Associação de deltametrina com Acarophenax lacunatus e seu impacto sobre o desenvolvimento de Rhyzopertha dominica Association of deltamethrin with Acarophenax lacunatus on development of Rhyzopertha dominica
José Roberto Gonçalves
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a associação do inseticida deltametrina, aplicado em grãos de trigo, com o ácaro parasita Acarophenax lacunatus e seu impacto sobre o desenvolvimento de Rhyzopertha dominica. Grãos de trigo (13% de teor de água foram tratados com diferentes doses de deltametrina (0,00, 0,125, 0,25, 0,375, 0,50, 0,625, 0,75, 0,875 e 1,00 mg i.a. kg-1. As unidades experimentais consistiram de placas de Petri contendo 30 g de grãos tratados, ou não, com o inseticida, infestados com 30 adultos de R. dominica. Cinco dias depois da infestação, foram inoculados cinco ácaros parasitas por unidade experimental, em sete repetições. As unidades experimentais foram armazenadas por 60 dias depois da infestação em câmara climatizada ajustada a 30±1°C, 60±5% UR e escotofase de 24 horas. A taxa instantânea de crescimento de R. dominica apresentou índices negativos para as doses de deltametrina maiores que 0,25 mg i.a. kg-1. A. lacunatus associado a doses de deltametrina menores que 0,5 mg i.a. kg-1 reduz as fases imaturas de R. dominica.The objective of this work was to evaluate the development of Rhyzopertha dominica on wheat grain treated with the insecticide deltamethrin and infested with the mite Acarophenax lacunatus. The experimental units were Petri dishes containing 30 g of wheat grain (13% moisture content sprayed with different doses of deltamethrin (0.00, 0.125, 0.25, 0.375, 0.50, 0.625, 0.75, 0.875 and 1.00 mg a.i. kg-1 infested with 30 adults of R. dominica. Five days after the infestation, five mites were inoculated on each experimental unit, in seven replicates. All treatments were maintained under controlled conditions (30±1°C, 60±5% r.h. and 24 hours scotophase for 60 days after the infestation. The instantaneous rate of increase of R. dominica was negative under doses higher than 0.25 mg a.i. kg-1. The lowest number of immature R. dominica was observed with the interaction between deltamethrin doses
Glowska, Eliza; Laniecka, Izabella
A new quill mite species Syringophilopsis davidi sp. nov. (Prostigmata, Syringophilidae) parasitizing Greater Short-toed Lark Calandrella brachydactyla (Leisler) (Passeriformes, Alaudidae) in Egypt is described. This new species is distinguishable from S. tyranni Bochkov and Galloway by 10-13 chambers of the peritremal lateral branches, setae se located slightly anterior to c1, and by setae ag2 about twice longer than the genital setae. This is the first record of this genus from the hosts of the family Alaudidae and in the Arab Republic of Egypt.
Sastre, Natalia; Francino, Olga; Curti, Joseph N; Armenta, Tiffany C; Fraser, Devaughn L; Kelly, Rochelle M; Hunt, Erin; Silbermayr, Katja; Zewe, Christine; Sánchez, Armand; Ferrer, Lluís
This study was conceived to detect skin mites in social mammals through real-time qPCR, and to estimate taxonomic Demodex and further Prostigmata mite relationships in different host species by comparing sequences from two genes: mitochondrial 16S rRNA and nuclear 18S rRNA. We determined the mite prevalence in the hair follicles of marmots (13%) and bats (17%). The high prevalence found in marmots and bats by sampling only one site on the body may indicate that mites are common inhabitants of their skin. Since we found three different mites (Neuchelacheles sp, Myobia sp and Penthaleus sp) in three bat species (Miotis yumanensis, Miotis californicus and Corynorhinus townsendii) and two different mites (both inferred to be members of the Prostigmata order) in one marmot species (Marmota flaviventris), we tentatively concluded that these skin mites 1) cannot be assigned to the same genus based only on a common host, and 2) seem to evolve according to the specific habitat and/or specific hair and sebaceous gland of the mammalian host. Moreover, two M. yumanensis bats harbored identical Neuchelacheles mites, indicating the possibility of interspecific cross-infection within a colony. However, some skin mites species are less restricted by host species than previously thought. Specifically, Demodex canis seems to be more transmissible across species than other skin mites. D. canis have been found mostly in dogs but also in cats and captive bats. In addition, we report the first case of D. canis infestation in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius). All these mammalian hosts are related to human activities, and D. canis evolution may be a consequence of this relationship. The monophyletic Demodex clade showing closely related dog and human Demodex sequences also supports this likely hypothesis.
Full Text Available This study was conceived to detect skin mites in social mammals through real-time qPCR, and to estimate taxonomic Demodex and further Prostigmata mite relationships in different host species by comparing sequences from two genes: mitochondrial 16S rRNA and nuclear 18S rRNA. We determined the mite prevalence in the hair follicles of marmots (13% and bats (17%. The high prevalence found in marmots and bats by sampling only one site on the body may indicate that mites are common inhabitants of their skin. Since we found three different mites (Neuchelacheles sp, Myobia sp and Penthaleus sp in three bat species (Miotis yumanensis, Miotis californicus and Corynorhinus townsendii and two different mites (both inferred to be members of the Prostigmata order in one marmot species (Marmota flaviventris, we tentatively concluded that these skin mites 1 cannot be assigned to the same genus based only on a common host, and 2 seem to evolve according to the specific habitat and/or specific hair and sebaceous gland of the mammalian host. Moreover, two M. yumanensis bats harbored identical Neuchelacheles mites, indicating the possibility of interspecific cross-infection within a colony. However, some skin mites species are less restricted by host species than previously thought. Specifically, Demodex canis seems to be more transmissible across species than other skin mites. D. canis have been found mostly in dogs but also in cats and captive bats. In addition, we report the first case of D. canis infestation in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius. All these mammalian hosts are related to human activities, and D. canis evolution may be a consequence of this relationship. The monophyletic Demodex clade showing closely related dog and human Demodex sequences also supports this likely hypothesis.
Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Marciniak, Natalia; Sikora, Bozena
The quill mite fauna of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata: Cheyletoidea) associated with owls (Aves: Strigiformes) is reviewed. A new genus is proposed, Neobubophilus Skoracki & Unsoeld gen. nov. It differs from closely related Bubophilus (Bubophilus Philips and Norton, 1978) by the absence of leg setae vsII in the both sexes. In addition, four new species are described: (1) Neobubophilus cunicularius Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782) (Strigidae) from Paraguay; (2) Neobubophilus atheneus Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Athene noctua (Scopoli, 1769) and Athene brama (Temminck, 1821) (Strigidae), both from India; (3) Bubophilus tytonus Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Tyto alba affinis (Blyth, 1862) (Tytonidae) from Cameroon, and (4) Megasyringophilus dalmas Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Megascops choliba (Vieillot, 1817) (Strigidae) from Venezuela. The following new host species are given: Bubo bubo (Linnaeus, 1758) (Strigidae) from Nepal for Bubophilus ascalaphus (Philips and Norton 1978) and Strix woodfordii (Smith, 1834) (Strigidae) from Tanzania for Bubophilus aluconis (aluconis Nattress and Skoracki 2009). A key for syringophilid genera and species associated with owls is constructed. The host-parasite relationships of syringophilid mites and owls are discussed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com Version of Record, first published online May 24, 2016 with fixed content and layout in compliance with Art. 184.108.40.206 ICZN.
Mangalaus ikrishianusandhanus n. gen., n. sp., (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea), collected from erineum on the underside of leaves of Cordia dichotoma (Boraginaceae) is described and illustrated from specimens collected at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) in New Delhi, India....
Rosado, Jander F; Picanço, Marcelo C; Sarmento, Renato A; da Silva, Ricardo Siqueira; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; Carvalho, Marcos Alberto; Erasmo, Eduardo A L; Silva, Laila Cristina Rezende
Studies on the seasonal variation of agricultural pest species are important for the establishment of integrated pest control programs. The seasonality of pest attacks on crops is affected by biotic and abiotic factors, for example, climate and natural enemies. Besides that, characteristics of the host plant, crop management, location and the pests' bioecology also affect this seasonality. The mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae) and Tetranychus bastosi (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) are the most important pests in the cultivation of physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae). All parts of J. curcas can be used for a wide range of purposes. In addition many researchers have studied its potential for use as neat oil, as transesterified oil (biodiesel), or as a blend with diesel. However studies about physic nut pests have been little known. The objective of this study was to assess the seasonal variation of P. latus and T. bastosi in physic nut. This study was conducted at three sites in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. We monitored climatic elements and the densities of the two mite species and of their natural enemies for a period of 2 years. Attack by P. latus occurred during rainy seasons, when the photoperiod was short and the physic nut had new leaves. In contrast, attack by T. bastosi occurred during warmer seasons with longer photoperiods and stronger winds. Populations of both mites and their natural enemies were greater in sites with greater plant diversity adjacent to the plantations. The predators found in association with P. latus and T. bastosi were Euseius concordis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), spiders, Stethorus sp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).
Full Text Available The apple blister mite, Eriophyes mali Nalepa, 1926 (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea, has been recently found in Serbia as a new pest of apple. The history of its research, the results of a morphological analysis and degree of infestation are presented. A comparison of the main morphological features of mites from different populations of remote geographical origin has shown that the apple blister mite from Serbia is most similar to another European population (Bulgarian [or Austrian?] while it differs from E. mali originating from the USA and New Zealand. The percentage of infestation varied from 1.6% to 87.6%, with an average of 22.4%.
Holmstrup, Martin; Sørensen, Jesper G.; Schmidt, Inger Kappel
Studies of biological responses in the terrestrial environment to rapid changes in climate have mostly been concerned with aboveground biota, whereas less is known of belowground organisms. The present study focuses on mites and springtails of heathland ecosystems and how the microarthropod...... and temperature. This approach provided an opportunity to study biological responses on a local (within sites) and regional scale. Warming treatments increasing night time temperature (0.3–1 °C higher than ambient at 5 cm soil depth) had no detectable effects on the microarthropod communities. Increased intensity...... and frequency of drought had only weak persistent effects on springtail species composition, but practically no effect on major mite groups (Oribatida, Prostigmata or Mesostigmata) suggesting that ecosystem functions of microarthropods may only be transiently impacted by repeated spring or summer drought....
Jočić, Ivona; Petanović, Radmila
Accounts are given of the eriophyoid fauna of Montenegro. Based on the literature records, a total of 156 mite species are listed from 130 host species of 42 plant families. The families Phytoptidae, Eriophidae and Diptilomiopidae are represented by 6, 138 and 12 species, respectively. Fifteen new species for science have been described from this area.
Pepato, A R; Klimov, P B
Acariformes is the most species-rich and morphologically diverse radiation of chelicerate arthropods, known from the oldest terrestrial ecosystems. It is also a key lineage in understanding the evolution of this group, with the most vexing question whether mites, or Acari (Parasitiformes and Acariformes) is monophyletic. Previous molecular studies recovered Acari either as monophyletic or non-monophyletic, albeit with a limited taxon sampling. Similarly, relationships between basal acariform groups (include little-known, deep-soil 'endeostigmatan' mites) and major lineages of Acariformes (Sarcoptiformes, Prostigmata) are virtually unknown. We infer phylogeny of chelicerate arthropods, using a large and representative dataset, comprising all main in- and outgroups (228 taxa). Basal diversity of Acariformes is particularly well sampled. With this dataset, we conduct a series of phylogenetically explicit tests of chelicerate and acariform relationships and present a phylogenetic framework for internal relationships of acariform mites. Our molecular data strongly support a diphyletic Acari, with Acariformes as the sister group to Solifugae (PP =1.0; BP = 100), the so called Poecilophysidea. Among Acariformes, some representatives of the basal group Endeostigmata (mainly deep-soil mites) were recovered as sister-groups to the remaining Acariformes (i. e., Trombidiformes + and most of Sarcoptiformes). Desmonomatan oribatid mites (soil and litter mites) were recovered as the monophyletic sister group of Astigmata (e. g., stored product mites, house dust mites, mange mites, feather and fur mites). Trombidiformes (Sphaerolichida + Prostigmata) is strongly supported (PP =1.0; BP = 98-100). Labidostommatina was inferred as the basal lineage of Prostigmata. Eleutherengona (e. g., spider mites) and Parasitengona (e. g., chiggers, fresh water mites) were recovered as monophyletic. By contrast, Eupodina (e. g., snout mites and relatives) was not. Marine mites (Halacaridae) were
Dabert, Miroslawa; Proctor, Heather; Dabert, Jacek
With nearly 6000 named species, water mites (Hydrachnidiae) represent the largest group of arachnids to have invaded and extensively diversified in freshwater habitats. Water mites together with three other lineages (the terrestrial Erythraiae and Trombidiae, and aquatic Stygothrombiae), make up the hyporder Parasitengonina, which is characterized by having parasitic larvae and predatory nymphs and adults. Relationships between the Hydrachnidiae and other members of the Parasitengonina are unclear, as are relationships among the major lineages of water mites. Monophyly of water mites has been asserted, with the possible exception of the morphologically distinctive Hydrovolzioidea. Here we infer the phylogeny of water mites using multiple molecular markers and including representatives of all superfamilies of Hydrachnidiae and of almost all other Parasitengonina. Our results support a monophyletic Parasitengonina including Trombidiae, Stygothrombiae, and Hydrachnidiae. A monophyletic Hydrachnidiae, including Hydrovolzioidea, is strongly supported. Terrestrial Parasitengonina do not form a monophyletic sister group to water mites. Stygothrombiae is close to water mites but is not nested within this clade. Water mites appear to be derived from ancestors close to Stygothrombiae or the erythraoid group Calyptostomatoidea; however, this relationship is not clear because of extremely short branches in this part of the parasitengonine tree. We recovered with strong support all commonly accepted water mite superfamilies except for Hydryphantoidea, which is clearly paraphyletic. Our data support the previously proposed clades Protohydrachnidia (Hydrovolzioidea and Eylaoidea), Euhydrachnidia (all remaining superfamilies), and the euhydrachnid subclade Neohydrachnidia (Lebertioidea, Hydrachnoidea, Hygrobatoidea, and Arrenuroidea). We found that larval leg structure and locomotory behavior are strongly congruent with the molecular phylogeny. Other morphological and behavioral characters, including host choice, are not as strongly correlated with phylogeny. Molecular dating suggests that the Hydrachnidiae arose about 235MYA, and that Neohydrachnidia began to diversify about 155MYA. Our results provide a strong framework for classification and for further elaboration at finer taxonomic scales, which will allow testing of ecological and behavioral hypotheses associated with the transition from terrestrial to aquatic life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Lian-Chen; Ju, Yu-Ten; Hong, Chin-Lin; Tsai, Yu-Yang; Li, Yi-Hung; Wu, Ying-Ling
Infection rate, reaction to light, and hair follicle apoptosis are examined in the dogmite, Demodex canis Leydig (Prostigmata: Demodicidae), in dogs from the northern area of Taiwan. An analysis of relevant samples revealed 7.2% (73/1013) prevalence of D. canis infection. Infection during the investigation peaked each winter, with an average prevalence of 12.5% (32/255). The infection rates significantly varied in accordance with month, sex, age, and breed (p canis Bodin (Onygenales: Arthrodermataceae) and Trichophyton mentagrophyte Robin (Blanchard) on the D. canis infected dogs revealed prevalence rates of 4.4% (2/45) and 2.2% (1/45), respectively. Observations demonstrated that D. canis slowly moved from a light area to a dark area. Skin samples were examined for cellular apoptosis by activated caspase3 immunohistochemical staining. Cells that surrounded the infected hair follicles were activated caspase3-positive, revealing cell apoptosis in infected follicles via the activation of caspase3.
García-Jiménez, Ricardo; Horreo, Jose Luis; Valdecasas, Antonio G
In this work, we compare morphological and molecular data in their ability to distinguish between species of water mites (Acari, Prostigmata, Hydrachnidia). We have focused on the two species of the genus Lebertia inhabiting the island of Madeira. While traditional morphological traits were initially sufficient to distinguish between these two species, the molecular data were more dependable on the kind of analysis carried out. Single arbitrary genetic distance (e.g. a K2P distance below 2%) may lead to the conclusion that the specimens under study belong to the same species. Analysing the same specimens with the coalescent model has proved the evolutionary independence of both Lebertia clades in Madeira. Furthermore, multi-rate Poisson Tree Process analysis confirmed both lineages as independent species. Our results agree with previous studies warning of the dangers of rigid species delimitation based on arbitrary molecular distances. In addition, the importance of different molecular data approaches for correct species delimitation in water mites is highlighted.
Full Text Available Abstract Despite being a bird with a broad and extensive distribution in Chile, the black-chinned siskin, Spinus barbatus Molina, 1782 is not well studied in relation to its parasites. This paper aims to describe the ectoparasite fauna of S. barbatus in central and southern Chile. A total of 125 individuals caught with mist nets were examined alive; a total of 22 parasites were found dead and were exposed to parasit autopsy. The extracted parasites were preserved in 70% alcohol for subsequent mounting and identification. Ectoparasites were found in 56 black-chinned siskins (38%; 48 of them (33% had 870 mites – 680 feather mites (Astigmata: Analgoidea were identified as Proctophyllodes spini, 167 as Knemidokoptes jamaicensis, 19 as Strelkoviacarus critesi, and one as Analges passerinus. Moreover, three mites were chiggers belonging to the tribe Schoengastiini (Prostigmata: Trombiculidae. In 21 birds (14%, 54 lice were found, 21 of which were identified as Philopterus roehreri, 18 as Myrsidea serini, and 15 as Ricinus carolynae. Endoparasites were not found in the necropsied individuals. All of the parasites that were found represent new records for Chile, and they also serve as new records of host–parasite associations for S. barbatus.
Muñoz-Cárdenas, K.; Fuentes-Quintero, L.S.; Rueda-Ramirez, D.; Rodríguez, C.D.; Cantor, R.F.; Carrillo, D.; de Moraes, G.J.; Peña, J.E.
Erythraeoidea is a widely distributed group with great potential for practical use in biological control programs, but whose study has been limited due to the complex life cycle that often includes alteration in feeding behaviour and habitat. Several associations of these mites to different species
Khaustov, Alexander A
Three new species of the genus Stigmaeus Koch, 1836 (Acari: Stigmaeidae) are described from various habitats in Crimea: Stigmaeus kuznetsovi sp. nov. from nests of Microtus socialis (Rodentia: Cricetidae); S. mitrofanovi sp. nov. from galleries of Pityogenes bistridentatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) under the bark of Pinus pallasiana, and S. silvestris sp. nov. from rotten log of Pinus pallasiana. Stigmaeus corticeus Kuznetsov and Wainstein, 1977 and S. maraghehiensis Bagheri and Ueckermann, 2012 are recorded for the first time in Crimea. A key to species of the genus Stigmaeus of Crimea is provided.
Li, Hao-Sen; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Hong, Xiao-Yue
The superfamily Eriophyoidea is exceptionally diverse and its members are highly host-specific. Currently, the taxonomy of this group is based on morphology only. However, phylogenetic relationships in this group could be incorrect if the diagnostic morphological characters are homoplastic. Therefore, the phylogeny of 112 representative taxa of Eriophyoidea from China was determined using 18S, 28S D2-5 and D9-10 rRNA. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred through Bayesian, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony methods, and then a number of clades or major clades were defined according to robust phylogenetic topologies combined with morphological comparison. Tests of monophyly showed that two of three families of Eriophyoidea as well as one subfamily and four tribes were not monophyletic. Ancestral character state reconstruction (ACSR) showed that five diagnostic morphological characters evolved several times, confounding the current taxonomy. Additionally, reconstruction of the history of host plant colonization suggested host switching occurred in a limited range of host plants. The host association data made it possible to determine taxonomic relationships more accurately. These results show that by integrating morphological and molecular information and host plant choice, it is possible to obtain a more accurate taxonomy and a deeper phylogenetic understanding of Eriophyoidea. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dindal, Daniel L.
DDT, radiolabeled with /sup 36/Cl (total activity of 10.2 mc) and applied in the field at the rate of 1.12 kg/ha, cannot be detected within decomposer microarthropods using liquid scintillation spectrometry. Soil microarthropods exhibit both positive and negative responses to direct and indirect effects of DDT. Faunal simplification (decreased diversity) resulting from pesticide application as reported by many others does not apply to the oribatid and prostigmatid mites of the old field. New colonization is possible by some species of Acari as a result of DDT application. Soil microbial respiration is enhanced by a single DDT application of 1 kg/ha. No apparent relationships exist between the increased microbial respiration and soil microarthropod population dynamics in this DDT treated old field. No apparent relationships exist between soil pH, moisture levels, texture and soil microarthropod population dynamics. Microarthropod community structure (species diversity and richness, interspecific relationships and similarity) are definitely affected by a single application of DDT. The Prostigmata are the most numerous mites in the soil of an old field in central Ohio. Vertebrate predators feeding on terrestrial snails may be subjected to magnified concentrations of DDT residues. Coprophagic decomposer organisms feeding on snail feces will be subject to much larger DDT concentrations. Terrestrial snails represented by Cepaea and Otala are not killed by acute oral doses of DDT. Within a three year period after a single application of DDT no effects on the soil faunal populations were seen below 3 cm of soil.
Bertrand, M.; Modrý, David
Roč. 51, č. 1 (2004), s. 61-66 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/00/P015; GA ČR GP524/03/D104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Pterygosomatidae * mite pockets * host-parasite relationships Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.837, year: 2004
Full Text Available Longstanding observations suggest that dissolved materials are lost from fresh litter through leaching, but the role of soil fauna in controlling this process has been poorly documented. In this study, a litterbag experiment employing litterbags with different mesh sizes (3 mm to permit soil fauna access and 0.04 mm to exclude fauna access was conducted in three habitats (arid valley, ecotone and subalpine forest with changes in climate and vegetation types to evaluate the effects of soil fauna on the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN during the first year of decomposition. The results showed that the individual density and community abundance of soil fauna greatly varied among these habitats, but Prostigmata, Isotomidae and Oribatida were the dominant soil invertebrates. At the end of the experiment, the mass remaining of foliar litter ranged from 58% for shrub litter to 77% for birch litter, and the DOC and TDN concentrations decreased to 54%–85% and increased to 34%–269%, respectively, when soil fauna were not present. The effects of soil fauna on the concentrations of both DOC and TDN in foliar litter were greater in the subalpine forest (wetter but colder during the winter and in the arid valley (warmer but drier during the growing season, and this effect was positively correlated with water content. Moreover, the effects of fauna on DOC and TDN concentrations were greater for high-quality litter and were related to the C/N ratio. These results suggest that water, rather than temperature, dominates how fauna affect the release of dissolved substances from fresh litter.
The impact of linamarin and lotaustralin content in the leaves of Phaseolus lunatus L. on the second and third trophic levels was studied in Tetranychus urticae (Koch) and its predator Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Chemical analyzes showed that the content of linamarin was higher in termin...
Full Text Available Introduction: The spider mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus feeds by sucking the sap from the immature fruits tissue. The natural color of fruits changes to pale yellow or gray by mite's feeding. Damaged fruit are cracked and its damage can dry out the fruits. Because of resistance to pesticides, resurgence of date palm spider mite causes to disrupt the natural balance of their population. Tiny black ladybird beetle, Stethorous gilvifrons is the most important and active lady beetle species in Khuzestan province and is very effective on biological control of the spider mite. Determination of the amount and release time of the lady beetles are the most important factors in the implementation of biological control programs of date palm spider mite. So, careful monitoring, time of the release and the ability of deployment of predatory ladybird are essential steps to success in the programs of biological control. Materials and Methods: This research was conducted in Shadegan region of Khuzestan province. The nested design was used to compare the efficiency of different inoculate release methods of the predator, S. gilvifrons. The main niches include three release times which were at the time of emergence, three days and one week after emergence of date palm spider mite in date palm plantation. Sub nesting including three different levels of predator release including minimum, moderate and maximum release with 0.5, 1 and 3 predator /m2 per day and were continued for two weeks. The two or three-days ladybirds were used to release. First, the infected clusters were covered by mesh fabric and ladybirds were released under them. After a week, mantles were opened up to the establishment of ladybird run on the normal condition of date palm plantations. This experiment was repeated three times, and each replication consists of a quarter- hectare plantation with dominant cultivar Sayer.Three date Palm trees from each release and control were randomly selected. One hundred fruits from10 major's of each bunches were randomly selected and the number of spider mite (prey and coccinellid (predator were counted in different developmental stages. The relationship between predator and prey was calculated by using Pearson's correlation in different treatments as an index of density-dependent reaction of the predator to prey density and its establishment. Results and Discussion: Results showed that there were significant difference between treatments of release on seasonal mite and lady beetle populations and the average seasonal growth reduction rate at 1% probability level. The maximum difference in the number of mite – infested treatment and control occurred at maximum release with predatory mite. The maximum density of the lady beetle population was observed around mid to late June. Date palm fruits were been at Kharg phonological growth at this time and they had the greatest sensitivity to the mite population. The highest correlation coefficient occurred in terms of release time coincided with the moderate and maximum release of spider mite´s predator. So, the predator showed density - depend reaction and its establishment were occurred. Release of three and one lady beetle/m2 and simultaneously with the appearance of spider mite had powerful and significant correlation. In those circumstances, the density-dependent response of lady beetle was observed. The prey and the predator population densities have several fluctuations around their equilibrium level during the season. Number of predator population declines and prey population increases from their equilibrium levels were reduced by the simultaneous release of the predator to start prey activities. The predatory failure establishment is zero in the maximum release.The highest control of date palm spider mite was about 83.28% at release treatments. In all releasing treatments, the level of biological control was increased with increasing the number of coccinelid releases per unit. Conclusions: The highest predator efficiency were calculated in the maximum release (3 coccinellid per square meter and simultaneously with the appearance of spider mite in date palm plantation. The control performance was 83.27 percent in this condition. Understanding of the fluctuations of the date palm pests and their natural enemies and the effect of climatic factors on the fluctuations are necessary to operate the proposed models for biological date palm pest control. The success of this predator is high in terms of the date ecosystem, and the susceptibility of palm fruit to pests decreased at the end of the season.
Jania Claudia Camilo dos Santos
Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE O cultivo e o comercio de plantas ornamentais vem cada vez mais ganhando espaço no Brasil, pela grande variedade das espécies existentes e exuberância de suas flores, que oferecem uma maior riqueza ao local. Dessa forma, o objetivo desse trabalho foi realizar o levantamento da população de ácaros associados às plantas ornamentais no município de Arapiraca-AL, em função dos diversos problemas acarretados por essa espécie. O levantamento foi realizado entre os meses de abril a março, através de amostragens mensais de folhas coletadas da parte basal, intermediária e apical de plantas existentes em praças e jardins. Foram coletados 55 ácaros pertencentes à ordem Prostigmata em 20 famílias de plantas. As plantas com as maiores riquezas de ácaros foram as Coleus blumei L. e Bxuxus sempervirens L., que apresentaram 65% dos valores amostrais. Analisando-se as coletas realizadas, pode-se observar que houve uma maior incidência populacional de ácaros na coleta do mês de maio, cuja percentagem foi de 36% de ácaros levantados, sendo que no levantamento dos dados amostrais de março a percentagem encontrada foi de 14%, nas amostragens dos meses de abril e junho, a percentagem amostrada dos dados foi de 22 e 28%, respectivamente. O estudo do levantamento de ácaros em plantas ornamentais permitiu observar a relação entre ácaros e a relação com a planta hospedeira, facilitando posteriormente um estudo mais aprofundado sobre plantas hospedeiras, e pode-se observar que em períodos chuvosos ocorre uma menor incidência populacional.
Gerardo A. MARTI
Full Text Available Se brinda un listado de especies del género Pimeliaphilus Trägårdh asociadas a diferentes especies de triatominos, con sus respectivas coordenadas geográficas de todo el continente americano. Se realizaron viajes de campo para incorporar nuevos registros a una recopilación bibliográfica. Se extiende la distribución geográfica de Pimeliaphilus triatomae Cunliffe, con dos registros para la provincia de Chaco (Argentina y se amplía el rango de hospedadores ya que se citan por primera vez asociados a Triatoma delpontei Romaña & Abalos.
Silahuddin, Siti Aisyah; Latif, Baha; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Walter, David Evans; Heo, Chong Chin
. villenuevi, C. pinguis, H. ligurriens, Hyd. spinigera, Hyd. chalcogaster, F. canicularis, and Boettcherisca highlandica Kurahashi & Tan represented by both adults and larvae, whereas C. nigripes, Chrysomya thanomthini Kurahashi & Tumrasvin, M. domestica, Atherigona sp., Parasarcophaga albiceps Meigen, P. taenionota, Sepsidae, Phoridae, and Millichidae were represented by adults only. Faunal succession followed the sequence of dominant flies, i.e., Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Sepsidae, and lastly Stratiomyidae for jungle, or Sepsidae for rural and highland studies. Mites, from suborders Mesostigmata, Prostigmata, Astigmatina, and Oribatida, were also recovered throughout decomposition, which could be used for future implementation in forensic investigations. The data obtained from this study could provide more accurate indicators for local forensic scientists in solving criminal cases especially on the determination of time and primary location of death. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.