in Lake Huron than Lake Michigan during 1981–2003, indicating that the dissimilarity in body condition between the lakes could be long standing. Energy density and lipid content in 2002–2004 in Lake Michigan were lower than data for comparable sized fish collected in 1969–1971. Differences in energy density between lakes were attributed to variation in diet and prey energy content as well as factors that affect feeding rates such as lake whitefish density and prey abundance.

  6. Effects of lake trout refuges on lake whitefish and cisco in the Apostle Islands Region of Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccarino-Crowe , Chiara M.; Taylor, William W.; Hansen, Michael J.; Seider, Michael J.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Lake trout refuges in the Apostle Islands region of Lake Superior are analogous to the concept of marine protected areas. These refuges, established specifically for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and closed to most forms of recreational and commercial fishing, were implicated as one of several management actions leading to successful rehabilitation of Lake Superior lake trout. To investigate the potential significance of Gull Island Shoal and Devils Island Shoal refuges for populations of not only lake trout but also other fish species, relative abundances of lake trout, lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), and cisco (Coregonus artedi) were compared between areas sampled inside versus outside of refuge boundaries. During 1982–2010, lake trout relative abundance was higher and increased faster inside the refuges, where lake trout fishing was prohibited, than outside the refuges. Over the same period, lake whitefish relative abundance increased faster inside than outside the refuges. Both evaluations provided clear evidence that refuges protected these species. In contrast, trends in relative abundance of cisco, a prey item of lake trout, did not differ significantly between areas inside and outside the refuges. This result did not suggest indirect or cascading refuge effects due to changes in predator levels. Overall, this study highlights the potential of species-specific refuges to benefit other fish species beyond those that were the refuges' original target. Improved understanding of refuge effects on multiple species of Great Lakes fishes can be valuable for developing rationales for refuge establishment and predicting associated fish community-level effects.

  7. Temperature profiles from Pos Crater Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neshyba, Steve; Fernandez, Walter; Diaz-Andrade, José

    In 1984, we took part in an expedition to measure the temperature field and bathymetry of the acid lake (Figure 1) that has formed in the crater of Poás volcano, Costa Rica, since its last eruption in 1953. Obtaining these data was the first step in a long-range study planned by researchers at the Center for Geophysical Research, University of Costa Rica (San Jose, Costa Rica), and the College of Oceanography, Oregon State University (Corvallis). The study will eventually consider all aspects of fluid behavior in a volcanic lake that is heated or otherwise convectively driven by energy injected at the lake bottom.Evidence of convection is clearly visible on the surface of the Poás lake most of the time. Fumarole activity has been continuous since 1953. Phreatic explosions are quite frequent, varying from weak to strong, and the height of the ejected column varies from 1 to more than 500 m. One immediately useful result of the research would be an estimate of the heat transfer from sources within the conduit to the overlying water column. As far as geophysical fluid behavior goes, we are interested in the turbulent and diffusive processes by which heat and chemical species are transferred. We are especially interested in the impact on the density stratification of the density changes that occur as particulates settle downward through the fluid column. The stratification would otherwise be controlled by the turbulent and diffusive processes driven by thermochemical factors.

  8. Hazards of volcanic lakes: analysis of Lakes Quilotoa and Cuicocha, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gunkel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic lakes within calderas should be viewed as high-risk systems, and an intensive lake monitoring must be carried out to evaluate the hazard of potential limnic or phreatic-magmatic eruptions. In Ecuador, two caldera lakesLakes Quilotoa and Cuicocha, located in the high Andean region >3000 a.s.l. – have been the focus of these investigations. Both volcanoes are geologically young or historically active, and have formed large and deep calderas with lakes of 2 to 3 km in diameter, and 248 and 148 m in depth, respectively. In both lakes, visible gas emissions of CO2 occur, and an accumulation of CO2 in the deep water body must be taken into account.

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate the hazards of these volcanic lakes, and in Lake Cuicocha intensive monitoring was carried out for the evaluation of possible renewed volcanic activities. At Lake Quilotoa, a limnic eruption and diffuse CO2 degassing at the lake surface are to be expected, while at Lake Cuicocha, an increased risk of a phreatic-magmatic eruption exists.

  9. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    George H Kitzman Professor of Genetics, Chief, Division of Cellular and Molecular Therapy, Departments of Pediatrics, Molecular Genetics & Microbiology, Powell Gene Therapy Center, Assistant Director, General Clinical Research Center, Cancer and Genetics Research Complex, 1376 Mowry Road, Room 492-A, ...

  10. A Survey of Scattering, Attenuation, and Size Spectra Studies of Bubble Layers and Plumes Beneath the Air-Sea Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-30

    soluble iron in the ocean [201] - a factor which may have global ecological implications since these creatures may account for a significant removal...submerged plateau) and seamount -dense environments. In these contexts the existing measurements in lakes and shallow water need follow-up work in...Studies of Bubble Layers and Plumes Beneath the Air-Sea Interface EDWARD POWELL Acoustic Svstems Branch Acoustics Division August 30, 1991 Si~ T 91-10188

  11. Lake Baikal Ecosystem Faces the Threat of Eutrophication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina I. Kobanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently there have been reports about large accumulations of algae on the beaches of Lake Baikal, the oldest and deepest freshwater body on earth, near major population centers and in areas with large concentrations of tourists and tourism infrastructure. To evaluate the observations indicating the ongoing process of eutrophication of Lake Baikal, a field study in July 2012 in the two largest bays of Lake Baikal, Barguzinsky and Chivyrkuisky, was organized. The study of phytoplankton using the sedimentary method and quantitative records of accumulations of macrophytes in the surf zone was made. In Chivyrkuisky Bay, we found the massive growth of colorless flagellates and cryptomonads as well as the aggregations of Elodea canadensis along the sandy shoreline (up to 26 kg/m2. Barguzinsky Bay registered abundantly cyanobacterial Anabaena species, cryptomonads, and extremely high biomass of Spirogyra species (up to 70 kg/m3. The results show the presence of local but significant eutrophication of investigated bays. To prevent further extensions of this process in unique ecosystem of Lake Baikal, the detailed study and monitoring of the coastal zone, the identification of the sources of eutrophication, and the development of measures to reduce nutrient inputs in the waters are urgently needed.

  12. Principles of lake sedimentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janasson, L.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive outline on the basic sedimentological principles for lakes, and focuses on environmental aspects and matters related to lake management and control-on lake ecology rather than lake geology. This is a guide for those who plan, perform and evaluate lake sedimentological investigations. Contents abridged: Lake types and sediment types. Sedimentation in lakes and water dynamics. Lake bottom dynamics. Sediment dynamics and sediment age. Sediments in aquatic pollution control programmes. Subject index

  13. Nuclear Energy Center study. Phase II. Site suitability analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellows, W.S.; Sharp, J.M.; Benator, B.I.

    1978-06-01

    A site screening study was conducted to identify a site or sites for detailed, site-specific study as a nuclear energy center. Using technical criteria of water requirements, geotechnical constraints, and projected load center and transmission considerations as well as environmental and institutional considerations, five potential study sites in the State of South Carolina were identified, evaluated against established criteria, and ranked according to their acceptability as potential nuclear energy center study sites. Consideration of what is ''representative'' of a site as well as the ranking score was factored into site recommendations, since the site deemed easiest to license and permit may not be the most desirable site for future study of the technical and institutional feasibility and practicality of a specific site. The sites near Lake Hartwell and the Savannah River Plant (SRP) of the Department of Energy were selected as potential study sites after consideration of the above criteria. Because the Lake Hartwell site offers the opportunity to consider institutional issues which may be more representative of other possible NEC sites, it is recommended that the Lake Hartwell site be studied to establish the feasibility and practicality of the nuclear energy concept on a site-specific basis

  14. Lake Afdera: a threatened saline lake in Ethiopia | Getahun | SINET ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lake Afdera is a saline lake located in the Afar region, Northern Ethiopia. Because of its inaccessibility it is one of the least studied lakes of the country. It supports life including three species of fish of which two are endemic. Recently, reports are coming out that this lake is used for salt extraction. This paper gives some ...

  15. 75 FR 57969 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... applications. Place: The Ritz-Carlton Hotel, 1150 22nd Street, NW., Washington, DC 20037. Contact Person... applications. Place: St. Gregory Hotel, 2033 M Street, NW., Washington, DC 20036. Contact Person: Yvonne.... Place: Villa Florence Hotel, 225 Powell Street, San Francisco, CA 94102. Contact Person: Maria...

  16. Shell-free biomass and population dynamics of dreissenids in offshore Lake Michigan, 2001-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, J. R. P.; Adams, J.V.; Craig, J.; Stickel, R.G.; Nichols, S.J.; Fleischer, G.W.

    2007-01-01

    The USGS-Great Lakes Science Center has collected dreissenid mussels annually from Lake Michigan since zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) became a significant portion of the bottom-trawl catch in 1999. For this study, we investigated dreissenid distribution, body mass, and recruitment at different depths in Lake Michigan during 2001-2003. The highest densities of dreissenid biomass were observed from depths of 27 to 46 m. The biomass of quagga mussels (Dreissena bugensis) increased exponentially during 2001-2003, while that of zebra mussels did not change significantly. Body mass (standardized for a given shell length) of both species was lowest from depths of 27 to 37m, highest from 55 to 64 m, and declined linearly at deeper depths during 2001-2003. Recruitment in 2003, as characterized by the proportion of mussels biomass in Lake Michigan.

  17. Water quality of Lake Austin and Town Lake, Austin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Freeman L.; Wells, Frank C.; Shelby, Wanda J.; McPherson, Emma

    1988-01-01

    Lake Austin and Town Lake are located on the Colorado River in Travis County, central Texas, and serve as a source of water for municipal and industrial water supplies, electrical-power generation, and recreation for more than 500,000 people in the Austin metropolitan area. Lake Austin, located immediately downstream of Lake Travis, extends for more than 20 miles into the western edge of the city of Austin. Town Lake extends through the downtown area of the city of Austin for nearly 6 miles where the Colorado River is impounded by Longhorn Dam.

  18. Refuge Lake Reclassification in 620 Minnesota Cisco Lakes under Future Climate Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Jiang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cisco (Coregonus artedi is the most common coldwater stenothermal fish in Minnesota lakes. Water temperature (T and dissolved oxygen (DO in lakes are important controls of fish growth and reproduction and likely change with future climate warming. Built upon a previous study, this study uses a modified method to identify which of 620 cisco lakes in Minnesota can still support cisco populations under future climate and therefore be classified as cisco refuge lakes. The previous study used oxythermal stress parameter TDO3, the temperature at DO of 3 mg/L, simulated only from deep virtual lakes to classify 620 cisco lakes. Using four categories of virtual but representative cisco lakes in modified method, a one-dimensional water quality model MINLAKE2012 was used to simulate daily T and DO profiles in 82 virtual lakes under the past (1961–2008 and two future climate scenarios. A multiyear average of 31-day largest TDO3 over variable benchmark (VB periods, AvgATDO3VB, was calculated from simulated T and DO profiles using FishHabitat2013. Contour plots of AvgATDO3VB for four categories of virtual lakes were then developed to reclassify 620 cisco lakes into Tier 1 (AvgATDO3VB < 11 °C or Tier 2 refuge lakes, and Tier 3 non-refuge lakes (AvgATDO3VB > 17 °C. About 20% of 620 cisco lakes are projected to be refuge lakes under future climate scenarios, which is a more accurate projection (improving the prediction accuracy by ~6.5% from the previous study since AvgATDO3VB was found to vary by lake categories.

  19. Watershed vs. within-lake drivers of nitrogen: phosphorus dynamics in shallow lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginger, Luke J; Zimmer, Kyle D; Herwig, Brian R; Hanson, Mark A; Hobbs, William O; Small, Gaston E; Cotner, James B

    2017-10-01

    Research on lake eutrophication often identifies variables affecting amounts of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in lakes, but understanding factors influencing N:P ratios is important given its influence on species composition and toxin production by cyanobacteria. We sampled 80 shallow lakes in Minnesota (USA) for three years to assess effects of watershed size, proportion of watershed as both row crop and natural area, fish biomass, and lake alternative state (turbid vs. clear) on total N : total P (TN : TP), ammonium, total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), and seston stoichiometry. We also examined N:P stoichiometry in 20 additional lakes that shifted states during the study. Last, we assessed the importance of denitrification by measuring denitrification rates in sediment cores from a subset of 34 lakes, and by measuring seston δ 15 N in four additional experimental lakes before and after they were experimentally manipulated from turbid to clear states. Results showed alternative state had the largest influence on overall N:P stoichiometry in these systems, as it had the strongest relationship with TN : TP, seston C:N:P, ammonium, and TDP. Turbid lakes had higher N at given levels of P than clear lakes, with TN and ammonium 2-fold and 1.4-fold higher in turbid lakes, respectively. In lakes that shifted states, TN was 3-fold higher in turbid lakes, while TP was only 2-fold higher, supporting the notion N is more responsive to state shifts than is P. Seston δ 15 N increased after lakes shifted to clear states, suggesting higher denitrification rates may be important for reducing N levels in clear states, and potential denitrification rates in sediment cores were among the highest recorded in the literature. Overall, our results indicate lake state was a primary driver of N:P dynamics in shallow lakes, and lakes in clear states had much lower N at a given level of P relative to turbid lakes, likely due to higher denitrification rates. Shallow lakes are often

  20. Changes in Rongbuk lake and Imja lake in the Everest region of Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Doko, T.; Liu, C.; Ichinose, T.; Fukui, H.; Feng, Q.; Gou, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Himalaya holds the world record in terms of range and elevation. It is one of the most extensively glacierized regions in the world except the Polar Regions. The Himalaya is a region sensitive to climate change. Changes in the glacial regime are indicators of global climate changes. Since the second half of the last century, most Himalayan glaciers have melted due to climate change. These changes directly affected the changes of glacial lakes in the Himalayan region due to the glacier retreat. New glacial lakes are formed, and a number of them have expanded in the Everest region of the Himalayas. This paper focuses on the two glacial lakes which are Imja Lake, located at the southern slope, and Rongbuk Lake, located at the northern slope in the Mt. Everest region, Himalaya to present the spatio-temporal changes from 1976 to 2008. Topographical conditions between two lakes were different (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.05). Rongbuk Lake was located at 623 m higher than Imja Lake, and radiation of Rongbuk Lake was higher than the Imja Lake. Although size of Imja Lake was larger than the Rongbuk Lake in 2008, the growth speed of Rongbuk Lake was accelerating since 2000 and exceeds Imja Lake in 2000-2008. This trend of expansion of Rongbuk Lake is anticipated to be continued in the 21st century. Rongbuk Lake would be the biggest potential risk of glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) at the Everest region of Himalaya in the future.

  1. Large Lakes Dominate CO2 Evasion From Lakes in an Arctic Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocher-Ros, Gerard; Giesler, Reiner; Lundin, Erik; Salimi, Shokoufeh; Jonsson, Anders; Karlsson, Jan

    2017-12-01

    CO2 evasion from freshwater lakes is an important component of the carbon cycle. However, the relative contribution from different lake sizes may vary, since several parameters underlying CO2 flux are size dependent. Here we estimated the annual lake CO2 evasion from a catchment in northern Sweden encompassing about 30,000 differently sized lakes. We show that areal CO2 fluxes decreased rapidly with lake size, but this was counteracted by the greater overall coverage of larger lakes. As a result, total efflux increased with lake size and the single largest lake in the catchment dominated the CO2 evasion (53% of all CO2 evaded). By contrast, the contribution from the smallest ponds (about 27,000) was minor (evasion at the landscape scale.

  2. Lake Michigan lake trout PCB model forecast post audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scenario forecasts for total PCBs in Lake Michigan (LM) lake trout were conducted using the linked LM2-Toxics and LM Food Chain models, supported by a suite of additional LM models. Efforts were conducted under the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study and the post audit represents th...

  3. Cattaneo-Christov on heat and mass transfer of unsteady Eyring Powell dusty nanofluid over sheet with heat and mass flux conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamatha S. Upadhay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat and mass flux conditions on magnetohydrodynamic unsteady Eyring-Powell dusty nanofluid over a sheet is addressed. The combined effect of Brownian motion and thermophoresis in nanofluid modeling are retained. The Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model is imposed. A set of similarity variables are utilized to form ordinary differential system from the prevailing partial differential equations. The problem of ordinary differential system (ODS is analyzed numerically through Runge-Kutta based shooting method. Graphical results of pertinent parameters on the velocity, temperature and nanoparticle concentration are studied. Skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt and Sherwood number are also addressed with help of graphs and also validated the present solutions with already existing solutions in the form of table. It is found that the thermal relaxation parameter improves the heat transfer rate and minimizes the mass transfer rate. The heat transfer rate is higher in prescribed heat flux (PHF case when compared with prescribed wall temperature (PWT case.

  4. Using Satellite Imagery to Monitor the Major Lakes; Case Study Lake Hamun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, H.; Islam, R.; Bah, A.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2015-12-01

    Proper lakes function can ease the impact of floods and drought especially in arid and semi-arid regions. They are important environmentally and can directly affect human lives. Better understanding of the effect of climate change and human-driven changes on lakes would provide invaluable information for policy-makers and local people. As part of a comprehensive study, we aim to monitor the land-cover/ land-use changes in the world's major lakes using satellite observations. As a case study, Hamun Lake which is a pluvial Lake, also known as shallow Lake, located on the south-east of Iran and adjacent to Afghanistan, and Pakistan borders is investigated. The Lake is the main source of resources (agriculture, fishing and hunting) for the people around it and politically important in the region since it is shared among three different countries. The purpose of the research is to find the Lake's area from 1972 to 2015 and to see if any drought or water resources management has affected the lake. Analyzing satellites imagery from Landsat shows that the area of the Lake changes seasonally and intra-annually. Significant seasonal effects are found in 1975,1977, 1987, 1993, 1996, 1998, 2000, 2009 and 2011, as well as, substantial amount of shallow water is found throughout the years. The precipitation records as well as drought historical records are studied for the lake's basin. Meteorological studies suggest that the drought, decrease of rainfalls in the province and the improper management of the Lake have caused environmental, economic and geographical consequences. The results reveal that lake has experienced at least two prolong dryings since 1972 which drought cannot solely be blamed as main forcing factor.Proper lakes function can ease the impact of floods and drought especially in arid and semi-arid regions. They are important environmentally and can directly affect human lives. Better understanding of the effect of climate change and human-driven changes on lakes

  5. Tracking Organic Carbon Transport From the Stordalen Mire to Glacial Lake Tornetrask, Abisko, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, M. A.; Hamilton, B. T.; Spry, E.; Johnson, J. E.; Palace, M. W.; McCalley, C. K.; Varner, R. K.; Bothner, W. A.

    2016-12-01

    In subarctic regions, labile organic carbon from thawing permafrost and productivity of terrestrial and aquatic vegetation are sources of carbon to lake sediments. Methane is produced in lake sediments from the decomposition of organic carbon at rates affected by vegetation presence and type as well as sediment temperature. Recent research in the Stordalen Mire in northern Sweden has suggested that labile organic carbon sources in young, shallow lake sediments yield the highest in situ sediment methane concentrations. Ebullition (or bubbling) of this methane is predominantly controlled by seasonal warming. In this project we sampled stream, glacial and post-glacial lake sediments along a drainage transect through the Stordalen Mire into the large glacial Lake Torneträsk. Our results indicate that the highest methane and total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations were observed in lake and stream sediments in the upper 25 centimeters, consistent with previous studies. C/N ratios range from 8 to 32, and suggest that a mix of aquatic and terrestrial vegetation sources dominate the sedimentary record. Although water transport occurs throughout the mire, major depositional centers for sediments and organic carbon occur within the lakes and prohibit young, labile TOC from entering the larger glacial Lake Torneträsk. The lack of an observed sediment fan at the outlet of the Mire to the lake is consistent with this observation. Our results suggest that carbon produced in the mire stays in the mire, allowing methane production to be greater in the mire bound lakes and streams than in the larger adjacent glacial lake.

  6. Cathodoluminescence and Raman Spectromicroscopy of Forsterite in Tagish Lake Meteorite: Implications for Astromineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Gucsik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tagish Lake meteorite is CI/CM2 chondrite, which fell by a fireball event in January 2000. This study emphasizes the cathodoluminescence (CL and Raman spectroscopical properties of the Tagish Lake meteorite in order to classify the meteoritic forsterite and its relation to the crystallization processes in a parent body. The CL-zoning of Tagish Lake meteorite records the thermal history of chondrules and terrestrial weathering. Only the unweathered olivine is forsterite, which is CL-active. The variation of luminescence in chondrules of Tagish Lake meteorite implies chemical inhomogeneity due to low-grade thermal metamorphism. The blue emission center in forsterite due to crystal lattice defect is proposed as being caused by rapid cooling during the primary crystallization and relatively low-temperature thermal metamorphism on the parent body of Tagish Lake meteorite. This is in a good agreement with the micro-Raman spectroscopical data. A combination of cathodoluminescence and micro-Raman spectroscopies shows some potentials in study of the asteroidal processes of parent bodies in solar system.

  7. Spatial distribution of seepage at a flow-through lake: Lake Hampen, Western Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidmose, Jacob Baarstrøm; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard; Nilsson, Bertel

    2011-01-01

    recharge patiern of the lake and relating these to the geologic history of the lake. Recharge of the surrounding aquifer by lake water occurs off shore in a narrow zone, as measured from lake–groundwater gradients. A 33-m-deep d18O profi le at the recharge side shows a lake d18O plume at depths...... that corroborates the interpretation of lake water recharging off shore and moving down gradient. Inclusion of lake bed heterogeneity in the model improved the comparison of simulated and observed discharge to the lake. The apparent age of the discharging groundwater to the lake was determined by CFCs, resulting...

  8. Angora Fire, Lake Tahoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    On the weekend of June 23, 2007, a wildfire broke out south of Lake Tahoe, which stretches across the California-Nevada border. By June 28, the Angora Fire had burned more than 200 homes and forced some 2,000 residents to evacuate, according to The Seattle Times and the Central Valley Business Times. On June 27, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the burn scar left by the Angora fire. The burn scar is dark gray, or charcoal. Water bodies, including the southern tip of Lake Tahoe and Fallen Leaf Lake, are pale silvery blue, the silver color a result of sunlight reflecting off the surface of the water. Vegetation ranges in color from dark to bright green. Streets are light gray, and the customary pattern of meandering residential streets and cul-de-sacs appears throughout the image, including the area that burned. The burn scar shows where the fire obliterated some of the residential areas just east of Fallen Leaf Lake. According to news reports, the U.S. Forest Service had expressed optimism about containing the fire within a week of the outbreak, but a few days after the fire started, it jumped a defense, forcing the evacuation of hundreds more residents. Strong winds that had been forecast for June 27, however, did not materialize, allowing firefighters to regain ground in controlling the blaze. On June 27, authorities hoped that the fire would be completely contained by July 3. According to estimates provided in the daily report from the National Interagency Fire Center, the fire had burned 3,100 acres (about 12.5 square kilometers) and was about 55 percent contained as of June 28. Some mandatory evacuations remained in effect. NASA image by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  9. Aquatic macrophyte richness in Danish lakes in relation to alkalinity, transparency, and lake area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Ole Skafte; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    We examined the relationship between environmental factors and the richness of submerged macrophytes species in 73 Danish lakes, which are mainly small, shallow, and have mesotrophic to hypertrophic conditions. We found that mean species richness per lake was only 4.5 in acid lakes of low...... alkalinity but 12.3 in lakes of high alkalinity due to a greater occurrence of the species-rich group of elodeids. Mean species richness per lake also increased significantly with increasing Secchi depth. No significant relationship between species richness and lake surface area was observed among the entire...... group of lakes or a subset of eutrophic lakes, as the growth of submerged macrophytes in large lakes may be restricted by wave action in shallow water and light restriction in deep water. In contrast, macrophyte species richness increased with lake surface area in transparent lakes, presumably due...

  10. LakeMIP Kivu: evaluating the representation of a large, deep tropical lake by a set of one-dimensional lake models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIM Thiery

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The African great lakes are of utmost importance for the local economy (fishing, as well as being essential to the survival of the local people. During the past decades, these lakes experienced fast changes in ecosystem structure and functioning, and their future evolution is a major concern. In this study, for the first time a set of one-dimensional lake models are evaluated for Lake Kivu (2.28°S; 28.98°E, East Africa. The unique limnology of this meromictic lake, with the importance of salinity and subsurface springs in a tropical high-altitude climate, presents a worthy challenge to the seven models involved in the Lake Model Intercomparison Project (LakeMIP. Meteorological observations from two automatic weather stations are used to drive the models, whereas a unique dataset, containing over 150 temperature profiles recorded since 2002, is used to assess the model's performance. Simulations are performed over the freshwater layer only (60 m and over the average lake depth (240 m, since salinity increases with depth below 60 m in Lake Kivu and some lake models do not account for the influence of salinity upon lake stratification. All models are able to reproduce the mixing seasonality in Lake Kivu, as well as the magnitude and seasonal cycle of the lake enthalpy change. Differences between the models can be ascribed to variations in the treatment of the radiative forcing and the computation of the turbulent heat fluxes. Fluctuations in wind velocity and solar radiation explain inter-annual variability of observed water column temperatures. The good agreement between the deep simulations and the observed meromictic stratification also shows that a subset of models is able to account for the salinity- and geothermal-induced effects upon deep-water stratification. Finally, based on the strengths and weaknesses discerned in this study, an informed choice of a one-dimensional lake model for a given research purpose becomes possible.

  11. Nuclear Energy Center study. Phase II. Site suitability analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, W.S.; Sharp, J.M.; Benator, B.I.

    1978-06-01

    A site screening study was conducted to identify a site or sites for detailed, site-specific study as a nuclear energy center. Using technical criteria of water requirements, geotechnical constraints, and projected load center and transmission considerations as well as environmental and institutional considerations, five potential study sites in the State of South Carolina were identified, evaluated against established criteria, and ranked according to their acceptability as potential nuclear energy center study sites. Consideration of what is ''representative'' of a site as well as the ranking score was factored into site recommendations, since the site deemed easiest to license and permit may not be the most desirable site for future study of the technical and institutional feasibility and practicality of a specific site. The sites near Lake Hartwell and the Savannah River Plant (SRP) of the Department of Energy were selected as potential study sites after consideration of the above criteria. Because the Lake Hartwell site offers the opportunity to consider institutional issues which may be more representative of other possible NEC sites, it is recommended that the Lake Hartwell site be studied to establish the feasibility and practicality of the nuclear energy concept on a site-specific basis.

  12. Current components, physical, and other data from moored current meters and CTD casts from the J. W. POWELL and other platforms from the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Texas-Louisiana Shelf Circulation and Transport Processes Study (LATEX PART A) from 17 March 1993 to 28 May 1993 (NODC Accession 9400043)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current components, physical, and other data were collected by moored current meters and CTD casts from the J. W. POWELL and other platforms from the Gulf of Mexico...

  13. Methane emissions from permafrost thaw lakes limited by lake drainage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Huissteden, J.; Berrittella, C.; Parmentier, F.J.W.; Mi, Y.; Maximov, T.C.; Dolman, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Thaw lakes in permafrost areas are sources of the strong greenhouse gas methane. They develop mostly in sedimentary lowlands with permafrost and a high excess ground ice volume, resulting in large areas covered with lakes and drained thaw-lake basins (DTLBs; refs,). Their expansion is enhanced by

  14. Great Lakes Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  15. Lake and lake-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomqvist, P.; Brunberg, A.K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology; Brydsten, L [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

    2000-09-01

    In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a preliminary determination of the ecological function of lakes are presented. The choice of parameters have been made with respect to a model for the determination of the nature conservation values of lakes which is currently being developed by the authors of this report, but is also well suited for a general description of the lake type and the functioning of the inherent ecosystem. The parameters have been divided into five groups: (1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; (2) The lake catchment area and its major constituents; (3) The lake morphometry; (4) The lake ecosystem; (5) Human-induced damages to the lake ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the lake, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the lake morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of different key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the lake, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the stratification pattern, light climate, influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, trophic status, distribution of key habitats, and presence of fish and rare fauna and flora in the lake. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and material in the system. The fifth group, finally, describes the degree on anthropogenic influence on the ecosystem and will in the context of site investigation programmes be used to judge eventual malfunctioning within the entire, or parts of, the lake

  16. Lake and lake-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomqvist, P.; Brunberg, A.K.; Brydsten, L

    2000-09-01

    In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a preliminary determination of the ecological function of lakes are presented. The choice of parameters have been made with respect to a model for the determination of the nature conservation values of lakes which is currently being developed by the authors of this report, but is also well suited for a general description of the lake type and the functioning of the inherent ecosystem. The parameters have been divided into five groups: 1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; 2) The lake catchment area and its major constituents; 3) The lake morphometry; 4) The lake ecosystem; 5) Human-induced damages to the lake ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the lake, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the lake morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of different key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the lake, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the stratification pattern, light climate, influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, trophic status, distribution of key habitats, and presence of fish and rare fauna and flora in the lake. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and material in the system. The fifth group, finally, describes the degree on anthropogenic influence on the ecosystem and will in the context of site investigation programmes be used to judge eventual malfunctioning within the entire, or parts of, the lake ecosystem

  17. Rubidium-strontium ages from the Oxford Lake-Knee Lake greenstone belt, northern Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.S.; Cheung, S.-P.

    1980-01-01

    Rb-Sr whole-rock ages have been determined for rocks from the Oxford Lake-Knee Lake-Gods Lake geenstone belt in the Superior Province of northeastern Manitoba. The age of the Magill Lake Pluton is 2455 +- 35 Ma(lambda 87 Rb = 1.42 x 10 -11 yr -1 ), with an initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of 0.7078 +- 0.0043. This granite stock intrudes the Oxford Lake Group, so it is post-tectonic and probably related to the second, weaker stage of metamorphism. The age of the Bayly Lake Pluton is 2424 +- 74 Ma, with an initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of 0.7029 +- 0.0001. This granodioritic batholith complex does not intrude the Oxford Lake Group. It is syn-tectonic and metamorphosed. The age of volcanic rocks of the Hayes River Group, from Goose Lake (30 km south of Gods Lake Narrows), is 2680 +- 125 Ma, with an initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of 0.7014 +- 0.0009. The age for the Magill Lake and Bayly Lake Plutons can be interpreted as the minimum ages of granite intrusion in the area. The age for the Hayes River Group volcanic rocks is consistent with Rb-Sr ages of volcanic rocks from other Archean greenstone belts within the northwestern Superior Province. (auth)

  18. [Ecological risk assessment of Taihu Lake basin based on landscape pattern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiao Ping; Chen, Zhi Cong; Wang, Fang; Bai, Mao Wei; Xu, Wen Yang

    2017-10-01

    Taihu Lake basin was selected as the study site. Based on the landscape data of 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015, the Markov and CLUE-S models were used to simulate the landscape types with different scenarios in 2030, and landscape ecological risk index was constructed. The shift of gravity center and spatial statistics were used to reveal landscape ecological risk of Taihu Lake basin with temporal and spatial characteristics. The results showed that the ecological risk mainly was at medium and low levels in Taihu Lake basin, and the higher ecological risk areas were mainly distributed at the Taihu Lake area during 2000 to 2015, and the low ecological risk was transferred from the southwest and south of Taihu Lake to the developed areas in the northern part of Taihu Lake area. Spatial analysis showed that landscape ecological risk had negative correlation with natural factors, which was weakened gradually, while the correlation with socioeconomic factors trended to become stronger, with human disturbance affecting the landscape ecological risk significantly. The impact of socioeconomic factors on landscape ecological risks differed in different urbanization stages. In the developing area, with the economic development, the landscape was increasingly fragmented and the ecological risk was correspondingly increased. While in the developed area, with the further development of the economy, the aggregation index was increased, and fragmentation and separation indexes were decreased, ecological construction was restored, and the landscape ecological risk began to decline. CLUE-S model simulation showed that the ecological risk of Taihu Lake basin would be reduced in future, mainly on the low and relatively low levels. Taihu Lake area, both in history and the future, is a high ecological risk zone, and its management and protection should be strengthened.

  19. A Dynamical Downscaling study over the Great Lakes Region Using WRF-Lake: Historical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, C.; Lofgren, B. M.

    2014-12-01

    As the largest group of fresh water bodies on Earth, the Laurentian Great Lakes have significant influence on local and regional weather and climate through their unique physical features compared with the surrounding land. Due to the limited spatial resolution and computational efficiency of general circulation models (GCMs), the Great Lakes are geometrically ignored or idealized into several grid cells in GCMs. Thus, the nested regional climate modeling (RCM) technique, known as dynamical downscaling, serves as a feasible solution to fill the gap. The latest Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) is employed to dynamically downscale the historical simulation produced by the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory-Coupled Model (GFDL-CM3) from 1970-2005. An updated lake scheme originated from the Community Land Model is implemented in the latest WRF version 3.6. It is a one-dimensional mass and energy balance scheme with 20-25 model layers, including up to 5 snow layers on the lake ice, 10 water layers, and 10 soil layers on the lake bottom. The lake scheme is used with actual lake points and lake depth. The preliminary results show that WRF-Lake model, with a fine horizontal resolution and realistic lake representation, provides significantly improved hydroclimates, in terms of lake surface temperature, annual cycle of precipitation, ice content, and lake-effect snowfall. Those improvements suggest that better resolution of the lakes and the mesoscale process of lake-atmosphere interaction are crucial to understanding the climate and climate change in the Great Lakes region.

  20. [Characterizing chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in Lake Honghu, Lake Donghu and Lake Liangzihu using excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) fluorescence and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Yun-Lin; Niu, Cheng; Wang, Ming-Zhu

    2013-12-01

    Little is known about DOM characteristics in medium to large sized lakes located in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, like Lake Honghu, Lake Donghu and Lake Liangzihu. Absorption, fluorescence and composition characteristics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) are presented using the absorption spectroscopy, the excitation-emission ma trices (EEMs) fluorescence and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) model based on the data collected in Sep-Oct. 2007 including 15, 9 and 10 samplings in Lake Honghu, Lake Donghu and Lake Liangzihu, respectively. CDOM absorption coefficient at 350 nm a(350) coefficient in Lake Honghu was significantly higher than those in Lake Donghu and Lake Liangzihu (t-test, pCDOM spectral slope in the wavelength range of 280-500 nm (S280-500) and a(350) (R2 =0. 781, p<0. 001). The mean value of S280-500 in Lake Honghu was significantly lower than those in Lake Donghu (t-test, pLake Liangzihu (t-test, p<0. 001). The mean value of spectral slope ratio SR in Lake Honghu was also significantly lower than those in Lake Donghu and Lake Liangzihu (t-test, p<0. 05). Two humic-like (C1, C2) and two protein-like fluorescent components (C3, C4) were identified by PARAFAC model, among which significant positive correlations were found between C1 and C2 (R2 =0. 884, p<0. 001), C3 and C4 (R2 =0. 677, p<0.001), respectively, suggesting that the sources of the two humic-like components as well as the two protein-like components were similar. However, no significant correlation has been found between those 4 fluorescent components and DOC concentration. Th e fluorescenceindices of FI255 (HIX), Fl265, FI310 (BIX) and Fl370 in Lake Donghu were all significantly higher than those in Lake Liangzihu (t-test, p <0.05) and Lake Honghu (t-test, p<0. 01), indicating that the eutrophication status in Lake Donghu was higher than Lake Honghu and Lake Liangzihu.

  1. Regionalization of precipitation characteristics in Iran's Lake Urmia basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Nasim; Berndtsson, Ronny; Uvo, Cintia Bertacchi; Madani, Kaveh; Kløve, Bjørn

    2018-04-01

    Lake Urmia in northwest Iran, once one of the largest hypersaline lakes in the world, has shrunk by almost 90% in area and 80% in volume during the last four decades. To improve the understanding of regional differences in water availability throughout the region and to refine the existing information on precipitation variability, this study investigated the spatial pattern of precipitation for the Lake Urmia basin. Daily rainfall time series from 122 precipitation stations with different record lengths were used to extract 15 statistical descriptors comprising 25th percentile, 75th percentile, and coefficient of variation for annual and seasonal total precipitation. Principal component analysis in association with cluster analysis identified three main homogeneous precipitation groups in the lake basin. The first sub-region (group 1) includes stations located in the center and southeast; the second sub-region (group 2) covers mostly northern and northeastern part of the basin, and the third sub-region (group 3) covers the western and southern edges of the basin. Results of principal component (PC) and clustering analyses showed that seasonal precipitation variation is the most important feature controlling the spatial pattern of precipitation in the lake basin. The 25th and 75th percentiles of winter and autumn are the most important variables controlling the spatial pattern of the first rotated principal component explaining about 32% of the total variance. Summer and spring precipitation variations are the most important variables in the second and third rotated principal components, respectively. Seasonal variation in precipitation amount and seasonality are explained by topography and influenced by the lake and westerly winds that are related to the strength of the North Atlantic Oscillation. Despite using incomplete time series with different lengths, the identified sub-regions are physically meaningful.

  2. Deglaciation, lake levels, and meltwater discharge in the Lake Michigan basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Steven M.; Clark, J.A.; Clayton, L.; Hansel, A.K.; Larsen, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    The deglacial history of the Lake Michigan basin, including discharge and routing of meltwater, is complex because of the interaction among (1) glacial retreats and re-advances in the basin (2) the timing of occupation and the isostatic adjustment of lake outlets and (3) the depositional and erosional processes that left evidence of past lake levels. In the southern part of the basin, a restricted area little affected by differential isostasy, new studies of onshore and offshore areas allow refinement of a lake-level history that has evolved over 100 years. Important new data include the recognition of two periods of influx of meltwater from Lake Agassiz into the basin and details of the highstands gleaned from sedimentological evidence. Major disagreements still persist concerning the exact timing and lake-level changes associated with the Algonquin phase, approximately 11,000 BP. A wide variety of independent data suggests that the Lake Michigan Lobe was thin, unstable, and subject to rapid advances and retreats. Consequently, lake-level changes were commonly abrupt and stable shorelines were short-lived. The long-held beliefs that the southern part of the basin was stable and separated from deformed northern areas by a hinge-line discontinuity are becoming difficult to maintain. Numerical modeling of the ice-earth system and empirical modeling of shoreline deformation are both consistent with observed shoreline tilting in the north and with the amount and pattern of modern deformation shown by lake-level gauges. New studies of subaerial lacustrine features suggest the presence of deformed shorelines higher than those originally ascribed to the supposed horizontal Glenwood level. Finally, the Lake Michigan region as a whole appears to behave in a similar manner to other areas, both local (other Great Lakes) and regional (U.S. east coast), that have experienced major isostatic changes. Detailed sedimentological and dating studies of field sites and additional

  3. American Fisheries Society 136th Annual Meeting Lake Placid, NY 10-14 September, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einhouse, D.; Walsh, M.G.; Keeler, S.; Long, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The New York Chapter of the American Fisheries Society and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation invite you to experience the beauty of New York's famous Adirondack Park as the American Fisheries Society (AFS) convenes its 136th Annual Meeting in the legendary Olympic Village of Lake Placid, NY, 10-14 September 2006. Our meeting theme "Fish in the Balance" will explore the interrelation between fish, aquatic habitats, and man, highlighting the challenges facing aquatic resource professionals and the methods that have been employed to resolve conflicts between those that use or have an interest in our aquatic resources. As fragile as it is beautiful, the Adirondack Region is the perfect location to explore this theme. Bordered by Mirror Lake and its namesake, Lake Placid, the Village of Lake Placid has small town charm, but all of the conveniences that a big city would provide. Whether its reliving the magic of the 1980 hockey team's "Miracle on Ice" at the Lake Placid Olympic Center, getting a panoramic view of the Adirondack high peaks from the top of the 90 meter ski jumps, fishing or kayaking in adjacent Mirror Lake, hiking a mountain trail, or enjoying a quiet dinner or shopping excursion in the various shops and restaurants that line Main Street, Lake Placid has something for everyone.

  4. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  5. Lakes, Lagerstaetten, and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, E. G.; Park, L. E.

    2001-12-01

    The diversity of terrestrial systems is estimated to be greater than in the marine realm. However no hard data yet exists to substantiate this claim. Ancient lacustrine deposits may preserve an exceptionally diverse fossil fauna and aid in determining continental faunal diversities. Fossils preserved in lake deposits, especially those with exceptional preservation (i.e. Konservat Lagerstaetten), may represent a dependable method for determining species diversity changes in the terrestrial environment because of their faunal completeness. Important Konservat Lagerstaetten, such as the Green River Formation (US) and Messel (Germany), both Eocene in age, are found in lake sediments and show a remarkable faunal diversity for both vertebrates and invertebrates. To date information from nearly 25 lake lagerstaetten derived from different types of lake basins from the Carboniferous to the Miocene have been collected and described. Carboniferous sites derive from the cyclothems of Midcontinent of the US while many Cenozoic sites have been described from North and South America as well as Europe and Australia. Asian sites contain fossils from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. With this data, insight into the evolutionary processes associated with lake systems can be examined. Do lakes act as unique evolutionary crucibles in contrast to marine systems? The speciation of cichlid fishes in present-day African lakes appears to be very high and is attributed to the diversity of environments found in large rift lakes. Is this true of all ancient lakes or just large rift lakes? The longevity of a lake system may be an important factor in allowing speciation and evolutionary processes to occur; marine systems are limited only in the existence of environments as controlled by tectonics and sea level changes, on the order of tens of millions of years. Rift lakes are normally the longest lived in the millions of years. Perhaps there are only certain types of lakes in which speciation of

  6. Suspended-sediment budget, flow distribution, and lake circulation for the Fox Chain of Lakes in Lake and McHenry Counties, Illinois, 1997-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, David L.; Holmes, Robert R.

    2000-01-01

    The Fox Chain of Lakes is a glacial lake system in McHenry and Lake Counties in northern Illinois and southern Wisconsin. Sedimentation and nutrient overloading have occurred in the lake system since the first dam was built (1907) in McHenry to raise water levels in the lake system. Using data collected from December 1, 1997, to June 1, 1999, suspended-sediment budgets were constructed for the most upstream lake in the system, Grass Lake, and for the lakes downstream from Grass Lake. A total of 64,900 tons of suspended sediment entered Grass Lake during the study, whereas a total of 70,600 tons of suspended sediment exited the lake, indicating a net scour of 5,700 tons of sediment. A total of 44,100 tons of suspended sediment was measured exiting the Fox Chain of Lakes at Johnsburg, whereas 85,600 tons entered the system downstream from Grass Lake. These suspended-sediment loads indicate a net deposition of 41,500 tons downstream from Grass Lake, which represents a trapping efficiency of 48.5 percent. A large amount of recreational boating takes place on the Fox Chain of Lakes during summer months, and suspended-sediment load was observed to rise from 110 tons per day to 339 tons per day during the 1999 Memorial Day weekend (May 26 ?31, 1999). Presumably, this rise was the result of the boating traffic because no other hydrologic event is known to have occurred that might have caused the rise. This study covers a relatively short period and may not represent the long-term processes of the Fox Chain of Lakes system, although the sediment transport was probably higher than an average year. The bed sediments found on the bottom of the lakes are composed of mainly fine particles in the silt-clay range. The Grass Lake sediments were characterized as black peat with an organic content of between 9 and 18 percent, and the median particle size ranged from 0.000811 to 0.0013976 inches. Other bed material samples were collected at streamflow-gaging stations on the

  7. 33 CFR 162.220 - Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, and Lake... REGULATIONS § 162.220 Hoover Dam, Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave (Colorado River), Ariz.-Nev. (a) Lake Mead and... the axis of Hoover Dam and that portion of Lake Mohave (Colorado River) extending 4,500 feet...

  8. First evidence of successful natural reproduction by planted lake trout in Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nester, Robert T.; Poe, Thomas P.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-two lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) swim-up fry, 24-27 mm long, were captured with emergent fry traps and a tow net in northwestern Lake Huron on a small nearshore reef off Alpena, Michigan, between May 10 and June 1, 1982. These catches represent the first evidence of successful production of swim-up fry by planted, hatchery-reared lake trout in Lake Huron since the lake trout rehabilitation program began in 1973.

  9. Estimation of lake water - groundwater interactions in meromictic mining lakes by modelling isotope signatures of lake water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebach, Anne; Dietz, Severine; Lessmann, Dieter; Knoeller, Kay

    2008-03-01

    A method is presented to assess lake water-groundwater interactions by modelling isotope signatures of lake water using meteorological parameters and field data. The modelling of delta(18)O and deltaD variations offers information about the groundwater influx into a meromictic Lusatian mining lake. Therefore, a water balance model is combined with an isotope water balance model to estimate analogies between simulated and measured isotope signatures within the lake water body. The model is operated with different evaporation rates to predict delta(18)O and deltaD values in a lake that is only controlled by weather conditions with neither groundwater inflow nor outflow. Comparisons between modelled and measured isotope values show whether the lake is fed by the groundwater or not. Furthermore, our investigations show that an adaptation of the Craig and Gordon model [H. Craig, L.I. Gordon. Deuterium and oxygen-18 variations in the ocean and the marine atmosphere. In Stable Isotopes in Oceanographic Studies and Paleotemperature, Spoleto, E. Tongiorgi (Ed.), pp. 9-130, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Laboratorio di Geologia Nucleare, Pisa (1965).] to specific conditions in temperate regions seems necessary.

  10. Lake Sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, movements in Rainy Lake, Minnesota and Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, W.E.; Kallemeyn, L.W.; Willis, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    Rainy Lake, Minnesota-Ontario, contains a native population of Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) that has gone largely unstudied. The objective of this descriptive study was to summarize generalized Lake Sturgeon movement patterns through the use of biotelemetry. Telemetry data reinforced the high utilization of the Squirrel Falls geographic location by Lake Sturgeon, with 37% of the re-locations occurring in that area. Other spring aggregations occurred in areas associated with Kettle Falls, the Pipestone River, and the Rat River, which could indicate spawning activity. Movement of Lake Sturgeon between the Seine River and the South Arm of Rainy Lake indicates the likelihood of one integrated population on the east end of the South Arm. The lack of re-locations in the Seine River during the months of September and October may have been due to Lake Sturgeon moving into deeper water areas of the Seine River and out of the range of radio telemetry gear or simply moving back into the South Arm. Due to the movements between Minnesota and Ontario, coordination of management efforts among provincial, state, and federal agencies will be important.

  11. Water Quality Investigations at Lake Merritt in Oakland, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, G.; Casino, C.; Johnson, K.; Huang, J.; Le, A.; Truisi, V. M.; Turner, D.; Yanez, F.; Yu, J. F.; Unigarro, M.; Vue, G.; Garduno, L.; Cuff, K.

    2005-12-01

    Lake Merritt is a saltwater tidal lagoon that forms a portion of a wildlife refuge in downtown Oakland, California. The general area was designated as the nation's first wildlife refuge in 1869, and is currently the home to over 90 species of migrating waterfowl, as well as a variety of aquatic wildlife. Situated within an area composed of compacted marine sediment located near the center of Oakland, Lake Merritt also serves as a major local catchment basin, receiving significant urban runoff from a 4,650 acre local watershed through 60 storm drains and four culverted creeks. Due to factors related to its geographical location, Lake Merritt has suffered from poor water quality at various times throughout its history. In fact, in May of 1999 the US Environmental Protection Agency designated Lake Merritt as a body of water whose beneficial uses are impaired, mainly due to high levels of trash and low levels of dissolved oxygen. As a contribution to continuing efforts to monitor and assess water quality of the Lake, we began a water quality investigation during the Summer of 2005, which included the measurement of dissolved oxygen concentrations of samples collected near its surface at over 85 different locations. These measurements were made using a sensor attached to a PASCO data- logger. The sensor measures the electric current produced by a chemical reaction in its probe, which is composed of a platinum cathode and a silver anode surrounded by an electrolyte solution. Results of these measurements were statistically analyzed, mapped, and then used in assessing the quality of Lake Merritt's water, particularly in relation to supporting aquatic biota. Preliminary analysis of results obtained so far indicates that the highest quality waters in Lake Merritt occur in areas that are closest to a source of San Francisco Bay water, as well as those areas nearby where water circulation is robust. Significantly high levels of dissolved oxygen were measured in an area that

  12. Determining lake surface water temperatures worldwide using a tuned one-dimensional lake model (FLake, v1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layden, Aisling; MacCallum, Stuart N.; Merchant, Christopher J.

    2016-06-01

    A tuning method for FLake, a one-dimensional (1-D) freshwater lake model, is applied for the individual tuning of 244 globally distributed large lakes using observed lake surface water temperatures (LSWTs) derived from along-track scanning radiometers (ATSRs). The model, which was tuned using only three lake properties (lake depth, snow and ice albedo and light extinction coefficient), substantially improves the measured mean differences in various features of the LSWT annual cycle, including the LSWTs of saline and high altitude lakes, when compared to the observed LSWTs. Lakes whose lake-mean LSWT persists below 1 °C for part of the annual cycle are considered to be seasonally ice-covered. For trial seasonally ice-covered lakes (21 lakes), the daily mean and standard deviation (2σ) of absolute differences between the modelled and observed LSWTs are reduced from 3.07 °C ± 2.25 °C to 0.84 °C ± 0.51 °C by tuning the model. For all other trial lakes (14 non-ice-covered lakes), the improvement is from 3.55 °C ± 3.20 °C to 0.96 °C ± 0.63 °C. The post tuning results for the 35 trial lakes (21 seasonally ice-covered lakes and 14 non-ice-covered lakes) are highly representative of the post-tuning results of the 244 lakes. For the 21 seasonally ice-covered lakes, the modelled response of the summer LSWTs to changes in snow and ice albedo is found to be statistically related to lake depth and latitude, which together explain 0.50 (R2adj, p = 0.001) of the inter-lake variance in summer LSWTs. Lake depth alone explains 0.35 (p = 0.003) of the variance. Lake characteristic information (snow and ice albedo and light extinction coefficient) is not available for many lakes. The approach taken to tune the model, bypasses the need to acquire detailed lake characteristic values. Furthermore, the tuned values for lake depth, snow and ice albedo and light extinction coefficient for the 244 lakes provide some guidance on improving FLake LSWT modelling.

  13. Monitoring Invasive Aquatic Vegetation in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, Using NDVI Derived from Modis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Kate; Brozen, Madeline; Malik, Sadaf; Maki, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Lake Okeechobee, located in southern Florida, encompasses approximately 1,700 sq km and is a vital part of the Lake Okeechobee and Everglades ecosystem. Major cyanobacterial blooms have been documented in Lake Okeechobee since the 1970s and have continued to plague the ecosystem. Similarly, hydrilla, water hyacinth, and water lettuce have been documented in the lake and continue to threaten the ecosystem by their rapid growth. This study examines invasive aquatic vegetation occurrence through the use of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) calculated on MOD09 surface reflectance imagery. Occurrence during 2008 was analyzed using the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT), a MATLAB-based program developed at John C. Stennis Space Center. This project tracked spatial and temporal variability of cyanobacterial blooms, and overgrowth of water lettuce, water hyacinth, and hydrilla. In addition, this study presents an application of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to assist in water quality management.

  14. Geochemical monitoring of volcanic lakes. A generalized box model for active crater lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Tassi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    In the past, variations in the chemical contents (SO42−, Cl−, cations of crater lake water have not systematically demonstrated any relationships with eruptive activity. Intensive parameters (i.e., concentrations, temperature, pH, salinity should be converted into extensive parameters (i.e., fluxes, changes with time of mass and solutes, taking into account all the internal and external chemical–physical factors that affect the crater lake system. This study presents a generalized box model approach that can be useful for geochemical monitoring of active crater lakes, as highly dynamic natural systems. The mass budget of a lake is based on observations of physical variations over a certain period of time: lake volume (level, surface area, lake water temperature, meteorological precipitation, air humidity, wind velocity, input of spring water, and overflow of the lake. This first approach leads to quantification of the input and output fluxes that contribute to the actual crater lake volume. Estimating the input flux of the "volcanic" fluid (Qf- kg/s –– an unmeasurable subsurface parameter –– and tracing its variations with time is the major focus during crater lake monitoring. Through expanding the mass budget into an isotope and chemical budget of the lake, the box model helps to qualitatively characterize the fluids involved. The (calculated Cl− content and dD ratio of the rising "volcanic" fluid defines its origin. With reference to continuous monitoring of crater lakes, the present study provides tips that allow better calculation of Qf in the future. At present, this study offers the most comprehensive and up-to-date literature review on active crater lakes.

  15. Tracing historical trends of Hg in the Mississippi River using Hg concentrations and Hg isotopic compositions in a lake sediment core, Lake Whittington, Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Pribil, Michael J.; Horowitz, Arthur J.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations and isotopic compositions of mercury (Hg) in a sediment core collected from Lake Whittington, an oxbow lake on the Lower Mississippi River, were used to evaluate historical sources of Hg in the Mississippi River basin. Sediment Hg concentrations in the Lake Whittington core have a large 10-15 y peak centered on the 1960s, with a maximum enrichment factor relative to Hg in the core of 4.8 in 1966. The Hg concentration profile indicates a different Hg source history than seen in most historical reconstructions of Hg loading. The timing of the peak is consistent with large releases of Hg from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), primarily in the late 1950s and 1960s. Mercury was used in a lithiumisotope separation process by ORNL and an estimated 128Mg (megagrams) of Hgwas discharged to a local stream that flows into the Tennessee River and, eventually, the Mississippi River. Mass balance analyses of Hg concentrations and isotopic compositions in the Lake Whittington core fit a binary mixing model with a Hg-rich upstream source contributing about 70% of the Hg to Lake Whittington at the height of the Hg peak in 1966. This upstream Hg source is isotopically similar to Hg isotope compositions of stream sediment collected downstream near ORNL. It is estimated that about one-half of the Hg released from the ORNL potentially reached the LowerMississippi River basin in the 1960s, suggesting considerable downstream transport of Hg. It is also possible that upstream urban and industrial sources contributed some proportion of Hg to Lake Whittington in the 1960s and 1970s.

  16. Status and trends of prey fish populations in Lake Michigan, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Bunnell, David B.; Desorcie, Timothy J.; Kostich, Melissa Jean; Armenio, Patricia M.; Adams, Jean V.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Great Lakes Science Center has conducted lake-wide surveys of the fish community in Lake Michigan each fall since 1973 using standard 12-m bottom trawls towed along contour at depths of 9 to 110 m at each of seven index transects. The resulting data on relative abundance, size and age structure, and condition of individual fishes are used to estimate various population parameters that are in turn used by state and tribal agencies in managing Lake Michigan fish stocks. All seven established index transects of the survey were completed in 2013. The survey provides relative abundance and biomass estimates between the 5-m and 114-m depth contours of the lake (herein, lake-wide) for prey fish populations, as well as burbot, yellow perch, and the introduced dreissenid mussels. Lake-wide biomass of alewives in 2013 was estimated at 29 kilotonnes (kt, 1 kt = 1000 metric tonnes), which was more than three times the 2012 estimate. However, the unusually high standard error associated with the 2013 estimate indicated no significant increase in lake-wide biomass between 2012 and 2013. Moreover, the age distribution of alewives remained truncated with no alewife exceeding an age of 5. The population of age-1 and older alewives was dominated (i.e., 88%) by the 2010 and 2012 year-classes. Record low biomass was observed for deepwater sculpin (1.3 kt) and ninespine stickleback (0.004 kt) in 2013, while bloater (1.6 kt) and rainbow smelt (0.2 kt) biomasses remained at low levels. Slimy sculpin lake-wide biomass was 0.32 kt in 2013, marking the fourth consecutive year of a decline. The 2013 biomass of round goby was estimated at 10.9 kt, which represented the peak estimate to date. Burbot lake-wide biomass (0.4 kt in 2013) has remained below 3 kt since 2001. Numeric density of age-0 yellow perch (i.e., fish per ha, which is indicative of a relatively poor year-class. Lake-wide biomass estimate of dreissenid mussels in 2013 was 23.2 kt. Overall, the total

  17. A Citizen Science Program for Monitoring Lake Stages in Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmann, A.; Drum, A.; Rubsam, J.; Watras, C. J.; Cellar-Rossler, A.

    2011-12-01

    Historical data indicate that surface water levels in northern Wisconsin are fluctuating more now than they did in the recent past. In the northern highland lake district of Vilas County, Wisconsin, concern about record low lake levels in 2008 spurred local citizens and lake associations to form a lake level monitoring network comprising citizen scientists. The network is administered by the North Lakeland Discovery Center (NLDC, a local NGO) and is supported by a grant from the Citizen Science Monitoring Program of the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR). With technical guidance from limnologists at neighboring UW-Madison Trout Lake Research Station, citizen scientists have installed geographic benchmarks and staff gauges on 26 area lakes. The project engages citizen and student science participants including homeowners, non-profit organization member-participants, and local schools. Each spring, staff gauges are installed and referenced to fixed benchmarks after ice off by NLDC and dedicated volunteers. Volunteers read and record staff gauges on a weekly basis during the ice-free season; and maintain log books recording lake levels to the nearest 0.5 cm. At the end of the season, before ice on, gauges are removed and log books are collected by the NLDC coordinator. Data is compiled and submitted to a database management system, coordinated within the Wisconsin Surface Water Integrated Monitoring System (SWIMS), a statewide information system managed by the WDNR in Madison. Furthermore, NLDC is collaborating with the SWIMS database manager to develop data entry screens based on records collected by citizen scientists. This program is the first of its kind in Wisconsin to utilize citizen scientists to collect lake level data. The retention rate for volunteers has been 100% over the three years since inception, and the program has expanded from four lakes in 2008 to twenty-six lakes in 2011. NLDC stresses the importance of long-term monitoring and the

  18. Lake Michigan lake trout PCB model forecast post audit (oral presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scenario forecasts for total PCBs in Lake Michigan (LM) lake trout were conducted using the linked LM2-Toxics and LM Food Chain models, supported by a suite of additional LM models. Efforts were conducted under the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study and the post audit represents an...

  19. Simulating Lake-Groundwater Interactions During Decadal Climate Cycles: Accounting For Variable Lake Area In The Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virdi, M. L.; Lee, T. M.

    2009-12-01

    The volume and extent of a lake within the topo-bathymetry of a watershed can change substantially during wetter and drier climate cycles, altering the interaction of the lake with the groundwater flow system. Lake Starr and other seepage lakes in the permeable sandhills of central Florida are vulnerable to climate changes as they rely exclusively on rainfall and groundwater for inflows in a setting where annual rainfall and recharge vary widely. The groundwater inflow typically arrives from a small catchment area bordering the lake. The sinkhole origin of these lakes combined with groundwater pumping from underlying aquifers further complicate groundwater interactions. Understanding the lake-groundwater interactions and their effects on lake stage over multi-decadal climate cycles is needed to manage groundwater pumping and public expectation about future lake levels. The interdependence between climate, recharge, changing lake area and the groundwater catchment pose unique challenges to simulating lake-groundwater interactions. During the 10-year study period, Lake Starr stage fluctuated more than 13 feet and the lake surface area receded and expanded from 96 acres to 148 acres over drier and wetter years that included hurricanes, two El Nino events and a La Nina event. The recently developed Unsaturated Zone Flow (UZF1) and Lake (LAK7) packages for MODFLOW-2005 were used to simulate the changing lake sizes and the extent of the groundwater catchment contributing flow to the lake. The lake area was discretized to occupy the largest surface area at the highest observed stage and then allowed to change size. Lake cells convert to land cells and receive infiltration as receding lake area exposes the underlying unsaturated zone to rainfall and recharge. The unique model conceptualization also made it possible to capture the dynamic size of the groundwater catchment contributing to lake inflows, as the surface area and volume of the lake changed during the study

  20. Great Bear Lake, N.W.T. - 1963, No. 13 in 1964 Data Record Series, Canadian Oceanographic Data Center (NODC Accession 7500188)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Great Bear Lake has an area of 29,500 km^2 and it is the fourth largest lake in North America. It is situated at an elevation of 169 m (515 ft) and has a maximum...

  1. Lake Granbury and Lake Whitney Assessment Initiative Final Scientific/Technical Report Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, B. L. [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Roelke, Daniel [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Brooks, Bryan [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States); Grover, James [Texas AgriLife Research, College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-10-11

    A team of Texas AgriLife Research, Baylor University and University of Texas at Arlington researchers studied the biology and ecology of Prymnesium parvum (golden algae) in Texas lakes using a three-fold approach that involved system-wide monitoring, experimentation at the microcosm and mesocosm scales, and mathematical modeling. The following are conclusions, to date, regarding this organism's ecology and potential strategies for mitigation of blooms by this organism. In-lake monitoring revealed that golden algae are present throughout the year, even in lakes where blooms do not occur. Compilation of our field monitoring data with data collected by Texas Parks and Wildlife and Brazos River Authority (a period spanning a decade) revealed that inflow and salinity variables affect bloom formations. Thresholds for algae populations vary per lake, likely due to adaptations to local conditions, and also to variations in lake-basin morphometry, especially the presence of coves that may serve as hydraulic storage zones for P. parvum populations. More specifically, our in-lake monitoring showed that the highly toxic bloom that occurred in Lake Granbury in the winter of 2006/2007 was eliminated by increased river inflow events. The bloom was flushed from the system. The lower salinities that resulted contributed to golden algae not blooming in the following years. However, flushing is not an absolute requirement for bloom termination. Laboratory experiments have shown that growth of golden algae can occur at salinities ~1-2 psu but only when temperatures are also low. This helps to explain why blooms are possible during winter months in Texas lakes. Our in-lake experiments in Lake Whitney and Lake Waco, as well as our laboratory experiments, revealed that cyanobacteria, or some other bacteria capable of producing algicides, were able to prevent golden algae from blooming. Identification of this organism is a high priority as it may be a key to managing golden algae

  2. Pleistocene lake level changes in Western Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodavko, P. S.

    2009-04-01

    .Petersburg, Nauka, 304 p. 4. Tarasov, P.E., Harrison, S.P., Saarse, L., Pushenko, M.Ya., Andreev, A.A., Aleshinskaya, Z.V., Davydova, N.N., Dorofeyuk, N.I., Efremov, Yu.V., Khomutova, V.I., Sevastyanov, D.V., Tamosaitis, J., Dorofeyuk, N.I., Efremov, Yu.V., Khomutova, V.I., Sevastyanov, D.V., Tamosaitis, J.,Uspenskaya, O.N., Yakushko, O.F. and Tarasova, I.V., 1994. Lake status records from the Former Soviet Union and Mongolia: Data Base Documentation, World Data Center -A for Paleoclimatology NOAA Paleoclimatology Program, Paleoclimatology Publications Series Report No 2, Boulder, Colorado USA, 274 p. 5. Tserensodnom, Zh., 1971. Mongol orny Nuur. Ulaanbaatar, TUAH, 202 p. 6. Vipper, P., Dorofeyuk, N., Liiva, A., Meteltseva, E., and Sokolovskaya, V., 1981. Palaeogeography of the Central Mongolia during the upper Pleistocene and Holocene. Izv. Akad. Nauk ESSR, Ser. Biol., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 74-82.

  3. Human impact on lake ecosystems: the case of Lake Naivasha, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lake Naivasha is a wetland of national and international importance. However, it is under constant anthropogenic pressures, which include the quest for socioeconomic development within the lake ecosystem itself as well as other activities within the catchment. The lake is an important source of fresh water in an otherwise ...

  4. Lake whitefish and Diporeia spp. in the Great lakes: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalepa, Thomas F.; Mohr, Lloyd C.; Henderson, Bryan A.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Schneeberger, Philip J.

    2005-01-01

    Because of growing concern in the Great Lakes over declines in abundance and growth of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and declines in abundance of the benthic amphipod Diporeia spp., a workshop was held to examine past and current trends, to explore trophic links, and to discuss the latest research results and needs. The workshop was divided into sessions on the status of populations in each of the lakes, bioenergetics and trophic dynamics, and exploitation and management. Abundance, growth, and condition of whitefish populations in Lakes Superior and Erie are stable and within the range of historical means, but these variables are declining in Lakes Michigan and Ontario and parts of Lake Huron. The loss of Diporeia spp., a major food item of whitefish, has been a factor in observed declines, particularly in Lake Ontario, but density-dependent factors also likely played a role in Lakes Michigan and Huron. The loss of Diporeia spp. is temporally linked to the introduction and proliferation of dreissenid mussels, but a direct cause for the negative response of Diporeia spp. has not been established. Given changes in whitefish populations, age-structured models need to be re-evaluated. Other whitefish research needs to include a better understanding of what environmental conditions lead to strong year-classes, improved aging techniques, and better information on individual population (stock) structure. Further collaborations between assessment biologists and researchers studying the lower food web would enhance an understanding of links between trophic levels.

  5. Sources and distribution of microplastics in China's largest inland lake - Qinghai Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiong; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Xianchuan; Shi, Huahong; Luo, Ze; Wu, Chenxi

    2018-04-01

    Microplastic pollution was studied in China's largest inland lake - Qinghai Lake in this work. Microplastics were detected with abundance varies from 0.05 × 10 5 to 7.58 × 10 5 items km -2 in the lake surface water, 0.03 × 10 5 to 0.31 × 10 5 items km -2 in the inflowing rivers, 50 to 1292 items m -2 in the lakeshore sediment, and 2 to 15 items per individual in the fish samples, respectively. Small microplastics (0.1-0.5 mm) dominated in the lake surface water while large microplastics (1-5 mm) are more abundant in the river samples. Microplastics were predominantly in sheet and fiber shapes in the lake and river water samples but were more diverse in the lakeshore sediment samples. Polymer types of microplastics were mainly polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) as identified using Raman Spectroscopy. Spatially, microplastic abundance was the highest in the central part of the lake, likely due to the transport of lake current. Based on the higher abundance of microplastics near the tourist access points, plastic wastes from tourism are considered as an important source of microplastics in Qinghai Lake. As an important area for wildlife conservation, better waste management practice should be implemented, and waste disposal and recycling infrastructures should be improved for the protection of Qinghai Lake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fluctuations of Lake Eyre, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    the two dates were processed identically to preserve relative variations in brightness between them. Wet surfaces or areas with standing water appear green due to the effect of sunglint at the nadir camera view angle. Dry, salt encrusted parts of the lake appear bright white or gray. Purple areas have enhanced forward scattering, possibly as a result of surface moistness. Some variations exhibited by the multi-angle composites are not discernible in the nadir multi-spectral images and vice versa, suggesting that the combination of angular and spectral information is a more powerful diagnostic of surface conditions than either technique by itself.The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 5194 and 15679. The panels cover an area of 146 kilometers x 122 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 113 to 114 within World Reference System-2 path 100.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory,Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  7. Outflows of groundwater in lakes: case study of Lake Raduńske Górne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieśliński Roman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to locate and describe groundwater outflows in a selected lake basin. The study hypothesis was based on the fact that, according to the specialist literature, one of the forms of lake water supply is through groundwater outflows. It was also assumed that the lakes of the Kashubian Lake District are characterised by such a form of lake water supply. The time scope of the work included the period from January 2011 to September 2012. The spatial scope of the work included the area of Lake Raduńskie Górne, located in the Kashubian Lake District in north Poland. The research plot was in the north-eastern part of the lake. Office works were aimed at gathering and studying source materials and maps. Cartographic materials were analysed with the use of the MapInfo Professional 9.5. The purpose of the field work was to find the groundwater outflows in the basin of Lake Raduńskie Górne. During the field research diving was carried out in the lake. During the dive audiovisual documentation was conducted using a Nikon D90 camera with Ikelite underwater housing for Nikon D90 and an Ikelite DS 161 movie substrobe, as well as a GoPro HD HERO 2 Outdoor camera. During the project, four groundwater outflows were found. In order to examine these springs audiovisual and photographic documentation was made. To systematise the typology of the discovered springs, new nomenclature was suggested, namely under-lake springs with subtypes: an under-lake slope spring and under-lake offshore spring

  8. Changing values of lake ecosystem services as a result of bacteriological contamination on Lake Trzesiecko and Lake Wielimie, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cichoń Małgorzata

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lake ecosystems, on the one hand, are affected by tourism, and on the other by development for tourism. Lake ecosystem services include: water with its self-cleaning processes, air with climate control processes, as well as flora and fauna. Utilisation of services leads to interventions in the structure of ecosystems and their processes. Only to a certain extent, this is specific to each type of environmental interference, remains within the limits of ecosystem resilience and does not lead to its degradation. One of the threats is bacteriological contamination, for which the most reliable sanitation indicator is Escherichia coli. In lake water quality studies it is assumed that the lakeshore cannot be a source of bacteria. It has been hypothesised that the problem of bacterial contamination can be serious for the places that do not have any infrastructure, especially sanitation. Consequently, the purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which lakeshore sanitation, in particular the level of bacteriological contamination, has an impact on the value of services provided by the selected lake ecosystems (Lake Trzesiecko and Lake Wielimie – Szczecinek Lake District. Five selected services related to lake ecosystems are: water, control over the spread of contagious diseases, aesthetic values, tourism and recreation, as well as the hydrological cycle with its self-cleaning function. Services, as well as the criteria adopted for evaluation, allow us to conclude that the services provided by the lake ecosystems are suitable to fulfill a recreation function. However, the inclusion of quality criteria for sanitary status has shown that the value of system services has dropped by as much as 50%. Value changes are visible primarily for water and aesthetic qualities. Such a significant decrease in the value of services clearly indicates the importance of the sanitary conditions of lakes and their appropriate infrastructure. In view of the

  9. Resilience and Restoration of Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Carpenter

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Lake water quality and ecosystem services are normally maintained by several feedbacks. Among these are nutrient retention and humic production by wetlands, nutrient retention and woody habitat production by riparian forests, food web structures that cha nnel phosphorus to consumers rather than phytoplankton, and biogeochemical mechanisms that inhibit phosphorus recycling from sediments. In degraded lakes, these resilience mechanisms are replaced by new ones that connect lakes to larger, regional economi c and social systems. New controls that maintain degraded lakes include runoff from agricultural and urban areas, absence of wetlands and riparian forests, and changes in lake food webs and biogeochemistry that channel phosphorus to blooms of nuisance al gae. Economic analyses show that degraded lakes are significantly less valuable than normal lakes. Because of this difference in value, the economic benefits of restoring lakes could be used to create incentives for lake restoration.

  10. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, Sheryl

    2004-01-01

    The construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams completely and irrevocably blocked anadromous fish migrations to the Upper Columbia River. Historically this area hosted vast numbers of salmon returning to their natal waters to reproduce and die. For the native peoples of the region, salmon and steelhead were a principle food source, providing physical nourishment and spiritual sustenance, and contributing to the religious practices and the cultural basis of tribal communities. The decaying remains of spawned-out salmon carcasses contributed untold amounts of nutrients into the aquatic, aerial, and terrestrial ecosystems of tributary habitats in the upper basin. Near the present site of Kettle Falls, Washington, the second largest Indian fishery in the state existed for thousands of years. Returning salmon were caught in nets and baskets or speared on their migration to the headwater of the Columbia River in British Columbia. Catch estimates at Kettle Falls range from 600,000 in 1940 to two (2) million around the turn of the century (UCUT, Report No.2). The loss of anadromous fish limited the opportunities for fisheries management and enhancement exclusively to those actions addressed to resident fish. The Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project is a mitigation project intended to enhance resident fish populations and to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses caused by hydropower system impacts. This substitution of resident fish for anadromous fish losses is considered in-place and out-of-kind mitigation. Upstream migration and passage barriers limit the amount of spawning and rearing habitat that might otherwise be utilized by rainbow trout. The results of even limited stream surveys and habitat inventories indicated that a potential for increased natural production exists. However, the lack of any comprehensive enhancement measures prompted the Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Center (UCUT), Colville Confederated

  11. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, Sheryl

    2003-01-01

    The construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams completely and irrevocably blocked anadromous fish migrations to the Upper Columbia River. Historically this area hosted vast numbers of salmon returning to their natal waters to reproduce and die. For the native peoples of the region, salmon and steelhead were a principle food source, providing physical nourishment and spiritual sustenance, and contributing to the religious practices and the cultural basis of tribal communities. The decaying remains of spawned-out salmon carcasses contributed untold amounts of nutrients into the aquatic, aerial, and terrestrial ecosystems of tributary habitats in the upper basin. Near the present site of Kettle Falls, Washington, the second largest Indian fishery in the state existed for thousands of years. Returning salmon were caught in nets and baskets or speared on their migration to the headwater of the Columbia River in British Columbia. Catch estimates at Kettle Falls range from 600,000 in 1940 to two (2) million around the turn of the century (UCUT, Report No.2). The loss of anadromous fish limited the opportunities for fisheries management and enhancement exclusively to those actions addressed to resident fish. The Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project is a mitigation project intended to enhance resident fish populations and to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses caused by hydropower system impacts. This substitution of resident fish for anadromous fish losses is considered in-place and out-of-kind mitigation. Upstream migration and passage barriers limit the amount of spawning and rearing habitat that might otherwise be utilized by rainbow trout. The results of even limited stream surveys and habitat inventories indicated that a potential for increased natural production exists. However, the lack of any comprehensive enhancement measures prompted the Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Center (UCUT), Colville Confederated

  12. Yellowstone Lake Nanoarchaeota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eClingenpeel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park, where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1,349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels. However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (70 pyrosequencing reads was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations.

  13. Contaminant trends in lake trout and walleye from the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVault, David S.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Rodgers, Paul W.; Feist, Timothy J.

    1996-01-01

    Trends in PCBs, DDT, and other contaminants have been monitored in Great Lakes lake trout and walleye since the 1970s using composite samples of whole fish. Dramatic declines have been observed in concentrations of PCB, ΣDDT, dieldrin, and oxychlordane, with declines initially following first order loss kinetics. Mean PCB concentrations in Lake Michigan lake trout increased from 13 μg/g in 1972 to 23 μg/g in 1974, then declined to 2.6 μg/g by 1986. Between 1986 and 1992 there was little change in concentration, with 3.5 μg/g observed in 1992. ΣDDT in Lake Michigan trout followed a similar trend, decreasing from 19.2 μg/g in 1970 to 1.1 μg/g in 1986, and 1.2 μg/g in 1992. Similar trends were observed for PCBs and ΣDDT in lake trout from Lakes Superior, Huron and Ontario. Concentrations of both PCB and ΣDDT in Lake Erie walleye declined between 1977 and 1982, after which concentrations were relatively constant through 1990. When originally implemented it was assumed that trends in the mean contaminant concentrations in open-lake fish would serve as cost effective surrogates to trends in the water column. While water column data are still extremely limited it appears that for PCBs in lakes Michigan and Superior, trends in lake trout do reasonably mimic those in the water column over the long term. Hypotheses to explain the trends in contaminant concentrations are briefly reviewed. The original first order loss kinetics used to describe the initial decline do not explain the more recent leveling off of contaminant concentrations. Recent theories have examined the possibilities of multiple contaminant pools. We suggest another hypothesis, that changes in the food web may have resulted in increased bioaccumulation. However, a preliminary exploration of this hypothesis using a change point analysis was inconclusive.

  14. Stennis visits Lake Cormorant school

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Alexis Harry, assistant director of Astro Camp at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, talks with students at Lake Cormorant (Miss.) Elementary School during a 'Living and Working in Space' presentation March 30. Stennis hosted the school presentation during a visit to the Oxford area. Harry, who also is a high school biology teacher in Slidell, La., spent time discussing space travel with students and answering questions they had about the experience, including queries about how astronauts eat, sleep and drink in space. The presentation was sponsored by the NASA Office of External Affairs and Education at Stennis. For more information about NASA education initiatives, visit: http://education.ssc.nasa.gov/.

  15. Lake-level increasing under the climate cryoaridization conditions during the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosov, Mikhail; Strelkov, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    precipitations. For example, the paleo-lakes of Bonneville and Lahontan located in the Great Basin, US vividly present the pluvial hypothesis. However, the lake-level of Central Asia and Altiplano altered because of a simultaneous climate cooling and moisture decrease. This phenomenon is called a climate cryoaridization. The moisture reduction in two studied regions is proved by the palinologic data. Beside the fact above, the climate cryoaridization of Altiplano lakes is also confirmed by the data taken from the flatland water bodies of South America that are located to the north of the described region. Even though they had an influence from Amazon convective center with its humid air masses moved towards Altiplano, these flatland lakes used to have lower level at the LGM stage. According to the explained hypothesis, there is one more assumption supporting an increasing effect of cryoaridic lakes. These water bodies occurred on the endorheic basins due to the snow accumulation in the surrounding mountain ranges, hence the snow line moved down closer to the Altiplano valleys.

  16. Pollution at Lake Mariut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nour ElDin, H.; Halim, S. N.; Shalby, E.

    2004-01-01

    Lake Mariut, south Alexandria, Egypt suffered in the recent decades from intensive pollution as a result of a continuous discharge of huge amounts of agriculture wastewater that contains a large concentration of the washed pesticides and fertilizers in addition to domestic and industrial untreated wastewater. The over flow from the lake is discharged directly to the sea through El-Max pumping station via EI-Umum drain. Lake Mariout is surrounded by a huge number of different industrial activities and also the desert road is cutting the lake, this means that a huge number of various pollutants cycle through the air and settle down in the lake, by the time and during different seasons these pollutants after accumulation and different chemical interactions will release again from the lake to the surrounding area affecting the surrounding zone

  17. Derivative free Davidon-Fletcher-Powell (DFP) for solving symmetric systems of nonlinear equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, M.; Dauda, M. K.; Mohamed, M. A. bin; Waziri, M. Y.; Mohamad, F. S.; Abdullah, H.

    2018-03-01

    Research from the work of engineers, economist, modelling, industry, computing, and scientist are mostly nonlinear equations in nature. Numerical solution to such systems is widely applied in those areas of mathematics. Over the years, there has been significant theoretical study to develop methods for solving such systems, despite these efforts, unfortunately the methods developed do have deficiency. In a contribution to solve systems of the form F(x) = 0, x ∈ Rn , a derivative free method via the classical Davidon-Fletcher-Powell (DFP) update is presented. This is achieved by simply approximating the inverse Hessian matrix with {Q}k+1-1 to θkI. The modified method satisfied the descent condition and possess local superlinear convergence properties. Interestingly, without computing any derivative, the proposed method never fail to converge throughout the numerical experiments. The output is based on number of iterations and CPU time, different initial starting points were used on a solve 40 benchmark test problems. With the aid of the squared norm merit function and derivative-free line search technique, the approach yield a method of solving symmetric systems of nonlinear equations that is capable of significantly reducing the CPU time and number of iteration, as compared to its counterparts. A comparison between the proposed method and classical DFP update were made and found that the proposed methodis the top performer and outperformed the existing method in almost all the cases. In terms of number of iterations, out of the 40 problems solved, the proposed method solved 38 successfully, (95%) while classical DFP solved 2 problems (i.e. 05%). In terms of CPU time, the proposed method solved 29 out of the 40 problems given, (i.e.72.5%) successfully whereas classical DFP solves 11 (27.5%). The method is valid in terms of derivation, reliable in terms of number of iterations and accurate in terms of CPU time. Thus, suitable and achived the objective.

  18. Long-Term Variability of Satellite Lake Surface Water Temperatures in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierach, M. M.; Matsumoto, K.; Holt, B.; McKinney, P. J.; Tokos, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Great Lakes are the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth that approximately 37 million people depend upon for fresh drinking water, food, flood and drought mitigation, and natural resources that support industry, jobs, shipping and tourism. Recent reports have stated (e.g., the National Climate Assessment) that climate change can impact and exacerbate a range of risks to the Great Lakes, including changes in the range and distribution of certain fish species, increased invasive species and harmful algal blooms, declining beach health, and lengthened commercial navigation season. In this study, we will examine the impact of climate change on the Laurentian Great Lakes through investigation of long-term lake surface water temperatures (LSWT). We will use the ATSR Reprocessing for Climate: Lake Surface Water Temperature & Ice Cover (ARC-Lake) product over the period 1995-2012 to investigate individual and interlake variability. Specifically, we will quantify the seasonal amplitude of LSWTs, the first and last appearances of the 4°C isotherm (i.e., an important identifier of the seasonal evolution of the lakes denoting winter and summer stratification), and interpret these quantities in the context of global interannual climate variability such as ENSO.

  19. Lake Cadagno

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonolla, Mauro; Storelli, Nicola; Danza, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Lake Cadagno (26 ha) is a crenogenic meromictic lake located in the Swiss Alps at 1921 m asl with a maximum depth of 21 m. The presence of crystalline rocks and a dolomite vein rich in gypsum in the catchment area makes the lake a typical “sulphuretum ” dominated by coupled carbon and sulphur...... cycles. The chemocline lies at about 12 m depth, stabilized by density differences of salt-rich water supplied by sub-aquatic springs to the monimolimnion and of electrolyte-poor surface water feeding the mixolimnion. Steep sulphide and light gradients in the chemocline support the growth of a large...... in the chemocline. Small-celled PSB together with the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfocapsa thiozymogenes sp. form stable aggregates in the lake, which represent small microenvironments with an internal sulphur cycle. Eukaryotic primary producers in the anoxic zones are dominated by Cryptomonas phaseolus...

  20. Urban microbial ecology of a freshwater estuary of Lake Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jenny C; Newton, Ryan J; Dila, Deborah K; McLellan, Sandra L

    Freshwater estuaries throughout the Great Lakes region receive stormwater runoff and riverine inputs from heavily urbanized population centers. While human and animal feces contained in this runoff are often the focus of source tracking investigations, non-fecal bacterial loads from soil, aerosols, urban infrastructure, and other sources are also transported to estuaries and lakes. We quantified and characterized this non-fecal urban microbial component using bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences from sewage, stormwater, rivers, harbor/estuary, and the lake surrounding Milwaukee, WI, USA. Bacterial communities from each of these environments had a distinctive composition, but some community members were shared among environments. We used a statistical biomarker discovery tool to identify the components of the microbial community that were most strongly associated with stormwater and sewage to describe an "urban microbial signature," and measured the presence and relative abundance of these organisms in the rivers, estuary, and lake. This urban signature increased in magnitude in the estuary and harbor with increasing rainfall levels, and was more apparent in lake samples with closest proximity to the Milwaukee estuary. The dominant bacterial taxa in the urban signature were Acinetobacter, Aeromonas , and Pseudomonas , which are organisms associated with pipe infrastructure and soil and not typically found in pelagic freshwater environments. These taxa were highly abundant in stormwater and sewage, but sewage also contained a high abundance of Arcobacter and Trichococcus that appeared in lower abundance in stormwater outfalls and in trace amounts in aquatic environments. Urban signature organisms comprised 1.7% of estuary and harbor communities under baseflow conditions, 3.5% after rain, and >10% after a combined sewer overflow. With predicted increases in urbanization across the Great Lakes, further alteration of freshwater communities is likely to occur with potential

  1. Urban microbial ecology of a freshwater estuary of Lake Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny C. Fisher

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Freshwater estuaries throughout the Great Lakes region receive stormwater runoff and riverine inputs from heavily urbanized population centers. While human and animal feces contained in this runoff are often the focus of source tracking investigations, non-fecal bacterial loads from soil, aerosols, urban infrastructure, and other sources are also transported to estuaries and lakes. We quantified and characterized this non-fecal urban microbial component using bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences from sewage, stormwater, rivers, harbor/estuary, and the lake surrounding Milwaukee, WI, USA. Bacterial communities from each of these environments had a distinctive composition, but some community members were shared among environments. We used a statistical biomarker discovery tool to identify the components of the microbial community that were most strongly associated with stormwater and sewage to describe an “urban microbial signature,” and measured the presence and relative abundance of these organisms in the rivers, estuary, and lake. This urban signature increased in magnitude in the estuary and harbor with increasing rainfall levels, and was more apparent in lake samples with closest proximity to the Milwaukee estuary. The dominant bacterial taxa in the urban signature were Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, and Pseudomonas, which are organisms associated with pipe infrastructure and soil and not typically found in pelagic freshwater environments. These taxa were highly abundant in stormwater and sewage, but sewage also contained a high abundance of Arcobacter and Trichococcus that appeared in lower abundance in stormwater outfalls and in trace amounts in aquatic environments. Urban signature organisms comprised 1.7% of estuary and harbor communities under baseflow conditions, 3.5% after rain, and >10% after a combined sewer overflow. With predicted increases in urbanization across the Great Lakes, further alteration of freshwater communities is

  2. Urban microbial ecology of a freshwater estuary of Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jenny C.; Newton, Ryan J.; Dila, Deborah K.

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater estuaries throughout the Great Lakes region receive stormwater runoff and riverine inputs from heavily urbanized population centers. While human and animal feces contained in this runoff are often the focus of source tracking investigations, non-fecal bacterial loads from soil, aerosols, urban infrastructure, and other sources are also transported to estuaries and lakes. We quantified and characterized this non-fecal urban microbial component using bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences from sewage, stormwater, rivers, harbor/estuary, and the lake surrounding Milwaukee, WI, USA. Bacterial communities from each of these environments had a distinctive composition, but some community members were shared among environments. We used a statistical biomarker discovery tool to identify the components of the microbial community that were most strongly associated with stormwater and sewage to describe an “urban microbial signature,” and measured the presence and relative abundance of these organisms in the rivers, estuary, and lake. This urban signature increased in magnitude in the estuary and harbor with increasing rainfall levels, and was more apparent in lake samples with closest proximity to the Milwaukee estuary. The dominant bacterial taxa in the urban signature were Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, and Pseudomonas, which are organisms associated with pipe infrastructure and soil and not typically found in pelagic freshwater environments. These taxa were highly abundant in stormwater and sewage, but sewage also contained a high abundance of Arcobacter and Trichococcus that appeared in lower abundance in stormwater outfalls and in trace amounts in aquatic environments. Urban signature organisms comprised 1.7% of estuary and harbor communities under baseflow conditions, 3.5% after rain, and >10% after a combined sewer overflow. With predicted increases in urbanization across the Great Lakes, further alteration of freshwater communities is likely to occur with

  3. Recent lake ice-out phenology within and among lake districts of Alaska, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, Christopher D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Grosse, Guido

    2013-01-01

    The timing of ice-out in high latitudes is a fundamental threshold for lake ecosystems and an indicator of climate change. In lake-rich regions, the loss of ice cover also plays a key role in landscape and climatic processes. Thus, there is a need to understand lake ice phenology at multiple scales. In this study, we observed ice-out timing on 55 large lakes in 11 lake districts across Alaska from 2007 to 2012 using satellite imagery. Sensor networks in two lake districts validated satellite observations and provided comparison with smaller lakes. Over this 6 yr period, the mean lake ice-out for all lakes was 27 May and ranged from 07 May in Kenai to 06 July in Arctic Coastal Plain lake districts with relatively low inter-annual variability. Approximately 80% of the variation in ice-out timing was explained by the date of 0°C air temperature isotherm and lake area. Shoreline irregularity, watershed area, and river connectivity explained additional variation in some districts. Coherence in ice-out timing within the lakes of each district was consistently strong over this 6 yr period, ranging from r-values of 0.5 to 0.9. Inter-district analysis of coherence also showed synchronous ice-out patterns with the exception of the two arctic coastal districts where ice-out occurs later (June–July) and climatology is sea-ice influenced. These patterns of lake ice phenology provide a spatially extensive baseline describing short-term temporal variability, which will help decipher longer term trends in ice phenology and aid in representing the role of lake ice in land and climate models in northern landscapes.

  4. 33 CFR 162.132 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules. 162.132 Section 162.132 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.132 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; communications rules. (a...

  5. 33 CFR 162.140 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules. 162.140 Section 162.140 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.140 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; miscellaneous rules. (a...

  6. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in California Region 18 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  7. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Tennessee Region 6 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  8. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Ohio Region 5 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  9. Bathymetry of Lake Ontario

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Ontario has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  10. Bathymetry of Lake Michigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Michigan has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  11. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  12. Bathymetry of Lake Huron

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  13. Circulation and sedimentation in a tidal-influenced fjord lake: Lake McKerrow, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickrill, R. A.; Irwin, J.; Shakespeare, B. S.

    1981-01-01

    Lake McKerrow is a tide-influenced fjord lake, separated from the open sea by a Holocene barrier spit. Fresh, oxygenated waters of the epilimnion overlie saline, deoxygenated waters of the hypolimnion. During winter, water from the Upper Hollyford River interflows along the pycnocline, depositing coarse silt on the steep delta and transporting finer sediment down-lake. An extensive sub-lacustrine channel system on the foreset delta slope is possibly maintained by turbidity currents. Saline waters of the hypolimnion are periodically replenished. During high tides and low lake levels saline water flows into the lake and downslope into the lake basin as a density current in a well defined channel.

  14. Computing Evaporation Using Meteorological Data for Hydrological Budget of Lake Wapalanne in NJ School of Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, J. J.; Barrett, K. R.; Galster, J. C.; Ophori, D. U.; Flores, D.; Kelly, S. A.; Lutey, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Lake Wapalanne is small manmade lake about 5.4 hectares in northwest New Jersey in the Highlands Physiographic province within permanently protected land. The lake's surrounding area consists of forested vegetation and is relatively unoccupied which minimizes human influence. The lake's small size, minimal external influence, geographic isolation, and protected status provide an optimal research environment to record meteorological data used in calculation of potential evaporation. Between July 7h and August 3rd meteorological data was collected from a professional weather station placed on an island directly in the center of Lake Wapalanne. The Vantage Pro2 weather station provided accurate readings of temperate, humidity, wind-speed and direction, precipitation, and atmospheric pressure. A bathometric survey of the lake was conducted to determine the surface area with variations in depth of the lake's water level. Using the collected weather station data, a rate of potential evaporation was determined with several evaporation equations. A quantified volume was then derived from the rate and surface area of the lake. Using small scale evaporation measurements of known volumes of water within small pans placed in the lake water and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration evaporation stations near the experiment site, a comparison and validation of the calculated potential evaporation accuracy and regional evaporation is achieved. This three year study is part of an ongoing NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) project that encompasses additional topics of lake research; see abstract from Kelly et al. AGU 2011 for more information on the lake's hydrologic budget. The results and methods of this study will be of use in future forecasting and baseline measurements of hydrologic budgets for lakes and reservoirs within regional proximity, which provide drinking water to over five million people in the State of New Jersey.

  15. 33 CFR 162.130 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; general rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; general rules. 162.130 Section 162.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.130 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; general rules. (a) Purpose. The...

  16. Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Great Lakes Mussel Watch(2009-2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Following the inception of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) to address the significant environmental issues plaguing the Great Lakes region, the...

  17. 33 CFR 162.134 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; traffic rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; traffic rules. 162.134 Section 162.134 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.134 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; traffic rules. (a) Detroit River. The...

  18. 33 CFR 162.138 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; speed rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; speed rules. 162.138 Section 162.138 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.138 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; speed rules. (a) Maximum speed limit for...

  19. 33 CFR 162.136 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds. 162.136 Section 162.136 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.136 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds. (a) In the Detroit...

  20. Limnology of Botos Lake, a tropical crater lake in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña, G

    2001-12-01

    Botos Lake, located at the Poas Volcano complex (Costa Rica) was sampled eight times from 1994 to 1996 for physicochemical conditions of the water column and phytoplanktonic community composition. Depth was measured at fixed intervals in several transects across the lake to determine its main morphometric characteristics. The lake has an outlet to the north. It is located 2580 m above sea level and is shallow, with a mean depth of 1.8 m and a relative depth of 2.42 (surface area 10.33 ha, estimated volume 47.3 hm3). The lake showed an isothermal water column in all occasions, but it heats and cools completely according to weather fluctuations. Water transparency reached the bottom on most occasions (> 9 m). The results support the idea that the lake is polymictic and oligotrophic. The lake has at least 23 species of planktonic algae, but it was always dominated by dinoflagellates, especially Peridinium inconspicuum. The shore line is populated by a sparse population of Isoetes sp. and Eleocharis sp. mainly in the northern shore where the bottom has a gentle slope and the forest does not reach the shore.

  1. Preliminary Results from Powell Research Group on Integrating GRACE Satellite and Ground-based Estimates of Groundwater Storage Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Zhang, Z.; Reitz, M.; Rodell, M.; Sanford, W. E.; Save, H.; Wiese, D. N.; Croteau, M. J.; McGuire, V. L.; Pool, D. R.; Faunt, C. C.; Zell, W.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater storage depletion is a critical issue for many of the major aquifers in the U.S., particularly during intense droughts. GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite-based estimates of groundwater storage changes have attracted considerable media attention in the U.S. and globally and interest in GRACE products continues to increase. For this reason, a Powell Research Group was formed to: (1) Assess variations in groundwater storage using a variety of GRACE products and other storage components (snow, surface water, and soil moisture) for major aquifers in the U.S., (2) Quantify long-term trends in groundwater storage from ground-based monitoring and regional and national modeling, and (3) Use ground-based monitoring and modeling to interpret GRACE water storage changes within the context of extreme droughts and over-exploitation of groundwater. The group now has preliminary estimates from long-term trends and seasonal fluctuations in water storage using different GRACE solutions, including CSR, JPL and GSFC. Approaches to quantifying uncertainties in GRACE data are included. This work also shows how GRACE sees groundwater depletion in unconfined versus confined aquifers, and plans for future work will link GRACE data to regional groundwater models. The wealth of ground-based observations for the U.S. provides a unique opportunity to assess the reliability of GRACE-based estimates of groundwater storage changes.

  2. Military Leadership Evaluations: Effects of Sex, Leadership Style and Gender-Role Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    stereotype and transformational leadership in typical feminine work contexts. Sociedad Valenciana de Psicologia Social , 9(3), 53-71. Luthar, H. K. (1996...the “glass ceiling” barring women from the highest levels of leadership and management. Powell (1999) offered a summary of social -system centered...situation-centered, and person-centered explanations to account for the small proportion of women in the highest levels of management. Social -system

  3. 75 FR 34934 - Safety Zone; Fireworks for the Virginia Lake Festival, Buggs Island Lake, Clarksville, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Fireworks for the Virginia Lake Festival, Buggs Island Lake, Clarksville, VA AGENCY... Fireworks for the Virginia Lake Festival event. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement... Virginia Lake Festival, Buggs Island Lake, Clarksville, VA (a) Regulated Area. The following area is a...

  4. Holocene lake-level fluctuations of Lake Aricota, Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placzek, C.; Quade, Jay; Betancourt, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Lacustrine deposits exposed around Lake Aricota, Peru (17?? 22???S), a 7.5-km2 lake dammed by debris flows, provide a middle to late Holocene record of lake-level fluctuations. Chronological context for shoreline deposits was obtained from radiocarbon dating of vascular plant remains and other datable material with minimal 14C reservoir effects (Titicaca (16?? S), which is only 130 km to the northeast and shares a similar climatology. Comparisons with other marine and terrestrial records highlight emerging contradictions over the nature of mid-Holocene climate in the central Andes. ?? 2001 University of Washington.

  5. Interconnectedness during high water maintains similarity in fish assemblages of island floodplain lakes in the Amazonian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Edwar de C. Freitas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a study to test the hypothesis that interconnectedness among island floodplain lakes and the adjacent Solimões River during the flood stage of the hydrologic cycle is enough to maintain similarity in fish species assemblages. Gill net samples were collected during high and low water periods for three consecutive years (July 2004 to July 2006 in four lakes on Paciência Island. Two lakes, Piranha and Ressaca, are connected to the river all year, and the other two, Preto and Cacau, which are in the center of the island, are isolated during low water periods. The abundance, species richness and evenness of the fish assemblages in these lakes did not differ according to their relative positions or the season of the hydrological cycle, which confirmed our hypothesis. However, fish abundance during the dry season was greater than in the flood season. Apparently, the short period of full connection between the lakes is enough to allow the colonization of all fish species, but not to cause similar abundances. Our study indicates that persistence of the species composition of island floodplain lakes is primarily due to the annual replenishment of fish to the lakes during the flood season.

  6. Spatial and temporal variability of greenhouse gas emissions from a small and shallow temperate lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praetzel, Leandra; Schmiedeskamp, Marcel; Broder, Tanja; Hüttemann, Caroline; Jansen, Laura; Metzelder, Ulrike; Wallis, Ronya; Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Blodau, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Small inland waters (spots" and "hot moments" that could contribute significantly to total emissions. To address this knowledge gap, we determined CO2 and CH4 emissions and dynamics to identify their controlling environmental factors in a polymictic small (1.4 ha) and shallow (max. depth approx. 1.5 m) crater lake ("Windsborn") in the Eifel uplands in south-west Germany. As Lake Windsborn has a small catchment area (8 ha) and no surficial inflows, it serves well as a model system for the identification of factors and processes controlling emissions. In 2015, 2016 and 2017 we measured CO2 and CH4 gas fluxes with different techniques across the sediment/water and water/atmosphere interface. Atmospheric exchange was measured using mini-chambers equipped with CO2 sensors and with an infra-red greenhouse gas analyzer for high temporal resolution flux measurements. Ebullition of CH4 was quantified with funnel traps. Sediment properties were examined using pore-water peepers. All measurements were carried out along a transect covering both littoral and central parts of the lake. Moreover, a weather station on a floating platform in the center of the lake recorded meteorological data as well as CO2 concentration in different depths of the water column. So far, Lake Windsborn seems to be a source for both CO2 and CH4 on an annual scale. CO2 emissions generally increased from spring to summer. Even though CO2 uptake could be observed during some periods in spring and fall, CO2 emissions in the summer exceeded the uptake. CO2 and CH4 emissions also appeared to be spatially variable between littoral areas and the inner lake. Shallow areas turned out to be "hot spots" of CO2 emissions whereas CH4 emissions were - against our expectations - highest in the center of the lake. Moreover, CH4 ebullition contributed substantially to total CH4 emissions. Our results show the importance of spatially and temporally highly resolved long-term measurements of greenhouse gas emissions and

  7. Stable isotope and hydrogeochemical studies of Beaver Lake and Radok Lake, MacRobertson Land, East Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wand, U.; Hermichen, W.D.

    1988-01-01

    Beaver Lake and Radok Lake, the largest known epishelf lake and the deepest freshwater lake on the Antarctic continent, respectively, were isotopically (δ 2 H, δ 18 O) and hydrogeochemically studied. Radok Lake is an isothermal and nonstratified, i.e. homogeneous water body, while Beaver Lake is stratified with respect to temperature, salinity and isotopic composition. The results for the latter attest to freshwater (derived from snow and glacier melt) overlying seawater. (author)

  8. Mono Lake sediments preserve a record of recent environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixnerova, J.; Betts, M.; Westacott, S.; Ingalls, M.; Miller, L. G.; Sessions, A. L.; Trower, L.; Geobiology Course, A.

    2017-12-01

    Modern Mono Lake is a geochemically unique closed-basin, hypersaline soda lake. Since 1941, anthropogenic water diversions have decreased the lake's volume and water level, driving changes in water chemistry and ecology. Mono Lake sediments offer an opportunity to investigate the nature and extent of these changes. We analyzed a 70 cm sediment core from the center of Mono Lake recording the past 116 years of deposition. At the time of recovery, the entire core was dark green. 16S rRNA gene analysis indicated a sedimentary bacterial community dominated by Cyanobacteria. SEM imaging revealed abundant, well-preserved diatom frustules below 10 cm core depth, in contrast they are nearly absent above 10 cm depth. Fatty acid (FAME) biomarkers for diatoms and algal sterols were present throughout the core in varying concentrations. Phytol was exceptionally abundant in the core; ratios of phytol/C-18 FAME were commonly >200. The δ13Corg ranged between -17.5 and -20‰ in the lower 52 cm of the core while the upper part shows significant decrease of δ13Corg to -28‰. We interpret the shift in δ13Corg as an ecological transition from mainly diatoms in the lower core towards the green alga Picocystis, which is the main primary producer today and has a δ13Corg value of -32.5‰. The onset of this change dates back 23 years, which roughly coincides with the highest reported salinity, 88 g/L in 1995. We hypothesize that diatoms gradually became marginalized as a result of hypersaline conditions. We also observed a variety of trends that may be characterized as unique fingerprints of Mono Lake. The unusually high abundance of phytol was consistent with the core's pervasive green coloring and could potentially indicate a higher preservation potential of phytol under alkaline conditions. Throughout the core, δ15Norg fluctuated between +10 and +13‰. Such atypical enrichment in δ15Norg could be explained by NH4 dissociation and subsequent NH3 volatilization under high p

  9. Can We Drink the Water? Data Sharing Lessons From the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Paige, K.; Slawecki, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Great Lakes Observing System (GLOS) is one of 11 regional associations of the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS). Over time, GLOS has built a reputation as a trusted data aggregator and resource for managers, policy makers and recreational boaters in the region. This was evidenced best when, in response to the 2014 Lake Erie harmful algal bloom event, local stakeholders including universities, state government, and municipal water managers turned to GLOS as a repository for sharing and finding data. The IOOS Certification process, required under the authority of the Integrated Coastal and Ocean Observation System Act of 2009 (ICOOS Act), further legitimizes these data assembly centers that serve as valuable coordinators of data for their regions.

  10. Lake Generated Microseisms at Yellowstone Lake as a Record of Ice Phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Mokhdhari, A. A.; Koper, K. D.; Burlacu, R.

    2017-12-01

    It has recently been shown that wave action in lakes produces microseisms, which generate noise peaks in the period range of 0.8-1.2 s as recorded by nearby seismic stations. Such noise peaks have been observed at seven seismic stations (H17A, LKWY, B208, B944, YTP, YLA, and YLT) located within 2 km of the Yellowstone Lake shoreline. Initial work using 2016 data shows that the variations in the microseism signals at Yellowstone Lake correspond with the freezing and thawing of lake ice: the seismic noise occurs more frequently in the spring, summer, and fall, and less commonly in the winter. If this can be confirmed, then lake-generated microseisms could provide a consistent measure of the freezing and melting dates of high-latitude lakes in remote areas. The seismic data would then be useful in assessing the effects of climate change on the ice phenology of those lakes. In this work, we analyze continuous seismic data recorded by the seven seismic stations around Yellowstone Lake for the years of 1995 to 2016. We generate probability distribution functions of power spectral density for each station to observe the broad elevation of energy near a period of 1 s. The time dependence of this 1-s seismic noise energy is analyzed by extracting the power spectral density at 1 s from every processed hour. The seismic observations are compared to direct measurements of the dates of ice-out and freeze-up as reported by rangers at Yellowstone National Park. We examine how accurate the seismic data are in recording the freezing and melting of Yellowstone Lake, and how the accuracy changes as a function of the number of stations used. We also examine how sensitive the results are to the particular range of periods that are analyzed.

  11. Monitoring climate signal transfer into the varved lake sediments of Lake Czechowskie, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß-Schmölders, Miriam; Ott, Florian; Brykała, Dariusz; Gierszewski, Piotr; Kaszubski, Michał; Kienel, Ulrike; Brauer, Achim

    2015-04-01

    In 2012 we started a monitoring program at Lake Czechowskie, Poland, because the lake comprises a long Holocene time series of calcite varves until recent times. The aim of the program is to understand how environmental and climatic conditions influence the hydrological conditions and, ultimately, the sediment deposition processes of the lake. Lake Czechowskie is located in the north of Poland in the Pomeranian Lake District and is part of the national park Tuchola Forest. The landscape and the lake is formed by the glacier retreat after the last glaciation (Weichselian). Lake Czechowskie is a typical hardwater lake and has a length of 1.4 km, an average width of 600 m and a lake surface area of ca 4 km. The maximum depth of 32 m is reached in a rather small hollow in the eastern part of the lake. Two different types of sediment traps provide sediment samples with monthly resolution from different water depths (12m, 26m). In addition, hydrological data including water temperature in different depths, water inflow, throughflow and outflow and the depth of visibility are measured. These data allow to describe strength and duration of lake mixing in spring and autumn and its influence on sedimentation. The sediment samples were analyzed with respect to their dry weight (used to calculate mean daily sediment flux), their inorganic and organic carbon contents, the stable C- and O-isotopes of organic matter and calcite as well as N-isotopes of organic matter. For selected samples dominant diatom taxa are determined. Our first results demonstrate the strong influence of the long winter with ice cover until April in 2013 on the sedimentation. A rapid warming in only 9 days starting on April 9th from -0,3 C° to 15,2 C° resulted in fast ice break-up and a short but intensive lake mixing. In consequence of this short mixing period a strong algal bloom especially of Fragilaria and Crysophycea commenced in April and had its maximum in May. This bloom further induced biogenic

  12. Lake Michigan Wind Assessment Analysis, 2012 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R Standridge

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to address the wind energy potential over Lake Michigan to support a commercial wind farm.  Lake Michigan is an inland sea in the upper mid-western United States.  A laser wind sensor mounted on a floating platform was located at the mid-lake plateau in 2012 and about 10.5 kilometers from the eastern shoreline near Muskegon Michigan in 2013.  Range gate heights for the laser wind sensor were centered at 75, 90, 105, 125, 150, and 175 meters.  Wind speed and direction were measured once each second and aggregated into 10 minute averages.  The two sample t-test and the paired-t method were used to perform the analysis.  Average wind speed stopped increasing between 105 m and 150 m depending on location.  Thus, the collected data is inconsistent with the idea that average wind speed increases with height. This result implies that measuring wind speed at wind turbine hub height is essential as opposed to using the wind energy power law to project the wind speed from lower heights.  Average speed at the mid-lake plateau is no more that 10% greater than at the location near Muskegon.  Thus, it may be possible to harvest much of the available wind energy at a lower height and closer to the shoreline than previously thought.  At both locations, the predominate wind direction is from the south-southwest.  The ability of the laser wind sensor to measure wind speed appears to be affected by a lack of particulate matter at greater heights.   Keywords: wind assessment, Lake Michigan, LIDAR wind sensor, statistical analysis. Article History: Received June 15th 2016; Received in revised form January 16th 2017; Accepted February 2nd 2017 Available online How to Cite This Article: Standridge, C., Zeitler, D., Clark, A., Spoelma, T., Nordman, E., Boezaart, T.A., Edmonson, J.,  Howe, G., Meadows, G., Cotel, A. and Marsik, F. (2017 Lake Michigan Wind Assessment Analysis, 2012 and 2013. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development

  13. Is Lake Chabot Eutrophic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, K.; Logan, J.; Esterlis, P.; Lew, A.; Nguyen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction/Abstract: Lake Chabot is an integral part of the East Bay watershed that provides habitats for animals and recreation for humans year-round. Lake Chabot has been in danger of eutrophication due to excessive dumping of phosphorous and nitrogen into the water from the fertilizers of nearby golf courses and neighboring houses. If the lake turned out to be eutrophified, it could seriously impact what is currently the standby emergency water supply for many Castro Valley residents. Eutrophication is the excessive richness of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in a lake, usually as a result of runoff. This buildup of nutrients causes algal blooms. The algae uses up most of the oxygen in the water, and when it dies, it causes the lake to hypoxify. The fish in the lake can't breathe, and consequently suffocate. Other oxygen-dependant aquatic creatures die off as well. Needless to say, the eutrophication of a lake is bad news for the wildlife that lives in or around it. The level of eutrophication in our area in Northern California tends to increase during the late spring/early summer months, so our crew went out and took samples of Lake Chabot on June 2. We focused on the area of the lake where the water enters, known on the map as Honker Bay. We also took readings a ways down in deeper water for comparison's sake. Visually, the lake looked in bad shape. The water was a murky green that glimmered with particulate matter that swirled around the boat as we went by. In the Honker Bay region where we focused our testing, there were reeds bathed in algae that coated the surface of the lake in thick, swirling patterns. Surprisingly enough, however, our test results didn't reveal any extreme levels of phosphorous or nitrogen. They were slightly higher than usual, but not by any significant amount. The levels we found were high enough to stimulate plant and algae growth and promote eutrophication, but not enough to do any severe damage. After a briefing with a

  14. 77 FR 27001 - Proposed Establishment of the Ancient Lakes of Columbia Valley Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... comments that TTB receives about this proposal by appointment at the TTB Information Resource Center, 1310... and avoid any potential confusion with any other locations referred to as ``Ancient Lakes... such usage. The newspaper article concerned a geological tour of the Quincy Valley and listed one of...

  15. Limnology of Eifel maar lakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scharf, Burkhard W; Björk, Sven

    1992-01-01

    ... & morphometry - Physical & chemical characteristics - Calcite precipitation & solution in Lake Laacher See - Investigations using sediment traps in Lake Gemundener Maar - Phytoplankton of Lake Weinfelder Maar...

  16. Investigation of Residence and Travel Times in a Large Floodplain Lake with Complex Lake-River Interactions: Poyang Lake (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunliang Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Most biochemical processes and associated water quality in lakes depends on their flushing abilities. The main objective of this study was to investigate the transport time scale in a large floodplain lake, Poyang Lake (China. A 2D hydrodynamic model (MIKE 21 was combined with dye tracer simulations to determine residence and travel times of the lake for various water level variation periods. The results indicate that Poyang Lake exhibits strong but spatially heterogeneous residence times that vary with its highly seasonal water level dynamics. Generally, the average residence times are less than 10 days along the lake’s main flow channels due to the prevailing northward flow pattern; whereas approximately 30 days were estimated during high water level conditions in the summer. The local topographically controlled flow patterns substantially increase the residence time in some bays with high spatial values of six months to one year during all water level variation periods. Depending on changes in the water level regime, the travel times from the pollution sources to the lake outlet during the high and falling water level periods (up to 32 days are four times greater than those under the rising and low water level periods (approximately seven days.

  17. Trends in historical mercury deposition inferred from lake sediment cores across a climate gradient in the Canadian High Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosi, Jennifer B; Griffiths, Katherine; Smol, John P; Blais, Jules M

    2018-06-02

    Recent climate change may be enhancing mercury fluxes to Arctic lake sediments, confounding the use of sediment cores to reconstruct histories of atmospheric deposition. Assessing the independent effects of climate warming on mercury sequestration is challenging due to temporal overlap between warming temperatures and increased long-range transport of atmospheric mercury following the Industrial Revolution. We address this challenge by examining mercury trends in short cores (the last several hundred years) from eight lakes centered on Cape Herschel (Canadian High Arctic) that span a gradient in microclimates, including two lakes that have not yet been significantly altered by climate warming due to continued ice cover. Previous research on subfossil diatoms and inferred primary production indicated the timing of limnological responses to climate warming, which, due to prevailing ice cover conditions, varied from ∼1850 to ∼1990 for lakes that have undergone changes. We show that climate warming may have enhanced mercury deposition to lake sediments in one lake (Moraine Pond), while another (West Lake) showed a strong signal of post-industrial mercury enrichment without any corresponding limnological changes associated with warming. Our results provide insights into the role of climate warming and organic carbon cycling as drivers of mercury deposition to Arctic lake sediments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Keir, Michael J.; Whittle, D. Michael; Noguchi, George E.

    2010-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 61 female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and 71 male lake trout from Lake Ontario (Ontario, Canada and New York, United States). To estimate the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning, PCB concentrations in gonads and in somatic tissue of lake trout were also determined. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was applied to investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes. Results showed that, on average, males were 22% higher in PCB concentration than females in Lake Ontario. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 3% and 14% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in male lake trout. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of males was about 2% higher than adult female GGE, on average. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the higher PCB concentrations exhibited by the males. Nevertheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of the lake trout.

  19. L-Lake macroinvertebrate community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    To characterize the present benthic macroinvertebrate community of L-Lake, Regions 5 and 7 of the reservoir were sampled in September 1995 at the same locations sampled in 1988 and 1989 during the L-Lake monitoring program. The macroinvertebrate community of 1995 is compared to that of 1988 and 1989. The species composition of L-Lake's macroinvertebrate community has changed considerably since 1988-1989, due primarily to maturation of the reservoir ecosystem. L-Lake contains a reasonably diverse macroinvertebrate community that is capable of supporting higher trophic levels, including a diverse assemblage of fish species. The L-Lake macroinvertebrate community is similar to those of many other southeastern reservoirs, and there is no indication that the macroinvertebrate community is perturbed by chemical or physical stressors

  20. L-Lake macroinvertebrate community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    To characterize the present benthic macroinvertebrate community of L-Lake, Regions 5 and 7 of the reservoir were sampled in September 1995 at the same locations sampled in 1988 and 1989 during the L-Lake monitoring program. The macroinvertebrate community of 1995 is compared to that of 1988 and 1989. The species composition of L-Lake`s macroinvertebrate community has changed considerably since 1988-1989, due primarily to maturation of the reservoir ecosystem. L-Lake contains a reasonably diverse macroinvertebrate community that is capable of supporting higher trophic levels, including a diverse assemblage of fish species. The L-Lake macroinvertebrate community is similar to those of many other southeastern reservoirs, and there is no indication that the macroinvertebrate community is perturbed by chemical or physical stressors.

  1. Geotourizm marketing in Lake Constance’ region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gerner

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this work is to evaluate factors responsible for these developments and to show chances for other regions by adopting thismarketing strategy. Besides marketing, interaction of tourism, industry and state was important. Many reasons can be found that shouldresult in a worse development of the region around the Lake of Constance . But instead, today this region has a higher populationgrowth than the average of Baden-Württemberg and is the best economic region outside of urban centers. Scientists spoke aboutan overheated economic growth during the last years that in 2008 comes to a normal but still high level. To attract high potentialworkers and engineers to support further growth, the region has one main advantage to many other regions – its environment. In caseof “Lake of Constance” region, different marketing strategies were used. The complexity of successful marketing for a region is highand finding the right combination of marketing strategies is difficult but can positively influence the development of a region, itseconomy and tourism. At the same time, the marketing for economy and tourism positively reflects degree of popularity in the region.

  2. Hydrochemical determination of source water contributions to Lake Lungo and Lake Ripasottile (central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Archer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lake Lungo and Lake Ripasottile are two shallow (4-5 m lakes located in the Rieti Basin, central Italy, that have been described previously as surface outcroppings of the groundwater table. In this work, the two lakes as well as springs and rivers that represent their potential source waters are characterized physio-chemically and isotopically, using a combination of environmental tracers. Temperature and pH were measured and water samples were analyzed for alkalinity, major ion concentration, and stable isotope (δ2H, δ18O, δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon, and δ34S and δ18O of sulfate composition.  Chemical data were also investigated in terms of local meteorological data (air temperature, precipitation to determine the sensitivity of lake parameters to changes in the surrounding environment. Groundwater represented by samples taken from Santa Susanna Spring was shown to be distinct with SO42- and Mg2+ content of 270 and 29 mg/L, respectively, and heavy sulfate isotopic composition (δ34S=15.2 ‰ and δ18O=10‰. Outflow from the Santa Susanna Spring enters Lake Ripasottile via a canal and both spring and lake water exhibits the same chemical distinctions and comparatively low seasonal variability. Major ion concentrations in Lake Lungo are similar to the Vicenna Riara Spring and are interpreted to represent the groundwater locally recharged within the plain. The δ13CDIC exhibit the same groupings as the other chemical parameters, providing supporting evidence of the source relationships. Lake Lungo exhibited exceptional ranges of δ13CDIC (±5 ‰ and δ2H, δ18O (±5 ‰ and ±7 ‰, respectively, attributed to sensitivity to seasonal changes. The hydrochemistry results, particularly major ion data, highlight how the two lakes, though geographically and morphologically similar, represent distinct hydrochemical facies. These data also show a different response in each lake to temperature and precipitation patterns in the basin that

  3. Hair analysis by proton-induced-X-ray emission and atomic absorption. Part of a coordinated programme on nuclear-based methods for analysis of pollutants in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangelson, N.F.

    1979-07-01

    Specimens of small wild rodents comprised of 5 species were collected in an area near Lake Powell, Utah, (U.S.A.). Liver, lung, kidney and hair were sampled and analysed for several elements using proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Various statistical tests were performed on the data gathered. Although many elements highly correlate among all tissues and animal species studies, it was not possible to determine from the present study which animal species or tissue type is the best indicator for the polluting elements surveyed

  4. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) suppression for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) recovery in Flathead Lake, Montana, North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Hansen, Barry S; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Non-native lake trout Salvelinus namaycush displaced native bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in Flathead Lake, Montana, USA, after 1984, when Mysis diluviana became abundant following its introduction in upstream lakes in 1968–1976. We developed a simulation model to determine the fishing mortality rate on lake trout that would enable bull trout recovery. Model simulations indicated that suppression of adult lake trout by 75% from current abundance would reduce predation on bull trout by 90%. Current removals of lake trout through incentivized fishing contests has not been sufficient to suppress lake trout abundance estimated by mark-recapture or indexed by stratified-random gill netting. In contrast, size structure, body condition, mortality, and maturity are changing consistent with a density-dependent reduction in lake trout abundance. Population modeling indicated total fishing effort would need to increase 3-fold to reduce adult lake trout population density by 75%. We conclude that increased fishing effort would suppress lake trout population density and predation on juvenile bull trout, and thereby enable higher abundance of adult bull trout in Flathead Lake and its tributaries.

  5. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Upper Colorado Region 14 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  6. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in North East Region 1 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  7. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Lower Colorado Region 15 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  8. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Upper Mississippi Region 7 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  9. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Rio Grande Region 13 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  10. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Pacific Northwest Region 17 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  11. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Lower Mississippi Region 8 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  12. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Texas-Gulf Region 12 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  13. 75 FR 22620 - Upper Klamath, Lower Klamath, Tule Lake, Bear Valley, and Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuges...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ...] Upper Klamath, Lower Klamath, Tule Lake, Bear Valley, and Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuges, Klamath..., Bear Valley, and Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuges (Refuges) located in Klamath County, Oregon, and..., Tule Lake, Bear Valley, and Clear Lake Refuges located in Klamath County, Oregon, and Siskiyou and...

  14. The Key Lake project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Key Lake is located in the Athabasca sand stone basin, 640 kilometers north of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The three sources of ore at Key Lake contain 70 100 tonnes of uranium. Features of the Key Lake Project were described under the key headings: work force, mining, mill process, tailings storage, permanent camp, environmental features, worker health and safety, and economic benefits. Appendices covering the historical background, construction projects, comparisons of western world mines, mining statistics, Northern Saskatchewan surface lease, and Key Lake development and regulatory agencies were included

  15. Palaeolimnological evidence of vulnerability of Lake Neusiedl (Austria) toward climate related changes since the last "vanished-lake" stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolotti, Monica; Milan, Manuela; Boscaini, Adriano; Soja, Gerhard; Herzig, Alois

    2013-04-01

    The palaeolimnological reconstruction of secular evolution of Euroepan Lakes with key socio-economical relevance respect to large (climate change) and local scale (land use, tourism) environmental changes, represents one of the objectives of the project EuLakes (European Lakes Under Environmental Stressors, Supporting lake governance to mitigate the impact of climate change, Reg. N. 2CE243P3), launched in 2010 within the Central European Inititiative. The project consortium comprises lakes of different morphology and prevalent human uses, including the meso-eutrophic Lake Neusiedl, the largest Austrian lake (total area 315 km2), and the westernmost shallow (mean depth 1.2 m) steppe lake of the Euro-Asiatic continent. The volume of Lake Neusiedl can potentially change over the years, in relation with changing balance between atmospheric precipitation and lake water evapotranspiration. Changing water budget, together with high lake salinity and turbidity, have important implications over the lake ecosystem. This contribution illustrates results of the multi-proxi palaeolimnological reconstruction of ecologial changes occurred in Lake Neusiedl during the last ca. 140 years, i.e. since the end of the last "vanished-lake" stage (1865-1871). Geochemical and biological proxies anticipate the increase in lake productivity of ca. 10 years (1950s) respect to what reported in the literature. Diatom species composition indicate a biological lake recovery in the late 1980s, and suggest a second increment in lake productivity since the late 1990s, possibly in relation with the progressive increase in the nitrogen input from agriculture. Abundance of diatoms typical of brackish waters indicated no significant long-term change in lake salinity, while variations in species toleranting dessiccation confirm the vulnerability of Lake Neusiedl toward climate-driven changes in the lake water balance. This fragility is aggravated by the the semi-arid climate conditions of the catchemnt

  16. Hydrological and solute budgets of Lake Qinghai, the largest lake on the Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Zhangdong [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China); National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan City (Taiwan); You, Chen-Feng [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan City (Taiwan); Wang, Yi [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shi, Yuewei [Bureau of Hydrology and Water Resources of Qinghai Province, Xining (China)

    2009-12-04

    Water level and chemistry of Lake Qinghai are sensitive to climate changes and are important for paleoclimatic implications. An accurate understanding of hydrological and chemical budgets is crucial for quantifying geochemical proxies and carbon cycle. Published results of water budget are firstly reviewed in this paper. Chemical budget and residence time of major dissolved constituents in the lake are estimated using reliable water budget and newly obtained data for seasonal water chemistry. The results indicate that carbonate weathering is the most important riverine process, resulting in dominance of Ca 2+ and DIC for river waters and groundwater. Groundwater contribution to major dissolved constituents is relatively small (4.2 ± 0.5%). Wet atmospheric deposition contributes annually 7.4–44.0% soluble flux to the lake, resulting from eolian dust throughout the seasons. Estimates of chemical budget further suggest that (1) the Buha-type water dominates the chemical components of the lake water, (2) Na+, Cl-, Mg 2+ , and K+ in lake water are enriched owing to their conservative behaviors, and (3) precipitation of authigenic carbonates (low-Mg calcite, aragonite, and dolomite) transits quickly dissolved Ca 2+ into the bottom sediments of the lake, resulting in very low Ca 2+ in the lake water. Therefore, authigenic carbonates in the sediments hold potential information on the relative contribution of different solute inputs to the lake and the lake chemistry in the past.

  17. Effects of acidity on primary productivity in lakes: phytoplankton. [Lakes Panther, Sagamore, and Woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrey, G R

    1979-01-01

    Relationships between phytoplankton communities and lake acidity are being studied at Woods Lake (pH ca. 4.9), Sagamore Lake (pH ca. 5.5), and Panther Lake (pH ca. 7.0). Numbers of phytoplankton species observed as of July 31, 1979 are Woods 27, Sagamore 38, and Panther 64, conforming to other observations that species numbers decrease with increasing acidity. Patterns of increasing biomass and productivity found in Woods Lake may be atypical of similar oligotrophic lakes in that they develop rather slowly instead of occuring very close to ice-out. Contributions of netplankton (net > 48 ..mu..m), nannoplankton (48 > nanno > 20 ..mu..m) and ultraplankton (20 > ultra >0.45 ..mu..m) to productivity per m/sup -2/ show that the smaller plankton are relatively more important in the more acid lakes. This pattern could be determined by nutrient availability (lake acidification leading to decreased availability of phosphorus). The amount of /sup 14/C-labelled dissolved photosynthate (/sup 14/C-DOM), as a percent of total productivity, is ordered Woods > Sagamore > Panther. This is consistent with a hypothesis that microbial heterotrophic activity is reduced with increasing acidity, but the smaller phytoplankton may be more leaky at low pH. (ERB)

  18. Ecology of playa lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukos, David A.; Smith, Loren M.

    1992-01-01

    Between 25,000 and 30,000 playa lakes are in the playa lakes region of the southern high plains (Fig. 1). Most playas are in west Texas (about 20,000), and fewer, in New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Colorado. The playa lakes region is one of the most intensively cultivated areas of North America. Dominant crops range from cotton in southern areas to cereal grains in the north. Therefore, most of the native short-grass prairie is gone, replaced by crops and, recently, grasses of the Conservation Reserve Program. Playas are the predominant wetlands and major wildlife habitat of the region.More than 115 bird species, including 20 species of waterfowl, and 10 mammal species have been documented in playas. Waterfowl nest in the area, producing up to 250,000 ducklings in wetter years. Dominant breeding and nesting species are mallards and blue-winged teals. During the very protracted breeding season, birds hatch from April through August. Several million shorebirds and waterfowl migrate through the area each spring and fall. More than 400,000 sandhill cranes migrate through and winter in the region, concentrating primarily on the larger saline lakes in the southern portion of the playa lakes region.The primary importance of the playa lakes region to waterfowl is as a wintering area. Wintering waterfowl populations in the playa lakes region range from 1 to 3 million birds, depending on fall precipitation patterns that determine the number of flooded playas. The most common wintering ducks are mallards, northern pintails, green-winged teals, and American wigeons. About 500,000 Canada geese and 100,000 lesser snow geese winter in the playa lakes region, and numbers of geese have increased annually since the early 1980’s. This chapter describes the physiography and ecology of playa lakes and their attributes that benefit waterfowl.

  19. Excess unsupported sup(210)Pb in lake sediment from Rocky Mountain lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, S.A.; Hess, C.T.; Blake, G.M.; Morrison, M.L.; Baron, J.

    1985-01-01

    Sediment cores from four high-altitude (approximately 3200 m) lakes in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, were dated by sup(210)Pb chronology. Background (supported) sup(210)Pb activities for the four cores range from 0.26 to 0.93 Beq/g dry weight, high for typical oligotrophic lakes. Integrated unsupported sup(210)Pb ranges from 0.81 (a typical value for most lakes) to 11.0 Beq/cmsup(2). The sup(210)Pb activity in the surface sediments ranges from 1.48 to 22.2 Beq/g dry weight. Sedimentation from Lake Louise, the most unusual of the four, has 22.2 Beq/g dry weight at the sediment surface, an integrated unsupported sup(210)Pb=11.0 Beq/cmsup(2), and supported sup(210)Pb=0.74 Beq/g dry weight. sup(226)Ra content of the sediment is insufficient to explain either the high unsupported sup(210)Pb or the sup(222)Rn content of the water column of Lake Louise, which averaged 96.2 Beq/L. We concluded that sup(222)Rn-rich groundwater entering the lake is the source of the high sup(222)Rn in the water column. This, in turn, is capable of supporting the unusually high sup(210)Pb flux to the sediment surface. Groundwater with high sup(222)Rn may control the sup(210)Pb budget of lakes where sediment cores have integrated unsupported sup(210)Pb greater than 2 Beq/cmsup(2)

  20. Decline of the world's saline lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.; Miller, Craig; Null, Sarah E.; Derose, R. Justin; Wilcock, Peter; Hahnenberger, Maura; Howe, Frank; Moore, Johnnie

    2017-11-01

    Many of the world's saline lakes are shrinking at alarming rates, reducing waterbird habitat and economic benefits while threatening human health. Saline lakes are long-term basin-wide integrators of climatic conditions that shrink and grow with natural climatic variation. In contrast, water withdrawals for human use exert a sustained reduction in lake inflows and levels. Quantifying the relative contributions of natural variability and human impacts to lake inflows is needed to preserve these lakes. With a credible water balance, causes of lake decline from water diversions or climate variability can be identified and the inflow needed to maintain lake health can be defined. Without a water balance, natural variability can be an excuse for inaction. Here we describe the decline of several of the world's large saline lakes and use a water balance for Great Salt Lake (USA) to demonstrate that consumptive water use rather than long-term climate change has greatly reduced its size. The inflow needed to maintain bird habitat, support lake-related industries and prevent dust storms that threaten human health and agriculture can be identified and provides the information to evaluate the difficult tradeoffs between direct benefits of consumptive water use and ecosystem services provided by saline lakes.

  1. Conifer density within lake catchments predicts fish mercury concentrations in remote subalpine lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herring, Garth; Johnson, Branden L.; Graw, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Remote high-elevation lakes represent unique environments for evaluating the bioaccumulation of atmospherically deposited mercury through freshwater food webs, as well as for evaluating the relative importance of mercury loading versus landscape influences on mercury bioaccumulation. The increase in mercury deposition to these systems over the past century, coupled with their limited exposure to direct anthropogenic disturbance make them useful indicators for estimating how changes in mercury emissions may propagate to changes in Hg bioaccumulation and ecological risk. We evaluated mercury concentrations in resident fish from 28 high-elevation, sub-alpine lakes in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Fish total mercury (THg) concentrations ranged from 4 to 438 ng/g wet weight, with a geometric mean concentration (±standard error) of 43 ± 2 ng/g ww. Fish THg concentrations were negatively correlated with relative condition factor, indicating that faster growing fish that are in better condition have lower THg concentrations. Across the 28 study lakes, mean THg concentrations of resident salmonid fishes varied as much as 18-fold among lakes. We used a hierarchal statistical approach to evaluate the relative importance of physiological, limnological, and catchment drivers of fish Hg concentrations. Our top statistical model explained 87% of the variability in fish THg concentrations among lakes with four key landscape and limnological variables: catchment conifer density (basal area of conifers within a lake's catchment), lake surface area, aqueous dissolved sulfate, and dissolved organic carbon. Conifer density within a lake's catchment was the most important variable explaining fish THg concentrations across lakes, with THg concentrations differing by more than 400 percent across the forest density spectrum. These results illustrate the importance of landscape characteristics in controlling mercury bioaccumulation in fish.

  2. Stable isotope and hydrogeochemical studies of Beaver Lake and Lake Radok, MacRobertson Land, East Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wand, U.; Hermichen, W.D.; Hoefling, R.; Muehle, K.

    1987-01-01

    Beaver Lake and Lake Radok, the largest known epishelf and the deepest freshwater lake on the Antarctic continent, respectively, were isotopically (δ 2 H, δ 18 O) and hydrogeochemically studied. Lake Radok is an isothermal and non-stratified, i.e. homogeneous water body, while Beaver Lake is stratified with respect to temperature, salinity and isotopic composition. The results for the latter attest to freshwater (derived from snow and glacier melt) overlying seawater. (author)

  3. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume 3. Chemistry of Lake Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrey, M S

    1976-05-01

    The report is a synoptic review of data collected over the past twenty years on the chemistry of Lake Michigan. Changes in water quality and sediment chemistry, attributable to cultural and natural influences, are considered in relation to interacting processes and factors controlling the distribution and concentration of chemical substances within the Lake. Temperature, light, and mixing processes are among the important natural influences that affect nutrient cycling, dispersal of pollutants, and fate of materials entering the Lake. Characterization of inshore-offshore and longitudinal differences in chemical concentrations and sediment chemistry for the main body of the Lake is supplemented by discussion of specific areas such as Green Bay and Grand Traverse Bay. Residues, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, major and trace nutrients, and contaminants are described in the following context: biological essentiality and/or toxicity, sources to the Lake, concentrations in the water column and sediments, chemical forms, seasonal variations and variation with depth. A summary of existing water quality standards, statutes, and criteria applicable to Lake Michigan is appended.

  4. Assessment of the Great Lakes Marine Renewable Energy Resources: Characterizing Lake Erie Surge, Seiche and Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadzadeh, A.; Hashemi, M. R.

    2016-02-01

    Lake Erie, the fourth largest in surface area, smallest in volume and shallowest among the Great Lakes is approximately 400 km long and 90 km wide. Short term lake level variations are due to storm surge generated by high winds and moving pressure systems over the lake mainly in the southwest-northeast direction, along the lakes longitudinal axis. The historical wave data from three active offshore buoys shows that significant wave height can exceed 5 m in the eastern and central basins. The long-term lake level data show that storm surge can reach up to 3 m in eastern Lake Erie. Owing its shallow depth, Lake Erie frequently experiences seiching motions, the low frequency oscillations that are initiated by storm surge. The seiches whose first mode of oscillations has a period of nearly 14.2 hours can last from several hours to days. In this study, the Lake Erie potential for power generation, primarily using storm surge and seiche and also waves are assessed. Given the cyclic lake level variations due to storm-induced seiching, a concept similar to that of tidal range development is utilized to assess the potential of storm surge and seiche energy harvesting mechanisms for power generation. In addition, wave energy resources of the Lake is characterized -. To achieve these objectives, the following steps are taken : (1) Frequency of occurrence for extreme storm surge and wave events is determined using extreme value analysis such as Peak-Over-Threshold method for the long-term water level and wave data; (2) Spatial and temporal variations of wave height, storm surge and seiche are characterized. The characterization is carried out using the wave and storm surge outputs from numerical simulation of a number of historical extreme events. The coupled ADCIRC and SWAN model is utilized for the modeling; (3) Assessment of the potentials for marine renewable power generation in Lake Erie is made. The approach can be extended to the other lakes in the Great Lakes region.

  5. Combining lake and watershed characteristics with Landsat TM data for remote estimation of regional lake clarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Ian M.; Loftin, Cyndy; Sader, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Water clarity is a reliable indicator of lake productivity and an ideal metric of regional water quality. Clarity is an indicator of other water quality variables including chlorophyll-a, total phosphorus and trophic status; however, unlike these metrics, clarity can be accurately and efficiently estimated remotely on a regional scale. Remote sensing is useful in regions containing a large number of lakes that are cost prohibitive to monitor regularly using traditional field methods. Field-assessed lakes generally are easily accessible and may represent a spatially irregular, non-random sample of a region. We developed a remote monitoring program for Maine lakes >8 ha (1511 lakes) to supplement existing field monitoring programs. We combined Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) brightness values for TM bands 1 (blue) and 3 (red) to estimate water clarity (secchi disk depth) during 1990–2010. Although similar procedures have been applied to Minnesota and Wisconsin lakes, neither state incorporates physical lake variables or watershed characteristics that potentially affect clarity into their models. Average lake depth consistently improved model fitness, and the proportion of wetland area in lake watersheds also explained variability in clarity in some cases. Nine regression models predicted water clarity (R2 = 0.69–0.90) during 1990–2010, with separate models for eastern (TM path 11; four models) and western Maine (TM path 12; five models that captured differences in topography and landscape disturbance. Average absolute difference between model-estimated and observed secchi depth ranged 0.65–1.03 m. Eutrophic and mesotrophic lakes consistently were estimated more accurately than oligotrophic lakes. Our results show that TM bands 1 and 3 can be used to estimate regional lake water clarity outside the Great Lakes Region and that the accuracy of estimates is improved with additional model variables that reflect

  6. High-resolution lake sediment reconstruction of industrial impact in a world-class mining and smelting center, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, Michael; Kamber, Balz S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • High-resolution sampling of a lake-sediment core. • Resolution of historical events in a smelter-impacted area. • Perturbation of Cu and Ni in a sediment core. • Fingerprinting sediments and pollutants using Pb isotopes and trace elements. - Abstract: A lake sediment core from Vermillion Lake, Sudbury, Ontario was tightly sampled and analyzed for a wide range of trace elements as well as for Pb isotopes. The data resolve multiple historical events in the 140-a history of logging and mining in the Sudbury area in unprecedented detail. Lead-210 data, 137 Cs activity and historical information on the start of anthropogenic activities in the Sudbury area were combined to derive an age model for the sedimentary column. Using the age information, it is possible to identify sediment sections enriched and depleted in trace metal(loid)s, particularly Ni and Cu, the two most relevant metals in the Sudbury area. Maxima and minima in the chronology of Ni and Cu coincide well with local production values for both elements until environmental regulations in the 1990s resulted in a decrease in their emission and drainage into Vermillion Lake. Differences in the deposition rates of Ni and Cu, trace-metal distribution patterns throughout the sedimentary column, Pb-isotope data, and comparison with data for local rocks and ores in the Sudbury area were used to identify the sources of pollutants in the early and late periods of mining activities. In addition, the environmental impact on the sediment itself was also studied via the variation of water content and organic matter. Finally, a surficial Fe–Mn-enriched layer with elevated concentrations of the oxy-anions (PO 4 ) 3− , (AsO 4 ) 4− , and (MoO 4 ) 2− was identified. This can be distinguished from accumulation of Zn and an increase in the Y / Ho ratio in the upper core sections, which likely imply increasing drainage of fertilizers into the Vermillion River watershed. The chemistry, mineralogy, and

  7. Simulation of Lake Victoria Circulation Patterns Using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrispine Nyamweya

    Full Text Available Lake Victoria provides important ecosystem services including transport, water for domestic and industrial uses and fisheries to about 33 million inhabitants in three East African countries. The lake plays an important role in modulating regional climate. Its thermodynamics and hydrodynamics are also influenced by prevailing climatic and weather conditions on diel, seasonal and annual scales. However, information on water temperature and circulation in the lake is limited in space and time. We use a Regional Oceanographic Model System (ROMS to simulate these processes from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2014. The model is based on real bathymetry, river runoff and atmospheric forcing data using the bulk flux algorithm. Simulations show that the water column exhibits annual cycles of thermo-stratification (September-May and mixing (June-August. Surface water currents take different patterns ranging from a lake-wide northward flow to gyres that vary in size and number. An under flow exists that leads to the formation of upwelling and downwelling regions. Current velocities are highest at the center of the lake and on the western inshore waters indicating enhanced water circulation in those areas. However, there is little exchange of water between the major gulfs (especially Nyanza and the open lake, a factor that could be responsible for the different water quality reported in those regions. Findings of the present study enhance understanding of the physical processes (temperature and currents that have an effect on diel, seasonal, and annual variations in stratification, vertical mixing, inshore-offshore exchanges and fluxes of nutrients that ultimately influence the biotic distribution and trophic structure. For instance information on areas/timing of upwelling and vertical mixing obtained from this study will help predict locations/seasons of high primary production and ultimately fisheries productivity in Lake Victoria.

  8. Simulation of Lake Victoria Circulation Patterns Using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamweya, Chrispine; Desjardins, Christopher; Sigurdsson, Sven; Tomasson, Tumi; Taabu-Munyaho, Anthony; Sitoki, Lewis; Stefansson, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Lake Victoria provides important ecosystem services including transport, water for domestic and industrial uses and fisheries to about 33 million inhabitants in three East African countries. The lake plays an important role in modulating regional climate. Its thermodynamics and hydrodynamics are also influenced by prevailing climatic and weather conditions on diel, seasonal and annual scales. However, information on water temperature and circulation in the lake is limited in space and time. We use a Regional Oceanographic Model System (ROMS) to simulate these processes from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2014. The model is based on real bathymetry, river runoff and atmospheric forcing data using the bulk flux algorithm. Simulations show that the water column exhibits annual cycles of thermo-stratification (September-May) and mixing (June-August). Surface water currents take different patterns ranging from a lake-wide northward flow to gyres that vary in size and number. An under flow exists that leads to the formation of upwelling and downwelling regions. Current velocities are highest at the center of the lake and on the western inshore waters indicating enhanced water circulation in those areas. However, there is little exchange of water between the major gulfs (especially Nyanza) and the open lake, a factor that could be responsible for the different water quality reported in those regions. Findings of the present study enhance understanding of the physical processes (temperature and currents) that have an effect on diel, seasonal, and annual variations in stratification, vertical mixing, inshore-offshore exchanges and fluxes of nutrients that ultimately influence the biotic distribution and trophic structure. For instance information on areas/timing of upwelling and vertical mixing obtained from this study will help predict locations/seasons of high primary production and ultimately fisheries productivity in Lake Victoria.

  9. Treating floodplain lakes of large rivers as study units for variables that vary within lakes; an evaluation using chlorophyll a and inorganic suspended solids data from floodplain lakes of the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, B.R.; Rogala, J.R.; Houser, J.N.

    2013-01-01

    Contiguous floodplain lakes ('lakes') have historically been used as study units for comparative studies of limnological variables that vary within lakes. The hierarchical nature of these studies implies that study variables may be correlated within lakes and that covariate associations may differ not only among lakes but also by spatial scale. We evaluated the utility of treating lakes as study units for limnological variables that vary within lakes based on the criteria of important levels of among-lake variation in study variables and the observation of covariate associations that vary among lakes. These concerns were selected, respectively, to ensure that lake signatures were distinguishable from within-lake variation and that lake-scale effects on covariate associations might provide inferences not available by ignoring those effects. Study data represented chlorophyll a (CHL) and inorganic suspended solids (ISS) data from lakes within three reaches of the Upper Mississippi River. Sampling occurred in summer from 1993 through 2005 (except 2003); numbers of lakes per reach varied from 7 to 19, and median lake area varied from 53 to 101 ha. CHL and ISS levels were modelled linearly, with lake, year and lake x year effects treated as random. For all reaches, the proportions of variation in CHL and ISS attributable to differences among lakes (including lake and lake x year effects) were substantial (range: 18%-73%). Finally, among-lake variation in CHL and ISS was strongly associated with covariates and covariate effects that varied by lakes or lake-years (including with vegetation levels and, for CHL, log(ISS)). These findings demonstrate the utility of treating floodplain lakes as study units for the study of limnological variables and the importance of addressing hierarchy within study designs when making inferences from data collected within floodplain lakes.

  10. Global Lakes Sentinel Services: Evaluation of Chl-a Trends in Deep Clear Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzaniga, Ilaria; Giardino, Claudia; Bresciani, Mariano; Poser, Kathrin; Peters, Steef; Hommersom, Annelies; Schenk, Karin; Heege, Thomas; Philipson, Petra; Ruescas, Ana; Bottcher, Martin; Stelzer, Kerstin

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is the analysis of trend in the trophic level evolution in clear deep lakes which, being characterised by good quality state, are important socio- economic resources for their regions. The selected lakes are situated in Europe (Garda, Maggiore, Constance and Vättern), North America (Michigan) and Africa (Malawi and Tanganyika) and cover a range of eco- regions (continental, perialpine, boreal, rift valley) distributed globally.To evaluate trophic level tendency we mainly focused on chlorophyll-a concentrations (chl-a) which is a direct proxy of trophic status. The chl-a concentrations were obtained from 5216 cloud-free MERIS imagery from 2002 to 2012.The 'GLaSS RoIStats tool' available within the GLaSS project was used to extract chl-a in a number of region of interests (ROI) located in pelagic waters as well as some few other stations depending on lakes morphology. For producing the time-series trend, these extracted data were analysed with the Seasonal Kendall test.The results overall show almost stable conditions with a slight increase in concentration for lakes Maggiore, Constance, and the Green Bay of Lake Michigan; a slight decrease for lakes Garda and Tanganyika and absolutely stable conditions for lakes Vättern and Malawi.The results presented in this work show the great capability of MERIS to perform trend tests analysis on trophic status with focus on chl-a concentration. Being chl-a also a key parameter in water quality monitoring plans, this study also supports the managing practices implemented worldwide for using the water of the lakes.

  11. Benthic-planktonic coupling, regime shifts, and whole-lake primary production in shallow lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genkai-Kato, Motomi; Vadeboncoeur, Yvonne; Liboriussen, Lone; Jeppesen, Erik

    2012-03-01

    Alternative stable states in shallow lakes are typically characterized by submerged macrophyte (clear-water state) or phytoplankton (turbid state) dominance. However, a clear-water state may occur in eutrophic lakes even when macrophytes are absent. To test whether sediment algae could cause a regime shift in the absence of macrophytes, we developed a model of benthic (periphyton) and planktonic (phytoplankton) primary production using parameters derived from a shallow macrophyte-free lake that shifted from a turbid to a clear-water state following fish removal (biomanipulation). The model includes a negative feedback effect of periphyton on phosphorus (P) release from sediments. This in turn induces a positive feedback between phytoplankton production and P release. Scenarios incorporating a gradient of external P loading rates revealed that (1) periphyton and phytoplankton both contributed substantially to whole-lake production over a broad range of external P loading in a clear-water state; (2) during the clear-water state, the loss of benthic production was gradually replaced by phytoplankton production, leaving whole-lake production largely unchanged; (3) the responses of lakes to biomanipulation and increased external P loading were both dependent on lake morphometry; and (4) the capacity of periphyton to buffer the effects of increased external P loading and maintain a clear-water state was highly sensitive to relationships between light availability at the sediment surface and the of P release. Our model suggests a mechanism for the persistence of alternative states in shallow macrophyte-free lakes and demonstrates that regime shifts may trigger profound changes in ecosystem structure and function.

  12. Changes in depth occupied by Great Lakes lake whitefish populations and the influence of survey design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Michael D.; Weidel, Brian C.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Dunlob, Erin S.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding fish habitat use is important in determining conditions that ultimately affect fish energetics, growth and reproduction. Great Lakes lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) have demonstrated dramatic changes in growth and life history traits since the appearance of dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes, but the role of habitat occupancy in driving these changes is poorly understood. To better understand temporal changes in lake whitefish depth of capture (Dw), we compiled a database of fishery-independent surveys representing multiple populations across all five Laurentian Great Lakes. By demonstrating the importance of survey design in estimating Dw, we describe a novel method for detecting survey-based bias in Dw and removing potentially biased data. Using unbiased Dw estimates, we show clear differences in the pattern and timing of changes in lake whitefish Dw between our reference sites (Lake Superior) and those that have experienced significant benthic food web changes (lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie and Ontario). Lake whitefish Dw in Lake Superior tended to gradually shift to shallower waters, but changed rapidly in other locations coincident with dreissenid establishment and declines in Diporeia densities. Almost all lake whitefish populations that were exposed to dreissenids demonstrated deeper Dw following benthic food web change, though a subset of these populations subsequently shifted to more shallow depths. In some cases in lakes Huron and Ontario, shifts towards more shallow Dw are occurring well after documented Diporeia collapse, suggesting the role of other drivers such as habitat availability or reliance on alternative prey sources.

  13. Anaglyph, Salt Lake City, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This anaglyph image provides a stereoscopic map view of north central Utah that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling and the nearby Snowbasin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City ski resort hosts the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed

  14. Historical changes to Lake Washington and route of the Lake Washington Ship Canal, King County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzastowski, Michael J.

    1983-01-01

    Lake Washington, in the midst of the greater Seattle metropolitan area of the Puget Sound region (fig. 1), is an exceptional commercial, recreational, and esthetic resource for the region . In the past 130 years, Lake Washington has been changed from a " wild " lake in a wilderness setting to a regulated lake surrounded by a growing metropolis--a transformation that provides an unusual opportunity to study changes to a lake's shoreline and hydrologic characteristics -resulting from urbanization.

  15. Climatic changes inferred fron analyses of lake-sediment cores, Walker Lake, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, In Che.

    1989-01-01

    Organic and inorganic fractions of sediment collected from the bottom of Walker Lake, Nevada, have been dated by carbon-14 techniques. Sedimentation rates and the organic-carbon content of the sediment were correlated with climatic change. The cold climate between 25,000 and 21,000 years ago caused little runoff, snow accumulation on the mountains, and rapid substantial glacial advances; this period of cold climate resulted in a slow sedimentation rate (0.20 millimeter per year) and in a small organic-carbon content in the sediment. Also, organic-carbon accumulation rates in the lake during this period were slow. The most recent period of slow sedimentation rate and small organic-carbon content occurred between 10,000 and 5500 years ago, indicative of low lake stage and dry climatic conditions. This period of dry climate also was evidenced by dry conditions for Lake Lahontan in Nevada and Searles Lake in California, as cited in the literature. Walker Lake filled rapidly with water between 5500 and 4500 years ago. The data published in this report was not produced under an approved Site Investigation Plan (SIP) or Study Plan (SP) and will not be used in the licensing process. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Survey and assessment of post volcanic activities of a young caldera lake, Lake Cuicocha, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gunkel

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cuicocha is a young volcano adjacent to the inactive Pleistocene Cotacachi volcano complex, located in the western cordilleras of the Ecuadorian Andes. A series of eruptions with intensive ash emission and collapse of the caldera occurred around 4500–3000 y BP. A crater 3.2 km in diameter and a maximum depth of 450 m was formed. Further eruptions of the volcano occurred 1300 y BP and formed four smaller domes within the caldera. Over the last few hundred years, a caldera lake has developed, with a maximum depth of 148 m. The lake water is characterized by sodium carbonate with elevated concentrations of manganese, calcium and chloride. Nowadays, an emission of gases, mainly CO2, and an input of warm spring water occur in Lake Cuicocha. The zone of high activity is in the western basin of the lake at a depth of 78 m, and continuous gas emissions with sediment resuspension were observed using sonar. In the hypolimnion of the lake, CO2 accumulation occurs up to 0.2% saturation, but the risk of a limnic eruption can be excluded at present. The lake possesses monomictic stratification behaviour, and during overturn an intensive gas exchange with the atmosphere occurs. Investigations concerning the sedimentation processes of the lake suggest only a thin sediment layer of up to 10–20 cm in the deeper lake basin; in the western bay, in the area of gas emissions, the lake bottom is partly depleted of sediment in the form of holes, and no lake colmation exists. Decreases in the lake water level of about 30 cm y−1 indicate a percolation of water into fractures and fissures of the volcano, triggered by a nearby earthquake in 1987.

  17. A Synoptic Climatology of Heavy Rain Events in the Lake Eyre and Lake Frome Catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael John Pook

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The rare occasions when Lake Eyre in central, southern Australia fills with water excite great interest and produce major ecological responses. The filling of other smaller lakes such as Lake Frome, have less impact but can contribute important information about the current and past climates of these arid regions. Here, the dominant synoptic systems responsible for heavy rainfall over the catchments of Lake Eyre and Lake Frome since 1950 are identified and compared. Heavy rain events are defined as those where the mean catchment rainfall for 24 hours reaches a prescribed threshold. There were 25 such daily events at Lake Eyre and 28 in the Lake Frome catchment. The combination of a monsoon trough at mean sea level and a geopotential trough in the mid-troposphere was found to be the synoptic system responsible for the majority of the heavy rain events affecting Lake Eyre and one in five of the events at Lake Frome. Complex fronts where subtropical interactions occurred with Southern Ocean fronts also contributed over 20% of the heavy rainfall events in the Frome catchment. Surface troughs without upper air support were found to be associated with 10% or fewer of events in each catchment, indicating that mean sea level pressure analyses alone do not adequately capture the complexity of the heavy rainfall events. At least 80% of the heavy rain events across both catchments occurred when the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI was in its positive phase, and for Lake Frome, the SOI exceeded +10 on 60% of occasions, suggesting that the background atmospheric state in the Pacific Ocean was tilted towards La Niña. Hydrological modeling of the catchments suggests that the 12-month running mean of the soil moisture in a sub-surface layer provides a low frequency filter of the precipitation and matches measured lake levels relatively well.

  18. Expanding models of lake trophic state to predict cyanobacteria in lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods: Cyanobacteria are a primary taxonomic group associated with harmful algal blooms in lakes. Understanding the drivers of cyanobacteria presence has important implications for lake management and for the protection of human and ecosystem health. Chlor...

  19. The ralationship between the Tamarix spp. growth and lake level change in the Bosten Lake,northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mao; Hou, JiaWen

    2015-04-01

    Dendrochronology methods are used to analyze the characteristics of Tamarix spp. growth in Bosten Lake. Based on the long-term annual and monthly data of lake level, this paper models the relationship between ring width of Tamarix spp. and lake level change. The sensitivity index is applied to determine the rational change range of lake level for protecting the Tamarix spp. growth. The results show that :( 1) the annual change of lake level in Bosten Lake has tree evident stages from 1955 to 2012. The monthly change of lake level has two peak values and the seasonal change is not significant; (2) the average value of radical width of Tamarix spp. is 3.39mm. With the increment of Tamarix spp. annual growth , the average radical width has a decreasing trend, which is similar to the annual change trend of lake level in the same years ;( 3) the response of the radical width of Tamarix spp. to annual change of lake level is sensitive significantly. When the lake level is 1045.66m, the Sk value of radical width of Tamarix spp. appears minimum .when the lake level is up to1046.27m, the Sk value is maximum. Thus the sensitivity level of radical width of Tamarix spp. is 1045.66- 1046.27m which could be regarded as the rational lake level change range for protecting the Tamarix spp. growth.

  20. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Souris Red Rainy Region 9 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  1. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Arkansas White Red Region 11 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  2. Monitoring Water Quality at Lake Merritt, Oakland, CA Following Improvements to the Tidal Channel to the San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, H.; Martinez, J.; Johnson, M.; Turrey, A.; Avila, M.; Medina, S.; Rubio, E.; Ahumada, E.; Nguyen, S.; Guzman, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Elliot Ahumada, Esosa Oghogho, Samantha Nguyen, Humberto Bracho, Diego Quintero, Ashanti Johnson and Kevin Cuff Lake Merritt is a tidal lagoon in the center of Oakland, California, just east of Downtown. Water quality at Lake Merritt has been a major concern for community members and researchers for many years (Pham 200X). Results of past research lead to recommendations to lengthen a channel that connects Lake Merritt with the San Francisco Bay to improve water flow and quality. In 2012 the City of Oakland responded to these recommendations by initiating the creation of a 230-meter long channel. In conducting our research we use a water quality index that takes into account measurements of pH, temperature, water hardness (dissolved solids), ammonia, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and nitrate. Newly collected data is then compared with that collected by Pham using comparable parameters to assess the impact of recent changes at the Lake on its overall water quality. In addition, we measured the abundance of aquatic species at four different sites within the Lake. Preliminary results suggest that an increase in the abundance of fish and improved overall water quality have resulted from channel extension at Lake Merritt.

  3. A Continental-scale River Corridor Model to Synthesize Understanding and Prioritize Management of Water Purification Functions and Ecological Services in Large Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J. W.; Gomez-Velez, J. D.; Scott, D.; Boyer, E. W.; Schmadel, N. M.; Alexander, R. B.; Eng, K.; Golden, H. E.; Kettner, A.; Konrad, C. P.; Moore, R. B.; Pizzuto, J. E.; Schwarz, G. E.; Soulsby, C.

    2017-12-01

    The functional values of rivers depend on more than just wetted river channels. Instead, the river channel exchanges water and suspended materials with adjacent riparian, floodplain, hyporheic zones, and ponded waters such as lakes and reservoirs. Together these features comprise a larger functional unit known as the river corridor. The exchange of water, solutes, and sediments within the river corridor alters downstream water quality and ecological functions, but our understanding of the large-scale, cumulative impacts is inadequate and has limited advancements in sustainable management practices. A problem with traditional watershed, groundwater, and river water quality models is that none of them explicitly accounts for river corridor storage and processing, and the exchanges of water, solutes, and sediments that occur many times between the channel and off-channel environments during a river's transport to the sea. Our River Corridor Working Group at the John Wesley Powell Center is quantifying the key components of river corridor functions. Relying on foundational studies that identified floodplain, riparian, and hyporheic exchange flows and resulting enhancement of chemical reactions at river reach scales, we are assembling the datasets and building the models to upscale that understanding onto 2.6 million river reaches in the U.S. A principal goal of the River Corridor Working group is to develop a national-scale river corridor model for the conterminous U.S. that will reveal, perhaps for the first time, the relative influences of hyporheic, riparian, floodplain, and ponded waters at large spatial scales. The simple but physically-based models are predictive for changing conditions and therefore can directly address the consequences and effectiveness of management actions in sustaining valuable river corridor functions. This presentation features interpretation of useful river corridor connectivity metrics and ponded water influences on nutrient and sediment

  4. Map showing principal drainage basins, principal runoff-producing areas, and selected stream flow data in the Kaiparowits coal-basin area, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Don

    1978-01-01

    This is one of a series of maps that describe the geology and related natural resources in the Kaiparowits coal-basin area. Streamflow records used to compile this map and the accompanying table were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah State Engineer and the Utah Department of Transportation. The principal runoff-producing areas were delineated from a work map (scale 1:250,000) compiled to estimate water yields in Utah (Bagley and others, 1964). Information about Lake Powell was furnished by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation.

  5. Lake sediments as natural seismographs: Earthquake-related deformations (seismites) in central Canadian lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, M.; Eyles, N.; Eyles, C. H.; Wallace, K.; Boyce, J. I.

    2014-11-01

    Central Canada experiences numerous intraplate earthquakes but their recurrence and source areas remain obscure due to shortness of the instrumental and historic records. Unconsolidated fine-grained sediments in lake basins are 'natural seismographs' with the potential to record ancient earthquakes during the last 10,000 years since the retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Many lake basins are cut into bedrock and are structurally-controlled by the same Precambrian basement structures (shear zones, terrane boundaries and other lineaments) implicated as the source of ongoing mid-plate earthquake activity. A regional seismic sub-bottom profiling of lakes Gull, Muskoka, Joseph, Rousseau, Ontario, Wanapitei, Fairbanks, Vermilion, Nipissing, Georgian Bay, Mazinaw, Simcoe, Timiskaming, Kipawa, Parry Sound and Lake of Bays, encompassing a total of more than 2000 kilometres of high-resolution track line data supplemented by multibeam and sidescan sonar survey records show a consistent sub-bottom stratigraphy of relatively-thick lowermost lateglacial facies composed of interbedded semi-transparent mass flow facies (debrites, slumps) and rhythmically-laminated silty-clays. Mass flows together with cratered ('kettled') lake floors and associated deformations reflect a dynamic ice-contact glaciolacustrine environment. Exceptionally thick mass flow successions in Lake Timiskaming along the floor of the Timiskaming Graben within the seismically-active Western Quebec Seismic Zone (WQSZ), point to a higher frequency of earthquakes and slope failure during deglaciation and rapid glacio-isostatic rebound though faulting continues into the postglacial. Lateglacial faulting, diapiric deformation and slumping of coeval lateglacial sediments is observed in Parry Sound, Lake Muskoka and Lake Joseph, which are all located above prominent Precambrian terrane boundaries. Lateglacial sediments are sharply overlain by relatively-thin rhythmically-laminated and often semi

  6. Lake-0: A model for the simulation of nuclides transfer in lake scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Olivares, A.; Aguero, A.; Pinedo, P.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents documentation and a user's manual for the program LAKE-0, a mathematical model of nuclides transfer in lake scenarios. Mathematical equations and physical principles used to develop the code are presented in section 2. The program use is presented in section 3 including input data sets and output data. Section 4 presents two example problems, and some results. The complete program listing including comments is presented in Appendix A. Nuclides are assumed to enter the lake via atmospheric deposition and carried by the water runoff and the dragged sediments from the adjacent catchment. The dynamics of the nuclides inside the lake is based in the model proposed by Codell (11) as modified in (5). The removal of concentration from the lake water is due to outflow from the lake and to the transfer of activity to the bottom sediments. The model has been applied to the Esthwaite Water (54 degree 21 minute N, 03 degree 00 minute W at 65 m. asl.) in the frame of the VAMP Aquatic Working Group (8) and to Devoke Water (54 degree 21 minute 5'N, 03 degree, 18 minute W at 230 m. asl.)

  7. Development and evaluation of the Lake Multi-biotic Integrity Index for Dongting Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A Lake Multi-biotic Integrity Index (LMII for the China’s second largest interior lake (Dongting Lake was developed to assess the water quality status using algal and macroinvertebrate metrics. Algae and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were sampled at 10 sections across 3 subregions of Dongting Lake. We used a stepwise process to evaluate properties of candidate metrics and selected ten for the LMII: Pampean diatom index, diatom quotient, trophic diatom index, relative abundance diatoms, Margalef index of algae, percent sensitive diatoms, % facultative individuals, % Chironomidae individuals, % predators individuals, and total number of macroinvertebrate taxa. We then tested the accuracy and feasibility of the LMII by comparing the correlation with physical-chemical parameters. Evaluation of the LMII showed that it discriminated well between reference and impaired sections and was strongly related to the major chemical and physical stressors (r = 0.766, P<0.001. The re-scored results from the 10 sections showed that the water quality of western Dongting Lake was good, while that of southern Dongting Lake was relatively good and whereas that of eastern Dongting Lake was poor. The discriminatory biocriteria of the LMII are suitable for the assessment of the water quality of Dongting Lake. Additionally, more metrics belonging to habitat, hydrology, physics and chemistry should be considered into the LMII, so as to establish comprehensive assessment system which can reflect the community structure of aquatic organisms, physical and chemical characteristics of water environment, human activities, and so on.

  8. Comparing Effects of Lake- and Watershed-Scale Influences on Communities of Aquatic Invertebrates in Shallow Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Mark A.; Herwig, Brian R.; Zimmer, Kyle D.; Fieberg, John; Vaughn, Sean R.; Wright, Robert G.; Younk, Jerry A.

    2012-01-01

    Constraints on lake communities are complex and are usually studied by using limited combinations of variables derived from measurements within or adjacent to study waters. While informative, results often provide limited insight about magnitude of simultaneous influences operating at multiple scales, such as lake- vs. watershed-scale. To formulate comparisons of such contrasting influences, we explored factors controlling the abundance of predominant aquatic invertebrates in 75 shallow lakes in western Minnesota, USA. Using robust regression techniques, we modeled relative abundance of Amphipoda, small and large cladocera, Corixidae, aquatic Diptera, and an aggregate taxon that combined Ephemeroptera-Trichoptera-Odonata (ETO) in response to lake- and watershed-scale characteristics. Predictor variables included fish and submerged plant abundance, linear distance to the nearest wetland or lake, watershed size, and proportion of the watershed in agricultural production. Among-lake variability in invertebrate abundance was more often explained by lake-scale predictors than by variables based on watershed characteristics. For example, we identified significant associations between fish presence and community type and abundance of small and large cladocera, Amphipoda, Diptera, and ETO. Abundance of Amphipoda, Diptera, and Corixidae were also positively correlated with submerged plant abundance. We observed no associations between lake-watershed variables and abundance of our invertebrate taxa. Broadly, our results seem to indicate preeminence of lake-level influences on aquatic invertebrates in shallow lakes, but historical land-use legacies may mask important relationships. PMID:22970275

  9. Eutrophication potential of Payette Lake, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Paul F.

    1997-01-01

    Payette Lake was studied during water years 1995-96 to determine the 20.5-square-kilometer lake's assimilative capacity for nutrients and, thus, its eutrophication potential. The study included quantification of hydrologic and nutrient budgets, characterization of water quality in the limnetic and littoral zones, development of an empirical nutrient load/lake response model, and estimation of the limnological effects of a large-scale forest fire in the lake's 373-square-kilometer watershed during the autumn of 1994. Streamflow from the North Fork Payette River, the lake's primary tributary, delivered about 73 percent of the lake's inflow over the 2 years. Outflow from the lake, measured since 1908, was 128 and 148 percent of the long-term average in 1995 and 1996, respectively. The larger volumes of outflow reduced the long-term average water-

  10. Microplastics in Taihu Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lei; Xue, Yingang; Li, Lingyun; Yang, Dongqi; Kolandhasamy, Prabhu; Li, Daoji; Shi, Huahong

    2016-09-01

    In comparison with marine environments, the occurrence of microplastics in freshwater environments is less understood. In the present study, we investigated microplastic pollution levels during 2015 in Taihu Lake, the third largest Chinese lake located in one of the most developed areas of China. The abundance of microplastics reached 0.01 × 10(6)-6.8 × 10(6) items/km(2) in plankton net samples, 3.4-25.8 items/L in surface water, 11.0-234.6 items/kg dw in sediments and 0.2-12.5 items/g ww in Asian clams (Corbicula fluminea). The average abundance of microplastics was the highest in plankton net samples from the southeast area of the lake and in the sediments from the northwest area of the lake. The northwest area of the lake was the most heavily contaminated area of the lake, as indicated by chlorophyll-α and total phosphorus. The microplastics were dominated by fiber, 100-1000 μm in size and cellophane in composition. To our best knowledge, the microplastic levels measured in plankton net samples collected from Taihu Lake were the highest found in freshwater lakes worldwide. The ratio of the microplastics in clams to each sediment sample ranged from 38 to 3810 and was negatively correlated to the microplastic level in sediments. In brief, our results strongly suggest that high levels of microplastics occurred not only in water but also in organisms in Taihu Lake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. From top to bottom: Do Lake Trout diversify along a depth gradient in Great Bear Lake, NT, Canada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarie, Louise; Howland, Kimberly L; Harris, Les N; Hansen, Michael J; Harford, William J; Gallagher, Colin P; Baillie, Shauna M; Malley, Brendan; Tonn, William M; Muir, Andrew M; Krueger, Charles C

    2018-01-01

    Depth is usually considered the main driver of Lake Trout intraspecific diversity across lakes in North America. Given that Great Bear Lake is one of the largest and deepest freshwater systems in North America, we predicted that Lake Trout intraspecific diversity to be organized along a depth axis within this system. Thus, we investigated whether a deep-water morph of Lake Trout co-existed with four shallow-water morphs previously described in Great Bear Lake. Morphology, neutral genetic variation, isotopic niches, and life-history traits of Lake Trout across depths (0-150 m) were compared among morphs. Due to the propensity of Lake Trout with high levels of morphological diversity to occupy multiple habitat niches, a novel multivariate grouping method using a suite of composite variables was applied in addition to two other commonly used grouping methods to classify individuals. Depth alone did not explain Lake Trout diversity in Great Bear Lake; a distinct fifth deep-water morph was not found. Rather, Lake Trout diversity followed an ecological continuum, with some evidence for adaptation to local conditions in deep-water habitat. Overall, trout caught from deep-water showed low levels of genetic and phenotypic differentiation from shallow-water trout, and displayed higher lipid content (C:N ratio) and occupied a higher trophic level that suggested an potential increase of piscivory (including cannibalism) than the previously described four morphs. Why phenotypic divergence between shallow- and deep-water Lake Trout was low is unknown, especially when the potential for phenotypic variation should be high in deep and large Great Bear Lake. Given that variation in complexity of freshwater environments has dramatic consequences for divergence, variation in the complexity in Great Bear Lake (i.e., shallow being more complex than deep), may explain the observed dichotomy in the expression of intraspecific phenotypic diversity between shallow- vs. deep-water habitats

  12. From top to bottom: Do Lake Trout diversify along a depth gradient in Great Bear Lake, NT, Canada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarie, Louise; Howland, Kimberly L.; Harris, Les N.; Hansen, Michael J.; Harford, William J.; Gallagher, Colin P.; Baillie, Shauna M.; Malley, Brendan; Tonn, William M.; Muir, Andrew M.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2018-01-01

    Depth is usually considered the main driver of Lake Trout intraspecific diversity across lakes in North America. Given that Great Bear Lake is one of the largest and deepest freshwater systems in North America, we predicted that Lake Trout intraspecific diversity to be organized along a depth axis within this system. Thus, we investigated whether a deep-water morph of Lake Trout co-existed with four shallow-water morphs previously described in Great Bear Lake. Morphology, neutral genetic variation, isotopic niches, and life-history traits of Lake Trout across depths (0–150 m) were compared among morphs. Due to the propensity of Lake Trout with high levels of morphological diversity to occupy multiple habitat niches, a novel multivariate grouping method using a suite of composite variables was applied in addition to two other commonly used grouping methods to classify individuals. Depth alone did not explain Lake Trout diversity in Great Bear Lake; a distinct fifth deep-water morph was not found. Rather, Lake Trout diversity followed an ecological continuum, with some evidence for adaptation to local conditions in deep-water habitat. Overall, trout caught from deep-water showed low levels of genetic and phenotypic differentiation from shallow-water trout, and displayed higher lipid content (C:N ratio) and occupied a higher trophic level that suggested an potential increase of piscivory (including cannibalism) than the previously described four morphs. Why phenotypic divergence between shallow- and deep-water Lake Trout was low is unknown, especially when the potential for phenotypic variation should be high in deep and large Great Bear Lake. Given that variation in complexity of freshwater environments has dramatic consequences for divergence, variation in the complexity in Great Bear Lake (i.e., shallow being more complex than deep), may explain the observed dichotomy in the expression of intraspecific phenotypic diversity between shallow- vs. deep-water habitats

  13. Numerical analysis for MHD thermal and solutal stratified stagnation point flow of Powell-Eyring fluid induced by cylindrical surface with dual convection and heat generation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil-Ur-Rehman; Malik, M. Y.; Bilal, S.; Bibi, M.

    The current analysis reports the untapped characteristics of magneto-hydrodynamic dual convection boundary layer stagnation point flow of Powell-Eyring fluid by way of cylindrical surface. Flow exploration is carried out with the combined effects of thermal and solutal stratification. The strength of temperature and concentration adjacent to the cylindrical surface is assumed to be greater than the ambient fluid. Flow conducting mathematically modelled equations are fairly transformed into system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations with the aid of suitable transformations. The computations are made against these resultant coupled equations through shooting technique by the support of fifth order Runge-Kutta algorithm. A parametric study is performed to examine the effect logs of various pertinent flow controlling parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration flow regime. The achieved outcomes are validated by developing comparison with existing published literature. In addition, numerical values of skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are presented graphically for two different geometries namely, plate and cylinder.

  14. Predicting Maximum Lake Depth from Surrounding Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake volume aids understanding of the physical and ecological dynamics of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate lake volume (i.e. bathymetry) are usually only collected on a lake by lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. ...

  15. Great Lakes prey fish populations: A cross-basin overview of status and trends in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Owen T.; Bunnell, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Assessments of prey fishes in the Great Lakes have been conducted annually since the 1970s by the Great Lakes Science Center, sometimes assisted by partner agencies. Prey fish assessments differ among lakes in the proportion of a lake covered, seasonal timing, bottom trawl gear used, sampling design, and the manner in which the trawl is towed (across or along bottom contours). Because each assessment is unique in one or more important aspects, a direct comparison of prey fish catches among lakes is problematic. All of the assessments, however, produce indices of abundance or biomass that can be standardized to facilitate comparisons of trends among lakes and to illustrate present status of the populations. We present indices of abundance for important prey fishes in the Great Lakes standardized to the highest value for a time series within each lake: cisco (Coregonus artedi), bloater (C. hoyi), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), and alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus). We also provide indices for round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), an invasive fish presently spreading throughout the basin. Our intent is to provide a short, informal report emphasizing data presentation rather than synthesis; for this reason we intentionally avoid use of tables and cited references.For each lake, standardized relative indices for annual biomass and density estimates of important prey fishes were calculated as the fraction relative to the largest value observed in the times series. To determine whether basin-wide trends were apparent for each species, we first ranked standardized index values within each lake. When comparing ranked index values from three or more lakes, we calculated the Kendall coefficient of concordance (W), which can range from 0 (complete discordance or disagreement among trends) to 1 (complete concordance or agreement among trends). The P-value for W provides the probability of agreement across the lakes. When comparing ranked index values from two lakes, we calculated

  16. Hydrologic-energy balance constraints on the Holocene lake-level history of lake Titicaca, South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, H.D.; Dunbar, R.B. [Stanford University, Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2004-09-01

    A basin-scale hydrologic-energy balance model that integrates modern climatological, hydrological, and hypsographic observations was developed for the modern Lake Titicaca watershed (northern Altiplano, South America) and operated under variable conditions to understand controls on post-glacial changes in lake level. The model simulates changes in five environmental variables (air temperature, cloud fraction, precipitation, relative humidity, and land surface albedo). Relatively small changes in three meteorological variables (mean annual precipitation, temperature, and/or cloud fraction) explain the large mid-Holocene lake-level decrease ({proportional_to}85 m) inferred from seismic reflection profiling and supported by sediment-based paleoproxies from lake sediments. Climatic controls that shape the present-day Altiplano and the sediment-based record of Holocene lake-level change are combined to interpret model-derived lake-level simulations in terms of changes in the mean state of ENSO and its impact on moisture transport to the Altiplano. (orig.)

  17. Hydrologic-energy balance constraints on the Holocene lake-level history of lake Titicaca, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, H. D.; Dunbar, R. B.

    2004-09-01

    A basin-scale hydrologic-energy balance model that integrates modern climatological, hydrological, and hypsographic observations was developed for the modern Lake Titicaca watershed (northern Altiplano, South America) and operated under variable conditions to understand controls on post-glacial changes in lake level. The model simulates changes in five environmental variables (air temperature, cloud fraction, precipitation, relative humidity, and land surface albedo). Relatively small changes in three meteorological variables (mean annual precipitation, temperature, and/or cloud fraction) explain the large mid-Holocene lake-level decrease (˜85 m) inferred from seismic reflection profiling and supported by sediment-based paleoproxies from lake sediments. Climatic controls that shape the present-day Altiplano and the sediment-based record of Holocene lake-level change are combined to interpret model-derived lake-level simulations in terms of changes in the mean state of ENSO and its impact on moisture transport to the Altiplano.

  18. In-Lake Processes Offset Increased Terrestrial Inputs of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Color to Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Stephan J.; Kothawala, Dolly; Futter, Martyn N.; Liungman, Olof; Tranvik, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Increased color in surface waters, or browning, can alter lake ecological function, lake thermal stratification and pose difficulties for drinking water treatment. Mechanisms suggested to cause browning include increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and iron concentrations, as well as a shift to more colored DOC. While browning of surface waters is widespread and well documented, little is known about why some lakes resist it. Here, we present a comprehensive study of Mälaren, the third largest lake in Sweden. In Mälaren, the vast majority of water and DOC enters a western lake basin, and after approximately 2.8 years, drains from an eastern basin. Despite 40 years of increased terrestrial inputs of colored substances to western lake basins, the eastern basin has resisted browning over this time period. Here we find the half-life of iron was far shorter (0.6 years) than colored organic matter (A420 ; 1.7 years) and DOC as a whole (6.1 years). We found changes in filtered iron concentrations relate strongly to the observed loss of color in the western basins. In addition, we observed a substantial shift from colored DOC of terrestrial origin, to less colored autochthonous sources, with a substantial decrease in aromaticity (-17%) across the lake. We suggest that rapid losses of iron and colored DOC caused the limited browning observed in eastern lake basins. Across a wider dataset of 69 Swedish lakes, we observed greatest browning in acidic lakes with shorter retention times (< 1.5 years). These findings suggest that water residence time, along with iron, pH and colored DOC may be of central importance when modeling and projecting changes in brownification on broader spatial scales. PMID:23976946

  19. Visual observations of historical lake trout spawning grounds in western Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nester, Robert T.; Poe, Thomas P.

    1987-01-01

    Direct underwater video observations were made of the bottom substrates at 12 spawning grounds formerly used by lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in western Lake Huron to evaluate their present suitability for successful reproduction by lake trout. Nine locations examined north of Saginaw Bay in the northwestern end of the lake are thought to provide the best spawning habitat. The substrate at these sites consisted of angular rough cobble and rubble with relatively deep interstitial spaces (a?Y 0.5 m), small amounts of fine sediments, and little or no periphytic growth. Conditions at the three other sampling locations south of Saginaw Bay seemed much less suitable for successful reproduction based on the reduced area of high-quality substrate, shallow interstitial spaces, high infiltration of fine sediments, and greater periphytic growth.

  20. Evaluation of ground-water flow and hydrologic budget for Lake Five-O, a seepage lake in northwestern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Temporal and spatial distributions of ground-water inflow to, and leakage from Lake Five-O, a softwater, seepage lake in northwestern Florida, were evaluated using hydrologic data and simulation models of the shallow ground-water system adjacent to the lake. The simulation models indicate that ground-water inflow to the lake and leakage from the lake to the ground-water system are the dominant components in the total inflow (precipitation plus ground-water inflow) and total outflow (evaporation plus leakage) budgets of Lake Five-O. Simlulated ground-water inflow and leakage were approximately 4 and 5 times larger than precipitation inputs and evaporative losses, respectively, during calendar years 1989-90. Exchanges of water between Lake Five-O and the ground-water system were consistently larger than atmospheric-lake exchanges. A consistent pattern of shallow ground-water inflow and deep leakage was also evident throughout the study period. The mean time of travel from ground-water that discharges at Lake Five-O (time from recharge at the water table to discharge at the lake) was estimated to be within a range of 3 to 6 years. Flow-path evaluations indicated that the intermediate confining unit probably has a negligible influence on the geochemistry of ground-water inflow to Lake Five-O. The hydrologic budgets and flow-path evaluations provide critical information for developing geochemical budgets for Lake Five-O and for improving the understanding of the relative importance of various processes that regulate the acid-neutralizing capacity of softwater seepage lakes in Florida.

  1. Regional environmental change and human activity over the past hundred years recorded in the sedimentary record of Lake Qinghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, ZhanJiang; Wang, Qiugui; Wang, Jinlong; Du, Jinzhou; Hu, Jufang; Ma, Yujun; Kong, Fancui; Wang, Zhuan

    2017-04-01

    Environmental change and human activity can be recorded in sediment cores in aquatic systems such as lakes. Information from such records may be useful for environmental governance in the future. Six sediment cores were collected from Lake Qinghai, China and its sublakes during 2012 and 2013. Measurements of sediment grain-size fractions indicate that sedimentation in the north and southwest of Lake Qinghai is dominated by river input, whereas that in Lake Gahai and Lake Erhai is dominated by dunes. The sedimentation rates in Lake Qinghai were calculated to be 0.101-0.159 cm/y, similar to the rates in other lakes on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Using these data and sedimentation rates from the literature, we compiled the spatial distribution of sedimentation rates. Higher values were obtained in the three main areas of Lake Qinghai: two in river estuaries and one close to sand dunes. Lower values were measured in the center and south of the lake. Measurements of total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), phosphorus concentrations, and TOC/TN ratios in three cores (QH01, QH02, and Z04) revealed four horizons corresponding to times of increased human activity. These anthropogenic events were (1) the development of large areas of cropland in the Lake Qinghai watershed in 1960, (2) the beginning of nationwide fertilizer use and increases in cropland area in the lake watershed after 1970, (3) the implementation of the national program "Grain to Green," and (4) the rapid increase in the tourism industry from 2000. Profiles of Rb, Sr concentrations, the Rb/Sr ratio, and grain-size fraction in core Z04 indicate that the climate has become drier over the past 100 years. Therefore, we suggest that lake sediments such as those in Lake Qinghai are useful media for high-resolution studies of regional environmental change and human activity.

  2. Changes in the dreissenid community in the lower Great Lakes with emphasis on southern Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Edward L.; Chrisman, Jana R.; Baldwin, Brad; Owens, Randall W.; O'Gorman, Robert; Howell, Todd; Roseman, Edward F.; Raths, Melinda K.

    1999-01-01

    A field study was conducted in the lower Great Lakes to assess changes in spatial distribution and population structure of dreissenid mussel populations. More specifically, the westward range expansion of quagga mussel into western Lake Erie and toward Lake Huron was investigated and the shell size, density, and biomass of zebra and quagga mussel with depth in southern Lake Ontario in 1992 and 1995 were compared. In Lake Erie, quagga mussel dominated the dreissenid community in the eastern basin and zebra mussel dominated in the western basin. In southern Lake Ontario, an east to west gradient was observed with the quagga mussel dominant at western sites and zebra mussel dominant at eastern locations. Mean shell size of quagga mussel was generally larger than that of zebra mussel except in western Lake Erie and one site in eastern Lake Erie. Although mean shell size and our index of numbers and biomass of both dreissenid species increased sharply in southern Lake Ontario between 1992 and 1995, the increase in density and biomass was much greater for quagga mussels over the 3-year period. In 1995, zebra mussels were most abundant at 15 to 25 m whereas the highest numbers and biomass of quagga mussel were at 35 to 45 m. The quagga mussel is now the most abundant dreissenid in areas of southern Lake Ontario where the zebra mussel was once the most abundant dreissenid; this trend parallels that observed for dreissenid populations in the Dneiper River basin in the Ukraine.

  3. Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Brown, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

  4. Abundance and distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in offshore soft sediments in Western Lake Huron, 2001-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, J. R. P.; Schaeffer, J.S.; Roseman, E.F.; Kiley, C.S.; Fouilleroux, A.

    2009-01-01

    Invasive species have had major impacts on the Great Lakes. This is especially true of exotic dreissenid mussels which are associated with decreased abundance of native macroinvertebrates and changes in food availability for fish. Beginning in 2001, we added a benthic macroinvertebrate survey to the USGS-Great Lakes Science Center's annual fall prey fish assessment of Lake Huron to monitor abundance of macrobenthos. Mean abundance of Diporeia, the most abundant benthic taxon in Lake Huron reported by previous investigators, declined greatly between 2001 and 2007. Diporeia was virtually absent at 27-m sites by 2001, decreased and was lost completely from 46-m depths by 2006, but remained present at reduced densities at 73-m sites. Dreissenids in our samples were almost entirely quagga mussels Dreissena bugensis. Zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha were virtually absent from our samples, suggesting that they were confined to nearshore areas shallower than we sampled. Loss of Diporeia at individual sites was associated with arrival of quagga mussels, even when mussel densities were low. Quagga mussel density peaked during 2002, then decreased thereafter. During the study quagga mussels became established at most 46-m sites, but remained rare at 73-m sites. Length frequency distributions suggest that initial widespread recruitment may have occurred during 2001-2002. Like other Great Lakes, Lake Huron quagga mussels were associated with decreased abundance of native taxa, but negative effects occurred even though dreissenid densities were much lower. Dreissenid effects may extend well into deep oligotrophic habitats of Lake Huron.

  5. Evaporation variability of Nam Co Lake in the Tibetan Plateau and its role in recent rapid lake expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Szilagyi, Jozsef; Niu, Guo-Yue; Zhang, Yinsheng; Zhang, Teng; Wang, Binbin; Wu, Yanhong

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that the majority of the lakes in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) started to expand rapidly since the late 1990s. However, the causes are still not well known. For Nam Co, being a closed lake with no outflow, evaporation (EL) over the lake surface is the only way water may leave the lake. Therefore, quantifying EL is key for investigating the mechanism of lake expansion in the TP. EL can be quantified by Penman- and/or bulk-transfer-type models, requiring only net radiation, temperature, humidity and wind speed for inputs. However, interpolation of wind speed data may be laden with great uncertainty due to extremely sparse ground meteorological observations, the highly heterogeneous landscape and lake-land breeze effects. Here, evaporation of Nam Co Lake was investigated within the 1979-2012 period at a monthly time-scale using the complementary relationship lake evaporation (CRLE) model which does not require wind speed data. Validations by in-situ observations of E601B pan evaporation rates at the shore of Nam Co Lake as well as measured EL over an adjacent small lake using eddy covariance technique suggest that CRLE is capable of simulating EL well since it implicitly considers wind effects on evaporation via its vapor transfer coefficient. The multi-year average of annual evaporation of Nam Co Lake is 635 mm. From 1979 to 2012, annual evaporation of Nam Co Lake expressed a very slight decreasing trend. However, a more significant decrease in EL occurred during 1998-2008 at a rate of -12 mm yr-1. Based on water-level readings, this significant decrease in lake evaporation was found to be responsible for approximately 4% of the reported rapid water level increase and areal expansion of Nam Co Lake during the same period.

  6. The influence of carbon exchange of a large lake on regional tracer-transport inversions: results from Lake Superior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasys, Victoria N; Desai, Ankur R; McKinley, Galen A; Bennington, Val; Michalak, Anna M; Andrews, Arlyn E

    2011-01-01

    Large lakes may constitute a significant component of regional surface-atmosphere fluxes, but few efforts have been made to quantify these fluxes. Tracer-transport inverse models that infer the CO 2 flux from the atmospheric concentration typically assume that the influence from large lakes is negligible. CO 2 observations from a tall tower in Wisconsin segregated by wind direction suggested a CO 2 signature from Lake Superior. To further investigate this difference, source-receptor influence functions derived using a mesoscale transport model were applied and results revealed that air masses sampled by the tower have a transit time over the lake, primarily in winter when the total lake influence on the tower can exceed 20% of the total influence of the regional domain. When the influence functions were convolved with air-lake fluxes estimated from a physical-biogeochemical lake model, the overall total contribution of lake fluxes to the tall tower CO 2 were mostly negligible, but potentially detectable in certain periods of fall and winter when lake carbon exchange can be strong and land carbon efflux weak. These findings suggest that large oligotrophic lakes would not significantly influence inverse models that incorporate tall tower CO 2 .

  7. Submerged Grove in Lake Onogawa

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Soken; Ochiai, Masahiro

    1996-01-01

    Abstract : The first record by ultrasonic echo sounding on the distribution of the submerged standing trees on the bottom of Lake Onogawa is presented. Lake Onogawa is a dammed lake formed at the time of the eruption of the volcano Mt.Bandai in 1888. Since then the original vegetation of the dammed valley has remained submerged. Many submerged standing trees are distributed on the bottom within about 600m from the northeast end of the lake. The density of the trees in this area is sufficient ...

  8. L-Lake zooplankton: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, November 1985--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Bowen, M. [Normandeau Associates, Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-03-01

    The L- Lake Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act, which requires an applicant for a discharge permit to provide scientific evidence that the discharge causes no significant impact on the indigenous ecosystem. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the discharge of L-Reactor affluent into L Lake will not inhibit the eventual establishment of a ``Balanced Biological Community`` (BBC) in at least 50% of the lake. This report details results of monitoring zooplankton populations in L-Lake.

  9. L-Lake zooplankton: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, November 1985--December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, J.A.; Bowen, M.

    1992-03-01

    The L- Lake Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act, which requires an applicant for a discharge permit to provide scientific evidence that the discharge causes no significant impact on the indigenous ecosystem. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the discharge of L-Reactor affluent into L Lake will not inhibit the eventual establishment of a ''Balanced Biological Community'' (BBC) in at least 50% of the lake. This report details results of monitoring zooplankton populations in L-Lake

  10. Isotope techniques in lake water studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourcy, L.

    1999-01-01

    Freshwater lakes are among the most easily exploitable freshwater resources. Lakes are also recognized as major sedimentological features in which stored material can be used to study recent climate and pollution evolution. To adequately preserve these important landscape features, and to use them as climatic archives, an improved understanding of processes controlling their hydrologic and bio-geochemical environments if necessary. This article briefly describes the IAEA activities related to the study of lakes in such areas as lake budget, lake dynamics, water contamination, and paleolimnological investigations

  11. Lake Erie and Lake Michigan zebra mussel settlement monitoring and implications for chlorination treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demoss, D.; Mendelsberg, J.I.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the 1991 zebra mussel veliger settlement monitoring program undertaken to record and evaluate zebra mussel veliger settlement in Lake Erie and Lake Michigan. Studies by Dr. Gerald Mackie of Canada in 1990 indicated veliger settlement may be occurring primarily during short time periods every season corresponding with warmer water temperatures. Veliger settlement monitoring was performed using a plexiglass sampler apparatus. The samplers were simple in design and consisted of a 20-inch-square plexiglass base panel with thirty-six 1 inch x 3 inch clear plexiglass microscope slides attached. The results of the monitoring program indicate the existence of preferential settlement periods for veligers correlating with sustained lake water temperatures above 70 degrees F. Veliger settlement concentrations in the south basin of Lake Michigan appear to be similar to those in western Lake Erie

  12. The reproduction of lake trout in southern Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschmeyer, Paul H.

    1955-01-01

    The principal spawning grounds of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush namaycush) in United States waters of southern Lake Superior are on rocky shoals at depths of less than 20 fathoms. Most spawning occurs in October and early November. Of the mature fish collected on or near the spawning grounds, 60 to 69 percent were males. Among mature fish the average length of females was greater than that of males; few males less than 24 inches or females less than 26 inches in total length were caught. Recoveries of lake trout tagged on the spawning grounds showed that some males remained in the immediate area for a period of several weeks during the spawning season. Marked fish showed a tendency to return during later years to spawning grounds on which they had been tagged, even though many of them ranged long distances between spawning seasons.

  13. DNR 24K Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Medium scale lake polygons derived from the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) polygons and MnDOT Basemap lake delineations. Integrated with the DNR 24K Streams...

  14. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Lakes Managua and Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This perspective view shows Lakes Managua and Nicaragua near the Pacific coast of Nicaragua. Lake Managua is the 65-kilometer (40-mile)-long fresh water lake in the foreground of this south-looking view, emptying via the Tipitapa River into the much larger Lake Nicaragua in the distance. The capital city of Managua, with a population of more than 500,000, is located along the southern shore of Lake Managua, the area with the highest population density in Nicaragua.The physical setting of Lake Managua is dominated by the numerous volcanic features aligned in a northwest-southeast axis. The cone-like feature in the foreground is Momotombo, a 1,280-meter (4,199-foot)-high stratovolcano located on the northwest end of the lake. Two water-filled volcanic craters (Apoyegue and Jiloa volcanoes) reside on the Chiltepe Peninsula protruding into the lake from the west. Two volcanoes can also be seen on the island of Ometepe in Lake Nicaragua: El Maderas rising to 1,394 meters (4,573 feet) and the active El Conception at 1,610 meters (5,282 feet).This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, S.D.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar

  15. Crustacean plankton communities in forty-five lakes in the experimental lakes area, northwestern Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patalas, K

    1971-01-01

    Zooplankton communities were characterized on the basis of samples taken in summer as vertical net hauls in the central part of lakes. Twenty-eight species of crustaceans were found in the 45 lakes studied. The highest number of species as well as the highest numbers of individuals (per unit of area) usually occurred in the largest deepest lakes with most transparent water.

  16. Lake on life support: Evaluating urban lake management measures by using a coupled 1D-modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladwig, Robert; Kirillin, Georgiy; Hinkelmann, Reinhard; Hupfer, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Urban surface water systems and especially lakes are heavily stressed and modified systems to comply with water management goals and expectations. In this study we focus on Lake Tegel in Berlin, Germany, as a representative of heavily modified urban lakes. In the 20th century, Lake Tegel received increased loadings of nutrients and leached heavy metals from an upstream sewage farm resulting in severe eutrophication problems. The construction of two upstream treatment plants caused a lowering of nutrient concentrations and a re-oligotrophication of the lake. Additionally, artificial aerators, to keep the hypolimnion oxic, and a lake pipeline, to bypass water for maintaining a minimum discharge, went into operation. Lake Tegel is still heavily used for drinking water extraction by bank filtration. These interacting management measures make the system vulnerable to changing climate conditions and pollutant loads. Past modelling studies have shown the complex hydrodynamics of the lake. Here, we are following a simplified approach by using a less computational time consuming vertical 1D-model to simulate the hydrodynamics and the ecological interactions of the system by coupling the General Lake Model to the Aquatic Ecodynamics Model Library 2. For calibration of the multidimensional parameter space we applied the Covariance Matrix Adaption-Evolution Strategy algorithm. The model is able to sufficiently replicate the vertical field temperature profiles of Lake Tegel as well as to simulate similar concentration ranges of phosphate, dissolved oxygen and nitrate. The calibrated model is used to run an uncertainty analysis by sampling the simulated data within the meaning of the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. Finally, we are evaluating different scenarios: (1) changing air temperatures, precipitation and wind speed due to effects of climate change, (2) decreased discharges into the lake due to bypassing treated effluents into a near stream instead of Lake Tegel, and (3

  17. Forest blowdown and lake acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, J.E.; Rush, R.M.; Peplies, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    The authors examine the role of forest blowdown in lake acidification. The approach combines geographic information systems (GIS) and digital remote sensing with traditional field methods. The methods of analysis consist of direct observation, interpretation of satellite imagery and aerial photographs, and statistical comparison of two geographical distributions-one representing forest blow-down and another representing lake chemistry. Spatial and temporal associations between surface water pH and landscape disturbance are strong and consistent in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. In 43 Adirondack Mountain watersheds, lake pH is associated with the percentage of the watershed area blown down and with hydrogen ion deposition (Spearman rank correlation coefficients of -0.67 and -0.73, respectively). Evidence of a temporal association is found at Big Moose Lake and Jerseyfield Lake in New York and the Lygners Vider Plateau of Sweden. They conclude that forest blowdown facilities the acidification of some lakes by altering hydrologic pathways so that waters (previously acidified by acid deposition and/or other sources) do not experience the neutralization normally available through contact with subsurface soils and bedrock. Increased pipeflow is suggested as a mechanism that may link the biogeochemical impacts of forest blowdown to lake chemistry

  18. Thermal Regime of A Deep Temperate Lake and Its Response to Climate Change: Lake Kuttara, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhisa A. Chikita

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A deep temperate lake, Lake Kuttara, Hokkaido, Japan (148 m deep at maximum was completely ice-covered every winter in the 20th century. However, ice-free conditions of the lake over winter occurred three times in the 21st century, which is probably due to global warming. In order to understand how thermal regime of the lake responds to climate change, a change in lake mean water temperature from the heat storage change was calculated by integrating observed water temperature over water depths and by numerical calculation of heat budget components based on hydrometeorological data. As a result, a temporal variation of lake mean water temperature from the heat budget calculation was very reasonable to that from the observed water temperature (determination coefficient R2 = 0.969. The lowest lake mean temperature for non-freeze was then evaluated at −1.87 °C, referring to the zero level at 6.80 °C. The 1978–2017 data at a meteorological station near Kuttara indicated that there are significant (less than 5% level long-term trends for air temperature (+0.024 °C/year and wind speed (−0.010 m/s/year. In order to evaluate the effects of climate change on freeze-up patterns, a sensitivity analysis was carried out for the calculated lake mean water temperature. It is noted that, after two decades, the lake could be ice-free once per every two years.

  19. Trophic diversity of Poznań Lakeland lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzieszko Piotr

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the presented work is to determine the current trophic state of 31 lakes located in Poznań Lakeland. These lakes are included in the lake monitoring programme executed by the Voivodship Environmental Protection Inspectorate in Poznań. The place in the trophic classification for investigated lakes was determined as well as the relationships between their trophic state indices. The trophic state of investigated lakes in the research area is poor. More than a half of the investigated lakes are eutrophic. Depending on the factor that is taken into account the trophic state of investigated lakes differs radically.

  20. National Lakes Assessment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Lakes Assessment (NLA) is a first-ever statistically-valid survey of the biological condition of lakes and reservoirs throughout the U.S. The U.S....

  1. Water pollution control technology and strategy for river-lake systems: a case study in Gehu Lake and Taige Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimin; Zhang, Yongchun; Gao, Yuexiang; Zhang, Houhu; Cao, Jianying; Cai, Jinbang; Kong, Xiangji

    2011-07-01

    The Taoge water system is located in the upstream of Taihu Lake basin and is characterized by its multi-connected rivers and lakes. In this paper, current analyses of hydrology, hydrodynamics and water pollution of Gehu Lake and Taige Canal are presented. Several technologies are proposed for pollution prevention and control, and water environmental protection in the Taihu Lake basin. These included water pollution control integration technology for the water systems of Gehu Lake, Taige Canal and Caoqiao River. Additionally, river-lake water quality and quantity regulation technology, ecological restoration technology for polluted and degraded water bodies, and water environmental integration management and optimization strategies were also examined. The main objectives of these strategies are to: (a) improve environmental quality of relative water bodies, prevent pollutants from entering Gehu Lake and Taige Canal, and ensure that the clean water after the pre-treatment through Gehu Lake is not polluted before entering the Taihu Lake through Taige Canal; (b) stably and efficiently intercept and decrease the pollution load entering the lake through enhancing the river outlet ecological system structure function and water self-purifying capacity, and (c) designate Gehu Lake as a regulation system for water quality and water quantity in the Taoge water system and thus guarantee the improvement of the water quality of the inflow into Taihu Lake.

  2. Organic geochemistry and pore water chemistry of sediments from Mangrove Lake, Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, P.G.; Simoneit, B.R.T.; MacKenzie, F.T.; Neumann, A.C.; Thorstenson, D.C.; Gerchakov, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    Mangrove Lake, Bermuda, is a small coastal, brackish-water lake that has accumulated 14 m of banded, gelatinous, sapropelic sediments in less than 104 yr. Stratigraphic evidence indicates that Mangrove Lake's sedimentary environment has undergone three major depositional changes (peat, freshwater gel, brackish-water gel) as a result of sea level changes. The deposits were examined geochemically in an effort to delineate sedimentological and diagenetic changes. Gas and pore water studies include measurements of sulfides, ammonia, methane, nitrogen gas, calcium, magnesium, chloride, alkalinity, and pH. Results indicate that sulfate reduction is complete, and some evidence is presented for bacterial denitrification and metal sulfide precipitation. The organic-rich sapropel is predominantly algal in origin, composed mostly of carbohydrates and insoluble macromolecular organic matter called humin with minor amounts of proteins, lipids, and humic acids. Carbohydrates and proteins undergo hydrolysis with depth in the marine sapropel but tend to be preserved in the freshwater sapropel. The humin, which has a predominantly aliphatic structure, increases linearly with depth and composes the greatest fraction of the organic matter. Humic acids are minor components and are more like polysaccharides than typical marine humic acids. Fatty acid distributions reveal that the lipids are of an algal and/or terrestrial plant source. Normal alkanes with a total concentration of 75 ppm exhibit two distribution maxima. One is centered about n-C22 with no odd/even predominance, suggestive of a degraded algal source. The other is centered at n-C31 with a distinct odd/even predominance indicative of a vascular plant origin. Stratigraphic changes in the sediment correlate to observed changes in the gas and pore water chemistry and the organic geochemistry. ?? 1982.

  3. Spawning Cisco investigations in Canada waters of Lake Superior during 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Daniel L.; Evrard, Lori M.; Cholwek, Gary A.; Addison, Peter A.; Cullis, Ken I.

    2008-01-01

    Cisco Coregonus artedi form pre-spawning aggregations in Lake Superior during November with the bulk of spawning occurring during late November through early December (Dryer and Beil 1964). Eggs are broadcast into open water (Smith 1956) with fertilized eggs settling to the lakebed (Dryer and Beil 1964). Peak hatching occurs the following May (United States Geological Survey – Great Lakes Science Center, GLSC, unpublished data). Interannual variability in year class strength is high, but tends to be synchronous across different regions of Lake Superior (Bronte et al. 2003). November 2005 sampling of Thunder Bay showed 14 year-classes were present with the oldest fish being from the 1984 year-class (Yule et al. 2008). The ciscoes sampled were predominantly from five year classes that hatched during 1988, 1989, 1990, 1998, and 2003. These same strong year-classes were found in the western arm of Lake Superior during November 2006 (GLSC, unpublished data). Growth is rapid in the first few years of life with minimal growth after age-8 (Yule et al. 2008). Ciscoes exceeding 250 mm total length (TL) are typically sexually mature (Yule et al. 2006b, 2008). Thunder Bay ciscoes have high annual survival with rates for females and males averaging 0.80 and 0.75, respectively; females have higher rates of fishing-induced mortality compared to males but lower rates of natural mortality (Yule et al. 2008). Some Lake Superior stocks are currently commercially fished with the bulk of harvest occurring during November when fishers target females for their roe. The bulk of fish are harvested from Thunder Bay using suspended gillnets with mesh sizes ranging from 79-89 mm stretch measure. Ciscoes younger then age-5 make up a very small proportion (<0.1%) of the harvest (Yule, et al. 2008).

  4. Ecological regime shifts and changes of lake ecosystem service in a shallow Yangtze lake (Taibai Lake, China) over the past 150 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X.; Xu, M.; Yang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Shallow lakes provide a range of ecosystem services such as water supply, biodiversity, aquaculture, tourism, shipping and flood regulation. Over recent decades, many lakes have become severely deteriorated due to a coupled natural and human disturbance. Given the limited monitoring records, however, we still have little knowledge on how, when and why those lake experienced ecological status shifts, and how the lake ecosystem service changed. Paleolimnological techniques were widely used in understanding the historical environmental and ecological changes. Here, we chose a typical eutrophic shallow lake, Taibai Lake, and acquired geochemistry proxies, grain size, diatom, cladocera and chironomid from a 210Pb and 137Cs dated sediment core. Document records and monitoring data are also included as important marks of social and environmental change. A T-test based algorithm of STARS reveal at least two ecological shifts, respectively in the 1960s and the 1990s. The sudden shift in the 1960s is supposed to be influenced by a dam and sluice construction in the 1950s and another shift in the 1990s should be a critical transition due to the alternation of ecosystem structure for higher fishery production. Correspondingly, lake ecosystem service (LES) also experienced significant changes. Prior to 1930s, different types of LES kept relatively stable with low values. With the dam construction in the 1960s, the changed hydrological condition led to gradual increases in both regulation and provision service. However, with much effort on fishery and reclamation, the regulation service of the lake decreased, exhibiting a tradeoff among LES. After 1990s, with intense aquaculture, most types of LSE suffered a further decrease. The long-term records exhibited that ecosystem services in primary productivity and biodiversity maintenance increased (synergies) whereas services in water-purification and climate regulating decreased significantly (tradeoffs) since 1950s, when local

  5. Mid Holocene lake level and shoreline behavior during the Nipissing phase of the upper Great Lakes at Alpena, Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, T.A.; Lepper, K.; Endres, A.L.; Johnston, J.W.; Baedke, S.J.; Argyilan, E.P.; Booth, R.K.; Wilcox, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Nipissing phase was the last pre-modern high-water stage of the upper Great Lakes. Represented as either a one- or two-peak highstand, the Nipissing occurred following a long-term lake-level rise. This transgression was primarily an erosional event with only the final stage of the transgression preserved as barriers, spits, and strandplains of beach ridges. South of Alpena, Michigan, mid to late Holocene coastal deposits occur as a strandplain between Devils Lake and Lake Huron. The landward part of this strandplain is a higher elevation platform that formed during the final stage of lake-level rise to the Nipissing peak. The pre-Nipissing shoreline transgressed over Devils Lake lagoonal deposits from 6.4 to 6.1. ka. The first beach ridge formed ~ 6. ka, and then the shoreline advanced toward Lake Huron, producing beach ridges about every 70. years. This depositional regression produced a slightly thickening wedge of sediment during a lake-level rise that formed 20 beach ridges. The rise ended at 4.5. ka at the Nipissing peak. This peak was short-lived, as lake level fell > 4. m during the following 500. years. During this lake-level rise and subsequent fall, the shoreline underwent several forms of shoreline behavior, including erosional transgression, aggradation, depositional transgression, depositional regression, and forced regression. Other upper Great Lakes Nipissing platforms indicate that the lake-level change observed at Alpena of a rapid pre-Nipissing lake-level rise followed by a slower rise to the Nipissing peak, and a post-Nipissing rapid lake-level fall is representative of mid Holocene lake level in the upper Great Lakes. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Catawba Nuclear Station and surrounding area, Lake Wylie, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.E.

    1984-10-01

    An aerial gamma survey was conducted over the Catawba Nuclear Station, located near Lake Wylie, South Carolina, during the period 31 May through 7 June 1984. The survey covered a 260-square-kilometer (100-square-mile) area centered on the Station. A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate plus cosmic exposure rate at the 1-meter level was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a USGS topographic map of the area. The terrestrial plus cosmic gamma exposure rate ranged from 3.7 microroentgens per hour (μR/h), the cosmic level over Lake Wylie, to 17.4 μR/h just east of the Catawba River below the dam site. A search of the gamma data showed no man-made gamma emitters in the survey area. Soil samples and ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations on the ground to support the aerial data. 8 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  7. Entropy Generation on Nanofluid Thin Film Flow of Eyring–Powell Fluid with Thermal Radiation and MHD Effect on an Unsteady Porous Stretching Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ishaq

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This research paper investigates entropy generation analysis on two-dimensional nanofluid film flow of Eyring–Powell fluid with heat amd mass transmission over an unsteady porous stretching sheet in the existence of uniform magnetic field (MHD. The flow of liquid films are taken under the impact of thermal radiation. The basic time dependent equations of heat transfer, momentum and mass transfer are modeled and converted to a system of differential equations by employing appropriate similarity transformation with unsteady dimensionless parameters. Entropy analysis is the main focus in this work and the impact of physical parameters on the entropy profile are discussed in detail. The influence of thermophoresis and Brownian motion has been taken in the nanofluids model. An optima approach has been applied to acquire the solution of modeled problem. The convergence of the HAM (Homotopy Analysis Method has been presented numerically. The disparity of the Nusslet number, Skin friction, Sherwood number and their influence on the velocity, heat and concentration fields has been scrutinized. Moreover, for comprehension, the physical presentation of the embedded parameters are explored analytically for entropy generation and discussed.

  8. Late Pleistocene to Holocene lake levels of Lake Warner, Oregon (USA) and their effect on archaeological site distribution patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wriston, T.; Smith, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    Few chronological controls are available for the rise and fall of small pluvial lake systems in the Northwestern Great Basin. Within Warner Basin this control was necessary for interpretation of known archaeological sites and for predicting where evidence of its earliest inhabitants might be expected. We trenched along relic beach ridges of Lake Warner, surveyed a stratified sample of the area for archaeological sites, and excavated some sites and a nearby rockshelter. These efforts produced new ages that we used to construct a lake level curve for Lake Warner. We found that the lake filled the valley floor between ca. 30,000 cal yr BP and ca. 10,300 cal yr BP. In nearby basins, several oscillations are evident before ca. 21,100 cal yr BP, but a steep rise to the LGM maximum occurred between 21,000 and 20,000 cal yr BP. Lake Warner likely mirrored these changes, dropped to the valley floor ca. 18,340 cal yr BP, and then rose to its maximum highstand when its waters briefly reached 1454 m asl. After this highstand the lake receded to moderately high levels. Following ca. 14,385 cal yr BP, the lake oscillated between moderate to moderately-high levels through the Bolling-Allerod interstadials and into the Younger Dryas stadial. The basin's first occupants arrived along its shore around this time, while the lake still filled the valley floor. These earliest people carried either Western Stemmed or Clovis projectile points, both of which are found along the lake margin. The lake receded into the valley floor ca. 10,300 cal yr BP and dune development began, ringing wetlands and small lakes that persisted in the footprint of the once large lake. By the time Mazama tephra fell 7,600 cal yr BP it blanketed pre-existing dunes and marsh peats. Our Lake Warner lake level curve facilitates interdisciplinary testing and refinement of it and similar curves throughout the region while helping us understand the history of lake and the people who lived along its shores.

  9. Paleolimnological records of nitrogen deposition in shallow, high-elevation lakes of Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Sarah A.; Otu, Megan K.; Wolfe, Alexander P.; Baron, Jill S.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) from anthropogenic sources has been altering ecosystem function in lakes of the Rocky Mountains, other regions of western North America, and the Arctic over recent decades. The response of biota in shallow lakes to atmospheric deposition of Nr, however, has not been considered. Benthic algae are dominant in shallow, high-elevation lakes and are less sensitive to nutrient inputs than planktonic algae. Because the benthos is typically more nutrient rich than the water column, shallow lakes are not expected to show evidence of anthropogenic Nr. In this study, we assessed sedimentary evidence for regional Nr deposition, sediment chronology, and the nature of algal community response in five shallow, high-elevation lakes in Grand Teton National Park (GRTE). Over 140 diatom taxa were identified from the sediments, with a relatively high species richness of taxa characteristic of oligotrophic conditions. The diatom assemblages were dominated by benthic taxa, especially motile taxa. The GRTE lakes demonstrate assemblage-wide shifts in diatoms, including 1) synchronous and significant assemblage changes centered on ~1960 AD; 2) pre-1960 assemblages differed significantly from post-1960 assemblages; 3) pre-1960 diatom assemblages fluctuated randomly, whereas post- 1960 assemblages showed directional change; 4) changes in δ15N signatures were correlated with diatom community composition. These results demonstrate recent changes in shallow high18 elevation lakes that are most correlated with anthropogenic Nr. It is also possible, however, that the combined effect of Nr deposition and warming is accelerating species shifts in benthic diatoms. While uncertainties remain about the potential synergy of Nr deposition and warming, this study adds shallow lakes to the growing list of impacted high-elevation localities in western North America.

  10. Development of a zoning-based environmental-ecological-coupled model for lakes to assess lake restoration effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengjia; Zou, Changxin; Zhao, Yanwei

    2017-04-01

    Environmental/ecological models are widely used for lake management as they provide a means to understand physical, chemical and biological processes in highly complex ecosystems. Most research focused on the development of environmental (water quality) and ecological models, separately. Limited studies were developed to couple the two models, and in these limited coupled models, a lake was regarded as a whole for analysis (i.e., considering the lake to be one well-mixed box), which was appropriate for small-scale lakes and was not sufficient to capture spatial variations within middle-scale or large-scale lakes. This paper seeks to establish a zoning-based environmental-ecological-coupled model for a lake. The Baiyangdian Lake, the largest freshwater lake in Northern China, was adopted as the study case. The coupled lake models including a hydrodynamics and water quality model established by MIKE21 and a compartmental ecological model used STELLA software have been established for middle-sized Baiyangdian Lake to realize the simulation of spatial variations of ecological conditions. On the basis of the flow field distribution results generated by MIKE21 hydrodynamics model, four water area zones were used as an example for compartmental ecological model calibration and validation. The results revealed that the developed coupled lake models can reasonably reflected the changes of the key state variables although there remain some state variables that are not well represented by the model due to the low quality of field monitoring data. Monitoring sites in a compartment may not be representative of the water quality and ecological conditions in the entire compartment even though that is the intention of compartment-based model design. There was only one ecological observation from a single monitoring site for some periods. This single-measurement issue may cause large discrepancies particularly when sampled site is not representative of the whole compartment. The

  11. lakemorpho: Calculating lake morphometry metrics in R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, Jeffrey; Stachelek, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Metrics describing the shape and size of lakes, known as lake morphometry metrics, are important for any limnological study. In cases where a lake has long been the subject of study these data are often already collected and are openly available. Many other lakes have these data collected, but access is challenging as it is often stored on individual computers (or worse, in filing cabinets) and is available only to the primary investigators. The vast majority of lakes fall into a third category in which the data are not available. This makes broad scale modelling of lake ecology a challenge as some of the key information about in-lake processes are unavailable. While this valuable in situ information may be difficult to obtain, several national datasets exist that may be used to model and estimate lake morphometry. In particular, digital elevation models and hydrography have been shown to be predictive of several lake morphometry metrics. The R package lakemorpho has been developed to utilize these data and estimate the following morphometry metrics: surface area, shoreline length, major axis length, minor axis length, major and minor axis length ratio, shoreline development, maximum depth, mean depth, volume, maximum lake length, mean lake width, maximum lake width, and fetch. In this software tool article we describe the motivation behind developing lakemorpho , discuss the implementation in R, and describe the use of lakemorpho with an example of a typical use case.

  12. Comparison of the hydrogeology and water quality of a ground-water augmented lake with two non-augmented lakes in northwest Hillsborough County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Patricia A.; Sacks, Laura A.

    2002-01-01

    The hydrologic effects associated with augmenting a lake with ground water from the Upper Floridan aquifer were examined in northwest Hillsborough County, Florida, from June 1996 through May 1999. The hydrogeology, ground-water flow patterns, water budgets, and water-quality characteristics were compared between a lake that has been augmented for more than 30 years (Round Lake) and two nearby nonaugmented lakes (Dosson Lake and Halfmoon Lake). Compared to the other study lakes, Round Lake is in a more leakage-dominated hydrogeologic setting. The intermediate confining unit is thin or highly breached, which increases the potential for vertical ground-water flow. Round Lake has the least amount of soft, organic lake-bottom sediments and the lake bottom has been dredged deeper and more extensively than the other study lakes, which could allow more leakage from the lake bottom. The area around Round Lake has experienced more sinkhole activity than the other study lakes. During this study, three sinkholes developed around the perimeter of the lake, which may have further disrupted the intermediate confining unit.Ground-water flow patterns around Round Lake were considerably different than the nonaugmented lakes. For most of the study, groundwater augmentation artificially raised the level of Round Lake to about 2 to 3 feet higher than the adjacent water table. As a result, lake water recharged the surficial aquifer around the entire lake perimeter, except during very wet periods when ground-water inflow occurred around part of the lake perimeter. The non-augmented lakes typically had areas of ground-water inflow and areas of lake leakage around their perimeter, and during wet periods, ground-water inflow occurred around the entire lake perimeter. Therefore, the area potentially contributing ground water to the non-augmented lakes is much larger than for augmented Round Lake. Vertical head loss within the surficial aquifer was greater at Round Lake than the other study

  13. Hydro biological investigations of lake Drukshiai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazheikaite, S.; Sinkevichiene, Z.; Marchiulioniene, D.; Astrauskas, A.; Barshiene, J.

    1998-01-01

    Purposes of this research were to investigate changes in the physical, chemical and tropic conditions of Lake Drukshiai caused by the combined effect of Ignalina NPP and how it effects on structures and function of biocenoses; to estimate the influence of phytocenoses, zoocenoses and bacteriocenoses on the quality of water in Lake Drukshiai; to estimate the eco toxicological state of Lake Drukshiai. According to the complex hydro biological investigations on Lake Drukshiai - Ignalina NPP cooler great changes in planktonic organism community, tendencies of those changes in different ecological zones were evaluated in 1993 - 1997. The amount of species of most dominant planktonic organisms in 1993 - 1997 decreased 2-3 times in comparison with that before Ignalina NPP operation: phytoplankton from 116 to 40 - 50, zooplankton - from 233 to 139. The organic matter increasing tendency was determined in bottom sediments of the lake. The highest amount of it was evaluated in the south - eastern part of the lake. 69 water macrophyte species were found in bottom sediments during the investigation period. 16 species were not found in this lake earlier. Abundance of filamentous green algae was registered.The rates of fish communities successional transformation were ten times in excess of those of the given processes in natural lakes. Moreover the comparison of results on Lake Drukshiai bioindication analysis with changes of comparable bio markers which were obtained from other water systems of Lithuania, Switzerland, Sweden and Poland, including those with active nuclear power plants in their environment was carried out. It was determined that the functional and structural changes in Lake Drukshiai biota are mostly caused by chemical pollution. It was found out that the frequency of cytogenetic damage emerged as a specific radionuclide - caused effect in aquatic organisms inhabiting Lake Drukshiai, is slightly above the background level and is 5 times lower than the same

  14. Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane in a French meromictic lake (Lake Pavin): Who is responsible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, V.; Attard, E.; Birgel, D.; Schaeffer, P.; Jézéquel, D.; Lehours, A.

    2012-12-01

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas and its biogeochemical cycle is of primary significance to the global carbon cycle. The Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM) has been estimated to be responsible for >90% of methane consumption. This biogeochemical process has been increasingly documented during the last two decades but the underlying microbial processes and their key agents remain incompletely understood. Freshwater lakes account for 2-10% of the total emissions of methane and are therefore an important part of the global methane cycle. Lake Pavin is a French meromictic crater lake with unusual hydrological characteristics: its morphology (depth >92m, mean diameter 750m) induce that waters below 60m are never mixed with overlying waters and remain permanently anoxic. The deep anoxic waters of Lake Pavin contain high concentrations (i.e. 4 mM) of methane but, contrary to other aquatic systems, almost no methane escapes from the lake. Previous biogeochemical and modeling studies suggest that methane is preferentially consumed within the oxic-anoxic transition zone (ca. 55-60 m depth) but that ca. 30% of methane oxidation occurs in the anoxic part of the lake. Phylogenetic (16S rRNA) analyses showed that ANME generally involved in AOM (ANME-1, -2 and -3) are not present in Lake Pavin. Other archaeal groups that do not have any cultured representatives so far appear well represented in the anoxic parts of the lake but their implication in AOM is not demonstrated. The analysis of lipid biomarkers using GC-MS and LC-MS revealed the presence of a low diversity of archaeal-specific biomarkers in the superficial sediments and in the anoxic waters of the lake. Archaeol and caldarcheaol (GDGT-0) are the two main archaeal core lipids detected; other biomarkers generally present in ANME such as pentamethylicosane or hydroxyarchaeol are not present. However, the stable carbon isotopic composition of archaeol (δ13C = -18‰) and of the biphytane chain of GDGT-0 (δ13C

  15. [Similarities and differences in absorption characteristics and composition of CDOM between Taihu Lake and Chaohu Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kun; Li, Yun-mei; Wang, Qiao; Yang, Yu; Jin, Xin; Wang, Yan-fei; Zhang, Hong; Yin, Bin

    2010-05-01

    Field experiments are conducted separately in Taihu Lake and Chaohu Lake on Apr. and Jun. 2009. The changes in absorption spectra of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) characteristics are analyzed using spectral differential analysis technology. According the spectral differential characteristic of absorption coefficient; absorption coefficient from 240 to 450 nm is divided into different stages, and the value of spectral slope S is calculated in each stage. In Stage A, S value of CDOM in Taihu Lake and Chaohu Lake are 0.0166-0.0102 nm(-1) [average (0.0132 +/- 0.0017) nm(-1)], 0.029-0.017 nm(-1) [average (0.0214 +/- 0.0024) nm(-1)]. In Stage B, S values are 0.0187-0.0148 nm(-1) [average (0.0169 +/- 0.001) nm(-1)], 0.0179-0.0055 nm(-1) [average (0.0148 +/- 0.002) nm(-1)]. In Stage C, S values are 0.0208-0.0164 nm(-1) [average (0.0186 +/- 0.0009) nm(-1)], 0.0253-0.0161 nm(-1) [average (0.0197 +/- 0.002) nm(-1)]. The results can be concluded as: (1) Absorption coefficient of water in Taihu Lake, and its contribution to absorption of each component is less than that of water in Chaohu Lake, however the standardized absorption coefficient is larger than that in Chaohu Lake. (2) Both in Taihu Lake and Chaohu Lake, derivative spectra of CDOM absorption coefficient reached valley at 260nm, then rise to top at 290 nm, CDOM absorption coefficient can be delivered into three stages. (3) Generally speaking, content of CDOM in Taihu Lake is less than in Chaohu Lake. (4) pectrum slope (S value) of CDOM is related to composition of CDOM, when content of humic acid in CDOM gets higher, S value of Stage B is the most sensitive value, then is the S value of Stage C. Oppositely, S value of Stage B gets the most sensitive value, then is the S value of Stage A; the least sensitive value is in Stage B.

  16. [Analysis of tartrazine aluminum lake and sunset yellow aluminum lake in foods by capillary zone electrophoresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiding; Chang, Cuilan; Guo, Qilei; Cao, Hong; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2014-04-01

    A novel analytical method for tartrazine aluminum lake and sunset yellow aluminum lake using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was studied. The pigments contained in the color lakes were successfully separated from the aluminum matrix in the pre-treatment process, which included the following steps: dissolve the color lakes in 0.1 mol/L H2SO4, adjust the pH of the solution to 5.0, then mix it with the solution of EDTA x 2Na and heat it in a water bath, then use polyamide powder as the stationary phase of solid phase extraction to separate the pigments from the solution, and finally elute the pigments with 0.1 mol/L NaOH. The CZE conditions systematically optimized for tartrazine aluminum lake were: 48.50 cm of a fused silica capillary with 40.00 cm effective length and 50 microm i. d., the temperature controlled at 20.0 degrees C, 29.0 kV applied, HPO4(2-)-PO4(3-) (0.015 mol/L, pH 11.45) solution as running buffer, detection at 263 nm. The conditions for sunset yellow aluminum lake were: the same capillary and temperature, 25.0 kV applied, HPO4(2-)-PO4(3-) (0.025 mol/L, pH 11.45) solution as running buffer, detection at 240 nm. The limits of detection were 0.26 mg/L and 0.27 mg/L, and the linear ranges were 0.53-1.3 x 10(2) mg/L and 0.54-1.4 x 10(2) mg/L for tartrazine aluminum lake and sunset yellow aluminum lake, respectively. The RSDs were 4.3% and 5.7% (run to run, n = 6), 5.6% and 6.0% (day to day, n = 6) for tartrazine aluminum lake and sunset yellow aluminum lake, respectively. Further developments for this method could make it a routinely used method analyzing color lakes in foods.

  17. Trophic development in a volcanic lake with closed hydric balance. Lake Martignano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falleni, F.; Bruno, M.; Marchiori, E.; Congestri, R.; Gasperi, E.; Brambullo, M.; Amadeio, R.

    2000-01-01

    Martignano lake is a particular charming volcanic lake in the countryside of Rome. Recently it was included in a project of Regional Wildlife Park. The lack of immissaries and emissaries, the quite long renewal time and the very short homeothermic period of two-months in a year, make the lake susceptible of trophic evolution. The comparison between the present data and those from previous studies seems to confirm such a slow development towards this way, with a nutrient level (nitrate 0.97 mg/L; total phosphorus 11.14 μg/L) and chlorophyll a concentrations (10.68 μg/L), typical of mesotrophic waters. The analysis of nutrient data expressed as annual mean value in percentage from the coastal stations, suggests an under lied farming influence, and points out the need to adopt fast reduction measures, to lower the phosphorus load in acceptable levels for the lake ecosystem [it

  18. Contaminant Monitoring Strategy for Henrys Lake, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John S. Irving; R. P. Breckenridge

    1992-12-01

    Henrys Lake, located in southeastern Idaho, is a large, shallow lake (6,600 acres, {approx} 17.1 feet maximum depth) located at 6,472 feet elevation in Fremont Co., Idaho at the headwaters of the Henrys Fork of the Snake River. The upper watershed is comprised of high mountains of the Targhee National Forest and the lakeshore is surrounded by extensive flats and wetlands, which are mostly privately owned. The lake has been dammed since 1922, and the upper 12 feet of the lake waters are allocated for downriver use. Henrys Lake is a naturally productive lake supporting a nationally recognized ''Blue Ribbon'' trout fishery. There is concern that increasing housing development and cattle grazing may accelerate eutrophication and result in winter and early spring fish kills. There has not been a recent thorough assessment of lake water quality. However, the Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) is currently conducting a study of water quality on Henrys Lake and tributary streams. Septic systems and lawn runoff from housing developments on the north, west, and southwest shores could potentially contribute to the nutrient enrichment of the lake. Many houses are on steep hillsides where runoff from lawns, driveways, etc. drain into wetland flats along the lake or directly into the lake. In addition, seepage from septic systems (drainfields) drain directly into the wetlands enter groundwater areas that seep into the lake. Cattle grazing along the lake margin, riparian areas, and uplands is likely accelerating erosion and nutrient enrichment. Also, cattle grazing along riparian areas likely adds to nutrient enrichment of the lake through subsurface flow and direct runoff. Stream bank and lakeshore erosion may also accelerate eutrophication by increasing the sedimentation of the lake. Approximately nine streams feed the lake (see map), but flows are often severely reduced or completely eliminated due to irrigation diversion. In addition, subsurface

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments of two lakes of the Dongting Lake district in Hunan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiang; Yang, Yajing; Zhang, Lugang; Luo, Yushuang; Liu, Fei; Yang, Pinhong

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, 18 and 12 surface sediment samples were collected from Datong Lake and Shanpo Lake, respectively, and the 16 USEPA priority Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in these samples were detected. The result indicated that the Σ16PAHs ranged from 206.56 to 1058.98 ng.g-1 with an average concentration of 667.22 ng.g-1 in sediments from Datong Lake, whereas it ranged from 90.62 to 900.70 ng.g-1 with an average concentration of 364.97 ng.g-1 in sediments from Shanpo Lake. The concentrations of individual PAHs in sediments ranged from 5.50 to 85.23 and from 4.39 to 52.74 ng.g-1 in Datong Lake and Shanpo Lake, respectively. According to the indexes such as HMW/LMW, Ant/(Ant+Phe), Flua/(Flua+Pyr), IcdP/(IcdP+BghiP), and BaA/(BaA+Chr), the PAHs in sediments from both lakes are mainly of pyrogenic origin. The total BaP equivalent in the surface sediment samples from Datong Lake and Shanpo Lake is 42.77 and 33.35 ng.g-1, respectively.

  20. Effectiveness of a refuge for Lake Trout in Western Lake Superior II: Simulation of future performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akins, Andrea L; Hansen, Michael J.; Seider, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, Lake Superior supported one of the largest and most diverse Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush fisheries in the Laurentian Great Lakes, but Lake Trout stocks collapsed due to excessive fishery exploitation and predation by Sea Lampreys Petromyzon marinus. Lake Trout stocking, Sea Lamprey control, and fishery regulations, including a refuge encompassing Gull Island Shoal (Apostle Islands region), were used to enable recovery of Lake Trout stocks that used this historically important spawning shoal. Our objective was to determine whether future sustainability of Lake Trout stocks will depend on the presence of the Gull Island Shoal Refuge. We constructed a stochastic age-structured simulation model to assess the effect of maintaining the refuge as a harvest management tool versus removing the refuge. In general, median abundances of age-4, age-4 and older (age-4+), and age-8+ fish collapsed at lower instantaneous fishing mortality rates (F) when the refuge was removed than when the refuge was maintained. With the refuge in place, the F that resulted in collapse depended on the rate of movement into and out of the refuge. Too many fish stayed in the refuge when movement was low (0–2%), and too many fish became vulnerable to fishing when movement was high (≥22%); thus, the refuge was more effective at intermediate rates of movement (10–11%). With the refuge in place, extinction did not occur at any simulated level of F, whereas refuge removal led to extinction at all combinations of commercial F and recreational F. Our results indicate that the Lake Trout population would be sustained by the refuge at all simulated F-values, whereas removal of the refuge would risk population collapse at much lower F (0.700–0.744). Therefore, the Gull Island Shoal Refuge is needed to sustain the Lake Trout population in eastern Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior.

  1. Algae Bloom in a Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sanabria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the likelihood of an algae bloom in a particular lake located in upstate New York. The growth of algae in this lake is caused by a high concentration of phosphorous that diffuses to the surface of the lake. Our calculations, based on Fick's Law, are used to create a mathematical model of the driving force of diffusion for phosphorous. Empirical observations are also used to predict whether the concentration of phosphorous will diffuse to the surface of this lake within a specified time and under specified conditions.

  2. Sediment deposition and sources into a Mississippi River floodplain lake; Catahoula Lake, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latuso, Karen D.; Keim, Richard F.; King, Sammy L.; Weindorf, David C.; DeLaune, Ronald D.

    2017-01-01

    Floodplain lakes are important wetlands on many lowland floodplains of the world but depressional floodplain lakes are rare in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley. One of the largest is Catahoula Lake, which has existed with seasonally fluctuating water levels for several thousand years but is now in an increasingly hydrologically altered floodplain. Woody vegetation has been encroaching into the lake bed and the rate of this expansion has increased since major human hydrologic modifications, such as channelization, levee construction, and dredging for improvement of navigation, but it remains unknown what role those modifications may have played in altering lake sedimentation processes. Profiles of thirteen 137Cs sediment cores indicate sedimentation has been about 0.26 cm y− 1 over the past 60 years and has been near this rate since land use changes began about 200 years ago (210Pb, and 14C in Tedford, 2009). Carbon sequestration was low (10.4 g m− 2 y− 1), likely because annual drying promotes mineralization and export. Elemental composition (high Zr and Ti and low Ca and K) and low pH of recent (sediments suggest Gulf Coastal Plain origin, but below the recent sediment deposits, 51% of sediment profiles showed influence of Mississippi River alluvium, rich in base cations such as K+, Ca2 +, and Mg2 +. The recent shift to dominance of Coastal Plain sediments on the lake-bed surface suggests hydrologic modification has disconnected the lake from sediment-bearing flows from the Mississippi River. Compared to its condition prior to hydrologic alterations that intensified in the 1930s, Catahoula Lake is about 15 cm shallower and surficial sediments are more acidic. Although these results are not sufficient to attribute ecological changes directly to sedimentological changes, it is likely the altered sedimentary and hydrologic environment is contributing to the increased dominance of woody vegetation.

  3. Stereo Pair, Salt Lake City, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This image pair provides a stereoscopic map view of north central Utah that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling and the nearby Snowbasin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City ski resort hosts the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR

  4. BATHYMETRIC STUDY OF WADI EL-RAYAN LAKES, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radwan Gad Elrab ABD ELLAH

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bathymetry is a technique of measuring depths to determine the morphometry of water bodies. The derivation of bathymetry from the surveys is one of the basic researches of the aquatic environment, which has several practical implications to on the lake environment and it's monitoring. Wadi El-Rayan, as Ramsar site, is a very important wetland, in Egypt, as a reservoir for agricultural drainage water, fisheries and tourism. The Lakes are man-made basins in the Fayoum depression. Wadi El-Rayan Lakes are two reservoirs (upper Lake and Lower Lake, at different elevations. The Upper Lake is classified as open basin, while the Lower Lake is a closed basin, with no significant obvious water outflow. During recent decades, human impact on Wadi El-Rayan Lakes has increased due to intensification of agriculture and fish farming. Analyses of bathyemtric plans from 1996, 2010 and 2016 showed, the differences between morphometric parameters of the Upper Lake were generally small, while the Lower Lake changes are obvious at the three periods. The small fluctuate, in the features of Upper Lake is due to the water balance between the water inflow and water. The Lower Lake has faced extreme water loss through last twenty years is due to the agricultural lands and fish farms extended in the depression. The Upper Lake is rich in Lakeshores macrophyets, while decline the water plants in the Lower Lake. With low water levels, in the Lower Lake, the future continuity of the Lake system is in jeopardy

  5. Eutrophication in the Yunnan Plateau lakes: the influence of lake morphology, watershed land use, and socioeconomic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenzhi; Li, Siyue; Bu, Hongmei; Zhang, Quanfa; Liu, Guihua

    2012-03-01

    Lakes play an important role in socioeconomic development and ecological balance in China, but their water quality has deteriorated considerably in recent decades. In this study, we investigated the spatial-temporal variations of eutrophication parameters (secchi depth, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand, chlorophyll-a, trophic level index, and trophic state index) and their relationships with lake morphology, watershed land use, and socioeconomic factors in the Yunnan Plateau lakes. Results indicated that about 77.8% of lakes were eutrophic according to trophic state index. The plateau lakes showed spatial variations in water quality and could be classified into high-nutrient and low-nutrient groups. However, because watersheds were dominated by vegetation, all eutrophication parameters except chlorophyll-a showed no significant differences between the wet and dry seasons. Lake depth, water residence time, volume, and percentage of built-up land were significantly related to several eutrophication parameters. Agricultural land use and social-economic factors had no significant correlation with all eutrophication parameters. Stepwise regression analyses demonstrated that lake depth and water residence time accounted for 73.8% to 87.6% of the spatial variation of single water quality variables, respectively. Redundancy analyses indicated that lake morphology, watershed land use, and socioeconomic factors together explained 74.3% of the spatial variation in overall water quality. The results imply that water quality degradation in the plateau lakes may be mainly due to the domestic and industrial wastewaters. This study will improve our understanding of the determinants of lake water quality and help to design efficient strategies for controlling eutrophication in the plateau region.

  6. 75 FR 6354 - NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes Restoration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ...-04] RIN 0648-ZC10 NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of funding availability; Date... on January 19, 2010. That notice announced the NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project...

  7. Clearing lakes : an ecosystem approach to the restoration and management of shallow lakes in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosper, H.

    1997-01-01

    In the 1950 s and 1960 s, most shallow lakes in the Netherlands shifted from macrophyte-dominated clear water lakes, towards algae-dominated turbid water lakes. Eutrophication, i.e. increased nutrient loading, is the main cause of the deterioration

  8. Microplastics in surface waters of Dongting Lake and Hong Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenfeng; Yuan, Wenke; Chen, Yuling; Wang, Jun

    2018-08-15

    Microplastics pollution is an environmental issue of increasing concern. Much work has been done on the microplastics pollution in the marine environments. Although freshwaters are potential sources and transport pathways of plastic debris to the oceans, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the presence of microplastics in freshwater systems, especially in China, the world's largest producer of plastics. This study investigated the occurrence and properties of microplastics in surface waters of two important lakes in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. The concentration ranges of microplastics in Dongting Lake and Hong Lake were 900-2800 and 1250-4650n/m 3 , respectively. Fiber was the dominant shape. Colored items occupied the majority. Particles with a size of 20% of total microplastics collected in both lakes. Most of the selected particles were identified as plastics, with polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) being the major components. This study can provide valuable reference for better understanding the microplastics pollution in inland freshwater ecosystems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Water Quality in Shallow Lakes, Case Study of Lake Uluabat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadet İLERİ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lake Uluabat, located 20 km south of the Marmara Sea, between 42° 12' North latitude, 28° 40'East longitude and is located in the province of Bursa. The Lake is one of the richest lakes in terms of aquatic plants besides fish and bird populations in Turkey. In this study, water quality of the Lake was monitored from June 2008 to May 2009 during the 12 month period with the samples taken from 8 points in the lake and spatial and temporal variations of the parameters were examined. pH, temperature (T, electrical conductivity (EC, dissolved oxygen (DO, suspended solids (SS, secchi depth (SD, water level (WL, nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N, total nitrogen (TN, phosphate-phosphorus (PO4-P, total phosphorus (TP, alkalinity, chemical oxygen demand (COD and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a were the monitoring parameters. As a result, concentrations of the parameters were found at high levels especially the 1st, 4th, 5th, and 8th stations and temporally were found at high levels often in the summer. According to the results of analysis of variance, regional and temporal variations of all parameters were found important except SS and NO3-N

  10. Does lake size matter? Combining morphology and process modeling to examine the contribution of lake classes to population-scale processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Luke A.; Read, Jordan S.; Hanson, Paul C.; Stanley, Emily H.

    2014-01-01

    With lake abundances in the thousands to millions, creating an intuitive understanding of the distribution of morphology and processes in lakes is challenging. To improve researchers’ understanding of large-scale lake processes, we developed a parsimonious mathematical model based on the Pareto distribution to describe the distribution of lake morphology (area, perimeter and volume). While debate continues over which mathematical representation best fits any one distribution of lake morphometric characteristics, we recognize the need for a simple, flexible model to advance understanding of how the interaction between morphometry and function dictates scaling across large populations of lakes. These models make clear the relative contribution of lakes to the total amount of lake surface area, volume, and perimeter. They also highlight the critical thresholds at which total perimeter, area and volume would be evenly distributed across lake size-classes have Pareto slopes of 0.63, 1 and 1.12, respectively. These models of morphology can be used in combination with models of process to create overarching “lake population” level models of process. To illustrate this potential, we combine the model of surface area distribution with a model of carbon mass accumulation rate. We found that even if smaller lakes contribute relatively less to total surface area than larger lakes, the increasing carbon accumulation rate with decreasing lake size is strong enough to bias the distribution of carbon mass accumulation towards smaller lakes. This analytical framework provides a relatively simple approach to upscaling morphology and process that is easily generalizable to other ecosystem processes.

  11. The microbial mats of Pavilion Lake microbialites: examining the relationship between photosynthesis and carbonate precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, D. S. S.; Hawes, I.; Mackey, T. J.; Brady, A. L.; Biddle, J.; Andersen, D. T.; Belan, M.; Slater, G.; Abercromby, A.; Squyres, S. W.; Delaney, M.; Haberle, C. W.; Cardman, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Pavilion Lake in British Columbia, Canada is an ultra-oligotrophic lake that has abundant microbialite growth. Recent research has shown that photoautotrophic microbial communities are important to modern microbialite development in Pavilion Lake. However, questions remain as to the relationship between changing light levels within the lake, variation in microbialite macro-structure, microbial consortia, and the preservation of associated biosignatures within the microbialite fabrics. The 2014 Pavilion Lake Research Project (PLRP) field program was focused on data gathering to understand these complex relationships by determining if a) light is the immediate limit to photosynthetic activity and, if so, if light is distributed around microbialites in ways that are consistent with emergent microbialite structure; and b) if at more local scales, the filamentous pink and green cyanobacterial nodular colonies identified in previous PLRP studies are centers of photosynthetic activity that create pH conditions suitable for carbonate precipitation. A diver-deployed pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometer was used to collect synoptic in situ measurements of fluorescence yield and irradiance and across microbialites, focusing on comparing flat and vertical structural elements at a range of sites and depths. As well, we collected time series measurements of photosynthetic activity and irradiance at a set depth of 18 m across three different regions in Pavilion Lake. Our initial findings suggest that all microbialite surfaces are primarily light-limited regardless of depth or location within the lake. Shore based PAM fluorometry and microelectrode profiling of diver-collected samples suggest that pink and green nodules have different photosynthetic properties and pH profiles, and that nodular growth is likely to be the primary route of calcification due to the gelatinous covering the nodule creates. On-going tests for molecular signatures and isotopic shifts will allow for

  12. International Planning for Subglacial Lake Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennicutt, M.; Priscu, J.

    2003-04-01

    As one of the last unexplored frontiers on our planet, subglacial lakes offer a unique and exciting venue for exploration and research. Over the past several years, subglacial lakes have captured the imagination of the scientific community and public, evoking images of potential exotic life forms surviving under some of the most extreme conditions on earth. Various planning activities have recognized that due to the remote and harsh conditions, that a successful subglacial lake exploration program will entail a concerted effort for a number of years. It will also require an international commitment of major financial and human resources. To begin a detailed planning process, the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) convened the Subglacial Antarctic Lake Exploration Group of Specialists (SALEGOS) in Tokyo in 2000. The group was asked to build on previous workshops and meetings to develop a plan to explore subglacial lake environments. Its mandate adopted the guiding principles as agreed in Cambridge in 1999 that the program would be interdisciplinary in scope, be designed for minimum contamination and disturbance of the subglacial lake environment, have as a goal lake entry and sample retrieval, and that the ultimate target of the program should be Lake Vostok exploration. Since its formation SALEGOS has met three times and addressed some of the more intractable issues related to subglacial lake exploration. Topics under discussion include current state-of-the-knowledge of subglacial environments, technological needs, international management and organizational strategies, a portfolio of scientific projects, "clean" requirements, and logistical considerations. In this presentation the actvities of SALEGOS will be summarized and recommendations for an international subglacial lake exploration program discussed.

  13. Spatial statistics of hydrography and water chemistry in a eutrophic boreal lake based on sounding and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppäranta, Matti; Lewis, John E; Heini, Anniina; Arvola, Lauri

    2018-06-04

    Spatial variability, an essential characteristic of lake ecosystems, has often been neglected in field research and monitoring. In this study, we apply spatial statistical methods for the key physics and chemistry variables and chlorophyll a over eight sampling dates in two consecutive years in a large (area 103 km 2 ) eutrophic boreal lake in southern Finland. In the four summer sampling dates, the water body was vertically and horizontally heterogenic except with color and DOC, in the two winter ice-covered dates DO was vertically stratified, while in the two autumn dates, no significant spatial differences in any of the measured variables were found. Chlorophyll a concentration was one order of magnitude lower under the ice cover than in open water. The Moran statistic for spatial correlation was significant for chlorophyll a and NO 2 +NO 3 -N in all summer situations and for dissolved oxygen and pH in three cases. In summer, the mass centers of the chemicals were within 1.5 km from the geometric center of the lake, and the 2nd moment radius ranged in 3.7-4.1 km respective to 3.9 km for the homogeneous situation. The lateral length scales of the studied variables were 1.5-2.5 km, about 1 km longer in the surface layer. The detected spatial "noise" strongly suggests that besides vertical variation also the horizontal variation in eutrophic lakes, in particular, should be considered when the ecosystems are monitored.

  14. Genetic diversity of wild and hatchery lake trout populations: Relevance for management and restoration in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, K.S.; Scribner, K.T.; Burnham-Curtis, M.

    2004-01-01

    The biological diversity of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in the upper Great Lakes was historically high, consisting of many recognizable morphological types and discrete spawning populations. During the 1950s and 1960s, lake trout populations were extirpated from much of the Great Lakes primarily as a result of overfishing and predation by the parasitic sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. Investigations of how genetic diversity is partitioned among remnant wild lake trout populations and hatchery broodstocks have been advocated to guide lake trout management and conservation planning. Using microsatellite genetic markers, we estimated measures of genetic diversity and the apportionment of genetic variance among 6 hatchery broodstocks and 10 wild populations representing three morphotypes (lean, humper, and siscowet). Analyses revealed that different hatchery broodstocks and wild populations contributed disproportionally to the total levels of genetic diversity. The genetic affinities of hatchery lake trout reflected the lake basins of origin of the wild source populations. The variance in allele frequency over all sampled extant wild populations was apportioned primarily on the basis of morphotype (??MT = 0.029) and secondarily among geographically dispersed populations within each morphotype (??ST = 0.024). The findings suggest that the genetic divergence reflected in recognized morphotypes and the associated ecological and physiological specialization occurred prior to the partitioning of large proglacial lakes into the Great Lakes or as a consequence of higher contemporary levels of gene flow within than among morphotypes. Information on the relative contributions of different broodstocks to total gene diversity within the regional hatchery program can be used to prioritize the broodstocks to be retained and to guide future stocking strategies. The findings highlight the importance of ecological and phenotypic diversity in Great Lakes fish communities and

  15. Unraveling the complex local-scale flows influencing ozone patterns in the southern Great Lakes of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Levy

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the complexity of various processes influencing summertime ozone levels in the southern Great Lakes region of North America. Results from the Border Air Quality and Meteorology (BAQS-Met field campaign in the summer of 2007 are examined with respect to land-lake differences and local meteorology using a large array of ground-based measurements, aircraft data, and simulation results from a high resolution (2.5 km regional air-quality model, AURAMS.

    Analyses of average ozone mixing ratio from the entire BAQS-Met intensive campaign period support previous findings that ozone levels are higher over the southern Great Lakes than over the adjacent land. However, there is great heterogeneity in the spatial distribution of surface ozone over the lakes, particularly over Lake Erie during the day, with higher levels located over the southwestern end of the lake. Model results suggest that some of these increased ozone levels are due to local emission sources in large nearby urban centers. While an ozone reservoir layer is predicted by the AURAMS model over Lake Erie at night, the land-lake differences in ozone mixing ratios are most pronounced during the night in a shallow inversion layer of about 200 m above the surface. After sunrise, these differences have a limited effect on the total mass of ozone over the lakes and land during the day, though they do cause elevated ozone levels in the lake-breeze air in some locations.

    The model also predicts a mean vertical circulation during the day with an updraft over Detroit-Windsor and downdraft over Lake St. Clair, which transports ozone up to 1500 m above ground and results in high ozone over the lake.

    Oscillations in ground-level ozone mixing ratios were observed on several nights and at several ground monitoring sites, with amplitudes of up to 40 ppbv and time periods of 15–40 min. Several possible mechanisms for these oscillations are discussed, but a

  16. The Impact of Nutrient State and Lake Depth on Top-down Control in the Pelagic Zone of Lakes: A Study of 466 Lakes from the Temperate Zone to the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, E.; Jensen, J. P.; Jensen, C.

    2003-01-01

    is unimodally related to TP and is highest in the most nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor lakes and generally higher in shallow than deep lakes, (b) the cascading effect of changes in predator control on phytoplankton decreases with increasing TP, and (c) these general patterns occur with significant variations......%, respectively, at all TP levels. Moreover, deep lakes (more than 6 m) had a higher percentage of Daphnia than shallow (less than 6 m) lakes. The median percentage of Daphnia peaked at 0.15 mg L-1 in shallow lakes and 0.09 mg L-1 in deep lakes. The assumption that fish are responsible for the unimodality...

  17. Small Boreal Lake Ecosystem Evolution under the Influence of Natural and Anthropogenic Factors: Results of Multidisciplinary Long-Term Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Shirokova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Small aquatic ecosystems of the boreal zone are known to be most sensitive indicators of on-going environmental change as well as local anthropogenic pressure, while being highly vulnerable to external impacts. Compared to rather detailed knowledge of the evolution of large and small lakes in Scandinavia and Canada, and large lakes in Eurasia, highly abundant small boreal lakes of northwest Russia have received very little attention, although they may become important centers of attraction of growing rural population in the near future. Here we present the results of a multidisciplinary, multi-annual study of a small boreal humic lake of NW Russia. A shallow (3 m and a deep (16 m site of this lake were regularly sampled for a range of chemical and biological parameters. Average multi-daily, summer-time values of the epilimnion (upper oxygenated layer of the lake provided indications of possible trends in temperature, nutrients, and bacterio-plankton concentration that revealed the local pollution impact in the shallow zone and overall environmental trend in the deep sampling point of the lake. Organic phosphorus, nitrate, and lead were found to be most efficient tracers of local anthropogenic pollution, especially visible in the surface layer of the shallow site of the lake. Cycling of trace elements between the epilimnion and hypolimnion is tightly linked to dissolved organic matter speciation and size fractionation due to the dominance of organic and organo-ferric colloids. The capacity of lake self-purification depends on the ratio of primary productivity to mineralization of organic matter. This ratio remained >1 both during winter and summer periods, which suggests a high potential of lake recovery from the input of allochthonous dissolved organic matter and local anthropogenic pollution.

  18. Hydrograph Predictions of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods From an Ice-Dammed Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, S. W.; Jacquet, J.; McGrath, D.; Koschitzki, R.; Okuinghttons, J.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the time evolution of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs), and ultimately predicting peak discharge, is crucial to mitigating the impacts of GLOFs on downstream communities and understanding concomitant surface change. The dearth of in situ measurements taken during GLOFs has left many GLOF models currently in use untested. Here we present a dataset of 13 GLOFs from Lago Cachet Dos, Aysen Region, Chile in which we detail measurements of key environmental variables (total volume drained, lake temperature, and lake inflow rate) and high temporal resolution discharge measurements at the source lake, in addition to well-constrained ice thickness and bedrock topography. Using this dataset we test two common empirical equations as well as the physically-based model of Spring-Hutter-Clarke. We find that the commonly used empirical relationships based solely on a dataset of lake volume drained fail to predict the large variability in observed peak discharges from Lago Cachet Dos. This disagreement is likely because these equations do not consider additional environmental variables that we show also control peak discharge, primarily, lake water temperature and the rate of meltwater inflow to the source lake. We find that the Spring-Hutter-Clarke model can accurately simulate the exponentially rising hydrographs that are characteristic of ice-dammed GLOFs, as well as the order of magnitude variation in peak discharge between events if the hydraulic roughness parameter is allowed to be a free fitting parameter. However, the Spring-Hutter-Clarke model over predicts peak discharge in all cases by 10 to 35%. The systematic over prediction of peak discharge by the model is related to its abrupt flood termination that misses the observed steep falling limb of the flood hydrograph. Although satisfactory model fits are produced, the range in hydraulic roughness required to obtain these fits across all events was large, which suggests that current models do not

  19. Western Alaska ESI: LAKES (Lake Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing lakes and land masses used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Western Alaska. The...

  20. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program; Meadow Creek vs. Lake Whatcom Stock Kokanee Salmon Investigations in Lake Roosevelt, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLellan, Holly

    2003-03-01

    Lake Whatcom, Washington kokanee have been stocked in Lake Roosevelt since 1987 with the primary objective of creating a self-sustaining fishery. Success has been limited by low recruitment to the fishery, low adult returns to hatcheries, and a skewed sex ratio. It was hypothesized that a stock native to the upper Columbia River might perform better than the coastal Lake Whatcom stock. Kokanee from Meadow Creek, a tributary of Kootenay Lake, British Columbia were selected as an alternative stock. Post smolts from each stock were released from Sherman Creek Hatchery in late June 2000 and repeated in 2001. Stock performance was evaluated using three measures; (1) number of returns to Sherman Creek, the primary egg collection facility, (2) the number of returns to 86 tributaries sampled and, (3) the number of returns to the creel. In two repeated experiments, neither Meadow Creek or Lake Whatcom kokanee appeared to be capable of providing a run of three-year old spawners to sustain stocking efforts. Less than 10 three-years olds from either stock were collected during the study period. Chi-square analysis indicated age two Meadow Creek kokanee returned to Sherman Creek and to other tributaries in significantly higher numbers when compared to the Lake Whatcom stock in both 2000 and 2001. However, preliminary data from the Spokane Tribe of Indians indicated that a large number of both stocks were precocial before they were stocked. The small number of hatchery three-year olds collected indicated that the current hatchery rearing and stocking methods will continue to produce a limited jacking run largely composed of precocious males and a small number of three-year olds. No kokanee from the study were collected during standard lake wide creel surveys. Supplemental creel data, including fishing derbies, test fisheries, and angler diaries, indicated anglers harvested two-year-old hatchery kokanee a month after release. The majority of the two-year old kokanee harvested

  1. The Brine Shrimp Artemia Survives in Diluted Water of Lake Bunyampaka, an Inland Saline Lake in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sserwadda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ugandan aquaculture is in the process of development; however, it requires access to an affordable live food source, such as brine shrimp Artemia. This study fits within a broader feasibility study of domestic Artemia production in salt lakes. Since Uganda is a landlocked country, the only opportunity for live water food sources lies in the salt lakes in the west of the country. This study used saline water from one of these lakes, Lake Bunyampaka (salinity 72 mg L−1. Two Artemia strains, i.e., the Great Salt Lake strain, which is the dominant strain on the market, and the Vinh Chau strain, which is by far the most inoculated strain in the world, were assayed for their survival, growth, and reproduction in diluted Lake Bunyampaka water, using natural seawater as control. The organisms were fed live freshly cultured microalgae Tetraselmis suecica ad libitum. Our study revealed that the Vinh Chau strain performed especially well in Lake Bunyampaka water diluted to 50 g L−1. The data presented in this study generate the first useful information for the future inoculation of Artemia in Lake Bunyampaka in Uganda, and hence domestic Artemia production in the country; however, further larger-scale laboratory work, followed by field trials, is still needed.

  2. A radical shift from soft-water to hard-water lake: palaeolimnological evidence from Lake Kooraste Kõverjärv, southern Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu Alliksaar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Water Framework Directive (WFD of the European Union requires the quality of all European water bodies to be examined, and aims to achieve good status by 2015. This study was initiated to assess whether a potential reference lake for identifying lake-type specific reference conditions meets the WFD requirements, of being minimally impacted by human activity during the last centuries. The sediments of Lake Kooraste Kõverjärv were analysed for diatom assemblages and sediment composition; past changes in the lake-water pH and total phosphorus were reconstructed, using quantitative models on sedimentary diatoms. The chronology of sediments was established, using spheroidal fly-ash particles stratigraphy. Palaeolimnological investigations, supported by information from historical maps, revealed that man-made changes around the lake have severely influenced its ecological conditions. The lake, which had been oligotrophic with soft and clear water before the mid-17th century, has been trans­formed into a hard-water lake by modifications to the inflow and outflow. The lake water quality has also been altered by the infiltration of nutrients from a nearby hypertrophic lake that was used for flax retting since the 19th century. Although the ecological status of the lake has remained good despite all these changes, it is still questionable whether to nominate it as a reference lake for stratified hard-water lake types.

  3. Changes in ice cover thickness and lake level of Lake Hoare, Antarctica - Implications for local climatic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Robert A., Jr.; Mckay, Christopher P.; Clow, Gary D.; Andersen, Dale T.; Simmons, George M., Jr.; Love, F. G.

    1992-01-01

    Results are reported from 10 years of ice-thickness measurements at perennially ice-covered Lake Hoare in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. The ice cover of this lake had been thinning steadily at a rate exceeding 20 cm/yr during the last decade but seems to have recently stabilized at a thickness of 3.3 m. Data concerning lake level and degree-days above freezing are presented to show the relationship between peak summer temperatures and the volume of glacier-derived meltwater entering Lake Hoare each summer. From these latter data it is inferred that peak summer temperatures have been above 0 C for a progressively longer period of time each year since 1972. Possible explanations for the thinning of the lake ice are considered. The thickness of the ice cover is determined by the balance between freezing during the winter and ablation that occurs all year but maximizes in summer. It is suggested that the term most likely responsible for the change in the ice cover thickness at Lake Hoare is the extent of summer melting, consistent with the rising lake levels.

  4. Restoring life to acidified lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, M

    1986-05-01

    In 1983 EPRI initiated the lake acidification mitigation project (LAMP) in order to examine the long-term ecosystem effects of liming lakes, and to develop a model for calculating optimal liming doses. Investigations were carried out at lakes under 3 sets of conditions: reacidification, maintenance liming and preventive maintenance liming. The research so far has indicated that liming is a safe and effective technique.

  5. Assessing Lake Level Variability and Water Availability in Lake Tana, Ethiopia using a Groundwater Flow Model and GRACE Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, E.; Dokou, Z.; Kirstetter, P. E.; Tarhule, A.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Bagtzoglou, A. C.; Hong, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Lake Tana is the source of the Blue Nile and Ethiopia's largest natural buffer against seasonal variations of rainfall. Assessing the interactions between the lake level fluctuation, hydroclimatic variabilities and anthropogenic factors is essential to detect drought conditions and identify the role of human management in controlling the Lake water balance. Via an extended record of Total Water Storage (TWS) anomalies for the period 1960-2016, a water budget model for the lake water inflow/outflow was developed. Estimates of Lake Level Altimetry (LLA) based on in-situ and satellite altimetry were composited from 1960-2016 and compared to the extended TWS anomalies, the self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI), the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the historical lake water levels and releases. In addition, the simulated lake levels and water budget from a coupled groundwater and lake model of the Lake Tana basin were compared to the above results. Combining the different approaches, the water budget of the lake can be monitored, the drought conditions can be identified and the role of human management in the lake can be determined. For instance, three major drought periods are identified, 1970 to 1977, 1979 to 1987 and 1990 to 1998, each succeeded with an interposed flooding related recovery year, i.e. 1978, 1988 and 1999. The drought/flooding events were attributed mainly to the ENSO interactions that resulted in lake level fluctuations. The period from 2002-2006 was associated with a remarkable decline of the lake level that was attributed partly in drought conditions and the full flow regulation of the Chara Chara weir at the lake outlet, initiated in 2001.

  6. Paleoenvironments, Evolution, and Geomicrobiology in a Tropical Pacific Lake: The Lake Towuti Drilling Project (TOWUTI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Hendrik; Russell, James M.; Bijaksana, Satria; Crowe, Sean; Fowle, David; Haffner, Douglas; King, John; Marwoto, Ristiyanti; Melles, Martin; von Rintelen, Thomas; Stevenson, Janelle; Watkinson, Ian; Wattrus, Nigel

    2014-05-01

    Lake Towuti (2.5°S, 121°E) is a, 560 km2, 200-m deep tectonic lake at the downstream end of the Malili lake system, a set of five, ancient (1-2 MYr) tectonic lakes in central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Lake Towuti's location in central Indonesia provides a unique opportunity to reconstruct long-term paleoclimate change in a crucially important yet understudied region- the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP), heart of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The Malili Lakes have extraordinarily high rates of floral and faunal endemism, and the lakes are surrounded by one of the most diverse tropical forests on Earth. Drilling in Lake Towuti will identify the age and origin of the lake and the environmental and climatic context that shaped the evolution of this unique lacustrine and terrestrial ecosystem. The ultramafic (ophiolitic) rocks and lateritic soils surrounding Lake Towuti provide metal substrates that feed a diverse, exotic microbial community, analogous to the microbial ecosystems that operated in the Archean Oceans. Drill core will provide unique insight into long-term changes in this ecosystem, as well as microbial processes operating at depth in the sediment column. High-resolution seismic reflection data (CHIRP and airgun) combined with numerous long sediment piston cores collected from 2007-2013 demonstrate the enormous promise of Lake Towuti for an ICDP drilling campaign. Well-stratified sequences of up to 150 m thickness, uninterrupted by unconformities or erosional truncation, are present in multiple sub-basins within Towuti, providing ideal sites for long-term environmental, climatic, and limnological reconstructions. Multiproxy analyses of our piston cores document a continuous and detailed record of moisture balance variations in Lake Towuti during the past 60 kyr BP. In detail our datasets show that wet conditions and rainforest ecosystems in central Indonesia persisted during Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS3) and the Holocene, and were interrupted by severe

  7. Review Article: Lake and breach hazard assessment for moraine-dammed lakes: an example from the Cordillera Blanca (Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Emmer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs and related debris flows represent a significant threat in high mountainous areas across the globe. It is necessary to quantify this threat so as to mitigate their catastrophic effects. Complete GLOF hazard assessment incorporates two phases: the probability of water release from a given glacial lake is estimated through lake and breach hazard assessment while the endangered areas are identified during downstream hazard assessment. This paper outlines a number of methods of lake and breach hazard assessment, which can be grouped into three categories: qualitative, of which we outline eight; semi-quantitative, of which we outline two; and quantitative, of which we outline three. It is considered that five groups of critical parameters are essential for an accurate regionally focused hazard assessment method for moraine-dammed lakes in the Cordillera Blanca. These comprise the possibility of dynamic slope movements into the lake, the possibility of a flood wave from a lake situated upstream, the possibility of dam rupture following a large earthquake, the size of the dam freeboard (or ratio of dam freeboard, and a distinction between natural dams and those with remedial work. It is shown that none of the summarised methods uses all these criteria with, at most, three of the five considered by the outlined methods. A number of these methods were used on six selected moraine-dammed lakes in the Cordillera Blanca: lakes Quitacocha, Checquiacocha, Palcacocha, Llaca, Rajucolta, and Tararhua. The results have been compared and show that each method has certain advantages and disadvantages when used in this region. These methods demonstrate that the most hazardous lake is Lake Palcacocha.

  8. Technologies for lake restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut KLAPPER

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Lakes are suffering from different stress factors and need to be restored using different approaches. The eutrophication remains as the main water quality management problem for inland waters: both lakes and reservoirs. The way to curb the degradation is to stop the nutrient sources and to accelerate the restoration with help of in-lake technologies. Especially lakes with a long retention time need (eco- technological help to decrease the nutrient content in the free water. The microbial and other organic matter from sewage and other autochthonous biomasses, causes oxygen depletion, which has many adverse effects. In less developed countries big reservoirs function as sewage treatment plants. Natural aeration solves problems only partly and many pollutants tend to accumulate in the sediments. The acidification by acid rain and by pyrite oxidation has to be controlled by acid neutralizing technologies. Addition of alkaline chemicals is useful only for soft waters, and technologies for (microbial alkalinization of very acidic hardwater mining lakes are in development. The corrective measures differ from those in use for eutrophication control. The salinization and water shortage mostly occurs if more water is used than available. L. Aral, L. Tschad, the Dead Sea or L. Nasser belong to waters with most severe environmental problems on a global scale. Their hydrologic regime needs to be evaluated. The inflow of salt water at the bottom of some mining lakes adds to stability of stratification, and thus accumulation of hydrogen sulphide in the monimolimnion of the meromictic lakes. Destratification, which is the most used technology, is only restricted applicable because of the dangerous concentrations of the byproducts of biological degradation. The contamination of lakes with hazardous substances from industry and agriculture require different restoration technologies, including subhydric isolation and storage, addition of nutrients for better self

  9. Limnology of Eifel maar lakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scharf, Burkhard W; Björk, Sven

    1992-01-01

    ... : Species composition & seasonal periodicity - Qualitative & quantitative investigations on cladoceran zooplankton of oligotrophic maar lakes - Population dynamics of pelagic copepods in maar lakes - Population dynamics...

  10. Comparative limnology of strip-mine lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, J D

    1964-01-01

    Lakes were classified according to chemical properties. The concentration of the ferric iron oxides was responsible for a reddish-black turbidity which, in turn, played a major role in the thermal stratification of red strip-mine lakes. Owing to the lack of measurable turbidity and as a result of selective absorption of visible solar radiation, other strip-mine lakes appeared blue in color. The annual heat budget and the summer heat budget are essentially equivalent under saline conditions. Regardless of the physical and chemical conditions of the strip-mine lakes, heat income was a function of the circulating water mass. The progressive oxidation and precipitation of the iron oxides is the key to the classification of strip-mine lakes.

  11. Predicting the effects of climate change on trophic status of three morphologically varying lakes: Implications for lake restoration and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Dennis; Hamilton, David P.; Pilditch, Conrad A.

    2011-01-01

    To quantify the effects of a future climate on three morphologically different lakes that varied in trophic status from oligo-mesotrophic to highly eutrophic, we applied the one-dimensional lake ecosystem model DYRESM-CAEDYM to oligo-mesotrophic Lake Okareka, eutrophic Lake Rotoehu, both in the t....... Therefore, future climate effects should be taken into account in the long-term planning and implementation of lake management as strategies may need to be refined and adapted to preserve or improve the present-day lake water quality....

  12. "Measuring up" to ethical standards in service delivery to college students on the Autism Spectrum: A practical application of Powell's model for ethical practices in clinical phonetics and linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Amy L; Rohland, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    This paper examined an interdisciplinary college-based support programme, the Communication Coaching Program (CCP), designed for students diagnosed on the autism spectrum in light of six ethical constructs described by Powell. Collecting data to monitor the successes and ongoing needs of individual participants in the programme is of vital importance, of course, but only addresses a portion of the efficacy question. In addition, the authors, who co-direct the programme and represent different professional expertise and perspectives, recognize the importance of determining whether their evolving intervention model has also been successful in meeting the ethical standards of their respective professions. Careful review of the 4 years of the CCP's operation in terms of ethical constructs has yielded evidence that the CCP, although based on sound principles of theory and scholarship, should be further individualized to meet the particular needs of participants diagnosed with deficits in social communication and executive functioning skills.

  13. Geophysical investigations of the Olonium Roman site (Northern Como Lake)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlsan, Ermanno; Biella, Giancarlo; Boniolo, Graziano; Caporusso, Donatella; de Franco, Roberto; Lozej, Alfredo; Veronese, Luigi

    1999-03-01

    The study area is located at S. Agata (Gera Lario), a small center at the northern end of Como Lake, near the junction of Valchiavenna and Valtellina Valleys. This site played a strategic role since ancient times, providing the control on the communications routes to both the Como Lake and the Spluga and Septimer alpine passes. Since the end of the last century archaeological findings are reported in literature, also supported, from the early XI century, by archival documents confirming the existence of the `Olonium' settlement, an administrative and fiscal center of primary importance, as well as a parish amongst the most influential in the Como Lake area. Within an area of 45,000 m 2 an electrical survey has been carried out in conjunction with magnetic and GPR investigations. These studies have indicated the presence of a number of sub-areas characterized by significant anomalies defined by the overlapping of the results obtained from two or more geophysical methods. In two of such sub-areas, excavation tests have been conducted, which have brought to light a number of archaeological findings of interest. In one of the two sub-areas, which is characterized by the superimposition of electrical and radar anomalies, a deposit of large pebbles has been found. The origin of this deposit has not been ascertained, whether it is of fluvial origin, related to the deviation of the Adda river in the Pian di Spagna region in Roman times, or it is part of reclamation works, still of Roman times, of paleolacustrine marshes. The overlapping stratigraphy, however, suggests the development of fluvial channels between Roman and Low-Medieval times. In the other sub-area, excavations were carried out on sites defined by electrical and radar anomalies, and confirmed by the results from magnetic survey. The excavations brought to light, below the fluvial deposits, a large medieval edifice, which could be identified as the S. Stefano church abandoned in 1444. The church is built on

  14. Ecology of Meromictic Lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulati, R.D.; Zadereev, E.S.; Degermendzhy, A.G.

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents recent advances in the research on meromictic lakes and a state-of-the art overview of this area. After an introduction to the terminology and geographic distribution of meromictic lakes, three concise chapters describe their physical, chemical and biological features. The

  15. Lake water quality: Chapter 4 in A synthesis of aquatic science for management of Lakes Mead and Mohave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietjen, Todd; Holdren, G. Chris; Rosen, Michael R.; Veley, Ronald J.; Moran, Michael J.; Vanderford, Brett; Wong, Wai Hing; Drury, Douglas D.

    2012-01-01

    Given the importance of the availability and quality of water in Lake Mead, it has become one of the most intensely sampled and studied bodies of water in the United States. As a result, data are available from sampling stations across the lake (fig. 4-1 and see U.S. Geological Survey Automated Water-Quality Platforms) to provide information on past and current (2012) water-quality conditions and on invasive species that influence—and are affected by—water quality. Water quality in Lakes Mead and Mohave generally exceeds standards set by the State of Nevada to protect water supplies for public uses: drinking water, aquatic ecosystem health, recreation, or agricultural irrigation. In comparison to other reservoirs studied by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for a national lake assessment (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2010), Lake Mead is well within the highest or ‘good’ category for recreation and aquatic health (see U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Lakes Assessment and Lake Mead for more details). While a small part of the lake, particularly Las Vegas Bay, is locally influenced by runoff from urbanized tributaries such as Las Vegas Wash, contaminant loading in the lake as a whole is low compared to other reservoirs in the nation, which are influenced by runoff from more heavily urbanized watersheds (Rosen and Van Metre, 2010).

  16. Changes in lake levels, salinity and the biological community of Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA), 1847-1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    Great Salt Lake is the fourth largest terminal lake in the world, with an area of about 6000 square kilometers at its historic high elevation. Since its historic low elevation of 1277.52 meters in 1963, the lake has risen to a new historic high elevation of 1283.77 meters in 1986-1987, a net increase of about 6.25 meters. About 60 percent of this increase, 3.72 meters, has occurred since 1982 in response to greater than average precipitation and less than average evaporation. Variations in salinity have resulted in changes in the composition of the aquatic biological community which consists of bacteria, protozoa, brine shrimp and brine flies. These changes were particularly evident following the completion of a causeway in 1959 which divided the lake. Subsequent salinities in the north part of the lake have ranged from 16 to 29 percent and in the south part from 6 to 28 percent. Accompanying the rise in lake elevation from 1982 to 1987 have been large decreases in salinity of both parts of the lake. This has resulted in changes in the biota from obligate halophiles, such as Dunaliella salina and D. viridis, to opportunistic forms such as a blue-green alga (Nodularia spumigena). The distribution and abundance of brine shrimp (Artemia salina) in the lake also have followed closely the salinity. In 1986, when the salinity of the south part of the lake was about 6 percent, a population of brackish-water killifish (Lucania parva) was observed along the shore near inflow from a spring. ?? 1990 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  17. Lake Chapala change detection using time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Caloca, Alejandra; Tapia-Silva, Felipe-Omar; Escalante-Ramírez, Boris

    2008-10-01

    The Lake Chapala is the largest natural lake in Mexico. It presents a hydrological imbalance problem caused by diminishing intakes from the Lerma River, pollution from said volumes, native vegetation and solid waste. This article presents a study that allows us to determine with high precision the extent of the affectation in both extension and volume reduction of the Lake Chapala in the period going from 1990 to 2007. Through satellite images this above-mentioned period was monitored. Image segmentation was achieved through a Markov Random Field model, extending the application towards edge detection. This allows adequately defining the lake's limits as well as determining new zones within the lake, both changes pertaining the Lake Chapala. Detected changes are related to a hydrological balance study based on measuring variables such as storage volumes, evapotranspiration and water balance. Results show that the changes in the Lake Chapala establish frail conditions which pose a future risk situation. Rehabilitation of the lake requires a hydrologic balance in its banks and aquifers.

  18. The bird species of Kumasir lake (Kahramanmaras-Turkey) and a view of environmental ethics on sustainable wetland management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inac, S; Gorucu, O; Pinar, A H

    2008-05-01

    Kumasir lake is located next to towns of Donuklu and Fatih, nine km west of Kahramanmaras city center the region of east Mediterranean, Turkey This lake is of crucial importance from the point of native and immigrant birds. We located 17 birdspecies in this area during our observations carried out in the spring and autumn of 2005-2006. These were Ciconia ciconia L., Anas platyrhynchos L., Accipiter nisus L., Accipiter brevipes L., Fulica atra L., Columba palumbus L., Merops apiaster L., Upupa epops L., Alauda arvensis L., Motacilla flava L., Turdus merula L., Acrocephalus scirpaceus L., Regulus regulus L., Garrulus glandarius L., Corvus corax L., Fringilla coelebs L., Hirundo rustica L.. Among observed 17 species; 6 of them were immigrant and remaining 11 of them were native birds. Kumasir lake is surrounded by wetland of Amik and Gavur lake. Since it was greatly dried, it was transformed to farmland. Consequently the birds lost most of theirnests and settlements. However not taken in the care of environmental ethic values, the wastewaters of the villages drain to lake reservoir; herbicides and insecticides used for agriculture are polluting the water reeds have been burned, the lake's reeds are getting dry by the irrigation for the farmland. So, the wetland ecosystem is being affected negatively by these factors. On the other hand, the birds are exposed to illegal and unlawful hunting. For this reasons, this lake must be taken into a management regime of sustainable wetland (protection profiting balance) and used techniques of participation planning via the process of sustainable natural resources and planning.

  19. The food of the lake trout (Cristivomer namaycush namaycush) and of the lawyer (Lota maculosa) of Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oosten, John; Deason, Hilary J.

    1938-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the contents of 4,979 lake trout stomachs (593 examined in 1930 and 1,253 collected in 1931 from southern Lake Michigan, 1,446 from northern Lake Michigan and 1,687 from Green Bay in 1932), and of a total of 1,528 lawyer stomachs (172 examined in 1930 and 734 collected in 1931 from southern Lake Michigan, 612 from northern Lake Michigan and 10 from Green Bay in 1932). The food of the trout consisted of 98 per cent by volume of fish of which Cottidae and Coregonidae were the principal constituents. Cottidae were dominant in southern Lake Michigan (72 per cent by volume), Coregonidae in northern Lake Michigan (51 per cent) but the lake shiner, Notropis atherinides, was most important in Green Bay in the spring of the year (64 per cent). The lawyer food consisted of 74 per cent by volume of fish and 26 per cent invertebrates. Dominant items were Cottidae (76 per cent by volume) in southern Lake Michigan, Coregonidae (51 per cent) and Pontoporeia (37 per cent) in northern Lake Michigan, and Percopsis (34 per cent) and Mysis (26 per cent) in Green Bay. Data are also presented on the frequency of occurrence (number of stomachs) of the food items and its variation with the sizes of the trout and lawyers, depths of water, seasons, and localities; on the number of individual fish of each species destroyed by the trout and lawyers; and on the calculated volume of the food fishes preceding digestion. The lake trout and lawyer are competitors for the same food, are both predators of the commercially important Coregonidae, and the lawyer through its consumption of invertebrates is a food competitor of the Coregonidae.

  20. Mirror Lake: Past, present and future: Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likens, Gene E.; LaBaugh, James W.; Winter, Thomas C.; Likens, Gene E.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter discusses the hydrological and biogeochemical characteristics of Mirror Lake and the changes that resulted from air-land-water interactions and human activities. Since the formation of Mirror Lake, both the watershed and the lake have undergone many changes, such as vegetation development and basin filling. These changes are ongoing, and Mirror Lake is continuing along an aging pathway and ultimately, it will fill with sediment and no longer be a lake. The chapter also identifies major factors that affected the hydrology and biogeochemistry of Mirror Lake: acid rain, atmospheric deposition of lead and other heavy metals, increased human settlement around the lake, the construction of an interstate highway through the watershed of the Northeast Tributary, the construction of an access road through the West and Northeast watersheds to the lake, and climate change. The chapter also offers future recommendations for management and protection of Mirror Lake.

  1. Hydrogeologic setting, water budget, and preliminary analysis of ground-water exchange at Lake Starr, a seepage lake in Polk County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swancar, Amy; Lee, T.M.; O'Hare, T. M.

    2000-01-01

    Lake Starr, a 134-acre seepage lake of multiple-sinkhole origin on the Lake Wales Ridge of central Florida, was the subject of a detailed water-budget study from August 1996 through July 1998. The study monitored the effects of hydrogeologic setting, climate, and ground-water pumping on the water budget and lake stage. The hydrogeologic setting of the Lake Starr basin differs markedly on the two sides of the lake. Ground water from the surficial aquifer system flows into the lake from the northwest side of the basin, and lake water leaks out to the surficial aquifer system on the southeast side of the basin. Lake Starr and the surrounding surficial aquifer system recharge the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer. The rate of recharge to the Upper Floridan aquifer is determined by the integrity of the intermediate confining unit and by the downward head gradient between the two aquifers. On the inflow side of the lake, the intermediate confining unit is more continuous, allowing ground water from the surficial aquifer system to flow laterally into the lake. Beneath the lake and on the southeast side of the basin, breaches in the intermediate confining unit enhance downward flow to the Upper Floridan aquifer, so that water flows both downward and laterally away from the lake through the ground-water flow system in these areas. An accurate water budget, including evaporation measured by the energy-budget method, was used to calculate net ground-water flow to the lake, and to do a preliminary analysis of the relation of net ground-water fluxes to other variables. Water budgets constructed over different timeframes provided insight on processes that affect ground-water interactions with Lake Starr. Weekly estimates of net ground-water flow provided evidence for the occurrence of transient inflows from the nearshore basin, as well as the short-term effects of head in the Upper Floridan aquifer on ground-water exchange with the lake. Monthly water budgets showed the effects

  2. Evidence of sound production by spawning lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in lakes Huron and Champlain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Higgs, Dennis; Binder, Thomas R.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Buchinger, Tyler John; Brege, Linnea; Bruning, Tyler; Farha, Steve A.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2018-01-01

    Two sounds associated with spawning lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in lakes Huron and Champlain were characterized by comparing sound recordings to behavioral data collected using acoustic telemetry and video. These sounds were named growls and snaps, and were heard on lake trout spawning reefs, but not on a non-spawning reef, and were more common at night than during the day. Growls also occurred more often during the spawning period than the pre-spawning period, while the trend for snaps was reversed. In a laboratory flume, sounds occurred when male lake trout were displaying spawning behaviors; growls when males were quivering and parallel swimming, and snaps when males moved their jaw. Combining our results with the observation of possible sound production by spawning splake (Salvelinus fontinalis × Salvelinus namaycush hybrid), provides rare evidence for spawning-related sound production by a salmonid, or any other fish in the superorder Protacanthopterygii. Further characterization of these sounds could be useful for lake trout assessment, restoration, and control.

  3. Great Lakes Hyperspectral Water Quality Instrument Suite for Airborne Monitoring of Algal Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekki, John; Leshkevich, George; Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Flatico, Joseph; Prokop, Norman; Kojima, Jun; Anderson, Robert; Demers, James; Krasowski, Michael

    2007-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center and NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab are collaborating to utilize an airborne hyperspectral imaging sensor suite to monitor Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in the western basin of Lake Erie. The HABs are very dynamic events as they form, spread and then disappear within a 4 to 8 week time period in late summer. They are a concern for human health, fish and wildlife because they can contain blue green toxic algae. Because of this toxicity there is a need for the blooms to be continually monitored. This situation is well suited for aircraft based monitoring because the blooms are a very dynamic event and they can spread over a large area. High resolution satellite data is not suitable by itself because it will not give the temporal resolution due to the infrequent overpasses of the quickly changing blooms. A custom designed hyperspectral imager and a point spectrometer mounted on aT 34 aircraft have been used to obtain data on an algal bloom that formed in the western basin of Lake Erie during September 2006. The sensor suite and operations will be described and preliminary hyperspectral data of this event will be presented

  4. Money, management, and manipulation: Environmental mobilization in the Great Lakes basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    This document examines variations in the responses of communities to local pollution problems affecting Great Lakes water quality. The study is based on research conducted at six such communities, at sites that have been designated as 'Areas of Concern' by the International Joint Commission. The roles of economic dependency or diversity, access to scientific and political resources, community size, social visibility of pollution, and consciousness- and unconsciousness-making activities are examined as they relate to grass roots political mobilization in response to local, lake-related environmental issues. Of particular interest is the participation of national and regional environmental social movement organizations, Federal, State/Provincial and local governments, and local industry. National and regional environmental social movement organizations appear to have a greater mobilizing impact on communities that are closest to the urban centers in which these organizations are based. State and Provincial environmental agencies play a centrist role in promoting minimal remediation. Local governments typically oppose the definition of local environmental disorganization as a problem

  5. Climate Change Adaptation Decision Making for Glacial Lake Outburst Floods From Palcacocha Lake in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, A. D.; McKinney, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change has accelerated glacial retreat in high altitude glaciated regions of Peru leading to the growth and formation of glacier lakes. Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF) are sudden events triggered by an earthquake, avalanche into the lake or other shock that causes a sudden outflow of water. These floods are catastrophic because of their sudden onset, the difficulty predicting them, and enormous quantity of water and debris rapidly flooding downstream areas. Palcacocha Lake in the Peruvian Andes has experienced accelerated growth since it burst in 1941 and threatens the major city of Huaraz and surrounding communities. Since the 1941 flood stakeholders have advocated for projects to adapt to the increasing threat posed by Palcacocha Lake. Nonetheless, discussions surrounding projects for Palcacocha have not included a rigorous analysis of the potential consequences of a flood, probability of an event, or costs of mitigation projects. This work presents the first step to rationally analyze the risks posed by Palcacocha Lake and the various adaptation projects proposed. In this work the authors use decision analysis to asses proposed adaptation measures that would mitigate damage in downstream communities from a GLOF. We use an existing hydrodynamic model of the at-risk area to determine how adaptation projects will affect downstream flooding. Flood characteristics are used in the HEC-FIA software to estimate fatalities and injuries from an outburst flood, which we convert to monetary units using the value of a statistical life. We combine the monetary consequences of a GLOF with the cost of the proposed projects and a diffuse probability distribution for the likelihood of an event to estimate the expected cost of the adaptation plans. From this analysis we found that lowering the lake level by 15 meters has the least expected cost of any proposal despite uncertainty in the effect of lake lowering on flooding downstream.

  6. Diverse lavas from closely spaced volcanoes drawing from a common parent: Emmons Lake Volcanic Center, Eastern Aleutian Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, M.; Miller, T.; Waythomas, C.; Trusdell, F.; Calvert, A.; Layer, P.

    2009-01-01

    Emmons Lake Volcanic Center (ELVC) on the lower Alaskan Peninsula is one of the largest and most diverse volcanic centers in the Aleutian Arc. Since the Middle Pleistocene, eruption of ~ 350 km3 of basalt through rhyolite has produced a 30 km, arc front chain of nested calderas and overlapping stratovolcanoes. ELVC has experienced as many as five major caldera-forming eruptions, the most recent, at ~ 27 ka, produced ~ 50 km3 of rhyolitic ignimbrite and ash fall. These violent silicic events were interspersed with less energetic, but prodigious, outpourings of basalt through dacite. Holocene eruptions are mostly basaltic andesite to andesite and historically recorded activity includes over 40 eruptions within the last 200 yr, all from Pavlof volcano, the most active site in the Aleutian Arc. Geochemical and geophysical observations suggest that although all ELVC eruptions derive from a common clinopyroxene + spinel + plagioclase fractionating high-aluminum basalt parent in the lower crust, magma follows one of two closely spaced, but distinct paths to the surface. Under the eastern end of the chain, magma moves rapidly and cleanly through a relatively young (~ 28 ka), hydraulically connected dike plexus. Steady supply, short magma residence times, and limited interaction with crustal rocks preserve the geochemistry of deep crustal processes. Below the western part of the chain, magma moves haltingly through a long-lived (~ 500 ka) and complex intrusive column in which many generations of basaltic to andesitic melts have mingled and fractionated. Buoyant, silicic melts periodically separate from the lower parts of the column to feed voluminous eruptions of dacite and rhyolite. Mafic lavas record a complicated passage through cumulate zones and hydrous silicic residues as manifested by disequilibrium phenocryst textures, incompatible element enrichments, and decoupling of REEs and HFSEs ratios. Such features are absent in mafic lavas from the younger part of the chain

  7. Identifying Watershed Regions Sensitive to Soil Erosion and Contributing to Lake Eutrophication—A Case Study in the Taihu Lake Basin (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen; Ma, Ronghua; He, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Taihu Lake in China is suffering from severe eutrophication partly due to non-point pollution from the watershed. There is an increasing need to identify the regions within the watershed that most contribute to lake water degradation. The selection of appropriate temporal scales and lake indicators is important to identify sensitive watershed regions. This study selected three eutrophic lake areas, including Meiliang Bay (ML), Zhushan Bay (ZS), and the Western Coastal region (WC), as well as multiple buffer zones next to the lake boundary as the study sites. Soil erosion intensity was designated as a watershed indicator, and the lake algae area was designated as a lake quality indicator. The sensitive watershed region was identified based on the relationship between these two indicators among different lake divisions for a temporal sequence from 2000 to 2012. The results show that the relationship between soil erosion modulus and lake quality varied among different lake areas. Soil erosion from the two bay areas was more closely correlated with water quality than soil erosion from the WC region. This was most apparent at distances of 5 km to 10 km from the lake, where the r2 was as high as 0.764. Results indicate that soil erosion could be used as an indicator for identifying key watershed protection areas. Different lake areas need to be considered separately due to differences in geographical features, land use, and the corresponding effects on lake water quality. PMID:26712772

  8. Identifying Watershed Regions Sensitive to Soil Erosion and Contributing to Lake Eutrophication--A Case Study in the Taihu Lake Basin (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen; Ma, Ronghua; He, Bin

    2015-12-24

    Taihu Lake in China is suffering from severe eutrophication partly due to non-point pollution from the watershed. There is an increasing need to identify the regions within the watershed that most contribute to lake water degradation. The selection of appropriate temporal scales and lake indicators is important to identify sensitive watershed regions. This study selected three eutrophic lake areas, including Meiliang Bay (ML), Zhushan Bay (ZS), and the Western Coastal region (WC), as well as multiple buffer zones next to the lake boundary as the study sites. Soil erosion intensity was designated as a watershed indicator, and the lake algae area was designated as a lake quality indicator. The sensitive watershed region was identified based on the relationship between these two indicators among different lake divisions for a temporal sequence from 2000 to 2012. The results show that the relationship between soil erosion modulus and lake quality varied among different lake areas. Soil erosion from the two bay areas was more closely correlated with water quality than soil erosion from the WC region. This was most apparent at distances of 5 km to 10 km from the lake, where the r² was as high as 0.764. Results indicate that soil erosion could be used as an indicator for identifying key watershed protection areas. Different lake areas need to be considered separately due to differences in geographical features, land use, and the corresponding effects on lake water quality.

  9. Small-scale distribution and diel vertical migration of zooplankton in a shallow lake (Lake Naardermeer, the Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerbin, S.; Balayla, D.; Van de Bund, W.J.

    2003-01-01

    Small scale distribution and diurnal migration of zooplankton were investigated in lake Naardermeer, a shallow lake largely covered by uniform Chara beds. For sampling, pattern samplers with a number of inverted funnels facing towards the lake bottom and held in a frame were used. Samplers were

  10. Ice formation in subglacial Lake Vostok, Central Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchez, R.; Petit, J. R.; Tison, J.-L.; Jouzel, J.; Verbeke, V.

    2000-09-01

    The investigation of chemical and isotopic properties in the lake ice from the Vostok ice core gives clues to the mechanisms involved in ice formation within the lake. A small lake water salinity can be reasonably deduced from the chemical data. Possible implications for the water circulation of Lake Vostok are developed. The characteristics of the isotopic composition of the lake ice indicate that ice formation in Lake Vostok occurred by frazil ice crystal generation due to supercooling as a consequence of rising waters and a possible contrast in water salinity. Subsequent consolidation of the developed loose ice crystals results in the accretion of ice to the ceiling of the lake.

  11. Lake ecosystem response to climate change 8200 years ago. A multi-proxy study at Lake Højby Sø, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Noe-Nygaard, Nanna

    2009-01-01

    of climate and the effects of human activities. These problems also complicate the prediction of possible future climate influence on lake ecology. A way of circumventing these problems is the use of lake sediment records which contain a wealth of information about past lake history over long time scales...... productivity as reflected by high algal pigment accumulation rates in the period c. 8400–7950 cal yr BP. After c. 7950 cal yr BP algal productivity declined somewhat but the lake did not return to its pre-8400 cal yr BP conditions remaining a more productive and nutrient rich lake than before the climate...... was of more importance for lake ecosystem process than the change in air temperature....

  12. A Systematic Study of Zerbar Lake Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Reza; Oveis Torabi, Seyed; Forman Asgharzadeh, Deonna

    2017-04-01

    The beautiful lake of Zerbar, located near Marivan City at the west of Iran, is a freshwater lake with an area of 20 km2 and average depth of 5 meters. The lake is created by regional tectonic activities and is mainly fed with natural spring water from bottom. During the past three decades, regional development has caused much disturbance to the natural environment of the lake and its watershed. Rescuing the lake is crucial to the sustainability of the whole region. The study of Zerbar Restoration was performed with the aim to restore its health indicators. Variety of human activities in the watershed, as well as the multidisciplinary nature of lake restoration studies, made it necessary to develop a systematic approach to conduct the study. In Step I of restoration studies, satellite images were investigated to identify the historical changes of watershed during the past 30 years. Meanwhile, documents since 50 years ago were studied. Results indicate that farmland and graze land areas have been relatively constant during the past 50 years. Also, the area of lake, its riparian canes and floating plants have not changed much. In fact, the only significant land use change observed was the significant spread of Marivan City that has stretched toward the lake. The main physical variation to the lake has been elevating the southern edge of the lake by a constructing a landfill dam which was done to control the lake's overflow discharge for irrigation of downstream farmland development. Step II consists of studies performed by disciplines of water resources, hydrogeology, water quality, wetland and watershed ecology, agriculture, animal farming and fishery. Study results indicate that eutrophication (TSL>100), mainly caused by sewage from Marivan City and the surrounding rural areas has been the main reason for lake ecosystem degradation. DPSIR framework, as a novel approach in lake restoration, was applied to synthesize the study results of different disciplines in a

  13. A model for landscape development in terms of shoreline displacement, sediment dynamics, lake formation, and lake choke-up processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brydsten, Lars

    2006-12-01

    This project expands on the study 'A mathematical model for lake ontogeny in terms of filling with sediments and macrophyte vegetation' published in SKB TR-04-09. As the title suggests, this older model focuses on lakes (existing and future lakes). This newer study extends the model to examine progress of terrestrial objects such as mires or arable land. Furthermore, this newer model could simulate progress of the areas close to the objects. These areas are divided according to their watershed boundaries. If two or more objects are situated along the same brook, the lower situated area is defined as its catchments minus the catchments of the closest higher situated object. The model encourages the study of an object situated in the sea from the time of deglaciation (c. 10,000 BP) to the time for the object due to positive shore displacement is situated on land or that a lake object has progressed to a wetland, however not longer than 18,000 AP. The model focuses on the object and its location in 100-year steps. The model is written in VisualBasic and is divided into two modules, a marine module and a lake module. The marine module deals with shoreline displacement, erosion and accumulation of postglacial fine-grained sediments and erosion of glacial clay. Inputs to the marine module are a digital elevation model (DEM), a digital map showing the extension of the objects and a marine quaternary map. The two maps are in raster formats with exactly the same formats (extension and cell sizes) as the DEM. For each time step the water depths at each pixel are calculated using a shore displacement equation. Next, the water depth changes due to sediment dynamics are calculated using the following rules; accumulation of fine-grained sediments are allowed if the pixel is situated within a future lake object; erosion of fine-grained sediment is allowed if the pixel is not within a future lake object and the marine quaternary map shows occurrence of postglacial sediments and

  14. A model for landscape development in terms of shoreline displacement, sediment dynamics, lake formation, and lake choke-up processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brydsten, Lars [Umeaa University, Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    This project expands on the study 'A mathematical model for lake ontogeny in terms of filling with sediments and macrophyte vegetation' published in SKB TR-04-09. As the title suggests, this older model focuses on lakes (existing and future lakes). This newer study extends the model to examine progress of terrestrial objects such as mires or arable land. Furthermore, this newer model could simulate progress of the areas close to the objects. These areas are divided according to their watershed boundaries. If two or more objects are situated along the same brook, the lower situated area is defined as its catchments minus the catchments of the closest higher situated object. The model encourages the study of an object situated in the sea from the time of deglaciation (c. 10,000 BP) to the time for the object due to positive shore displacement is situated on land or that a lake object has progressed to a wetland, however not longer than 18,000 AP. The model focuses on the object and its location in 100-year steps. The model is written in VisualBasic and is divided into two modules, a marine module and a lake module. The marine module deals with shoreline displacement, erosion and accumulation of postglacial fine-grained sediments and erosion of glacial clay. Inputs to the marine module are a digital elevation model (DEM), a digital map showing the extension of the objects and a marine quaternary map. The two maps are in raster formats with exactly the same formats (extension and cell sizes) as the DEM. For each time step the water depths at each pixel are calculated using a shore displacement equation. Next, the water depth changes due to sediment dynamics are calculated using the following rules; accumulation of fine-grained sediments are allowed if the pixel is situated within a future lake object; erosion of fine-grained sediment is allowed if the pixel is not within a future lake object and the marine quaternary map shows occurrence of postglacial

  15. Morphometry and Lens of Eyes Bilih Fish (mystacoleucus padangensis, Bleeker) from Lake Toba, North Sumatra and Lake Singkarak, West Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, A.

    2018-04-01

    This research has been carried out 2015. Bilih fish today need conservation and attention for sustainability. Habitat this fish is treated by human activities in Lake Singkarak, West Sumatera and Lake Toba in North Sumatera. The objectives of the research are describes morphometry of the body and relation with lens of eyes. The methods of the reasearch for measure all parts of surface body fish according www.fishbase.org. For measure and chemical composition of lens of eyes Bilih Fish (M. padangensis) are according Razak (2005). T he result of the research are indicated the size of morphology body Bilih Fish from Lake Toba and from Lake Singkarak is diffrent. Furthermore, diameter of lens is trend linier follow the growth of the body Bilih Fish from Lake Singkarak and Lake Toba. The chemical composition of lens of eyes Bilih Fish from Lake Singkarak contains Sulfur until 73.77% per 100 ppm, another substances like Calcium, Silicone, Magnesium, Phosporus 4.09%-4.83% per 100 ppm. The chemical composition of lens of eyes Bilih Fish from Lake Toba contains Sulfur only 50.08% per 100 ppm, another substances like Kalium, Calcium, Silicone, Magnesium, Phosporus 1.09%-10.43% per 100 ppm. Kalium substance only found in lens of eyes Bilih Fish from Lake Toba. As conclusion, morphometry body Bilih Fish from Lake Toba is bigger better than Bilih Fish from Lake Singkarak and chemical composition lens of eyes Bilih Fish from Lake Toba is influenced by environmental waters factors.

  16. Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence Seaway Regional Transportation Study for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Phase II. Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    center in Hamilton and the public utilities in Toronto. The vast majority of these shipments are loaded at U.S. Lake Erie ports. (2) The Great Lakes...fish spawning, including egg survival, behavior, distribution of species and spawning, nursery and food/cover habitats in wetlands. Although fish...30P 305 CHICAGO 0 IR 21 41 74 43 141 16P 16P CALUMFT HR 0 7S9 3%0 %On IOA4 631 1934 240A 2414 INDIANA HA 0 1 4 7 10 13 1r is BURNS HOP 0 115 65 , A ?07

  17. Feeding ecology of lake whitefish larvae in eastern Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Wallbridge, Tim; Chiavelli, Rich

    2009-01-01

    We examined the feeding ecology of larval lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in Chaumont Bay, Lake Ontario, during April and May 2004-2006. Larvae were collected with towed ichthyoplankton nets offshore and with larval seines along the shoreline. Larval feeding periodicity was examined from collections made at 4-h intervals over one 24-h period in 2005. Inter-annual variation in diet composition (% dry weight) was low, as was spatial variation among collection sites within the bay. Copepods (81.4%), primarily cyclopoids (59.1%), were the primary prey of larvae over the 3-year period. Cladocerans (8.1%; mainly daphnids, 6.7%) and chironomids (7.3%) were the other major prey consumed. Larvae did not exhibit a preference for any specific prey taxa. Food consumption of lake whitefish larvae was significantly lower at night (i.e., 2400 and 0400 h). Substantial variation in diet composition occurred over the 24-h diel study. For the 24-h period, copepods were the major prey consumed (50.4%) and their contribution in the diet ranged from 29.3% (0400 h) to 85.9% (1200 h). Chironomids made up 33.4% of the diel diet, ranging from 8.0% (0800 h) to 69.9% (0400 h). Diel variation in the diet composition of lake whitefish larvae may require samples taken at several intervals over a 24-h period to gain adequate representation of their feeding ecology.

  18. Assessing the variability of glacier lake bathymetries and potential peak discharge based on large-scale measurements in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochachin, Alejo; Huggel, Christian; Salazar, Cesar; Haeberli, Wilfried; Frey, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Over timescales of hundreds to thousands of years ice masses in mountains produced erosion in bedrock and subglacial sediment, including the formation of overdeepenings and large moraine dams that now serve as basins for glacial lakes. Satellite based studies found a total of 8355 glacial lakes in Peru, whereof 830 lakes were observed in the Cordillera Blanca. Some of them have caused major disasters due to glacial lake outburst floods in the past decades. On the other hand, in view of shrinking glaciers, changing water resources, and formation of new lakes, glacial lakes could have a function as water reservoirs in the future. Here we present unprecedented bathymetric studies of 124 glacial lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Huallanca, Huayhuash and Raura in the regions of Ancash, Huanuco and Lima. Measurements were carried out using a boat equipped with GPS, a total station and an echo sounder to measure the depth of the lakes. Autocad Civil 3D Land and ArcGIS were used to process the data and generate digital topographies of the lake bathymetries, and analyze parameters such as lake area, length and width, and depth and volume. Based on that, we calculated empirical equations for mean depth as related to (1) area, (2) maximum length, and (3) maximum width. We then applied these three equations to all 830 glacial lakes of the Cordillera Blanca to estimate their volumes. Eventually we used three relations from the literature to assess the peak discharge of potential lake outburst floods, based on lake volumes, resulting in 3 x 3 peak discharge estimates. In terms of lake topography and geomorphology results indicate that the maximum depth is located in the center part for bedrock lakes, and in the back part for lakes in moraine material. Best correlations are found for mean depth and maximum width, however, all three empirical relations show a large spread, reflecting the wide range of natural lake bathymetries. Volumes of the 124 lakes with bathymetries amount to 0

  19. Variations of alkaline phosphatase activity and P fractions in sediments of a shallow Chinese eutrophic lake (Lake Taihu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tingxi; Wang Xiaorong; Jin Xiangcan

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) and P fractions in sediment cores and the relationship between them were studied in a shallow Chinese freshwater lake (Lake Taihu). Sediment cores were collected from four sites, characterized by different degrees of eutrophication in June 2004. Sediment P was fractionated into Fe/Al-P, Ca-P, organic P (OP), inorganic P (IP) and total P (TP). The former two species made the largest contribution to the sediment P pool. Results show that trophic status and hydrological conditions have great impact on the APA of the sediments. The order of the APA in sediments was conjectured to be: macrophyte dominated lake > transitional lake > algal dominated lake. APA profiles follow a similar downcore decreasing trend. There was a positive relationship between the APA and the TP, IP. The multiple linear regression equation of the APA and P fractions is: APA = -97 + 0.768TP - 0.985Fe/Al-P. - Characteristics of the alkaline phosphatase activity and P fractions in sediments of different trophic status lake were studied in Lake Taihu

  20. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Lakes Assessments - Attaining

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This layer shows only attaining lakes of the Integrated List. The Lakes Integrated List represents lake assessments in an integrated format for the Clean Water Act...

  1. Tides and lake-level variations in the great Patagonian lakes: Observations, modelling and geophysical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marderwald, Eric; Richter, Andreas; Horwath, Martin; Hormaechea, Jose Luis; Groh, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In Patagonia, the glacial-isostatic adjustment (GIA) to past ice-mass changes (Ivins & James 2004; Klemann et al. 2007) is of particular interest in the context of the determination of the complex regional rheology related to plate subduction in a triple-junction constellation. To further complicate the situation, GIA is overlaid with load deformation not only due to present ice mass changes but also due to water-level changes in the lakes surrounding the icefields and the ocean surrounding Patagonia. These elastic deformations affect the determination of glacial-isostatic uplift rates from GPS observations (Dietrich et al. 2010; Lange et al. 2014). Observations of lake tides and their comparison with the theoretical tidal signal have been used previously to validate predictions of ocean tidal loading and have revealed regional deviations from conventional global elastic earth models (Richter et al. 2009). In this work we investigate the tides and lake-level variations in Lago Argentino, Lago Viedma, Lago San Martín/O'Higgins and Lago Buenos Aires/General Carrera. This allows us to test, among other things, the validity of tidal loading models. We present pressure tide-gauge records from two sites in Lago Argentino extending over 2.5 years (Richter et al. 2015). These observations are complemented by lake-level records provided by the Argentine National Hydrometeorological Network. Based on these lake-level time series the principal processes affecting the lake level are identified and quantified. Lake-level changes reflecting variations in lake volume are dominated by a seasonal cycle exceeding 1 m in amplitude. Lake-volume changes occur in addition with a daily period in response to melt water influx from surrounding glaciers. In Lago Argentino sporadic lake-volume jumps are caused by bursting of the ice dam of Perito Moreno glacier. Water movements in these lakes are dominated by surface seiches reaching 20 cm in amplitude. A harmonic tidal analysis of the lake

  2. Model project for the pollution investigation of a lake. The use of nuclear techniques for environmental risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goektepe, B. G.; Borak, F.; Fowler, S.; Yilmaz Erkol, A.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental pollution monitoring and the protection of water resources are vital in terms of public health and economical consequences for many of the countries. The use of nuclear and isotopic techniques for pollution investigation of water resources on the other hand has been gaining more importance during the recent years. In recognition of the serious pollution problems of the surface water resources; a large scope multidisciplinary environmental management project with short title 'Lake Project' which is designed and developed by the group of scientists at the Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center of the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority is presented. This multidisciplinary project has various important aspects; scientific, social, economic, educational, cultural and political. Specific problem a dressed was the serious pollution of Kucukcekmece Lake due to high population and industrial growth in the region as well as creation of public awareness on the peaceful activities of the Cekmece Nuclear Research Center. The main objective was to promote the use of nuclear and isotopic techniques in the assessment of local, national and regional environmental pollution control and management. The project implementation was carried out in two phases and supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Water, biota and sediment samples were collected from several sampling stations seasonally. Some of the results are presented in tables for natural radioactivity, chemical and physical parameters. The first phases of the project has provided tools and methods for identifying types and magnitudes of contaminants in the Kucukcekmece Lake. Results obtained from the model project show that the radioactivity pollution levels have no significance in terms of human health and ecosystem. However, major problem regarding lake and marine environmental management is identified as eutrophication. This is a process of water quality degradation caused by mainly by domestic

  3. The lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the proceedings of a workshop on the Lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley that was held in conjunction with the CRP on The Use of Isotope Techniques in Lake Dynamics Investigations. The paper presents a review of the geological, hydrogeological and physical limnological setting of the lakes in the Jordan Rift Valley, Lake Hula, Lake Kinneret and the Dead Sea. This is complemented by a description of the isotope hydrology of the system that includes the use of a wide range of isotopes: oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium, carbon-14, carbon-13, chlorine isotopes, boron-11 and helium-3/4. Environmental isotope aspects of the salt balances of the lakes, their palaeolimnology and biogeochemical tracers are also presented. The scope of application of isotopic tracers is very broad and provides a clear insight into many aspects of the physical, chemical and biological limnology of the Rift Valley Lakes. (author)

  4. Successional change in the Lake Superior fish community: population trends in ciscoes, rainbow smelt, and lake trout, 1958-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Owen T.

    2012-01-01

    The Lake Superior fish community underwent massive changes in the second half of the 20th century. Those changes are largely reflected in changes in abundance of the adults of principal prey species, the ciscoes (Coregonus spp.), the invasive rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), and the principal predator, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). To better understand changes in species abundances, a comprehensive series of gillnet and bottom trawl data collected from 1958 to 2008 were examined. In the late 1950s/early 1960s, smelt abundance was at its maximum, wild lake trout was at its minimum, and an abundance of hatchery lake trout was increasing rapidly. The bloater (Coregonus hoyi) was the prevalent cisco in the lake; abundance was more than 300% greater than the next most abundant cisco, shortjaw cisco (C. zenithicus), followed by kiyi (C. kiyi) and lake cisco (C. artedi). By the mid-1960s, abundance of hatchery lake trout was nearing maximum, smelt abundance was beginning to decline, and abundances of all ciscoes declined, but especially that of shortjaw cisco and kiyi. By the late 1970s, recovery of wild lake trout stocks was well underway and abundances of hatchery lake trout and smelt were declining and the ciscoes were reaching their nadir. During 1980–1990, the fish community underwent a dramatic shift in organization and structure. The rapid increase in abundance of wild lake trout, concurrent with a rapid decline in hatchery lake trout, signaled the impending recovery. Rainbow smelt abundance dropped precipitously and within four years, lake cisco and bloater populations rebounded on the heels of a series of strong recruitment events. Kiyi populations showed signs of recovery by 1989, and shortjaw by 2000, though well below historic maximum abundances. High abundance of adult smelt prior to 1980 appears to be the only factor linked to recruitment failure in the ciscoes. Life history traits of the cisco species were examined to better understand their different

  5. Are all temperate lakes eutrophying in a warmer world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltsev, A.; Creed, I. F.

    2017-12-01

    Freshwater lakes are at risk of eutrophication due to climate change and intensification of human activities on the planet. In relatively undisturbed areas of the temperate forest biome, lakes are "sentinels" of the effects of rising temperatures. We hypothesise that rising temperatures are driving a shift from nutrient-poor oligotrophic states to nutrient-rich eutrophic states. To test this hypothesis, we examined a time series of satellite based chlorophyll-a (a proxy of algal biomass) of 12,000+ lakes over 30 years in the Canadian portion of the Laurentian Great Lakes basin. From the time series, non-stationary trends (detected by Mann-Kendall analysis) and stationary cycles (revealed through Morlet wavelet analysis) were removed, and the standard deviation (SD) of the remaining residuals was used as an indicator of lake stability. Four classes of lake stability were identified: (1) stable (SD is consistently low); (2) destabilizing (SD increases over time); (3) unstable (SD is consistently high); and (4) stabilizing lakes (SD decreases over time). Stable lakes were either oligotrophic or eutrophic indicating the presence of two stable states in the region. Destabilizing lakes were shifting from oligotrophic to lakes with a higher trophic status (indicating eutrophication), unstable lakes were mostly mesotrophic, and stabilizing lakes were shifting from eutrophic to the lakes with lower trophic status (indicating oligotrophication). In contrast to common expectations, while many lakes (2142) were shifting from oligotrophic to eutrophic states, more lakes (3199) were showing the opposite trend and shifting from eutrophic to oligotrophic states. This finding reveals a complexity of lake responses to rising temperatures and the need to improve understanding of why some lakes shift while others do not. Future work is focused on exploring the interactive effects of global, regional, and local drivers of lake trophic states.

  6. Basic limnology of fifty-one lakes in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberyan, Kurt A; Horn, Sally P; Umaña, Gerardo

    2003-03-01

    We visited 51 lakes in Costa Rica as part of a broad-based survey to document their physical and chemical characteristics and how these relate to the mode of formation and geographical distribution of the lakes. The four oxbow lakes were low in elevation and tended to be turbid, high in conductivity and CO2, but low in dissolved O2; one of these, L. Gandoca, had a hypolimnion essentially composed of sea water. These were similar to the four wetland lakes, but the latter instead had low conductivities and pH, and turbidity was often due to tannins rather than suspended sediments. The thirteen artificial lakes formed a very heterogenous group, whose features varied depending on local factors. The thirteen lakes dammed by landslides, lava flows, or lahars occurred in areas with steep slopes, and were more likely to be stratified than most other types of lakes. The eight lakes that occupy volcanic craters tended to be deep, stratified, clear, and cool; two of these, L. Hule and L. Río Cuarto, appeared to be oligomictic (tending toward meromictic). The nine glacial lakes, all located above 3440 m elevation near Cerro Chirripó, were clear, cold, dilute, and are probably polymictic. Cluster analysis resulted in three significant groups of lakes. Cluster 1 included four calcium-rich lakes (average 48 mg l-1), Cluster 2 included fourteen lakes with more Si than Ca+2 and higher Cl- than the other clusters, and Cluster 3 included the remaining thirty-three lakes that were generally less concentrated. Each cluster included lakes of various origins located in different geographical regions; these data indicate that, apart from the high-altitude glacial lakes and lakes in the Miravalles area, similarity in lake chemistry is independent of lake distribution.

  7. Hydrological network and classification of lakes on the Third Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Wang, Weicai; Yao, Tandong; Lu, Ning; Lu, Anxin

    2018-05-01

    The intensity and form of changes in closed lakes, upstream lakes and outflow lakes on the Third Pole (TP) differ based on their drainage mode. Researchers' insufficient understanding of the hydrological networks associated with lakes hampers studies of the relationship between lakes and climate. In this study, we establish a comprehensive hydrological network for each lake (>1 km2) on the TP using 106 Landsat images, 236 Chinese topographic maps, and SRTM DEM. Three-hundred-ninety-seven closed lakes, 488 upstream lakes and 317 outflow lakes totaling 3,5498.49 km2, 7,378.82 km2, and 3,382.29 km2, respectively, were identified on the TP using 2010 data. Two-hundred-thirty-four closed lakes were found to not be linked to upstream lakes. The remaining 163 closed lakes were connected to and fed by the 488 upstream lakes. The object-oriented analyses within this study indicated that more rapid changes occurred in the surface extent of closed lakes than in upstream lakes or outflow lakes on the TP from 1970 s to 2010. Furthermore, the water volume of the examined closed lakes was almost nine times greater than that of the upstream lakes from 2003 to 2009. All the examined closed lakes exhibited an obvious water volume change compared to the corresponding upstream lakes in the same basin. Furthermore, two case studies illustrate that the annual and seasonal dynamics associated with the changes in closed lakes may reflect climate change patterns, while the upstream lake dynamics may be more controlled by the lakeshore terrain and drainage characteristics. The lake inventory and hydrological network catalogued in this study provide a basis for developing a better understanding of lake response to climate change on the TP.

  8. Radioecological characteristics of Lake Zarnowieckie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soszka, G.J.; Grzybowska, D.; Rostek, J.; Pietruszewski, A.; Wardaszko, T.; Kalinowska, A.; Tomczak, J.

    1986-01-01

    Results are presented of the radioecological studies carried out in Lake Zarnowieckie as a part of pre-operational investigations related to the construction of a nuclear power station at this lake. Concentrations of essential radionuclides were determined in water, bottom sediments and selected plants and animals. Analyses were made of the distribution and spreading of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the lake ecosystem and in the near-by meadows. 28 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs. (author)

  9. A mass balance mercury budget for a mine-dominated lake: Clear Lake, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchanek, T.H.; Cooke, J.; Keller, K.; Jorgensen, S.; Richerson, P.J.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Harner, E.J.; Adam, D.P.

    2009-01-01

    The Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine (SBMM), active intermittently from 1873–1957 and now a USEPA Superfund site, was previously estimated to have contributed at least 100 metric tons (105 kg) of mercury (Hg) into the Clear Lake aquatic ecosystem. We have confirmed this minimum estimate. To better quantify the contribution of the mine in relation to other sources of Hg loading into Clear Lake and provide data that might help reduce that loading, we analyzed Inputs and Outputs of Hg to Clear Lake and Storage of Hg in lakebed sediments using a mass balance approach. We evaluated Inputs from (1) wet and dry atmospheric deposition from both global/regional and local sources, (2) watershed tributaries, (3) groundwater inflows, (4) lakebed springs and (5) the mine. Outputs were quantified from (1) efflux (volatilization) of Hg from the lake surface to the atmosphere, (2) municipal and agricultural water diversions, (3) losses from out-flowing drainage of Cache Creek that feeds into the California Central Valley and (4) biotic Hg removal by humans and wildlife. Storage estimates include (1) sediment burial from historic and prehistoric periods (over the past 150–3,000 years) from sediment cores to ca. 2.5m depth dated using dichloro diphenyl dichloroethane (DDD), 210Pb and 14C and (2) recent Hg deposition in surficial sediments. Surficial sediments collected in October 2003 (11 years after mine site remediation) indicate no reduction (but a possible increase) in sediment Hg concentrations over that time and suggest that remediation has not significantly reduced overall Hg loading to the lake. Currently, the mine is believed to contribute ca. 322–331 kg of Hg annually to Clear Lake, which represents ca. 86–99% of the total Hg loading to the lake. We estimate that natural sedimentation would cover the existing contaminated sediments within ca. 150–300 years.

  10. Invasive Macrophytes Control the Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Temperature and Dissolved Oxygen in a Shallow Lake: A Proposed Feedback Mechanism of Macrophyte Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria P. Vilas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Submerged macrophytes can have a profound effect on shallow lake ecosystems through their ability to modify the thermal structure and dissolved oxygen levels within the lake. Invasive macrophytes, in particular, can grow rapidly and induce thermal gradients in lakes that may substantially change the ecosystem structure and challenge the survival of aquatic organisms. We performed fine-scale measurements and 3D numerical modeling at high spatiotemporal resolution to assess the effect of the seasonal growth of Potamogeton crispus L. on the spatial and temporal dynamics of temperature and dissolved oxygen in a shallow urban lake (Lake Monger, Perth, WA, Australia. Daytime stratification developed during the growing season and was clearly observed throughout the macrophyte bed. At all times measured, stratification was stronger at the center of the macrophyte bed compared to the bed edges. By fitting a logistic growth curve to changes in plant height over time (r2 = 0.98, and comparing this curve to temperature data at the center of the macrophyte bed, we found that stratification began once the macrophytes occupied at least 50% of the water depth. This conclusion was strongly supported by a 3D hydrodynamic model fitted to weekly temperature profiles measured at four time periods throughout the growing season (r2 > 0.78 at all times. As the macrophyte height increased and stratification developed, dissolved oxygen concentration profiles changed from vertically homogeneous oxic conditions during both the day and night to expression of night-time anoxic conditions close to the sediments. Spatially interpolated maps of dissolved oxygen and 3D numerical modeling results indicated that the plants also reduced horizontal exchange with surrounding unvegetated areas, preventing flushing of low dissolved oxygen water out of the center of the bed. Simultaneously, aerial imagery showed central dieback occurring toward the end of the growing season. Thus, we

  11. Invasive Macrophytes Control the Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Temperature and Dissolved Oxygen in a Shallow Lake: A Proposed Feedback Mechanism of Macrophyte Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas, Maria P; Marti, Clelia L; Adams, Matthew P; Oldham, Carolyn E; Hipsey, Matthew R

    2017-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes can have a profound effect on shallow lake ecosystems through their ability to modify the thermal structure and dissolved oxygen levels within the lake. Invasive macrophytes, in particular, can grow rapidly and induce thermal gradients in lakes that may substantially change the ecosystem structure and challenge the survival of aquatic organisms. We performed fine-scale measurements and 3D numerical modeling at high spatiotemporal resolution to assess the effect of the seasonal growth of Potamogeton crispus L. on the spatial and temporal dynamics of temperature and dissolved oxygen in a shallow urban lake (Lake Monger, Perth, WA, Australia). Daytime stratification developed during the growing season and was clearly observed throughout the macrophyte bed. At all times measured, stratification was stronger at the center of the macrophyte bed compared to the bed edges. By fitting a logistic growth curve to changes in plant height over time ( r 2 = 0.98), and comparing this curve to temperature data at the center of the macrophyte bed, we found that stratification began once the macrophytes occupied at least 50% of the water depth. This conclusion was strongly supported by a 3D hydrodynamic model fitted to weekly temperature profiles measured at four time periods throughout the growing season ( r 2 > 0.78 at all times). As the macrophyte height increased and stratification developed, dissolved oxygen concentration profiles changed from vertically homogeneous oxic conditions during both the day and night to expression of night-time anoxic conditions close to the sediments. Spatially interpolated maps of dissolved oxygen and 3D numerical modeling results indicated that the plants also reduced horizontal exchange with surrounding unvegetated areas, preventing flushing of low dissolved oxygen water out of the center of the bed. Simultaneously, aerial imagery showed central dieback occurring toward the end of the growing season. Thus, we hypothesized

  12. 78 FR 71493 - Special Local Regulation; Lake Havasu City Christmas Boat Parade of Lights; Colorado River; Lake...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ...-AA00 Special Local Regulation; Lake Havasu City Christmas Boat Parade of Lights; Colorado River; Lake... temporarily modifying the dates for the special local regulation in support of the Lake Havasu City Christmas Boat Parade of Lights on the Colorado River. This modification is necessary to reflect the actual dates...

  13. A STUDY OF RECOVERING A REED ECOSYSTEM USING POROUS CONCRETE IN THE LAKE BIWA SHORE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Naho; Kato, Hayato; Okamoto, Takahisa; Kojima, Takayuki

    In this study, reed planting tests were carried out at the Biyo-center, an experiment station on the Lake Biwa shore, in order to evaluate the feasibility of a planting method with porous concrete (PoC method). Reed planting tests with coconut-fiber mats (mat method), which were generally used around Lake Biwa, were simultaneously carried out to compare with the PoC method. The reeds planted by the PoC method grew better than the ones planted by the mat method, and the number of reeds which were washed away by waves was smaller than that planted by the mat method. The result of the observation of reeds planted in the PoC showed plant maturation, and reeds could ta ke root into the PoC without interference with the voids of the PoC. As a result, it was shown that the reed planting tests with the PoC method was simple and effective, so it would become in harmony with the environment around Lake Biwa.

  14. Mixed stock analysis of Lake Michigan's Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis commercial fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andvik, Ryan; Sloss, Brian L.; VanDeHey, Justin A.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Hansen, Scott P.; Isermann, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) support the primary commercial fishery in Lake Michigan. Discrete genetic stocks of lake whitefish have been identified and tagging data suggest stocks are mixed throughout much of the year. Our objectives were to determine if (1) differential stock harvest occurs in the commercial catch, (2) spatial differences in genetic composition of harvested fish were present, and (3) seasonal differences were present in the harvest by commercial fisheries that operate in management zones WI-2 and WFM-01 (Green Bay, Lake Michigan). Mixed stock analysis was conducted on 17 commercial harvest samples (n = 78–145/sample) collected from various ports lake-wide during 2009–2010. Results showed significant mixing with variability in stock composition across most samples. Samples consisted of two to four genetic stocks each accounting for ≥ 10% the catch. In 10 of 17 samples, the stock contributing the largest proportion made up differences existed in the proportional stock contribution at a single capture location. Samples from Wisconsin's primary commercial fishing management zone (WI-2) were composed predominately of fish from the Big Bay de Noc (Michigan) stock as opposed to the geographically proximate, North–Moonlight Bay (Wisconsin) stock. These findings have implications for management and allocation of fish to various quotas. Specifically, geographic location of harvest, the current means of allocating harvest quotas, is not the best predictor of genetic stock harvest.

  15. Generating High-Resolution Lake Bathymetry over Lake Mead using the ICESat-2 Airborne Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Gao, H.; Jasinski, M. F.; Zhang, S.; Stoll, J.

    2017-12-01

    Precise lake bathymetry (i.e., elevation/contour) mapping is essential for optimal decision making in water resources management. Although the advancement of remote sensing has made it possible to monitor global reservoirs from space, most of the existing studies focus on estimating the elevation, area, and storage of reservoirs—and not on estimating the bathymetry. This limitation is attributed to the low spatial resolution of satellite altimeters. With the significant enhancement of ICESat-2—the Ice, Cloud & Land Elevation Satellite #2, which is scheduled to launch in 2018—producing satellite-based bathymetry becomes feasible. Here we present a pilot study for deriving the bathymetry of Lake Mead by combining Landsat area estimations with airborne elevation data using the prototype of ICESat-2—the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL). First, an ISODATA classifier was adopted to extract the lake area from Landsat images during the period from 1982 to 2017. Then the lake area classifications were paired with MABEL elevations to establish an Area-Elevation (AE) relationship, which in turn was applied to the classification contour map to obtain the bathymetry. Finally, the Lake Mead bathymetry image was embedded onto the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Digital Elevation Model (DEM), to replace the existing constant values. Validation against sediment survey data indicates that the bathymetry derived from this study is reliable. This algorithm has the potential for generating global lake bathymetry when ICESat-2 data become available after next year's launch.

  16. The limnology of L Lake: Results of the L-Lake monitoring program, 1986--1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.A.

    1991-12-15

    L Lake was constructed in 1985 on the upper regions of Steel Creek, SRS to mitigate the heated effluents from L Reactor. In addition to the NPDES permit specifications (Outfall L-007) for the L-Reactor outfall, DOE-SR executed an agreement with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), that thermal effluents from L-Reactor will not substantially alter ecosystem components in the approximate lower half of L Lake. This region should be inhabited by Balanced (Indigenous) Biological Communities (BBCs) in accordance with Section 316(a) of the Pollution Control (Clean Water) Act (Public Law 92-500). In response to this requirement the Environmental Sciences Section/Ecology Group initiated a comprehensive biomonitoring program which documented the development of BBCs in L Lake from January 1986 through December 1989. This report summarizes the principal results of the program with regards to BBC compliance issues and community succession in L Lake. The results are divided into six sections: water quality, macronutrients, and phytoplankton, aquatic macrophytes, zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, fish, and community succession. One of the prime goals of the program was to detect potential reactor impacts on L Lake.

  17. Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA) houses environmental data on a wide variety of constituents in water, biota, sediment, and air in the Great Lakes area.

  18. Study of pollution in Rawal lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Khan, M.I.A.; Nisar, M.; Kaleem, M.Y.

    1999-01-01

    It was intended to establish effects of pollution on quality of water of Rawal Lake, Islamabad. Six stations were located for collection of water. The data collected and analyzed so far indicated increasing pollution in the lake Increase in growth of hydrophytes in quite evident, leading towards process of eutrophication of the lake. (author)

  19. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in the Upper Portion of the Missouri Region 10 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  20. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in the Lower Portion of the Missouri Region 10 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  1. Simulating Glacial Outburst Lake Releases for Suicide Basin, Mendenhall Glacier, Juneau, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, A. B.; Moran, T.; Hood, E. W.

    2017-12-01

    Glacial Lake outbursts from Suicide Basin are recent phenomenon first characterized in 2011. The 2014 event resulted in record river stage and moderate flooding on the Mendenhall River in Juneau. Recognizing that these events can adversely impact residential areas of Juneau's Mendenhall Valley, the Alaska-Pacific River Forecast Center developed a real-time modeling technique capable of forecasting the timing and magnitude of the flood-wave crest due to releases from Suicide Basin. The 2014 event was estimated at about 37,000 acre feet with water levels cresting within 36 hours from the time the flood wave hit Mendenhall Lake. Given the magnitude of possible impacts to the public, accurate hydrological forecasting is essential for public safety and Emergency Managers. However, the data needed to effectively forecast magnitudes of specific jökulhlaup events are limited. Estimating this event as related to river stage depended upon three variables: 1) the timing of the lag between Suicide Basin water level declines and the related rise of Mendenhall Lake, 2) continuous monitoring of Mendenhall Lake water levels, and 3) estimating the total water volume stored in Suicide Basin. Real-time modeling of the event utilized a Time of Concentration hydrograph with independent power equations representing the rising and falling limbs of the hydrograph. The initial accuracy of the model — as forecasted about 24 hours prior to crest — resulted in an estimated crest within 0.5 feet of the actual with a timing error of about six hours later than the actual crest.

  2. Holocene evolution of the Tonle Sap Lake: valley network infill and rates of sedimentation in Cambodia's Great Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, J.; Darby, S. E.; Langdon, P. G.; Hackney, C. R.; Leyland, J.; Parsons, D. R.; Aalto, R. E.; Marti, M.

    2017-12-01

    Tonle Sap Lake, the largest freshwater lake in SE Asia (c. 120km long and 35 km wide), is a vital ecosystem that provides 40-60% of the protein for the population of Cambodia. The lake is fed by flow from the Mekong River that causes the lake rise in level by c. 8m during monsoonal and cyclone-related floods, with drainage of the lake following the monsoon. Hydropower dam construction on the Mekong River has raised concerns as to the fragility of the Tonle Sap habitat due to any changing water levels and sedimentation rates within the lake. This paper details results of sub-bottom profiling surveys of Tonle Sap Lake in October 2014 that detailed the stratigraphy of the lake and assessed rates of infill. An Innomar Parametric Echo Sounder (PES) was used to obtain c. 250 km of sub-bottom profiles, with penetration up to 15m below the lake bed at a vertical resolution of c. 0.20m. These PES profiles were linked to cores from the north of the lake and previous literature. The PES profiles reveal a network of valleys, likely LGM, with relief up to c. 15-20m, that have been infilled by a suite of Holocene sediments. The valley surface is picked out as a strong reflector throughout the lake, and displays a series of valleys that are up to c. 15m deep and commonly 50-200m wide, although some of the largest valleys are 1.2km in width. Modelling of channel network incision during LGM conditions generates landscapes consistent with our field observations. The Tonle Sap valley network is infilled by sediments that show firstly fluvial and/or subaerial slope sedimentation, and then by extensive, parallel-bedded, lacustrine sedimentation. Lastly, the top c. 1m of sedimentation is marked by a distinct basal erosional surface that can be traced over much of the Tonle Sap Lake, and that is overlain by a series of parallel PES reflections. This upper sediment layer is interpreted to represent sedimentation in the Tonle Sap lake due to sediment suspension settling but after a period

  3. Isotopic fingerprints of anthropogenic molybdenum in lake sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappaz, Anthony; Lyons, Timothy W; Gordon, Gwyneth W; Anbar, Ariel D

    2012-10-16

    We measured the molybdenum isotope compositions (δ(98)Mo) of well-dated sediment cores from two lakes in eastern Canada in an effort to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic contributions to these freshwater aquatic systems. Previously, Chappaz et al. (1) ascribed pronounced 20th-century Mo concentration enrichments in these lakes to anthropogenic inputs. δ(98)Mo values in the deeper sediments (reflecting predominantly natural Mo sources) differ dramatically between the two lakes: -0.32 ± 0.17‰ for oxic Lake Tantare and +0.64 ± 0.09‰ for anoxic Lake Vose. Sediment layers previously identified as enriched in anthropogenic Mo, however, reveal significant δ(98)Mo shifts of ± 0.3‰, resulting in isotopically heavier values of +0.05 ± 0.18‰ in Lake Tantare and lighter values of +0.31 ± 0.03‰ in Lake Vose. We argue that anthropogenic Mo modifies the isotopic composition of the recent sediments, and we determine δ(98)Mo(anthropogenic) values of 0.1 ± 0.1‰ (Lake Vose) and 0.2 ± 0.2‰ (Lake Tantare). These calculated inputs are consistent with the δ(98)Mo of molybdenite (MoS(2)) likely delivered to the lakes via smelting of porphyry copper deposits (Lake Vose) or through combustion of coal and oil also containing Mo (Lake Tantare). Our results confirm the utility of Mo isotopes as a promising fingerprint of human impacts and perhaps the specific sources of contamination. Importantly, the magnitudes of the anthropogenic inputs are large enough, relative to the natural Mo cycles in each lake, to have an impact on the microbiological communities.

  4. Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramunt, Randall M.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Clapp, David; Taylor, William W.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Léonard, Nancy J.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) are a valuable resource, both within their native range in the North Pacific rim and in the Great Lakes basin. Understanding their value from a biological and economic perspective in the Great Lakes, however, requires an understanding of changes in the ecosystem and of management actions that have been taken to promote system stability, integrity, and sustainable fisheries. Pacific salmonine introductions to the Great Lakes are comprised mainly of Chinook salmon, coho salmon, and steelhead and have accounted for 421, 177, and 247 million fish, respectively, stocked during 1966-2007. Stocking of Pacific salmonines has been effective in substantially reducing exotic prey fish abundances in several of the Great Lakes (e.g., lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario). The goal of our evaluation was to highlight differences in management strategies and perspectives across the basin, and to evaluate policies for Pacific salmonine management in the Great Lakes. Currently, a potential conflict exists between Pacific salmonine management and native fish rehabilitation goals because of the desire to sustain recreational fisheries and to develop self-sustaining populations of stocked Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes. We provide evidence that suggests Pacific salmonines have not only become naturalized to the food webs of the Great Lakes, but that their populations (specifically Chinook salmon) may be fluctuating in concert with specific prey (i.e., alewives) whose populations are changing relative to environmental conditions and ecosystem disturbances. Remaining questions, however, are whether or not “natural” fluctuations in predator and prey provide enough “stability” in the Great Lakes food webs, and even more importantly, would a choice by managers to attempt to reduce the severity of predator-prey oscillations be antagonistic to native fish restoration efforts. We argue that, on each of the Great Lakes, managers are pursuing

  5. L-Lake fish: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayers, R.E. Jr.; Mealing, H.G. III

    1992-04-01

    The L Lake Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the re-start of L-Reactor and address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act, which requires an applicant for a discharge permit to provide scientific evidence that the discharge causes no significant impact on the indigenous ecosystem. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the discharge of L-Reactor effluent into L Lake will not inhibit the eventual establishment of a ''Balanced Biological Community'' (BBC) in at least 50% of the lake

  6. Review of Reports on Lake Erie - Lake Ontario Waterway, New York. Appendix D. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-10-01

    Venezuela (29 percent). Canada produced 48.3 million tons of iron ore in 1970 ,of which 23.9 million tons were exported to the United States (14.4 million...grain traffic, 1971 D-14 D-6 U.S. - Great Lakes grain exports 1960 - 1971 and projected D-15 D-7 U.S. doal traffic, Lake Erie - Lake Ontario, 1958-1970...Soybeans Wheat Barley Oats Rice Sorghum Grains Flaxseed Oilseeds, n.e.c. Tobacco, leaf Hay and Fodder Field crops, n.e.c. Fresh fruits Co ffee Cocoa beans

  7. L-Lake fish: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayers, R.E. Jr.; Mealing, H.G. III [Normandeau Associates, Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The L Lake Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the re-start of L-Reactor and address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act, which requires an applicant for a discharge permit to provide scientific evidence that the discharge causes no significant impact on the indigenous ecosystem. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the discharge of L-Reactor effluent into L Lake will not inhibit the eventual establishment of a ``Balanced Biological Community`` (BBC) in at least 50% of the lake.

  8. The predominance of young carbon in Arctic whole-lake CH4 and CO2 emissions and implications for Boreal yedoma lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, C.; Xu, X.; Walker, J. C.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Pohlman, J.; Arp, C. D.; Townsend-Small, A.; Hinkel, K. M.; Czimczik, C. I.

    2017-12-01

    Lakes in Arctic and Boreal regions are hotspots for atmospheric exchange of the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4. Thermokarst lakes are a subset of these Northern lakes that may further accelerate climate warming by mobilizing ancient permafrost C (> 11,500 years old) that has been disconnected from the active C cycle for millennia. Northern lakes are thus potentially powerful agents of the permafrost C-climate feedback. While they are critical for projecting the magnitude and timing these feedbacks from the rapidly warming circumpolar region, we lack datasets capturing the diversity of northern lakes, especially regarding their CH4contributions to whole-lake C emissions and their ability to access and mobilize ancient C. We measured the radiocarbon (14C) ages of CH4 and CO2 emitted from 60 understudied lakes and ponds in Arctic and Boreal Alaska during winter and summer to estimate the ages of the C sources yielding these gases. Integrated mean ages for whole-lake emissions were inferred from the 14C-age of dissolved gases sampled beneath seasonal ice. Additionally, we measured concentrations and 14C values of gases emitted by ebullition and diffusion in summer to apportion C emission pathways. Using a multi-sourced mass balance approach, we found that whole-lake CH4 and CO2 emissions were predominantly sourced from relatively young C in most lakes. In Arctic lakes, CH4 originated from 850 14C-year old C on average, whereas dissolved CO2 was sourced from 400 14C-year old C, and represented 99% of total dissolved C flux. Although ancient C had a minimal influence (11% of total emissions), we discovered that lakes in finer-textured aeolian deposits (Yedoma) emitted twice as much ancient C as lakes in sandy regions. In Boreal, yedoma-type lakes, CH4 and CO2 were fueled by significantly older sources, and mass balance results estimated CH4-ebullition to comprise 50-60% of whole-lake CH4 emissions. The mean 14C-age of Boreal emissions was 6,000 14C-years for CH4-C, and 2

  9. Inputting history of heavy metals into the inland lake recorded in sediment profiles: Poyang Lake in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Guoli; Liu Chen; Chen Long; Yang Zhongfang

    2011-01-01

    The temporal and spatial distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Hg, Pb, As and Cr) in Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake (3050 km 2 ) in China, were studied based on the sedimentary profiles. For this purpose, eight sedimentary cores were selected which located at lake area, outfall of lake and the main branch rivers, respectively. High-resolution profiles with interval 2 cm were used for analyzing the concentration of metals, and the ages of them were determined by 210 Pb and 137 Cs isotopic dating. While studying the change of metals concentration with the age in profile, it is found that the concentration of them in sediments was influenced not only by the sources in history but also by the sediment types. Based on this detailed work, the inventory and burden of heavy metals per decade were estimated in lake area during the past 50 years. Significantly, rivers-contribution ratio per decade was estimated to distinguish each river's contribution of heavy metals into lake while river-flux in history and metals concentration in profiles were considered as calculating factors. So, our research provides a proof to well understand the sedimentary history and the inputting history of heavy metals from main rivers into an inland lake.

  10. Contrasting PCB bioaccumulation patterns among Lake Huron lake trout reflect basin-specific ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Gordon; Ryder, Mark; Drouillard, Ken G; Haffner, G Douglas

    2016-01-01

    This study collected multiple age classes of lake trout from Lake Huron's Main Basin, Georgian Bay, and North Channel regions to compare and contrast top predator polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioaccumulation patterns in separate compartments of the same ecosystem. Sum PCB concentrations were highest for Main Basin (260 ± 24.9 ng g(-1) wet wt) fish, followed by Georgian Bay (74.6 ± 16.2 ng g(-1) ) and North Channel (42.0 ± 3.3 ng g(-1)) fish. Discriminant functions analysis of lake trout PCB profiles and stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotope values clearly distinguished fish by location, indicating high degrees of basin fidelity throughout their lifetimes in addition to highly contrasting PCB bioaccumulation profiles. These unique profiles were not attributable to significant differences in lake trout lipid contents (p = 0.856) or trophic position (δ(15)N; p = 0.334), with rainbow smelt representing the primary prey across the basins. Furthermore, significant differences were observed among the basins for the relationships between PCB biomagnification factors and hydrophobicity. An empirical model for predicting PCB biomagnification in Lake Huron lake trout indicated that basin-specific population growth rates and prey abundances were significant for explaining these contrasting patterns of PCB bioaccumulation. The results of the present study are fundamental for understanding the role of ecology in legacy persistent organic pollutant (POP) bioaccumulation. Specifically, ecosystem characteristics such as prey abundances, foraging ecology, and ultimately consumer growth can regulate the variability of legacy POP bioaccumulation as observed within and among a wide range of freshwater ecosystems. © 2015 SETAC.

  11. Regionalisation for lake level simulation – the case of Lake Tana in the Upper Blue Nile, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. M. Rientjes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study lake levels of Lake Tana are simulated at daily time step by solving the water balance for all inflow and outflow processes. Since nearly 62% of the Lake Tana basin area is ungauged a regionalisation procedure is applied to estimate lake inflows from ungauged catchments. The procedure combines automated multi-objective calibration of a simple conceptual model and multiple regression analyses to establish relations between model parameters and catchment characteristics.

    A relatively small number of studies are presented on Lake Tana's water balance. In most studies the water balance is solved at monthly time step and the water balance is simply closed by runoff contributions from ungauged catchments. Studies partly relied on simple ad-hoc procedures of area comparison to estimate runoff from ungauged catchments. In this study a regional model is developed that relies on principles of similarity of catchments characteristics. For runoff modelling the HBV-96 model is selected while multi-objective model calibration is by a Monte Carlo procedure. We aim to assess the closure term of Lake Tana's water balance, to assess model parameter uncertainty and to evaluate effectiveness of a multi-objective model calibration approach to make hydrological modeling results more plausible.

    For the gauged catchments, model performance is assessed by the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient and Relative Volumetric Error and resulted in satisfactory to good performance for six, large catchments. The regional model is validated and indicated satisfactory to good performance in most cases. Results show that runoff from ungauged catchments is as large as 527 mm per year for the simulation period and amounts to approximately 30% of Lake Tana stream inflow. Results of daily lake level simulation over the simulation period 1994–2003 show a water balance closure term of 85 mm per year that accounts to 2.7% of the total lake inflow. Lake level

  12. Quantifying the impact of bathymetric changes on the hydrological regimes in a large floodplain lake: Poyang Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jing; Zhang, Qi; Ye, Xuchun; Zhang, Dan; Bai, Peng

    2018-06-01

    The hydrological regime of a lake is largely dependent on its bathymetry. A dramatic water level reduction has occurred in Poyang Lake in recent years, coinciding with significant bed erosion. Few studies have focused on the influence of bathymetric changes on the hydrological regime in such a complex river-lake floodplain system. This study combined hydrological data and a physically based hydrodynamic model to quantify the influence of the bathymetric changes (1998-2010) on the water level spatiotemporal distribution in Poyang Lake, based on a dry year (2006), a wet year (2010) and an average year (2000-2010). The following conclusions can be drawn from the results of this study: (1) The bed erosion of the northern outlet channel averaged 3 m, resulting in a decrease in the water level by 1.2-2 m in the northern channels (the most significantly influenced areas) and approximately 0.3 m in the central lake areas during low-level periods. The water levels below 16 m and 14 m were significantly affected during the rising period and recession period, respectively. The water level reduction was enhanced due to lower water levels. (2) The water surface profiles adjusted, and the rising and recession rates of the water level increased by 0.5-3.1 cm/d at the lake outlet. The bathymetric influence extended across the entire lake due to the emptying effect, resulting in a change in the water level distribution. The average annual outflow increased by 6.8%. (3) The bathymetric changes contributed approximately 14.4% to the extreme low water level in autumn 2006 and enhanced the drought in the dry season. This study quantified the impact of the bathymetric changes on the lake water levels, thereby providing a better understanding of the potential effects of continued sand mining operations and providing scientific explanations for the considerable variations in the hydrological regimes of Poyang Lake. Moreover, this study attempts to provide a reference for the assessment of

  13. Predicting the locations of naturally fishless lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Emily Gaenzle; Loftin, C.S.; Degoosh, K.E.; Huryn, Alexander D.; Webster, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    1. Fish have been introduced into many previously fishless lakes throughout North America over the past 100+ years. It is difficult to determine the historical distribution of fishless lakes, however, because these introductions have not always been well-documented. 2. Due to its glacial history and low human population density, the state of Maine (U.S.A.) may host the greatest number of naturally fishless lakes in the northeastern United States. However, less than one-quarter of Maine's 6000+ lakes have been surveyed for fish presence, and no accurate assessments of either the historical or current abundance and distribution of fishless lakes exist. 3. We developed methods to assess the abundance and distribution of Maine's naturally fishless lakes (0.6-10.1 ha). We hypothesized that the historical distribution of fishless lakes across a landscape is controlled by geomorphic and geographic conditions. 4. We used ArcGIS to identify landscape-scale geomorphic and geographic factors (e.g. connectivity, surrounding slope) correlated with fish absence in two geomorphic regions of Maine - the western and interior mountains and the eastern lowlands and foothills. By using readily available geographic information systems data our method was not limited to field-visited sites. We estimated the likelihood that a particular lake is fishless with a stepwise logistic regression model developed for each region. 5. The absence of fish from western lakes is related to altitude (+), minimum percent slope in the 500 m buffer (+), maximum percent slope in the 500 m buffer (+) and percent cover of herbaceous-emergent wetland in 1000 m buffer (-). The absence of fish from eastern lakes is related to the lack of a stream within 50 m of the lake. 6. The models predict that a total of 4% (131) of study lakes in the two regions were historically fishless, with the eastern region hosting a greater proportion than the western region. 7. We verified the model predictions with two

  14. Decline of the world's saline lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh; Craig Miller; Sarah E. Null; R. Justin DeRose; Peter Wilcock; Maura Hahnenberger; Frank Howe; Johnnie Moore

    2017-01-01

    Many of the world’s saline lakes are shrinking at alarming rates, reducing waterbird habitat and economic benefits while threatening human health. Saline lakes are long-term basin-wide integrators of climatic conditions that shrink and grow with natural climatic variation. In contrast, water withdrawals for human use exert a sustained reduction in lake inflows and...

  15. Status and future of Lake Huron fish communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebener, M.P.; Johnson, J.E.; Reid, D.M.; Payne, N.P.; Argyle, R.L.; Wright, G.M.; Krueger, K.; Baker, J.P.; Morse, T.; Weise, J.; Munawar, M.; Edsall, T.; Leach, J.

    1995-01-01

    In 1993, fishery management agencies with jurisdiction over Lake Huron fish populations developed draft fish community objectives in response to the Joint Strategic Plan for Management of Great Lakes Fisheries. The Joint Strategic Plan charged the Great Lakes Fishery Commission sponsored Lake Huron Committee to define objectives for what the fish community of Lake Huron should look like in the future, and to develop means for measuring progress toward the objectives. The overall management objective for Lake Huron is to 'over the next two decades restore an ecologically balanced fish community dominated by top predators and consisting largely of self-sustaining, indigenous and naturalized species and capable of sustaining annual harvests of 8.9 million kg'. This paper represents the first attempt at consolidating current biological information from different management agencies on a lake-wide basis for the purpose of assessing the current status and dynamics of Lake Huron fishes.

  16. Exploration of microbial diversity and community structure of Lonar Lake: the only hypersaline meteorite crater lake within basalt rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiraj ePaul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lonar Lake is a hypersaline and hyperalkaline soda lake and the only meteorite impact crater in the world created in the basalt rocks. Although culture-dependent studies have been reported, the comprehensive understanding of microbial community composition and structure of Lonar Lake remain obscure. In the present study, microbial community structure associated with Lonar Lake sediment and water samples was investigated using high throughput sequencing. Microbial diversity analysis revealed the existence of diverse, yet near consistent community composition. The predominance of bacterial phyla Proteobacteria (30% followed by Actinobacteria (24%, Firmicutes (11% and Cyanobacteria (5% was observed. Bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes (1.12%, BD1-5 (0.5%, Nitrospirae (0.41% and Verrucomicrobia (0.28% were detected as relatively minor populations in Lonar Lake ecosystem. Within Proteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria represented the most abundant population (21-47% among all the sediments and as a minor population in water samples. Bacterial members Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were present significantly higher (p≥0.05 in sediment samples, whereas members of Actinobacteria, Candidate_division_TM7 and Cyanobacteria (p≥0.05 were significantly abundant in water samples. It was noted that compared to other hypersaline soda lakes, Lonar Lake samples formed one distinct cluster, suggesting a different microbial community composition and structure. The present study reports for the first time the different composition of indigenous microbial communities between the sediment and water samples of Lonar Lake. Having better insight of community structure of this Lake ecosystem could be useful in understanding the microbial role in the geochemical cycle for future functional exploration of the unique hypersaline Lonar Lake.

  17. Depth gradients in food-web processes linking habitats in large lakes: Lake Superior as an exemplar ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierszen, Michael E.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Cotter, Anne M; Hoffman, Joel C.; Yule, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    In large lakes around the world, depth-based changes in the abundance and distribution of invertebrate and fish species suggest that there may be concomitant changes in patterns of resource allocation. Using Lake Superior of the Laurentian Great Lakes as an example, we explored this idea through stable isotope analyses of 13 major fish taxa.

  18. Diatoms in Liyu Lake, Eastern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Chi Wang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study described the diatoms appeared in the sediments of Liyu Lake, a lowland natural lake situated at Hualen, eastern Taiwan. A total of 50 species was found in the sediments of this eutrophic lake. In them, 8 species were reported for the first time in Taiwan. They are: Cymbella thienemannii, Navicula absoluta, Navicula bacillum, Frustulia rhomboides var. crassinervia, Gyrosigma procerum, Nitzschia paleacea Epithemia smithii and Eunotia subarcuatioides. The ultrastructures of each species were described on the basis of observations under a scanning electron microscope. The ecological implications of the occurrence of these diatom species in this lake were inferred.

  19. Lake Titicaca: History and current studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes Riveros, M.A.; Gonfiantini, R.

    1999-01-01

    This article summarizes results of Titicaca lake water balance studies including the findings of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project RLA/08/022. Direct precipitation over the lake accounts for about 55% of the water inflow and rivers and streams provide about 45% of the water inflow. Diffuse groundwater leakage into the lake from coastal aquifers is believed to represent a negligible term of water balance. Evaporation from the lake is strong and accounts for more than 95% of the water losses. The isotopic and chemical composition data obtained within the frameworks of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project RLA/08/022 are discussed

  20. Lake Titicaca: History and current studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes Riveros, M A [PELT, Puno (Peru); Gonfiantini, R [Istituto di Geocronologia e Geochimica Isotopica del CNR, Pisa (Italy)

    1999-12-01

    This article summarizes results of Titicaca lake water balance studies including the findings of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project RLA/08/022. Direct precipitation over the lake accounts for about 55% of the water inflow and rivers and streams provide about 45% of the water inflow. Diffuse groundwater leakage into the lake from coastal aquifers is believed to represent a negligible term of water balance. Evaporation from the lake is strong and accounts for more than 95% of the water losses. The isotopic and chemical composition data obtained within the frameworks of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project RLA/08/022 are discussed.

  1. The origin of shallow lakes in the Khorezm Province, Uzbekistan, and the history of pesticide use around these lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Michael R.; Crootof, Arica; Reidy, Liam; Saito, Laurel; Nishonov, Bakhriddin; Scott, Julian A.

    2018-01-01

    The economy of the Khorezm Province in Uzbekistan relies on the large-scale agricultural production of cotton. To sustain their staple crop, water from the Amu Darya is diverted for irrigation through canal systems constructed during the early to mid-twentieth century when this region was part of the Soviet Union. These diversions severely reduce river flow to the Aral Sea. The Province has >400 small shallow (data indicate that the majority of the lakes investigated are less than 150 years old, which supports a recent origin of the lakes. The thickness of lacustrine sediments in the cores analyzed ranged from 20 to 60 cm in all but two of the lakes, indicating a relatively slow sedimentation rate and a relatively short-term history for the lakes. Hydrologic changes in the lakes are evident from loss on ignition and pollen analyses of a subset of the lake cores. The data indicate that the lakes have transitioned from a dry, saline, arid landscape during pre-lake conditions (low organic carbon content) and low pollen concentrations (in the basal sediments) to the current freshwater lakes (high organic content), with abundant freshwater pollen taxa over the last 50–70 years. Sediments at the base of the cores contain pollen taxa dominated by Chenopodiaceae and Tamarix, indicating that the vegetation growing nearby was tolerant to arid saline conditions. The near surface sediments of the cores are dominated by Typha/Sparganium, which indicate freshwater conditions. Increases in pollen of weeds and crop plants indicate an intensification of agricultural activities since the 1950s in the watersheds of the lakes analyzed. Pesticide profiles of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and its degradates and γ-HCH (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane), which were used during the Soviet era, show peak concentrations in the top 10 cm of some of the cores, where estimated ages of the sediments (1950–1990) are associated with peak pesticide use during the Soviet era. These data

  2. Methods of evaluating ore processing and effluent treatment for Cigar Lake ore at the Rabbit Lake Mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, C.R.

    2002-01-01

    Cigar Lake is the second-largest, high grade uranium orebody in the world. Mineable reserves for Cigar Lake Phase 1 are estimated at 191 million pounds U 3 O 8 with a grade of 25.6% U 3 O 8 . Subject to regulatory approval, Cameco intends to process the majority of ore from Cigar Lake in the Rabbit Lake mill. Cameco initiated a programme to study the processing of Cigar Lake ore and the treatment of the resulting waste streams. Laboratory and follow-up pilot scale ore leaching tests with Cigar Lake ore samples were performed. Tailings and effluents were generated from the products of the pilot scale leach tests. Mill process tailings were blended with ground waste rock. Using these materials, geotechnical and geochemical properties, including long term tailings pore water characteristics, will be evaluated. In addition, proposed changes to the mill waste treatment operations were developed to deal with increased levels of arsenic and radium in the waste streams. This paper describes the methods and techniques Cameco used in this programme. (author)

  3. Restoration of Eutrophic Lakes with Fluctuating Water Levels: A 20-Year Monitoring Study of Two Inter-Connected Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Beklioğlu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Eutrophication continues to be the most important problem preventing a favorable environmental state and detrimentally impacting the ecosystem services of lakes. The current study describes the results of analyses of 20 year monitoring data from two interconnected Anatolian lakes, Lakes Mogan and Eymir, receiving sewage effluents and undergoing restoration. The first step of restoration in both lakes was sewage effluent diversion. Additionally, in hypertrophic Lake Eymir, biomanipulation was conducted, involving removal of benthi-planktivorous fish and prohibition of pike fishing. The monitoring period included high (H and low (L water levels (WL enabling elucidation of the effects of hydrological changes on lake restoration. In shallower Lake Mogan, macrophyte abundance increased after the sewage effluent diversion in periods with low water levels even at turbid water. In comparatively deeper Lake Eymir, the first biomanipulation led to a clear water state with abundant macrophyte coverage. However, shortly after biomanipulation, the water clarity declined, coinciding with low water level (LWL periods during which nutrient concentrations increased. A second biomanipulation was conducted, mostly during high water level (HWL period, resulting in a major decrease in nutrient concentrations and clearer water, but without an expansion of macrophytes. We conclude that repetitive fish removal may induce recovery but its success may be confounded by high availability of nutrients and adverse hydrological conditions.

  4. Simulation of hydrodynamics, water quality, and lake sturgeon habitat volumes in Lake St. Croix, Wisconsin and Minnesota, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erik A.; Kiesling, Richard L.; Ziegeweid, Jeffrey R.; Elliott, Sarah M.; Magdalene, Suzanne

    2018-01-05

    Lake St. Croix is a naturally impounded, riverine lake that makes up the last 40 kilometers of the St. Croix River. Substantial land-use changes during the past 150 years, including increased agriculture and urban development, have reduced Lake St. Croix water-quality and increased nutrient loads delivered to Lake St. Croix. A recent (2012–13) total maximum daily load phosphorus-reduction plan set the goal to reduce total phosphorus loads to Lake St. Croix by 20 percent by 2020 and reduce Lake St. Croix algal bloom frequencies. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, developed a two-dimensional, carbon-based, laterally averaged, hydrodynamic and water-quality model, CE–QUAL–W2, that addresses the interaction between nutrient cycling, primary production, and trophic dynamics to predict responses in the distribution of water temperature, oxygen, and chlorophyll a. Distribution is evaluated in the context of habitat for lake sturgeon, including a combination of temperature and dissolved oxygen conditions termed oxy-thermal habitat.The Lake St. Croix CE–QUAL–W2 model successfully reproduced temperature and dissolved oxygen in the lake longitudinally (from upstream to downstream), vertically, and temporally over the seasons. The simulated water temperature profiles closely matched the measured water temperature profiles throughout the year, including the prediction of thermocline transition depths (often within 1 meter), the absolute temperature of the thermocline transitions (often within 1.0 degree Celsius), and profiles without a strong thermocline transition. Simulated dissolved oxygen profiles matched the trajectories of the measured dissolved oxygen concentrations at multiple depths over time, and the simulated concentrations matched the depth and slope of the measured concentrations.Additionally, trends in the measured water-quality data were captured by the model simulation, gaining some potential insights into the

  5. What caused the decline of China's largest freshwater lake? Attribution analysis on Poyang Lake water level variations in recent years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xuchun; Xu, Chong-Yu; Zhang, Qi

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, dramatic decline of water level of the Poyang Lake, China's largest freshwater lake, has raised wide concerns about the water security and wetland ecosystem. This remarkable hydrological change coincided with several factors like the initial operation of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in 2003, the big change of lake bottom topography due to extensive sand mining in the lake since 2000, and also climate change and other human activities in the Yangtze River basin may add to this complexity. Questions raised to what extent that the lake hydrological changes is caused by climate change and/or human activities. In this study, quantitative assessment was conducted to clarify the magnitude and mechanism of specific influencing factors on recent lake decline (2003-2014), with reference to the period of 1980-1999. The attempts were achieved through the reconstruction of lake water level scenarios by the framework of neural network. Major result indicates that the effect of lake bottom topography change due to sand mining activities has became the dominant factor for the recent lake decline, especially in winter season with low water level. However, the effect of TGD regulation shows strong seasonal features, its effect can accounts for 33%-42% of the average water level decline across the lake during the impoundment period of September-October. In addition, the effect of climate change and other human activities over the Yangtze River basin needs to be highly addressed, which is particularly prominent on reducing lake water level during the summer flood season and autumn recession period. The result also revealed that due to different mechanism, the responses of the lake water level to the three influencing factors are not consistent and show great spatial and temporal differences.

  6. Fluctuations of Lake Orta water levels: preliminary analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmi Saidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available While the effects of past industrial pollution on the chemistry and biology of Lake Orta have been well documented, annual and seasonal fluctuations of lake levels have not yet been studied. Considering their potential impacts on both the ecosystem and on human safety, fluctuations in lake levels are an important aspect of limnological research. In the enormous catchment of Lake Maggiore, there are many rivers and lakes, and the amount of annual precipitation is both high and concentrated in spring and autumn. This has produced major flood events, most recently in November 2014. Flood events are also frequent on Lake Orta, occurring roughly triennially since 1917. The 1926, 1951, 1976 and 2014 floods were severe, with lake levels raised from 2.30 m to 3.46 m above the hydrometric zero. The most important event occurred in 1976, with a maximum level equal to 292.31 m asl and a return period of 147 years. In 2014 the lake level reached 291.89 m asl and its return period was 54 years. In this study, we defined trends and temporal fluctuations in Lake Orta water levels from 1917 to 2014, focusing on extremes. We report both annual maximum and seasonal variations of the lake water levels over this period. Both Mann-Kendall trend tests and simple linear regression were utilized to detect monotonic trends in annual and seasonal extremes, and logistic regression was used to detect trends in the number of flood events. Lake level decreased during winter and summer seasons, and a small but statistically non-significant positive trend was found in the number of flood events over the period. We provide estimations of return period for lake levels, a metric which could be used in planning lake flood protection measures.

  7. Microbial ecology of soda lakes: investigating sulfur and nitrogen cycling at Mono Lake, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, D.; Phillips, A. A.; Wells, M.; Bao, R.; Fullerton, K. M.; Stamps, B. W.; Speth, D. R.; Johnson, H.; Sessions, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    Soda lakes represent unique ecosystems characterized by extremes of pH, salinity and distinct geochemical cycling. Despite these extreme conditions, soda lakes are important repositories of biological adaptation and have a highly functional microbial system. We investigated the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur and nitrogen compounds in Mono Lake, California, located east of the Sierra Nevada mountains. Mono lake is characterized by hyperalkaline, hypersaline and high sulfate concentrations and can enter prolonged periods of meromixis due to freshwater inflow. Typically, the microbial sulfur cycle is highly active in soda lakes with both oxidation and reduction of sulfur compounds. However, the biological sulfur cycle is connected to many other main elemental cycles such as carbon, nitrogen and metals. Here we investigated the interaction between sulfur and nitrogen cycling in Mono lake using a combination of molecular, isotopic, and geochemical observations to explore the links between microbial phylogenetic composition and functionality. Metagenomic and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing were determined at two locations and five depths in May 2017. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing analysis revealed organisms capable of both sulfur and nitrogen cycling. The relative abundance and distribution of functional genes (dsrA, soxAB, nifH, etc) were also determined. These genetic markers indicate the potential in situ relevance of specific carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur pathways in the water column prior to the transition to meromictic stratification. However, genes for sulfide oxidation, denitrification, and ammonification were present. Genome binning guided by the most abundant dsrA sequences, GC content, and abundance with depth identified a Thioalkalivibrio paradoxus bin containing genes capable of sulfur oxidation, denitrification, and nitrate reduction. The presence of a large number of sulfur and nitrogen cycling genes associated with Thioalkalivibrio paradoxus

  8. Influence of precipitation, landscape and hydrogeomorphic lake features on pelagic allochthonous indicators in two connected ultraoligotrophic lakes of North Patagonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queimaliños, Claudia; Reissig, Mariana; Diéguez, María del Carmen; Arcagni, Marina; Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio; Campbell, Linda; Soto Cárdenas, Carolina; Rapacioli, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the terrestrial influence on two chained deep ultraoligotrophic lakes of North Patagonia (Argentina) through the seasonal analysis of two pelagic allochthonous indicators: i) water color, as a proxy of allochthonous dissolved organic matter in lakes; and ii) the color to chlorophyll a ratio (Color:Chla), as an indicator of the relationship between allochthonous and autochthonous carbon pools. We also evaluated the potential transfer pathways of the allochthonous dissolved organic matter into the pelagic food webs of these deep lakes, including the natural zooplankton δ 13 C in the analysis. The dynamics of the allochthonous indicators were related to the precipitation regime, water level fluctuations, and hydrogeomorphic and catchment features of lakes Moreno East and Moreno West. The water color (absorbance at 440 nm) was extremely low ( −1 ) in both lakes regardless of the season. However, precipitation and snowmelt regimes drove the increase and decrease of water color, respectively. A significant positive relationship between the zooplankton bulk δ 13 C with the water color would suggest an input of allochthonous organic carbon into the pelagic consumers. The incorporation of the dissolved allochthonous material into higher trophic levels is likely favored by the bacterivorous behavior of planktonic organisms, mixotrophic flagellates and ciliates, which dominate the pelagic food webs of these Patagonian lakes. Morphometric aspects, mainly the higher water residence time, led to lower values of allochthony in Moreno East compared to Moreno West, probably accentuated by its upper position in the lake chain. Overall, our results suggest that these allochthonous signals can bring insight into the magnitude of the interaction between terrestrial environments and lake ecosystems, even in extremely clear and ultraoligotrophic systems, such as the Andean Patagonian lakes. - Highlights: ► Pelagic allochthonous indicators were detected in two

  9. Exposure-related effects of Zequanox on juvenile lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, James A.; Severson, Todd J.; Wise, Jeremy K.; Barbour, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    The environmental fate, persistence, and non-target animal impacts of traditional molluscicides for zebra, Dreissena polymorpha, and quagga, D. bugensis, mussel control led to the development of the biomolluscicide Zequanox. Although previous research has demonstrated the specificity of Zequanox, one study indicated sensitivity of salmonids and lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, following non-label compliant exposures to Zequanox. This study was conducted to evaluate sublethal and lethal impacts of Zequanox exposure on juvenile lake sturgeon and lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, following applications that were conducted in a manner consistent with the Zequanox product label. Fish were exposed to 50 or 100 mg/L of Zequanox as active ingredient for 8 h and then held for 33 d to evaluate latent impacts. No acute mortality was observed in either species; however, significant latent mortality (P < 0.01, df = 9; 46.2%) was observed in lake trout that were exposed to the highest dose of Zequanox. Statistically significant (P < 0.03, df = 9), but biologically minimal differences were observed in the weight (range 20.17 to 21.49 g) of surviving lake sturgeon at the termination of the 33 d post-exposure observation period. Statistically significant (P < 0.05, df = 9) and biologically considerable differences were observed in the weight (range 6.19 to 9.55 g) of surviving lake trout at the termination of the 33 d post-exposure observation period. Histologic evaluation of lake trout gastrointestinal tracts suggests that the mode of action in lake trout is different from the mode of action that induces zebra and quagga mussel mortality. Further research could determine the sensitivity of other salmonid species to Zequanox and determine if native fish will avoid Zequanox treated water.

  10. Life history of lake herring of Green Bay, Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1956-01-01

    Although the lake herring has been an important contributor to the commercial fish production of Green Bay, little has been known about it. This study is based on field observations and data from about 6,500 lake herring collected over the period 1948 to 1952. Relatively nonselective commercial pound nets were a primary source of material for the study of age and growth. Commercial and experimental gill nets were used to obtain data on gear selectivity and vertical distribution. Scales were employed to investigate age and growth. Age group IV normally dominated commercial catches during the first half of the calendar year and age group III the last half. At these ages the fish averaged about 10.5 inches in length. The season's growth started in May, was most rapid in July, and terminated near the end of October. The sexes grew at the same rate. Selectivity of fishing gear was found to influence the estimation of growth. Geographical and annual differences in growth are shown. Factors that might contribute to discrepancies in calculated growth are evaluated. Possible real and apparent causes of growth compensation are given. The relation between length and weight is shown to vary with sex, season, year, and method of capture. Females were relatively more plentiful in commercial catches in February than in May through December. The percentage of females decreased with increase in age in pound-net catches but increased with age in gill-net samples. Within a year class the percentage of females decreased with increase in age. Most Green Bay lake herring mature during their second or third year of life. They are pelagic spawners with most intensive spawning over shallow areas. Spawning takes place between mid-November and mid-December, and eggs hatch in April and May. Lake herring ovaries contained from 3,500 to 11,200 eggs (averaged 6,375). Progress of spawning by age, sex, and length is given. Lake herring were distributed at all depths in Green Bay in early May, were

  11. Remote Sensing of Lake Ice Phenology in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Pavelsky, T.

    2017-12-01

    Lake ice phenology (e.g. ice break-up and freeze-up timing) in Alaska is potentially sensitive to climate change. However, there are few current lake ice records in this region, which hinders the comprehensive understanding of interactions between climate change and lake processes. To provide a lake ice database with over a comparatively long time period (2000 - 2017) and large spatial coverage (4000+ lakes) in Alaska, we have developed an algorithm to detect the timing of lake ice using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data. This approach generally consists of three major steps. First, we use a cloud mask (MOD09GA) to filter out satellite images with heavy cloud contamination. Second, daily MODIS reflectance values (MOD09GQ) of lake surface are used to extract ice pixels from water pixels. The ice status of lakes can be further identified based on the fraction of ice pixels. Third, to improve the accuracy of ice phenology detection, we execute post-processing quality control to reduce false ice events caused by outliers. We validate the proposed algorithm over six lakes by comparing with Landsat-based reference data. Validation results indicate a high correlation between the MODIS results and reference data, with normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) ranging from 1.7% to 4.6%. The time series of this lake ice product is then examined to analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of lake ice phenology.

  12. Key Lake spill. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    On January 5, 1984 contaminated water overflowed a storage reservoir at the Key Lake uranium mill onto the ice on a neighboring lake, into a muskeg area and onto a road. Outflow continued for two days, partially undercutting a retaining dyke. This report concludes the spill was the result of poor operation by the Key Lake Mining Corp.. The environmental impact will be minimal after cleanup. Improvements can be made in the regulatory process, and it is necessary to prepare for possible future mishaps

  13. Assessing lake eutrophication using chironomids: understanding the nature of community response in different lake types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langdon, P. G.; Ruiz, Z.; Brodersen, K. P.

    2006-01-01

    in the original calibration or extended datasets. However, since the transfer functions are based on weighted averages of the trophic optima for the taxa present and not on community similarities, reasonable downcore inferences were produced. Ordination analyses also showed that the lakes retain their 'identity......1. Total phosphorus (TP) and chlorophyll a (Chl a) chironomid inference models ( Brodersen & Lindegaard, 1999 ; Brooks, Bennion & Birks, 2001 ) were used in an attempt to reconstruct changes in nutrients from three very different lake types. Both training sets were expanded, particularly at the low....... A response to nutrients (TP or total nitrogen (TN) ) at this site is also indirect, and the TP reconstruction therefore cannot be reliably interpreted. The third lake, March Ghyll Reservoir has little change in historic chironomid communities, suggesting that this well mixed, relatively unproductive lake has...

  14. Distinguishing between anthropogenic and climatic impacts on lake size: a modeling approach using data from Ebinur Lake in arid northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Ma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of anthropogenic and climatic impacts on lake size variation is important for maintaining ecosystem integrity and sustaining societal development. We assumed that climate and human activity are the only drivers of lake-size variation and are independent of each other. We then evaluated anthropogenic and climatic effects on hydrological processes, using a multivariate linear model. Macro-economic data were used to describe the anthropogenic impact on lake surface area in our approach. Ebinur Lake is a shallow, closed, saline lake in arid northwest China; it has shrunk at a rapid rate over the past half century. Using our new method, we explored temporal trends of anthropogenic and climatic impacts on the lake over the past 50 years. Assessment indices indicate that the model represents observed data quite well. Compared with the reference period of 1955-1960, impacts of climate change across the catchment were generally positive with respect to lake area, except for the period from 1961 to 1970. Human activity was responsible for a reduction in lake surface area of 286.8 km2 over the last 50 years. Our approach, which uses economic variables to describe the anthropogenic impact on lake surface area, enables us to explain the lake responses to climate change and human activities quantitatively.

  15. Age and growth of the lake whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchill), in Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oosten, John; Hile, Ralph

    1949-01-01

    Although the whitefish has by no means ranked first from the standpoint of production, it has always been an important commercial species in Lake Erie. Trends in the output of whitefish have differed in the United States and Canadian waters of the lake. The 1893–1946 average annual yield of 1,201,000 pounds in the United States was only 38.3 percent of the 1879–1890 mean of 3,133,000 pounds, whereas in Canada the more recent (1907–1946) average annual take of 1,397,000 pounds has been 5.48 times the 1871–1906 mean of 255,000 pounds. The United States fishery was centered in the western part of Lake Erie (61.5 percent of the production in Michigan and Ohio) before 1921 and in the eastern part (62.6 percent in Pennsylvania and New York) in 1921–1946. The eastern part of Lake Erie (east of Port Burwell) dominated the Canadian production in 1900–1909 (65.4 percent) and in 1922–1946 (57.2 percent) but the western end was the more productive in 1871–1899 (79.8 percent) and 1910–1921 (69.7 percent). Ages were determined and individual growth histories calculated from the examination and measurement of the scales of 3,399 Lake Erie whitefish captured off four ports (Sandusky, Lorain, and Conneaut, Ohio, and Erie, Pennsylvania) over the period, 1927–1930. The number of specimens used for the investigation of other phases of the life history varied according to the amount of data available or required. Age-group III was typically (but not invariably) dominant in random samples from gear employed for the commercial production of whitefish (trap nets, pound nets, and large-mesh gill nets). The same age group also dominated most samples of the marketable catch (that is, whitefish that equalled or exceeded the minimum legal weight of 1 3/4 pounds) taken in late summer, autumn, and early winter. Age-group IV, however, was strongest among marketable fish from trap nets in early July although the III group was dominant in the random samples from the same nets

  16. Freshwater lakes--a potential source for aquaculture activities--a model study on Perumal Lake, Cuddalore, Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, R; Ramalingam, K; Bharathi Rajan, U D

    2006-10-01

    The freshwater Perumal lake located at Cuddalore was assessed for its suitability and potential for aquaculture practices. Various hydrobiological parameters determined reveals that the various physicochemical characteristics are with in normal range of values. The DO level, BOD and COD values determined in the lake revealed the consequences of community activities and pollution possibilities. The primary productivity data revealed maximum productivity during March which infer that the lake is unaffected by anthropogenic disturbance and community contamination. The bacterial count remained higher during the monsoon periods, which characterize profuse rainfall and storm water discharge into the lake. The microfauna includes zooplankter such as cladocerans, copepods, rotifers and ostracods. Benthos include carps, catfishes, mullets and prawns. The above study revealed that the various parameters in the lake conform to the levels suited for freshwater fish culture and represents a resource for scientific management.

  17. LAGOS-NE: a multi-scaled geospatial and temporal database of lake ecological context and water quality for thousands of US lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Linda C; Beauchene, Michael; Bednar, Karen E; Bissell, Edward G; Boudreau, Claire K; Boyer, Marvin G; Bremigan, Mary T; Carpenter, Stephen R; Carr, Jamie W; Christel, Samuel T; Claucherty, Matt; Conroy, Joseph D; Downing, John A; Dukett, Jed; Filstrup, Christopher T; Funk, Clara; Gonzalez, Maria J; Green, Linda T; Gries, Corinna; Halfman, John D; Hamilton, Stephen K; Hanson, Paul C; Henry, Emily N; Herron, Elizabeth M; Hockings, Celeste; Jackson, James R; Jacobson-Hedin, Kari; Janus, Lorraine L; Jones, William W; Jones, John R; Keson, Caroline M; King, Katelyn B S; Kishbaugh, Scott A; Lathrop, Barbara; Latimore, Jo A; Lee, Yuehlin; Lottig, Noah R; Lynch, Jason A; Matthews, Leslie J; McDowell, William H; Moore, Karen E B; Neff, Brian P; Nelson, Sarah J; Oliver, Samantha K; Pace, Michael L; Pierson, Donald C; Poisson, Autumn C; Pollard, Amina I; Post, David M; Reyes, Paul O; Rosenberry, Donald O; Roy, Karen M; Rudstam, Lars G; Sarnelle, Orlando; Schuldt, Nancy J; Scott, Caren E; Smith, Nicole J; Spinelli, Nick R; Stachelek, Joseph J; Stanley, Emily H; Stoddard, John L; Stopyak, Scott B; Stow, Craig A; Tallant, Jason M; Thorpe, Anthony P; Vanni, Michael J; Wagner, Tyler; Watkins, Gretchen; Weathers, Kathleen C; Webster, Katherine E; White, Jeffrey D; Wilmes, Marcy K; Yuan, Shuai

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the factors that affect water quality and the ecological services provided by freshwater ecosystems is an urgent global environmental issue. Predicting how water quality will respond to global changes not only requires water quality data, but also information about the ecological context of individual water bodies across broad spatial extents. Because lake water quality is usually sampled in limited geographic regions, often for limited time periods, assessing the environmental controls of water quality requires compilation of many data sets across broad regions and across time into an integrated database. LAGOS-NE accomplishes this goal for lakes in the northeastern-most 17 US states. LAGOS-NE contains data for 51 101 lakes and reservoirs larger than 4 ha in 17 lake-rich US states. The database includes 3 data modules for: lake location and physical characteristics for all lakes; ecological context (i.e., the land use, geologic, climatic, and hydrologic setting of lakes) for all lakes; and in situ measurements of lake water quality for a subset of the lakes from the past 3 decades for approximately 2600–12 000 lakes depending on the variable. The database contains approximately 150 000 measures of total phosphorus, 200 000 measures of chlorophyll, and 900 000 measures of Secchi depth. The water quality data were compiled from 87 lake water quality data sets from federal, state, tribal, and non-profit agencies, university researchers, and citizen scientists. This database is one of the largest and most comprehensive databases of its type because it includes both in situ measurements and ecological context data. Because ecological context can be used to study a variety of other questions about lakes, streams, and wetlands, this database can also be used as the foundation for other studies of freshwaters at broad spatial and ecological scales. PMID:29053868

  18. LAGOS-NE: a multi-scaled geospatial and temporal database of lake ecological context and water quality for thousands of US lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soranno, Patricia A; Bacon, Linda C; Beauchene, Michael; Bednar, Karen E; Bissell, Edward G; Boudreau, Claire K; Boyer, Marvin G; Bremigan, Mary T; Carpenter, Stephen R; Carr, Jamie W; Cheruvelil, Kendra S; Christel, Samuel T; Claucherty, Matt; Collins, Sarah M; Conroy, Joseph D; Downing, John A; Dukett, Jed; Fergus, C Emi; Filstrup, Christopher T; Funk, Clara; Gonzalez, Maria J; Green, Linda T; Gries, Corinna; Halfman, John D; Hamilton, Stephen K; Hanson, Paul C; Henry, Emily N; Herron, Elizabeth M; Hockings, Celeste; Jackson, James R; Jacobson-Hedin, Kari; Janus, Lorraine L; Jones, William W; Jones, John R; Keson, Caroline M; King, Katelyn B S; Kishbaugh, Scott A; Lapierre, Jean-Francois; Lathrop, Barbara; Latimore, Jo A; Lee, Yuehlin; Lottig, Noah R; Lynch, Jason A; Matthews, Leslie J; McDowell, William H; Moore, Karen E B; Neff, Brian P; Nelson, Sarah J; Oliver, Samantha K; Pace, Michael L; Pierson, Donald C; Poisson, Autumn C; Pollard, Amina I; Post, David M; Reyes, Paul O; Rosenberry, Donald O; Roy, Karen M; Rudstam, Lars G; Sarnelle, Orlando; Schuldt, Nancy J; Scott, Caren E; Skaff, Nicholas K; Smith, Nicole J; Spinelli, Nick R; Stachelek, Joseph J; Stanley, Emily H; Stoddard, John L; Stopyak, Scott B; Stow, Craig A; Tallant, Jason M; Tan, Pang-Ning; Thorpe, Anthony P; Vanni, Michael J; Wagner, Tyler; Watkins, Gretchen; Weathers, Kathleen C; Webster, Katherine E; White, Jeffrey D; Wilmes, Marcy K; Yuan, Shuai

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the factors that affect water quality and the ecological services provided by freshwater ecosystems is an urgent global environmental issue. Predicting how water quality will respond to global changes not only requires water quality data, but also information about the ecological context of individual water bodies across broad spatial extents. Because lake water quality is usually sampled in limited geographic regions, often for limited time periods, assessing the environmental controls of water quality requires compilation of many data sets across broad regions and across time into an integrated database. LAGOS-NE accomplishes this goal for lakes in the northeastern-most 17 US states.LAGOS-NE contains data for 51 101 lakes and reservoirs larger than 4 ha in 17 lake-rich US states. The database includes 3 data modules for: lake location and physical characteristics for all lakes; ecological context (i.e., the land use, geologic, climatic, and hydrologic setting of lakes) for all lakes; and in situ measurements of lake water quality for a subset of the lakes from the past 3 decades for approximately 2600-12 000 lakes depending on the variable. The database contains approximately 150 000 measures of total phosphorus, 200 000 measures of chlorophyll, and 900 000 measures of Secchi depth. The water quality data were compiled from 87 lake water quality data sets from federal, state, tribal, and non-profit agencies, university researchers, and citizen scientists. This database is one of the largest and most comprehensive databases of its type because it includes both in situ measurements and ecological context data. Because ecological context can be used to study a variety of other questions about lakes, streams, and wetlands, this database can also be used as the foundation for other studies of freshwaters at broad spatial and ecological scales. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. LAGOS-NE: a multi-scaled geospatial and temporal database of lake ecological context and water quality for thousands of US lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soranno, Patricia A.; Bacon, Linda C.; Beauchene, Michael; Bednar, Karen E.; Bissell, Edward G.; Boudreau, Claire K.; Boyer, Marvin G.; Bremigan, Mary T.; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Carr, Jamie W.; Cheruvelil, Kendra S.; Christel, Samuel T.; Claucherty, Matt; Collins, Sarah M.; Conroy, Joseph D.; Downing, John A.; Dukett, Jed; Fergus, C. Emi; Filstrup, Christopher T.; Funk, Clara; Gonzalez, Maria J.; Green, Linda T.; Gries, Corinna; Halfman, John D.; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Hanson, Paul C.; Henry, Emily N.; Herron, Elizabeth M.; Hockings, Celeste; Jackson, James R.; Jacobson-Hedin, Kari; Janus, Lorraine L.; Jones, William W.; Jones, John R.; Keson, Caroline M.; King, Katelyn B.S.; Kishbaugh, Scott A.; Lapierre, Jean-Francois; Lathrop, Barbara; Latimore, Jo A.; Lee, Yuehlin; Lottig, Noah R.; Lynch, Jason A.; Matthews, Leslie J.; McDowell, William H.; Moore, Karen E.B.; Neff, Brian; Nelson, Sarah J.; Oliver, Samantha K.; Pace, Michael L.; Pierson, Donald C.; Poisson, Autumn C.; Pollard, Amina I.; Post, David M.; Reyes, Paul O.; Rosenberry, Donald; Roy, Karen M.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Sarnelle, Orlando; Schuldt, Nancy J.; Scott, Caren E.; Skaff, Nicholas K.; Smith, Nicole J.; Spinelli, Nick R.; Stachelek, Joseph J.; Stanley, Emily H.; Stoddard, John L.; Stopyak, Scott B.; Stow, Craig A.; Tallant, Jason M.; Tan, Pang-Ning; Thorpe, Anthony P.; Vanni, Michael J.; Wagner, Tyler; Watkins, Gretchen; Weathers, Kathleen C.; Webster, Katherine E.; White, Jeffrey D.; Wilmes, Marcy K.; Yuan, Shuai

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the factors that affect water quality and the ecological services provided by freshwater ecosystems is an urgent global environmental issue. Predicting how water quality will respond to global changes not only requires water quality data, but also information about the ecological context of individual water bodies across broad spatial extents. Because lake water quality is usually sampled in limited geographic regions, often for limited time periods, assessing the environmental controls of water quality requires compilation of many data sets across broad regions and across time into an integrated database. LAGOS-NE accomplishes this goal for lakes in the northeastern-most 17 US states.LAGOS-NE contains data for 51 101 lakes and reservoirs larger than 4 ha in 17 lake-rich US states. The database includes 3 data modules for: lake location and physical characteristics for all lakes; ecological context (i.e., the land use, geologic, climatic, and hydrologic setting of lakes) for all lakes; and in situ measurements of lake water quality for a subset of the lakes from the past 3 decades for approximately 2600–12 000 lakes depending on the variable. The database contains approximately 150 000 measures of total phosphorus, 200 000 measures of chlorophyll, and 900 000 measures of Secchi depth. The water quality data were compiled from 87 lake water quality data sets from federal, state, tribal, and non-profit agencies, university researchers, and citizen scientists. This database is one of the largest and most comprehensive databases of its type because it includes both in situ measurements and ecological context data. Because ecological context can be used to study a variety of other questions about lakes, streams, and wetlands, this database can also be used as the foundation for other studies of freshwaters at broad spatial and ecological scales.

  20. Drastic lake level changes of Lake Van (eastern Turkey) during the past ca. 600 ka: climatic, volcanic and tectonic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukur, D.; Krastel, S.; Schmincke, H.; Sumita, M.; Tomonaga, Y.; Damci, E.

    2013-12-01

    Lake Van is the largest soda lake in the world with a present surface of 3,574 km2 and a maximum water depth of 450 m. Sedimentary deposits in the lake preserve one of the most complete record of continental climate in the Middle East since the Middle Pleistocene. We studied these deposits to characterize the evolution of the lake level and its possible relationships with changes in climate, volcanic, and regional tectonics since the formation of the lake ca. 600 ka ago. Changes in lake level were determined based on high-resolution seismic reflection profiles showing erosional surfaces, changes in stratal geometries such as downward shifts in coastal onlap, and recognition of distinctive stratigraphic features such as prograding delta clinoforms. Our results show that Lake Van has undergone drastic changes in surface elevation by as much as 600 meters over the past ca. 600 ka. Five major lowstands occurred at ca. ~600 ka, ca. 365-340 ka, ca 290-230 ka; ca. 150-130 ka; and ca. 30-14 ka. During a first period (A) (ca. 600-ca 230 ka) lake levels changed drastically by hundreds of m but at longer time intervals between low and high stands. Changes occurred more frequently but mostly by a few tens of m during the past ca. 230 ka years where we can distinguish a first period (B1) of stepwise transgressions between ca. 230 and 150 ka followed by a short regression between ca. 150 and 130 ka. Lake level rose stepwise again during period B2 lasting until ca 30 ka. During the past 30 ka a regression and a final transgression each lasted ca. 15 ka years. The major lowstand periods in Lake Van occurred during glacial periods, arguing for a climatic control of these lake-level fluctuations (i.e., significantly reduced precipitation leading to lake level low stands). Although climate forcing may have been the dominant cause for the drastic lake level changes of Lake Van, volcanic and tectonic forcing factors are also invoked. For example, the number of distinct tephra layers

  1. Paleoecology of a Northern Michigan Lake and the relationship among climate, vegetation, and Great Lakes water levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, R.K.; Jackson, S.T.; Thompson, T.A.

    2002-01-01

    We reconstructed Holocene water-level and vegetation dynamics based on pollen and plant macrofossils from a coastal lake in Upper Michigan. Our primary objective was to test the hypothesis that major fluctuations in Great Lakes water levels resulted in part from climatic changes. We also used our data to provide temporal constraints to the mid-Holocene dry period in Upper Michigan. From 9600 to 8600 cal yr B.P. a shallow, lacustrine environment characterized the Mud Lake basin. A Sphagnum-dominated wetland occupied the basin during the mid-Holocene dry period (???8600 to 6600 cal yr B.P.). The basin flooded at 6600 cal yr B.P. as a result of rising water levels associated with the onset of the Nipissing I phase of ancestral Lake Superior. This flooding event occured contemporaneously with a well-documented regional expansion of Tsuga. Betula pollen increased during the Nipissing II phase (4500 cal yr B.P.). Macrofossil evidence from Mud Lake suggests that Betula alleghaniensis expansion was primarily responsible for the rising Betula pollen percentages. Major regional and local vegetational changes were associated with all the major Holocene highstands of the western Great Lakes (Nipissing I, Nipissing II, and Algoma). Traditional interpretations of Great Lakes water-level history should be revised to include a major role of climate. ?? 2002 University of Washington.

  2. Challenge to the model of lake charr evolution: Shallow- and deep-water morphs exist within a small postglacial lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarie, Louise; Muir, Andrew M.; Zimmerman, Mara S.; Baillie, Shauna M.; Hansen, Michael J.; Nate, Nancy A.; Yule, Daniel L.; Middel, Trevor; Bentzen, Paul; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    All examples of lake charr (Salvelinus namaycush) diversity occur within the largest, deepest lakes of North America (i.e. > 2000 km2). We report here Rush Lake (1.3 km2) as the first example of a small lake with two lake charr morphs (lean and huronicus). Morphology, diet, life history, and genetics were examined to demonstrate the existence of morphs and determine the potential influence of evolutionary processes that led to their formation or maintenance. Results showed that the huronicus morph, caught in deep-water, had a deeper body, smaller head and jaws, higher eye position, greater buoyancy, and deeper peduncle than the shallow-water lean morph. Huronicus grew slower to a smaller adult size, and had an older mean age than the lean morph. Genetic comparisons showed low genetic divergence between morphs, indicating incomplete reproductive isolation. Phenotypic plasticity and differences in habitat use between deep and shallow waters associated with variation in foraging opportunities seems to have been sufficient to maintain the two morphs, demonstrating their important roles in resource polymorphism. Rush Lake expands previous explanations for lake charr intraspecific diversity, from large to small lakes and from reproductive isolation to the presence of gene flow associated with strong ecological drivers.

  3. Petrology of the Fort Smith - Great Slave Lake radiometric high near Pilot Lake, N.W.T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burwash, R.A.; Cape, D.F.

    1981-01-01

    Near Pilot Lake, the east boundary of the Fort Smith - Great Slave Lake radiometric high coincides with the contact of a well-foliated, porphyroblastic microcline-plagioclase-quartz-garnet-biotite gneiss (Pilot Lake Gneiss) with a hybrid assemblage of quartzite, mica schist, garnet-cordierite gneiss, and minor amphibolite (Variable Paragneiss). Anomalously high concentrations of uranium and thorium are associated with mafic-rich, lenticular bodies with a mineral assemblage biotite + monazite + zircon + ilmenite + hematite +- plagioclase +- quartz, within both the Variable Paragneiss and the Pilot Lake Gneiss. Corundum and spinel occur in the mafic lenses and sillimanite, kyanite, and hypersthene in other inclusions of the Pilot Lake Gneiss. The ilmenite-magnetite--monazite-zircon-apatite assemblage is interpreted as a 'black sand' concentration in a clastic sedimentary sequence subsequently metamorphosed by a regional granulite facies event. A granite pluton intruded during the same orogenic cycle assimilated the clastic metasedimentary rocks containing black sand interlayers, becoming enriched in thorium from the monazite. A second metamorphic event at lower P-T conditions, accompanied by strong cataclasis, developed the texture of the Pilot Lake Gneiss as now observed. Shearing within the gneiss locally concentrated hematite + quartz + uranium. Regional tectonic extrapolations suggest that the pyroxene granulite event was Kenoran and the later amphibolite event Hudsonian. (author)

  4. Quantifying the Variability of CH4 Emissions from Pan-Arctic Lakes with Lake Biogeochemical and Landscape Evolution Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Z.; Zhuang, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies in the arctic and subarctic show that CH4 emissions from pan-arctic lakes are playing much more significant roles in the regional carbon cycling than previously estimated. Permafrost thawing due to pronounced warming at northern high latitudes affects lake morphology, changing its CH4 emissions. Thermokarst can enlarge the extent of artic lakes, exposing stable ancient carbon buried in the permafrost zone for degradation and changing a previously known carbon sink to a large carbon source. In some areas, the thawing of subarctic discontinuous and isolated permafrost can diminish thermokarst lakes. To date, few models have considered these important hydrological and biogeochemical processes to provide adequate estimation of CH4 emissions from these lakes. To fill this gap, we have developed a process-based climate-sensitive lake biogeochemical model and a landscape evolution model, which have been applied to quantify the state and variability of CH4 emissions from this freshwater system. Site-level experiments show the models are capable to capture the spatial and temporal variability of CH4 emissions from lakes across Siberia and Alaska. With the lake biogeochemical model solely, we estimate that the magnitude of CH4 emissions from lakes is 13.2 Tg yr-1 in the north of 60 ºN at present, which is on the same order of CH4 emissions from northern high-latitude wetlands. The maximum increment is 11.8 Tg CH4 yr-1 by the end of the 21st century when the worst warming scenario is assumed. We expect the landscape evolution model will improve the existing estimates.

  5. Status and trends of the Lake Huron deepwater demersal fish ommunity, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Edward F.; O'Brien, Timothy P.; Riley, Stephen C.; Farha, Steve A.; French, John R.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S.Geological Survey Great Lakes Science Center has conducted trawl surveys to assess annual changes in the deepwater demersal fish community of Lake Huron since 1973. Since 1992, surveys have been carried out using a 21 m wing trawl towed on-contour at depths ranging from 9 to 110 m on fixed transects. Sample sites include five ports in U.S. waters with less frequent sampling near Goderich, Ontario. The 2008 fall bottom trawl survey was carried out between October 24 and November 20, 2008 and sampled only the three northern U.S. ports at DeTour, Hammond Bay, and Alpena due to mechanical problems with the research vessel and prolonged periods of bad weather. Therefore, all data presented for 2008 are based on samples collected from these ports. Compared to previous years, alewife populations in Lake Huron remain at low levels after collapsing in 2004. Age-0 alewife density and biomass appears to have increased slightly but overall levels remain near the nadir observed in 2004. Density and biomass of adult and juvenile rainbow smelt showed a decrease from 2007 despite record-high abundance of juveniles observed in 2005, suggesting recruitment was low. Numbers of adult and juvenile bloater were low despite recent high year-classes. Abundances for most other prey species were similar to the low levels observed in 2005 - 2007. We captured one wild juvenile lake trout in 2008 representing the fifth consecutive year that wild lake trout were captured in the survey. Based on pairwise graphical comparisons and nonparametric correlation analyses, dynamics of prey abundance at the three northern ports followed lakewide trends since 1992. Density of benthic macroinvertebrates was at an all-time low in 2008 since sampling began in 2001. The decline in abundance was due to decreases in all taxonomic groups and a large reduction in recruitment of quagga mussels. Density of Diporeia at northern ports in 2008 was the lowest observed. Diporeia were found only at 73-m sites of

  6. Great lakes prey fish populations: a cross-basin overview of status and trends based on bottom trawl surveys, 1978-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Owen T.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of prey fish stocks in the Great Lakes have been conducted annually with bottom trawls since the 1970s by the Great Lakes Science Center, sometimes assisted by partner agencies. These stock assessments provide data on the status and trends of prey fish that are consumed by important commercial and recreational fishes. Although all these annual surveys are conducted using bottom trawls, they differ among the lakes in the proportion of the lake covered, seasonal timing, bottom trawl gear used, and the manner in which the trawl is towed (across or along bottom contours). Because each assessment is unique in one or more important aspects, direct comparison of prey fish catches among lakes is not straightforward. However, all of the assessments produce indices of abundance or biomass that can be standardized to facilitate comparisons of status and trends across all the Great Lakes. In this report, population indices were standardized to the highest value for a time series within each lake for the following principal prey species: cisco (Coregonus artedi), bloater (C. hoyi), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), and alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus). Indices were also provided for round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), an invasive fish that has proliferated throughout the basin over the past 18 years. These standardized indices represent the best available long-term indices of relative abundance for these fishes across all of the Great Lakes. In this report, standardized indices are presented in graphical form along with synopses to provide a short, informal cross-basin summary of the status and trends of principal prey fishes. In keeping with this intent, tables, references, and a detailed discussion were omitted.

  7. Water quality and water pollution sources in Poyang lake, China; Poyang ko ni okeru suishitsu chosa to odakugen kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, M. [Shin-Nippon Meteorological and Oceanographical Consultant Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-10

    This paper summarizes the current status of water quality and pollution sources in Poyang Lake in China. The lake is located in Chianghsi Province of China, and a largest fresh water lake in China that flows out into the Yangtze river. The basin is surrounded by mountains on three sides and faces the Yangtze on one side, whereas the plains formed by the lake and the rivers flowing in extends in the center of the basin. The plains around the lake has the city of Nanchang, the capital of the province, the city of Jiujiang (both cities have a population of about 4 million, respectively), and four other cities with a size of one million people including Jingdezhen. Water supply system in the basin is used in a 37% area of the urban areas, and no sewage facilities of whatsoever are available as of 1991. The lake has COD of about 3 mg{times}1/l. No severe pollution by organic matters is seen. While the T-P concentration is at a high level, PO4-P is low. Majority of phosphorus flowing into the basin exists in the form trapped in soil particles. In order to maintain the current water quality in the future, waste water treatment is required in the basin. Construction of an oxidation pond in the vast land exposed during the drought period is a measure that can be tackled relatively easily. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  8. Value Assessment of Artificial Wetland Derived from Mining Subsided Lake: A Case Study of Jiuli Lake Wetland in Xuzhou

    OpenAIRE

    Laijian Wang; Lachun Wang; Pengcheng Yin; Haiyang Cui; Longwu Liang; Zhenbo Wang

    2017-01-01

    Mining subsided lakes are major obstacles for ecological restoration and resource reuse in mining regions. Transforming mining subsided lakes into artificial wetlands is an ecological restoration approach that has been attempted in China in recent years, but a value assessment of the approach still needs systematic research. This paper considers Jiuli Lake wetland, an artificial wetland derived from restoration of a mining subsided lake in plain area, as a case study. A value assessment model...

  9. Transient Tsunamis in Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couston, L.; Mei, C.; Alam, M.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of lakes are surrounded by steep and unstable mountains with slopes prone to failure. As a result, landslides are likely to occur and impact water sitting in closed reservoirs. These rare geological phenomena pose serious threats to dam reservoirs and nearshore facilities because they can generate unexpectedly large tsunami waves. In fact, the tallest wave experienced by contemporary humans occurred because of a landslide in the narrow bay of Lituya in 1958, and five years later, a deadly landslide tsunami overtopped Lake Vajont's dam, flooding and damaging villages along the lakefront and in the Piave valley. If unstable slopes and potential slides are detected ahead of time, inundation maps can be drawn to help people know the risks, and mitigate the destructive power of the ensuing waves. These maps give the maximum wave runup height along the lake's vertical and sloping boundaries, and can be obtained by numerical simulations. Keeping track of the moving shorelines along beaches is challenging in classical Eulerian formulations because the horizontal extent of the fluid domain can change over time. As a result, assuming a solid slide and nonbreaking waves, here we develop a nonlinear shallow-water model equation in the Lagrangian framework to address the problem of transient landslide-tsunamis. In this manner, the shorelines' three-dimensional motion is part of the solution. The model equation is hyperbolic and can be solved numerically by finite differences. Here, a 4th order Runge-Kutta method and a compact finite-difference scheme are implemented to integrate in time and spatially discretize the forced shallow-water equation in Lagrangian coordinates. The formulation is applied to different lake and slide geometries to better understand the effects of the lake's finite lengths and slide's forcing mechanism on the generated wavefield. Specifically, for a slide moving down a plane beach, we show that edge-waves trapped by the shoreline and free