WorldWideScience

Sample records for lactovegetarian adolescent girls

  1. Diet patterns of lactovegetarian adolescent girls: need for devising recipes with high zinc bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupe, Rama; Chiplonkar, Shashi A

    2010-04-01

    Populations subsisting on plant foods are believed to be at a high risk of mineral deficiencies. The aim of the present study was to examine the diet patterns of vegetarian adolescent girls for zinc adequacy and devise recipes to improve bioavailable zinc intakes. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 630 schoolgirls (10-16 y old) from Pune, India, from 2006 to 2007. Diet was assessed by a 24-h recall method on 3 random days. Diet patterns were identified by principal component analysis. Nutrient intakes were estimated using the cooked-foods database of our laboratory. Twenty recipes representing the diet patterns were formulated using foods that have a high zinc content and using methods such as sprouting/fermentation. In vitro zinc dialyzability of the recipes was determined by simulating gastrointestinal conditions and atomic absorption spectrometry. Five diet patterns were identified reflecting intakes of different cereals. Girls in the five diet patterns had inadequate intakes of energy, protein, and micronutrients including zinc compared with the recommended dietary intakes of India. In the new cereal-based recipes, the average contents of energy, protein, iron, calcium, zinc, beta-carotene, and vitamin C per 100g of cooked weight were 205 kcal, 6.2g, 2.5mg, 105 mg, 1.5mg, 716 microg, and 4.4 mg, respectively. Therefore, a supplement of 200 g of the recipe would fulfil 75% of the daily zinc requirement of adolescents and increase other micronutrient intake manifolds. Diets of Indian schoolgirls were deficient in zinc. Zinc-rich recipes with high bioavailability have the potential to alleviate zinc deficiency in adolescents. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a diet quality index with special reference to micronutrient adequacy for adolescent girls consuming a lacto-vegetarian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Tupe, Rama

    2010-06-01

    Recent dietary guidelines emphasize micronutrient sufficiency by giving importance to consumption of whole grains and a variety of fruits and vegetables. The objective of this study was to identify a measure of micronutrient quality of diets in adolescent girls consuming a lacto-vegetarian diet. Data were collected on the nutritional status of 630 schoolgirls (ages 10 to 16 years) from Pune city, India, in a cross-sectional survey during 2006-2007. Dietary intakes were assessed by 24-hour recall on 3 nonconsecutive days. Nutrient intakes were calculated from the Indian nutritive value databases. Micronutrient adequacy was expressed as a ratio of observed intake to reference intake. An Adolescent Micronutrient Quality Index (AMQI) was formulated using the Indian and the recent US dietary guidelines. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for plasma levels of vitamin C, beta carotene, and zinc. The average energy intake of the majority of the girls was below the Indian recommended dietary intakes, whereas micronutrient intakes were 50% to 70% lower than recommended dietary intakes. The mean AMQI score was 41.5+/-9.4. The age of subjects as well as mother's education and occupation were significantly associated with the AMQI. The AMQI was correlated with nutrient intakes and the ratio of observed intake to reference intake (Pvegetarian diets. 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menstruation and menstrual practices are still clouded by taboos and socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of the scientific facts and hygienic health practices, which sometimes result into adverse health outcomes. Objective: To assess knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene before and after teaching program among adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: A true experimental study was conducted among 50 adolescent girls of a secondary school situated in the Bhaniyawala of Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Participants were randomly assigned into control (n=25 and experimental group (n=25. Adolescent girls from both groups were assessed for knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene on day 1 and on 15th day.  Participants of experimental group were administered educational programme regarding menstrual hygiene on day 1 after assessment for knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene. Data were analysed statistically by simple proportions. Results: The mean age of the adolescent girl was 13.88± 1.5 and age of menarche 12.74±0.98. Out of 50, 32 (64% mothers’ of adolescent girls were educated at graduate level.  The mean pre-test knowledge and practice in experimental group 8.04±1.54, 3.52±1.0 and control group 8.02±2.0, 3.24±1.0 respectively. The level of knowledge and practice regarding menstrual hygiene of subjects who participated in educational program was significantly better than that of the control group. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene, a very important risk factor for reproductive tract infections, is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. Educational television programmes, trained school nurses/health personnel, motivated school teachers and knowledgeable parents can play a very important role in transmitting the vital message of correct menstrual hygiene to the adolescent girl

  4. Adolescent Girls and Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellisch, Lawren; Chor, Julie

    2015-09-01

    Abortion is an extremely common procedure in the United States, with approximately 2% of women having an abortion before age 19 years. Although most pediatricians do not provide abortions, many will care for a young woman who is either considering an abortion or has already had one; therefore, the pediatrician should be able to provide accurate and appropriate counseling about this option. To provide the best care for adolescent patients considering abortion, pediatricians must be knowledgeable of aspects of abortion that are universal to all women and have an understanding of considerations specific to the adolescent patient. The purpose of this article is to (1) review recent statistics about teenagers and abortion, (2) explain the different types of abortion available to teenagers who desire to terminate an unwanted pregnancy, (3) discuss aspects of abortion unique to the adolescent population, such as insurance coverage and parental involvement laws, and (4) address common misconceptions about abortion. [Pediatr Ann. 2015;44(9):384-385,388,390,392.]. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. USAID Adolescent Girl Strategy Implementation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2016

    2016-01-01

    USAID's commitment to empowering adolescent girls to reach their full potential is reflected in the Agency's larger efforts to achieve gender equality and women's empowerment. The Agency holds decades of experience leading advances for greater gender equality and empowerment that benefit adolescent girls; however, these activities have not been…

  6. Perceived Experiences with Sexism among Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaper, Campbell; Brown, Christia Spears

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of adolescent girls' experiences with sexism and feminism. Girls (N = 600; M = 15.1 years, range = 12-18), of varied socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds, completed surveys of personal experiences with sexual harassment, academic sexism (regarding science, math, and computer technology), and athletics. Most girls…

  7. How Israeli social workers perceive adolescent girls in prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Einat; Lugasi, Reut

    2015-04-01

    The phenomenon of girls in prostitution poses great challenges to professionals who work with adolescent girls at risk and in distress. Prostitution is socially stigmatized and seen as something shameful. However, current theory and research show adolescent girls in prostitution to be victims of violence, exploitation and trauma. This naturalistic qualitative study examined the views of 15 social workers at six Adolescent Girls Treatment Units in Israel on prostitution and on adolescent girls in prostitution. Data was collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The participants struggled to link the term "prostitution" with the adolescent girls in their care. The findings explore the source this perceived conflict, and its manifestation in the participants' professional intervention with the girls. The discussion examines the participants' professional discourse about adolescent girls in prostitution, and offers explanations for their difficulty in associating the adolescent girls in their care with prostitution.

  8. Dietary intake and nutritional status of adolescent girls and young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary intake and nutritional status of adolescent girls and young women in ... dietary intake and nutritional status of adolescent girls (n=156) and young women students ... cold drinks), beverages (coffee and tea), and alcohol (wine and beer).

  9. Cyberspace violence against girls and adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, June F

    2006-11-01

    Children and adolescents today are the first generation raised in a society in which technological literacy is essential for effective citizenship in the 21st century. With many more youth using digital technologies for educational and recreational purposes, there has been an increase in social problems in cyberspace, exposing them to different forms of cyberviolence. This article gives an overview of the developments in cyberspace, describes different types of cyberviolence, and focuses on cyberbullying among girls and adolescent females as both victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. At-risk online activities among girls and adolescent females as well as strategies to promote cybersafety are presented. Current research and future directions for research are reviewed.

  10. OVARIAN RESERVE IN HEALTHY ADOLESCENT GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Buralkina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Preserving reproductive health of girls is a pressing issue for the modern healthcare industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the metrics of ovarian reserve in healthy adolescent girls aged 15 to 17 in the Republic of Mordovia. 49 healthy adolescent girls aged 15 to 17 were examined in the study. A medical and social audit was conducted at the first state to study their medical history and hereditary factors. Their physical and sexual development (sexual form, characteristic of menstrual cycle, general and gynecological exam was assessed at the second stage. Hormonal status and ovarian reserve metrics were examined at the third stage. Ultrasonic examination of pelvic organs was conducted and concentrations of LH, FSH, estradiol and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH in blood were determined. The study results obtained suggest that a reduced size of ovary in girls aged 16 compared with 15-year-old girls is accompanied with the tendency toward a reduced level of AMH and increased concentration of FSH in blood serum. A significant increase in the average size of both ovaries in 17-year-old adolescents is accompanied with the tendency toward increased AMH, and, by contrast, the tendency toward a reduced level of FSH. The level of estradiol significantly increases over age, i.e. over the period from 15 to 17 years. Hence, at ages 15 and 16 all reproductive system components continue to actively adjust to cyclical functioning. By age 17, a close relationship between ovarian reserve and hormonal status is established.Key words: reproductive health, ovarian reserve, hormonal status, girls. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(5:38-43

  11. Pornography consumption among adolescent girls in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattebo, Magdalena; Tydén, Tanja; Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet; Nilsson, Kent W; Larsson, Margareta

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this study were to describe patterns of pornography consumption, investigate differences between consumers and non-consumers of pornography regarding sexual experiences, health and lifestyle and determine associations between pornography consumption and sexual experiences, health and lifestyle among adolescent girls. The hypotheses were that adolescent girls categorised as pornography consumers would report sexual experiences to a greater extent, and a riskier lifestyle and poorer health, compared with non-consumers. A classroom survey was conducted among 16-year-old girls (N = 393). One-third (30%) consumed pornography. In this group, almost half (43%) had fantasies about trying to copy sexual acts seen in pornography and 39% had tried to copy sexual activities seen in pornography. A higher proportion of pornography-consuming girls reported sexual experiences compared with peers. A third (30%) reported experience of anal sex compared with 15% among non-consuming peers (p = 0.001). Furthermore, peer-relationship problems (17% vs 9%; p = 0.015), use of alcohol (85% vs 69%; p = 0.001) and daily smoking (27% vs 14%; p = 0.002) were reported to a greater extent than in non-consuming peers. Pornography consumption, use of alcohol and daily smoking were associated with experience of casual sex. Pornography-consuming girls reported sexual experiences and a risky lifestyle to a greater extent compared with non-consuming girls. This indicates that pornography consumption may influence sexualisation and lifestyle. This is important to acknowledge when designing and implementing sexual health programmes for adolescents.

  12. Late Adolescent Girls' Sexual Experiences and Sexual Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impett, Emily A.; Tolman, Deborah L.

    2006-01-01

    This study presented and tested a model of sexual satisfaction for late adolescent girls. In this model, sexual self-concept and approach sexual motives were tested as predictors of adolescent girls' sexual satisfaction with their most recent experience of sexual intercourse. A total of 116 girls in 12th grade (ages 16-19) completed measures of…

  13. Reproductive health awareness among adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Jashim; Choudhury, Abdul Mannan

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the status of rural Bangladeshi adolescent girls' awareness about reproductive health. Analysis of data revealed that a sizable proportion of adolescent girls had incorrect knowledge or misconceptions about the fertile period, reproduction, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV/AIDS. Age, education either of adolescents or their mothers, residence, and exposure to mass media were the significant predictors of adolescent girls' knowledge about reproductive health. Strong efforts are needed to improve awareness and to clarify misconceptions about reproductive health. Improved access to mass media and education could improve rural Bangladeshi adolescent girls' awareness about reproductive health.

  14. SUBJECTIVE AGE BIASES AMONG ADOLESCENT GIRLS

    OpenAIRE

    Guiot, Denis

    2000-01-01

    International audience; Until now, the concept of subjective age has only been used to segment the mature market. Research on consumer behavior has shown the effects of a youthful bias, the tendency to see oneself as younger. Using a conceptual framework based on self-concept, social comparison, and symbolic consumption, this research proposes to characterize the antecedents and the effects of an analogous but opposed tendency: an older bias among adolescent girls. An empirical study carried ...

  15. Promoting the menstrual health of adolescent girls in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jing Jing; Lindell, Deborah

    2016-12-01

    In China, nurses have limited presence in schools, thus, adolescent girls often lack accurate information about menstrual health, which may lead to incorrect and unhealthy menstrual-related behavior. This study investigated the effects of a culturally and developmentally tailored nursing intervention on the menstrual health of adolescent girls in China. Following institutional review board approval, adolescent girls aged 12-15 were recruited from two schools. A quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design examined the effects of five interactive education sessions on menstrual health. The final sample included 116 adolescent girls. Significant improvement was observed in the intervention group regarding menstrual knowledge, confidence in performing menstrual healthcare behavior, and dysmenorrhea related self-care behavior. A nurse-managed education program improved adolescent girls' menstrual knowledge, promoted a more positive attitude, encouraged confidence, and improved pain relief practice. We recommend that professional nurses globally advocate for school nursing and routine menstrual health education for adolescent girls.

  16. Rare ovarian lesion in an adolescent girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasamy Senthilnathan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Large solid ovarian lesions are considered malignant in nature in pediatric and adolescent age group. We present an adolescent girl who had large solid ovarian lesion, with negative tumor markers. She underwent laparotomy and right oopherectomy. Histopathology revealed that the lesion was massive ovarian edema. This is an extremely rare lesion of ovary and is benign in nature. Very few case reports are available in English literature. Hence we suggest that massive ovarian edema should be considred as one of the differential diagnosis in all the patients having large solid ovarian lesions with ngative tumor marker assay. Ovarian preservation with the help of frozen section analysis should always be considred in these patients.

  17. Interpersonal influences on late adolescent girls' and boys' disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomaker, Lauren B; Furman, Wyndol

    2009-04-01

    Perceived socio-cultural pressure to be thin has an important impact on disordered eating during early and middle adolescence, but less is known about late adolescence. Most prospective studies included only girls, and less is known about the influence on boys. This study investigated interpersonal influences on changes in late adolescent boys' and girls' symptoms of disordered eating over one year. Participants were a community sample of late adolescents 16-19 years of age (N=199; 49.75% girls), their mothers, and friends. Structural equation modeling revealed that interpersonal pressure to be thin and criticism about appearance predicted increases in disordered eating over time. Late adolescents', mothers' and friends' reports of pressure were associated with disordered eating at Time 1 and Time 2. Further, adolescents' perceptions and friends' reports of pressure to be thin predicted changes in disordered eating over time. Findings underscore the significance of interpersonal relationships for disordered eating during late adolescence in both girls and boys.

  18. After-School Physical Activity Programs for Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Doris L.; Poczwaradowski, Artur; Eisenman, Pat

    2000-01-01

    Describes adolescent girls' responses to an after-school physical activity program, examining how it functioned as a listening tool within a social marketing approach to promoting physical activity. Focus groups and interviews indicated that girls enjoyed and valued the program. Though the program did not increase girls' physical activity levels,…

  19. Fruit and vegetable intake : Few adolescent girls meet national guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Striegel-Moore, RH; Thompson, DR; Affenito, SG; Franko, DL; Barton, BA; Schreiber, GB; Daniels, [No Value; Schmidt, M; Crawford, PB

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To examine longitudinal changes in daily fruit and vegetable consumption among black and white adolescent girls and calculate the percent of girls who met the Healthy People 2010 recommendations. Methods. Girls (1186 black and 1126 white) who participated in the National Heart, Lung, and

  20. Fruit and vegetable intake : Few adolescent girls meet national guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Striegel-Moore, RH; Thompson, DR; Affenito, SG; Franko, DL; Barton, BA; Schreiber, GB; Daniels, [No Value; Schmidt, M; Crawford, PB

    Objective. To examine longitudinal changes in daily fruit and vegetable consumption among black and white adolescent girls and calculate the percent of girls who met the Healthy People 2010 recommendations. Methods. Girls (1186 black and 1126 white) who participated in the National Heart, Lung, and

  1. Acculturation and Eating Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, L. Kris; Hayward, Chris; Killen, Joel D.; Robinson, Thomas N.; Taylor, C. Barr

    1999-01-01

    Examined relationship between acculturation and eating-disorder symptoms in normative samples of 920 adolescents girls of high school age. Found that acculturation was positively associated with structured-interview defined partial syndrome eating disorders in Hispanic girls, but not in Asian or European-American girls. There was no relation…

  2. Obesity among Black Adolescent Girls: Genetic, Psychosocial, and Cultural Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Sylvan I.; LaPoint, Velma

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the causes, consequences, and prevention of obesity among a subgroup of the American population, Black adolescent girls. Using an ecological perspective on obesity among Black adolescent girls, including feminist-womanist perspectives and historical and medical sociological perspectives, the authors discuss genetic,…

  3. Obesity among Black Adolescent Girls: Genetic, Psychosocial, and Cultural Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Sylvan I.; LaPoint, Velma

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the causes, consequences, and prevention of obesity among a subgroup of the American population, Black adolescent girls. Using an ecological perspective on obesity among Black adolescent girls, including feminist-womanist perspectives and historical and medical sociological perspectives, the authors discuss genetic,…

  4. Promoting Resiliency in Adolescent Girls through Adventure Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Anja; Aspelmeier, Jeffery E.; Budbill, Nadine W.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether participation in an adventure program increased the resiliency of adolescent girls. Eighty-seven girls who participated in Dirt Divas, a non-profit, adventure program, completed the Resiliency Scale for Children and Adolescents® before and after their experience. Means-comparison tests for within-subjects designs were…

  5. Understanding and Responding to Adolescent Girls' Online Cruelty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokal, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Many school counsellors have identified "cyber-bullying" among adolescent girls as a growing concern. In order to respond to this issue, this article begins with a new model of cyber-communications from the unique perspective of adolescent girls. Next, it explores the limitations of responding to this model, based on current understandings of…

  6. Perceptions of Slimming and Healthiness among Norwegian Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelkrem, Kristiane; Lien, Nanna; Wandel, Margareta

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore what adolescent girls mean when they talk about healthiness and slimming, as well as the distinction between the 2 concepts. Design: Data was collected by the use of 8 focus groups, each with 5-9 adolescent girls. Setting: Four different schools in Oslo and 2 other municipalities in Norway in 2006-2007. Participants:…

  7. Menstrual hygiene: How hygienic is the adolescent girl?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasgupta A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Menstruation and menstrual practices are still clouded by taboos and socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of the scientific facts and hygienic health practices, which sometimes result into adverse health outcomes. Objectives: (i To elicit the beliefs, conception and source of information regarding menstruation among the study population and (ii to find out the status of menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among 160 adolescent girls of a secondary school situated in the field practice area of Rural Health Unit and Training Center, Singur, West Bengal, with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions. Results: Out of 160 respondents, 108 (67.5% girls were aware about menstruation prior to attainment of menarche. Mother was the first informant regarding menstruation in case of 60 (37.5% girls. One hundred and thirty-eight (86.25% girls believed it as a physiological process. Seventy-eight (48.75% girls knew the use of sanitary pad during menstruation. Regarding practices, only 18 (11.25% girls used sanitary pads during menstruation. For cleaning purpose, 156 (97.5% girls used both soap and water. Regarding restrictions practiced, 136 (85% girls practised different restrictions during menstruation. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene, a very important risk factor for reproductive tract infections, is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. Educational television programmes, trained school nurses/health personnel, motivated school teachers and knowledgeable parents can play a very important role in transmitting the vital message of correct menstrual hygiene to the adolescent girl of today.

  8. Promoting resilience among Sesotho-speaking adolescent girls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: adolescent girls; resilience; rural; Sesotho-speaking; social ecology; structural adversity; teacher(s) ... educational role and take on a pastoral role which includes providing ..... numeracy skills in basic education (Modisaotsile,. 2012) ...

  9. Abdominal obesity in adolescent girls attending a public secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdominal obesity in adolescent girls attending a public secondary school in Port ... behavioural factors associated with the development of abdominal obesity. ... daily fruit consumption and watching of TV/Internet/Video games for =2hours ...

  10. Friendships and suicidality among Mexican American adolescent girls and boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterrowd, Erin; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Chavez, Ernest L

    2010-08-01

    Friendship factors have been implicated in adolescent suicidality, but this relationship has not been verified across ethnicities. This study examined suicidality and friendship problems (i.e., social isolation, poor friendship quality, friends' school disconnection, and friends' delinquency) among Mexican American adolescents, an understudied, vulnerable group in terms of suicidality. Three hundred thirty-eight community adolescents, two-thirds of whom were educationally at-risk, participated in the study. Suicidal ideation and behavior rates were high, particularly among girls. Friends' school disconnectedness increased girls' odds for suicidal ideation by 13%. This association was even greater for girls in good academic standing. Friendship problems were not associated with suicidality in boys. Ethnic identity was a minor factor in suicidal ideation, and only for girls. These findings confirm, among Mexican American adolescents, the role of gender in the relationship between friendship and suicidality.

  11. Sexual Violence Against Adolescent Girls: Labeling It to Avoid Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, Giussy; Collini, Federica; Cattaneo, Cristina; Facchin, Federica; Vercellini, Paolo; Chiappa, Laura; Kustermann, Alessandra

    2017-03-20

    Violence against women is a pervasive complex phenomenon that destroys women's feelings of love, trust, and self-esteem. In this commentary, we specifically focus on sexual violence against adolescent girls, whose impact is particularly harmful since it may lead to impaired mental health, social functioning, and neurodevelopment. Between 12% and 25% of adolescent girls throughout the world experience sexual violence, very often perpetrated by a family member or a friend. Moreover, for an alarming proportion of girls, the first sexual experience is coerced. In this article, we review the multiple negative effects of sexual violence against adolescent girls. We also report data derived from our practice in a public Italian referral Centre for Sexual and Domestic Violence (SVSeD) and address the importance of a multidisciplinary clinical approach with adolescent victims of sexual violence.

  12. Adolescent Girls and Exercise: Too Much of a Struggle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Judy

    1991-01-01

    Based on a British study of exercise among girls ages 14-15, the article identifies influences and constraints affecting their physical activity levels in and out of school. Interviews with adolescent girls indicated a scope for developing more appropriate ways to encourage physical activity and facilitate the process. (SM)

  13. Reviving Ophelia: Saving the Selves of Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipher, Mary

    More American adolescent girls today are prey to depression, eating disorders, addictions, and suicide attempts than ever before. This book is an exploration of the underlying causes of this disturbing phenomena, structured around therapy case studies of various teenage girls. The position is taken that despite the women's movement, adolescent…

  14. Social Cognition in Adolescent Girls with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkstra, Lyn S.; Abbeduto, Leonard; Meulenbroek, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize social cognition, executive functions (EFs), and everyday social functioning in adolescent girls with fragile X syndrome, and identify relationships among these variables. Participants were 20 girls with FXS and 20 age-matched typically developing peers. Results showed significant between-groups differences in…

  15. Longitudinal correlates of change in blood pressure in adolescent girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniels, [No Value; McMahon, RP; Obarzanek, E; Waclawiw, MA; Similo, SL; Biro, FM; Schreiber, GB; Kimm, SYS; Morrison, JA; Barton, BA

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the longitudinal changes in blood pressure in black and white adolescent girls and evaluate potential determinants of changes in blood pressure, including sexual maturation and body size. A total of 1213 black and 1166 white girls, ages 9 or 10 years at stud

  16. Reviving Ophelia: Saving the Selves of Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipher, Mary

    More American adolescent girls today are prey to depression, eating disorders, addictions, and suicide attempts than ever before. This book is an exploration of the underlying causes of this disturbing phenomena, structured around therapy case studies of various teenage girls. The position is taken that despite the women's movement, adolescent…

  17. Social Cognition in Adolescent Girls with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkstra, Lyn S.; Abbeduto, Leonard; Meulenbroek, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize social cognition, executive functions (EFs), and everyday social functioning in adolescent girls with fragile X syndrome, and identify relationships among these variables. Participants were 20 girls with FXS and 20 age-matched typically developing peers. Results showed significant between-groups differences in…

  18. Psychological Empowerment and Adolescent Girls' Aspirations in India

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Sanchari; Morton, Matthew; Bhattacharya, Shrayana

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the role of social-emotional or psychological capital in determining the education and employment aspirations of adolescent girls and young women in India. The study finds that girls' self-efficacy and mental health are important determinants of their educational and employment aspirations, suggesting that these hidden forms of human capital may serve as critical targets...

  19. Why do Adolescent Girls Idolize Male Celebrities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Yuna; Kasser, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Girls often idolize male celebrities, but this phenomenon has been studied little. The authors therefore assessed celebrity idolization among 142 junior high school girls and found that girls who strongly idolized a male celebrity had more experience dating, reported secure and preoccupied attachments to same-age boys, and were rated higher in…

  20. Never-pregnant African American adolescent girls' perceptions of adolescent pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Gwendolyn D; Knight, Candace; White, Reashanda

    2015-01-01

    Despite the decrease in adolescent pregnancy rates, rates among African American girls remain higher than other racial/ethnic adolescent groups. This descriptive qualitative study explored never-pregnant African American adolescent girls' perceptions about adolescent pregnancy. Sixty-four participants participated in individual interviews and focus groups. Individual interviews examined beliefs about adolescent pregnancy and perceptions of life changes resulting from becoming pregnant during adolescence. Focus groups were held to validate findings from the interviews. Participants agreed that becoming pregnant during adolescence would negatively impact their education, family, and peers. Participants anticipated feelings of shame and embarrassment in the event that they became pregnant.

  1. Anaemia in pregnant adolescent girls with malaria and practicing pica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intiful, Freda Dzifa; Wiredu, Edwin Kwame; Asare, George Awuku; Asante, Matilda; Adjei, David Nana

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy during the adolescent period is challenging mainly because of the nutritional demands of both the adolescent and pregnancy period. The risk for anaemia increases especially in developing countries such as Ghana where malaria is endemic and the practice of pica is common. In this study, we sought to determine the prevalence of anaemia, pica practice and malaria infection among pregnant adolescent girls and assess the extent to which these factors are associated. Two hundred and sixty five (265) pregnant adolescent girls were recruited from three hospitals in Accra. Haemoglobin levels, malaria infection and the practice of pica were assessed. Pearson's Chi squared tests were used to determine associations and logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds of being anaemic. Significance was set at p≤0.05. Anaemia prevalence was 76% with severity ranging from mild (47.8%) to severe (0.8%). About 27.5% were moderately anaemic. Pica was practiced in only 9.1% of the girls. Malaria infection was prevalent in 17.7% of the girls. The logistic regression analysis indicated that pregnant girls with malaria infection were 3.56 times more likely to be anaemic when compared to those without malaria. Also, those who practiced pica were 1.23 times more likely to be anaemic when compared to those who did not practice pica. Anaemia is very prevalent in pregnant adolescent girls and is a public health problem. Drastic measures should be taken to reduce the high prevalence.

  2. Television Images and Adolescent Girls' Body Image Disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Renee A.

    1999-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on the effects of media images on adolescents, using social-comparison theory and critical-viewing theory. Finds that media do have an impact on body-image disturbance. Suggests that body-image processing is the key to understanding how television images affect adolescent girls' body-image attitudes and behaviors. (SR)

  3. Creating Spaces for Black Adolescent Girls to "Write It Out!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.

    2012-01-01

    Identity and literacy development are two critical processes shaping the life trajectories of adolescents. Identity development in particular can present unique issues for Black adolescent girls, who are positioned in ways to negotiate their identity(ies) when presented with hegemonic language and representations of what is beauty and what is…

  4. Developmental Psychology of Adolescent Girls: Conflicts and Identity Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Katherine C.

    2004-01-01

    Adolescents, particularly girls, have many identity conflicts and low self-esteem that may affect school success and development of a healthy identity. Many teenagers experience new societal expectations and responsibilities giving rise to identity confusion or internal conflicts that need to be resolved during adolescence. Their conflicts may…

  5. Beyond Screen Time: Assessing Recreational Sedentary Behavior among Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine W. Bauer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most studies of sedentary behavior have focused on television use or screen time. This study aims to examine adolescent girls' participation in a variety of recreational sedentary behaviors (e.g., talking on the phone and hanging around, and their association with physical activity (PA, dietary behaviors, and body mass index. Data were from a sample of 283 adolescent girls. Recreational sedentary behavior, PA, and dietary behaviors were self-reported, and girls' height and weight were measured. Over 95% of girls engaged in at least one recreational sedentary behavior during the recall period. Watching television and hanging around were the most common behaviors. Watching television, using the Internet, and hanging around were associated with less PA; watching television, hanging around, and talking on the phone were associated with less healthful dietary behaviors. No associations were found with body mass index. Interventions may benefit from capitalizing on and intervening upon girls' common recreational sedentary behaviors.

  6. Perceptions of Adolescent Pregnancy Among Teenage Girls in Rakai, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Christina; McClendon, Katherine A; Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Nakyanjo, Neema; Ddaaki, William George; Serwadda, David; Nalugoda, Fred Kakaire; Wawer, Maria J; Bonnevie, Erika; Wagman, Jennifer A

    2017-01-01

    The leading causes of death and disability among Ugandan female adolescents aged 15 to 19 years are pregnancy complications, unsafe abortions, and childbirth. Despite these statistics, our understanding of how girls perceive adolescent pregnancy is limited. This qualitative study explored the social and contextual factors shaping the perceptions of adolescent pregnancy and childbirth among a sample of 12 currently pregnant and 14 never pregnant girls living in the rural Rakai District of Uganda. Interviews were conducted to elicit perceived risk factors for pregnancy, associated community attitudes, and personal opinions on adolescent pregnancy. Findings indicate that notions of adolescent pregnancy are primarily influenced by perceptions of control over getting pregnant and readiness for childbearing. Premarital pregnancy was perceived as negative whereas postmarital pregnancy was regarded as positive. Greater understanding of the individual and contextual factors influencing perceptions can aid in development of salient, culturally appropriate policies and programs to mitigate unintended adolescent pregnancies.

  7. Nutrient intake amongst rural adolescent girls of Wardha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliye C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the nutrient intake of rural adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried in four adopted villages of the Department of Community Medicine, M.G.I.M.S., Sewagram. A household survey was carried out in the villages. A list of all the adolescent girls in the age group of 10-19 years was prepared by enumeration through house-to-house visit. All adolescent girls were included in the study. A pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic variables and anthropometric variables. A 24 h recall method was used to assess nutrient intake. Data generated was entered and analyzed using epi_info 2000. Nutrient intake was compared with ICMR Recommended Dietary Allowances. Nutritional status was assessed by BMI for age. Results: The mean height of the adolescent girls was 142.9 cm. Overall, 57% of the adolescents were thin (BMI for age <5 th percentile for CDC 2000 reference and 43% of the adolescents were normal (BMI for age between 5 th - 85 th percentile for CDC 2000 reference. The average energy intake, which was 1239.6±176.4 kcal/day, was deficient of RDA by 39%. The average protein intake was 39.5±7 gm/day. It was deficient by 36% and the average iron intake, which was 13.2±2.5 mg/day, was deficient by 48%. Conclusion: The findings reiterate the dietary deficiency among adolescent girls which adversely affects the nutritional status. If the poor nutritional status is not corrected promptly before they become pregnant, it adversely affects the reproductive outcome. If we have to meet out the goals of Reproductive and Child Health Program, intervention strategies to improve the dietary intake of adolescent girls are needed so that their requirements of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals are met.

  8. STUDY OF ANEMIA IN ADOLESCENT SCHOOL GIRLS OF BHOPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kakkar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common form of malnutrition, early intervention during adolescence (girls can prevent high morbidity and mortality of these future mothers. Objectives: To study prevalence & factors contributing to anaemia among adolescent school girls. Material and Methods: Area or region addressed – Iron deficiency anemia in adolescent girls. Present study was conducted among 317 adolescent (10-19Yrs government schoolgirls of Bhopal city from June2005-July2006. Three study groups were selected from three different girls’ school by random sampling method. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS. Result & Conclusion: Overall prevalence was 58.4% among adolescent schoolgirls. Prevalence of anemia was dependent on the knowledge about prevention of anemia, literacy level, food habits, birth order & also frequency of Iron rich source viz. green leafy vegetable & non vegetarian diet. While there was no significant relation of anemia with duration of menstrual flow but there was significant (P<0.05 difference in number of anaemic cases with age at menarche i.e. with higher age at menarche; there was more chances of anemia. Level of anemia was higher (p<0.05 in early adolescent (10 -13 Years age group (81% as compared to middle (58.3% and late adolescent (17-19 years age group girls (48.7%.

  9. Sparking connections: An exploration of adolescent girls' relationships with science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Kathryn A.

    Despite progress in narrowing the gender gap, fewer women than men pursue science careers. Adolescence is a critical age when girls' science interest is sparked or smothered. Prior research provides data on who drops out of the "science pipeline" and when, but few studies examine why and how girls disconnect from science. This thesis is an in-depth exploratory study of adolescent girls' relationships with science based on a series of interviews with four middle-class Caucasian girls---two from public schools, two homeschooled. The girls' stones about their experiences with, feelings about, and perspectives on science, the science process, and their science learning environments are examined with a theoretical and analytic approach grounded in relational psychology. The potential link between girls' voices and their involvement in science is investigated. Results indicate that girls' relationships with science are multitiered. Science is engaging and familiar in the sense that girls are curious about the world, enjoy learning about scientific phenomena, and informally use science in their everyday fives. However, the girls in this study differentiated between the science they do and the field of science, which they view as a mostly male endeavor (often despite real life experiences to the contrary) that uses rather rigid methods to investigate questions of limited scope and interest. In essence, how these girls defined science defined their relationship with science: those with narrow conceptions of science felt distant from it. Adolescent girls' decreased involvement in science activities may be a relational act---a move away from a patriarchical process, pedagogy, and institution that does not resonate with their experiences, questions, and learning styles. Girls often feel like outsiders to science; they resist considering science careers when they have concerns that implicitly or explicitly, doing so would involve sacrificing their knowledge, creativity, or

  10. SURVEY OF HEALTH EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF ADOLESCENT GIRLS (THIRD HIGH SCHOOL GIRLS IN TEHRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ahmadi

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was to determine the health knowledge, attitude, and practice of adolescence girls during puberty among 8th grade students in southern part of Tehran in 1996-1997. It also addressed the health needs and therefore the necessary steps to be taken to promote adolescent's health. Sample study consisted of 225 students, their mothers, and their teachers. Each person was interviewed by a trained personnel and special questionnaire. Analysis of the questionnaires showed that the girls' knowledge about physiological, psychological, and social aspects of puberty was low. Most of them (%75 reported that their first menstruation made them scared because they thought had a disease. The most reported source of information about puberty and menstruation was the mother, %36 reported their knowledge about adolescent's health is not enough and %33 reported having difficulties talking to their daughters about puberty and menstruation %19 of them were illiterate, %39 had primary school, %30 had secondary school, and %12 had higher education. The higher the mother's education level, the higher the age that they considered their daughters to be psychosocially matures. Most of the girls (%76 expected psychologically negative changes during puberty and (%72 experienced them based on this study, it can be suggested that health education programs for adolescent girls should focus their efforts on the mothers knowledge as their main practical method of meeting the girls need for information. Mothers were sensitive to moral and behavioural aspects of adolescent's health. The results show the importance of psychological aspects of adolescent's health Educating mothers will promote their knowledge, attitude, and practice about adolescent's health and therefore decrease their daughter’s mental and emotional problems during this period of time.

  11. Nutritional Health of Indonesian Adolescent Girls: the role of riboflavin and vitamin A on iron status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillon, D.

    2005-01-01

    In developing countries, adolescent girls often have anemia and micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this thesis was to investigate the role of riboflavin or vitamin A as determinant of anemia and iron deficiency in Indonesian adolescent girls.

  12. Romantic and Sexual Activities, Parent-Adolescent Stress, and Depressive Symptoms among Early Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Joanne; Stroud, Catherine B.; Starr, Lisa R.; Miller, Melissa Ramsay; Yoneda, Athena; Hershenberg, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Building on evidence that romantic experiences are associated with depressive symptoms in adolescence, we examined their bidirectional association, as well as the role of sexual activity and parent-adolescent stress in their association. Data were collected from 71 early adolescent girls (M age 13.45 years; SD = 0.68) and their primary caregiver…

  13. Days of Their Lives: Reflections on Adolescent Girls and Adolescent Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Susan M.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews literature on issues of sexuality for adolescent girls, interweaving quotes from adolescent mothers. Information comes from the author's work educating teenage parents. The article focuses on the relationship of social pressures to sexuality, femininity, the body, silence and rebellion, adolescent motherhood, and sexual abuse. (SM)

  14. Days of Their Lives: Reflections on Adolescent Girls and Adolescent Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Susan M.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews literature on issues of sexuality for adolescent girls, interweaving quotes from adolescent mothers. Information comes from the author's work educating teenage parents. The article focuses on the relationship of social pressures to sexuality, femininity, the body, silence and rebellion, adolescent motherhood, and sexual abuse. (SM)

  15. Measuring eating concerns in Black and White adolescent girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franko, DL; Striegel-Moore, RH; Barton, BA; Schumann, BC; Garner, DM; Daniels, [No Value; Schreiber, GB; Crawford, PB

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Few instruments exist to measure eating concerns in adolescent girls from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Methods: A Children's version of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-C) has been under development for several years and was designed to be more appropriate for younger children with lower

  16. Dietary habits in adolescent girls of Sari (Mazandaran Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khalilian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and purpose: An appropriate nutrition throughout the lifespan is important. As adolescent girls nutrition status can affect community health in future. We decide to determine the frequency and composition of food from different groups of foods in adolescent girls of Sari (North of Iran.Materials and Methods: In the winter of 2004, 240 adolescent girls (14-18 years of age from Sari high schools were randomly selected and food frequency questionnaires were completed. Also they were asked about their meals and snacks. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11.5 software and the charts were drown using Microsoft Excel software.Results: The results indicated that the most consumed foods in groups of meats, dairies, grains and potatoes, vegetables, fruits and junky foods were egg, yoghurt, rice, tomato, citrus and chocolate respectively.Conclusion: This survey showed Sari adolescent girls dietary habits (in the winter, and it could be a part of studies to design a food program for them.

  17. American Indian Adolescent Girls: Vulnerability to Sex Trafficking, Intervention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The Minnesota Indian Women's Resource Center offers harm reduction programming to at-risk adolescent American Indian girls, including outreach, case management, advocacy, healthy sexuality education, and support groups. To evaluate program impact, participants are assessed at intake and every 6 months afterward for current vulnerability to…

  18. Body Mass Index Of Nigerian Adolescent Urban Secondary School Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyiriuka Alphonsus N.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Body mass index (BMI is an inexpensive and easy-to-perform method of screening for weight status, which may have detrimental health consequences. The aim of our study was to assess the pattern of BMI among Nigerian adolescent secondary school girls and determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity among them.

  19. Discovering Their Voices: Engaging Adolescent Girls with Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Marsha M.; Keeling, Kara K.

    2007-01-01

    Authors Marsha M. Sprague and Kara K. Keeling propose a language arts curriculum that incorporates literature-based discussions to help adolescent girls deal constructively with difficult issues and develop their own authentic voices. To help put such a curriculum into action, this book offers the following resources: (1) A research base to frame…

  20. The Correlates of Dance Education among Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Terra; Henninger, Erica; Chambliss, Catherine

    This investigation extends previous research on the benefits of dance education, by further exploring the correlates of participation in dance classes for adolescent girls. The survey evaluated self-esteem, body image, dance ability, and perceived quality of peer and parent relationships. Students with greater dance experience were expected to…

  1. Psychosocial aspects of changes during adolescence among school going adolescent Indian girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Sinha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical as well as psychological changes during adolescence create a state of physiological stress that must be coped with. This study was undertaken to study the psychosocial aspects of changes associated with adolescence among school going girls. Methods: A predesigned questionnaire was administered to students of class VI to XII prior to a talk on and lsquo;Adolescent health' in two urban schools of Bhopal. The questions were directed at understanding the psychosocial aspects of behavior among the girls during adolescence while they cope with changes of adolescence. Results: A total of 414 schoolgirls from classes VI-XII participated in the study. Their mean age was 14.4years [SD 2.01; Range 10-18 years]. Of them, 277 reported having attained menarche, the mean age at menarche being 12.7 years [SD 1.52]. Almost 63% of girls had knowledge about menstruation before attaining menarche. Majority of them had learned about it from their mother (41%. Nearly one third (30.6% of girls were not comfortable with the bodily changes of adolescence; 41% reported feeling anxious and 26.4% reported suffering from low self-esteem. Excessive irritability was reported by 47% of girls; undue anger by 51.4%, and 34.7% felt uncomfortable interacting with people. One third of girls had frequent arguments with parents. Almost 80% of girls found their parents supportive. Conclusions: A good proportion of adolescent girls appear to be in need for counseling and support for optimally coping with the bodily as well as psychological changes of adolescence. This preliminary study unveils the need for more widespread and regular Adolescent School health programs for increasing awareness and support services. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(2.000: 409-413

  2. (HPV) Vaccination on Adolescent Girls' Knowledge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    assessed girls' knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV vaccine, and their acceptance of future ... Globally, about 500,000 new cases ... population of certain groups12. ... susceptibility to cervical cancer, perceive higher .... support the HPV vaccination according to their .... relationship between knowledge and HPV vaccine.

  3. Inhalant Use in Latina Early Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Bianca L.; Kouyoumdjian, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine how lifetime use and extent of use of inhalants by Latina girls is impacted by age, acculturation, grades, ditching, sexual behaviors (light petting, heavy petting, and going all the way) and sexual agency. A total of 273 females who self-identified as being Latina whose mean age was 13.94 completed…

  4. Definitions of night eating in adolescent girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Striegel-Moore, RH; Thompson, D; Franko, DL; Barton, B; Affenito, S; Schreiber, GB; Daniels, [No Value

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of night eating in a community cohort of black and white girls, using different definitions of night eating as described in the literature. Research Methods and Procedures: Three-day food diaries collected as part of the National Growth and Health Study were exa

  5. Definitions of night eating in adolescent girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Striegel-Moore, RH; Thompson, D; Franko, DL; Barton, B; Affenito, S; Schreiber, GB; Daniels, [No Value

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of night eating in a community cohort of black and white girls, using different definitions of night eating as described in the literature. Research Methods and Procedures: Three-day food diaries collected as part of the National Growth and Health Study were

  6. Effects of school-based squat training in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Takaya; Takai, Yohei; Fukunaga, Yuko; Fujita, Eiji; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2016-06-01

    For adolescent girls, less information on the effects of school-based exercise training is available from earlier studies. This study aimed to determine the effects of school-based squat training on body composition and muscular strength in adolescent girls. Fifty-two girls (13.8±0.6 years) were randomly assigned to the training and control groups. The training group conducted an 8-week body mass-based squat exercise training (100 reps/day, 45 sessions) as a part of after-school activity. Body composition (bioelectrical impedance analyzer), muscle thickness at the thigh anterior (ultrasound), and maximal isometric knee extension strength (myometer) were determined before and after the intervention. The magnitude of maturation was assessed using Tanner stage criteria of pubic hair before the intervention. After the intervention, percent body fat decreased in the training group, but increased in the control group. The relative changes in lean body mass, muscle thickness and muscular strength were similar between both groups. In the training group, the relative change in knee extension strength was correlated to the magnitude of maturation before the intervention. For adolescent girls, an 8-week body mass-based squat training is feasible for lowering percent body fat. In addition, the strength improvement for the knee extensors partially depends on the magnitude of maturation at start of the intervention.

  7. Dietary habits in adolescent girls with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadou, Maria; Stefanidis, Konstantinos; Lykeridou, Katerina; Iliadis, Iakovos; Michala, Lina

    2015-04-01

    The phenotype of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is known to worsen with weight gain, increased ingestion of carbohydrates and a sedentary lifestyle. The purpose of this study was to assess the dietary habits in a group of adolescent girls with PCOS. Adolescents with PCOS were recruited and asked to complete a questionnaire on their eating habits and a recall dietary diary, from which their caloric and macronutrient intake was calculated. Results were compared with those from a group of normal controls. Thirty-five women with PCOS and 46 controls were included. Girls with PCOS were less likely to have cereals for breakfast (20.7 versus 66.7%) and as a result consumed less fibre than controls. They were more likely to eat an evening meal (97.1 versus 78.3%) and eat this over an hour later when compared to controls. Despite having comparable body mass indexes, girls with PCOS ate a daily surplus calorie average of 3% versus controls that had a negative calorie intake of 0.72% (p = 0.047). Ameliorating eating habits early in adolescence in girls with PCOS may improve future metabolic concerns related to a genetic predisposition and worsened by an unhealthy lifestyle.

  8. Personalized Biobehavioral HIV Prevention for Women and Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, Bridgette M; Teitelman, Anne M; Bevilacqua, Amanda W; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet

    2013-09-01

    Women and adolescent girls bear a significant burden of the global HIV pandemic. Both behavioral and biomedical prevention approaches have been shown to be effective. In order to foster the most effective combination HIV-prevention approaches for women and girls, it is imperative to understand the unique biological, social, and structural considerations that increase vulnerability to acquiring HIV within this population. The purpose of this article is to propose novel ideas for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention for women and adolescent girls. The central argument is that we must transcend unilevel solutions for HIV prevention toward comprehensive, multilevel combination HIV prevention packages to actualize personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention. Our hope is to foster transnational dialogue among researchers, practitioners, educators, and policy makers toward the actualization of the proposed recommendations. We present a commentary organized to review biological, social, and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV acquisition among women and adolescent girls. The overview is followed by recommendations to curb HIV rates in the target population in a sustainable manner. The physiology of the lower female reproductive system biologically increases HIV risk among women and girls. Social (eg, intimate partner violence) and structural (eg, gender inequality) factors exacerbate this risk by increasing the likelihood of viral exposure. Our recommendations for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention are to (1) create innovative mechanisms for personalized HIV risk-reduction assessments; (2) develop mathematical models of local epidemics; (3) prepare personalized, evidence-based combination HIV risk-reduction packages; (4) structure gender equity into society; and (5) eliminate violence (both physical and structural) against women and girls. Generalized programs and interventions may not have universal, transnational, and crosscultural

  9. An attempt to detect "pregnancy susceptibility" in indigent adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, J L; Mumford, D M; Schum, D A; Smith, P B; Flowers, C; Schum, C

    1977-06-01

    Since current birth control education programs seem ineffective in reducing the ever-growing number of unplanned teenage pregnancies, an alternative approach might be intensive counseling for girls whose backgrounds and attitudes seem to make them susceptible to such pregnancy. To identify these factors data were gathered from 1294 pregnant girls aged 12-18 and compared with data from a similar socioeconomic population of nonpregnant girls interviewed at school. Families of both groups were all indigent. Based on this information an attitude scale was drawn up and weights assigned to questions most predictive of illegitimate pregnancy. Details of developing this questionnaire are given. The final version showed high predictive correlation when given to another group of 170 pregnant girls. In general, girls from large families, who had repeated 1 or more subjects in school, and who received sex education late and from friends were more likely to become pregnant. Girls from smaller families, who did well in school, and received sex education from parents were less at risk. Use of a scale to identify girls in need of "parenting" has many problems. They may feel singled out. However, intensive counseling may be the only way to reach these adolescents. Also the 1 most predictive factor is age at which sex education was received and from whom. Those who learned about menstruation at age 13 or later and then from friends was 206 times more likely to become pregnant than the girl who receives sex education early from her family. An approach would be to establish intensive counseling programs in schools with a large at-risk population, thus avoiding the stigma of singling out any 1 girl.

  10. Adolescent girls' views on cosmetic surgery: A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga; Ayers, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescent girls' views of cosmetic surgery. Seven focus groups were run with girls aged 15-18 years (N = 27). Participants read case studies of women having cosmetic surgery, followed by discussion and exploration of their views. Thematic analysis identified four themes: (1) dissatisfaction with appearance, (2) acceptability of cosmetic surgery, (3) feelings about undergoing cosmetic surgery and (4) cosmetic surgery in the media. Results suggest the acceptability of cosmetic surgery varies according to the reasons for having it and that the media play an important role by normalising surgery and under-representing the risks associated with it.

  11. Nutritional status of married adolescent girls in rural Rajasthan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, S; Kapil, U; Bhanthi, T; Gnanasekaran, N; Pandey, R M

    1994-01-01

    Adolescence is period of rapid growth and development. The present study was undertaken to assess the nutritional status of 941 adolescent girls, aged 10-18 years belonging to Scheduled Caste communities in rural Rajasthan, using the probability proportionate to size sampling procedure. Data on 93 married adolescent girls was analysed in detail. Nutritional status of the subjects was assessed by anthropometry, dietary intake and by clinical examination of nutritional deficiency disorders. Anthropometric measurements were recorded for height, weight, chest circumference, MUAC and TSF using standardised techniques. On comparing the present study's data with ICMR's study data (1956-65) it was found that there has been a significant improvement in the height, weight and chest circumference of the adolescent girls but the values were below the well-to-do group study data. Dietary intake was assessed by 24 hours recall method. The dietary intake was compared against ICMR's RDA. It was found that the diets were deficient in calories by 30 to 40% in proteins by 25 to 37%, by 39 to 55% in iron and by 10 to 34% in vitamin A. 78% of the subjects suffered from various grades of anaemia and 40% of the subjects had B-complex deficiency.

  12. Motivation for eating behaviour in adolescent girls: the body beautiful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew J

    2006-11-01

    Body dissatisfaction is commonplace for teenage girls and is associated with dieting and unhealthy weight-control behaviours. The idealisation and pursuit of thinness are seen as the main drivers of body dissatisfaction, with the media prominent in setting thin body ideals. Television and consumer magazine production in the UK are extensive, annually releasing 1x10(6) h programming and >3000 magazine titles. Their engagement by adolescent girls is high, and in surveys girls identify thin and revealing body images as influential to the appeal of thinness and their pursuit of dieting. Experimental studies show a short-term impact of these images on body dissatisfaction, especially in teenagers who are already concerned about body image. Magazine images appear more influential than television viewing. For many adolescents selecting thin-image media is purposive, permitting comparison of themselves with the models or celebrities featured. Indeed, the impact of the media needs to be understood within a social context, as engagement is often a highly-social process. Media influence is uneven because of differences in its content and manner of communication, and individual differences in vulnerability to its content. Greater social responsibility on the part of the media and better media literacy by children would be beneficial. For those working in adolescent nutrition it is a reminder that adolescent food choice and intake are subject to many competing, contradictory and non-health-related determinants.

  13. Giant Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst in an Adolescent Girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbil Karaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vulvar cyst in adolescent girls is very uncommon. Epidermoid cyst can be seen in many sites including face, trunk, and extremities but its occurrence in vulva is uncommon. This is the first case of epidermoid cyst of vulva reported in an adolescent girl. Case. A 17-year-old, adolescent girl admitted to our gynecology outpatient clinic with a complaint of painful and palpable mass in her vulva. On examination, a giant mass located in left vulva and labia majora with 11 cm in diameter was seen. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a well-defined cystic mass without contrast enhancement. The surgery was advised to the patient and the pathologic examination of mass revealed vulvar epidermoid cyst. Discussion. Vulvar cysts generally grow slowly and the main etiologies are vulvar trauma and surgical interventions including episiotomy and female circumcision in some culture. The exact treatment is total surgical excision and pathologic examination. MRI is an important imaging modality for detection of extension to deep perineal tissue and localization of mass in vulva especially in giant ones. Conclusion. Although vulvar mass in adolescents is rare, the epidermoid cyst with benign origin should be kept in mind.

  14. Nobody's perfect: a qualitative examination of African American maternal caregivers' and their adolescent girls' perceptions of body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Michell; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye Z

    2014-06-01

    Using semi-structured interviews, we explored African American maternal caregivers' and their adolescent girls' (N=25 dyads) perceptions about the adolescent's body using Grounded Theory. Caregivers and adolescent girls (Mage=13.42) were asked what the adolescent girls liked most/least about their bodies and how peers and media may affect adolescent girls' perceptions. While some adolescent girls reported overall body satisfaction, others described features they would like to change. Belief in God, body acceptance, and appreciation for average/moderate features helped the adolescent girls maintain their positive body image. The body-related messages that adolescent girls received from caregivers and peers included compliments, pressure to lose weight, teasing, and advice. Adolescent girls also reported being either influenced by or skeptical of the images presented in the media. Programs that promote caregiver-adolescent communication about body perceptions and that build on the adolescent girls' media skepticism may prove useful for their health-related attitudes and behaviors.

  15. Body Weight Concerns among Urban Adolescent Girls: A Microlevel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Mukhopadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing consciousness about ideal body image leads to dietary modifications and consequent eating disorders among girls in developing countries like India. The present study aims to (i assess the prevalence of body weight consciousness and related behaviours among a group of adolescent girls; (ii assess the sociodemographic correlates of weight related behaviours; and (iii compare weight related behaviours of the girls of two religious groups residing in Howrah. The study is the outcome of a cross-sectional school based survey involving 280 (159 Hindu and 121 Muslim girls from standards 8 to 11. Significant differences exist between two religious groups with respect to their family size, socioeconomic profile, and media exposures (in terms of watching television. Consciousness about body weight among girls shows significant difference with respect to religion, family size (χ2=64.77, father’s occupation (χ2=60.28, level of education of both the parents, and media exposure (P<0.05. Consciousness about body weight drives them to adopt several behavioural measures like calorie restriction, food avoidance, and dieting. Sociodemographic correlates of all these behaviours have been analyzed. The study documents that concern over body image and weight loss is quite important among these urban girls.

  16. Empowering adolescent girls: developing egalitarian gender norms and relations to end violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Avni; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman

    2014-10-21

    On the occasion of the International Day of the Girl Child (October 11), this commentary highlights the problem of violence against adolescent girls. It describes the nature and magnitude of violence faced by adolescent girls, what we know about factors that drive violence against women and against adolescent girls. It highlights the importance of promoting egalitarian gender norms, particularly during adolescence, and empowering women and girls in efforts to end such violence. Finally, it offers lessons learned from some promising interventions in this area.

  17. "I Can Actually Be a Super Sleuth": Promising Practices for Engaging Adolescent Girls in Cybersecurity Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethwani, Monique M.; Memon, Nasir; Seo, Won; Richer, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing qualitative data gleaned from focus groups with adolescent girls participating in a cybersecurity summer program (N = 38, mean age = 16.3), this study examines the following research questions: (a) How do adolescent girls perceive the cybersecurity field?; and (b) What are the promising practices that engage girls in cybersecurity…

  18. The Psychosexual Impacts on Adolescent Girls Viewing Sexually Explicit Internet Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Piper S.

    2014-01-01

    Literature indicates that 72% of adolescent girls are exposed to sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) before the age of 18, and between 2%-30% of girls report intentionally seeking SEIM. Despite the recognition that adolescent girls are consuming SEIM, and that their use impacts behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes, there has been limited…

  19. Emerging Depression Is Associated with Face Memory Deficits in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyer, Amanda E.; Choate, Victoria R.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Pine, Daniel S.; Keenan, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between memory for previously encoded emotional faces and depression symptoms assessed over 4 years in adolescent girls. Investigating the interface between memory deficits and depression in adolescent girls may provide clues about depression pathophysiology. Method: Participants were 213 girls recruited from…

  20. Diagnosis and Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzo, Erin; Monge, Maria; Trent, Maria

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in adolescent girls that has both reproductive and metabolic implications. Patients with PCOS typically present to their pediatrician for evaluation of menstrual irregularity and/or signs of hyperandrogenism, such as hirsutism and acne. The diagnosis of PCOS is made by clinical symptoms and laboratory evaluation. Because of the long-term health consequences that can accompany the disorder, pediatricians should consider PCOS in their initial evaluation of menstrual irregularity. Lifestyle modification is the cornerstone of treatment for girls with PCOS; however, hormonal medication such as oral contraceptive pills and insulin-sensitizing agents are useful and effective adjuncts to therapy. The goals of treatment for girls with PCOS are to improve clinical manifestations of the disorder, health-related quality of life, and long-term health outcomes.

  1. Subclinical bulimia predicts conduct disorder in middle adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viinamäki, Anni; Marttunen, Mauri; Fröjd, Sari; Ruuska, Jaana; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the comorbidity and longitudinal associations between self-reported conduct disorder and subclinical bulimia in a community-based sample of Finnish adolescents in a 2-year prospective follow-up study. There are 2070 adolescents who participated in the survey as ninth graders (mean age 15.5) and followed-up 2 years later. The Youth Self-Report Externalizing scale was used to measure conduct disorder and DSM-IV-based questionnaire to measure bulimia. Co-occurrence of female conduct disorder and subclinical bulimia was found at ages 15 and 17. Subclinical bulimia among girls at age 15 was a risk factor for conduct disorder at age 17, but conduct disorder at age 15 was not predictive of subclinical bulimia at age 17. The pathway from bulimia to conduct disorder may be suggestive of an association with future borderline personality disorder among girls. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  2. Developing a Web-Based Intervention to Prevent Drug Use among Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Traci Marie; Hopkins, Jessica Elizabeth; Schinke, Steven Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Girls' rates of drug use have met up with and, in some instances, surpassed boys' rates. Although girls and boys share risk and protective factors associated with drug use, girls also have gender-specific risks. Interventions to prevent girls' drug use must be tailored to address the dynamics of female adolescence. Methods: One such…

  3. Regular physical activity influences plasma ghrelin concentration in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürimäe, Jaak; Cicchella, Antonio; Jürimäe, Toivo; Lätt, Evelin; Haljaste, Kaja; Purge, Pritt; Hamra, Jena; von Duvillard, Serge P

    2007-10-01

    We examined the effect of regular physical activity on plasma ghrelin concentration after onset of puberty in girls. In addition, we also examined the association of fasting plasma ghrelin concentration with various plasma biochemical, body composition, and aerobic capacity variables in healthy adolescent girls. Fifty healthy schoolgirls ages 11 to 16 yr were divided either into a physically active (N = 25) or a physically inactive (N = 25) group. The physically active group consisted of swimmers who had trained on an average of 6.2 +/- 2.0 h.wk(-1) for the last 2 yr, whereas the inclusion criterion for the physically inactive group was the participation in physical education classes only. The subjects were matched for age (+/- 1 yr) and body mass index (BMI; +/- 2 kg.m(-2)). Maturation I group (14 matched pairs) included pubertal stages 2 and 3, and maturation II group (11 matched pairs) included pubertal stages 4 and 5. Physically active girls had significantly higher (P ghrelin levels than the physically inactive girls (maturation I: 1152.1 +/- 312.9 vs 877.7 +/- 114.8 pg.mL(-1); maturation II: 1084.0 +/- 252.5 vs 793.4 +/- 164.9 pg.mL(-1)). Plasma ghrelin concentration was negatively related to percent body fat, fat mass, peak oxygen consumption per kilogram of body mass, leptin, estradiol, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) (r > -0.298; P ghrelin concentration using the variables that were significantly associated with ghrelin concentration demonstrated that plasma IGF-I was the most important predictor of plasma ghrelin concentration (beta = -0.396; P = 0.008). Regular physical activity influences plasma ghrelin concentrations in girls with different pubertal maturation levels. Plasma IGF-I concentration seems to be the main determinant of circulating ghrelin in healthy, normal-weight adolescent girls.

  4. Dietary Intakes of Adolescent Girls in Relation to Weight Status

    OpenAIRE

    K Bidad; Sh Anari; Tavasoli, S; L Nazemi; N Gholami; S Zadhush; Moayeri, H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: To examine macronutrient and micronutrient intake of adolescent girls of Tehran, capital of Iran to discover any malnutrition in relation to weight status and dieting.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Four hundred 11- to 17-year-old students were selected by multistage clus­ter sampling from secondary and high schools of Tehran. The information about dietary intakes was taken by food fre­quency questionnaire and 24-hour recall form. The students'...

  5. Longitudinal associations between smoking and depressive symptoms among adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Sarah J; Negriff, Sonya; Dorn, Lorah D; Pabst, Stephanie; Schulenberg, John

    2014-08-01

    Adolescence is an important period for initiation of smoking and manifestation of depression, which are often comorbid. Researchers have examined associations between depressive symptoms and smoking to elucidate whether those with increased depressive symptoms smoke more to self-medicate, whether those who smoke experience increased subsequent depressive symptoms, or both. Collectively, there have been mixed findings; however, studies have been limited by (1) cross-sectional or short-term longitudinal data or (2) the use of methods that test associations, or only one direction in the associations, rather than a fully-reciprocal model to examine directionality. This study examined the associations between smoking and depressive symptoms in a sample of adolescent girls using latent dual change scores to model (1) the effect of smoking on change in depressive symptoms, and simultaneously (2) the effect of depressive symptoms on change in smoking across ages 11-20. Data were from a cohort-sequential prospective longitudinal study (N = 262). Girls were enrolled by age cohort (11, 13, 15, and 17 years) and were primarily White (61 %) or African American (31 %). Data were restructured by age. Every 6 months, girls reported depressive symptoms and cigarette use. Results indicated that controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, higher levels of smoking predicted a greater increase in depressive symptoms across adolescence. These findings suggest that a higher level of cigarette smoking does contribute to more depressive symptoms, which has implications for prevention of depression and for intervention and future research.

  6. Contextualising sexual harassment of adolescent girls in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Papreen; van Reeuwijk, Miranda; Reis, Ria

    2013-05-01

    Violence against women is a social mechanism confirming women's subordination in many societies. Sexual violence and harassment have various negative psychological impacts on girls, including a persistent feeling of insecurity and loss of self-esteem. This article aims to contextualize a particular form of sexual harassment, namely "eve teasing", experienced by Bangladeshi adolescent girls (12-18 years) which emerged from a study of adolescent sexual behaviour carried out by young people. The study used qualitative methods and a participatory approach, including focus group discussions, key informant interviews and observation. Despite taboos, unmarried adolescents actively seek information about sex, erotic pleasure and romance. Information was easily available from videos, mobile phone clips and pornographic magazines, but reinforced gender inequality. "Eve teasing" was one outlet for boys' sexual feelings; they gained pleasure from it and could show their masculinity. The girls disliked it and were afraid of being blamed for provoking it. Thus, "eve teasing" is a result of socio-cultural norms relating to sexuality, as well as a lack of access to sexual and reproductive health information and services in Bangladesh. These findings underscore the importance of comprehensive sexuality education that goes beyond a mere health focus and addresses gender norms and helps youth to gain social-sexual interaction skills.

  7. Etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Filgueiras, Juliana Fernandes; Oliveira, Fernanda da Costa; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to construct an etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls. A total of 1,358 adolescent girls from four cities participated. The study used psychometric scales to assess disordered eating behaviors, body dissatisfaction, media pressure, self-esteem, mood, depressive symptoms, and perfectionism. Weight, height, and skinfolds were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (%F). Structural equation modeling explained 76% of variance in disordered eating behaviors (F(9, 1,351) = 74.50; p = 0.001). The findings indicate that body dissatisfaction mediated the relationship between media pressures, self-esteem, mood, BMI, %F, and disordered eating behaviors (F(9, 1,351) = 59.89; p = 0.001). Although depressive symptoms were not related to body dissatisfaction, the model indicated a direct relationship with disordered eating behaviors (F(2, 1,356) = 23.98; p = 0.001). In conclusion, only perfectionism failed to fit the etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls.

  8. BMI is not a good indicator for metabolic risk in adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMI (kg/m2) does not provide information about body fat percentile.Adolescents with BMI girls with low BMI can have high body fat percentile. We hypothesized that these girls are already insulin resi...

  9. Associations between Dietary Pattern and Depression in Korean Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Choi, Ji-young; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Park, Yongsoon

    2015-12-01

    Dietary patterns are important for the physical and psychological development of adolescent girls. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between dietary patterns and depression in this population. We conducted a case-control study in a tertiary university hospital of 849 girls aged 12 to 18 years. The study was conducted from April 2011 to December 2012. Participants were identified as having depression if they had scores greater than 16 on the Korean version of the Beck Depression Inventory. Data were obtained using validated Korean-language questionnaires. The subjects' usual dietary patterns during the past 12 months were assessed using the Food Frequency Questionnaire published by the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Among the 849 enrolled volunteers, 116 were identified as having depressive symptoms. The mean age of the participants was 15.0 ± 1.5 years. The prevalence of girls diagnosed with depression was 13.6%. Multivariate adjusted regression analysis demonstrated that the risk of depression was significantly positively associated with the consumption of instant and processed foods and negatively associated with the intake of green vegetables and 1 to 3 servings/day of fruits, after adjusting for energy intake and menstrual regularity. Additionally, depression was negatively associated with intake of fiber, β-carotene, vitamin B6, vitamin E, vitamin C, potassium, zinc, folate, iron, and copper after adjusting for confounding variables. Consumption of fast foods including ramen noodles, hamburger, pizza, fried food, and other processed foods was associated with increased risk of depression in adolescent girls. Thus, caution is required regarding dietary choices in this population. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Abnormal white matter properties in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Travis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anorexia nervosa (AN is a serious eating disorder that typically emerges during adolescence and occurs most frequently in females. To date, very few studies have investigated the possible impact of AN on white matter tissue properties during adolescence, when white matter is still developing. The present study evaluated white matter tissue properties in adolescent girls with AN using diffusion MRI with tractography and T1 relaxometry to measure R1 (1/T1, an index of myelin content. Fifteen adolescent girls with AN (mean age = 16.6 years ± 1.4 were compared to fifteen age-matched girls with normal weight and eating behaviors (mean age = 17.1 years ± 1.3. We identified and segmented 9 bilateral cerebral tracts (18 and 8 callosal fiber tracts in each participant's brain (26 total. Tract profiles were generated by computing measures for fractional anisotropy (FA and R1 along the trajectory of each tract. Compared to controls, FA in the AN group was significantly decreased in 4 of 26 white matter tracts and significantly increased in 2 of 26 white matter tracts. R1 was significantly decreased in the AN group compared to controls in 11 of 26 white matter tracts. Reduced FA in combination with reduced R1 suggests that the observed white matter differences in AN are likely due to reductions in myelin content. For the majority of tracts, group differences in FA and R1 did not occur within the same tract. The present findings have important implications for understanding the neurobiological factors underlying white matter changes associated with AN and invite further investigations examining associations between white matter properties and specific physiological, cognitive, social, or emotional functions affected in AN.

  11. Sexual Coercion of Adolescent Girls in Yoruba Land of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanle Florence Foluso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the magnitude and patterns of sexual coercion experienced by female adolescents in Southwest zone in Nigeria. The study population consists of all female adolescents aged 12-16 years. These adolescents are those who are either enrolled in the secondary school or those with limited education that was not in school at the period of this study. Samples of 475 girls were drawn from both the school and those not in schools. The sample was drawn from three different Yoruba speaking states in the south west Nigeria. The sampling techniques that were used were stratified and simple random sampling. The research instrument was a self constructed questionnaire title (SCAQ- Sexual Coercion of female Adolescents Questionnaire. The instrument has a reliability coefficient of 0.76 and was validated using, face content, validity procedure of testing validity. The data generated were analyzed using frequency counts and percentages for describing the data. The appropriate statistics such as t-test, Pearson product moment correlation and chi-square were used to make inferences about the data. The analysis of the data shows that girls have experienced sexual coercion such as verbal threats, unwanted touch, deceived into sex or forced sex. Other forms of sexual coercion such as verbal pressure, threats or unwanted holding of hands unwanted hugging or kissing as well as forced sexual activities have been experienced by girls. Based on the findings, it was recommended that skill training needs to be provided in and outside the school system. Teachers and counsellors should convey prevention messages so as to sensitize or discourage sexual coercion of female students in school.

  12. Abnormal white matter properties in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Katherine E.; Golden, Neville H.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Solomon, Murray; Nguyen, Jenny; Mezer, Aviv; Yeatman, Jason D.; Dougherty, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious eating disorder that typically emerges during adolescence and occurs most frequently in females. To date, very few studies have investigated the possible impact of AN on white matter tissue properties during adolescence, when white matter is still developing. The present study evaluated white matter tissue properties in adolescent girls with AN using diffusion MRI with tractography and T1 relaxometry to measure R1 (1/T1), an index of myelin content. Fifteen adolescent girls with AN (mean age = 16.6 years ± 1.4) were compared to fifteen age-matched girls with normal weight and eating behaviors (mean age = 17.1 years ± 1.3). We identified and segmented 9 bilateral cerebral tracts (18) and 8 callosal fiber tracts in each participant's brain (26 total). Tract profiles were generated by computing measures for fractional anisotropy (FA) and R1 along the trajectory of each tract. Compared to controls, FA in the AN group was significantly decreased in 4 of 26 white matter tracts and significantly increased in 2 of 26 white matter tracts. R1 was significantly decreased in the AN group compared to controls in 11 of 26 white matter tracts. Reduced FA in combination with reduced R1 suggests that the observed white matter differences in AN are likely due to reductions in myelin content. For the majority of tracts, group differences in FA and R1 did not occur within the same tract. The present findings have important implications for understanding the neurobiological factors underlying white matter changes associated with AN and invite further investigations examining associations between white matter properties and specific physiological, cognitive, social, or emotional functions affected in AN. PMID:26740918

  13. How Adolescent Girls Understand and Manage Depression Within Their Peer Group: A Grounded Theory Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Foltz, Melissa D; Hines-Martin, Vicki; Logsdon, M Cynthia

    2010-03-01

    Depression is prevalent among adolescent girls, but few receive mental health treatment. Adolescent girls often forgo needed mental health treatment because they fear responses of peers about depression. Understanding the processes of how adolescent girls respond to peers with depression is an important first step to improve access to mental health treatment. This qualitative study describes the knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors of adolescent girls about depression and mental health treatment within their peer group. The investigators conducted two focus groups, with adolescent girls (n=21), in a public high school in the southern U.S. Grounded theory methods were utilized to identify a beginning substantive theory about perceptions and behaviors of adolescent girls related to depression in their peers. Participants cognitively processed mental health concepts similarly to adults. However, their affective responses to peers with mental illness fluctuated between adult and child perspectives. Participants expressed concerns about individuals with depression that have previously been identified in adults, but expressed unique perspectives that reflect their transitional stage of development. Findings provide new information about how adolescent girls respond to peers with depression, define areas for further investigation, provide directions for constructing developmentally appropriate mental health educational interventions for adolescent girls, and elucidate the need to provide guidance to women with whom adolescent girls have sustained contact.

  14. Engaging adolescent girls in transactional sex through compensated dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Jia, Xinshan; Li, Jessica Chi-Mei; Lee, Tak-Yan

    2016-10-01

    Transactional sex through so-called compensated dating in adolescent girls is a problem in need of public concern. Compensated dating typically involves the use of information communication technology to advertise, search, bargain, and eventually arrange for transactional sex. The technology enables the sexual partners to maintain privacy and secrecy in transactional sex. Such secrecy necessitates the girls' disclosure about their life experiences in order to address the concern. The disclosure is the focus of the present qualitative study of 27 girls practicing the dating in Hong Kong, China. Based on the disclosure, the study presents a grounded theory that epitomizes engagement in compensated dating by referential choice. Such a referential choice theory unravels that choice with reference to the family push and social norms sustains the engagement. Meanwhile, the choice rests on expectancy and reinforcement from experiential learning about compensated dating. The theory thus implies ways to undercut the engagement through diverting the referential choice of the dating. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. HEALTH STATE AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN GIRLS-ADOLESCENTS IN ORENBURG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.N. Pavlenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of a trial studying health state and quality of life of girls-adolescents from Orenburg school of general education are presented in this article. The lowest rates of quality of life were detected in 14-year old girls. Estimation of some components of quality of life, given by parents and girls themselves differs. It was marked that girls-adolescents from III health group showed lower rates of quality of life than girls from I and II health groups. Low rates of functioning in school were marked in all girls-adolescents.Key words: girls-adolescents, morbidity, quality of life.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(5:9-13

  16. Dysmenorrhea in a multiethnic population of adolescent Asian girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; Khoo, Ee Ming

    2010-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of dysmenorrhea, its impact, and the treatment-seeking behavior of adolescent Asian girls. A cross-sectional study with 1092 girls from 15 public secondary schools and 3 ethnic groups in the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Overall, 74.5% of the girls who had reached menarche had dysmenorrhea; 51.7% of these girls reported that it affected their concentration in class; 50.2% that it restricted their social activities; 21.5% that it caused them to miss school; and 12.0% that it caused poor school performance. Ethnicity and form at school were significantly associated with the poor concentration, absenteeism, and restriction of social and recreational activities attributed to dysmenorrhea. Only 12.0% had consulted a physician, and 53.3% did nothing about their conditions. There were ethnic differences in the prevalence, impact, and management of dysmenorrhea. There is a need for culture-specific education regarding menstruation-related conditions in the school curriculum. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nutritional Status of Adolescent Girls from Rural Communities of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulugeta, A.; Hagos, F.; Stroecker, B.; Kruseman, G.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Zenebe, A.; Mekonen, Y.; Girmay, G.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Addressing the nutritional needs of adolescents could be an important step towards breaking the vicious cycle of intergenerational malnutrition. Objective: Assess nutritional status of rural adolescent girls. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Anthropometric and socio-demographic

  18. Nutritional Status of Adolescent Girls from Rural Communities of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulugeta, A.; Hagos, F.; Stroecker, B.; Kruseman, G.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Zenebe, A.; Mekonen, Y.; Girmay, G.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Addressing the nutritional needs of adolescents could be an important step towards breaking the vicious cycle of intergenerational malnutrition. Objective: Assess nutritional status of rural adolescent girls. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Anthropometric and socio-demographic informat

  19. Being a Girl in a Boys' World: Investigating the Experiences of Girls with Autism Spectrum Disorders during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cridland, Elizabeth K.; Jones, Sandra C.; Caputi, Peter; Magee, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the experiences of adolescent girls with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) during adolescence. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with three mother-daughter dyads and two additional mothers. A range of issues were highlighted covering physical, emotional, social and sexual domains. Some of these issues were similar to…

  20. Being a Girl in a Boys' World: Investigating the Experiences of Girls with Autism Spectrum Disorders during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cridland, Elizabeth K.; Jones, Sandra C.; Caputi, Peter; Magee, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the experiences of adolescent girls with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) during adolescence. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with three mother-daughter dyads and two additional mothers. A range of issues were highlighted covering physical, emotional, social and sexual domains. Some of these issues were similar to…

  1. Teasing and weight-control behaviors in adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina B. Leme

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between weight teasing, body satisfaction and weight control behaviors. METHODS: Cross-sectional study based on adaptation and validity research of a North American questionnaire for adolescent girls about physical activity, nutrition, body image, perceptions, and behaviors. The variables used to conduct the study were weight control behaviors, body satisfaction and presence of teasing by family members. Descriptive analyses were carried out by chi-square test, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: A total of 159 adolescent girls, with 16.2±1.3 years old were enrolled in this study. Of the total, 60.1% reported that family members did not tease them. The teasing was associated with weight dissatisfaction (p<0.001, body shape (p=0.006, belly (p=0.001, waist (p=0.001, face (p=0.009, arms (p=0.014 and shoulders (p=0.001. As a consequence, there was association with unhealthy weight control behaviors (p<0.001, vomiting (p=0,011, diet (p=0.002 and use of laxatives (p=0.035. CONCLUSIONS: The teasing about body image by family members was associated with risk for unhealthy weight control behaviors in female adolescents.

  2. Longitudinal Associations Between Sedentary Behavior of Adolescent Girls, Their Mothers, and Best Friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudsepp, Lennart; Riso, Eva-Maria

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the prospective relationship and changes in sedentary behavior between adolescent girls, their mothers and best friends over time. The results are based on 122 girls aged 11-12 years at baseline measurement, their mothers and best friends who completed ecological momentary assessment diary for the assessment of sedentary behavior. All measurements were taken at 3 time points separated by one year. We used structural equation modeling to examine associations among sedentary behavior of adolescent girls, their mothers and best friends. A linear growth model for adolescent girls' and their best friends' sedentary behavior fit the data well, revealing an overall significant increase in sedentary behavior across time. Initial levels of mothers' and best friends' sedentary behavior were positively related with sedentary behavior of adolescent girls. The changes of adolescent girls' and best friends' sedentary behavior across 3 years were positively related. Cross-lagged panel analysis demonstrated significant reciprocal effects between adolescent girls' and best friends' sedentary behavior. Mothers' sedentary behavior at baseline predicted daughters' sedentary behavior at 1-year follow-up and vice versa. From early to midadolescence, changes in adolescent girls' sedentary behavior were associated with changes in best friends' sedentary behavior. These findings suggest reciprocal associations between sedentary behavior of adolescent girls and their best friends.

  3. Eating disorder behaviors and attitudes in Japanese adolescent girls and boys in high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Noma, Shun'ichi; Nin, Kazuko; Teramukai, Satoshi; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2015-12-15

    To investigate eating disorder behaviors and attitudes in adolescents, we administered the eating disorder examination questionnaire (EDE-Q) to Japanese adolescent girls and boys. The EDE-Q global scores in Japanese girls and boys, respectively, were significantly lower than those in girls and boys in previous studies. Objective binge eating episodes and extreme dietary restriction were the common behaviors, whereas self-induced vomiting and the misuse of laxatives were uncommon. Differences in the EDE-Q data between Japanese adolescents and adolescents in previous studies from Western countries suggest that there may be certain cultural differences in eating disorder psychopathology in adolescents.

  4. Predicting energy expenditure from accelerometry counts in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Kathryn H; Treuth, Margarita; Hannan, Peter; McMurray, Robert; Ring, Kimberly B; Catellier, Diane; Pate, Russ

    2005-01-01

    Calibration of accelerometer counts against oxygen consumption to predict energy expenditure has not been conducted in middle school girls. We concurrently assessed energy expenditure and accelerometer counts during physical activities on adolescent girls to develop an equation to predict energy expenditure. Seventy-four girls aged 13-14 yr performed 10 activities while wearing an Actigraph accelerometer and a portable metabolic measurement unit (Cosmed K4b2). The activities were resting, watching television, playing a computer game, sweeping, walking 2.5 and 3.5 mph, performing step aerobics, shooting a basketball, climbing stairs, and running 5 mph. Height and weight were also assessed. Mixed-model regression was used to develop an equation to predict energy expenditure (EE) (kJ.min(-1)) from accelerometer counts. Age (mean [SD] = 14 yr [0.34]) and body-weight-adjusted correlations of accelerometer counts with EE (kJ.min(-1)) for individual activities ranged from -0.14 to 0.59. Higher intensity activities with vertical motion were best correlated. A regression model that explained 85% of the variance of EE was developed: [EE (kJ.min(-1)) = 7.6628 + 0.1462 [(Actigraph counts per minute - 3000)/100] + 0.2371 (body weight in kilograms) - 0.00216 [(Actigraph counts per minute - 3000)/100](2) + 0.004077 [((Actigraph counts per minute - 3000)/100) x (body weight in kilograms)]. The MCCC = 0.85, with a standard error of estimate = 5.61 kJ.min(-1). We developed a prediction equation for kilojoules per minute of energy expenditure from Actigraph accelerometer counts. This equation may be most useful for predicting energy expenditure in groups of adolescent girls over a period of time that will include activities of broad-ranging intensity, and may be useful to intervention researchers interested in objective measures of physical activity.

  5. Fat distribution, physical activity and cardiovascular risk among adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J; Jago, R

    2013-03-01

    It is not clear whether changes in waist circumference (WC), sums of skinfold thickness (SSF), or levels of physical activity (PA) during adolescence are associated with cardiovascular risk factors, or if associations are independent or interactive. In a US cohort of adolescent girls (n = 617-904) girls, examined at ages 12 and 14, WC, SSF, PA, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP & DBP) were assessed. Fasting blood samples were used to determine concentrations of triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (TC), high and low density lipoproteins (HDL-C and LDL-C), and apolipoprotein A1 and B (Apo-A1 and Apo-B). After adjustment for change in SSF and PA, increases in WC were associated with change in TG (z = 1.73, 95% CI = 0.77, 2.69), TC (z = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.01, 0.90), HDL-C (z = -0.18, 95% CI = -0.37, -0.01), LDL-C (z = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.80), Apo-A1 (z = -0.52, 95% CI = -1.02, -0.02), Apo-B (z = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.24, 0.97) and SBP levels (z = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.15, 0.47). Associations between changes in SSF and PA with cardiovascular risk were eliminated after adjustment for WC, and all interactions between WC, SSF and PA were non-significant at conventional levels. Changes in WC were independently associated with the development of cardiovascular risk factors, whereas changes in SSF and PA were not. Clinicians should consider the routine screening of WC to monitor cardiovascular health in adolescent girls. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Anorexia resulting from fear of vomiting in four adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manassis, K; Kalman, E

    1990-08-01

    Four adolescent girls were referred for psychiatric assessment because of suspected anorexia nervosa. Although all of them had lost at least 15% of their body weight, investigation showed that they did not meet the criteria for anorexia nervosa. In all cases, refusal to eat resulted from fear of vomiting following a viral illness and not from a desire to lose weight. Their family configurations and personal histories showed many similarities, including constricted range of affect and a notable lack of anger. With counseling and, in one case, psychotropic medication, the patients recovered promptly.

  7. Assessment of angle velocity in girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejero Marta

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although it has been demonstrated that the peak height velocity (PHV is a predictive factor of progression in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS, little is known about the usefulness of angle progression in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to establish a relationship between height and angle velocities, as well as to determine if peak angle velocity (PAV occurs at the same time than PHV. Methods A retrospective study of a cohort of girls with idiopathic scoliotic curves greater than 10°. Data of 132 girls who participated in a previous retrospective study about growth in AIS were used to calculate height and angle velocities. Relationship between height and angle velocities was estimated by the use of a Linear Mixed Model. Results PHV and PAV take place simultaneously 1 year before menarche in progressive curves managed with a brace in AIS. Changes in angle velocity are influenced by changes in height growth velocity, in such a way that as from 6 months post-menarche, height growth velocity in this group of girls estimates curve progression velocity (β-coefficient -0.88, p = 0.04. Conclusion As from 6 months post-menarche, there is an inverse relationship between height velocity and curve progression in the group of AIS girls with progressive curves managed with a brace. Because height velocity is decreasing from 1 year before menarche, this finding corroborates that at the end of puberty, there is still a risk of progression in this group of girls despite bracing. The assessment of both height and angle velocity might be useful in clinical practice at the time of assessing brace effectiveness and how long bracing has to be indicated.

  8. Late-Adolescent Delinquency: Risks and Resilience for Girls Differing in Risk at the Start of Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Tia; Morash, Merry; Park, Suyeon

    2011-01-01

    Based on resilience and feminist criminological theories, several individual, family, and community characteristics were hypothesized to predict late-adolescent delinquency for girls varying in early-adolescent risk. Girls aged 12 and 13 were interviewed each year as part of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Predictors of…

  9. [Evaluation and treatment of adolescent girls with hirsutism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumbuliene, Zana; Alisauskas, Jonas

    2009-05-01

    Clinical manifestations of androgen excess which are skin and hair related (hirsutism, acne, alopecia) are common and distressing symptoms for an adolescent girls. During puberty and at the time of the first menstruation cycles, physiological hyperandrogenism can be observed. The causes of hirsutism can be various, including familial, idiopathic, and those, caused by excess androgen secretion by the ovary (PCOS, tumors), or by adrenal glands (congenital adrenal hyperplasia, tumor), or exogenous pharmacologic sources of androgens. The diagnosis and treatment of hirsutism remains quite problematic due to innumerous endocrinologic aspects and unsatisfactory treatment results. Androgen excess during puberty must be appropriately recognized, clinically evaluated and treated. Pharmacologic and cosmetic treatments may have beneficial effect. Oral contraceptives and antiadrogens combinations may be recommended as the treatment of choice in adolescents.

  10. Leadership and adolescent girls: a qualitative study of leadership development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Michael A; Kennedy, Cara L

    2008-12-01

    This research investigated youth leadership experiences of adolescent girls who participated in a comprehensive feminist-based leadership program. This qualitative study utilized a grounded theory approach to understand changes that occurred in 10 female adolescent participants. The words of the participants revealed that initially they viewed leadership in traditional terms and were hesitant to identify themselves as leaders or to see themselves included within their concepts of leadership. Following the program their view of leadership expanded and diversified in a manner that allowed for inclusion of themselves within it. They spoke with greater strength and confidence and felt better positioned and inspired to act as leaders. Participants identified having examples of women leaders, adopting multiple concepts of leadership, and participating in an environment of mutual respect and trust as factors that contributed to their expanded conceptualization.

  11. Victims and/or active social agents? A study of adolescent girls with induced abortion in urban Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silberschmidt, Margrethe

    2001-01-01

    High-risk sexual behaviour, adolescent girls, induced abortion, sugar-daddies, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania......High-risk sexual behaviour, adolescent girls, induced abortion, sugar-daddies, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania...

  12. Dietary Intakes of Adolescent Girls in Relation to Weight Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Bidad

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To examine macronutrient and micronutrient intake of adolescent girls of Tehran, capital of Iran to discover any malnutrition in relation to weight status and dieting.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Four hundred 11- to 17-year-old students were selected by multistage clus­ter sampling from secondary and high schools of Tehran. The information about dietary intakes was taken by food fre­quency questionnaire and 24-hour recall form. The students' body mass indices (BMIs were measured and were classified ac­cording to National Center for Health Statistics /Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2000 growth charts. Partici­pants were also questioned about body image and dieting. Results: 6.7% of adolescent girls were classified as being obese, 14.6% overweight, 75.4% normal and 3.2% underweight. Stu­dents 11-13 year old, had mean intakes lower than estimated average requirement (EAR for folic acid, vitamin E, cal­cium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and sodium, and 14-18 year old students had mean intakes lower than EAR for nia­cin, pyridoxine, folic acid, pantothenic acid, vitamin E, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and zinc. Obese and overweight adolescents had less carbohydrate, thiamin, niacin, iron and selenium intake. The participants, who were dieting, used significantly less amounts of proteins, carbohydrates, thiamin, niacin, iron, selenium, sodium and zinc.Conclusion: Knowing the harmful consequences of nutrient deficiency especially in adolescents, nutrition education must be emphasized in schools to promote nutritional literacy.

  13. Counseling Adolescent Girls for Body Image Resilience: Strategies for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Laura Hensley

    2007-01-01

    Because body image dissatisfaction is such a pervasive problem in adolescent girls, school counselors need to develop effective prevention programs in this area. In this article, a model to promote girls' body image resilience is presented. The model identifies five protective factors that contribute to girls' abilities to resist sociocultural…

  14. Measuring Social Provisions for Physical Activity among Adolescent Black and White Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2004-01-01

    The authors evaluate the validity of the Social Provisions Scale for physical activity among adolescent Black (n = 896) and White (n = 823) girls. The girls completed the scale and measures of subjective norms and physical activity in the eighth and ninth grades. Within the sample of White girls, the Social Provisions Scale contained 24 items that…

  15. Relationships between Social Information Processing and Aggression among Adolescent Girls with and without ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Lee, Steve S.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Mullin, Benjamin C.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between social information processing (SIP) and both relational and overt, physical aggression in a longitudinally-followed sample of 228 adolescent girls (ages 11-18; 140 with ADHD and 88 comparison girls). During childhood, girls participated in naturalistic summer camps where peer rejection, overt…

  16. "Tech-Savviness" Meets Multiliteracies: Exploring Adolescent Girls' Technology-Mediated Literacy Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler-Olcott, Kelly; Mahar, Donna

    2003-01-01

    Explores early adolescent girls' use of digital technologies in their literacy practices. Highlights the technology-mediated literacy practices of two seventh-grade girls. Discusses two major themes which emerged from data analysis: the centrality of multimedia popular culture texts in the girls' technology-mediated designing; and the importance…

  17. Adolescent Girls' Experiences of Discrimination: An Examination of Coping Strategies, Social Support, and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Melanie M.; Leaper, Campbell

    2013-01-01

    The research examined (a) girls' responses to personal experiences of gender and/or ethnic/racial discrimination, (b) social support from parents and friends following the discrimination, and (c) the relationship between girls' reported coping strategies to the discrimination and their self-esteem. Participants were 74 adolescent girls ("M" = 16.3…

  18. Individual and Sociocultural Influences on Pre-Adolescent Girls' Appearance Schemas and Body Dissatisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinton, Meghan M.; Birch, Leann L.

    2006-01-01

    Appearance schemas, a suggested cognitive component of body image, have been associated with body dissatisfaction in adolescent and adult samples. This study examined girls' weight status (BMI), depression, and parent, sibling, peer, and media influences as predictors of appearance schemas in 173 pre-adolescent girls. Hierarchical regression…

  19. Family Financial Hardship and Adolescent Girls' Adjustment: The Role of Maternal Disclosure of Financial Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Stephanie Jacobs; Koerner, Susan Silverberg

    2002-01-01

    A study of 62 adolescent girls and their recently divorced mothers examined the relationship between maternal disclosure of financial concerns and difficulties in adolescent daughters' adjustment. Findings revealed a positive direct relationship between family financial hardship and girls' psychological distress, and that financial hardship was…

  20. Effects of Learning about Gender Discrimination on Adolescent Girls' Attitudes toward and Interest in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisgram, Erica S.; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2007-01-01

    Gender discrimination has contributed to the gender imbalance in scientific fields. However, research on the effects of informing adolescent girls about gender discrimination in these fields is rare and controversial. To examine the consequences of learning about gender-based occupational discrimination, adolescent girls (n= 158, ages 11 to 14)…

  1. Race-Specific Transition Patterns among Alcohol Use Classes in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauber, Sarah E.; Paulson, James F.; Leiferman, Jenn A.

    2011-01-01

    We used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine transitions among alcohol use classes in 2225 White and African American adolescent girls, and race differences in predictors of transition into and out of problematic drinking classes. Latent class analysis confirmed four classes for White girls and three for AA…

  2. The Effect of Recreational Activities on Self-Esteem Development of Girls in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betül

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of recreational activities on self-esteem development of girls in adolescence. For this purpose, a total of 20 girls in adolescence period took part in the present study. Recreational activities program included bowling, patenga, orienteering, basketball, volleyball, badminton, ping-pong, dance, fun…

  3. Team Sports Achievement and Self-Esteem Development among Urban Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Sara; Seidman, Edward

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigate the contribution of achievement in team sports to adolescent girls' self-esteem development. Adolescent girls (N = 247) from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds were surveyed as part of a larger study investigating the development of poor urban youth. Participants responded to items tapping global self-esteem,…

  4. Impact of Socio-Emotional Adjustment on Academic Achievement of Adolescent Girls in Jammu and Kashmir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the impact of socio-emotional adjustment on academic achievement of adolescent girls of Jammu and Kashmir. The purpose of the investigation was to study the relationship and effect of socio-emotional adjustment on academic achievement among adolescent girls. The descriptive survey research method was used for the study and the…

  5. Sub-Clinical Iodine Deficiency Still Prevalent in Bangladeshi Adolescent Girls and Pregnant Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ara, G.; Boonstra, A.; Roy, S.; Alam, N.; Ahmed, S.; Khatun, Uh.F.; Ahmed, T.

    2010-01-01

    The major aim was to determine iodine status of adolescent girls and pregnant women in Bangladesh. Secondary objectives were to assess knowledge and practice on iodized salt use and to determine predictors of iodine status. A total number of 354 adolescent girls and 256 pregnant women were randomly

  6. Individual and Sociocultural Influences on Pre-Adolescent Girls' Appearance Schemas and Body Dissatisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinton, Meghan M.; Birch, Leann L.

    2006-01-01

    Appearance schemas, a suggested cognitive component of body image, have been associated with body dissatisfaction in adolescent and adult samples. This study examined girls' weight status (BMI), depression, and parent, sibling, peer, and media influences as predictors of appearance schemas in 173 pre-adolescent girls. Hierarchical regression…

  7. Team Sports Achievement and Self-Esteem Development among Urban Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Sara; Seidman, Edward

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigate the contribution of achievement in team sports to adolescent girls' self-esteem development. Adolescent girls (N = 247) from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds were surveyed as part of a larger study investigating the development of poor urban youth. Participants responded to items tapping global self-esteem,…

  8. The Influence of Parental Support, Depressed Affect, and Peers on the Sexual Behaviors of Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitbeck, Les B.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Used longitudinal data from 76 adolescent girls and their parents to investigate effects of parental warmth and supportiveness on adolescents' depressed affect, attitudes about sexuality, peer influence, and sexual experience. Girls with more emotionally distant parents were more likely to manifest symptoms of depression. Depressed affect was…

  9. The Effect of Recreational Activities on Self-Esteem Development of Girls in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betül

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of recreational activities on self-esteem development of girls in adolescence. For this purpose, a total of 20 girls in adolescence period took part in the present study. Recreational activities program included bowling, patenga, orienteering, basketball, volleyball, badminton, ping-pong, dance, fun…

  10. Exploring Temporal Patterns of Stress in Adolescent Girls with Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björling, Elin A; Singh, Narayan

    2017-02-01

    As part of a larger study on perceived stress and headaches in 2009, momentary perceived stress, head pain levels and stress-related symptom data were collected. This paper explores a temporal analysis of the patterns of stress, as well as an analysis of momentary and retrospective stress-related symptoms compared by level of headache activity. Adolescent girls (N = 31) ages 14-18 were randomly cued by electronic diaries 7 times per day over a 21-day period responding to momentary questions about level of head pain, perceived stress and stress-related symptoms. Multivariate general linear modelling was used to determine significant differences among headache groups in relation to temporal patterns of stress. Significant headache group differences were found on retrospective and momentary stress-related symptom measures. A total of 2841 diary responses captured stress levels, head pain and related symptoms. The chronic headache (CH) group reported the highest levels of hourly and daily stress, followed by the moderate headache (MH) and low headache (LH) groups. Patterns of stress for the three headache groups were statistically distinct, illustrating increased stress in girls with more frequent head pain. This evidence suggests that because of increased stress, girls with recurrent head pain are likely a vulnerable population who may benefit from stress-reducing interventions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Pubertal timing and adolescent sexual behavior in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sarah R; Harden, K Paige; Mendle, Jane

    2014-06-01

    Girls who experience earlier pubertal timing relative to peers also exhibit earlier timing of sexual intercourse and more unstable sexual relationships. Although pubertal development initiates feelings of physical desire, the transition into romantic and sexual relationships involves complex biological and social processes contributing both to physical maturation and to individual interpretations of pubertal experiences. Using a sample of female sibling pairs (n = 923 pairs) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the present study investigated associations among menarche and perceived pubertal timing, age of first sexual intercourse (AFI), and adolescent dating and sexual behavior using a behavioral genetic approach. Genetic factors influencing age at menarche and perceived pubertal timing predicted AFI through shared genetic pathways, whereas genetic factors related only to perceived pubertal timing predicted engagement in dating, romantic sex, and nonromantic sex in the previous 18 months. These results suggest that a girl's interpretation of her pubertal timing beyond objective timing is important to consider for the timing and the contexts of romantic and reproductive behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Body Dissatisfaction Prospectively Predicts Depressive Mood and Low Self-Esteem in Adolescent Girls and Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Susan J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.

    2006-01-01

    This research examined whether body dissatisfaction prospectively predicted depressive mood and low self-esteem in adolescent girls and boys 5 years later. Participants were early-adolescent girls (n = 440, Time 1 M age = 12.7 years) and boys (n = 366, Time 1 M age = 12.8 years) and midadolescent girls (n = 946, Time 1 M age = 15.8 years) and boys…

  13. Body Dissatisfaction Prospectively Predicts Depressive Mood and Low Self-Esteem in Adolescent Girls and Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Susan J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.

    2006-01-01

    This research examined whether body dissatisfaction prospectively predicted depressive mood and low self-esteem in adolescent girls and boys 5 years later. Participants were early-adolescent girls (n = 440, Time 1 M age = 12.7 years) and boys (n = 366, Time 1 M age = 12.8 years) and midadolescent girls (n = 946, Time 1 M age = 15.8 years) and boys…

  14. The momentary relationship between stress and headaches in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björling, Elin A

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the relationship between repeated momentary reports of stress and headaches in female adolescents with varying degrees of headache frequency. Headaches are the most common form of pain reported by adolescents affecting more than a third of all adolescents. High levels of stress during adolescence may predispose an adolescent to experience headaches in adulthood. Randomized, momentary data collection of stress and headaches provides the most accurate data regarding the adolescent experience of these variables. The research methodology, ecological momentary assessment, is a valid approach to better understand the relationship between stress and headaches in adolescence. Data were obtained by each participant's use of an electronic diary (ED), which captured repeated momentary reports of perceived stress, head pain, and stress-related symptoms in female adolescents with varying degrees of recurrent headache. Seven times per day for the 21-day study period, teen girls responded to ED questions about their current stress levels, head pain, and stress-related symptoms. Based on participants' momentary reports of headaches, Low Headache, Moderate Headache, and Chronic Headache groups were created. General estimating equation models were used to analyze the relationship between momentary variables as well as the lag effect between stress and head pain. Thirty-one participants, aged 14-18 years, completed 2841 randomized ED reports and reported 674 occurrences of headache. The Chronic Headache and Moderate Headache groups reported significantly increased levels of stress, head pain, and headaches. The relationship between momentary stress and head pain was significantly strong both within and across participants. The strength of this relationship increased with increased headache activity. A significant lag effect was found between stress and headaches; however, the effect of depression as a moderator of the stress and headache

  15. SOCIOECONOMIC VARIABLES INFLUENCING BODY MASS INDEX OF ADOLESCENT GIRLS IN A RURAL AREA OF HARYANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Often health and nutritional status of adolescent girls are direct reflection of the cumulative effects of various factors. One of the important parameters that causes under nutrition in adolescent girls is their poor socio - economic status. Further low li teracy levels aggravate this dismal situation. OBJECTIVES: (a To assess nutritional status of adolescent girls; (b to study socioeconomic variables of adolescents ; and (c to find out the association of socioeconomic variables with the nutritional statu s of adolescent girls. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A cross - sectional study was carried out in Primary Health Centre, Agroha , Haryana. Sample size (273 estimation was based on the extent of under nutrition in adolescent girls. Thirty nine adolescent girls were selected by simple random sampling from each of the 7 villages covered under PHC, Agroha. A predesigned and pretested interview and examination schedule was used for recording of family and individual information. Nutritional status of study subjects was assessed on the basis of BMI. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Proportions and X 2 test. RESULTS: Two third of the adolescent girls were under nourished. Under - nutrition was significantly least in subjects with main occupation of the family as service (p<0.05. With increasing level of highest literacy in the family, literacy status of father, mother and adolescent girls, significant improvement in nutritional status was noticed. There existed significant (P<0.01 association be tween socioeconomic status and nutritional status of study subjects. CONCLUSIONS: For improvement of nutritional status of adolescent girls there is a need to develop strategies for improving adult and adolescent education.

  16. The relationship between mother’s parenting style and social adaptability of adolescent girls in Isfahan

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Solokian, Soheila; Ashouri, Elaheh; Marofi, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social adaptability is an important requirement of the social life of adolescents, which can be affected by their mother’s parenting style (PS). The purpose of this study is to compare the social adaptability in four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful) through which mothers interact with their adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: This survey is a cross-sectional and analytical study on 737 adolescents that study in the all girls junior hi...

  17. The effect of gender based sexual health education in promoting adolescent girls sexual health attitude

    OpenAIRE

    Ika Parmawati; Ova Emilia; Wenny Artanty Nisman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescent development affects the sexual desire and acitivity. Gender inequality may lead to discrimination and an increase in the vulnerability of adolescent girls to sexual coercion. Meanwhile, gender-sensitive reproductive health education is known to be able to decrease such vulnerability. Researcher wants to find the effects of gender-sensitive reproductive health education towards the adolescent girls' attitude improvements. Methods: This study was quasi experiment resea...

  18. Examining Means of Reaching Adolescent Girls for Iron Supplementation in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afework Mulugeta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in adolescent girls from the developing world. One of the recommended interventions to improve iron status in adolescent girls is iron supplementation. Yet the provision of iron supplements to adolescent girls proved to be a challenging task for the health systems across the developing world. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine means of reaching adolescent girls for iron supplementation in Northern Ethiopia. Methodology: Analytical cross-sectional study consisting of both quantitative and qualitative approaches to data collection and analysis was used in this study. Stratified multi-stage systematic random sampling technique was adopted and primary quantitative data were collected from 828 (578 school attending and 250 non school attending adolescent girls recruited from nine districts of Tigray. The primary quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. The qualitative data collected through key informant interviews and focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim and qualitatively analyzed. Results: The mean (SD age of the girls was 16.7 (1.4 years. Four hundred forty seven (54%, 355 (42.9% and 26 (3.1% of the adolescent girls had low, medium and high diet diversity scores, respectively. More than half, 467 (56%, of the adolescent girls believed that adolescent girls were overloaded with household jobs everyday compared to boys from their respective communities. Key informants said that, there is no adolescent nutrition message promoted in the study area. Low community awareness, perceiving iron tablet as a contraceptive, religious and cultural influences, and lack of confidence in supplementation value of iron tablets, are some of the potential barriers mentioned by the key informant and focus group discussion participants. Schools (45%, health centers (27% and health posts (26% were the preferred public facilities for provision of

  19. SOCIAL CAPITAL AND ADOLESCENT GIRLS' RESILIENCE TO TEENAGE PREGNANCY IN BEGORO, GHANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyan, Sylvia Esther; Ahorlu, Collins; Dzorgbo, Dan-Bright S; Fayorsey, Clara K

    2017-05-01

    This study focuses on how older adolescent girls access and utilize social capital to develop resilience against teenage pregnancy in Begoro, Ghana. A survey of 419 non-pregnant girls aged 15-19 years, selected using a multi-stage cluster sampling technique, was conducted in 2012. Qualitative data were gathered through in-depth interviews with ten girls purposively selected from the survey respondents. Parents, relatives, teachers and religious groups were found to be important sources of social capital for the non-pregnant girls in developing resilience against teenage pregnancy. In addition, resilient girls tended to rely on multiple sources of social capital. It is recommended that stakeholders and policymakers in Ghana ensure that these significant sources of social capital in adolescent girls' sexual experience are equipped with the right information to help girls decrease the risk of teenage pregnancy.

  20. Romantic Functioning and Depressive Symptoms among Early Adolescent Girls: The Moderating Role of Parental Emotional Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Sara J.; Davila, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    This study tested associations between adolescent romantic functioning and depressive symptoms and predicted that adolescents with emotionally unavailable parents would be most likely to show an association between poor romantic functioning and depressive symptoms. Data collected from 80 early adolescent nonreferred girls (average age of 13.45; SD…

  1. Nutrition education improves serum retinol concentration among adolescent school girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanerolle, Pulani; Atukorala, Sunethra

    2006-01-01

    Dietary diversification has been identified as a sustainable intervention method in developing countries where subclinical vitamin A deficiency exists. Nutrition education is central to all methods of nutrition intervention including dietary diversification. The paucity of available data currently limits the effective use of nutrition education in national programs in Sri Lanka. We assessed the effect of nutrition education on nutrition related knowledge, food consumption patterns and serum retinol concentrations among 229 adolescent school girls, aged between 15-19 years. Knowledge on nutrition, food consumption patterns and serum retinol concentration was assessed at baseline. Intervention included nutrition education as lecture discussions, interactive group discussions and four different methods of reinforcement. Knowledge, food consumption patterns and serum retinol concentrations were reassessed after a ten week period of intervention. Educational intervention resulted in a significant increase in knowledge (P nutrition education on serum retinol concentration was highly significant (PNutrition education was effective in improving knowledge and food consumption patterns among these girls. Effectiveness was of biological significance, as a positive change in serum retinol concentration was observed in subjects with initially low concentrations, and not in subjects with initially normal serum concentrations.

  2. Talking Circles for Adolescent Girls in an Urban High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Schumacher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Restorative Practices (RP in schools is a new and emerging field. Meeting in Circles to build friendships, develop emotional literacy skills, resolve conflict, or learn interactively are some of the core components of these programs. This article describes a 2-year study of 12 weekly Talking Circles organized under the auspices of a RP program in an urban high school with 60 adolescent girls. Primary data sources included 257 hr of participant observations in Talking Circles and individual, semi-structured interviews with 31 students. The Relational Cultural model, rooted in the work of Jean Baker Miller, served as the conceptual framework for understanding teens’ interactions within the Circle’s unique set of social conditions in a school environment. Findings demonstrated that Talking Circles provided a safe space for peers helping peers, and that the girls improved their listening, anger management, and empathic skills, which led to greater self-efficacy. It appears that Talking Circles could provide another venue for developing social-emotional literacy skills and growth-fostering relationships in schools.

  3. Neuropsychological Function in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Kathleen; Chung, Jessica; Leininger, Lisa; Wang, Wei; Gardner, William; Yeates, Keith

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether neuropsychological function is poorer in girls with conduct disorder (CD) than in girls without any psychiatric disorder. It is concluded that girls with CD had deficits in several areas of neuropsychological function.

  4. Neuropsychological Function in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Kathleen; Chung, Jessica; Leininger, Lisa; Wang, Wei; Gardner, William; Yeates, Keith

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether neuropsychological function is poorer in girls with conduct disorder (CD) than in girls without any psychiatric disorder. It is concluded that girls with CD had deficits in several areas of neuropsychological function.

  5. When a girl's decision involves the community: the realities of adolescent Maya girls' lives in rural indigenous Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, Heather; Tum, Silvia Ester

    2013-05-01

    Adolescent Maya girls are among the most vulnerable, marginalized sub-populations in Guatemala, a country that is largely young, indigenous and poor. Adolescent Maya girls have limited access to secondary schooling, opportunities to work or earn an income, and sexual and reproductive health information and services. This article explores the extent to which adolescent Maya girls are able to adopt what they have learned in a community-based skills-building and sex education programme in isolated rural, indigenous Guatemalan communities. This is presented through an interview between the authors, who met and worked together in the Population Council's programme Abriendo Oportunidades (Opening Opportunities) for girls aged 8-19 years. The interview discusses what can be done so that indigenous adolescents not only obtain the sexual health information they need, but develop the skills to make decisions, communicate with their peers and parents, and exercise their rights. Much culturally and linguistically sensitive work must be done, using a community-based participatory approach, so that young people who do want to use condoms for protection or contraceptive methods not only have access to the methods, but the support of their families and communities, and government-sponsored sex education programmes, to use them. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. How Self-Objectification Impacts Physical Activity Among Adolescent Girls in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Fuster-Baraona, Tamara; Garita-Arce, Carlos; Sánchez-López, Marta; Colon-Ramos, Uriyoán; Smith-Castro, Vanessa

    2017-02-01

    In Latin America, more than 80% of adolescent girls are physically inactive. Inactivity may be reinforced by female stereotypes and objectification in the Latin American sociocultural context. We examined the influence of objectification on the adoption of an active lifestyle among 192 adolescents (14 and 17 years old) from urban and rural areas in Costa Rica. Analyses of 48 focus-groups sessions were grounded in Objectification Theory. Vigorous exercises were gender-typed as masculine while girls had to maintain an aesthetic appearance at all times. Adolescents described how girls were anxious around the prospect of being shamed and sexually objectified during exercises. This contributed to a decrease in girls' desire to engage in physical activities. Among males, there is also a budding tolerance of female participation in vigorous sports, as long as girls maintained a feminine stereotype outside their participation. Self-objectification influenced Costa Rican adolescent girls' decisions to participate in physical activities. Interventions may include: procuring safe environments for physical activity where girls are protected from fear of ridicule and objectification; sensitizing boys about girl objectification and fostering the adoption of a modern positive masculine and female identities to encourage girls' participation in sports.

  7. A Study of Menstrual Hygiene among Adolescent School Girls in a Slum Area of Kolkata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhumita Bhattacharyya, Papia Sen, Suprakash Hazra, Rabindra Nath Sinha, Sanjoya Sahoo

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Use of sanitary napkin is highly prevalent among the adolescent girls from slum and incidence of symptomatic leucorrhoea and vaginal itch/burning was significantly less among sanitary napkin users."

  8. Awareness about Menstruation and Menstrual Hygiene Practices among Adolescent Girls in Central India

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Dixit; Deepa Raghunath; Rahul Rokade3; Syed Akbar Nawaz4; Taruna Nagdeve4; Ishu Goyal4

    2016-01-01

    "Background: Menstruation is a natural phenomenon unique to women and menstrual hygiene is fundamental to the wellbeing of women and girls. Objectives: To find the awareness about menstruation among ado-lescent girls in a government and private school and ascertain their menstrual hygiene practices. Methods: A cross sectional study was done on 100 girls between age of 12-16 years studying in a government school and a private school, after taking consent from the authority in charge. A...

  9. Anaemia and nutritional status of adolescent girls in Babile District, Eastern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teji, Kedir; Dessie, Yadeta; Assebe, Tesfaye; Abdo, Meyrema

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nutritional status during adolescence plays an important role in the human lifecycle that influences growth and development and during this period nutrient needs are the greatest. The objective of this study is to assess anaemia and nutritional status of adolescent girls in the Babile district, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods Data were collected from 547 adolescent aged 10-19 years by cross sectional study design. WHO Anthro-plus software was used to analyse Nutritional statuses of adolescents and magnitudes were determined using WHO 2007 references point. Haemoglobin was measured on site by hem cue machine. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was carried out depending on the nature of variables. Results The result of the study show that 21.6% thin, 4.8% were over weighted and 1.1% was obese, 32% were anaemic and 15% of adolescents were stunted/ short stature than normal. Nutritional status of adolescent were low both in urban and rural adolescents, but severe thinness were higher among of rural (39.3%) compared to urban (37.5%) adolescents. Factors independently associated with stunting were place of residence, father occupation source of drinking water and age of the adolescents. Conclusion Nutritional status of adolescent girls contributes to the nutritional status of the community. There is a need to initiate intervention measures to improve the nutritional status of adolescent girls who are the future ‘mothers-to-be’. Hence, there is a need to create awareness among adolescents and their family about nutrition and health. PMID:27642403

  10. Delinquency in Adolescent Girls: Using a Confluence Approach to Understand the Influences of Parents and Peers

    OpenAIRE

    Henneberger, Angela K.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Keenan, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Determining the interdependence of family and peer influences on the development of delinquency is critical to defining and implementing effective interventions. This study explored the longitudinal relationship among harsh punishment, positive parenting, peer delinquency, and adolescent delinquency using data from a sub-sample of the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Participants were 622 adolescent girls (42% European American, 53% African American); families living in low-income neighborhoods were o...

  11. Comparing Domain-Specific Physical Activity Efficacy Level between Turkish Adolescent Girls and Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çatikkas, Fatih

    2017-01-01

    The adolescence period is a very critical developmental period for personality, socializing and promotion of physical activity. In this regard, the aim of this study was to compare domain-specific physical activity efficacy level between adolescent boys and girls. A total of 219 girls (body weight: 57.50 ± 10.44 kg, height: 160.30 ± 7.40 cm, age…

  12. The Relationship between STD Locus of Control and STD Acquisition among Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Susan L.; Griffith, Jennifer O.; Succop, Paul A.; Biro, Frank M.; Lewis, Lisa M.; DeVellis, Robert F.; Stanberry, Lawrence R.

    2002-01-01

    Adolescent girls from an urban-based clinic participated in a longitudinal study about psychosexual development and risk of STD acquisition. The girls were asked about their perceptions of loci of control (parents, internal control) as it relates to STD acquisition. Responses to locus of control correlated over time but variations were not found…

  13. Body Image and Self-Esteem among Adolescent Girls: Testing the Influence of Sociocultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Daniel; Vignoles, Vivian L.; Dittmar, Helga

    2005-01-01

    In Western cultures, girls' self-esteem declines substantially during middle adolescence, with changes in body image proposed as a possible explanation. Body image develops in the context of sociocultural factors, such as unrealistic media images of female beauty. In a study of 136 U.K. girls aged 11-16, experimental exposure to either ultra-thin…

  14. Body Image Concerns in Young Girls: The Role of Peers and Media Prior to Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohnt, Hayley K.; Tiggemann, Marika

    2006-01-01

    Peer and media influences have been identified as important conveyors of socio-cultural ideals in adolescent and preadolescent samples. This study aims to explore peer and media influences in the body image concerns and dieting awareness of younger girls, aged 5-8 years. A sample of 128 girls was recruited from the first 4 years of formal…

  15. A Multi-Dimensional Model of Groupwork for Adolescent Girls Who Have Been Sexually Abused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindon, Jillian; Nourse, Carol A.

    1994-01-01

    A treatment approach for sexually abused adolescent girls, using a group work model, incorporated three treatment modalities: a skills component, a psychotherapeutic component, and an educative component. Abused girls demonstrated difficulties in many areas of their lives. The six participants showed improvement according to self-statements and…

  16. Predictors and Health-Related Outcomes of Positive Body Image in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential…

  17. Internalization of the Sociocultural Ideal: Weight-Related Attitudes and Dieting Behaviors among Young Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Nancy E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed adolescent girls regarding body dissatisfaction, dieting, and internalization of sociocultural values, media-influenced knowledge, acceptance of varied body shapes, and media exposure. Girls understood media influence on self-image and behavior and accepted varied body shapes. Significant numbers reported dissatisfaction with weight and…

  18. Comparison of Social Variables for Understanding Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Ruth P.; Motl, Robert W.; Dowda, Marsha; Dishman, Rod K.; Pate, Russell R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To evaluate social support and theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs in explaining physical activity in adolescent girls. Methods : One thousand seven hundred ninety-seven 8 th -grade girls completed a survey measuring social provisions, family support, TPB constructs, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and team sport…

  19. Emotional Dysregulation and Interpersonal Difficulties as Risk Factors for Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Molly; Zeman, Janice; Erdley, Cynthia; Lisa, Ludmila; Sim, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a model of factors that place psychiatrically hospitalized girls at risk for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). The role of familial and peer interpersonal difficulties, as well as emotional dysregulation, were examined in relationship to NSSI behaviors. Participants were 99 adolescent girls (83.2% Caucasian;…

  20. Influence of the Built Environment on Pedestrian Route Choices of Adolescent Girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Daniel A.; Merlin, Louis; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    We examined the influence of the built environment on pedestrian route selection among adolescent girls. Portable global positioning system units, accelerometers, and travel diaries were used to identify the origin, destination, and walking routes of girls in San Diego, California, and Minneapolis...

  1. A Typology of Retaliation Strategies against Social Aggression among Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Karen Phelan; Warber, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    Girls respond to peer attacks of indirect social aggression in various ways. This study explores when and how victims retaliate against their aggressors. Qualitative interviews with 15 adolescent girls ages 10-16 suggest that victims of social aggression are likely to retaliate when their aggressors communicate the following: identity attacks,…

  2. Knowledge, attitude and practices related to menstruation among adolescent girls in Chennai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seenivasan P

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence in girls is a special period which signifies the transition from girlhood to womanhood. Lack of good hygienic practices has increased the vulnerability to reproductive tract infections. Due to societal attitude, girls also associate a variety of negative physical and psychological changes on their body with menstruation. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, practices and attitude related to menstruation. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among 500 school going adolescent girls. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to the study population after obtaining written consent. Results: In our study 69% of the girls attained menarche at 11 to 13 years; 40 % of the girls knew about menstruation before menarche with mother being the informant in 47.7% of the subjects. Most of the girls felt scared on first menstruation (59%. All the girls in the study practised one restriction or the other. Conclusions: The study has highlighted the needs of the adolescents to have accurate and adequate information about menstruation and its appropriate management. Immense efforts are needed to curb myths about menstruation among the adolescent school going girls.

  3. Changes in Strength Abilities of Adolescent Girls: The Effect of a 3-Year Physical Education Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarniecka, Renata; Milde, Katarzyna; Tomaszewski, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To evaluate changes in strength abilities of adolescent girls that underwent a 3-year physical education curriculum. Material and methods: The research participants comprised 141 girls aged 13.3 plus or minus 0.35 years who participated in a 3-year physical education curriculum (PEC). Evaluation was based on the following EUROFIT…

  4. Adolescent Girls' Experiences of Discrimination: An Examination of Coping Strategies, Social Support, and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Melanie M.; Leaper, Campbell

    2013-01-01

    The research examined (a) girls' responses to personal experiences of gender and/or ethnic/racial discrimination, (b) social support from parents and friends following the discrimination, and (c) the relationship between girls' reported coping strategies to the discrimination and their self-esteem. Participants were 74 adolescent girls…

  5. Signs of Resilience in Sexually Abused Adolescent Girls in the Foster Care System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmond, Tonya; Auslander, Wendy; Elze, Diane; Bowland, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    In a sample of 99 sexually abused adolescent girls in the foster care system (64% in congregate living situations and 36% in family/foster care homes), nearly half were psychologically functioning well despite having experienced moderate-to-severe emotional, physical, and sexual abuse. It was hypothesized that these girls with resilient…

  6. Body Image Concerns in Young Girls: The Role of Peers and Media Prior to Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohnt, Hayley K.; Tiggemann, Marika

    2006-01-01

    Peer and media influences have been identified as important conveyors of socio-cultural ideals in adolescent and preadolescent samples. This study aims to explore peer and media influences in the body image concerns and dieting awareness of younger girls, aged 5-8 years. A sample of 128 girls was recruited from the first 4 years of formal…

  7. Sociocultural and Individual Influences on Muscle Gain and Weight Loss Strategies among Adolescent Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardelli, Lina A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    2003-01-01

    The study examined the role of body dissatisfaction, body image importance, sociocultural influences (media and parent and peer encouragement), self-esteem and negative affect on body change strategies to decrease weight and increase muscles in adolescent boys and girls. Surveys were administered to 587 boys and 598 girls aged between 11 and 15…

  8. Body Image and Self-Esteem among Adolescent Girls: Testing the Influence of Sociocultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Daniel; Vignoles, Vivian L.; Dittmar, Helga

    2005-01-01

    In Western cultures, girls' self-esteem declines substantially during middle adolescence, with changes in body image proposed as a possible explanation. Body image develops in the context of sociocultural factors, such as unrealistic media images of female beauty. In a study of 136 U.K. girls aged 11-16, experimental exposure to either ultra-thin…

  9. Unraveling the Slut Narrative: Gender Constraints on Adolescent Girls' Sexual Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summit, Aleza K.; Kalmuss, Debra; DeAtley, Jenifer; Levack, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Limited research exists on the slut labeling process, a key means of enforcing rules around appropriate female sexuality. This study explores that process through qualitative interviews with 44 adolescent girls in Travis County, Texas. Labeling girls as sluts or hos was pervasive and was based on a number of factors beyond sexual behavior,…

  10. Adolescent Girls' Experiences of Discrimination: An Examination of Coping Strategies, Social Support, and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Melanie M.; Leaper, Campbell

    2013-01-01

    The research examined (a) girls' responses to personal experiences of gender and/or ethnic/racial discrimination, (b) social support from parents and friends following the discrimination, and (c) the relationship between girls' reported coping strategies to the discrimination and their self-esteem. Participants were 74 adolescent girls…

  11. Secretory dynamics of ghrelin in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa and healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Miller, Karen K; Kuo, Kelly; Griffin, Kathryn; Stewart, Victoria; Hunter, Emily; Herzog, David B; Klibanski, Anne

    2005-08-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide and a growth hormone (GH) secretagogue. Secretory dynamics of ghrelin have not been characterized in adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN). We hypothesized that, compared with healthy adolescents, girls with AN would have increased ghrelin concentrations measured over 12 h of nocturnal sampling from increased basal and pulsatile secretion, and endogenous ghrelin would independently predict GH and cortisol. We examined ghrelin concentration and secretory dynamics in 22 girls with AN and 18 healthy adolescents 12-18 yr old. Associations between ghrelin, various hormones, and measures of insulin resistance were examined. On Cluster analysis, girls with AN had higher ghrelin concentrations than controls, including total area under the curve (AUC) (P = 0.002), nadir (P = 0.0006), and valley levels (P = 0.002). On deconvolution analysis, secretory burst amplitude (P = 0.03) and burst mass (P = 0.04) were higher in AN, resulting in higher pulsatile (P = 0.05) and total ghrelin secretion (P = 0.03). Fasting ghrelin independently predicted GH burst frequency (r = 0.44, P = 0.005). The nutritional markers body mass index and body fat predicted postglucose and valley ghrelin but not fasting levels. Ghrelin parameters were inversely associated with fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin, and IGF-I. HOMA-IR was the most significant predictor of most ghrelin parameters. Valley ghrelin independently predicted cortisol burst frequency (52% of variability), and ghrelin parameters independently predicted total triiodothyronine and LH levels. Higher ghrelin concentrations in adolescents with AN are a consequence of increased secretory burst mass and amplitude. The most important predictor of ghrelin concentration is insulin resistance, and ghrelin in turn predicts GH and cortisol burst frequency.

  12. Exploring the relationship between timing of menarche and eating disorder symptoms in black and white adolescent girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Striegel-Moore, RH; McMahon, RP; Biro, FM; Schreiber, G; Crawford, PB; Voorhees, C

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between timing of sexual maturation and eating disorders symptoms in adolescent girls. Method: Data were collected over 10 years for a cohort of 1,213 Black girls and 1,166 White girls who were either 9 or 10 years old at study entry. Annually, girls'

  13. Principles and strategies of programming for adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, J E

    1990-01-01

    In consort with the focus on women's enrichment and status improvement in developing countries, the following principles and strategies are discussed: decentralized planning, maximizing schooling, experiential learning, avoidance of exploitation. Planning must involve adolescents and women and be consistent with cultural influences and patterns. Girls also need to be encouraged by parents to stay in schools as long as possible, with minimizing the attractions of staying out of school, and provision for dropouts to return. Experiential learning through interaction, observation, and enjoyment is the best method and will work best with the disadvantaged and neglected, and enable women to, for instance, understand the importance of breastfeeding, immunization, or hygiene. The program which may involved service is not to be exploitative, be a convenience, and benefit her. The content needs to be flexible and suitable to the age such that nutrition must be taught before menarche and at the first sign of breast development, and when bone growth is at its peak. School feeding programs are of proven benefit. Goals can be satisfied without being rigid and allowing for dream time also. The shape of a better tomorrow will depend upon these women. Adequate funding is always necessary, and something for nothing doesn't work without adequate food, useful learning materials, and attractive incentives such as a culturally appropriate items of clothing, confidence and prestige building are a must. The challenges are to provide formal schooling and the concomitant self-esteem building and public recognition of women's competence. Seclusion of pubescent girls in purdah needs to be eliminated and replaced with programs of responsible, mature and positive interaction with older women, who provide leadership skills and linkages to larger society. Interactions between girls is also important with village based continuing education, and practical self-guided curricula. Vocational training

  14. Delinquency in Adolescent Girls: Using a Confluence Approach to Understand the Influences of Parents and Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberger, Angela K; Tolan, Patrick H; Hipwell, Alison E; Keenan, Kate

    2014-11-01

    Determining the interdependence of family and peer influences on the development of delinquency is critical to defining and implementing effective interventions. This study explored the longitudinal relationship among harsh punishment, positive parenting, peer delinquency, and adolescent delinquency using data from a sub-sample of the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Participants were 622 adolescent girls (42% European American, 53% African American); families living in low-income neighborhoods were oversampled. After controlling for the effects of race, living in a single parent household, and receipt of public assistance, harsh punishment and peer delinquency in early adolescence were positively related to delinquency in mid-adolescence. No significant main effects of positive parenting or interaction effects between parenting and peer delinquency were observed. Thus, the effects of harsh parenting and peer delinquency are independent and perhaps additive, rather than interdependent. Results indicate the continued importance of targeting both parenting and peer relationships to prevent delinquency in adolescent girls.

  15. The Benefits Associated with Dance Education for Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Terra; Chambliss, Catherine

    Dance education provides an opportunity for aerobic exercise and conditioning that is especially appealing to many girls. Dance may act as an outlet for girls and give them confidence, but, at the same time, it may create risks associated with perceived body-image. The benefits of taking dance classes were examined for girls, ages 13-20, enrolled…

  16. What's Sexy? Adolescent Girls Discuss Confidence, Danger, and Media Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Sharon; Farmer, Kaelin M.; Kosterina, Elena; Lambe Sariñana, Susan; Plocha, Aleksandra; Randazzo, Renee

    2016-01-01

    Building on qualitative research about sexualisation by media and culture and the impact on girls' development, in this article we present a discourse analysis of three focus groups of teen girls of colour and of diverse ethnicities asked to talk about sexiness. We focus on the ways the girls both support and resist hegemonic discourses about…

  17. Preventing Depression among Adolescent Girls: Pathways toward Effective and Sustainable Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Vicky Veitch; Dozois, David J. A.; Fisman, Sandra; DePace, JoAnne

    2008-01-01

    Up to 25% of adolescent girls experience an episode of major depression, at least twice the rate found with adolescent boys. In addition to reducing the suffering associated with depression, prevention efforts with this high-risk population have the potential to avert short- and long-term functional impairment, reduce the risk of associated mental…

  18. Predictors of Peer Victimization among Hispanic Adolescent Girls: Implications for School Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Anne; Jenson, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Aggressive behavior aimed at peers in school settings is a persistent problem for students, teachers, parents, and school social workers. Peer victimization is particularly troubling for adolescent girls in light of recent increases in aggression and violence among female adolescents. However, most studies of peer victimization, particularly among…

  19. Severe vulvovaginitis as a presenting problem of type 2 diabetes in adolescent girls: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Jacqueline; Hayward, Jenette; Sellers, Elizabeth; Dean, Heather

    2011-04-01

    This article describes the presentation of 4 adolescent girls who sought medical attention for severe vulvovaginitis and were subsequently found to have type 2 diabetes. Symptomatic vulvovaginitis is rare in adolescent girls, and its presence should alert health care providers to test for underlying hyperglycemia. These 4 girls represent 8.5% of the females with new-onset type 2 diabetes during a 3-year period (2007-2009). The 4 cases fulfilled the current Canadian Diabetes Association screening criteria for type 2 diabetes in youth, yet none of these girls had been screened. These cases highlight the need for better awareness of screening criteria for type 2 diabetes in adolescents. Consideration should be given in clinical practice guidelines to including the presence of unusual or severe infections as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in youth.

  20. Who's that girl? A qualitative analysis of adolescent girls' views on factors associated with teenage pregnancies in Bolgatanga, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugu, J K; Mevissen, F E F; Prinsen, A; Ruiter, R A C

    2016-04-14

    Adolescent pregnancy remains a public health concern, with diverse serious consequences, including increased health risk for mother and child, lost opportunities for personal development, social exclusion, and low socioeconomic attainments. Especially in Africa, teenage pregnancy rates are high. It is important to find out how girls without pregnancy experience differ in their contraceptive decision-making processes as compared with their previously studied peers with pregnancy experience to address the high rate of teenage pregnancies. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with never been pregnant girls (N = 20) in Bolgatanga, Ghana, to explore the psychosocial and environmental factors influencing the sexual decision making of adolescents. Themes such as relationships, sex, pregnancy, family planning and psychosocial determinants (knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, norms, risk perceptions) derived from empirical studies and theories related to sexuality behavior guided the development of the interview protocol. Results showed that the girls did talk about sexuality with their mothers at home and did receive some form of sexual and reproductive health education, including the use of condoms discussions in school. Participants reported high awareness of pregnancy risk related to unprotected sex, were positive about using condoms and indicated strong self-efficacy beliefs towards negotiating condom use. The girls also formulated clear future goals, including coping plans such as ways to prevent unwanted pregnancies to reach these targets. On the other hand, their attitudes towards family planning (i.e., contraceptives other than condoms) were negative, and they hold boys responsible for buying condoms. An open parental communication on sexuality issues at home, comprehensive sex education in school and attitude, self-efficacy, risk perception towards contraception, alongside with goal-setting, seem to be protective factors in adolescent girls

  1. International summit on the nutrition of adolescent girls and young women: consensus statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Nancy; Bagby, Susan; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Dewey, Kathryn; Fall, Caroline; Gregory, Fred; Hay, William; Rhuman, Lisa; Caldwell, Christine Wallace

    2017-01-01

    An international summit focusing on the difficult challenge of providing adequate nutrition for adolescent girls and young women in low‐ and middle‐income countries was held in Portland, Oregon in 2015. Sixty‐seven delegates from 17 countries agreed on a series of recommendations that would make progress toward improving the nutritional status of girls and young women in countries where their access to nutrition is compromised. Delegate recommendations include: (1) elevate the urgency of nutrition for girls and young women to a high international priority, (2) raise the social status of girls and young women in all regions of the world, (3) identify major knowledge gaps in the biology of adolescence that could be filled by robust research efforts, (4) and improve access to nutrient‐rich foods for girls and young women. Attention to these recommendations would improve the health of young women in all nations of the world. PMID:28722768

  2. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALFaris, Nora A.; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z.; Al-Jobair, Moneera O.; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls. PMID:25792229

  3. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALFaris, Nora A; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z; Al-Jobair, Moneera O; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M

    2015-01-01

    Background : Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective : The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design : In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13-18 years) and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19-29 years) were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results : Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants' fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants' hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%). Conclusion : Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls.

  4. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora A. ALFaris

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design: In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girls (13–18 years and 69 young adult Saudi girls (19–29 years were randomly recruited to participate in this study. Weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference were measured using standardized methods. Twenty-four-hour diet recall and a face-to-face interview food questionnaire were performed. Results: Most of the participants had adequate intake of protein, riboflavin, iron, and sodium, but exhibited low intake for several other nutrients. Among study participants, 95.4% consume restaurants’ fast food and 79.1% eat fast food at least once weekly. Burgers and carbonated soft drinks were the main kinds of fast food meals and beverages usually eaten by girls. Adolescent girls who usually ate large portion sizes of fast food had significantly higher mean waist circumference and hip circumference. Participants eat fast food primarily for enjoying the delicious taste, followed by convenience. Restaurants’ hygiene and safety standards were the main concern regarding fast food for 62.2% of girls. Finally, international restaurants were preferable by participants to buy fast food compared with local restaurants (70.9% vs. 29.1%. Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence on the high prevalence of fast food consumption among Saudi girls, suggesting an urgent need for community-based nutrition interventions that consider the trends of fast food consumption and targeted eating behaviors of adolescent and young adult girls.

  5. Problem Gambling among Adolescent Girls in Croatia—The Role of Different Psychosocial Predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Huic

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although, compared to boys, adolescent girls gamble less often and less problematically, prevalence studies still show significant numbers of at risk/problem gamblers among girls. However, girl gambling has been on the sidelines of adolescent gambling research. The available studies usually focus only on a narrow set of correlates often ignoring that adolescent gambling is a complex phenomenon determined by various factors. Also, they often measure gambling related consequences with instruments that are not specifically developed for use on adolescents. In order to contribute to a better understanding of adolescent gambling this study focuses on problem gambling among girls. We consider different social, cognitive, motivational and behavioral factors as predictors of girl problem gambling. A total of 1,372 high-school girls from 7 Croatian cities participated in the study. They provided data on their gambling activities, peer gambling, cognitive distortions related to gambling, motivation for gambling, and levels of general risky behavior. As the only instrument developed specifically for use on adolescents, the Canadian Adolescent Gambling Inventory was used to examine adverse gambling consequences. Results show 7.4% of girls can be considered regular gamblers, and out of those who gambled at least once in their lifetime (n = 862, 11.2% already experience mild adverse consequences because of their gambling (at risk gamblers, with 3.2% experiencing serious consequences (problem gamblers. In general, girls seem to prefer lotto and scratch cards, but sports betting seems to be the preferred game of choice among regular girl gamblers. A hierarchical regression model confirmed the importance of much the same factors identified as risky for the development of problem gambling among adolescent boys—cognitive distortions, motives to earn money, to be better at gambling and to relax, the experiences of winning large and the drive to continue gambling

  6. Problem Gambling among Adolescent Girls in Croatia—The Role of Different Psychosocial Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huic, Aleksandra; Dodig Hundric, Dora; Kranzelic, Valentina; Ricijas, Neven

    2017-01-01

    Although, compared to boys, adolescent girls gamble less often and less problematically, prevalence studies still show significant numbers of at risk/problem gamblers among girls. However, girl gambling has been on the sidelines of adolescent gambling research. The available studies usually focus only on a narrow set of correlates often ignoring that adolescent gambling is a complex phenomenon determined by various factors. Also, they often measure gambling related consequences with instruments that are not specifically developed for use on adolescents. In order to contribute to a better understanding of adolescent gambling this study focuses on problem gambling among girls. We consider different social, cognitive, motivational and behavioral factors as predictors of girl problem gambling. A total of 1,372 high-school girls from 7 Croatian cities participated in the study. They provided data on their gambling activities, peer gambling, cognitive distortions related to gambling, motivation for gambling, and levels of general risky behavior. As the only instrument developed specifically for use on adolescents, the Canadian Adolescent Gambling Inventory was used to examine adverse gambling consequences. Results show 7.4% of girls can be considered regular gamblers, and out of those who gambled at least once in their lifetime (n = 862), 11.2% already experience mild adverse consequences because of their gambling (at risk gamblers), with 3.2% experiencing serious consequences (problem gamblers). In general, girls seem to prefer lotto and scratch cards, but sports betting seems to be the preferred game of choice among regular girl gamblers. A hierarchical regression model confirmed the importance of much the same factors identified as risky for the development of problem gambling among adolescent boys—cognitive distortions, motives to earn money, to be better at gambling and to relax, the experiences of winning large and the drive to continue gambling, together with

  7. Self-image and suicidal and violent behaviours of adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Sitnik-Warchulska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background An increase in self-destructive and aggressive behaviours in adolescents has been observed in recent years. The present study focused on self-perception of adolescent girls who show different types of extreme destructive behaviours (suicidal or violent. The main aim of the study was to identify personality predictors of suicidal and violent behaviour in adolescent girls. Participants and procedure The study involved 163 female participants aged 13-17 years, including 44 suicide attempters (without extreme aggressive behaviour towards others, 46 girls using violence against others (without extreme self-destructive behaviour and 77 girls exhibiting no destructive behaviour. The following research methods were applied: the Adjective Checklist (ACL (versions “What am I like?” and “What would I like to be?”, and the Sentence Completion Test. Results The girls showing extreme destructive behaviour, particularly self-destructive behaviour, were found to have a more negative self-image, a lower level of consistency of the self-image, lower self-esteem and a higher level of inner conflict than the control group. Stepwise discriminant analysis was used to determine predictors of extreme self-destructive or aggressive behaviours. Escalated inner conflicts within the attitude towards oneself appear to be the most important predictor of suicidal behaviour in adolescent girls, whereas self-perception based on strength seems to be the most significant predictor of violent behaviour in adolescent girls. Conclusions The research showed that destructive behaviour among adolescents is a multidimensional phenomenon. The statistical model presented in the study has been proved to have a high value. The results can help in successful prevention and therapy of destructive behaviours in adolescents.

  8. The influence of urban literature on African-American adolescent girls' sexual behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Allyssa L

    2011-07-01

    Many African-American teenaged girls are reading urban literature. This genre of literature is known for its gritty portrayal of urban life and has themes of violence, promiscuity, substance abuse and misogyny. Although research has demonstrated that the portrayal of sex and violence in the media are influential on adolescent sexual behavior, to date there has been little research on the influence of "urban lit" on adolescent sexual risk behaviors. This qualitative study explores the influence of urban literature on the sexual risk behaviors among a group of African-American adolescent girls. Findings from this study suggest that African-American adolescent girls may be influenced by the sexual themes depicted in this genre of literature. Additional research is needed to gain a greater understanding of this phenomon.

  9. Qualitative Iranian study of parents' roles in adolescent girls' physical activity habit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyyed Vahide; Anoosheh, Monireh; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ehsani, Mohammad

    2013-06-01

    Parents are likely to be key influences on children's physical activity behaviors, although it is not clear how. This study was designed to explore parents' roles in Iranian adolescent girls' physical activity habit development. A qualitative study was conducted by means of semistructured one-to-one interviews with 25 participants, including 16 adolescent girls (10-19 years of age), seven mothers, and two fathers. Content analysis was applied. Two main themes emerged as parental role in adolescent girls' physical activity behavior: developing interest in physical activity (making children familiar with physical activity, discovering talents, and role modeling) and providing support to adolescents for physical activity (material and immaterial). This study provided a better understanding of how Iranian parents influence their children's physical activity behavior. This will enable nurses to design more effective family-based interventions.

  10. The association between perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology and depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasing, Sanne P. A.; Creemers, Daan H. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We studied the relationships of perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology with adolescents’ depression and anxiety symptoms in a general population sample of 862 adolescent girls (age M = 12.39, SD = 0.79). Assessments included adolescents’ self-reports of their own depression and anxiety as well as their reports of maternal and paternal psychopathology. We found that perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology were both related to depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls. A combination of higher maternal and paternal psychopathology was related to even higher levels of depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. Our findings showed that adolescents’ perceptions of their parents’ psychopathology are significantly related to their own emotional problems. PMID:26257664

  11. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT girls randomized controlled trial for adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools: rationale, study protocol, and baseline results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okely Anthony D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child and adolescent obesity predisposes individuals to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from a range of lifestyle diseases. Although there is some evidence to suggest that rates of pediatric obesity have leveled off in recent years, this has not been the case among youth from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to report the rationale, study design and baseline findings of a school-based obesity prevention program for low-active adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools. Methods/Design The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT Girls intervention will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. NEAT Girls is a 12-month multi-component school-based intervention developed in reference to Social Cognitive Theory and includes enhanced school sport sessions, interactive seminars, nutrition workshops, lunch-time physical activity (PA sessions, PA and nutrition handbooks, parent newsletters, pedometers for self-monitoring and text messaging for social support. The following variables were assessed at baseline and will be completed again at 12- and 24-months: adiposity, objectively measured PA, muscular fitness, time spent in sedentary behaviors, dietary intake, PA and nutrition social-cognitive mediators, physical self-perception and global self-esteem. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA and nutrition behavior change will be explored. Discussion NEAT Girls is an innovative intervention targeting low-active girls using evidence-based behavior change strategies and nutrition and PA messages and has the potential to prevent unhealthy weight gain and reduce the decline in physical activity and poor dietary habits associated with low socio-economic status. Few studies have reported the long-term effects of school-based obesity prevention programs and the current study has the potential to make an

  12. The effect of educational group therapy plan on self–esteem rate in adolescent girls

    OpenAIRE

    Roya Turkashvand; Sima Kermanshahi; Parviz Azadfalah

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a period of major changes in various aspects of physical, mental and social caracters they may get. There are new requirements for the changes have been occurred. Attention to these needs, in turn, are faster and better compatibility and increase self-esteem. Self-esteem is the basic factor of personality development in adolescents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of educational group therapy on self-esteem of adolescent girls.Materials a...

  13. Valeologic knowledge in adolescent girls studied at secondary and professional schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunina A.M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose: The study was performed to estimate the valeologic knowledge in adolescent girls. Material and methods: The study included 169 girls (aged 12-18. The anonymous questioning, the lessons on a healthy life style and sexual education were conducted. Results: The investigation showed that girls have had low level of the healthy life style and sexual education. More than half of girls in this study had no accurate understanding about the menstruation, normal sexual development. After the healthy life style lessons among the girls the level of valeologic knowledge was increased in 1.5-5 times. Conclusion: The awareness among girls on issues related to sexual and reproductive health through valeologic and sex education may be developed by means of school programs.

  14. Cool Girls, Inc.: Promoting the Positive Development of Urban Preadolescent and Early Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Thomason, Jessica; DiMeo, Michelle; Broomfield-Massey, Kimberley

    2011-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a transformation in youth programming toward a comprehensive positive youth development (YD) framework. Cool Girls, Inc., a YD program, focuses on improving girls' life chances by promoting positive behaviors and attitudes in multiple domains. These include self-concept, academic orientation, future orientation, and…

  15. [Atypical celiac disease in an adolescent girl--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozyasz, Kamil; Czerwińska, Barbara

    2004-11-01

    Coeliac disease is characterized by life-long gluten intolerance. There are a wide variety of clinical presentations, which range from severe diarrhoea and weight loss to asymptomatic forms. The primary treatment for coeliac disease is the removal of gluten from the diet to prevent both immediate and long-term complications. The case of 16-year-old girl with coeliac disease was presented. At the age of 2 years the patient with impaired growth and abnormal stools was suspected to have coeliac disease. She experienced symptomatic improvement on gluten-free diet, but after 3 years the treatment was discontinued. The patient denied gastrointestinal or skin problems. At the age of 14 years Raynaud's phenomenon was observed for the first time. Two years later episodes of Raynaud's phenomenon involved all fingers and toes. Body mass index (BMI) was 23.8 kg/m2. Levels of free-carnitine, tocopherol, vitamin B12 were below normal limits and homocysteine level was increased. Antiendomysial IgA, antireticulin IgA, antigliadin IgA and IgG antibodies were positive. The duodenal mucosa showed total villous atrophy. Gluten free-diet and multivitamin supplementation provided some benefit in reducing Raynaud's phenomenon. The patient's well being has improved markedly. Atypical coeliac disease is usually seen in adolescents and adults in whom features of overt malabsorption are often absent. In cases of health problems occurring in persons with history of malabsorption syndrome in childhood suspicion of coeliac disease should be heightened and appropriate evaluation undertaken.

  16. Quantitative Ultrasound at the Hand Phalanges in Adolescent Girls is Related to Their Overall Physical Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolanowski, Marek; Pluskiewicz, Wojciech; Syrycka, Joanna; Chwałczyńska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Growing of the skeleton, depends on genetic, health, nutritional and environmental influences. The aim of the study was to assess the ultrasound properties of bone measured at hand phalanges in adolescent girls regarding the influence of pubertal status and level of physical fitness. The study group was 56 adolescent girls aged 12-14 yrs, the controls were 86 girls matched for age, recruited from 1256 subjects undergoing bone measurement for screening purposes. The skeletal status (amplitude-dependent speed of sound - Ad-SoS) was assessed by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) at proximal phalanges using DBM Sonic 1200. Physical fitness was assessed by the Zuchora index and pubertal development by the Tanner scale. The adolescent girls from our study group had greater body weight, height, BMI and Ad-SoS values than the controls. Overall physical fitness was highest in girls with the lowest BMI and lowest in girls with the highest BMI values. The highest results of the Ad-SoS were reported in girls presenting highest level of physical fitness. They were statistically significantly higher than in girls with a minimal level of physical fitness. There was a statistically significant correlation between the overall physical fitness score and Ad-SoS results. No correlations between Ad-SoS and the Tanner scale, particular the elements of physical fitness (speed, jumping ability, flexibility, shoulder muscular strength, abdominal muscle strength) and BMI were shown. The bone properties assessed by QUS at the hand phalanges in adolescent girls aged 12-14 years depend on their overall physical fitness. Pubertal development, body size and particular elements of physical fitness, especially shoulder muscular strength, have limited influence.

  17. Age at Time of Initial Sexual Intercourse and Health of Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Lúcia A S; Abdo, Carmita H N

    2016-10-01

    Adolescence is characterized by marked changes in the body, psychology, and sexual behavior due to increasing production of hormones. In this review we aimed to assess the effect of age at the time of first sexual intercourse (sexarche) on the health of adolescent girls, and identify factors that might protect against early initiation of sexual relations in girls. The PubMed, Lilacs, and Google Scholar databases were searched for clinical trials, comparative studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, cohort studies, multicenter studies, observational studies, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews published up to December 2014 on this theme. The search terms were: "sexual debut," "coitarche," "sexarche," and "young people," "adolescent," "unplanned pregnancy," "adolescent contraception," and "STDs." Data were extracted from 28 studies and 41 references were used to introduce the theme and to support the discussion. Sexarche has been occurring in increasingly younger girls. A young age at sexarche can lead to subsequent risky sexual behavior. Girls who have sexarche when they are 14 years old or younger are less likely to use contraception on this occasion, take more time before they start using contraception in subsequent sexual relations, are more likely to have several sex partners, have a higher risk for depression, have lower self-esteem and more episodes of repentance, and have a higher risk for a sexually transmitted disease and cervical cancer. Girls with low educational, socioeconomic, and cultural status, little parental monitoring, parental separation, and absence of religiosity tend to experience sexarche at a younger age. Adolescent girls who postpone sexarche until they are 16 years old are physically and psychologically healthier than those who have sexarche at a younger age. This suggests that providing adolescent girls with appropriate education about sexual relations might reduce the negative effect of sexual relations at a young age.

  18. Testing an equifinality model of nonsuicidal self-injury among early adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Wroblewski, Kristen

    2014-08-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a common behavior among females that has been shown to confer risk for continued self-injury and suicidal attempts. NSSI can be viewed conceptually as behavior that is pathognomonic with aggression and/or depression. Empirical research on concurrent correlates supports this concept: numerous and diverse factors are shown to be significantly associated with self-harm, including depression, emotion dysregulation, impulsivity, and aggression and other conduct problems, as well as environmental stressors such as bullying, harsh parenting, and negative life events. In the present study, we test hypotheses regarding developmental precursors (measured from ages 8 to 12 years) to NSSI in young adolescent girls (ages 13-14 years), specifically whether aggression, depression, and environmental stressors distinguish girls with and without self-harm, and whether there is evidence for multiple developmental pathways to NSSI. Data were derived from the longitudinal Pittsburgh Girls Study. In this community sample of girls, the prevalence of NSSI at ages 13 or 14 years of age was 6.0%. Initial levels in dimensions measured within the depression, aggression, and environmental stressor domains accounted for variance in NSSI in early adolescence. Changes over time in relational aggression and assertiveness were also significantly associated with risk for NSSI. To a large extent, adolescent NSSI was predicted by psychological deficits and stress exposure that began early in childhood. Risk indices were calculated using the 85th or 15th percentile. Close to 80% of girls who engaged in NSSI during adolescence were identified by at least one risk domain in childhood. A sizable proportion of adolescent girls who later engaged in NSSI had childhood risk scores in all three domains; the remaining girls with adolescent NSSI were relatively evenly distributed across the other risk domain profiles. The observation that multiple pathways to NSSI exist suggests

  19. Forced migration and sexual abuse: experience of Congolese adolescent girls in Kigeme refugee camp, Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Iyakaremye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background This study deals with the link between forced migration and sexual abuse, with a special focus on adolescent girls. Existing literature associates forced migration with sexual abuse and identifies adolescent girls as the most vulnerable. However, little is known about the situation of sexual abuse among Congolese refugees in Rwanda since their arrival in 2012 due to the conflict between Congolese government forces and the M23 rebel group. This study was initiated to explore the situation of sexual abuse of Congolese adolescent girls in Kigeme camp and to suggest remedial strategies. Participants and procedure Qualitative data were collected through individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with adolescent girls. Interviews also involved parents, boys, camp authorities, and neighbouring citizens. Results The findings show that rape, unwanted physical touching, sexual exploitation, commercial sex, early marriage and girl trafficking are the main forms of sexual abuse. These are facilitated by the miserable life in the camp, shortcomings in the camp layout and security system, and adolescent developmental stage. They negatively impact girls’ reproductive health, social integration and mental health. Conclusions Existing strategies to address sexual abuse in the camp have had positive but insufficient results, and thus need to be improved and reinforced. Improvement is suggested in the areas of the abuse reporting system, the camp layout and security system, involvement of men and youth, and the consolidation of anti-GBV (gender-based violence clubs.

  20. Forced migration and sexual abuse: experience of Congolese adolescent girls in Kigeme refugee camp, Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Iyakaremye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background This study deals with the link between forced migration and sexual abuse, with a special focus on adolescent girls. Existing literature associates forced migration with sexual abuse and identifies adolescent girls as the most vulnerable. However, little is known about the situation of sexual abuse among Congolese refugees in Rwanda since their arrival in 2012 due to the conflict between Congolese government forces and the M23 rebel group. This study was initiated to explore the situation of sexual abuse of Congolese adolescent girls in Kigeme camp and to suggest remedial strategies. Participants and procedure Qualitative data were collected through individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with adolescent girls. Interviews also involved parents, boys, camp authorities, and neighbouring citizens. Results The findings show that rape, unwanted physical touching, sexual exploitation, commercial sex, early marriage and girl trafficking are the main forms of sexual abuse. These are facilitated by the miserable life in the camp, shortcomings in the camp layout and security system, and adolescent developmental stage. They negatively impact girls’ reproductive health, social integration and mental health. Conclusions Existing strategies to address sexual abuse in the camp have had positive but insufficient results, and thus need to be improved and reinforced. Improvement is suggested in the areas of the abuse reporting system, the camp layout and security system, involvement of men and youth, and the consolidation of anti-GBV (gender-based violence clubs.

  1. Nutritional status, dietary intake, and relevant knowledge of adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nurul; Roy, Swapan Kumar; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ahmed, A M Shamsir

    2010-02-01

    This study estimated the levels and differentials in nutritional status and dietary intake and relevant knowledge of adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh using data from the Baseline Survey 2004 of the National Nutrition Programme. A stratified two-stage random cluster-sampling was used for selecting 4,993 unmarried adolescent girls aged 13-18 years in 708 rural clusters. Female interviewers visited girls at home to record their education, occupation, dietary knowledge, seven-day food-frequency, intake of iron and folic acid, morbidity, weight, and height. They inquired mothers about age of their daughters and possessions of durable assets to divide households into asset quintiles. Results revealed that 26% of the girls were thin, with body mass index (BMI)-for-age 95th percentile), and 32% stunted (height-for-age dietary knowledge was low. More than half could not name the main food sources of energy and protein, and 36% were not aware of the importance of taking extra nutrients during adolescence for growth spurt. The use of iron supplement was 21% in nutrition-intervention areas compared to 8% in non-intervention areas. Factors associated with the increased use of iron supplements were related to awareness of the girls about extra nutrients and their access to mass media and education. Community-based adolescent-friendly health and nutrition education and services and economic development may improve the overall health and nutritional knowledge and status of adolescents.

  2. A study of the menstrual pattern and problems among rural school going adolescent girls of Amravati district of Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Ramdasji Wasnik

    2015-05-01

    Methods: The Prospective observational study was carried out among selected 435 Secondary and higher secondary girls students (12-16 years of age of Ner Pinglai by purposive sampling method. The study was done in the month August 2013 to February 2014. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS 16.0 version. Results: Total 435 adolescent girls had attained menarche. The mean age of menarche was 13.5 (1.0 years. 17.9% of adolescent girls reported premenstrual syndrome. 81.3% girls had abdominal pain during menstruation followed by 28.5% cramp, 11% were uncomfortable, 11% had backache, 6.6% had headache and 2.5% girls had depression. 3.4% of the adolescent girls were did not have any symptoms during menses. Dysmenorrhoea was the most common menstrual complaint reported by 62.3% girls. 33.5 % girls have reported use of sanitary pads during menstruation. 41.6% girls have reported use of old clothes during menstruation. 21.8% had irregular menstrual cycle. Conclusion: Menstruation is an important milestone for adolescent girls and menstrual problems are common among adolescent girls. The mean age of menarche was 13.1 +/- 1.0 of years. There were 1.5 menstrual symptom per adolescent girls commonest being abdominal pain. Dysmenorrhoea was seen in 62.3% of the adolescent girls. 33.5% girls have reported use of sanitary pads during menstruation. 41.6% girls have reported use of old clothes during menstruation. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(5.000: 1252-1256

  3. PRACTICES OF MENSTRUAL HYGIENE AMONG ADOLESCENT GIRLS IN A DISTRICT OF UTTARAKHAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Juyal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Context: Adolescence in girls signifies the transition from girlhood to womanhood. Good menstrual hygiene is crucial for the health, education, and dignity of girls and women. This is an important sanitation issue which has long been in the closet and still there is a long standing need to openly discuss it. Aims: 1. To elicit the knowledge and source of information regarding menstruation among the adolescent girl students. 2. To find out the practices of menstrual hygiene among them. Settings and Design: Cross-Sectional study conducted in two randomly selected Inter colleges (one rural and one urban of district Dehradun of Uttarakhand state. Methods and Material: 453 girls studying in 9th to 12th grades were interviewed by using a prestructured and pretested questionnaire. Statistical analysis used: percentages and Chi-square test Results: 64.5 % girls (71.1% Rural and 57% Urban were aware about menstruation prior to the attainment of menarche. Awareness among rural girls was significantly more as compared to urban girls. Friends were the first informant in about 31.8 % girls. But the correct reason and source of bleeding during menstruation was not known to most of the respondents. Overall 38.4 % adolescent girls (48.1% Rural and 27.6% Urban were using sanitary napkins as menstrual absorbent, while 30 % were using a new cloth/rag every time. Conclusions: There is a need to educate the girls about menstruation, its importance and hygiene maintenance; so as to enable them to lead a healthy reproductive life in future.

  4. The Adolescent Girls Initiative-Kenya (AGI-K): study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austrian, Karen; Muthengi, Eunice; Mumah, Joyce; Soler-Hampejsek, Erica; Kabiru, Caroline W; Abuya, Benta; Maluccio, John A

    2016-03-01

    Many adolescent girls in Kenya and elsewhere face considerable risks and vulnerabilities that affect their well-being and hinder a safe, healthy, and productive transition into early adulthood. Early adolescence provides a critical window of opportunity to intervene at a time when girls are experiencing many challenges, but before those challenges have resulted in deleterious outcomes that may be irreversible. The Adolescent Girls Initiative-Kenya (AGI-K) is built on these insights and designed to address these risks for young adolescent girls. The long-term goal of AGI-K is to delay childbearing for adolescent girls by improving their well-being. AGI-K comprises nested combinations of different single-sector interventions (violence prevention, education, health, and wealth creation). It will deliver interventions to over 6000 girls between the ages of 11 and 14 years in two marginalized areas of Kenya: 1) Kibera in Nairobi and 2) Wajir County in Northeastern Kenya. The program will use a combination of girl-, household- and community-level interventions. The violence prevention intervention will use community conversations and planning focused on enhancing the value of girls in the community. The educational intervention includes a cash transfer to the household conditioned on school enrollment and attendance. The health intervention is culturally relevant, age-appropriate sexual and reproductive health education delivered in a group setting once a week over the course of 2 years. Lastly, the wealth creation intervention provides savings and financial education, as well as start-up savings. A randomized trial will be used to compare the impact of four different packages of interventions, in order to assess if and how intervening in early adolescence improves girls' lives after four years. The project will be evaluated using data from behavioural surveys conducted before the start of the program (baseline in 2015), at the end of the 2-year intervention (endline in

  5. [Reproductive health in adolescent girls in social-hygiene montoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latyshevskaia, N I; Gerusova, G P; Vdovin, S V; Davydenko, L A; Makarkin, I V

    2001-01-01

    The health status (somatic and reproductive functions) was studied in 15-17-year-old girls residing in different areas of an industrial city with varying anthropogenic loads mainly caused by chemicals. There were statistically significant differences in the health indices of the girls and their reproductive functions (menstrual function, development of genitals, the status of the viscera).

  6. Maternal Influences on Smoking Initiation among Urban Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Tracy R.; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined associations between maternal social influences to smoke and girls' early smoking behaviors. Data were collected separately from 450 urban minority girls (65.7% Black, 21.5% Latina, and 12.8% other) and their mothers on smoking frequency as well as demographic and social factors hypothesized to promote smoking. Results showed…

  7. Sexuality, HIV risk and potential acceptability of involving adolescent girls in microbicide research in Kisumu, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montandon, Michele; Sahin-Hodoglugil, Nuriye Nalan; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Agot, Kawango; Boland, Brigid; Cohen, Craig R

    2008-12-01

    Current microbicide clinical trials primarily enroll adult participants; however, females under the age of 18, because of their high rates of HIV acquisition, represent an important population for future microbicide clinical research. We sought to understand the individual, family and community-level factors that may influence the acceptability of microbicide use and research involving adolescent girls. We conducted 30 interviews with adolescent girls aged 14-17 and nine focus group discussions with adolescent girls, parents and community leaders in Kisumu, Kenya. Participants discussed adolescent sexuality, HIV prevention methods, perceptions about microbicide use and views about microbicide research involving adolescent girls. Adolescent sexual activity is stigmatised yet acknowledged to be a natural part of the 'adolescent stage.' Desperation to stop the spread of HIV among youth and support for female-initiated HIV prevention methods led to enthusiasm about microbicides and future microbicide research. Yet concerns about microbicides were numerous and included: difficulty using it in a timely manner due to the rushed, unplanned nature of adolescent sex; a fear of trying experimental products; concerns about microbicide efficacy; and parental worry that supporting microbicide use in youth would defy societal pressures that denounce adolescent sexual activity. Microbicide acceptability for youth in sub-Saharan Africa may be bolstered by desperation for new methods to stop the spread of HIV, yet hindered by misgivings about experimental HIV prevention methods for youth. Understanding and addressing the microbicide's perceived benefits and shortcomings, as well as the broader context of adolescent sexuality and HIV prevention, may facilitate future research and promotion of microbicides in this high-risk group.

  8. Immigration status, acculturation, and dating violence risk for Hispanic adolescent girls in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Mary M; Green, Dan; Booker, John; Nelson, Anna

    2011-10-01

    Little data exist on dating violence experienced by immigrant Hispanic adolescents. The present study examined the relationships between immigration status, language spoken at home, and dating violence experienced by Hispanic adolescent girls in New Mexico. Data from the 2007 New Mexico Youth Risk and Resiliency Surveys were analyzed. Adjusted logistic regression analyses were conducted among the full sample of Hispanic females (N = 3,412) and among strata based on immigration status. Immigrant Hispanic girls were as likely as non-immigrant Hispanic girls to have experienced dating violence in the prior year (P = 0.93). Among immigrant Hispanic girls, those who were Non-English-dominant were one-fourth as likely to have experienced dating violence as those immigrant girls who were English-dominant (aOR 0.27 [95% CI 0.08-0.87]). Among US-born Hispanic girls, those who were Non-English-dominant were less likely to have experienced dating violence; however, this value did not reach statistical significance (aOR 0.65 [95% CI 0.33-1.27]). Past sexual experience was a significant risk factor for dating violence for US-born Hispanic girls (aOR 4.99 [95% CI 3.18-7.83]) but not for immigrant Hispanic girls (aOR 1.66 [95% CI 0.63-4.43]). Immigrant status was not found to be protective against dating violence for New Mexico Hispanic girls. However, those immigrant girls who were less acculturated in terms of language used at home were found to have only a quarter of the risk of dating violence as those more acculturated. The use of heritage language by immigrant Hispanic girls may be a protective factor against dating violence. Further studies are indicated to confirm this finding.

  9. Building psychosocial assets and wellbeing among adolescent girls: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Katherine Sachs; Gillham, Jane; DeMaria, Lisa; Andrew, Gracy; Peabody, John; Leventhal, Steve

    2015-12-01

    We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a 5-month resilience-based program (Girls First Resilience Curriculum or RC) among 2308 rural adolescent girls at 57 government schools in Bihar, India. Local women with at least a 10th grade education served as group facilitators. Girls receiving RC improved more (vs. controls) on emotional resilience, self-efficacy, social-emotional assets, psychological wellbeing, and social wellbeing. Effects were not detected on depression. There was a small, statistically significant negative effect on anxiety (though not likely clinically significant). Results suggest psychosocial assets and wellbeing can be improved for girls in high-poverty, rural schools through a brief school-day program. To our knowledge, this is one of the largest developing country trials of a resilience-based school-day curriculum for adolescents.

  10. Level of religiosity and disordered eating psychopathology among modern-orthodox Jewish adolescent girls in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzer, Yael; Orna, Tzischinsky; Gefen, Shira

    2007-01-01

    To examine the relation between level of religiosity, grade level, self-esteem, and level of disordered eating-related psychopathology among Modem Orthodox Jewish adolescent girls in Israel. The sample consisted of 320 Jewish religious adolescent schoolgirls in the 9th to 12th grades of middle and high schools. The girls completed the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and the religious questionnaire based on Guttman's instrument. The more religious the student, the less eating-related psychopathology was found. The youngest students (grade 9) were found to be the least religious and to have the highest eating-related psychopathology. The results are discussed in terms of the possibility that level of religiosity might to some extent protect adolescent girls against developing body dissatisfaction and disordered eating pathology. A high level of religiosity is associated with less emphasis on the physical attractiveness of women and less pressure for their success and achievement outside the home.

  11. Family and Friend Influence on Urban-Dwelling American Indian Adolescent Girl's Sexual Risk Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saftner, Melissa A

    2016-09-01

    Previous research with American Indian (AI) adolescent sexual risk behavior primarily focused on reservation-dwelling youth despite 70% of AIs living off Native lands. Using grounded theory methodology, I sampled 20 adolescent AI girls via talking circles and interviews to explore the perceptions of AI adolescent girls living in an urban, Midwest area about the influence of family and friends on their sexual behavior. Similar to research with other racial groups, participants cited their family and friends as a major influence. Five unique themes emerged related to family and friend influence. Urban-dwelling AI girls rely on their female family members and peers for information related to sex and receive varying messages from their networks of family and friends, which often overlap. AI youth have unique family groups yet have some similarities to other ethnic groups with regard to family and friend relationships that may allow for enhanced intervention development. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Using Facebook ads with traditional paper mailings to recruit adolescent girls for a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Traci; Hopkins, Jessica; Schinke, Steven P; Liu, Xiang

    2017-02-01

    Clinical trials require sufficient samples recruited within limited time and budget constraints. Trials with minors are additionally burdened by the requirement for youth assent and parental permission. This paper details the use of Facebook ads and traditional paper mailings to enroll 797 adolescent girls for a longitudinal, web-based, drug abuse prevention trial. Data on sample representativeness and retention are also provided. Facebook ads appeared on the pages of females aged 13 or 14years who reside in the U.S. Ads linked girls to a recruitment website. Girls who wanted more information submitted contact information and were mailed information packets to their homes containing, among other things, youth assent and parent permission forms. Returned forms were verified for accuracy and validity. The Facebook ad campaign reached 2,267,848 girls and had a unique click-through rate of 3.0%. The campaign cost $41,202.37 with an average cost of $51.70 per enrolled girl. Information packets were mailed to 1,873 girls. Approximately one-half of girls returned the forms, and 797 girls were enrolled. The Facebook campaign's success varied by ad type, month, and day of the week. Baseline data revealed comparability to national data on demographic and substance use variables. Results suggest that Facebook ads provide a useful initial point of access to unparalleled numbers of adolescents. Clinical trials may benefit from a two-fold recruitment strategy that uses online ads to attract interested adolescents followed by traditional recruitment methods to communicate detailed information to adolescents and parents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of obstetric and gynecological surgeries among adolescent girls: lessons for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Kalra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health of adolescent girls is a priority. Any operative surgery affects her physical and psychological health adversely. Aim: The study was done to analyze the operative burden on adolescent girls and identify the health needs of adolescent girls at our institute. Methods: A cross sectional study was done from May 2010 till Aug 2013. All adolescent girls (19 years age and below operated during this period at department of obstetrics and gynaecology, People's college of medical science and RC, Bhopal were included. Results: The operations were done on 54 adolescent girls during this period which was 1.37% of the total surgeries. Age wise distribution was as 50% were of 19 years age, 37% were 18 years, 7.4% were of 17 years and 5.5% were 16 years and below. 41% of them were admitted with labour complaints, 26% cases as abortions, 13% cases with pain in abdomen. 11% of cases had cyclical pain with primary amenorrhoea 5% were admitted with Primary amenorrhoea, 4% had complaints of perineum pain. Maximum surgeries for obstetrical indications were caesarean sections (41% cases followed by suction evacuation for abortion(26%. Among gynecological surgeries, maximum were done for imperforate hymen and partial vaginal septum (11% casesexploratory laparotomy for benign ovarian masses (9.25% cases. Diagnostic laparoscopy for primary amenorrhea was done (5.5% cases and operative laparoscopy (3.7% cases. 1.85% cases each were of pelvic abscess and bartholin cyst where I and D and marsupialization were done respectively. Conclusions: Obstetric operative burden on adolescent girls was very high. 67% of obstetric related surgeries can be prevented by educating and encouraging them to delay the onset of sexual activity and also by providing health related and contraceptive advices in schools and community settings. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(2.000: 355-359

  14. On Their Own and in Their Own Words: Bolivian Adolescent Girls' Empowerment through Non-Governmental Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Christine

    2011-01-01

    In recognition of the profound benefits of children's engagement with their rights, this article presents an experiential account of how Bolivian adolescent indigenous girls discover, articulate, experience, and advocate human rights. This study explores adolescent girls' demonstrations of empowerment, agency, resistance, and solidarity as part of…

  15. On Their Own and in Their Own Words: Bolivian Adolescent Girls' Empowerment through Non-Governmental Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Christine

    2011-01-01

    In recognition of the profound benefits of children's engagement with their rights, this article presents an experiential account of how Bolivian adolescent indigenous girls discover, articulate, experience, and advocate human rights. This study explores adolescent girls' demonstrations of empowerment, agency, resistance, and solidarity as part of…

  16. Testing Social-Cognitive Theory to Explain Physical Activity Change in Adolescent Girls from Low-Income Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Deborah L.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Morgan, Philip J.; Okely, Anthony D.; Costigan, Sarah A.; Lubans, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesized structural paths in Bandura's social-cognitive theory (SCT) model on adolescent girls' physical activity following a 12-month physical activity and dietary intervention to prevent obesity. Method: We conducted a 12-month follow-up study of 235 adolescent girls ("M[subscript…

  17. The Selection and Prevalence of Natural and Fortified Calcium Food Sources in the Diets of Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Karen; Watson, Patrice; Lappe, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of calcium-fortified food and dairy food on selected nutrient intakes in the diets of adolescent girls. Design: Randomized controlled trial, secondary analysis. Setting and Participants: Adolescent girls (n = 149) from a midwestern metropolitan area participated in randomized controlled trials of bone physiology…

  18. Focus Group Studies on Food Safety Knowledge, Perceptions, and Practices of School-Going Adolescent Girls in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaravarapu, Subba Rao M.; Vemula, Sudershan R.; Rao, Pratima; Mendu, Vishnu Vardhana Rao; Polasa, Kalpagam

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To understand food safety knowledge, perceptions, and practices of adolescent girls. Design: Focus group discussions (FGDs) with 32 groups selected using stratified random sampling. Setting: Four South Indian states. Participants: Adolescent girls (10-19 years). Phenomena of Interest: Food safety knowledge, perceptions, and practices.…

  19. Focus Group Studies on Food Safety Knowledge, Perceptions, and Practices of School-Going Adolescent Girls in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaravarapu, Subba Rao M.; Vemula, Sudershan R.; Rao, Pratima; Mendu, Vishnu Vardhana Rao; Polasa, Kalpagam

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To understand food safety knowledge, perceptions, and practices of adolescent girls. Design: Focus group discussions (FGDs) with 32 groups selected using stratified random sampling. Setting: Four South Indian states. Participants: Adolescent girls (10-19 years). Phenomena of Interest: Food safety knowledge, perceptions, and practices.…

  20. Factors related to obesity and overweight among Black adolescent girls in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Megan R; Bennett, Gary G; Brandon, Debra H

    2017-02-01

    In the United States, Black adolescents have the highest prevalence of pediatric obesity and overweight among girls. While Black girls are disproportionately affected, the reasons for this health disparity remain unclear. The authors conducted a systematic review to investigate the factors related to obesity and overweight among Black adolescent girls. The authors searched four databases for relevant English-language publications using all publication years through 2015. Fifty-one studies met the inclusion criteria and were used for this review. Using a configuration approach to synthesis, three categories were identified, paralleling the bioecological theory of human development: (1) individual, (2) interpersonal, and (3) community and societal factors. A description of each factor's association with obesity among Black adolescent girls is presented. From this review, the authors identified a diverse and vast set of individual, interpersonal, and community and societal factors explored for their relationship with obesity and overweight. Given the insufficient repetition and limited significant findings among most factors, the authors believe that multiple gaps in knowledge exist across all categories regarding the factors related to obesity and overweight among Black adolescent girls. To improve the quality of research in this area, suggested research directions and methodological recommendations are provided.

  1. Exploring Maternal Health Care-Seeking Behavior of Married Adolescent Girls in Bangladesh: A Social-Ecological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabuddin, Asm; Nöstlinger, Christiana; Delvaux, Thérèse; Sarker, Malabika; Delamou, Alexandre; Bardají, Azucena; Broerse, Jacqueline E W; De Brouwere, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    The huge proportion of child marriage contributes to high rates of pregnancies among adolescent girls in Bangladesh. Despite substantial progress in reducing maternal mortality in the last two decades, the rate of adolescent pregnancy remains high. The use of skilled maternal health services is still low in Bangladesh. Several quantitative studies described the use of skilled maternal health services among adolescent girls. So far, very little qualitative evidence exists about attitudes and practices related to maternal health. To fill this gap, we aimed at exploring maternal health care-seeking behavior of adolescent girls and their experiences related to pregnancy and delivery in Bangladesh. A prospective qualitative study was conducted among thirty married adolescent girls from three Upazilas (sub-districts) of Rangpur district. They were interviewed in two subsequent phases (2014 and 2015). To triangulate and validate the data collected from these married adolescent girls, key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with different stakeholders. Data analysis was guided by the Social-Ecological Model (SEM) including four levels of factors (individual, interpersonal and family, community and social, and organizational and health systems level) which influenced the maternal health care-seeking behavior of adolescent girls. While adolescent girls showed little decision making-autonomy, interpersonal and family level factors played an important role in their use of skilled maternal health services. In addition, community and social factors and as well as organizational and health systems factors shaped adolescent girls' maternal health care-seeking behavior. In order to improve the maternal health of adolescent girls, all four levels of factors of SEM should be taken into account while developing health interventions targeting adolescent girls.

  2. Brain Structure Abnormalities in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Graeme; Hagan, Cindy C.; Walsh, Nicholas D.; Passamonti, Luca; Calder, Andrew J.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Conduct disorder (CD) in female adolescents is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including teenage pregnancy and antisocial personality disorder. Although recent studies have documented changes in brain structure and function in male adolescents with CD, there have been no neuroimaging studies of female adolescents with CD.…

  3. Brain Structure Abnormalities in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Graeme; Hagan, Cindy C.; Walsh, Nicholas D.; Passamonti, Luca; Calder, Andrew J.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Conduct disorder (CD) in female adolescents is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including teenage pregnancy and antisocial personality disorder. Although recent studies have documented changes in brain structure and function in male adolescents with CD, there have been no neuroimaging studies of female adolescents with CD.…

  4. Subclinical vitamin D deficiency is increased in adolescent girls who wear concealing clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatun, Sukru; Islam, Omer; Cizmecioglu, Filiz; Kara, Bulent; Babaoglu, Kadir; Berk, Fatma; Gökalp, Ayse Sevim

    2005-02-01

    Vitamin D deficiency continues to be a worldwide problem, especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to investigate potential risk factors for vitamin D deficiency. Girls (n = 89) aged 13 to 17 y were enrolled in the study. Study subjects were stratified into 3 groups: Group I included girls living in a suburban area; Group II girls lived in an urban area, and Group III girls lived in an urban area and wore concealing clothes for religious reasons. At the end of winter (in April) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were measured and dietary data were collected using questionnaires. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum 25(OH)D concentration dress code; therefore, vitamin D supplementation appears to be necessary for adolescent girls.

  5. Urban adolescent girls' perspectives on romantic relationships: initiation, involvement, negotiation, and conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Ellen M; Morales-Alemán, Mercedes M; Teitelman, Anne M

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe romantic relationships from the perspective of urban, adolescent girls, to address gaps in our understanding of their relationship dimensions. Minority adolescent girls (n  =  17) participated in private semi-structured interviews aimed to elicit the understanding of the adolescents' perspectives on their own relationship experiences and dynamics. The research team conducted conventional content analysis of the interview transcripts. Four major themes emerged about romantic relationships: (1) influence of male pursuit and social norms on relationship initiation factors; (2) a romantic partner is a confidant, friend, and companion; (3) negotiating intimacy respectfully; and (4) relationship conflict through control and abuse. Adolescents described sub-themes of social norms of male pursuit and relationship pressures that dictated relationship initiation. Relationships were depicted by emotional support, caring, and companionship. Adolescents described positive negotiation skills. However, relationship conflict, including controlling behaviors and violence, was illustrated in these same relationships. This study provides a rich description of romantic relationships from the perspectives of urban, adolescent girls. Most salient findings included social pressures and a combination of both positive and negative attributes. Implications include the need for intervention development at the community level to address social pressures, recognition of positive adolescent relationship attributes, and facilitation of skills to identify and address low-quality relationship characteristics.

  6. Linkages between childhood executive functioning and adolescent social functioning and psychopathology in girls with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinsky, Jenna R; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2011-01-01

    We followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of preadolescent girls with ADHD (n = 140) and matched comparison girls (n = 88) over a period of 5 years, from middle childhood through early/midadolescence, with the aim of determining whether childhood levels of executive function (EF) would predict adolescent multi-informant outcomes of social functioning and psychopathology, including comorbidity between externalizing and internalizing symptomatology. Predictors were well-established measures of planning, response inhibition, and working memory, along with a control measure of fine motor control. Independent of ADHD versus comparison group status, (a) childhood planning and response inhibition predicted adolescent social functioning and (b) childhood planning predicted comorbid internalizing/externalizing disorders in adolescence. Subgroup status (ADHD-Combined, ADHD-Inattentive, and comparison) moderated the relationship between childhood planning and adolescent internalizing/externalizing comorbidity, with the combined type revealing particularly strong associations between baseline planning and adolescent comorbidity. Mediation analyses indicated that adolescent social functioning mediated the prediction from childhood EF to comorbidity at follow-up; in turn, in the girls with ADHD, adolescent comorbidity mediated the prediction from childhood EF to social functioning at follow-up. We conclude that childhood interventions should target EF impairments in addition to behavioral symptoms.

  7. Underage drinking among young adolescent girls: the role of family processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lin; Schinke, Steven P; Cole, Kristin C

    2009-12-01

    Guided by family interaction theory, this study examined the influences of psychological, peer, and familial processes on alcohol use among young adolescent girls and assessed the contributions of familial factors. An ethnically diverse sample of 1,187 pairs of girls (M age = 12.83 years), and their mothers completed surveys online. Questionnaires assessed girls' lifetime and recent alcohol use, as well as girls' demographic, psychological, peer, and family characteristics. Hierarchical logistic regression models showed that although girls' drinking was associated with a number of psychological and peer factors, the contributions of family domain variables to girls' drinking were above and beyond that of psychological and peer factors. The interaction analyses further highlighted that having family rules, high family involvement, and greater family communication may offset risks in psychological and peer domains. Study findings underscore the multifaceted etiology of drinking among young adolescent girls and assert the crucial roles of familial processes. Prevention programs should be integrative, target processes at multiple domains, and include work with parents.

  8. Early-life Determinants of Stunted Adolescent Girls and Boys in Matlab, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Alinda M.; Baqui, Abdullah H.; van Ginneken, Jeroen K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a longitudinal study, conducted in Matlab, Bangladesh, that examined to what extent the level of stunting in adolescence can be predicted by nutritional status in early childhood and maternal height. A linked set of data collected from the same individuals at two moments in time, i.e. early childhood (1988–1989) and adolescence (2001), was analyzed. The study found that the odds of being stunted in adolescence could be explained by the combined effect of being stunted in childhood and having a mother whose height was less than 145 cm. Also, girls were more likely than boys to be stunted in childhood, whereas boys were more likely than girls to be stunted in adolescence. The latter is probably attributable to differences in the pace of maturation. In terms of policy and (reproductive health) programmes, it is important to recall that adolescent girls whose height and weight were subnormal (weight <45 kg and height <145 cm) might run an obstetric risk. Following these cut-off points, 83% and 23% of 16-year-old girls in this study would face obstetric risk, respectively, for weight and height if they marry and become pregnant soon. PMID:18686552

  9. ‘‘I feel free’’: Experiences of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems

    OpenAIRE

    Duberg, Anna; Möller, Margareta; Sunvinsson, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent girls today suffer from internalizing problems such as somatic symptoms and mental health problems at higher rates compared to those of previous decades, and effective interventions are warranted. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of participating in an 8-month dance intervention. This qualitative study was embedded in a randomized controlled trial of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems. A total of 112 girls aged 13–18 were inclu...

  10. PSYCHOSOCIAL RISK STATUS OF RURAL ADOLESCENT GIRLS USING ‘HEEADSSS’ APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Adolescents constitute about 22 per cent of India's population. This huge section of population represents a great 'demographic dividend' and offers a dependable potential to drive and sustain economic growth that India has experienced in last few years. Adolescents are generally considered healthy by themselves, their families, even healthcare providers and society at large. Yet they are known to suffer significant morbidity caused by risk taking behaviour and inadequate access to health care. OBJECTIVES  To study the demographic profile of the adolescent girls living in rural areas.  To study the psychosocial risk profile of the adolescent girls using the ‘HEEADSSS’ approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in Chinakakani village, the Rural Field Practice Area of NRI Medical College, Guntur for six months from February to July 2015. A total of 191 sample was selected by systematic random sampling method after listing out the adolescent girls residing in the study village. The pre- designed, pre-tested semi- structured schedule was administered to the respondents by interview method. WHO ‘HEEADSSS’ questionnaire is made appropriate and suitable to the rural areas consisting of eight components namely, Home and Environment, Education and Employment, Eating habits, Activities, Drugs, Sexuality, Suicide and Depression and Safety. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS The data collected was analyzed using Microsoft Excel and EPI Info statistical package. The psychosocial risk of each adolescent was quantified using a 100 point scale developed by the Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. RESULTS Only 9.9% of the rural adolescent girls were found to be normal based upon the psychosocial ‘HEEADSSS’ risk score, 73.3% girls are having mild-to-moderate psychosocial risk, 13.6% and 3.1% were found with severe and very severe risk respectively. CONCLUSION Psychosocial risk

  11. An analysis of anger in adolescent girls who practice the martial arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfian, Sara; Ziaee, Vahid; Amini, Homayoun; Mansournia, Mohammad-Ali

    2011-01-01

    The effect of martial arts on adolescents' behavior, especially aggression, is controversial. The aim of this study was to assess and compare anger ratings among adolescent girl athletes of different martial arts. 291 female adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 were assessed according to the Adolescent Anger Rating Scale designed by DM Burney. In the case group, the martial arts practiced were either judo (n = 70) or karate (n = 66), while the control group was composed of swimmers (n = 59) and nonathletes (n = 96). Total anger scores showed statistically significant differences between the groups (P = 0.001) decreasing from girls who practiced judo to nonathletes, karate, and swimmers. Instrumental and reactive anger subscales also showed significant differences between the groups, but this difference was not found for anger control. As a conclusion, the anger rate did not differ between judoka and nonathletes, but that both of these groups received higher scores in total anger than karateka and swimmers.

  12. Personal values and sexual decision-making among virginal and sexually experienced urban adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradise, J E; Cote, J; Minsky, S; Lourenco, A; Howland, J

    2001-05-01

    To guide the development of an intervention to reduce the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in urban, adolescent girls, we investigated such girls' reasons for deciding to have or not to have sexual intercourse. Consecutive girls >or=14 years of age attending an urban adolescent clinic were invited to complete an anonymous survey about sexual decision-making. In this pilot study, girls were asked: (a) whether they agreed with a statement that they had or had not had sexual intercourse "because of my values and beliefs"; and (b) to select from a list one or more specific reasons why they had or had not had intercourse. The girls were categorized by self-report as either "virgins," "currently inactive" (no intercourse in the preceding 3 months), or "currently active" (had intercourse during the preceding 3 months). Usable surveys were obtained from 197 adolescents whose age (18.2 +/- 2.6 years) and race (69% black) were comparable to those of clinic attendees in general. Forty girls (20%; age 16.1 +/- 2.1 years) were virgins, 25 girls (13%; age 17.8 +/- 2.3 years) were inactive, and 132 girls (67%; age 18.9 +/- 2.5 years) were currently active. "Values and beliefs" were cited as the reason for decisions about sexual behavior by 53% of the virgins, but only by 24% of the sexually inactive and 24% of the sexually active girls (p = .002). Virgins were more likely than inactive girls to cite three specific reasons for not having sex: "not the right thing for me now" (82% vs. 50%, p = .007), "waiting until I am older" (69% vs. 8%, p = .001), and "waiting until I am married" (67% vs. 38%, p = .02). The reason "against my religious beliefs" was cited by 23% of virgins and 13% of inactive girls (p = not significant). Personal values were implicit in the two specific reasons for having sex that active girls chose most frequently, namely, "I like/love the person" (86%) and "I like having sex" (37%), although only 24% of these girls had explicitly cited "values

  13. Familial correlates of adolescent girls' physical activity, television use, dietary intake, weight, and body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Peter J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family environment offers several opportunities through which to improve adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors. This study aims to examine the cross-sectional relationships between multiple factors in the family environment and physical activity (PA, television use (TV, soft drink intake, fruit and vegetable (FV intake, body mass index (BMI, and body composition among a sample of sociodemographically-diverse adolescent girls. Methods Subjects included girls (mean age = 15.7, 71% of whom identified as a racial/ethnic minority, and one of their parents (dyad n = 253. Parents completed surveys assessing factors in the family environment including familial support for adolescents' PA, healthful dietary intake, and limiting TV use; parental modeling of behavior; and resources in the home such as availability of healthful food. Girls' PA and TV use were measured by 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR and dietary intake by survey measures. BMI was measured by study staff, and body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Hierarchical linear regression models tested individual and mutually-adjusted relationships between family environment factors and girls' outcomes. Results In the individual models, positive associations were observed between family support for PA and girls' total PA (p = .011 and moderate-to-vigorous PA (p=.016, home food availability and girls' soft drink (p Conclusions Helping parents improve their physical activity and dietary intake, as well as reduce time watching television, may be an effective way to promote healthful behaviors and weight among adolescent girls.

  14. Heterosocial Involvement, Peer Pressure for Thinness, and Body Dissatisfaction among Young Adolescent Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Gondoli, Dawn M.; Corning, Alexandra F.; Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H.; Bucchianeri, Michaela M.; Fitzsimmons, Ellen E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinal connections among young adolescent heterosocial involvement (i.e., mixed-sex interactions), peer pressure for thinness, and body dissatisfaction. Three years of self-report questionnaire data were collected from 88 adolescent girls as they completed 6th through 8th grades. Results indicated that the relation between heterosocial involvement and body dissatisfaction was mediated by perceived peer pressure for thinness. Within this model, he...

  15. Adolescent Girls and Their Mothers Talk About Experiences of Binge and Loss of Control Eating

    OpenAIRE

    Palmberg, Allison A.; Stern, Marilyn; Kelly, Nichole R.; Bulik, Cynthia; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Trapp, Stephen K.; Hofmeier, Sara M.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that adolescents’ experience of binge eating (BE) might differ in important ways from that of adults. Moreover, although BE appears more common in African American women than other disordered eating behaviors, little is known about the influence of cultural factors on this behavior in adolescents. The current investigation used qualitative methodology to examine the perceptions of White and African American adolescent girls and their mothers regarding experiences of binge an...

  16. Exploring Maternal Health Care-Seeking Behavior of Married Adolescent Girls in Bangladesh: A Social-Ecological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabuddin, Asm; Nöstlinger, Christiana; Delvaux, Thérèse; Sarker, Malabika; Delamou, Alexandre; Bardají, Azucena; Broerse, Jacqueline E. W.; De Brouwere, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Background The huge proportion of child marriage contributes to high rates of pregnancies among adolescent girls in Bangladesh. Despite substantial progress in reducing maternal mortality in the last two decades, the rate of adolescent pregnancy remains high. The use of skilled maternal health services is still low in Bangladesh. Several quantitative studies described the use of skilled maternal health services among adolescent girls. So far, very little qualitative evidence exists about attitudes and practices related to maternal health. To fill this gap, we aimed at exploring maternal health care-seeking behavior of adolescent girls and their experiences related to pregnancy and delivery in Bangladesh. Methods and Findings A prospective qualitative study was conducted among thirty married adolescent girls from three Upazilas (sub-districts) of Rangpur district. They were interviewed in two subsequent phases (2014 and 2015). To triangulate and validate the data collected from these married adolescent girls, key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with different stakeholders. Data analysis was guided by the Social-Ecological Model (SEM) including four levels of factors (individual, interpersonal and family, community and social, and organizational and health systems level) which influenced the maternal health care-seeking behavior of adolescent girls. While adolescent girls showed little decision making-autonomy, interpersonal and family level factors played an important role in their use of skilled maternal health services. In addition, community and social factors and as well as organizational and health systems factors shaped adolescent girls’ maternal health care-seeking behavior. Conclusions In order to improve the maternal health of adolescent girls, all four levels of factors of SEM should be taken into account while developing health interventions targeting adolescent girls. PMID:28095432

  17. The relationship between mother's parenting style and social adaptability of adolescent girls in Isfahan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Solokian, Soheila; Ashouri, Elaheh; Marofi, Maryam

    2012-02-01

    Social adaptability is an important requirement of the social life of adolescents, which can be affected by their mother's parenting style (PS). The purpose of this study is to compare the social adaptability in four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful) through which mothers interact with their adolescent girls. This survey is a cross-sectional and analytical study on 737 adolescents that study in the all girls junior high schools in Isfahan. Data collection was done with a questionnaire. The questionnaires were completed by the adolescents. After data collection, the parenting styles were determined and the social adaptability of the four groups was compared. The mean social adaptability in adolescents who their mothers have the authoritative parenting style was 49.6 ± 6.1, in the permissive parenting style 50.1 ± 5.8, the authoritarian parenting style 44.2 ± 6.5 and in the neglectful parenting style was 42.2 ± 7.5. The social adaptability of the four groups was significantly different (p parenting style and after that authoritative parenting style were followed by higher social adaptability in adolescent girls.

  18. Barriers to access reproductive health care for pregnant adolescent girls: a qualitative study in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokororo, Adolfine; Kihunrwa, Albert F; Kalluvya, Samuel; Changalucha, John; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Downs, Jennifer A

    2015-12-01

    In Tanzania, approximately 25% of adolescents give birth and 50% more become sexually active during adolescence. We hypothesised that reproductive health education and services for adolescent girls are inaccessible and conducted this study to gain insights into their perceptions of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and barriers to reproductive health service utilisation in rural Mwanza, Tanzania. We conducted nine focus groups among pregnant adolescents aged 15-20 years. Data were transcribed, translated and coded for relevant themes using NVivo10 software for qualitative data analysis. Most participants were aware of the dangers of STIs to themselves and their unborn babies, but did not perceive themselves as at risk of acquiring STIs. They viewed condoms as ineffective for preventing STIs and pregnancies and unnecessary for those in committed relationships. Stigma, long waiting times, and lack of privacy in the clinics discouraged adolescent girls from seeking reproductive health care. Reproductive health care for adolescent girls who are not pregnant is practically nonexistent in Tanzania. Healthcare access for pregnant young women is also limited. Targeted changes to increase clinic accessibility and to provide reproductive health education to all rather than only pregnant women have the potential to address these gaps. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Nutritional Status of Adolescent School Girls in a Rural Area in Sri Lanka; Anthropometric Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.N.T. Adikari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is the transition period between childhood and adulthood in where rapid physical, mental, emotional and social development takes place. Adolescence females are at greatest risk for nutrient deficiency and it badly affects to their education and physical development. Nutritional status of female adolescents is important not only for their growth and development, but also for future pregnancies. The objective of this study was assessing the nutritional status of adolescent school girls in a rural area, located in North Western Province in Sri Lanka by using anthropometric measurements. A total number of 110 adolescent school girls, age range of 13 to 15 years, studied schools in Pannala sub-zonal education division were randomly selected after briefly explained the purpose of the study and getting a written consent from their parents. Anthropometric measurements were measured. Epi info version 3.4 was used to generate Z scores and percentiles for weight for age, height for age and Body Mass Index (BMI for age. According to WHO cut off subjects were categorized in to underweight, stunting, overweight and obese. In the study sample 20.7%, 19.8% 19.1%, 9.1%, 0.9% and 52.7% were underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight, obese and normal nutritional status, respectively. Since 46 % of the studied subjects were under-nutritional status appropriate intervention should be directed towards adolescent school girls to improve their nutritional status and education for healthy diets.

  20. Depressed affect and dietary restraint in adolescent boys' and girls' eating in the absence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Nichole R; Shomaker, Lauren B; Pickworth, Courtney K; Grygorenko, Mariya V; Radin, Rachel M; Vannucci, Anna; Shank, Lisa M; Brady, Sheila M; Courville, Amber B; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-08-01

    Data suggest that depressed affect and dietary restraint are related to disinhibited eating patterns in children and adults. Yet, experimental research has not determined to what extent depressed affect acutely affects eating in the absence of physiological hunger (EAH) in adolescents. In the current between-subjects experimental study, we measured EAH in 182 adolescent (13-17 y) girls (65%) and boys as ad libitum palatable snack food intake after youth ate to satiety from a buffet meal. Just prior to EAH, participants were randomly assigned to view either a sad or neutral film clip. Dietary restraint was measured with the Eating Disorder Examination. Adolescents who viewed the sad film clip reported small but significant increases in state depressed affect relative to adolescents who viewed the neutral film clip (p < .001). Yet, there was no main effect of film condition on EAH (p = .26). Instead, dietary restraint predicted greater EAH among girls, but not boys (p < .001). These findings provide evidence that adolescent girls' propensity to report restrained eating is associated with their greater disinhibited eating in the laboratory. Additional experimental research, perhaps utilizing a more potent laboratory stressor and manipulating both affective state and dietary restraint, is required to elucidate how state affect may interact with dietary restraint to influence EAH during adolescence.

  1. Perceptions of sexual assertiveness among adolescent girls: initiation, refusal, and use of protective behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auslander, Beth A; Perfect, Michelle M; Succop, Paul A; Rosenthal, Susan L

    2007-06-01

    We describe adolescent girls' perceptions of sexual assertiveness and examine the relationship of these perceptions with developmental and interpersonal variables. Cross-sectional analysis. Participants were recruited from a school-based health clinic and local colleges, and through snowballing to participate in a 6-month study examining microbicide acceptability. 106 sexually experienced girls (ages 14 through 21 years). Girls described their demographics, sexual history, and romantic relationships and completed the Sexual Assertiveness Scale for Women (SAS-W), which assesses perceptions of sexual assertiveness: Initiation of Sex, Refusal of Unwanted Sex, and Pregnancy-STD Prevention. Girls perceived themselves as asserting themselves between 50% and 75% of the time with their current or most recent partner. The Initiation subscale was not related to the other two subscales. In final models, girls with a prior pregnancy perceived themselves as initiating sex more than girls without a prior pregnancy. Having a greater number of lifetime partners was related to perceptions of less refusal, whereas greater number of partners, being sexually experienced longer, and engaging in more unprotected sex were related to perceptions of less implementation of preventive methods. None of the relationship variables were related to scores on any subscale. Most of these girls perceived themselves as sexually assertive. Given that sexual experience, not relationship factors, were related to perceptions of sexual assertiveness, the design of counseling messages should incorporate sexual experience. These messages should find effective ways to help girls both to communicate their sexual desires and to enhance their ability to protect themselves.

  2. Sedentary Activity and Body Composition of Middle School Girls: The Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Charlotte; Webber, Larry S.; Baggett, Chris D.; Ward, Dianne; Pate, Russell R.; Murray, David; Lohman, Timothy; Lytle, Leslie; Elder, John P.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the relationships between sedentary activity and body composition in 1,458 sixth-grade girls from 36 middle schools across the United States. Multivariate associations between sedentary activity and body composition were examined with regression analyses using general linear mixed models. Mean age, body mass index, and…

  3. Menstruation and menstrual hygiene amongst adolescent school girls in Kano, Northwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawan, U M; Yusuf, Nafisa Wali; Musa, Aisha Bala

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the knowledge and practices of adolescent school girls in Kano, Nigeria around menstruation and menstrual hygiene. Data was collected quantitatively and analyzed using Epi info version 3.2.05. The mean age of the students was 14.4 +/- 1.2 years; majority was in their mid adolescence. The students attained menarche at 12.9 +/- 0.8 years. Majority had fair knowledge of menstruation, although deficient in specific knowledge areas. Most of them used sanitary pads as absorbent during their last menses; changed menstrual dressings about 1-5 times per day; and three-quarter increased the frequency of bathing. Institutionalizing sexuality education in Nigerian schools; developing and disseminating sensitive adolescent reproductive health massages targeted at both parents and their adolescent children; and improving access of the adolescents to youth friendly services are veritable means of meeting the adolescent reproductive health needs in Nigeria.

  4. Girls, identities and agency in adolescents' digital literacy practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassiliki Adampa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the ways girls use digital environments, like Word, PowerPoint and chatting programmes, for writing and communication purposes. By combining quantitative and qualitative methods of analysis and by adopting a critical discourse framework, we will explore the relationship between girls and new media, especially the ones related to digital writing, in terms of three interconnected variables. The first one is related to the role of the two most important socialisation institutions, home and school, at the present historical juncture, characterised by intense mobility and an expansion of traditional forms of literacy. The strategic choices of the girls' families and their schools' teaching practices contributed significantly to the formulation of their digital writing practices. The second variable is gender. Our data clearly show that a substantial number of girls were more inclined than their male peers to use word-processing and presentation software, performing, thus, the school discourses of 'diligent students'. The third key variable concerns the personality of the girls who filtered in their own unique ways their social experiences, overcame limitations, took initiatives and appropriated technologically-mediated writing media for personally meaningful ends that enhanced their school and/or entertainment Discourses.

  5. Girls' childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior predict adjustment problems in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Elsa; Blokland, Arjan A J; Hipwell, Alison E; Vermeiren, Robert R J M; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Loeber, Rolf

    2015-07-01

    It is widely recognized that early onset of disruptive behavior is linked to a variety of detrimental outcomes in males, later in life. In contrast, little is known about the association between girls' childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior and adjustment problems in early adolescence. This study used nine waves of data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study. A semiparametric group-based model was used to identify trajectories of disruptive behavior in 1,513 girls from age 6 to 12 years. Adjustment problems were characterized by depression, self-harm, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), substance use, interpersonal aggression, sexual behavior, affiliation with delinquent peers, and academic achievement at ages 13 and 14. Three trajectories of childhood disruptive behavior were identified: low, medium, and high. Girls in the high group were at increased risk for depression, self-harm, PTSD, illegal substance use, interpersonal aggression, early and risky sexual behavior, and lower academic achievement. The likelihood of multiple adjustment problems increased with trajectories reflecting higher levels of disruptive behavior. Girls following the high childhood trajectory of disruptive behavior require early intervention programs to prevent multiple, adverse outcomes in adolescence and further escalation in adulthood. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  6. Family mealtimes and eating psychopathology: the role of anxiety and depression among adolescent girls and boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Hannah J; Haycraft, Emma; Meyer, Caroline

    2014-04-01

    Characteristics of family mealtimes are associated with disordered eating behaviours. However, little is known about the relationships between characteristics of family mealtimes and disordered eating attitudes, or how symptoms of anxiety or depression may contribute to these relationships. This study therefore aimed to examine differences between adolescent girls and boys in the relationship between family mealtime characteristics and eating psychopathology, and to explore the influence of anxiety and depression on this relationship. Adolescents (N=535; 286 girls and 249 boys) aged 14-18years completed self-report measures of family mealtime characteristics, eating psychopathology, anxiety and depression. Reports of more frequent family mealtimes, a more positive mealtime atmosphere and a high level of priority placed on mealtimes were all associated with significantly lower levels of eating-disordered attitudes among girls only. For boys, all four mealtime measures (higher mealtime frequency, more positive mealtime atmosphere, greater priority of mealtimes and higher levels of mealtime structure) were associated with lower levels of depression. Among girls, several of the family mealtime and eating psychopathology relationships were partially or fully mediated by either anxiety or depression. While these findings require longitudinal replication, family mealtimes are likely to be important in promoting psychological well-being among both girls and boys. Families should be encouraged to think beyond the frequency of mealtimes and to foster a positive mealtime environment which may help to promote adolescent psychological wellbeing, and might even protect young females against the development of eating psychopathology.

  7. Fourteen is fourteen and a girl is a girl: validating the identity of adolescent bloggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinka, Lukas; Smahel, David

    2009-12-01

    This study focuses on the phenomenon of lying on adolescents' weblogs. The sample consisted of 113 completed surveys out of 120 in total. The age of participants ranged between 13 and 17 years old. Interviews were conducted with 10 randomly selected participants whose answers were then verified. The results suggest not only that adolescents present personal information such as their age, gender, and place of residence but that these pieces of information are presented truthfully. Generally, the level of dishonesty was low, with young adolescents tending to lie more often about their interests. Public topics (school and life) had the most truthful answers, whereas the least truthful answers concerned intimate topics (family life, partnership). These results suggest that adolescents' blogs serve as a place where the writers can both present themselves and communicate with their peers in a way that goes beyond a traditional diary.

  8. A Nutrition Education Intervention Trial for Adolescent Girls in Isfahan: Study Design and Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morvarid Ghasab Shirazi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNutrition behaviors of adolescent girls is of serious health concerns. Although nutrition education interventions in Iran have met with some success, most of them could not promote nutrition behavioral changes. The aim of our study is to determine a school-based nutrition education intervention to improve adolescents’ nutrition behaviors and behavioral mediators based on the social cognitive theory (SCT.Materials and MethodsThis study is a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Eligible participants will be all student girls in grade 6 and 7, their parents and teachers in Isfahan governmental schools. This multi com­ponent school-based intervention include adolescents’ nutrition education package, parents’ nutrition massages, participatory homework, parents and teachers nutrition education package, supportive group, and collaboration with decision makers. Changing in nutrition behaviors including breakfast, fruit and vegetable, snack and fast food consumption will be examined, as primary outcome. Secondary outcome will be behavioral mediators such as knowledge, self-efficacy, intention, situation, self-regulation, social support, outcome expectations and expectancies, in adolescent girls. The outcomes will be assessed at baseline, and after 3 and 6-month follow-up.DiscussionThis study evaluates a school-based, guided SCT intervention, designed to improve healthy dietary behaviors, nutrition knowledge of adolescent girls. Few behavioral interventions have targeted this high-risk population in Iran. The intervention seems to be promising and has the potential to bridge the gap of the limited program outcomes of nutrition education in Iranian adolescents.

  9. A Prospective Study of Extreme Weight Change Behaviors among Adolescent Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined changes in extreme weight change attitudes and behaviors (exercise dependence, food supplements, drive for thinness, bulimia) among adolescent boys and girls over a 16 month period. It also investigated the impact of body mass index, puberty, body image, depression and positive affect on these attitudes and behaviors 16 months…

  10. Factorial Validity and Invariance of a Self-Report Measure of Physical Activity among Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the factorial validity and factorial invariance of the 3-day physical activity recall (3DPAR) using confirmatory factor analysis. Adolescent girls from two cohorts (N=955, N=1,797) completed the 3DPAR in the eighth grade; participants in Cohort 2 (N=1,658) completed the 3DPAR again 1 year later in the ninth grade. The 3DPAR…

  11. Self-Motivation and Physical Activity among Black and White Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Felton, Gwen; Pate, Russell R.

    2003-01-01

    Established the psychometric properties of the Self-Motivation Inventory for Children (SMI-C) using tests of factorial validity, factorial invariance, latent mean structure, and predictive validity. Two cohorts of black and white adolescent girls completed the SMI-C and various physical activity measures. The single-factor, positively worded,…

  12. A study on premenstrual syndrome among adolescent girl students in an urban area of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Mandal

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: Proper medical care and psychological counselling should be sought earlier for increased blood flow during menstruation and dysmenorrhoea to get rid of PMS in adolescent girls. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1012-1015

  13. Psychological and Behavioral Risk Factors for Obesity Onset in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Shaw, Heather; Rohde, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Because little is known about risk factors for obesity, the authors tested whether certain psychological and behavioral variables predicted future onset of obesity. The authors used data from a prospective study of 496 adolescent girls who completed a baseline assessment at age 11-15 years and 4 annual follow-ups. Self-reported dietary restraint,…

  14. Empowering Adolescent Girls in Developing Countries: The Potential Role of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Graham, Erin; Lloyd, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a conceptual framework for how education can promote adolescent girls' empowerment and, by mapping the field, highlights promising examples of empowering education programs. We conclude by identifying both research and programmatic opportunities for the future that will harness the expertise of a range of specialists from the…

  15. Background, Personal, and Environmental Influences on the Career Planning of Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Alexandra; Fouad, Nadya A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of background variables (age, race/ethnicity, mother's work status outside of the home, and socioeconomic status), personal variables (anticipatory role conflict and academic self-efficacy), and environmental variables (parental attachment and parental support) on aspects of adolescent girls' career planning.…

  16. A Prospective Test of Cognitive Vulnerability Models of Depression with Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric; Burton, Emily; Fudell, Molly; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to provide a more rigorous prospective test of two cognitive vulnerability models of depression with longitudinal data from 496 adolescent girls. Results supported the cognitive vulnerability model in that stressors predicted future increases in depressive symptoms and onset of clinically significant major depression for…

  17. Emotion Awareness and Identification Skills in Adolescent Girls with Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Leslie; Zeman, Janice

    2004-01-01

    This study examined emotion-identification skills in 19 adolescent girls (M age = 16 years, 8 months) diagnosed with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV], American Psychiatric Association, 1994) diagnosis of bulimia nervosa or eating disorder not otherwise specified in the bulimic spectrum, 19 age-matched girls…

  18. Psychological and Behavioral Risk Factors for Obesity Onset in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Shaw, Heather; Rohde, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Because little is known about risk factors for obesity, the authors tested whether certain psychological and behavioral variables predicted future onset of obesity. The authors used data from a prospective study of 496 adolescent girls who completed a baseline assessment at age 11-15 years and 4 annual follow-ups. Self-reported dietary restraint,…

  19. Neuroticism, Life Events and Negative Thoughts in the Development of Depression in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kercher, Amy J.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Schniering, Carolyn A.

    2009-01-01

    Theories of depression suggest that cognitive and environmental factors may explain the relationship between personality and depression. This study tested such a model in early adolescence, incorporating neuroticism, stress-generation and negative automatic thoughts in the development of depressive symptoms. Participants (896 girls, mean age 12.3…

  20. Explaining Why Early-Maturing Girls Are More Exposed to Sexual Harassment in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Therése; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tested two competing explanations of the previously established link between early female puberty and sexual harassment in early adolescence. The sample included 680 seventh-grade Swedish girls (M[subscript age] = 13.40, SD = 0.53). Findings revealed that looking more sexually mature and being sexually active mediated the link…

  1. [Eating characteristics of Chilean indigenous and non-indigenous adolescent girls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araneda, Jacqueline; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    During childhood and adolescence, eating habits become established which are instrumental in determining eating behavior later in life. Various authors have described the acculturation of the Mapuche people toward Western culture. The objective of this study was to analyze the eating characteristics of indigenous and non-indigenous adolescent girls in the Araucania Region of Chile. A cross-sectional design was used with a probabilistic sample of 281 adolescents comprised of 139 indigenous and 142 non-indigenous girls attending 168 elementary schools. A modified food frequency questionnaire was applied, designed to obtain information about eating habits and consumption of Mapuche foods. The eating schedules are similar in both ethnic groups, with dinner being the meal that is least consumed. Total snack consumption per week has a mean of 7 with an interquartile range (IQR) of 5 to 10 without any differences between ethnic groups; of these snacks, only 2 were healthy (IQR = 1 to 3). The indigenous girls had a higher probability of consumption of native foods including mote (boiled wheat) (OR = 2.00; IC = 0.93-4.29), muday (fermented cereal alcohol) (OR = 3.45; IC = 1.90-6.27), and yuyo (field mustard) (OR = 4.40; IC = 2.06-9.39). The study's conclusion is that the the eating habits and behavior of indigenous adolescents are similar to those of non-indigenous girls, though the former still consume more indigenous foods.

  2. Longitudinal Association between Childhood Impulsivity and Bulimic Symptoms in African American Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodell, Lindsay P.; Joiner, Thomas E.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using a longitudinal design, the authors of this study examined the relationship between externalizing problems and impulsivity in early childhood and symptoms of disordered eating in late adolescence. Method: Participants were urban, African American first-grade girls (N = 119) and their parents who were participating in a longitudinal…

  3. Mothers, Peers, and Perceived Pressure to Diet among Japanese Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Takayo

    1996-01-01

    Compared impact of maternal influences and impact of peer influences on eating problems among Japanese adolescent girls. Found greater impact of peer interactions in grades 10 and 11, while maternal influence was stronger in grades 8 and 9. Measured participants' sensitivity to social evaluation and found no effects of grade in this area. (SD)

  4. Late Adolescent and Young Adult Outcomes of Girls Diagnosed with ADHD in Childhood: An Exploratory Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinski, Dara E.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Yu, Jihnhee; MacLean, Michael G.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Biswas, Aparajita; Robb, Jessica A.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the late adolescent and young adult outcomes of girls diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Method: The study included 58 women from a larger longitudinal study of ADHD. A total of 34 (M = 19.97 years old) met "DSM" criteria for ADHD in childhood, whereas the remaining 24 (M = 19.83 years old) did not. Self- and…

  5. Narratives of Adolescent Girls Journeying via Feminist Participatory Action Research through the Aftermath of Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Carolina S.; Hay, Johnnie

    2016-01-01

    This article documents the (often counter-normative) narrative journey of four South African adolescent girls whose biological parents had divorced--and one (or both) parent(s) remarried. Through purposive sampling within a qualitative research paradigm of feminist participatory action research, they were supported in group context by the primary…

  6. Background, Personal, and Environmental Influences on the Career Planning of Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Alexandra; Fouad, Nadya A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of background variables (age, race/ethnicity, mother's work status outside of the home, and socioeconomic status), personal variables (anticipatory role conflict and academic self-efficacy), and environmental variables (parental attachment and parental support) on aspects of adolescent girls' career planning.…

  7. Explaining Why Early-Maturing Girls Are More Exposed to Sexual Harassment in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Therése; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tested two competing explanations of the previously established link between early female puberty and sexual harassment in early adolescence. The sample included 680 seventh-grade Swedish girls (M[subscript age] = 13.40, SD = 0.53). Findings revealed that looking more sexually mature and being sexually active mediated the link…

  8. Study Habits and Academic Achievement of Kashmiri & Ladakhi Adolescent Girls: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, N. A.; Puja, Javeed Ahamd; Bhat, Shabir Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to study the Study Habits and Academic Achievement of Adolescents girls in Jammu and Kashmir. 400 sample subjects were selected randomly from two ethnic groups' viz. Kashmiri and Ladakhi. The investigators used Palsane & Sharma's study habits inventory (PSSHI) to collect data from the field. Certain statistical…

  9. Body Weight, Body Image, and Perception of Fad Diets in Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Nancy S.; Greene, Walter H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationships among adolescent girls' (N=203) satisfaction with body weight, body image, and perception/use of fad diets. Subjects wanting to lose weight were placed into two groups based on amount of weight-loss desired and compared in terms of body image scores, ratings of fad diets, and frequency of using the diets. (JN)

  10. Emotion Awareness and Identification Skills in Adolescent Girls with Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Leslie; Zeman, Janice

    2004-01-01

    This study examined emotion-identification skills in 19 adolescent girls (M age = 16 years, 8 months) diagnosed with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed. [DSM-IV], American Psychiatric Association, 1994) diagnosis of bulimia nervosa or eating disorder not otherwise specified in the bulimic spectrum, 19 age-matched girls…

  11. Socio-Demographic Aspects of Selected Menstrual Hygienic Practices among Adolescent School Girls in Pondicherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Vinodrao Boratne

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The place of residence has emerged as a significant factor for adolescent school girls to practice selected menstrual hygienic practices such as usage of sanitary pads during menstruation. [Natl J Community Med 2016; 7(6.000: 510-514

  12. The High Cost of "Girl Books" for Young Adolescent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson-Warnken, Megan

    2017-01-01

    "Boy books" are frequently promoted as a surefire way to increase reading motivation and engagement among young adolescent boys. This study challenges the "boy book"/"girl book" dichotomy, suggesting that particular book covers may discourage boys from reading novels they might otherwise enjoy. It also presents…

  13. Development of the metabolic syndrome in black and white adolescent girls : A longitudinal assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, JA; Friedman, LA; Harlan, WR; Harlan, LC; Barton, BA; Schreiber, GB; Klein, DJ

    2005-01-01

    Background. The metabolic syndrome, associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, begins to develop during adolescence. Objective. We sought to identify early predictors of the presence of the syndrome at the ages of 18 and 19 years in black and white girls.

  14. Africentric Cultural Values: Their Relation to Positive Mental Health in African American Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, Madonna G.; Alleyne, Vanessa L.; Wallace, Barbara C.; Franklin-Jackson, Deidre C.

    2006-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to test a path model exploring the relationships among Africentric cultural values, self-esteem, perceived social support satisfaction, and life satisfaction in a sample of 147 African American adolescent girls. This investigation also examined the possible mediating effects of self-esteem and perceived social…

  15. Psycho-Social Behaviour of Urban Indian Adolescent Girls during menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Manish Kumar; Kundan, Mittal

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence in females signifies the transition from girlhood to womanhood and is marked with the onset of menarche. Indian society is interwoven into a set of traditions, myths and misconceptions, especially regarding menstruation and related issues. The present study was conducted to assess knowledge and psycho-social behavior related to menstruation among adolescent girls in urban Haryana (state), India. A total of 478 adolescent girls in the age group of 15 -19 years from three educational institutes of Rohtak city were selected randomly. It was a community-based, descriptive, cross-sectional questionnaire based study, and a pre-tested, pre-coded, closed ended questionnaire was used. Feeling of sickness was the most common (in more than two-third of subjects) followed by irritability and emotional disturbances. More than 3/4(th) of the subjects did not worship during menstruation, 45% were not allowed in kitchen and nearly one-fourth followed dietary restrictions. More than 16% subjects thought menstruation to be a sign of onset of a disease and little more than 7 % thought it to be a curse. Girls preferred to discuss their menstruation related problems either with their mothers or with their friends. Girls have inaccurate and partial information regarding menstruation. There is a need of early intervention in the area of adolescent psycho-social behavior during menstruation.

  16. A Life History of a Korean Adolescent Girl Who Attempted Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sungeun

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores the life history of a South Korean adolescent girl who attempted suicide. The study focuses on how sociocultural values affected her suicide attempt and how she made meaning out of the experience. The results revealed that her life history was a process of seeking independence and autonomy, and freeing herself from…

  17. Girls' and boys' experience with teen sexting in early and late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševčíková, Anna

    2016-08-01

    This study explored the extent to which sexting represents a problematic behavior in early and late adolescence. Using data from the EU Kids Online II project (17,016 participants aged 11-16 from 25 European countries, 49.7% boys), multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for four groups: younger girls, older girls, younger boys, and older boys. Irrespective of age and gender, sexting was associated with emotional problems and alcohol use. Its effect decreased in older adolescents, except for emotional difficulties, which remained relatively high in older boys. Vaginal sex was associated with sexting in both younger and older boys while, in girls, the association was observed only in the older group. Younger boys with higher self-efficacy were more likely to send sexts than those with lower self-efficacy. Although sexting is associated with psychological challenges and other types of risk behavior, sexting in some younger boys may not necessarily represent problematic behavior.

  18. Facebook and body image concern in adolescent girls: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy

    2017-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to examine the relationship across time between Facebook use and body image concern in adolescent girls. A sample of 438 girls in the first two years (Years 8 and 9) of high school (aged 13-15 years) at Time 1 completed questionnaire measures of Facebook consumption and body image concerns, and again two years later (Time 2). Facebook involvement increased substantially over the two year time period. Body image concerns also increased. Number of Facebook friends was found to prospectively predict the observed increase in drive for thinness. On the other hand, internalization and body surveillance prospectively predicted the observed increase in number of Facebook friends. It was concluded that Facebook "friendships" represent a potent sociocultural force in the body image of adolescent girls. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:80-83). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Considerations for the definition, measurement, consequences, and prevention of dating violence victimization among adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Andra L; Ball, Barbara; Valle, Linda Anne; Noonan, Rita; Rosenbluth, Barri

    2009-07-01

    Violence experienced by adolescent girls from their dating partners poses considerable threat to their health and well-being. This report provides an overview of the prevalence and consequences of heterosexual teen dating violence and highlights the need for comprehensive prevention approaches to dating violence. We also discuss some considerations and future directions for the study and prevention of dating violence. We begin with a discussion of the definition of dating violence and also discuss measurement concerns and the need for evaluation of prevention strategies. Although women and men of all ages may be the victims or perpetrators, male-to-female dating violence experienced by adolescent girls is the main focus of this article. We incorporate research regarding girls' perpetration of dating violence where appropriate and as it relates to prevention.

  20. Latina and European American Girls' Experiences with Academic Sexism and their Self-Concepts in Mathematics and Science During Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Leaper, Campbell

    2010-12-01

    The study investigated Latina and European American adolescent girls' (N = 345, M = 15.2 years, range = 13 to 18) experiences with academic sexism in mathematics and science (M/S) and their M/S perceived competence and M/S value (liking and importance). M/S academic sexism was based on girls' reported experiences hearing sexist comments about girls' abilities in math and science. Older European American adolescents, and both younger and older Latina adolescents, who experienced several instances of academic sexism felt less competent in M/S than girls who experienced less sexism (controlling for M/S grades). In addition, among older girls (regardless of ethnicity), those who experienced several instances of academic sexism valued M/S less than girls who experienced less sexism.

  1. "I feel free": Experiences of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duberg, Anna; Möller, Margareta; Sunvisson, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent girls today suffer from internalizing problems such as somatic symptoms and mental health problems at higher rates compared to those of previous decades, and effective interventions are warranted. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of participating in an 8-month dance intervention. This qualitative study was embedded in a randomized controlled trial of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems. A total of 112 girls aged 13-18 were included in the study. The dance intervention group comprised 59 girls, 24 of whom were strategically chosen to be interviewed. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. The experiences of the dance intervention resulted in five generic categories: (1) An Oasis from Stress, which represents the fundamental basis of the intervention; (2) Supportive Togetherness, the setting; (3) Enjoyment and Empowerment, the immediate effect; (4) Finding Acceptance and Trust in Own Ability, the outcome; and (5) Dance as Emotional Expression, the use of the intervention. One main category emerged, Finding Embodied Self-Trust That Opens New Doors, which emphasizes the increased trust in the self and the ability to approach life with a sense of freedom and openness. The central understanding of the adolescent girls' experiences was that the dance intervention enriched and gave access to personal resources. With the non-judgmental atmosphere and supportive togetherness as a safe platform, the enjoyment and empowerment in dancing gave rise to acceptance, trust in ability, and emotional expression. Taken together, this increased self-trust and they discovered a new ability to "claim space." Findings from this study may provide practical information on designing future interventions for adolescent girls with internalizing problems.

  2. Nutritional status among adolescent girls in children's homes: Anthropometry and dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Tone; Magala-Nyago, Christine; Iversen, Per Ole

    2017-03-25

    Malnutrition is widespread among disadvantaged people in low-income countries like Uganda. Children and adolescents living in children's homes are considered an especially vulnerable group, and malnutrition among girls is of particular concern since it has intergenerational consequences. Virtually no information exists about the nutritional status of adolescent girls living in children's homes in Uganda. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the nutritional status by evaluating anthropometric indicators, body composition and dietary patterns. Forty-four girls aged 10-19 years living in five children's homes participated in addition to a reference group of 27 adolescent girls from three boarding schools; both in the Ugandan capital Kampala. Height and weight were measured to assess anthropometry. Body composition data was obtained by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Dietary intake was evaluated with a food frequency questionnaire, calculation of dietary diversity score, and a 24-h dietary recall. The adolescent girls living in children's homes suffered from stunting (18.6%), overweight or obesity (18.6%), and were at risk of insufficient intakes of multiple micronutrients, especially of vitamins A, B12, C, D, E and calcium. They also had a low intake of essential fatty acids. Dietary diversity was low with a median score of 3 out of 9 food groups. Animal products were rarely consumed. The majority of girls in children's homes consumed a less adequate diet compared to the reference group, thus being at risk of nutrient deficiency-related disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  3. Adolescent girls' most common source of junk food away from home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah A; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Beckman, Robin; Lytle, Leslie; Elder, John; Pereira, Mark A; Veblen Mortenson, Sara; Pickrel, Julie; Conway, Terry L

    2012-09-01

    Contextual factors associated with adolescent girls' dietary behaviors could inform future interventions to improve diet. High school girls completed a 7-day diary, recording all trips made. In places other than home or school they recorded the food eaten. Girls made an average of 11.4 trips per week other than to home or school. Snacks high in solid oils, fats and added sugars (SOFAS) were frequently consumed. Girls reported eating an average of 3.5 servings per week of snacks high in SOFAS at someone else's house compared to 3.0 servings per week at retail food outlets. Findings demonstrate that low nutrient foods are ubiquitous and efforts should be made to reduce their availability in multiple settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevention of HIV in Adolescent Girls and Young Women: Key to an AIDS-Free Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Baxter, Cheryl; Birx, Deborah

    2017-05-01

    The Global Plan towards the elimination of new HIV infections among children by 2015 and keeping their mothers alive (Global Plan) has ensured that more infants in high-HIV burden countries survive childhood HIV-free. Although equal numbers of boy and girl children have survived to age 10, a gender divergence starts to emerge as they enter adolescence. Up to 3 times as many young women aged 15-24 years in eastern and southern Africa are living with HIV compared with their male peers. Further, more adolescent girls and young women are sick and/or dying from AIDS-related or HIV-related complications during pregnancy and in the postpartum period, underscoring the importance of strengthening HIV treatment and prevention services for this group. Failure to prevent HIV in adolescent girls and young women and keep them alive will reverse the infant HIV prevention and survival gains made under the Global Plan. The promising global declines in HIV infection in young women need to be strengthened to realize the goals of an AIDS-free generation. The DREAMS initiative of the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), which specifically addresses adolescent girls and young women at highest risk of HIV acquisition, brings new hope for meeting the prevention and care needs of this important and vulnerable population through political commitment, leadership, financial and human resource investments, advocacy efforts, and a focus on the highest priority settings. Importantly, to achieve the goal of keeping mothers alive, we have to place more emphasis on access to sexual and reproductive health services that (1) include HIV prevention and treatment services for adolescent girls and young women; (2) increase male/paternal responsibility in mother and infant health; and (3) ensure a supportive social environment that enables young women to grow up into young adults who are free to graduate from high school and plan their pregnancies, ultimately entering

  5. Social Anxiety, Depression and Self-Esteem in Obese Adolescent Girls with Acanthosis Nigricans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirgon, Özgür; Sandal, Gonca; Gökçen, Cem; Bilgin, Hüseyin; Dündar, Bumin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of acanthosis nigricans (AN) on depression symptoms, related quality of life and self-esteem scores in obese adolescent girls. Methods: Fifty-nine obese adolescent girls (mean age: 13.19±1.3 years, age range: 12-17 years, mean body mass index: 29.89±3.30) were enrolled in this study. The obese adolescent girls were divided into two groups based on presence or absence of AN. Non-obese healthy adolescents constituted the control group (30 girls, mean age: 13.5±1.4 years). All subjects were evaluated using the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAI-C), and the modified Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES). Higher scores indicated more severe depression and anxiety, as well as low self-esteem status. Results: The AN and non-AN obese groups showed significantly higher CDI, STAI-C and SES scores than the control group, and the two obese groups demonstrated no significant differences for these scores. The AN obese group with higher total testosterone levels (>50 ng/dL) had higher scores for SES (2.55±1.8 vs. 1.42±1.2; p=0.03) than the AN obese group with low total testosterone levels. SES scores significantly correlated with total testosterone levels (r=0.362; p=0.03) and fasting insulin (r=0.462; p=0.03) in the AN obese group. Conclusion: Higher SES scores (low self-esteem status) were determined in obese adolescents with acanthosis and were related to hyperandrogenism. This study also showed that a high testosterone level may be one of the important indicators of low self-esteem status in obese girls with AN. PMID:25800478

  6. The association between prepregnancy parental support and control and adolescent girls' pregnancy resolution decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong; Harville, Emily W

    2013-09-01

    To examine the influence of prepregnancy parental support and control on adolescent girls' pregnancy resolution decisions. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed. Girls whose first pregnancy reported in wave IV occurred after wave I and before age 20 were included (n = 1,107). Participants self-reported pregnancy disposition (abortion, ectopic or tubal pregnancy, miscarriage, stillbirth, live birth) for each pregnancy; responses were dichotomized as abortion versus other. Girls' perceptions of parental support and control were measured at wave I. Controls were included for wave I age, age at pregnancy, year at the end of pregnancy, race/ethnicity, and parent characteristics (i.e., education, religious affiliation, age at first marriage, and educational expectations). Weighted multivariable logistic regression models were performed. Approximately 18% of girls reporting a teen pregnancy reported having an abortion. In crude analyses, parental support was marginally negatively related to abortion (odds ratio [OR] = .83, p = .06) and parental control was significantly negatively related to abortion (OR = .78, p = .02). In multivariable analyses, higher parental control was significantly negatively related to abortion versus other pregnancy outcomes (adjusted OR .80, 95% confidence interval .66-.98). Perceived parental support was unassociated with pregnancy resolution decisions. The only other factor associated with abortion decisions was parent education: odds of choosing abortion versus other pregnancy outcomes were significantly higher for adolescent girls whose parents had a bachelor's degree or greater versus those with lower educational attainment. Pregnant adolescents with less educated parents or parents exercising greater control were less likely to have an abortion. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Social anxiety, depression and self-esteem in obese adolescent girls with acanthosis nigricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirgon, Özgür; Sandal, Gonca; Gökçen, Cem; Bilgin, Hüseyin; Dündar, Bumin

    2015-03-01

    To assess the impact of acanthosis nigricans (AN) on depression symptoms, related quality of life and self-esteem scores in obese adolescent girls. Fifty-nine obese adolescent girls (mean age: 13.19±1.3 years, age range: 12-17 years, mean body mass index: 29.89±3.30) were enrolled in this study. The obese adolescent girls were divided into two groups based on presence or absence of AN. Non-obese healthy adolescents constituted the control group (30 girls, mean age: 13.5±1.4 years). All subjects were evaluated using the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAI-C), and the modified Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES). Higher scores indicated more severe depression and anxiety, as well as low self-esteem status. The AN and non-AN obese groups showed significantly higher CDI, STAI-C and SES scores than the control group, and the two obese groups demonstrated no significant differences for these scores. The AN obese group with higher total testosterone levels (>50 ng/dL) had higher scores for SES (2.55±1.8 vs. 1.42±1.2; p=0.03) than the AN obese group with low total testosterone levels. SES scores significantly correlated with total testosterone levels (r=0.362; p=0.03) and fasting insulin (r=0.462; p=0.03) in the AN obese group. Higher SES scores (low self-esteem status) were determined in obese adolescents with acanthosis and were related to hyperandrogenism. This study also showed that a high testosterone level may be one of the important indicators of low self-esteem status in obese girls with AN.

  8. Giant Fibroadenoma of Breast in an Adolescent Girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithya Thuruthiyath

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A 12-year-old girl presented with a 15 × 15 cm, rapidly enlarging mass in left breast. Fine-needle aspiration cytology showed a benign proliferative breast lesion. Total excision of the mass was done preserving nipple and areola. Histopathology features were suggestive of giant fibroadenoma with benign phyllodes.

  9. Pubertal Timing and Adolescent Sexual Behavior in Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sarah R.; Harden, K. Paige; Mendle, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Girls who experience earlier pubertal timing relative to peers also exhibit earlier timing of sexual intercourse and more unstable sexual relationships. Although pubertal development initiates feelings of physical desire, the transition into romantic and sexual relationships involves complex biological and social processes contributing both to…

  10. Contextualising sexual harassment of adolescent girls in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahar, P.; van Reeuwijk, M.; Reis, R.

    2013-01-01

    Violence against women is a social mechanism confirming women's subordination in many societies. Sexual violence and harassment have various negative psychological impacts on girls, including a persistent feeling of insecurity and loss of self-esteem. This article aims to contextualize a particular

  11. Case Series: Outbreak of Conversion Disorder among Amish Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, Joslyn D.; Kirschke, David L.; Jones, Timothy F.; Craig, Allen S.; Bermudez, Ovidio B.; Schaffner, William

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Outbreak investigations are challenging in a cross-cultural context, and outbreaks of psychiatric disease are rare in any community. We investigated a cluster of unexplained debilitating illness among Amish girls. Method: We reviewed the medical records of cases, consulted with health care providers, performed active case finding,…

  12. Case Series: Outbreak of Conversion Disorder among Amish Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, Joslyn D.; Kirschke, David L.; Jones, Timothy F.; Craig, Allen S.; Bermudez, Ovidio B.; Schaffner, William

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Outbreak investigations are challenging in a cross-cultural context, and outbreaks of psychiatric disease are rare in any community. We investigated a cluster of unexplained debilitating illness among Amish girls. Method: We reviewed the medical records of cases, consulted with health care providers, performed active case finding,…

  13. Pregnancy and lactation hinder growth and nutritional status of adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Jee H; Christian, Parul; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Arju, Ummeh T; Labrique, Alain B; Rashid, Mahbubur

    2008-08-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is associated with adverse birth outcomes. Less is known about its influence on maternal growth and nutritional status. We determined how pregnancy and lactation during adolescence affects postmenarcheal linear and ponderal growth and body composition of 12-19 y olds in rural Bangladesh. In a prospective cohort study, anthropometric measurements were taken among primigravidae (n = 229) in the early first trimester of pregnancy and at 6 mo postpartum. Randomly selected never-pregnant adolescents (n = 458) of the same age and time since menarche were measured within 1 wk of these assessments. Annual changes in anthropometric measurements were compared between the 2 groups adjusting for confounders using mixed effects regression models. The mean +/- SD age and age at menarche of adolescents were 16.3 +/- 1.6 y and 12.7 +/- 1.2 y, respectively. Unlike pregnant girls who did not grow in height (-0.09 +/- 0.08 cm/y), never-pregnant girls increased in stature by 0.35 +/- 0.05 cm/y. The adjusted mean difference between the 2 groups was 0.43 +/- 0.1cm (P pregnancy occurred or =24 mo since menarche (BMI, -1.40 +/- 0.18 vs. -0.60 +/- 0.11 kg/m(2); all interaction terms, P Pregnancy and lactation during adolescence ceased linear growth and resulted in weight loss and depletion of fat and lean body mass of young girls.

  14. Determinants of utilization of antenatal care services among adolescent girls and young women in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendi, Ferry; Chen, Ching-Min; Kurniati, Anna; Berliana, Sarni Maniar

    2017-01-01

    Due to the high number of maternal deaths, provision of antenatal care services (ANC) in Indonesia is one of the key aims of the post-Millennium Development Goals agenda. This study aimed to assess the key factors determining use of ANC by adolescent girls and young women in Indonesia. Data from the Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2012 were used, with a focus on married adolescent girls (aged 15-19 years, n = 543) and young women (20-24 years, n = 2,916) who were mothers. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the factors associated with ANC use. The findings indicated that adolescents were less likely to make ANC visits than young women. Richer women were more likely to make four ANC visits in both groups compared to the poorer women. Living in urban areas, higher educational attainment, and lower birth order were also all associated with higher levels of receiving ANC among young women. The results showed that socio-economic factors were related to the use of ANC among adolescent girls and young women. Ongoing health-care interventions should thus put a priority on adolescent mothers coming from poor socio-economic backgrounds.

  15. A study on the menstruation of Korean adolescent girls in Seoul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Chul Lee

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Westernized eating habits have been associated with earlyage menstruation, which increases the incidence of dysmenorrhea and premenstrual syndrome among adolescent girls. We therefore surveyed changes in menarche timing and the general menstrual characteristics of adolescent girls in Seoul, Korea. Methods : We surveyed 538 teenage girls who visited our hospital between July and November 2007. Items explored included age at menarche, general menstrual characteristics, occurrence of premenstrual syndrome and treatment thereof, and an association between present dysmenorrhea and a family history of the condition. Results : Average age at menarche was 12.6 years, with 29% (n=156 subjects beginning menstruation at age 12 years. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was 82% (n=435. The main symptoms were abdominal (53.2% and lower back pain (34.2%, and 15.2% of girls who experienced such symptoms required medication. Present dysmenorrhea, and a family history thereof, were statistically correlated (P&lt;0.05. In addition, 58.8% (n=316 of teenage girls had symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. The most frequent psychological symptoms were fatigue (36.4% and nervousness (38.7%, whereas the most common physical symptom was menstrual cramps (46.5%. Most subjects (87.6% tolerated the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome without medication; 11.4% took medicines including painkillers; but only 0.1% of subjects visited a doctor. Conclusion : The average age at menarche in Korean girls was 12.6 years, thus younger than in the past. Most teenage girls experienced dysmenorrhea and premenstrual syndrome, but few consulted a doctor. Organized treatment plans are required to manage menstrual problems in teenage girls.

  16. Interpersonal problem areas and alexithymia in adolescent girls with loss of control eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sarah Shafer; Elliott, Camden; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Shomaker, Lauren B; Hannallah, Louise; Field, Sara E; Young, Jami F; Sbrocco, Tracy; Wilfley, Denise E; Yanovski, Jack A; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the links among interpersonal problem areas, depression, and alexithymia in adolescent girls at high risk for excessive weight gain and binge eating disorder. Participants were 56 girls (Mage = 14.30, SD = 1.56; 53% non-Hispanic White) with a body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) between the 75th and 97th percentiles (MBMI z = 1.57, SD = 0.32). By design, all participants reported loss of control eating patterns in the past month. Adolescents were individually interviewed prior to participating in a group interpersonal psychotherapy obesity and eating disorder prevention program, termed IPT for the prevention of excessive weight gain (IPT-WG). Participants' interpersonal problem areas were coded by trained raters. Participants also completed questionnaires assessing depression and alexithymia. Primary interpersonal problem areas were categorized as interpersonal deficits [as defined in the eating disorders (ED) literature] (n = 29), role disputes (n = 22), or role transitions (n = 5). Girls with interpersonal deficits-ED had greater depressive symptoms and alexithymia than girls with role disputes (p's ≤ 0.01). However, girls with role transitions did not differ from girls with interpersonal deficits-ED or role disputes. Interpersonal problem area had an indirect association with depression via alexithymia; interpersonal deficits-ED were related to greater alexithymia, which in turn, was related to greater depressive symptoms (p = 0.01). Among girls at risk for excess weight gain and eating disorders, those with interpersonal deficits-ED appear to have greater distress as compared to girls with role disputes or role transitions. Future research is required to elucidate the impact of interpersonal problem areas on psychotherapy outcomes.

  17. Impact of a nutrition intervention program on the growth and nutritional status of Nicaraguan adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawloski, Lisa Renee; Moore, Jean Burley

    2007-06-01

    This research examines the impact of a nutrition education intervention program on the nutritional status and knowledge of Nicaraguan adolescent girls. Anthropometric measurements, hemoglobin values, and data concerning nutritional knowledge were collected from adolescent girls living in Managua, Nicaragua. Using a pre-test/post-test design, data are compared prior to and after the nutrition intervention program. When using Mexican American reference data, statistically significant differences in height-for-age z-scores and weight-for-age z-scores were found when comparing the entire sample of baseline data with data collected after three years of the nutrition intervention program (p nutrition intervention programs in Nicaragua, and examines the possibility that catch-up growth occurs during adolescence.

  18. The relationship between unsupervised time after school and physical activity in adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder John P

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rising obesity and declining physical activity levels are of great concern because of the associated health risks. Many children are left unsupervised after the school day ends, but little is known about the association between unsupervised time and physical activity levels. This paper seeks to determine whether adolescent girls who are without adult supervision after school are more or less active than their peers who have a caregiver at home. Methods A random sample of girls from 36 middle schools at 6 field sites across the U.S. was selected during the fall of the 2002–2003 school year to participate in the baseline measurement activities of the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG. Information was collected using six-day objectively measured physical activity, self-reported physical activity using a three-day recall, and socioeconomic and psychosocial measures. Complete information was available for 1422 out of a total of 1596 respondents. Categorical variables were analyzed using chi square and continuous variables were analyzed by t-tests. The four categories of time alone were compared using a mixed linear model controlling for clustering effects by study center. Results Girls who spent more time after school (≥2 hours per day, ≥2 days per week without adult supervision were more active than those with adult supervision (p = 0.01. Girls alone for ≥2 hours after school, ≥2 days a week, on average accrue 7.55 minutes more moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA per day than do girls who are supervised (95% confidence interval ([C.I]. These results adjusted for ethnicity, parent's education, participation in the free/reduced lunch program, neighborhood resources, or available transportation. Unsupervised girls (n = 279 did less homework (53.1% vs. 63.3%, spent less time riding in a car or bus (48.0% vs. 56.6%, talked on the phone more (35.5% vs. 21.1%, and watched more television (59.9% vs. 52

  19. [Knowledge and attitude of adolescent girls regarding folic acid use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Ania; Benítez, Omar; Irizarry, Luis; Ginel Rodríguez, José; Vélez-Crespo, Michael

    2006-01-01

    To determine the adolescent's knowledge and attitude on the use of folic acid to avoid congenital neural tube defects. Three hundred and three (303) adolescent students from two different schools, one private and one public, were asked to complete a pre-test survey. After completing the survey, a lecture was given addressing the importance of folic acid and the benefits of taking this vitamin at an early stage to avoid neural tube defect. Two weeks later a post-test was administered to evaluate the knowledge acquired. The variables were grouped based on the knowledge of folic acid used, the attitudes toward folic acid consumption and the economic level of the participants. On the pre-test the adolescents demonstrated 52.5% of knowledge on the use of folic acid. After the educational conference, the tested knowledge increased to 87.5%. Eighteen percent (18%) of the adolescents reported on the pre-test that they consumed folic acid; this result increased to 69.3% on the post-test. On the pre-test, 31.7% of the participants related folic acid as an etiology of neural tube defect. Following the post-test, 96% of the adolescents were able to provide correct answers about the benefits of folic acid. Less than 50% of the adolescents recognized that folic acid is a vitamin. More than 80% of the surveyed adolescents do not consume folic acid. In general, the majority of the adolescents did not know the benefits of folic acid during the pre-conception period.

  20. Negotiated media effects. Peer feedback modifies effects of media's thin-body ideal on adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Jolanda; Konijn, Elly A; Seidell, Jacob C

    2014-02-01

    The present study introduces a theoretical framework on negotiated media effects. Specifically, we argue that feedback of peers on thin-body ideal media images and individual dispositions guide effects on adolescent girls' psychosocial responses to media exposure. Therefore, we examined the thin-body ideal as portrayed in media and peers' feedback on such thin-ideal images in their combined effects on adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction, objectified body consciousness, and social comparison with media models. Hence, media models and peer comments were systematically combined as incorporated entities in YouTube-formats. Hypotheses were tested in a 3 (media models: extremely thin vs. thin vs. normal weight)×3 (peer comments: 6kg-underweight vs. 3kg-underweight vs. normal-weight)×2 (appearance schematicity: lower vs. higher) between-subjects design (N=216). Results showed that peer comments indicating that a media model was 'only 3kg-underweight' exerted most negative responses, particularly in girls who strongly process appearance relevant information. Peer feedback interacts with media models in guiding perceptions of what is considered an 'ideal' body shape. Results highlight the important role of peers as well as individual predispositions in view of understanding how thin-ideal media images may impact adolescent girls' body image concerns.

  1. Adherence to ACIP Recommendation for Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Among US Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Hirth, Jacqueline M; Berenson, Abbey B

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine correlates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine use according to Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)'s recommendations among US adolescent girls. We used National Immunization Survey of Teens 2013 data. Based on provider-verified (n = 9403) information, 57.3, 39.1 and 19.0 % of adolescent girls, initiated, completed and completed the HPV vaccine according to ACIP's recommendation (by age 12), respectively. Hispanic race/ethnicity, a physician recommendation for HPV vaccine and ≥1 influenza vaccine in the past 3 years were all associated with a higher likelihood of compliance with ACIP's recommendation. Girls from a larger family and those whose immunization provider was a STD/school/teen clinic were less likely to receive the vaccine at the recommended age compared to a girl raised in a smaller sized family and received immunization from a hospital facility, respectively. Only one-fifth of 13-17 yo girls receive the HPV vaccine by age 12 as recommended by ACIP. Physician visits and influenza vaccination settings are opportunities to improve vaccine series completion at the recommended age.

  2. International summit on the nutrition of adolescent girls and young women: consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Nancy; Bagby, Susan; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Dewey, Kathryn; Fall, Caroline; Gregory, Fred; Hay, William; Rhuman, Lisa; Caldwell, Christine Wallace; Thornburg, Kent L

    2017-07-01

    An international summit focusing on the difficult challenge of providing adequate nutrition for adolescent girls and young women in low- and middle-income countries was held in Portland, Oregon in 2015. Sixty-seven delegates from 17 countries agreed on a series of recommendations that would make progress toward improving the nutritional status of girls and young women in countries where their access to nutrition is compromised. Delegate recommendations include: (1) elevate the urgency of nutrition for girls and young women to a high international priority, (2) raise the social status of girls and young women in all regions of the world, (3) identify major knowledge gaps in the biology of adolescence that could be filled by robust research efforts, (4) and improve access to nutrient-rich foods for girls and young women. Attention to these recommendations would improve the health of young women in all nations of the world. © 2017 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. Community Support and Adolescent Girls' Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS: Evidence From Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Carol; Schwandt, Hilary M

    2015-01-01

    Girls are vulnerable to HIV in part because the social systems in which they live have failed to support and protect them. The goal of this research was to develop a viable supportive community index and test its association with intermediate variables associated with HIV risk across 16 communities in Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique. This cross-sectional survey with separate samples randomly drawn in each country (2010) yielded a total sample of 1,418 adolescent girls (aged 11-18). Multilevel, multivariate logistic regression, while controlling for vulnerability, age, religion, and residence, found that an increase in supportive community index is positively associated with the odds of indicating improved community support for girls and with the confidence to refuse unwanted sex with a boyfriend across the three countries, as well as with self-efficacy to insist on condom use in Botswana and Mozambique. Program implementers and decision makers alike can use the supportive community index to identify and measure structural factors associated with girls' vulnerability to HIV/AIDS; this will potentially contribute to judicious decision making regarding resource allocation to enhance community-level, protective factors for adolescent girls.

  4. Food Group Intake and Micronutrient Adequacy in Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Loring Bradlee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the contribution of food group intakes to micronutrient adequacy among 2379 girls in the National Growth and Health Study during three age periods (9–13, 14–18, and 19–20 years. Data on food and nutrient intakes from 3-day diet records over 10 years were used to estimate mean intakes and percent meeting Dietary Guidelines (DGA recommendations for food intakes and Institute of Medicine’s recommendations for vitamins and minerals. More than 90% of girls failed to consume the recommended amounts of fruit, vegetables and dairy; 75% consumed less than the recommended amounts in the “meat” group. The vast majority of girls of all ages had inadequate intakes of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins D and E. In contrast, they consumed >750 kcal/day (~40% of total energy from the DGA category of solid fat and added sugars, about five times the recommended maximum intakes. This study shows the importance of consuming a variety of foods in all five food groups, including those that are more energy dense such as dairy and meats, in order to meet a broad range of nutrient guidelines. Diet patterns that combined intakes across food groups led to greater improvements in overall nutritional adequacy.

  5. A comparative study of nutritional status and foodstuffs in adolescent girls in iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaie-Zanjani, A; Faraji, F; Rafie, M; Mohammadbeigi, A

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight in children and adolescents is increasing world-wide. Obesity in children and adolescents is a major risk factor for diabetes, heart diseases, hypertension, and cancer in adulthood. The aim of the study was to compare the nutritional status and food-stuffs among high-school girls in Arak, Iran, in matter of body mass index (BMI) and associated factors. A cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 278 adolescents was conducted in six randomly chosen high-schools. Height and weight of students were collected using standard methods and the BMI calculated and BMI percentiles of these girls are compared with the Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reference data. The 5(th), 8(th), and 95(th) percentiles of the CDC were adopted as cut-off points for underweight, overweight and obese girls, respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS by analysis of variance and Chi-square tests. On the basis of CDC, the overall prevalence rates of underweight, overweight, and obesity were estimated 10.1% (28/278), 12.9% (36/278), and 1.4% (4/278), respectively. There was no significant difference between nutritional knowledge scores and the rate of physical activities in various groups. The mean age at menarche was significantly higher among the obese girls (P = 0.02). Consumption of ice-cream and chocolate was significantly higher in the obese girls group (P = 0.03). According to the present study, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in high-school girls of Arak is lower than that of many other parts of Iran and some neighboring countries, which are at the high-risk of overweight and obesity. This study warrants the necessity of paying attention to promote healthy life-style and weight control. The earlier age of menarche is alarming.

  6. Resilience processes in sexually abused adolescent girls: A scoping review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiyya Haffejee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Childhood sexual abuse is often associated with a number of deleterious psychological and behavioural outcomes for survivors. However, some research suggests that this impact is variable and that some survivors adapt positively. An ability to adapt positively to adversity, under any circumstances, has been termed resilience. Drawing on a socio-ecological understanding of resilience, the aim of this scoping review was to comprehensively map existing empirical studies on resilience processes in sexually abused adolescent girls and to summarise emerging resilience-enabling factors. We also considered the implications of the findings for practice and research. A total of 11 articles met the criteria for inclusion in the review. Findings from these studies suggest that internal factors (meaning making, optimistic future orientation, agency and mastery and contextual factors (supportive family, social and educational environments function interdependently to enable resilience in sexually abused adolescent girls. Practitioners should leverage these complementary and interdependent resilience-enabling mechanisms by encouraging greater involvement of girls in the planning of interventions and by assisting girls in developing meaningful narratives about their abuse experiences. Interventions should also encourage greater involvement from supportive structures, while challenging social and cultural norms that inhibit resilience. Resilience researchers should be cognisant of the paucity of research focusing on resilience processes in sexually abused adolescent girls as well as the absence of innovative, participatory methods of data collection. Significance: The review adds to a body of literature on resilience processes with implications for resilience researchers. The findings have implications for a range of practitioners (psychologists, social workers, teachers etc. who work with sexually abused girls.

  7. Sexual self-concept and intended sexual behavior of young adolescent Taiwanese girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Hsiang-Chu; Lee, Sheuan; Chang, Ting

    2010-01-01

    People begin to become aware of their sexual drive and erotic feelings as young adolescents. Such activity often has been overlooked in Taiwan, a traditional society, because sexuality is viewed as a private issue. The purpose of this study was to explore the sexual self-concept and intended sexual behavior of young adolescent girls in Taiwan. Participants included 372 girls, 12 to 14 years old, from junior high schools in Taiwan who completed two questionnaires on sexual experience and sexually related items: the Sexual Self-Concept Inventory, the Parental Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale, and the Friends' Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale, which were combined into one scale, with separate scores. Girls' self-reports showed low (negative) sexual self-concept, high perceived parental disapproval, and somewhat high perceived friends' disapproval of sexual activities. Sexual self-concept is associated with perceived parental and peer approval of sexual activities, and it is associated with sexual experience and intended sexual activities as well. A young adolescent girl who has a high score on the perceived sexual arousability factor of the Sexual Self-Concept Inventory is more likely to report the strongest intention toward sexual behavior. Sexual self-concept may play a key role in girls' intended sexual activities, including engaging in low-level sexual activities (e.g., kissing and breast fondling) that occur before intercourse, even when associated with intercourse intention. The research suggests that addressing sexual self-concept needs to be a priority to prevent young girls from engaging in sexual intercourse.

  8. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and adolescent girls' physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Julie; Hume, Clare; Timperio, Anna; Salmon, Jo

    2012-12-03

    Understanding the influences on physical activity is crucial, particularly among important target groups such as adolescent girls. This study describes cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between parenting style and girls' participation in organized sport, walking/cycling trips and objectively assessed moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Data were collected from adolescent girls (n=222) and their parents in 2004 and again in 2006. Parents self-reported their demographic characteristics and parenting style. Girls self-reported their organized sport participation and weekly walking/cycling trips, while MVPA was assessed using accelerometers. Linear regression and interaction analyses were performed. Interactions between socio-demographic factors and parenting style with organized sport, walking/cycling trips and MVPA are presented. There were cross-sectional associations between authoritative (B=-0.45, p=0.042) and indulgent (B=-0.56, p=0.002) parenting and the number of walking/cycling trips, and authoritarian (B=0.27, p=0.033) parenting and frequency of organized sport. Significant interactions included those between: family status, authoritative parenting and daily (p=0.048) and week day (p=0.013) MVPA; education, indulgent parenting and MVPA on weekend days (p=0.006); and, employment, authoritarian parenting and duration and frequency of organized sport (p=0.004), highlighting the complexity of these relationships. Longitudinal analyses revealed significant decreases in organized sport and MVPA, significant increases in walking/cycling trips and no significant associations between parenting and physical activity. Parenting styles appear to influence walking and cycling trips among adolescent girls, though not physical activity within other domains. Socio-demographic characteristics interact with the relationships between parenting and physical activity. While these findings can inform the development of family-based interventions to improve

  9. “I feel free”: Experiences of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Duberg

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent girls today suffer from internalizing problems such as somatic symptoms and mental health problems at higher rates compared to those of previous decades, and effective interventions are warranted. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of participating in an 8-month dance intervention. This qualitative study was embedded in a randomized controlled trial of a dance intervention for adolescent girls with internalizing problems. A total of 112 girls aged 13–18 were included in the study. The dance intervention group comprised 59 girls, 24 of whom were strategically chosen to be interviewed. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. The experiences of the dance intervention resulted in five generic categories: (1 An Oasis from Stress, which represents the fundamental basis of the intervention; (2 Supportive Togetherness, the setting; (3 Enjoyment and Empowerment, the immediate effect; (4 Finding Acceptance and Trust in Own Ability, the outcome; and (5 Dance as Emotional Expression, the use of the intervention. One main category emerged, Finding Embodied Self-Trust That Opens New Doors, which emphasizes the increased trust in the self and the ability to approach life with a sense of freedom and openness. The central understanding of the adolescent girls’ experiences was that the dance intervention enriched and gave access to personal resources. With the non-judgmental atmosphere and supportive togetherness as a safe platform, the enjoyment and empowerment in dancing gave rise to acceptance, trust in ability, and emotional expression. Taken together, this increased self-trust and they discovered a new ability to “claim space.” Findings from this study may provide practical information on designing future interventions for adolescent girls with internalizing problems.

  10. Experience of Menarche Among Jordanian Adolescent Girls: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Omari, Omar; Abdel Razeq, Nadin M; Fooladi, Marjaneh M

    2016-06-01

    Menarche is a significant physical and emotional experience for adolescent girls, especially in certain cultures, where it is viewed as a rite of passage, affecting the meaning of lived experiences. The purpose of the study was to explore the menarche experience among Jordanian adolescent girls when they reach menarche. Interpretive phenomenological analysis. Az-Zarqa City, Jordan. A homogenous sample of 7 Jordanian girls, ages 12-14 years, who had their first menstruation within the past 6 months. Participants were asked to narrate their experiences through journal writing; their reports to be used for interpretive phenomenological analyses by 2 independent researchers, to ensure the findings' trustworthiness. Three major themes emerged as: (1) menstruation as a forbidden topic; (2) keeping the "topic" to oneself; and (3) no more secrets. Each theme was characterized according to distinct sets of emotions and knowledge-seeking patterns because Jordanian culture and Islamic teachings had greatly influenced the girls' experience of menarche. Menarche was considered a social taboo; not to be openly discussed. At the first signs of menarche, participants were shocked, scared, confused, and anxious. They had limited information and support from their family or school system. Therefore, they relied on self-perceptions about menarche, and viewed the experience of menstruation with profound negative emotions. Participants hesitated to share their experiences with their mothers and close friends. They felt alone and experienced their emotional turmoil in isolation and without support. Jordanian adolescent girls need formal health education to understand and manage the reproductive changes that occur in their bodies. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Calcium balance in young adults on a vegan and lactovegetarian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlenberg-Mueller, Kathrin; Raschka, Ladislav

    2003-01-01

    For people in Western countries, the vegan diet has the advantage of low energy intake, but the calcium status of this strictly plant-based diet is still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the calcium balance of individuals on a vegan diet in comparison with a lactovegetarian diet in a short-term investigation. Seven women and one man, ranging in age from 19 to 24 years, received during the first 10 days a vegan diet based on plant foods and calcium-rich mineral water and a lactovegetarian diet during the following 10 days. Portion size was adapted to the subjects' individual energy requirements. Calcium status was assessed by means of calcium intake in food and calcium output in feces and urine as measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In addition, deoxypyridinoline was measured in urine as a marker of bone resorption. The results show a significantly smaller daily calcium intake with an average of 843 +/- 140 mg in the vegan versus 1322 +/- 303 mg in the lactovegetarian diet. Apparent calcium absorption rates were calculated as 26% +/- 15% in the vegan and 24% +/- 8% in the lactovegetarian group (NS). The calcium balance was positive both in the vegan diet (119 +/- 113 mg/day) and in the lactovegetarian diet (211 +/- 136 mg/day) (NS). Deoxypyridinoline excretion showed no significant difference between the two diets (105 +/- 31 and 98 +/- 23 nmol/day). The present results indicate that calcium balance and a marker of bone turnover are not affected significantly when calcium is provided either solely by plant foods or by a diet including dairy products, despite the significantly different calcium intake levels in the diets. We conclude that a well-selected vegan diet maintains calcium status, at least for a short-term period.

  12. Adolescent inpatient girls׳ report of dependent life events predicts prospective suicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Lindsey B; Liu, Richard T; Yen, Shirley

    2014-09-30

    Adolescents with a history of suicidal behavior are especially vulnerable for future suicide attempts, particularly following discharge from an inpatient psychiatric admission. This study is the first to test whether adolescents׳ tendency to generate stress, or report more dependent events to which they contributed, was predictive of prospective suicide events. Ninety adolescent psychiatric inpatients who were admitted for recent suicide risk, completed diagnostic interviews, assessments of history of suicidal behavior, and a self-report questionnaire of major life events at baseline. Participants were followed over the subsequent 6 months after discharge to assess stability vs. onset of suicide events. Cox proportional hazard regressions were used to predict adolescents׳ time to suicide events. Results supported hypothesis, such that only recent greater dependent events, not independent or overall events, predicted risk for prospective suicide events. This effect was specific to adolescent girls. Importantly, dependent events maintained statistical significance as a predictor of future suicide events after co-varying for the effects of several established risk factors and psychopathology. Results suggest that the tendency to generate dependent events may contribute unique additional prediction for adolescent girls׳ prospective suicide risk, and highlight the need for future work in this area.

  13. The effect of educational group therapy plan on self–esteem rate in adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Turkashvand

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a period of major changes in various aspects of physical, mental and social caracters they may get. There are new requirements for the changes have been occurred. Attention to these needs, in turn, are faster and better compatibility and increase self-esteem. Self-esteem is the basic factor of personality development in adolescents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of educational group therapy on self-esteem of adolescent girls.Materials and Method: This is a quasi- experimental study. Seventy-one adolescent girls of 13-15 years old were selected cluster-randomly from guidance school and divided in two groups of experimental and control (35 cases, 36 controls. Self-esteem of adolescents in two groups measured using Pop test. Then the educational group therapy plan was utilized based on promotion of adolescent’s self- esteem at 10 sessions for case group. Self-esteem rate was measured just after the performance of planned session and were analyzed with SPSS-14 software.Results: The results of the study indicated that performing educational group therapy session can increase the mean self-esteem score for case group (84.74 comparing to control group (74.05. Independent t-test shows significant difference between self-esteem score in case and control groups.Conclusion: According to our results the authors suggest that using educational group therapy plan is an effective approach in increasing self-esteem in adolescent girls and may improve mental health. Therefore, we suggest this plan for increasing self-esteem of adolescents in the schools

  14. Age at menarche and menstrual cycle pattern among school adolescent girls in Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambhare, Dharampal G; Wagh, Sanjay V; Dudhe, Jayesh Y

    2012-01-01

    The onset of menstruation is part of the maturation process. However, variability in menstrual cycle characteristics and menstrual disorders are common. The purpose of this study was to determine the age at menarche and patterns of menstruation among school adolescent girls and explore its variation across socio-economic and demographic factors. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out on 1100 school adolescent girls in district Wardha, Central India. Data were collected using a self-administered structured questionnaire on menstruation. Data was entered and analyzed by using Epi Info 6.04 software package. Chi- square value was used for testing statistical significance. Mean ages of menarche were 13.51 + 1.04 years and 13.67 + 0.8 years for urban and rural areas respectively. Abnormal cycle length was common and affected 30.48%. The majority 56.15 experienced dysmenorrhoea and 56.16 percent had premenstrual syndrome. Self medication was practiced by 7.13% of the adolescent girls. The most common premenstrual symptom was headache 26.74%. Absenteeism from the school 13.9% was the effect of menstruation related problems on their daily routine. Dysmenorrhea and premenstrual symptoms were perceived as most distressing symptoms leading to school absenteeism. Majority of the girls 75.58% had discussed menstrual problems with someone, most commonly with their mothers 38.15%. There was a general lack of information about menstrual issues especially with regards to cycle length, duration of menses and age at menarche. Girls from families of high socio-economic class have significantly lower mean menarcheal age in both urban and rural area. The mean age of menarche was significantly higher in girls involved in vigorous sporting activity in urban area compared to their non-sporting counterparts. Age at menarche was delayed. The menstrual disorders among female adolescents are common. A school health education on menstrual problems targeting adolescent girls and

  15. The relative importance of predictors of body mass index change, overweight and obesity in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehkopf, David H; Laraia, Barbara A; Segal, Mark; Braithwaite, Dejana; Epel, Elissa

    2011-06-01

    To determine the relative importance of familial, dietary, behavioral, psychological and social risk factors for predicting body mass index (BMI) change, and onset of overweight and obesity among adolescent girls. Data from the NHLBI Growth and Health Study (n = 2 150), a longitudinal cohort of girls, were used to identify the most important predictors of change in BMI percentile between the ages of 9 and 19 years, and second, risk for becoming overweight and obese. Forty-one baseline predictors were assessed using a tree-based regression method (Random forest) to rank the relative importance of risk factors. The five factors that best predicted change in BMI percentile (p change and onset of overweight and obesity. Our results build upon prior findings that policies to prevent the onset of obesity during adolescence be targeted towards girls from lower socio-economic position households. Our findings also suggest several novel psychological factors including ineffectiveness as predictors of obesity during adolescence. These predictive findings offer a direction for future inquiry into adolescent obesity etiology using causal methods.

  16. Menstruation and menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls of West Bengal, India: A school based comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrija Datta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents are often less informed, less experienced, and less comfortable accessing reproductive health information and services than adults. In many developing countries, a culture of silence surrounds the topic of menstruation and related issues; as a result many young girls lack appropriate and sufficient information regarding menstrual hygiene. This may result in incorrect and unhealthy behaviour during their menstrual period. Objectives: To assess and compare knowledge, belief, ideas, source of knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene between school-going adolescents in an urban and a rural school of West Bengal, India. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among adolescent female students of Howrah district of West Bengal, India in the year 2011. Data was collected by pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured self administered questionnaire. Results: The mean age at menarche was 12.1 years among urban and 12.2 years among the rural participants. More than 80% participants had some restrictions imposed during menstruation. Significantly higher number of urban girls had pre-menarchal knowledge on menstruation and used sanitary napkins. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. For improvement of menstrual hygiene, sanitary napkins should be made universally available and affordable.

  17. Television Time among Brazilian Adolescents: Correlated Factors are Different between Boys and Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of excess television time and verify correlated factors in adolescent males and females. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 2,105 adolescents aged from 13 to 18 years from the city of Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. Television time was self-reported, corresponding to the time spent watching television in a typical week. Several correlates were examined including age, skin color, socioeconomic status, parent education, physical activity level, consumption of fruits and vegetables, smoking status, alcohol use, and sports team participation. Results. The prevalence excess television time (≥2 hours/day in girls and boys was 70.9% and 66.2%, respectively. Girls with low socioeconomic status or inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables were more likely to have excess television time. Among boys, those >16 years of age or with black skin color were more likely to have excess television time. Conclusions. Excess television time was observed in more than two-thirds of adolescents, being more evident in girls. Correlated factors differed according to sex. Efforts to reduce television time among Brazilian adolescents, and replace with more active pursuits, may yield desirable public health benefits.

  18. Perceived stress, recurrent pain, and aggregate salivary cortisol measures in mid-adolescent girls and boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, Petra; Folkesson Hellstadius, Lisa; Östberg, Viveca

    2017-02-01

    Measures of perceived stress have been criticized for theoretical inconsistency. However, the validated pressure activation stress scale has been suggested as a theoretically sound alternative. But it is unclear how pressure and activation stress relate to objective and subjective measures including commonly used aggregate cortisol measures and health complaints respectively. Specifically, this study aimed at investigating how pressure and activation stress were related to aggregate salivary cortisol measures and recurrent pain in mid-adolescent girls and boys. Mid-adolescents (119 girls and 56 boys) provided self-reports in questionnaires on activation and pressure stress and recurrent pain (headache, stomach ache, neck/shoulder and back pain). Additionally, adolescents sampled saliva during an ordinary school day: (1) immediately at awakening; (2) 30 minutes after waking up; (3) 60 minutes after waking up, and (4) at 8 p.m. These samples were analyzed for cortisol. Hierarchical regressions showed no statistically significant associations between activation and pressure stress and cortisol, neither for girls nor for boys. However, activation and pressure stress were significantly associated with recurrent pain but only for girls. The findings may relate to subjective and objective measures reflecting distinct aspects of stress-related functioning. However, the study participants included mid-adolescents whose bodily systems are flexible and still relatively unaffected by the strain of their daily stress perceptions. To conclude, the non-significant relationships between activation and pressure stress and commonly used aggregate measures of cortisol adds to the understanding of how perceived stress may relate to physiological functioning in the daily life of adolescents when using such aggregate measures.

  19. Body dissatisfaction: can a short media literacy message reduce negative media exposure effects amongst adolescent girls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Emma; Easun, Alice; Harcourt, Diana

    2011-05-01

    This experimental study examined whether a brief video intervention identifying the artificial nature of media images could protect adolescent girls from negative media exposure effects and body dissatisfaction. A 2 (intervention condition)×2 (exposure condition) between-groups design was used. Participants were 127 British girls aged between 10 and 13 recruited from two secondary schools. Girls were assigned to one of four experimental conditions. An intervention video was shown to half of the girls immediately before they viewed ultra-thin models or control images. The video was developed by Dove's Self-Esteem Fund and has the benefits of being professionally produced and freely available through the Internet. In the absence of the intervention video, viewing thin idealized models was associated with lower state body satisfaction and lower state body esteem than exposure to control images. However, viewing the video intervention immediately before exposure prevented this negative exposure effect. The results suggest that, in the short term, this widely available video prevents girls from making damaging social comparisons with media models. Although this study only examined short-term effects, the findings add to the growing evidence that media literacy interventions may be useful tools in protecting young girls from body dissatisfaction. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Green girls and bored boys? Adolescents' environmental consumer learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2006-01-01

    An untraditional method of data construction - written essays - was used to study consumer socialisation processes related to 'green' consumerism. The study primarily aimed at exploring how adolescents perceive of environmental issues and learn about these issues in a family context. Results show...

  1. Green girls and bored boys? Adolescents' environmental consumer learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2006-01-01

    An untraditional method of data construction - written essays - was used to study consumer socialisation processes related to 'green' consumerism. The study primarily aimed at exploring how adolescents perceive of environmental issues and learn about these issues in a family context. Results show...

  2. Adolescents' Sexual Inferences about Girls Who Consume Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Amy M.; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Boyd, Carol J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document whether adolescents make inferences regarding male and female vignette characters in terms of the characters' sexuality, social skills, impairment, and aggressiveness when the characters consume alcohol. A Web-based survey of 1,691 middle and high school students (grades 6-11) from diverse socioeconomic…

  3. Tailoring Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Binge Eating in Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarborough, Bobbi Jo; DeBar, Lynn L.; Firemark, Alison; Leung, Sue; Clarke, Gregory N.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2013-01-01

    Whereas effective treatments exist for adults with recurrent binge eating, developmental factors specific to adolescents point to the need for a modified treatment approach for youth. We adapted an existing cognitive behavioral therapy treatment manual for adults with bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder (Fairburn, 2008) for use with…

  4. Ewing Sarcoma of the Posterior Fossa in an Adolescent Girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas M. Stark

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma, astrocytoma, and ependymoma represent the most common infratentorial tumors in childhood, while Ewing sarcomas in that localization are extremely rare. A large left infratentorial space-occupying lesion was diagnosed in a 12-year-old girl with signs of increased intracranial pressure. Following total tumor resection, histological and molecular examination revealed Ewing sarcoma with rearranged EWSR-1 gene. The patient achieved complete remission following adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy according to Euro-EWING 2008 treatment protocol. Intracranial Ewing sarcoma, although rare, should be an important differential diagnosis of intracranial tumors in childhood which requires aggressive multimodal treatment.

  5. Angiokeratoma of clitoris: a rare lesion in an adolescent girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiğiter, Murat; Arda, Irfan Serdar; Tosun, Emine; Celik, Mustafa; Hiçsönmez, Akgün

    2008-04-01

    Angiokeratoma is a benign vascular lesion. It is the result of dilation of ectatic subdermal vessels and congested capillaries. Weakness of the vessel walls, either from acquired or congenital reasons, can cause formation of the lesion. Angiokeratoma is more common in males, in whom it forms on the scrotal wall. An equivalent form can occur in females, generally on the vulva. The clitoris is an extremely rare location. We present the case of a 14-year-old girl with a clitoral angiokeratoma. To our knowledge, this is the first presented case of clitoral angiokeratoma in a child in English published reports.

  6. Study of Adiponectin Level in Diabetic Adolescent Girls in Relation to Glycemic Control and Complication of Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha M. Abd El Dayem

    2015-10-01

    CONCLUSION: Serum adiponectin level is high in adolescent type 1 diabetic girls. It can be used as a predictor of diabetes complications rather than a sensitive biochemical marker for glycemic control.

  7. The impact of menstrual cycle-related physical symptoms on daily activities and psychological wellness among adolescent girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, K.C. van; Kiesner, J.; Pastore, M.; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Associations between perimenstrual physical and psychological symptoms have not been adequately studied among adolescent girls. The purpose of the present study was to test a mediation hypothesis postulating that perimenstrual disengagement from daily activities would mediate the association between

  8. Screening of Novice Adolescent Girls for Anemia studying in Medical and Paramedical Colleges at Civil Hospital Campus, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

    OpenAIRE

    Mallika V Chavada, Jagruti D Prajapati, Dinesh M Rathod, Pooja Chaudhary, Kriti M Agrawal

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Anemia is major public health problem in adoles-cents in India. This study was conducted to estimate the preva-lence of anemia among novice medical and paramedical adolescent girls students and to study the socio-demographic factors associated with anemia in them. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted by purposive non random sampling method in March 2011. Data was collected from 357 novice girl students of four medical and paramedical colleges and one nursing sc...

  9. Resisting Pressure from Peers to Engage in Sexual Behavior: What Communication Strategies Do Early Adolescent Latino Girls Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Anne E.; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.; Hutchison, Janet; Campoe, Kristi

    2015-01-01

    A content analysis of early adolescent X-bar = 12.02 years) Latino girls' (n = 44) responses to open-ended questions embedded in an electronic survey was conducted to explore strategies girls may use to resist peer pressure with respect to sexual behavior. Analysis yielded 341 codable response units, 74% of which were consistent with the REAL…

  10. Resisting Pressure from Peers to Engage in Sexual Behavior: What Communication Strategies Do Early Adolescent Latino Girls Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Anne E.; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.; Hutchison, Janet; Campoe, Kristi

    2015-01-01

    A content analysis of early adolescent X-bar = 12.02 years) Latino girls' (n = 44) responses to open-ended questions embedded in an electronic survey was conducted to explore strategies girls may use to resist peer pressure with respect to sexual behavior. Analysis yielded 341 codable response units, 74% of which were consistent with the REAL…

  11. Adolescent Girls' Preferences Pertaining to Cardiovascular Fitness Testing: A Comparison between the One-Mile Run and PACER Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Carol; Brown, Lanell; Graser, Sue Vincent; Pennington, Todd R.

    2012-01-01

    Many adolescent girls are not participating in the recommended levels of physical activity (PA) and are at risk for unhealthy lifestyles (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008). Helping girls understand the importance of PA and giving them positive experiences in physical education classes, including fitness testing, may help to…

  12. Access to and Use of Reproductive Health Information among In-School Adolescent Girls in Lagos State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwalo, K. I. N.; Anasi, Stella N. I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated access to and use of reproductive health information among in-school adolescent girls in Lagos State, Nigeria. Design: Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Setting: The study sample consisted of 1,800 girls randomly selected from 18 public senior secondary schools in Lagos State. Method:…

  13. Development and aetiology of body dissatisfaction in adolescent boys and girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Jacinthe; Blackburn, Marie-Eve; Auclair, Julie; Laberge, Luc; Veillette, Suzanne; Gaudreault, Marco; Vachon, Patrick; Perron, Michel; Touchette, Évelyne

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study aims to describe the development of body dissatisfaction (BD), measured with the Contour Drawing Rating Scale, between the ages of 14 and 18, and to identify factors associated with BD at age 18, among 413 adolescents. Between the ages of 14 and 18, the proportion of girls wanting to be thinner increased, although it remained unchanged among boys. A ratio of 1:2 girls and 1:5 boys reported having seriously tried to lose weight. Factors associated with BD in girls at age 18 were (1) wanting to be thinner, (2) body mass index (BMI), (3) weight control behaviours and (4) negative comments about weight. Factors associated with BD in boys at age 18 were (1) wanting to be thinner or bigger, (2) BMI, (3) having experienced sexual intercourse and (4) negative comments about weight. The high prevalence of BD and weight-related concerns suggest a need for early interventions. PMID:25931646

  14. Contributing Factors to High-Risk Sexual Behaviors among Iranian Adolescent Girls: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimoradi, Zainab; Kariman, Nourossadat; Simbar, Masoumeh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Adolescence is a period of overwhelming changes and challenges, which expose the adolescents to high-risk behaviors. Risky sexual relationship is one of these behaviors that entails physical risks and psychosocial harms. Various factors have been recognized to shape sexual behaviors in adolescents. This paper is an attempt to investigate the factors contributing to high-risk sexual behaviors in Iranian adolescent girls. Methods: A literature review of the research published by Iranian authors, in Farsi or English language in local and foreign journals, was conducted using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scientific Information Database (SID), IranMedex, IranDoc, and Google Scholar. The search in each database included all the years covered at that time using keywords such as “sexual, adolescents, and Iran”, and continued using other keywords such as “sexual behavior, high-risk behavior, sexual risk and reproductive behavior” individually and in combination Results: Sixteen published articles were identified. Factors contributing to high-risk sexual behaviors in girls can be divided into four general groups including personal, family, peer, school and community. Conclusion: Regarding the identified risk and protective factors, appropriate individual, family and school-based interventions can be designed and implemented to strengthen protective factors. While individual and family factors are considered more in research, factors related to peers, school and community have received less attention. Since social values, beliefs and norms are important factors in formation of sexual behaviors, further research regarding these factors is suggested. PMID:28097173

  15. Correlates of sexual abuse in a sample of adolescent girls admitted to psychiatric inpatient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamüller, Juha; Riala, Kaisa; Nivala, Maija; Hakko, Helinä; Räsänen, Pirkko

    2014-01-01

    We examined correlations of child sexual abuse among 300 adolescent girls in psychiatric inpatient treatment. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.)-based psychiatric diagnoses were obtained from the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime and from data on family and behavioral characteristics from the European Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI). A total of 79 girls (26.3%) had experienced child sexual abuse during their lifetime. Child sexual abuse was associated with an adolescent's home environment, sibling status, smoking, posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis, self-mutilating behavior, and suicidal behavior. At least 62% of the perpetrators were acquaintances of the victims. Correlates of child sexual abuse can be used to identify child sexual abuse victims and persons at heightened risk for child sexual abuse.

  16. Sexual abuse and violence among adolescent girls in Botswana: a mental health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seloilwe, Esther Salang; Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria

    2009-07-01

    The presence of sexual abuse among societies in Botswana is a phenomenon whose occurrence is usually denied albeit the police report on it and legal frameworks have been established to combat it. Several factors influence the concealment of sexual abuse among adolescent girls, which includes cultural factors and social status of the perpetrators. This paper espouses the concept of sexual abuse among adolescent girls, the existence of the problem, its magnitude, the factors that increase vulnerability to violence and abuse, and how these factors intersect with HIV and AIDS. Two case studies using a discovery method were used to explore the phenomenon under the study. The findings of the study indicated that sexual abuse and violence have profound mental health consequences including guilt, anxiety, depression and anger. Future research is suggested to explore this problem on a wider scale and develop interventions that can assist victims and perpetrators to cope with the situation.

  17. Heterosocial involvement, peer pressure for thinness, and body dissatisfaction among young adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondoli, Dawn M; Corning, Alexandra F; Salafia, Elizabeth H Blodgett; Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Fitzsimmons, Ellen E

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinal connections among young adolescent heterosocial involvement (i.e., mixed-sex interactions), peer pressure for thinness, and body dissatisfaction. Three years of self-report questionnaire data were collected from 88 adolescent girls as they completed 6th through 8th grades. Results indicated that the relation between heterosocial involvement and body dissatisfaction was mediated by perceived peer pressure for thinness. Within this model, heterosocial involvement was associated with greater peer pressure for thinness. In turn, peer pressure for thinness was associated with greater body dissatisfaction. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for prevention and intervention efforts aimed at girls during their middle-school years. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Coming of age under Hitler and Stalin: the everyday life of adolescent girls in occupied Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the possibility of the continuation of everyday life in occupied Europe through a case study of the lives of twenty-five adolescent girls and young women living in Latvia between 1939 and 1944. Late adolescence is the period in which young women are struggling to establish some degree of independence, especially through leaving the parental home and entering the labour market. These transitions are the conventional markers of adulthood in modern societies. The article explores how occupation by the Soviet Union and the Third Reich affected daily life and the speed and nature of the transition to adulthood.

  19. 'Rules' for boys, 'guidelines' for girls: Gender differences in symptom reporting during childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Alice; Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate

    2010-02-01

    The emergence of higher reported morbidity in females compared with males is a feature of adolescent health in a large proportion of the world's industrialised countries. In this paper, qualitative data from twenty-five single-sex focus groups (90 participants in total) conducted with 10-, 13-, and 15-year olds in two Scottish schools is used to explore whether symptom reporting is influenced by perceived societal gender- and age-related expectations and the social context of symptom experiences. The degree to which these factors can help explain quantitative evidence of increases in gender differences in symptom reporting during adolescence is also examined. Accounts suggested gender-related expectations act as strict 'rules' for boys and less prohibitive 'guidelines' for girls. An unexpected finding was the extent of similarity between these 'rules' and 'guidelines'. Both boys and girls presented themselves as pressured to react to symptoms in stoic, controlled and independent ways, particularly when in the company of their peers, and both perceived that boys and girls could incur negative consequences if seen to have physical (e.g. stomach ache) or, especially, psychological symptoms (e.g. feeling like crying). These qualitative findings do not suggest that girls are simply more willing than boys to report their symptoms as they get older, which is one potential explanation for the quantitative evidence of increasing gender differences in symptom reporting in adolescence. Rather, the findings suggest a need to highlight both the potentially damaging effects of gender stereotypes which make boys reluctant to seek help for physical and, particularly, psychological symptoms, and the misconception that girls are not similarly reluctant to report illness.

  20. Happiness and health behaviour in Iranian adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fararouei, M; Brown, I J; Akbartabar Toori, M; Estakhrian Haghighi, R; Jafari, J

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association of happiness in adolescent females with leisure time and health related behaviours namely diet, physical activity and first or second hand smoking. Using a self-administered questionnaire, data were collected from 8159 female high school students ages 11-19 years. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed statistically significant associations between happiness and weight, regular exercise, exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke, daily fruit or vegetable consumption and the way participants spent their leisure time. Happiness was associated with lower BMI, regular physical activity, absence of exposure to second-hand smoke, higher consumption of fruits and vegetables, and spending leisure time with family (all P < 0.005). These exploratory findings suggest that encouraging children and adolescents to adopt healthy behaviours, providing family time and a smoke-free environment may make them not only healthier but also happier.

  1. Menstruation and menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls of West Bengal, India: A school based comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Adrija Datta; Nirmalya Manna; Mousumi Datta; Jhuma Sarkar; Baijayanti Baur; Saraswati Datta

    2012-01-01

    Background: Adolescents are often less informed, less experienced, and less comfortable accessing reproductive health information and services than adults. In many developing countries, a culture of silence surrounds the topic of menstruation and related issues; as a result many young girls lack appropriate and sufficient information regarding menstrual hygiene. This may result in incorrect and unhealthy behaviour during their menstrual period. Objectives: To assess and compare knowledge, bel...

  2. Fast Food Consumption, Quality of Diet, and Obesity among Isfahanian Adolescent Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hossein Rouhani; Maryam Mirseifinezhad; Nasrin Omrani; Ahmad Esmaillzadeh; Leila Azadbakht

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective. Few data are available linking fast food intake to diet quality in developing countries. This study was conducted to determine the association between fast food consumption and diet quality as well as obesity among Isfahani girls. Methods. This cross-sectional study was done among 140 Iranian adolescents selected by the use of systematic cluster random sampling. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Diet quality was defined bas...

  3. India moves towards menstrual hygiene: subsidized sanitary napkins for rural adolescent girls-issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Goyal, Shobha; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2012-05-01

    The onset of menstruation is one of the most important physiological changes occurring among girls during the adolescent years. Menstruation heralds the onset of physiological maturity in girls. It becomes the part and parcel of their lives until menopause. Apart from personal importance, this phenomenon also has social significance. In India, menstruation is surrounded by myths and misconceptions with a long list of "do's" and "don'ts" for women. Hygiene-related practices of women during menstruation are of considerable importance, as it may increase vulnerability to Reproductive Tract Infections (RTI's). Poor menstrual hygiene is one of the major reasons for the high prevalence of RTIs in the country and contributes significantly to female morbidity. Most of the adolescent girls in villages use rags and old clothes during menstruation, increasing susceptibility to RTI's. Adolescents constitute one-fifths of India's population and yet their sexual health needs remain largely unaddressed in the national welfare programs. Poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. In June 2010, the Government of India proposed a new scheme towards menstrual hygiene by a provision of subsidized sanitary napkins to rural adolescent girls. But there are various other issues like awareness, availability and quality of napkins, regular supply, privacy, water supply, disposal of napkins, reproductive health education and family support which needs simultaneous attention for promotion of menstrual hygiene. The current article looks at the issue of menstrual hygiene not only from the health point of view, but also considers social and human rights values attached to it.

  4. Fertility Awareness Counseling for Adolescent Girls; Guiding Conception: The Right Time, Right Weight, and Right Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudesia, Rashmi; Talib, Hina J; Pollack, Staci E

    2017-02-01

    To provide a detailed summary of fertility awareness counseling pearls for healthy teens and those with fertility-relevant comorbidities, and to assist providers in offering such counseling to adolescents and young adult women. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comprehensive literature review of English-language studies relating to fertility in pediatric and adolescent female patients (ages 13-21 years), and evidence-based dialogue guide. The literature indicates that although adolescents are interested in discussing sexuality and reproduction, this is commonly overlooked during the standard office medical visit. As a result, adolescents often turn to less reliable sources and hold a variety of reproductive misconceptions and a sense of lack of control over future fertility. We found no studies that examined the routine provision of fertility awareness counseling with healthy adolescents. There are a multitude of specific gynecologic and medical conditions that have ramifications for fertility. We detail these comprehensively, and provide a dialogue guide to assist with fertility awareness counseling for the female adolescent, containing specific information and indications for referral. Providers caring for adolescent girls have the opportunity to enhance fertility awareness as part of a larger reproductive health conversation that adolescents desire, and from which they might benefit. Identifying potential future fertility issues, understanding age-related fertility decline, and aiding in health optimization before future conception might empower the adolescent to make informed reproductive decisions. We provide an algorithm to use with adolescents to discuss the "right time, right weight, right way" to pursue childbearing. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Linkages of biomarkers of zinc with cognitive performance and taste acuity in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Kawade, Rama

    2014-06-01

    A cross-sectional study (n = 403) was conducted to examine the relationship of plasma zinc (PZ) and erythrocyte zinc (EZ) levels with cognitive performance and taste acuity for salt in Indian adolescent girls. PZ, EZ and hemoglobin were estimated in schoolgirls (10-16 years). Cognitive performance was assessed by simple-reaction-time (SRT), recognition-reaction-time (RRT), visual-memory, Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) test. Taste acuity was determined by recognition-thresholds-for-salt (RTS) using 10 different salt concentrations. Low PZ (<0.7 mg/l) and EZ (<8 µg/g of packed cells) were observed in 72% and 23.6% of girls, respectively. PZ and EZ were negatively associated with SRT (r = -0.41, -0.34), RRT (r = -0.49, -0.4), and positively with Memory (r = 0.43, 0.34) and RPM (r = 0.39, 0.31; p < 0.05) and remained significant after adjusting for socio-demographic factors and hemoglobin. RTS was impaired in 18.3% girls and significantly correlated with EZ (r = -0.31, p < 0.05). Zinc deficiency in adolescent girls was associated with poor cognition and taste function implying need for improving their dietary zinc intakes.

  6. Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in healthy adolescent white girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashman, Kevin D.; FitzGerald, A. P.; Viljakainen, H. T.

    2011-01-01

    )D) concentrations above several proposed cutoffs (25, 37.5, 40, and 50 nmol/L) during wintertime in adolescent white girls. Design: Data (baseline and 6 mo) from 2 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 12-mo intervention studies in Danish (55°N) and Finnish (60°N) girls (n = 144; mean age: 11.3 y; mean...... of the relation between vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH)D at the end of winter was 2.43 nmol L—1 μg intake—1, and no difference in the slopes between Finnish and Danish girls was observed. The vitamin D intakes that maintained serum 25(OH)D concentrations at >25, >37.5, and >50 nmol/L in 97.5% of the sample were...... during winter in the vast majority (>97.5%) of adolescent girls (mean age: 11.3 y) at northern latitudes (>55°N) are 8.3 and 18.6 μg/d, respectively. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00267540. ©American Society for Nutrition. All rights reserved....

  7. Sexual Maturation Pattern in Adolescent School Girls of Rural India: A Cross Sectional Study from Nagpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Charuhas V Akre

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Puberty is transformation of the child into an adult. It includes all the events of somatic and mental maturation. Secondary sex characters were also a part of this period. The objective was to assess the pattern of sexual maturation of adolescent school girls in rural India.Methods: This was a community based cross sectional study conducted among school children of Sevanand High school, Mahadula, Nagpur. 322 girls in the age group of 10-18 years were assessed for sexual maturation. The pubertal evaluation was made with reference to Tanner stages and grading was done as per Tanner’s scale. For statistical analysis, median and standard error along with 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated using Epi Info statistical package programme version 6.0 updated 2009. Statistical significance was assessed at a type I error rate of 0.05.Results: We found that pubertal changes appeared earlier in girls. The first to appear was breast development at a median age of 10.40 years. The last to appear was pubic hair development (PH5 at median age 16.87 years, the total time taken for complete sexual maturation being 6.38 years. Median age of menarche was found to be13.18 years.Conclusion: The pattern of sexual maturation in rural adolescent school children revealed that though puberty set in earlier in girls, but took longer time for complete maturation.

  8. The Determination of Physical Activity among Girl Adolescents based on Trans-theoretical model (TTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Alidosti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background It has been proved that physical activity has positive effects for all people. However, low activity is common among adolescents especially girl teenagers. The present study aimed to determine the condition of physical activity among girl adolescents by use of the stages of change derived from Trantheoretical model (TTM. Materials and Methods: This descriptive- analytical investigation was done (in 2016 and 2017 school year in the first – round girl high school among 324 students studying in state schools of Shahrekord city (Western Iran. They were selected through clustering method. The data were collected by researcher-made questionnaires including demographic characteristics, knowledge construct and the stages of change (pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action and maintenance. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS (version 18.0. Results The mean age of participants was 13.69+ 1.95 years old. The mean score of girls' knowledge about types of physical activity was 53.18± 21.82 (a total of 100 scores, which represents the average level of knowledge among them. The study of physical activity in students based on stages of change showed that 165 ones (43 %, 102 ones (26.6 % and only 22 ones (5.7 % of the studied students were in precontemplation, contemplation and maintenance stages, respectively. There was a significant relation between students' knowledge level and their mothers' age (P

  9. Linking physical education with community sport and recreation: a program for adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Meghan; Mooney, Amanda; Eime, Rochelle; Harvey, Jack; Smyth, John; Telford, Amanda; Payne, Warren

    2013-09-01

    The engagement of adolescent girls in physical activity (PA) is a persistent challenge. School-based PA programs have often met with little success because of the lack of linkages between school and community PA settings. The Triple G program aimed to improve PA levels of secondary school girls (12-15 years) in regional Victoria, Australia. The program included a school-based physical education (PE) component that uniquely incorporated student-centered teaching and behavioral skill development. The school component was conceptually and practically linked to a community component that emphasized appropriate structures for participation. The program was informed by ethnographic fieldwork to understand the contextual factors that affect girls' participation in PA. A collaborative intervention design was undertaken to align with PE curriculum and coaching and instructional approaches in community PA settings. The theoretical framework for the intervention was the socioecological model that was underpinned by both individual-level (social cognitive theory) and organizational-level (building organizational/community capacity) strategies. The program model provides an innovative conceptual framework for linking school PE with community sport and recreation and may benefit other PA programs seeking to engage adolescent girls. The objective of this article is to describe program development and the unique theoretical framework and curriculum approaches.

  10. The experience of puberty in Iranian adolescent girls: a qualitative content analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golchin Nayereh Azam

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is an important stage in human life span. Physiologic changes associated with puberty manifest themselves in often complex and bizarre ways to which girls show different reactions. This study aims to explore to puberty experiences in adolescent girls who live in the city of Sari in Iran. Methods The present study is a qualitative study of content analysis. Sampling took place in the city of Sari, Iran and was objective focused in accordance with qualitative studies. Participants were 38 girls of 12–20 years old who had at least experienced 3 menstrual cycles. Data was collected by means of focus group and in-depth interviews. Results As follows, Seven main themes were extracted from the interviews are follows: Menarche as the most unpleasant event in puberty, getting nervous about and ashamed of bodily changes, psychological changes, discordance with parents, sexual orientation and the need for education on this issue, scholastic dysfunction and religious considerations. Conclusion The results showed that for the majority of the participants puberty was an unpleasant experience. Most of them were in need of education on how to go about the issues surrounding puberty. The society, families and of course the adolescents themselves are responsible to work together in order to create an atmosphere in which correct information on puberty and the associated issues are readily accessible.

  11. Explaining dietary intake in adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools. A test of Social Cognitive Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Morgan, Philip J; Dewar, Deborah; Costigan, Sarah; Collins, Clare E

    2012-04-01

    Much of the research on the determinants of dietary behavior has been guided by Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), yet few studies have tested the utility of its proposed structural paths. The aim of this paper was to test the capacity of SCT to explain dietary behaviors in a sample of 357 adolescent girls (13.2±0.5 years) from 12 secondary schools located in low-income communities in New South Wales, Australia. Participants completed validated SCT scales assessing nutrition-related self-efficacy, intention, behavioral strategies, family support, situation, outcome expectations, and outcome expectancies. Participants completed a validated food frequency questionnaire, from which, the percentage of total kilojoules from core-foods, non-core foods and saturated fat were calculated. The theoretical models were tested using structural equation modeling in AMOS. The models explained 48-51% and 13-19% of the variance in intention and dietary behavior, respectively. The models provided an adequate fit to the data, and self-efficacy was positively associated with healthy eating and inversely associated with unhealthy eating. However, the pathway from intention to behavior was not statistically significant in any of the models. While this study has demonstrated the utility of SCT constructs to explain behavior in adolescents girls, the proposed structural pathways were not supported. Further study of the role that implementation intentions play in explaining adolescent girls' dietary behaviors is required.

  12. The experience of puberty in Iranian adolescent girls: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golchin, Nayereh Azam Hagikhani; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Fakhri, Moloud; Hamzehgardeshi, Leila

    2012-08-27

    Adolescence is an important stage in human life span. Physiologic changes associated with puberty manifest themselves in often complex and bizarre ways to which girls show different reactions. This study aims to explore to puberty experiences in adolescent girls who live in the city of Sari in Iran. The present study is a qualitative study of content analysis. Sampling took place in the city of Sari, Iran and was objective focused in accordance with qualitative studies. Participants were 38 girls of 12-20 years old who had at least experienced 3 menstrual cycles. Data was collected by means of focus group and in-depth interviews. As follows, Seven main themes were extracted from the interviews are follows: Menarche as the most unpleasant event in puberty, getting nervous about and ashamed of bodily changes, psychological changes, discordance with parents, sexual orientation and the need for education on this issue, scholastic dysfunction and religious considerations. The results showed that for the majority of the participants puberty was an unpleasant experience. Most of them were in need of education on how to go about the issues surrounding puberty. The society, families and of course the adolescents themselves are responsible to work together in order to create an atmosphere in which correct information on puberty and the associated issues are readily accessible.

  13. Prediction of physical activity intention and behavior in a longitudinal sample of adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudsepp, Lennart; Viira, Roomet; Hannus, Aave

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate a theory of planned behavior model for the prediction of physical activity in adolescent girls using a 1-yr. longitudinal design. A secondary purpose was to examine the moderating influence of intention stability and past behavior on intention-behavior relationships. Participants were 236 12- to 13-year-old adolescent girls who completed measures of the theory of planned behavior and physical activity participation (3-Day Physical Activity Recall) across a 1-yr. interval. The standard theoretical variables predicted intentions, as intention, past behavior, and perceived behavioral control predicted behavior. The temporal stability of intentions and past behavior moderated relationships between intention and behavior. An autoregressive path model showed that intention and perceived behavioral control predicted changes in physical activity and physical activity predicted changes in intention, affective attitude, and perceived behavioral control. This study supports the use of the theory of planned behavior in gaining an understanding of the physical activity intention and behavior of adolescent girls.

  14. Facebook photo activity associated with body image disturbance in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Evelyn P; Gray, James

    2014-04-01

    The present study examined the relationship between body image and adolescent girls' activity on the social networking site (SNS) Facebook (FB). Research has shown that elevated Internet "appearance exposure" is positively correlated with increased body image disturbance among adolescent girls, and there is a particularly strong association with FB use. The present study sought to replicate and extend upon these findings by identifying the specific FB features that correlate with body image disturbance in adolescent girls. A total of 103 middle and high school females completed questionnaire measures of total FB use, specific FB feature use, weight dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, thin ideal internalization, appearance comparison, and self-objectification. An appearance exposure score was calculated based on subjects' use of FB photo applications relative to total FB use. Elevated appearance exposure, but not overall FB usage, was significantly correlated with weight dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, thin ideal internalization, and self-objectification. Implications for eating disorder prevention programs and best practices in researching SNSs are discussed.

  15. Brain activation upon ideal-body media exposure and peer feedback in late adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, Mara; Veldhuis, Jolanda; Braams, Barbara R; Peters, Sabine; Konijn, Elly A; Crone, Eveline A

    2017-05-04

    Media's prevailing thin-body ideal plays a vital role in adolescent girls' body image development, but the co-occurring impact of peer feedback is understudied. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test media imagery and peer feedback combinations on neural activity related to thin-body ideals. Twenty-four healthy female late adolescents rated precategorized body sizes of bikini models (too thin or normal), directly followed by ostensible peer feedback (too thin or normal). Consistent with prior studies on social feedback processing, results showed increased brain activity in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC)/anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and bilateral insula in incongruent situations: when participants rated media models' body size as normal while peer feedback indicated the models as too thin (or vice versa). This effect was stronger for girls with lower self-esteem. A subsequent behavioral study (N = 34 female late adolescents, separate sample) demonstrated that participants changed behavior in the direction of the peer feedback: precategorized normal sized models were rated as too thin more often after receiving too thin peer feedback. This suggests that the neural responses upon peer feedback may influence subsequent choice. Our results show that media-by-peer interactions have pronounced effects on girls' body ideals.

  16. Evaluation of dietary Intake and Food Patterns of Adolescent Girls in Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Montazerifar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The evidence suggests a relationship between lifestyle and diet-related risk factors.Objective: This study assessed the dietary intake and habits of high school girls in Sistan and Bluchistan province, in southeastern Iran.Methods: In a cross-sectional, descriptive study, 753 high school girls aged 14-18 years old wereenrolled by a clustered random sampling method. Dietary intake and food habits were evaluatedby a two-day, 24-hour dietary recall, and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ.Results: The analysis of dietary intakes showed that energy, calcium, zinc, vitamin C and folate intake, compared to the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI, were found to be lower. The, infrequent intake of milk and dairy products, fruits and vegetables, and a high consumption of empty calorie foods e.g. salty snacks, sweets, soft drinks and junk foods were seen among adolescents.Conclusions: The adolescent girls had an improper dietary intake and food habits. Thus, the implementation of nutrition education programs in schools and the designing of proper patternstowards healthier food choices could help improve eating behaviors, the health maintenance of adolescents, and also prevent diet- related diseases in adulthood.

  17. Maternal-related deaths and impoverishment among adolescent girls in India and Niger: findings from a modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verguet, Stéphane; Nandi, Arindam; Filippi, Véronique; Bundy, Donald A P

    2016-01-01

    Background High levels of maternal mortality and large associated inequalities exist in low-income and middle-income countries. Adolescent pregnancies remain common, and pregnant adolescent women face elevated risks of maternal mortality and poverty. We examined the distribution across socioeconomic groups of maternal deaths and impoverishment among adolescent girls (15–19 years old) in Niger, which has the highest total fertility rate globally, and India, which has the largest number of maternal deaths. Methods In Niger and India, among adolescent girls, we estimated the distribution per income quintile of: the number of maternal deaths; and the impoverishment, measured by calculating the number of cases of catastrophic health expenditure incurred, caused by complicated pregnancies. We also examined the potential impact on maternal deaths and poverty of increasing adolescent girls' level of education by 1 year. We used epidemiological and cost inputs sourced from surveys and the literature. Results The number of maternal deaths would be larger among the poorer adolescents than among the richer adolescents in Niger and India. Impoverishment would largely incur among the richer adolescents in Niger and among the poorer adolescents in India. Increasing educational attainment of adolescent girls might avert both a large number of maternal deaths and a significant number of cases of catastrophic health expenditure in the 2 countries. Conclusions Adolescent pregnancies can lead to large equity gaps and substantial impoverishment in low-income and middle-income countries. Increasing female education can reduce such inequalities and provide financial risk protection and poverty alleviation to adolescent girls. PMID:27670517

  18. "They said "be careful'": sexual health communication sources and messages for adolescent girls living with perintally-acquired HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhefka, Stephanie L; Green, Shana M; Sharma, Vinita; Mellins, Claude A

    2017-10-01

    Due to advances in highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), children "who perinatally acquired HIV infection" (PHIV+) in the United States have been reaching adolescence and adulthood in large numbers. As youth PHIV + become sexually active it is important to understand their sources of sexual health information and the messages communicated by those sources to safeguard their sexual health and that of their partners. This paper explores sexual health communication for adolescent girls PHIV + in comparison to adolescent girls who were exposed but did not acquire HIV perinatally (PHIV-) to understand how HIV infection influences the sexual health communication needs of the former. A convenience sample size of 30 (20 PHIV + and 10 PHIV-, mean age 14.5) girls completed survey and participated in a 45-90 min developmentally appropriate semi-structured interview. The interviews aimed to elicit the girls' sources of sexual health communication, the sexual health messages they receive, their comfort or discomfort with these communications, and to determine how their sexual health communication experiences differ from those of their PHIV- peers. Transcripts of the interviews were coded and analyzed for themes related to sexual health communication sources, sexual health communication messages and comfort/discomfort with sexual health communication sources. Our findings suggest that girls PHIV + do not differ significantly from Girls PHIV- in their sources of sexual health information, yet girls PHIV + are most comfortable receiving sexual health information from their health providers, whereas for girls PHIV, the comfort is higher with caregivers. However, the messages Girls PHIV + reported receiving from their providers and caregivers were vague. Both providers and caregivers of Girls PHIV + are uniquely positioned to provide information to adolescents about sexuality and responsible sex decision-making. Some caregivers and providers

  19. Awareness and health seeking behaviour of rural adolescent school girls on menstrual and reproductive health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M M; Devi, R; Gupta, S S

    1999-10-01

    A study was conducted on 130 girl students aged 13-17 years in Haryana to assess their awareness and health seeking behaviour regarding menstrual and reproductive health. Mean age at menarche of the girls was 13.6 +/- 0.83 years. Awareness about the process of menstruation was poor. Commonest reported menstrual problem was dysmenorrhoea (40.7%) followed by irregular menses (2.3%) of which only 5.3% consulted a doctor and 22.4% took over the counter medications from the chemist shops. Knowledge about normal duration of pregnancy and need for extra food during pregnancy was poor. Most of the girls knew about importance, duration of child spacing and need for three medical examinations during pregnancy. Major sources of information were television (73.1%), radio (37.1%) and parents (36.1%). Girls preferred to consult parents (49.2%) and doctors (44.6%) for help at times of having reproductive health problems. This study highlights the need for educating school girls about adolescent health, pregnancy and reproductive health problems through schools and parents by the health professionals.

  20. Heterosexual Men's Ratings of Sexual Attractiveness of Adolescent Girls: A Cross-Cultural Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul; Lowe, Rob; Petrova, Hristina

    2015-11-01

    Following an identical procedure to the one we previously reported (O'Donnell, Lowe, Brotherton, & Bennett, 2014), we examined ratings of sexual attraction to photographs of (the same) adolescent girls (Tanner stages 3-4) labelled as either 14-15 years or 16-17 years old, women, and men. Ratings were made by Bulgarian heterosexual men by pressing buttons on a response box which recorded the ratings made and the time in milliseconds taken to respond. Despite the age of sexual consent in Bulgaria being 14 years, the pattern of findings did not differ from those found in the UK, where the age of consent is 16 years. That is, mean ratings of the sexual attractiveness of the girls labelled as younger were lower than those of the (same) girls labelled as older, and those of the women. In addition, correlations revealed significantly longer responding times when younger girls (and men) were rated as more highly sexually attractive. These associations were reversed in response to the photographs of women. We take these findings to indicate an inhibitory effect arising from generalized sexual norms relating to the inappropriateness of sexual attraction to young girls; the greater the attraction, the higher the inhibition. This second replication of our initial findings suggests a robust effect that may be of benefit in exploration of pedophile or sex offender groups.

  1. A model for promoting physical activity among rural South African adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kinsman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Africa, the expanding epidemic of non-communicable diseases is partly fuelled by high levels of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour. Women especially are at high risk, and interventions promoting physical activity are urgently needed for girls in their adolescence, as this is the time when many girls adopt unhealthy lifestyles. Objective: This qualitative study aimed to identify and describe facilitating factors and barriers that are associated with physical activity among adolescent girls in rural, north-eastern South Africa and, based on these, to develop a model for promoting leisure-time physical activity within this population. Design: The study was conducted in and around three secondary schools. Six focus group discussions were conducted with adolescent girls from the schools, and seven qualitative interviews were held with sports teachers and youth leaders. The data were subjected to thematic analysis. Results: Seven thematic areas were identified, each of which was associated with the girls’ self-reported levels of physical activity. The thematic areas are 1 poverty, 2 body image ideals, 3 gender, 4 parents and home life, 5 demographic factors, 6 perceived health effects of physical activity, and 7 human and infrastructural resources. More barriers to physical activity were reported than facilitating factors. Conclusions: Analysis of the barriers found in the different themes indicated potential remedial actions that could be taken, and these were synthesised into a model for promoting physical activity among South African adolescent girls in resource-poor environments. The model presents a series of action points, seen both from the ‘supply-side’ perspective (such as the provision of resources and training for the individuals, schools, and organisations which facilitate the activities and from the ‘demand-side’ perspective (such as the development of empowering messages about body image for

  2. A model for promoting physical activity among rural South African adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, John; Norris, Shane A.; Kahn, Kathleen; Twine, Rhian; Riggle, Kari; Edin, Kerstin; Mathebula, Jennifer; Ngobeni, Sizzy; Monareng, Nester; Micklesfield, Lisa K.

    2015-01-01

    Background In South Africa, the expanding epidemic of non-communicable diseases is partly fuelled by high levels of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour. Women especially are at high risk, and interventions promoting physical activity are urgently needed for girls in their adolescence, as this is the time when many girls adopt unhealthy lifestyles. Objective This qualitative study aimed to identify and describe facilitating factors and barriers that are associated with physical activity among adolescent girls in rural, north-eastern South Africa and, based on these, to develop a model for promoting leisure-time physical activity within this population. Design The study was conducted in and around three secondary schools. Six focus group discussions were conducted with adolescent girls from the schools, and seven qualitative interviews were held with sports teachers and youth leaders. The data were subjected to thematic analysis. Results Seven thematic areas were identified, each of which was associated with the girls’ self-reported levels of physical activity. The thematic areas are 1) poverty, 2) body image ideals, 3) gender, 4) parents and home life, 5) demographic factors, 6) perceived health effects of physical activity, and 7) human and infrastructural resources. More barriers to physical activity were reported than facilitating factors. Conclusions Analysis of the barriers found in the different themes indicated potential remedial actions that could be taken, and these were synthesised into a model for promoting physical activity among South African adolescent girls in resource-poor environments. The model presents a series of action points, seen both from the ‘supply-side’ perspective (such as the provision of resources and training for the individuals, schools, and organisations which facilitate the activities) and from the ‘demand-side’ perspective (such as the development of empowering messages about body image for teenage girls, and

  3. Structural determinants of adolescent girls' vulnerability to HIV: views from community members in Botswana, Malawi, and Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Carol; Skinner, Joanna; Osman, Nadia; Schwandt, Hilary

    2011-07-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, adolescent girls are three to four times more likely than adolescent boys to be living with HIV/AIDS. A literature review revealed only four studies that had examined HIV vulnerability from the perspective of community members. None of the studies focused specifically on adolescent girls. To fill this gap, in 2008 12 focus group discussions were held in selected peri-urban and rural sites in Botswana, 12 in Malawi, and 11 in Mozambique to identify factors that render girls vulnerable to HIV infection from the community members' perspective. The preponderance of comments identified structural factors--insufficient economic, educational, socio-cultural, and legal support for adolescent girls--as the root causes of girls' vulnerability to HIV through exposure to unprotected sexual relationships, primarily relationships that are transactional and age-disparate. Community members explicitly called for policies and interventions to strengthen cultural, economic, educational, and legal structures to protect girls, recognized community members' responsibility to take action, and requested programs to enhance adult-child communication, thus revealing an understanding that girls' vulnerability is multi-level and multi-faceted, so must be addressed through a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention.

  4. Lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis in an adolescent girl presenting as mycetoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilak, Ragini; Kumari, Varsha; Bansal, Manish; Sharma, Taniya; Pandey, Shyam Sunder

    2012-09-01

    A 13-year-old girl presented with multiple painless purulent ulcers with raised borders on the medial aspect of the sole of her right foot associated with inguinal lymphadenopathy for the past 4 years. There was history of local trauma at the site prior to the formation of ulcers. There were no other significant associated signs or symptoms. The patient was initially treated with multiple antibiotics with minimal improvement. Fungal cultures of biopsy specimens demonstrated the presence of colonies of Sporothrix schenckii thus confirming the diagnosis of sporotrichosis. Oral itraconazole at the dose of 100 mg twice daily was initiated with marked response at 4 weeks. This case demonstrated a rare morphological presentation of the lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis as mycetoma. The possible diagnosis of sporotrichosis should be kept in mind in such a clinical presentation not responding to antibiotics. Cutaneous sporotrichosis should be diagnosed and treated as early as possible because untreated cases may disseminate to cause visceral involvement with fatal outcome in immunocompromised patients.

  5. An Adolescent Girl with Giant Fibroadenoma – A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdousee Ishrat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Though fibroadenoma is the most common benign tumor of the breast and is more common under the age of 30, giant fibroadenoma is rare representing less than 4% of all fibroadenomas. A 12 years old girl presented with rapidly enlarging well-circumscribed firm, non-tender mass in right breast for 2 months which was painless and with no history of trauma, nipple discharge, fever, anorexia, weight loss or axillary lymphadenopathy. There was no family history of neoplasms. Clinically, the lump was about 12 × 12 cm and not fixed to skin or underlying structures with the absence of nipple retraction or discharge. There was no axillary lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed a benign proliferative breast disease. Total excision of mass was done preserving nipple and areola having weight of 535 gm with histopathological features suggestive of giant fibroadenoma. Giant fibroadenoma is a benign breast disease that may mimic rare malignant lesion. So, breast and nipple conserving surgery should always be performed irrespective of size of tumor as in this case.

  6. Thyroid ophthalmopathy in an adolescent girl: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Devi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A 14 year old girl presented with protrusion of both the eyes for duration of 3 months and pain, redness and watering of right eye for 20 days. On examination, she was thin built, poorly nourished and the thyroid gland was found to be enlarged. Both eyes were proptosed and there was incapability of complete closure of the eyelids on both sides. On right eye, conjunctiva was congested and there was a corneal lesion seen inferomedially with an epithelial defect. CT scan of the orbit revealed picture of thyroid ophthalmopathy. Thyroid profile revealed picture suggestive of hyperthyroidism and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody was found to be very high. She was diagnosed as a case of thyroid ophthalmopathy both eyes with exposure keratitis right eye. She was treated with anti-thyroid medication along with conservative treatment for ocular symptoms and lateral tarsorrhaphy of right eye for exposure keratopathy. Pulse steroid therapy was started and subsequent follow up showed resolution of the signs. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3640-3643

  7. An Analysis of Anger in Adolescent Girls Who Practice the Martial Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lotfian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of martial arts on adolescents' behavior, especially aggression, is controversial. The aim of this study was to assess and compare anger ratings among adolescent girl athletes of different martial arts. 291 female adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19 were assessed according to the Adolescent Anger Rating Scale designed by DM Burney. In the case group, the martial arts practiced were either judo (n=70 or karate (n=66, while the control group was composed of swimmers (n=59 and nonathletes (n=96. Total anger scores showed statistically significant differences between the groups (P=0.001 decreasing from girls who practiced judo to nonathletes, karate, and swimmers. Instrumental and reactive anger subscales also showed significant differences between the groups, but this difference was not found for anger control. As a conclusion, the anger rate did not differ between judoka and nonathletes, but that both of these groups received higher scores in total anger than karateka and swimmers.

  8. The role of maternal perceptions and ethnic background in the mental health help-seeking pathway of adolescent girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.J.E. Flink (Ilse); T.M.J. Beirens (Tinneke); D. Butte (Dick); H. Raat (Hein)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractMothers play a crucial role in the help-seeking pathway of adolescents. This study examined how mothers with different ethnic backgrounds perceive the issue of help-seeking for internalizing problems (e.g. depression) in adolescent girls. Seven focus group discussions were conducted with

  9. Adolescent girls, illegal abortions and "sugar-daddies" in Dar es Salaam: vulnerable victims and active social agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silberschmidt, Margrethe; Rasch, V

    2001-01-01

    they became pregnant, and many counted on an illegally induced abortion if they got pregnant. Even if adolescents are now allowed free access to family planning information, education and services, our study shows that this remains in the realm of theory rather than practice. Moreover, most adolescent girls...

  10. Natural sagittal spino-pelvic alignment in boys and girls before, at and after the adolescent growth spurt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlösser, Tom; Vincken, Koen L.; Rogers, Kenneth; Castelein, RM; Shah, Suken A.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis occurs far more often in girls than in boys, and its initiation and progression normally takes place around the adolescent growth spurt. Despite extensive research into the topic, no solid explanation for both well-known phenomena has been offered. The sagittal profil

  11. The role of maternal perceptions and ethnic background in the mental health help-seeking pathway of adolescent girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.J.E. Flink (Ilse); T.M.J. Beirens (Tinneke); D. Butte (Dick); H. Raat (Hein)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractMothers play a crucial role in the help-seeking pathway of adolescents. This study examined how mothers with different ethnic backgrounds perceive the issue of help-seeking for internalizing problems (e.g. depression) in adolescent girls. Seven focus group discussions were conducted with

  12. Natural sagittal spino-pelvic alignment in boys and girls before, at and after the adolescent growth spurt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlösser, Tom; Vincken, Koen L.; Rogers, Kenneth; Castelein, RM; Shah, Suken A.

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis occurs far more often in girls than in boys, and its initiation and progression normally takes place around the adolescent growth spurt. Despite extensive research into the topic, no solid explanation for both well-known phenomena has been offered. The sagittal

  13. The Relationship between Media Influence and Ethnic Identity Development among Low-Income African American and White Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Kenycia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between media influence and ethnic identity among low-income African American and White adolescent girls. According to the U.S. Census (2008), 98% of Americans have a television in their home. Prior research suggests that low-income African American adolescents are exposed to more media…

  14. Coping strategies for food insecurity among adolescent girls during the lean season in East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmaningrum, Dewi; Roshita, Airin; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty

    2016-07-01

    One in eight people suffer from chronic hunger, leading to an insecure food situation. Chronic hunger mostly occurs in developing countries and includes adolescent girls. Our qualitative study, with data collected in December 2012, provided the results of an exploration of the experiences and strategies implemented by fifteen adolescent girls who tried to cope with their condition of living in food-insecure families. The age of the girls ranged from 10 to 19 years. Their coping strategies were grouped into self-initiated and parent-initiated strategies. Self-initiated coping strategies that were the girls' own initiatives included eating only rice without any vegetables or side dish, eating less-desirable food, reducing portion size, skipping meals, saving pocket money and earning money to buy food. The parent-initiated coping strategies that were initiated by the parents and followed by the girls included selling their own field produce and livestock, asking for food, borrowing food and storing maize for 6 months up to 1 year. These results show that adolescent girls living in food-insecure areas implement several coping strategies in severe conditions, which parents may not be aware of, and such conditions may compromise their growth and health. The acknowledgement of such coping strategies and the girls' food insecurity condition can lead to a useful and suitable food insecurity alleviation programme for the girls and their families.

  15. Why don't girls choose technological studies? Adolescents' stereotypes and attitudes towards studies related to medicine or engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sáez, Mercedes; Puertas, Susana; Sáinz, Milagros

    2011-05-01

    Gender differences in choice of studies emerge already in adolescence. Two studies with adolescents are presented, the goal of which is to explore the influence of gender by assessing males and females who choose studies related to Medicine or Engineering. Study 1, correlational (N = 330, mean age 15.9, 56.7% girls), shows that girls who choose technology are more poorly appraised than girls who choose other studies. Study 2 (N = 130; mean age 16.77, 56.2% girls), experimental, measures implicit attitudes (using the IAT) towards males and females from Medicine and Engineering. Implicit attitudes are more favorable towards women if they are studying Medicine and towards men if they study Engineering. The results are analyzed with relation to the percentages of boys and girls in the different fields of study.

  16. A qualitative exploration of the work of embodiment in adolescent girls with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liné, C; Moro, M R; Lefèvre, H; Thievenaz, J; Lachal, J

    2016-10-01

    Social representations generally associate obesity, especially in adolescent girls, with sedentariness, lack of self-control and laziness. These girls thus have substantial problems of self-esteem. Dietary, lifestyle and behavioural approaches alone cannot address this issue, for they do not apprehend all of the complexity of obesity. This qualitative study is based on a dual observation: that the work performed by adolescents is unrecognized and that the body is not considered as a subject of analysis. It raises the question of the corporality of these teens through an original perspective: that of the perspective of their organization of actions on, to and by the body, in specific situations. The objective is to have access to the corporal experience of young girls with obesity, so that we can understand and support them better. The data come from semi-directive interviews with 10 adolescent girls with obesity. The content was analysed in terms of concepts of professional didactics (a branch of educational psychology) and enaction. Five situations were identified from these interviews: the first, shopping with friends, concerns actions by the subjects towards their bodies; the other four are enacted actions: conduct towards a normal-weight person, conduct in public transportation, performing physical activity, and eating. The results show the work of these young women with obesity, the means they mobilize to live in their bodies and their considerable efforts of embodiment. Recognition of this work should help to enhance their self-esteem. Treatment and support may take this dimension of work into account and help them to become aware of the efforts they make every day.

  17. A self-defense program reduces the incidence of sexual assault in Kenyan adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Jake; Sinclair, Lee; Otieno, Evans; Mulinge, Munyae; Kapphahn, Cynthia; Golden, Neville H

    2013-09-01

    To determine the effect of a standardized 6-week self-defense program on the incidence of sexual assault in adolescent high school girls in an urban slum in Nairobi, Kenya. Population-based survey of 522 high school girls in the Korogocho-Kariobangi locations in Nairobi, Kenya, at baseline and 10 months later. Subjects were assigned by school attended to either a "No Means No Worldwide" self-defense course (eight schools; N = 402) or to a life-skills class (two schools; N = 120). Both the intervention and the life-skills classes were taught in the schools by trained instructors. Participants were administered the same survey at baseline and follow-up. A total of 522 girls (mean age, 16.7 ± 1.5 years; range, 14-21 years) completed surveys at baseline, and 489 at 10-month follow-up. At baseline, 24.5% reported sexual assault in the prior year, with the majority (90%) reporting assault by someone known to them (boyfriend, 52%; relative, 17%; neighbor, 15%; teacher or pastor, 6%). In the self-defense intervention group, the incidence of sexual assault decreased from 24.6% at baseline to 9.2% at follow-up (p < .001), in contrast to the control group, in which the incidence remained unchanged (24.2% at baseline and 23.1% at follow-up; p = .10). Over half the girls in the intervention group reported having used the self-defense skills to avert sexual assault in the year after the training. Rates of disclosure increased in the intervention group, but not in controls. A standardized 6-week self-defense program is effective in reducing the incidence of sexual assault in slum-dwelling high school girls in Nairobi, Kenya. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutrient intake and health status of lactovegetarians: chemical analyses of diets using the duplicate portion sampling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, M; Aly, K O; Andersson, I; Asp, N G; Birkhed, D; Denker, I; Johansson, C G; Jägerstad, M; Kolar, K; Nair, B M

    1984-08-01

    Six middle-aged lactovegetarians (three men and three women) collected copies of four 24-h diets using the duplicate portion sampling technique. By chemical analyses, the nutrient composition of the lactovegetarian diet was determined in detail and compared with that of a mixed Swedish diet (normal) and a vegan diet (vegan) studied previously. The nutrient composition of the lactovegetarian diet expressed per 1000 kcal represented an average between normal and vegan diets. It was in closer agreement with Swedish recommended dietary allowances than the normal Swedish diet. Thus, the lactovegetarian diet contained 35% of the energy as fat and was rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic acid, which resulted in a polyunsaturated/saturated fat ratio of 0.6. The lactovegetarian diet had a cholesterol concentration only half of that of a normal diet. Protein content and amino acid composition were well above recommendations. The lactovegetarian diets contained less sucrose than normal and vegan diets, but the sum of the intake of low molecular weight carbohydrates was comparable to normal and vegan diets. Dietary fiber was three times higher than in a normal diet. Essential minerals and trace elements, ie, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Zn, Cu, Se, satisfied current requirements. The intake of vitamin B12 by the lactovegetarians was around 1.4 micrograms daily, which is below the recommendations. The intake of folates was high, 300 to 400 micrograms daily. The clinical and biochemical investigation of the subjects revealed no signs of nutritional deficiency. Their plasma lipoproteins and the blood pressures were low for their age, in agreement with observations made earlier in a group of vegans.

  19. Adolescent girls, illegal abortions and "sugar-daddies" in Dar es Salaam: vulnerable victims and active social agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silberschmidt, M; Rasch, V

    2001-01-01

    they became pregnant, and many counted on an illegally induced abortion if they got pregnant. Even if adolescents are now allowed free access to family planning information, education and services, our study shows that this remains in the realm of theory rather than practice. Moreover, most adolescent girls......Adolescent girls' early sexual activity, early pregnancy, induced abortions and the increase in HIV infections have become major concerns in Sub-Saharan Africa. Efforts, though, to understand their sexual behaviour and to prevent reproductive health problems are almost non-existent. Adolescent...... willing preys and active social agents engaging in high-risk sexual behaviour. In order to get material benefits they expose themselves to serious health risks, including induced abortion - without realising their own vulnerability. In our study, one out of four girls had more than one partner at the time...

  20. Adolescent girls, illegal abortions and "sugar-daddies" in Dar es Salaam: vulnerable victims and active social agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silberschmidt, Margrethe; Rasch, V

    2001-01-01

    Adolescent girls' early sexual activity, early pregnancy, induced abortions and the increase in HIV infections have become major concerns in Sub-Saharan Africa. Efforts, though, to understand their sexual behaviour and to prevent reproductive health problems are almost non-existent. Adolescent...... willing preys and active social agents engaging in high-risk sexual behaviour. In order to get material benefits they expose themselves to serious health risks, including induced abortion - without realising their own vulnerability. In our study, one out of four girls had more than one partner at the time...... they became pregnant, and many counted on an illegally induced abortion if they got pregnant. Even if adolescents are now allowed free access to family planning information, education and services, our study shows that this remains in the realm of theory rather than practice. Moreover, most adolescent girls...

  1. Longitudinal examination of maternal psychological control and adolescents' self-competence as predictors of bulimic symptoms among boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salafia, Elizabeth H Blodgett; Gondoli, Dawn M; Corning, Alexandra F; Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Godinez, Nicole M

    2009-07-01

    Because bulimia nervosa is a problem among adolescents, it remains essential to examine its precursors. The specific etiologic chain investigated in this study is such that maternal psychological control first leads to adolescents' lowered self-competence, which in turn predicts bulimic symptoms. Self-report data were collected from 58 boys and 73 girls during sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. Participants reported on maternal psychological control, self-competence, and bulimic symptoms. Using structural equation modeling, we tested our hypothesized longitudinal indirect effects model separately for boys and girls. Results indeed indicated that high maternal psychological control in sixth grade led to lowered adolescents' self-competence in seventh grade, which in turn predicted increased bulimic symptoms in eighth grade for both boys and girls. This study uncovers one particular process wherein a psychologically controlling parenting style affects adolescents' development of bulimic symptoms, a finding that may be useful to researchers and clinicians.

  2. Mindfulness and Eating Behavior in Adolescent Girls at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivarunas, Bernadette; Kelly, Nichole R.; Pickworth, Courtney K.; Cassidy, Omni; Radin, Rachel M.; Shank, Lisa M.; Vannucci, Anna; Courville, Amber B.; Chen, Kong Y.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A.; Shomaker, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship of dispositional mindfulness to binge eating and associated eating attitudes and behaviors among adolescent girls at risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods Participants were 114 overweight or obese adolescents enrolled in a study of girls with a family history of T2D and mild depressive symptoms. Adolescent self-reports of mindfulness, eating in the absence of hunger, and depressive symptoms were collected. An interview was administered to determine presence of binge eating episodes and a behavioral task was used to assess the reinforcing value of food relative to other non-snack food rewards. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results In analyses accounting for race, percent body fat, lean mass, height, age, and depressive symptoms, dispositional mindfulness was associated with a lower odds of binge eating (p = .002). Controlling for the same potential confounds, mindfulness was also inversely associated with eating concern, eating in the absence of hunger in response to fatigue/boredom, and higher food reinforcement relative to physical activity (all p < .05). Conclusions In girls with a family history of T2D, independent of body composition and depressive symptoms, intra-individual differences in mindfulness are related to binge eating and associated attitudes and behaviors that may confer risk for obesity and metabolic problems. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which mindfulness plays a role in the etiology and/or maintenance of disinhibited eating in adolescents at risk for T2D. PMID:26172157

  3. Qualitative study exploring healthy eating practices and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedibe, Heather M; Kahn, Kathleen; Edin, Kerstin; Gitau, Tabitha; Ivarsson, Anneli; Norris, Shane A

    2014-08-26

    Dietary behaviours and physical activity are modifiable risk factors to address increasing levels of obesity among children and adolescents, and consequently to reduce later cardiovascular and metabolic disease. This paper explores perceptions, attitudes, barriers, and facilitators related to healthy eating and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa. A qualitative study was conducted in the rural Agincourt subdistrict, covered by a health and sociodemographic surveillance system, in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Semistructured "duo-interviews" were carried out with 11 pairs of adolescent female friends aged 16 to 19 years. Thematic content analysis was used. The majority of participants considered locally grown and traditional foods, especially fruits and vegetables, to be healthy. Their consumption was limited by availability, and these foods were often sourced from family or neighbourhood gardens. Female caregivers and school meal programmes facilitated healthy eating practices. Most participants believed in the importance of breakfast, even though for the majority, limited food within the household was a barrier to eating breakfast before going to school. The majority cited limited accessibility as a major barrier to healthy eating, and noted the increasing intake of "convenient and less healthy foods". Girls were aware of the benefits of physical activity and engaged in various physical activities within the home, community, and schools, including household chores, walking long distances to school, traditional dancing, and extramural activities such as netball and soccer. The findings show widespread knowledge about healthy eating and the benefits of consuming locally grown and traditional food items in a population that is undergoing nutrition transition. Limited access and food availability are strong barriers to healthy eating practices. School meal programmes are an important facilitator of healthy eating, and breakfast

  4. Food insecurity and age at menarche among adolescent girls in Jimma Zone Southwest Ethiopia: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew Yehenew

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age at menarche is the reflection of cumulative pre-adolescent exposure of girls to either adverse environment such as food insecurity or affluent living conditions. Food insecurity could result in inadequate nutrient intake and stress, both of which are hypothesized to have opposing effects on the timing of menarche through divergent pathways. It is not known whether food insecure girls have delayed menarche or early menarche compared with their food secure peers. In this study we test the competing hypothesis of the relationship between food insecurity and age at menarche among adolescent girls in the Southwest Ethiopia. Methods We report on 900 girls who were investigated in the first two rounds of the five year longitudinal survey. The semi-parametric frailty model was fitted to determine the effect of adolescent food insecurity on time to menarche after adjusting for socio-demographic and economic variables. Results Food insecure girls have menarche one year later than their food secure peer (median age of 15 years vs 14 years. The hazard of menarche showed a significant decline (P = 0.019 as severity of food insecurity level increased, the hazard ratio (HR for mild food insecurity and moderate/severe food insecurity were 0.936 and 0.496, respectively compared to food secure girls. Stunted girls had menarche nearly one year later than their non-stunted peers (HR = 0.551, P Conclusion Food insecurity is associated with delay of age at menarche by one year among girls in the study area. Stunted girls had menarche one year later than their non-stunted peers. Age at menarche reflects the development of girls including the timing of sexual maturation, nutritional status and trajectory of growth during the pre-pubertal periods. The findings reflect the consequence of chronic food insecurity on the development and well-being of girls in the study area.

  5. [Diagnosis and management of amenorrhea in adolescent girls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, E; Bricaire, L; Christin-Maitre, S

    2013-07-01

    Amenorrhea in adolescents can be primary, with or without breast development, or secondary. Whether amenorrhea is primary or secondary, height, body mass index, food intake, the level of physical activity per week, the presence of hirsutism or galactorrhea, pelvic pain and past history of intercourse need to be investigated. Initially, blood tests should include hCG, FSH, estradiol, testosterone and prolactin serum levels. This screening will discriminate between hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and amenorrhea from primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). In case of primary amenorrhea, hypogonadism may be due to congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) or more rarely acquired HH. If FSH is elevated, amenorrhea is due to primary ovarian failure, mainly related to Turner syndrome. If pubertal development is normal, a pelvic ultrasound should be performed. It may visualize a hindering of menses output or less frequently an absence of uterus, as in Rokitansky syndrome or androgen insentivity syndrome. The most frequent etiologies of secondary amenorrhea are polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and less frequently POI and hyperprolactinemia. The differential diagnoses of PCOS are late-onset 21-hydroxylase deficiency and very rare ovarian or adrenal tumors. When contraception is not necessary, hormonal replacement therapy, including estrogen and progestins should be administered in order to avoid hypoestrogenism. In case of PCOS, sequential progestins can be prescribed. A contraceptive pill can be considered when contraception is needed and/or when hyperandrogenism needs to be treated.

  6. Perceived side effects of oral contraceptives among adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, E S; Goodwin, M S

    1980-11-22

    Knowledge and attitudes of adolescent females regarding the side effects of oral contraceptives were investigated. The data source was a large study of sexual and contraceptive attitudes and experience. The questionnaire responses of 486 single females attending 10 birth control and pregnancy counseling centers in Ontario, Canada were examined. The age range of the subjects was from 13-20; 71% were attending school and 69% were living at home. They were attending the centers in order to obtain contraceptives (55%), to renew OC prescriptions (20%), or to receive pregnancy counseling (25%). 29% of the subjects had used OCs before coming to the clinic, but 91% planned to use OC after their clinic visit. 8% were planning to use an IUD; 1% were planning to use a diaphragm; and less than 1% were planning to have their boyfriend use condoms. 85% of the subjects indicated that they had heard abut side effcts of OCs with weight gain as the best known side effect. Other side effects familiar to many included nausea, circulatory disorders, headaches, emotional changes, menstrual problems and cancer. About 1/2 of the subjects had learned about these side effects from the mass media or female friends, 25% from a school sex education class, 15% from their mothers, and 3% from a physician. Despite knowledge regarding side effects, most of the subjects had positive attitudes toward OCs with 59% believing that the advnatages outweighed any disadvantages.

  7. Polycystic ovarian syndrome: Prevalence and its correlates among adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja Bhuvanashree

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is the most frequent endocrinological disorder affecting young women of reproductive age having wide spread morbidity. Though, several factors have been identified attributing to its cause, yet it demands further investigations. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out among 253 adolescent females (age: 10-19 years to elicit the associations between PCOS and the cesarean mode of delivery, eruption of wisdom tooth and other factors through a binary logistic regression analysis. Results: The mean age was 18.57 ΁ 0.19 (standard error of mean years. The prevalence of PCOS in Nellore district is 15.4% (95% confidence interval: 10.97-19.83. Higher risk of PCOS was associated with the cesarean mode of delivery (odds ratio [OR] = 4.91, P < 0.0001, eruption of at least 1 wisdom tooth (OR = 2.61, P = 0.025 and the presence of central obesity (OR = 2.57, P = 0.05. Discussion: An attempt has been taken to hypothesize causal association of associated factors with PCOS from the available literature, which in turn may pave the path for newer approaches for prevention and management.

  8. The Role of Mothers' and Adolescents' Perceptions of Ethnic-Racial Socialization in Shaping Ethnic-Racial Identity among Early Adolescent Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Diane; Hagelskamp, Carolin; Way, Niobe; Foust, Monica D.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined relationships between adolescents' and mothers' reports of ethnic-racial socialization and adolescents' ethnic-racial identity. The sample included 170 sixth graders (49% boys, 51% girls) and their mothers, all of whom identified as Black, Puerto Rican, Dominican, or Chinese. Two dimensions of ethnic-racial socialization…

  9. How perfectionism and ineffectiveness influence growth of eating disorder risk in young adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Tracey D; Wilksch, Simon M; Paxton, Susan J; Byrne, Susan M; Austin, S Bryn

    2015-03-01

    While perfectionism is widely considered to influence risk for eating disorders, results of longitudinal studies are mixed. The goal of the current study was to investigate a more complex model of how baseline perfectionism (both high personal standards and self-critical evaluative concerns) might influence change in risk status for eating disorders in young adolescent girls, through its influence on ineffectiveness. The study was conducted with 926 girls (mean age of 13 years), and involved three waves of data (baseline, 6- and 12-month follow-up). Latent growth curve modelling, incorporating the average rate at which risk changed over time, the intercept (initial status) of ineffectiveness, and baseline perfectionism, was used to explore longitudinal mediation. Personal standards was not supported as contributing to risk but results indicated that the higher mean scores on ineffectiveness over the three waves mediated the relationship between higher baseline self-critical evaluative concerns and both measures of eating disorder risk. The relationship between concern over mistakes and change in risk was small and negative. These results suggest the usefulness of interventions related to self-criticism and ineffectiveness for decreasing risk for developing an eating disorder in young adolescent girls.

  10. Reciprocal effects of parenting and borderline personality disorder symptoms in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Stephanie D; Whalen, Diana J; Scott, Lori N; Zalewski, Maureen; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison E

    2014-05-01

    Theories of borderline personality disorder (BPD) postulate that high-risk transactions between caregiver and child are important for the development and maintenance of the disorder. Little empirical evidence exists regarding the reciprocal effects of parenting on the development of BPD symptoms in adolescence. The impact of child and caregiver characteristics on this reciprocal relationship is also unknown. Thus, the current study examines bidirectional effects of parenting, specifically harsh punishment practices and caregiver low warmth, and BPD symptoms in girls aged 14-17 years based on annual, longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Girls Study (N = 2,451) in the context of child and caregiver characteristics. We examined these associations through the use of autoregressive latent trajectory models to differentiate time-specific variations in BPD symptoms and parenting from the stable processes that steadily influence repeated measures within an individual. The developmental trajectories of BPD symptoms and parenting were moderately associated, suggesting a reciprocal relationship. There was some support for time-specific elevations in BPD symptoms predicting subsequent increases in harsh punishment and caregiver low warmth. There was little support for increases in harsh punishment and caregiver low warmth predicting subsequent elevations in BPD symptoms. Child impulsivity and negative affectivity, and caregiver psychopathology were related to parenting trajectories, while only child characteristics predicted BPD trajectories. The results highlight the stability of the reciprocal associations between parenting and BPD trajectories in adolescent girls and add to our understanding of the longitudinal course of BPD in youth.

  11. Time perceptions and time allocation preferences among adolescent boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, J E

    1996-01-01

    How time is allocated between competing directed and nondirected activities can greatly define persona and lifestyle objectives. The important process of learning about time and the consequences of its various uses begins in childhood and adolescence, and provides the foundation for later life. This study examines whether girls differ from boys with regard to certain directed and nondirected types of time allocation preferences. Lifestyle objectives related to personal development (spending time), material achievement (selling time), social acceptance (giving time), and passive entertainment (passing or killing time), are explored using a time allocation preference model that defines a person's time investment portfolio. This study extends recent research by psychologists, sociologists, and anthropologists regarding the allocation and perception of time by examining student time allocation preferences and their association with teacher-observed behaviors in school. It was found that adolescent girls, whether considered by their teachers to exhibit at-risk or normal behaviors, seem to be less inclined toward nondirected activities and more toward other-directed activities. Boys seem to be more inclined toward nondirected activities. Being at risk as a school behavioral classification, is particularly associated with a large amount of nondirected activities in boys and large amounts of other-directed activities in girls.

  12. Girls feeling good at school: School gender environment, internalization and awareness of socio-cultural attitudes associations with self-esteem in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, Victoria L; Haase, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    As society continues to advocate an unrealistically thin body shape, awareness and internalization of appearance and its consequent impact upon self-esteem has become increasingly of concern, particularly in adolescent girls. School gender environment may influence these factors, but remains largely unexplored. This study aimed to assess differences between two different school environments in appearance attitudes, social influences and associations with self-esteem. Two hundred and twelve girls (M = 13.8 years) attending either a single-sex or co-educational school completed measures on socio-cultural attitudes towards appearance, social support and self-esteem. Though marginal differences between school environments were found, significantly higher internalization was reported among girls at the co-educational school. School environment moderated relations between internalization and self-esteem such that girls in co-educational environments had poorer self-esteem stemming from greater internalization. Thus, in a single-sex school environment, protective factors may attenuate negative associations between socio-cultural attitudes towards appearance and self-esteem in adolescent girls.

  13. Prenatal and early life stress and risk of eating disorders in adolescent girls and young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiujuan; Liang, Hong; Yuan, Wei; Olsen, Jørn; Cnattingius, Sven; Li, Jiong

    2016-11-01

    Females are more likely than males to develop eating disorders (EDs) in the adolescence and youth, and the etiology remains unclear. We aimed to estimate the effect of severe early life stress following bereavement, the death of a close relative, on the risk of EDs among females aged 10-26 years. This population-based cohort study included girls born in Denmark (from 1973 to 2000) or Sweden (from 1970 to 1997). Girls were categorized as exposed if they were born to mothers who lost a close relative 1 year prior to or during pregnancy or if the girl herself lost a parent or a sibling within the first 10 years of life. All other girls were included in unexposed group. An ED case was defined by a diagnosis of EDs at ages of 10-26 years, including broadly defined bulimia nervosa, broadly defined anorexia nervosa and mixed EDs. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the incidence rate ratio (IRR) between exposed group and unexposed group.A total of 64453 (3.05 %) girls were included in the exposed group. We identified 9477 girls with a diagnosis of EDs, of whom 307 (3.24 %) were from the exposed group. Both prenatal and postnatal exposure following bereavement by unexpected death was associated with an increased overall risk of EDs (IRRprenatal: 1.49, 95 % CI: 1.01-2.19 and IRRpostnatal: 1.34, 95 % CI: 1.05-1.71). We observed similar results for subtypes of broadly defined bulimia nervosa (IRR: 2.47, 95 % CI: 1.67-3.65) and mixed EDs (IRR: 1.45, 95 % CI: 1.02-2.07).Our findings suggest that prenatal and early postnatal life stress due to unexpected death of a close relative is associated with an increased overall risk of eating disorders in adolescent girls and young women. The increased risk might be driven mainly by differences in broadly defined bulimia nervosa and mixed eating disorders, but not broadly defined anorexia nervosa.

  14. The Relationship between Body Image Coping Strategy and Eating Disorders among Iranian Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Farid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to physical and psychological changes during puberty, most common problem of young people is body image defined as degree of size, shape and general appearance. Wrong perception of body image and dissatisfaction with body image in people can lead to eating disorders and stress. Peace of mind is in fact a mental mechanism that people use it to reduce physical and emotional strains coping with stressful situations. The aim of this study was to determine the type of coping strategy of adolescent girls and its relationship with their eating disorders. Methods: This is study is a cross-sectional study in which 573 female adolescent of Karaj participated. Two-Stage Random Sampling was used in this study. In this study, to assess people who are at risk of eating disorder, the nutritional approach assessment questionnaire of EAT-26 was used, while Strategy Inventory Body Image Coping- BICSI questionnaire was used to determine the type of coping strategy. Results: In this study, the mean age of participants was 16.6 (±26/1 (19- 14 years. In this study, 23.7% of participants had an eating disorder. Mental image of an individual of his body had significant correlation with eating disorder (P= 0.000. Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant relationship between the type of coping strategy adopted by adolescent girls and eating disorder score of them (P= 0.007. The relationship between coping strategy and body image and having or not having the eating disorder was determined by Chi-square test at the borderline level (P= 0.054. Conclusion: In this study, results showed that there is relationship between coping strategy of adolescent girls and the eating disorder score of adolescent girls. The highest score was assigned to getting involved with body image, followed by avoidance and rational acceptance. Since the use of inappropriate coping strategies is associated with negative results such as eating disorders and depression, it is expected

  15. Adolescent girls and young women: key populations for HIV epidemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellar, Rachael C; Dlamini, Sarah; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool

    2015-01-01

    At the epicentre of the HIV epidemic in southern Africa, adolescent girls and young women aged 15-24 contribute a disproportionate ~30% of all new infections and seroconvert 5-7 years earlier than their male peers. This age-sex disparity in HIV acquisition continues to sustain unprecedentedly high incidence rates, and preventing HIV infection in this age group is a pre-requisite for achieving an AIDS-free generation and attaining epidemic control. Adolescent girls and young women in southern Africa are uniquely vulnerable to HIV and have up to eight times more infection than their male peers. While the cause of this vulnerability has not been fully elucidated, it is compounded by structural, social and biological factors. These factors include but are not limited to: engagement in age-disparate and/or transactional relationships, few years of schooling, experience of food insecurity, experience of gender-based violence, increased genital inflammation, and amplification of effects of transmission co-factors. Despite the large and immediate HIV prevention need of adolescent girls and young women, there is a dearth of evidence-based interventions to reduce their risk. The exclusion of adolescents in biomedical research is a huge barrier. School and community-based education programmes are commonplace in many settings, yet few have been evaluated and none have demonstrated efficacy in preventing HIV infection. Promising data are emerging on prophylactic use of anti-retrovirals and conditional cash transfers for HIV prevention in these populations. There is an urgent need to meet the HIV prevention needs of adolescent girls and young women, particularly those who are unable to negotiate monogamy, condom use and/or male circumcision. Concerted efforts to expand the prevention options available to these young women in terms of the development of novel HIV-specific biomedical, structural and behavioural interventions are urgently needed for epidemic control. In the interim

  16. Adolescent girls and young women: key populations for HIV epidemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael C Dellar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At the epicentre of the HIV epidemic in southern Africa, adolescent girls and young women aged 15–24 contribute a disproportionate ~30% of all new infections and seroconvert 5–7 years earlier than their male peers. This age–sex disparity in HIV acquisition continues to sustain unprecedentedly high incidence rates, and preventing HIV infection in this age group is a pre-requisite for achieving an AIDS-free generation and attaining epidemic control. Discussion: Adolescent girls and young women in southern Africa are uniquely vulnerable to HIV and have up to eight times more infection than their male peers. While the cause of this vulnerability has not been fully elucidated, it is compounded by structural, social and biological factors. These factors include but are not limited to: engagement in age-disparate and/or transactional relationships, few years of schooling, experience of food insecurity, experience of gender-based violence, increased genital inflammation, and amplification of effects of transmission co-factors. Despite the large and immediate HIV prevention need of adolescent girls and young women, there is a dearth of evidence-based interventions to reduce their risk. The exclusion of adolescents in biomedical research is a huge barrier. School and community-based education programmes are commonplace in many settings, yet few have been evaluated and none have demonstrated efficacy in preventing HIV infection. Promising data are emerging on prophylactic use of anti-retrovirals and conditional cash transfers for HIV prevention in these populations. Conclusions: There is an urgent need to meet the HIV prevention needs of adolescent girls and young women, particularly those who are unable to negotiate monogamy, condom use and/or male circumcision. Concerted efforts to expand the prevention options available to these young women in terms of the development of novel HIV-specific biomedical, structural and behavioural

  17. Associations between physical activity parenting practices and adolescent girls' self-perceptions and physical activity intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Haase, Anne M; Montgomery, Alan A; McNeill, Jade; Jago, Russ

    2014-05-01

    The current study investigated cross-sectional associations between maternal and paternal logistic and modeling physical activity support and the self-efficacy, self-esteem, and physical activity intentions of 11- to 12-year-old girls. 210 girls reported perceptions of maternal and paternal logistic and modeling support and their self-efficacy, self-esteem and intention to be physically active. Data were analyzed using multivariable regression models. Maternal logistic support was positively associated with participants' self-esteem, physical activity self-efficacy, and intention to be active. Maternal modeling was positively associated with self-efficacy. Paternal modeling was positively associated with self-esteem and self-efficacy but there was no evidence that paternal logistic support was associated with the psychosocial variables. Activity-related parenting practices were associated with psychosocial correlates of physical activity among adolescent girls. Logistic support from mothers, rather than modeling support or paternal support may be a particularly important target when designing interventions aimed at preventing the age-related decline in physical activity among girls.

  18. The energy cost of cycling and aerobic performance of obese adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafortuna, C L; Agosti, F; Busti, C; Galli, R; Sartorio, A

    2009-09-01

    In order to assess the energy cost of cycling and aerobic capacity in juvenile obesity, responses to cycle ergometer exercise were studied in 10 pubertal obese (OB) [body mass index (BMI) SD score (SDS): 3.40+/-0.58 SD] adolescent girls (age: 16.0+/-1.2 yr) and in 10 normal-weight (NW, BMI SDS: -0.30+/-0.54) girls of the same age (15.1+/-1.9). To this aim, gas exchange, heart rate (HR), and energy expenditure (EE) were studied during graded cycle ergometer test at 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 W. The energy cost of cycling was higher in OB, being oxygen uptake (VO2) higher (about 20%) in OB than in NW girls at all workloads (pcycling, OB girls can rely on a larger aerobic capacity which makes them able to sustain this kind of exercise within a wide range of work loads, with relevant implications when planning protocols of physical activity in the context of interventions for the reduction of juvenile obesity.

  19. Heterosexual romantic involvement and depressive symptoms in black adolescent girls: effects of menarche and perceived social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rona; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Matusko, Niki; Jackson, James S

    2015-04-01

    Research has accumulated to demonstrate that depressive symptoms are associated with heterosexual romantic involvement during adolescence, but relatively little work has linked this body of literature to the existing literature on associations between early pubertal timing and adolescent depressive symptoms. This study extends prior research by examining whether early menarche and heterosexual romantic involvement interact to predict depressive symptoms in a national sample of Black adolescent girls (N = 607; M age = 15 years; 32 % Caribbean Black and 68 % African American). We further examined whether the adverse effects of heterosexual romantic involvement and early menarche would be mediated by perceived social support from mothers, fathers, and peers. Path analysis results indicated that girls who report current involvement in a heterosexual romantic relationship also reported high levels of perceived peer support than girls with no romantic involvement. High levels of perceived peer support, in turn, predicted low levels of depressive symptoms. Romantically involved girls with an early menarche also reported significantly less depressive symptoms than girls not romantically involved with an early menarche. Neither perceived maternal support nor perceived paternal support mediated associations between heterosexual romantic involvement, menarche, and depressive symptoms. The findings suggest that individual and social factors can impede heterosexual romantic involvement effects on depressive symptoms in Black adolescent girls.

  20. The Internet as a source of reproductive health information among adolescent girls in an urban city in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwagwu Williams E

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There exists some research evidence regarding how adolescents utilize the Internet for health information seeking purposes. The purpose of this study is to understand how in-school and out-of-school adolescent girls in Owerri, Nigeria use online resources to meet their reproductive health information needs. The result could be considered very crucial in assessing the potential role of the Internet in providing health information to adolescent girls in a typical Nigerian urban city. Methods A questionnaire was used to collect data from 1011 adolescent girls in selected secondary schools in the communities, and also from 134 out-of-school girls selected from the same communities. Results More than 73% of the girls reported having ever used the Internet; more than 74% and 68% of them being in-school and out-of-school respectively. The in-school girls (43.9% reported having home access more than the out-of-school (5.6% although the out-of-school have used the Internet for finding reproductive and related information more than the in-school. While parents (66.22% and teachers (56.15% are the two sources most used to the in-school girls, friends (63.18% and the Internet (55.19% were reported by the out-of-school youth as the two most used sources of information to them. Conclusion The Internet is not a first choice of source of reproductive health information for both the in-school and out-of-school adolescent girls in Owerri, Nigeria. The source is however, more commonly used by the out-of-school than the in-school, but the in-school have a more favorable assessment of the quality of information they obtain from the Internet.

  1. Promoting menstrual health among persian adolescent girls from low socioeconomic backgrounds: a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri Moloud

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research in the past decade has revealed average to poor menstrual health among many Iranian girls. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a health promotion project on improving menstrual health in adolescent girls in Iran. Methods A quasi-experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the health intervention program. A total of 698 students (study participants and controls in several schools in Mazandaran province, Iran were included. The project comprised 10 two-hour educational sessions. Educational topics included the significance of adolescence, physical and emotional changes during adolescence, pubertal and menstruation health and premenstrual syndrome. A self-administered questionnaire measuring demographic characteristics, behaviors during menstruation, menstrual patterns, sources of information about menstruation and personal health data was administered. The questionnaire was administered to all participating students after the experimental group received the training. Results Among the most significant results was the impact of educational sessions on bathing and genital hygiene. A total of 61.6% in the experimental group compared with 49.3% in the control group engaged in usual bathing during menstruation (p = 0.002. Individual health status was significantly statistically correlated with menstrual health. Attitude towards menstruation was also significantly related to menstrual health. Conclusions The present study confirms that educational interventions, such as the health promotion project in this study, can be quite effective in promoting menstrual health.

  2. Factors influencing adolescent girls' sexual behavior: a secondary analysis of the 2011 youth risk behavior survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anatale, Katharine; Kelly, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    Adolescence is a tumultuous and challenging time period in life. Sexual risk behavior among adolescents is a widespread topic of interest in the current literature. Two common factors that influence increased sexual risk behavior are symptoms of depression and negative body image. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of body image and symptoms of depression upon sexual risk-taking in an adolescent female population. A secondary data analysis of the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was used to explore girls' sexual activity, body image, and mental health. There were 7,708 high-school girls who participated in this study. Three questions were used to represent the constructs under investigation. There were significant correlations between sexual activity, body image, and symptoms of depression; only symptoms of depression were significant predictors of both sexual activity and condom usage. Body image was a predictor of sexual activity, but not condom use. Our findings support previous studies that suggested that people with depressive symptoms were more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors. Our study also supports the idea that a negative body image decreases sexual activity; however, other researchers have reported that negative body image leads to an increase in sexual activity.

  3. Hyperandrogenism Does Not Influence Metabolic Parameters in Adolescent Girls with PCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Forrester-Dumont

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Underlying insulin resistance and/or obesity has clearly been implicated in the development of metabolic syndrome in adolescents and young adults with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. It is not clear however what role hyperandrogenism has on the development of metabolic syndrome or its role on those metabolic parameters associated with metabolic syndrome. Methods. We studied 107 adolescent girls; 54 had PCOS according to NIH criteria. Data was obtained for systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, body mass index (BMI, total testosterone (T, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, prolactin, fasting lipid profile, and glucose. The PCOS group was divided initially into subgroups according to BMI (kg/m2, then based on T (ng/dL levels as follows: High Testosterone PCOS (HT, Intermediate Testosterone PCOS (IT, Obese and Normal Testosterone (ONT, and lean and normal T (Control, C. t-test analysis was performed in between all the groups. Results. There was no statistical difference between HT and IT, HT and ONT, or IT and ONT in SBP, DBP, fasting blood glucose, lipid panel, LH, FSH, and prolactin levels. The control group had lower SBP and BMI comparing with ONT, IT, and HT groups. There were no statistical differences found in DBP, fasting blood glucose, lipid panel, LH, FSH, or Prolactin. Conclusion. Metabolic profile in adolescent girls with PCOS is not affected by either the presence of hyperandrogenism or the degree of hyperandrogenism.

  4. Assessing attitudes about emergency contraception among urban, minority adolescent girls: an in-depth interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollen, Cynthia J; Barg, Frances K; Hayes, Katie L; Gotcsik, Marah; Blades, Nakeisha M; Schwarz, Donald F

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of urban, minority adolescent girls about intention to use emergency contraception pills and to identify barriers to emergency contraception pill use. We conducted an in-depth, semistructured interview study of healthy, urban-dwelling, English-speaking 15- to 19-year-old black adolescents seeking care in a children's hospital emergency department. Purposive sampling was used to recruit sexually active and nonsexually active adolescents and those with and without a history of pregnancy. Enrollment continued until saturation of key themes was achieved. Participants returned after their emergency department visit for a 1-hour interview. The interview consisted of semistructured questions based on the theory of planned behavior constructs: attitudes (including knowledge), subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control, as well as demographic data collection. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were coded by 2 members of the study team by using a modified grounded-theory method. Thirty interviews were required for saturation. Mean participant age was 16.4 years; 53% reported being sexually active, and 17% reported a history of pregnancy. Specific knowledge gaps exist about emergency contraception pills, including misconceptions about the recommended time frame for taking the medication. Several major themes were noted for each of the constructs. Intention to use emergency contraception pills is affected by the conflicting attitudes that the emergency contraception pill works faster than birth control pills and that those who use emergency contraception pills are irresponsible; family and friends are important influences and have uninformed but generally supportive opinions; and adolescents have a perception of limited behavioral control because of their young age and concerns about confidentiality. Urban, minority adolescent girls have misconceptions about emergency

  5. Body image concern among Australian adolescent girls: the role of body comparisons with models and peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Renee N; Donaghue, Ngaire; Broderick, Pia

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the potential mediating roles of body comparisons with peers and models in the relationship between the internalization of thinness norms and body image concern. A total of 224 Western Australian girls aged 14-15 completed questionnaires assessing their endorsement of thinness norms, body image concerns, and frequency of body comparisons with peers and with models. Both targets of body comparisons were found to significantly mediate the relationship between the endorsement of thinness norms and body image concern, with body comparison with peers a stronger mediator than comparison with models. These findings show that body comparison with peers, in particular, plays a significant role in the experience of body image concerns among adolescent girls, and should be given a higher profile in programs designed to prevent or reduce body image concern.

  6. Robotic Sigmoid Vaginoplasty in an Adolescent Girl With Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boztosun, Abdullah; Olgan, Safak

    2016-01-01

    Sigmoid vaginoplasty has carved a niche for itself in reconstructive genitoplasty. We describe the successful use of a robotically assisted sigmoid vaginoplasty in an adolescent girl with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome. An 18-year-old girl was referred to our hospital with the complaint of primary amenorrhea. She was thoroughly evaluated and magnetic resonance imaging was done, which revealed absence of a vagina and uterus but bilateral normal ovaries. Because cytogenetic analysis was "normal 46,XX" karyotype, Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome was diagnosed. She was successfully managed by the use of robot-isolated sigmoid colon segment for vaginal replacement and robot-sewn colon-colon anastomosis. A follow-up was done at the 3rd and 6th months, which revealed a large capacious vagina even without self-dilatation. The robotic approach is feasible and can produce satisfying postoperative outcomes and might be a minimally invasive technique in future vaginoplasty surgery.

  7. Innovative Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention-Intervention for African-American Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ringer, Brialle D.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine whether implementation of an innovative STI prevention intervention design affects participants’ knowledge of sexually transmitted infections and sexual self-efficacy. The population this research focuses on is African-American adolescent girls. The participants included in this study are aged 13-19. This particular population is disproportionately infected by sexually transmitted diseases, so it is vital that intervention programs be tailored to fit their culture and gender-specific needs in order to achieve maximum results. However, current interventions for African-American girls could be improved. The researcher has designed an innovative STI prevention intervention that draws from current, best evidence interventions. The researcher has hypothesized that: (1 participants that complete the intervention will have increased STI knowledge; and, (2 upon completion of the intervention, participants will have greater sexual self-efficacy.

  8. Psycho-social picture of sexually active adolescent girls: Results of research survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Biljana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In a demographic sense, adolescents are a population group which is yet to take part in birth giving. Therefore, their sexual behavior and especially sexual activity at early ages which is not only unfavorable from the aspect of the individual, meaning risk for psycho-physical health, but from the aspect of society as well, as regards population fertility, deserves special attention. This paper shows the results of in-depth research carried out in Belgrade from September 2001 to October 2002 with an aim to establish which factors determine a young person, of sixteen years old or younger, to become sexually active. It was carried out on a sample of 111 adolescent girls between 14 and 20 years old which turned to the Republic Family Planning Center Youth Counseling Clinic of the Institute for Mother and Child Health Care of Serbia. The research showed that sexual experience, realized at an early age was an integral part of development and maturing for the largest number of surveyed girls. In the largest number of cases it was a positive experience, induced by love and experienced with a partner, mainly of the same age, with which they were in a longer, stable relationship. Nevertheless, it could be concluded from the results obtained by the research that the surveyed girls could have more easily and efficiently solved their problems and dilemmas regarding sexuality had they had the possibility to obtain a better insight into their personal feelings and feelings of others at the right time, as well as developed social experience and experience in mastering control of their impulses. With a certain number of surveyed girls that would have meant a delay in their sexual activities to a later age. This also refers to the prevention of other risky behavior such as use of alcohol and drugs, which also have an influence on changing sexual behavior, making it more risky. It is important to stress that the surveyed adolescent girls themselves recognized the

  9. Forms of aggression, peer relationships, and relational victimization among Chinese adolescent girls and boys: roles of prosocial behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Dongping; Yu, Chengfu; Zhen, Shuangju; Huang, Shihua

    2015-01-01

    Through a sample of 686 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 13.73 years; 50% girls), we examined the compensatory and moderating effects of prosocial behavior on the direct and indirect associations between forms of aggression and relational victimization mediated by peer relationships among adolescent girls and boys. The results indicated that only adolescent girls’ relationally aggressive behaviors could be directly linked with their experiences of relational victimization, and both relationally and overtly aggressive adolescent boys and girls might be more often rejected by their peers, which, in turn, could make them targets of relational aggression. Next, we found that prosocial behavior indirectly counteracts the effects of aggression on relational victimization through reducing adolescents’ peer rejection and promoting adolescents’ peer attachment. In addition, relationally aggressive girls with high levels of prosocial behavior might be less rejected by peers; however, they might also have lower levels of peer attachment and be more likely to experience relational victimization. Last, adolescent boys scored higher on risks, but lower on the protective factors of relational victimization than girls, which, to some degree, might explain the gender difference in relational victimization. Finally, we discussed the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. PMID:26347704

  10. Forms of Aggression, Peer Relationships, and Relational Victimization among Chinese Adolescent girls and boys: Roles of Prosocial Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujun eWang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Through a sample of 686 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 13.73 years; 50% girls, we examined the compensatory and moderating effects of prosocial behavior on the direct and indirect associations between forms of aggression and relational victimization mediated by peer relationships among adolescent girls and boys. The results indicated that only adolescent girls’ relationally aggressive behaviors could be directly linked with their experiences of relational victimization, and both relationally and overtly aggressive adolescent boys and girls might be more often rejected by their peers, which, in turn, could make them targets of relational aggression. Next, we found that prosocial behavior indirectly counteracts the effects of aggression on relational victimization through reducing adolescents’ peer rejection and promoting adolescents’ peer attachment. In addition, relationally aggressive girls with high levels of prosocial behavior might be less rejected by peers; however, they might also have lower levels of peer attachment and be more likely to experience relational victimization. Last, adolescent boys scored higher on risks, but lower on the protective factors of relational victimization than girls, which, to some degree, might explain the gender difference in relational victimization. Finally, we discussed the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  11. A study on knowledge and practices regarding menstrual hygiene among rural and urban adolescent girls in Udupi Taluk, Manipal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamath R

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Adolescent girls often lack knowledge regarding reproductive health including menstruation hygiene which can be due to socio-cultural barriers in which they grow up. Objectives: To explore the knowledge, practices and sources of information regarding menstruation and hygiene among adolescent girls in Udupi taluk, India. Methods: An epidemiologic study was undertaken using cross-sectional study method among 550 school-going adolescent girls aged13-16 years. A total of 270 were from urban and 280 from the rural area. Stratified cluster sampling was adopted to select the schools and simple random sampling technique to select the participants. Data was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 15.Results Around 34% participants were aware about menstruation prior to menarche, and mothers were the main source of information among both groups. Overall, 70.4% of adolescent girls were using sanitary napkins as menstrual absorbent, while 25.6% were using both cloth and sanitary napkins. Almost half of the rural participants dried the absorbent inside their homes. Conclusions: There is a need to equip the adolescent girls with knowledge regarding safe, hygienic practices to enable them to lead a healthy reproductive life.

  12. Aetiology and clinical profile of osteomalacia in adolescent girls in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswari, J; Balasubramanian, K; Bhatia, V; Sharma, V P; Agarwal, A K

    2003-01-01

    The adolescent age group is particularly prone to nutritional rickets/osteomalacia due to an increased demand for nutrients, especially calcium and vitamin D. Osteomalacia presents with non-specific signs and symptoms because of which diagnosis may be delayed. Vitamin D deficiency is unexpected in India, which is a tropical country with abundant sunshine. We prospectively studied the clinical presentation, aetiology and social factors contributing to adolescent rickets/ osteomalacia in our region. We saw 21 symptomatic adolescents with osteomalacia during the study period (November 2000-July 2002). All were girls. Only 1 practised purda and 4 belonged to a low socioeconomic class. The mean (SD) duration of illness before correct diagnosis was 2.8 (2.1) years. Bone pains and muscular weakness were universally present. Non-specific complaints (especially limb pains being mistaken for joint involvement) led to a delay in diagnosis with consequent morbidity. All but 1 patient had low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (dress code (n = 21) were contributory factors, as they led to poor exposure to sunshine. Nutritional osteomalacia among adolescents is a poorly recognized entity. Even in non-purda practising communities in the tropics, poor exposure to sunshine due to social factors, compounded by low dietary calcium intake, can lead to osteomalacia in adolescents.

  13. Development of leadership self-efficacy and collective efficacy: adolescent girls across castes as peer educators in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, J; Kayastha, P; Davis, D; Limoges, J; O'Donnell, C; Yue, K

    2009-01-01

    Adolescent girls in Nepal face enormous social barriers to accessing education and health services due to exclusionary socio-religious traditions and years of conflict. The programme and study reported here address two issues that a national assembly of in-school and out-of-school adolescent girls, who had completed a basic life skills class, and, in the case of unschooled girls, an intensive literacy course, identified as important to their well-being - menstrual restrictions and HIV awareness and prevention. Local non-governmental organizations developed a peer education programme in three districts of Nepal that paired girls from different castes and different educational levels. The programme sought to increase peer educators' (PE) leadership and collective efficacy for informing peers and adults in their communities about the effects that these issues have on women and girls. In total, 504 girls were selected and trained as PEs. They conducted targeted discussion sessions with other girls and organised mass awareness events, reaching 20,000 people. Examination of the effects of participating in the programme on key outcome measures showed that leadership self-efficacy, which was a central theoretical construct for the programme, provided a strong predictor of both increased HIV knowledge and of practicing fewer menstrual restrictions at endline. The project demonstrated that girls from different caste and educational backgrounds are able to work together to change individual behaviour and to address socio-cultural norms that affect their lives and well-being within their communities.

  14. The effect of a nutrition education program on the nutritional knowledge, hemoglobin levels, and nutritional status of Nicaraguan adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jean Burley; Pawloski, Lisa; Rodriguez, Claudia; Lumbi, Laura; Ailinger, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a community-based nutrition education program on the nutritional knowledge, hemoglobin levels, and nutritional status of Nicaraguan adolescent girls and the nutritional knowledge of their mothers. Self-care deficit nursing theory was used in this study. This longitudinal study used a mixed quantitative/qualitative design to study the effect of the nutrition education program. The nonprobability sample consisted of 182 adolescent girls and 67 of their mothers. The setting for the study was a community (barrio) in Managua, Nicaragua. INTERVENTION/MEASUREMENT: A team of nurse and nutrition researchers created the nutrition education program designed to improve girls' and mother's nutrition-related self-care operations. Data collection was carried out for 4 years for girls and 2 years for mothers in Managua, Nicaragua, using questionnaires, a HemoCue, and anthropometric measures. The findings of this study were that girls' and mothers' nutritional knowledge scores significantly improved in most cases after participation in the nutrition intervention program. Girls' hemoglobin levels did not significantly improve and their nutritional status findings were mixed. Girls and mothers described what dietary changes girls made and why.

  15. Adolescent girls' and parents' views on recruiting and retaining girls into an after-school dance intervention: implications for extra-curricular physical activity provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Powell Jane

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many adolescents are not sufficiently active and girls are less active than boys. Physical activity interventions delivered during curriculum time have reported weak effects. More sustained changes in physical activity may be obtained by facilitating participation in enjoyable activities. Dance is the favourite activity of UK girls but there is a shortage of dance provision. Dance sessions delivered after the school day could prove to be an effective means of engaging adolescent girls in physical activity. There is a lack of information about the factors that would affect girls' recruitment and retention in an after-school dance programme. Methods Focus groups were conducted with 65, Year 7 (11-12 year old girls from 4 secondary schools in Bristol. In-depth phone interviews were also conducted with 16 (4 per school of the girls' parents. Interviews and focus groups examined issues that would affect recruitment into the intervention, strategies that could be used to attract girls who have little or no previous experience in dance, any factors that would increase their interest in participating in an after-school dance programme and any factors that would affect retention in the programme. All interviews and focus groups were digitally recorded and thematically analysed. Results Girls reported that a taster session in which they had an opportunity to sample the intervention content and "word of mouth" campaigns by peers, who did not need to be their friends, would encourage them to participate in an after-school dance programme. Sessions that maximised enjoyment and facilitated socialisation opportunities would enhance retention. Parents reported that encouraging groups of friends to join the programme, and stressing the enjoyment of the session would increase participation. Conclusions Recruitment and retention campaigns that focus on enjoyment, socialisation, mastery, goal setting and relating to other girls may be effective

  16. Body Fat Distribution and Its Association with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescent Iranian Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Parizadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The relationships between body fat distribution, lipid profile and blood pressure, have not been studied extensively in young population. This study was designed to evaluate the association between measures of adiposity and established cardiovascular risk factors in adolescent girls.Methods: A total of 477 adolescent girls aged 15 to 18 years were recruited from Mashhad high schools.Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Anthropometricassessments, blood pressure measurement and biochemical assessment were performed. Total and regionalfat mass were determined by bio-impedance analysis. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were assessed in relation to body fat measures with adjustment for confounder factors including age and family socioeconomic status.Findings: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 14.6% and 3.4% respectively; 16% of study population had greater fat mass compared to its ideal distribution. The majority of cardiovascular riskfactors, especially systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride concentration, CRP and fasting blood sugar were significantly higher in group with a high body fat when compared to those with normal and low values. All anthropometric indices showed significant correlation with fat mass, fat free mass, total andregional body fat percent (P<0.001. After adjustment for age and family socioeconomic status, a high fat massespecially, truncal fat, was positively associated with triglyceride and blood pressure.Conclusion: Adiposity, especially truncal adiposity, which can be assessed by simple measures such as Body Mass Index (BMI and Waist Circumference (WC may predispose adolescent girls for demonstration of metabolic abnormalities and consequently cardiovascular diseases.

  17. The reliability of aerobic capacity (VO2max) testing in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivarnik, J M; Dwyer, M C; Lauderdale, M A

    1996-09-01

    Despite the fact that our subjects were naive regarding the test procedures, it appears that aerobic fitness testing using an incremental treadmill protocol is extremely reliable in adolescent girls. In addition, day-to-day variability of VO2max in our subjects averaged less than 5%, which is similar to results obtained with adults (Katch, Sady, & Freedson, 1982). Finally, it was most encouraging to find that a single VO2max test trial resulted in high reliability coefficients. This finding should provide a great deal of confidence to investigators who are performing aerobic fitness tests on large numbers of subjects where multiple testing is neither practical nor cost-effective.

  18. Assessing community readiness for overweight and obesity prevention in pre-adolescent girls: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesten, Joanna May; Cameron, Noel; Griffiths, Paula Louise

    2013-12-20

    Childhood overweight and obesity is a global public health concern. For girls in particular, being overweight or obese during pre-adolescence (aged 7-11 years) has intergenerational implications for both the mother and her future offspring. In the United Kingdom (UK) there is increasing interest in community targeted interventions but less is known about how to tailor these approaches to the needs of the community. This study applied the Community Readiness Model (CRM), for the first time in the UK, to demonstrate its applicability in designing tailored interventions. Community readiness assessment was conducted using semi-structured key informant interviews. The community's key informants were identified through focus groups with pre-adolescent girls. The interviews addressed the community's efforts; community knowledge of the efforts; leadership; community climate; community knowledge of the issue and resources available to support the issue. Interviews were conducted until the point of theoretical saturation and questions were asked separately regarding physical activity (PA) and healthy eating and drinking (HED) behaviours. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and were firstly analysed thematically and then scored using the assessment guidelines produced by the CRM authors. Readiness in this community was higher for PA than for HED behaviours. The lowest scores related to the community's 'resources' and the 'community knowledge of the issue'; affirming these two issues as the most appropriate initial targets for intervention. In terms of resources, there is also a need for resources to support the development of HED efforts beyond the school. Investment in greater physical education training for primary school teachers was also identified as an intervention priority. To address the community's knowledge of the issue, raising the awareness of the prevalence of pre-adolescent girls' health behaviours is a priority at the local community level. Inconsistent

  19. Primary Leiomyosarcoma of Breast in an Adolescent Girl: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Ulhas Rane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcoma of the breast is a rare neoplasm, primarily reported in older women. Only 44 cases have been reported in world literature and to the best of our knowledge, no case has been reported from India till date. We report a case of primary breast leiomyosarcoma in an adolescent girl who underwent a lumpectomy for rapidly increasing lump in the left breast. Here we report the histological findings and immunohistochemical profile of this entity, along with a review of existing literature.

  20. Primary intracranial malignant melanoma in an adolescent girl: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajeeb Mondal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary intracranial malignant melanoma is a very rare tumor, and most of the central nervous system melanomas are metastatic diseases. Diagnosis needs extensive dermatological, opthalmological, and radiological workup to exclude metastatic melanoma. Histologically, it should be differentiate from benign melanocytic lesions, pigmented choroid plexus carcinoma, and pigmented papillary medulloblastoma. Here, we are reporting a case of primary malignant melanoma of posterior fossa in an adolescent girl diagnosed in squash cytology as well as in histology and confirmed by immunohistochemistry and by excluding metastatic melanoma.

  1. A STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH STATUS OF ADOLESCENT GIRLS (10-19 YEARS IN JAIPUR CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available : Adolescence is a time when the body prepares itself for the nutritional demands of pregnancy, lactation and heavy workloads that girls will soon experience. Good nutrition is essential for good health, physical growth and development, body composition and mental development In recent years, the incidence of adolescent pregnancy and childbirth is increasing due to the early onset of puberty, the declining age of menarche and early sexual activity. They need to earn to cope with the future demands of life. Nutritional needs during adolescence are increased because of the increased growth rate and changes in the body composition associated with puberty. The dramatic increase in energy and nutrient requirements coincides with other factors that may affect adolescents’ food choices and nutrient intake and thus nutritional status. National and population based surveys have found that adolescents often fail to meet dietary recommendations for over all nutritional status and for specific nutrient intakes. Nutritional requirements in relation to body size are more during adolescence. In a country like India with varying social customs and common beliefs against females there is a high prevalence of malnutrition amongst girls. Adolescents are tomorrow’s adult population and their health and well-being are crucial. Yet, interest in adolescents’ health is relatively recent and a focus on nutrition is even more recent. Nutrition influences growth and development throughout infancy, childhood and adolescence; it is, however, during the period of adolescence that nutrient needs are the greatest. A questionnaire-based study was undertaken in Jaipur city of Rajasthan with 500 respondents divided equally between government schools and private schools populations. Adolescent girl is subjected to more physical and mental challenges on a day –to-day basis due to ever increasing pressure of modernization. Hence they have to work hard physically as well as

  2. Longitudinal prediction and concurrent functioning of adolescent girls demonstrating various profiles of dating violence and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, Debbie; Crooks, Claire V; Wolfe, David A; McIsaac, Caroline; Hughes, Ray; Jaffe, Peter G

    2012-08-01

    Adolescent girls are involved in physical dating violence as both perpetrators and victims, and there are negative consequences associated with each of these behaviors. This article used a prospective design with 519 girls dating in grade 9 to predict profiles of dating violence in grade 11 based on relationships with families of origin (child maltreatment experiences, harsh parenting), and peers (harassment, delinquency, relational aggression). In addition, dating violence profiles were compared on numerous indices of adjustment (school connectedness, grades, self-efficacy and community connectedness) and maladjustment (suicide attempts, distress, delinquency, sexual behavior) for descriptive purposes. The most common profile was no dating violence (n = 367) followed by mutual violence (n = 81). Smaller numbers of girls reported victimization or perpetration only (ns = 39 and 32, respectively). Predicting grade 11 dating violence profile membership from grade 9 relationships was limited, although delinquency, parental rejection, and sexual harassment perpetration predicted membership to the mutually violent group, and delinquency predicted the perpetrator-only group. Compared to the non-violent group, the mutually violent girls in grade 11 had lower grades, poorer self-efficacy, and lower school connectedness and community involvement. Furthermore, they had higher rates of peer aggression and delinquency, were less likely to use condoms and were much more likely to have considered suicide. There were fewer differences among the profiles for girls involved with dating violence. In addition, the victims-only group reported higher rates of sexual intercourse, comparable to the mutually violent group and those involved in nonviolent relationships. Implications for prevention and intervention are highlighted.

  3. Menstruation in girls and adolescents: using the menstrual cycle as a vital sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Angela; Laufer, Marc R; Breech, Lesley L

    2006-11-01

    Young patients and their parents often are unsure about what represents normal menstrual patterns, and clinicians also may be unsure about normal ranges for menstrual cycle length and amount and duration of flow through adolescence. It is important to be able to educate young patients and their parents regarding what to expect of a first period and about the range for normal cycle length of subsequent menses. It is equally important for clinicians to have an understanding of bleeding patterns in girls and adolescents, the ability to differentiate between normal and abnormal menstruation, and the skill to know how to evaluate young patients' conditions appropriately. Using the menstrual cycle as an additional vital sign adds a powerful tool to the assessment of normal development and the exclusion of pathological conditions.

  4. Cyber safety for adolescent girls: bullying, harassment, sexting, pornography, and solicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter K; Thompson, Fran; Davidson, Julia

    2014-10-01

    To examine cyber safety for adolescent girls, specifically issues around the definition, measurement, prevalence, and impact of cyberbullying, harassment, sexting, pornography, and solicitation. Despite some continuing disagreements about definition, especially around cyberbullying and cyber harassment, and about measurement, it is clear that a significant minority of adolescents have potentially or actually harmful experiences on the Internet. There are important sex differences, and those exploited by pornography are mainly women. On some measures, these dangers have increased in recent years, although the extent can be exaggerated. The nature of Internet grooming appears to be changing. Negative effects are well documented in a range of domains, although more longitudinal studies are needed. Individual coping strategies, family and school-based support, and legal actions, all have a role to play in minimizing these dangers. Cyber safety is an important issue. More research and action is needed, and interventions need to be evaluated for their effectiveness.

  5. Muscle and Tendon Adaptation in Adolescence: Elite Volleyball Athletes Compared to Untrained Boys and Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falk Mersmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Though the plasticity of human tendons is well explored in adults, it is still unknown how superimposed mechanical loading by means of athletic training affects the properties of tendons during maturation. Due to the increased responsiveness of muscle to mechanical loading, adolescence is an important phase to investigate the effects of training on the mechanical properties of tendons. Hence, in the present study we compared vastus lateralis (VL architecture, muscle strength of the knee extensor muscles and patellar tendon mechanical properties of male and female adolescent elite athletes to untrained boys and girls. Twenty-one adolescent volleyball athletes (A; 16.7 ± 1 years; 12 boys, 9 girls and 24 similar-aged controls (C; 16.7 ± 1 years; 12 boys and girls, respectively performed maximum isometric contractions on a dynamometer for the assessment of muscle strength and, by integrating ultrasound imaging, patellar tendon mechanical properties. Respective joint moments were calculated using an inverse dynamics approach and an electromyography-based estimation of antagonistic contribution. Additionally, the VL pennation angle, fascicle length and muscle-thickness were determined in the inactive state by means of ultrasound. Adolescent athletes produced significantly greater knee extension moments (normalized to body mass compared to controls (A: 4.23 ± 0.80 Nm/kg, C: 3.57 ± 0.67 Nm/kg; p = 0.004, and showed greater VL thickness and pennation angle (+38% and +27%; p < 0.001. Tendon stiffness (normalized to rest length was also significantly higher in athletes (A: 86.0 ± 27.1 kN/strain, C: 70.2 ± 18.8 kN/strain; p = 0.04, yet less pronounced compared to tendon force (A: 5785 ± 1146 N, C: 4335 ± 1015 N; p < 0.001, which resulted in higher levels of tendon strain during maximum contractions in athletes (A: 8.0 ± 1.9%, C: 6.4 ± 1.8%; p = 0.008. We conclude that athletic volleyball training provides a more efficient stimulus for muscle

  6. The Effect of Premenstrual Syndrome on Quality of Life in Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Arbabi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: "n "nPremenstrual Syndrome (PMS is a common psychosomatic disorder and about 30%-50% of women in the childbearing age suffer from mild to moderate form of this disorder and 3%-8% suffer from its sever form. The symptoms of this disorder are related to the specific biological characteristics of women's reproductive age that can start from teen years. The symptoms' devastating effect on these crucial years of life can result in a sense of dissatisfaction and inadequacy. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between premenstrual syndrome (PMS and quality of life (QOL in adolescent girls. "nMethod: This research is a descriptive-analytic study. The participants were 360 adolescent girls (180 in each group, studying in the second year of high school in south of Tehran. The participants were selected in a multistage randomly- clustered design according to their schools. Respondents completed the demographic questionnaire, premenstrual syndrome symptom daily record scale, and the medical study short form-36 (SF-36. "nResults: Compared with healthy adolescents, those with PMS had a lower score of SF-36 in all the scales (P<0.001. Except for mental health and vitality, no significant difference was observed between other scales of quality of life according to SF-36 in various severities of PMS (P>0.05. However, a statistically meaningful difference was observed in mental health and vitality of SF-36 in severe form of PMS in compare to mild and moderate PMS P=0.002. "nConclusion: Premenstrual syndrome is associated with substantial burden on QOL in adolescents. In addition, increasing severity in PMS symptoms results in decreased quality of mental health and vitality.

  7. Sexual self-concept as influencing intended sexual health behaviour of young adolescent Taiwanese girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Hsiang-Chu; Lee, Sheuan

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a process model that assesses the relationship of sexual health knowledge and normative beliefs to sexual health behavioural intention, with sexual self-concept as a mediating variable. The model is intended to assist in the prediction of which adolescents would exhibit a lower intention to engage in protective sexual health behaviour. Previous research has shown that sexual-related behaviours are associated with sexual self-concept, sexual health knowledge and perceived parental/peer approval of sexual behaviour. This study is a cross-sectional research. This study was conducted with 545 adolescent girls, aged 12-15 years, from eight junior high schools in Taiwan. Participants were assessed using the Sexual Self-Concept Inventory, the Sexual Health Behavior Intention Scale, the Parental Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale (PASB), the Friends' Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale and the Sexual Health Knowledge Scale. Data were analysed using structural equation modelling, with the maximum likelihood estimate determined by the LISREL 8.52 program. The model exhibited adequate fit (goodness-of-fit index = 0.96, adjusted goodness-of-fit index = 0.94, normed fit index = 0.96, comparative fit index = 0.98, standardised root mean square residual = 0.049 and root mean square error of approximation = 0.048) and the findings indicate that sexual self-concept was a significant influence on the relationship of sexual health knowledge and normative beliefs to sexual health behavioural intention. The results of this study revealed the importance of sexual self-concept for adolescent girls' sexual health behaviour. Evidence-based strategies that reinforce and clarify sexual self-concept as a mediating factor may aid in adolescent females' intention to engage in protective sexual health behaviour. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. [Obesity, hormonal and metabolic abnormalities in adolescent girls with polycystic ovary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ságodi, László; Lombay, Béla; Vámosi, Ildikó; Barkai, László

    2013-08-04

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with metabolic abnormalities, such as dyslipidemia, obesity, glucose intolerance, which are also components of the metabolic syndrome. Central obesity and insulin resistance appear to play an important role in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome, perhaps via subsequent steroidogenic dysregulation. The aim of the authors was to assess metabolic and hormonal abnormalities in adolescent girls with polycystic ovary syndrome. The study included 52 adolescents diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome based on the Rotterdam criteria. Anthropometric, hormonal and metabolic parameters were evaluated among all subjects. 20 healthy, age-matched, non-obese, regularly menstruating girls were used as controls. Of the 52 patients, 15 patients were born with low-birth-weight and 37 patients were born with normal birth weight. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed in all patients and controls. The age of patients was 16.8±3.1 years, and the age of controls was 16.95±2.1 years. Among patients with polycystic ovary syndrome the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 35% (n = 18), while impaired fasting glucose occurred in one patient, impaired glucose tolerance in 8 patients, insulin resistance in 25 patients and metabolic syndrome in 12 patients. Serum triglyceride levels in patients and controls were 1.4±0.8 and 0.9±0.3 mmol/l, respectively (pobesity were more severe and more frequent in patients with low-birth-weight compared to those born with normal weight. There was a negative correlation between birth weight and body mass index SDS values and a positive correlation between fasting insulin levels and body mass index SDS (r = 0.37) in patients born with low-birth-weight. Abnormal glucose metabolism is frequently present in adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome. It is possible that early diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescence may prevent some of the long-term complications associated with this

  9. Condom use by Hispanic and African-American adolescent girls who use hormonal contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roye, C F

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine condom use by teens who use hormonal contraceptives [i.e., Depo-Provera, Norplant, or oral contraceptives (OCs)]. This is a cross-sectional study of 578 Hispanic and African-American female adolescents between the ages of 12 and 21 years who came to a reproductive health care clinic. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire which addressed sexual behaviors, sexual history, and communication about sexuality was distributed to adolescent girls attending the clinic. Several important analyses included only those who had been sexually active in the last 4 weeks (n = 452). Adolescents who used OCs [odds ratio (OR) 1.7], long-acting agents (i.e., Depo-Provera or Norplant) (OR 1.6), were less likely to have used a condom in the last 4 weeks than teens whose only method of birth control was condoms. Only those teens who had previously been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease (STD) were more likely to have used a condom (OR .67 for not using a condom). Overall, condom use by teens in this sample was low, with only 19% reporting that they "always" use a condom, and 47% of the teens who had been sexually active in the last 4 weeks reporting that they had not used a condom at least once during that time. This study provides data which suggest that adolescent girls who use hormonal contraceptives are less likely to use condoms than other sexually active teens. Therefore, when prescribing hormonal contraception to prevent pregnancy, clinicians must provide appropriate counseling to mitigate against the potential to increase the risk of STDs.

  10. Menstrual Hygiene Practices and Sources of Menstrual Hygiene Information among Adolescent Secondary School Girls in Abakaliki Education Zone of Ebonyi State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilo, Cajetan I.; Nwimo, Ignatius O.; Onwunaka, Chinagorom

    2016-01-01

    Menstruation is clouded by socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of hygienic practices. The study was designed to ascertain the menstrual hygiene practices and sources of menstrual hygiene information among 1200 adolescent secondary school girls, who completed the questionnaire designed for the study. Out of…

  11. Prevalence of Thinness and Stunting and Associated Factors among Adolescent School Girls in Adwa Town, North Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebregyorgis, Tsgehana; Tadesse, Takele; Atenafu, Azeb

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Despite the fact that adolescence is a window of opportunity to break the intergenerational cycle of malnutrition, adolescents are the neglected age groups. Hence information regarding the nutritional status of adolescents is lacking making creating and implementing intervention programs difficult. Objective. To assess the prevalence of thinness, stunting, and associated factors among adolescent school girls in Adwa town, Northern Ethiopia. Methods. Data on 814 adolescent female students were collected from March to April 2015 using interviewer administered pretested semistructured questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Data were entered using EPI INFO version 3.5.3 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 and WHO Anthroplus software. Results. The prevalence of thinness and stunting was 21.4% and 12.2%, respectively. Age of adolescent [AOR = 2.15 (1.14,4.03)], mother's educational status [AOR = 2.34 (1.14,4.80)], eating less than 3 meals per day [AOR = 1.66 (1.12,2.46)], having family size >5 [AOR = 2.53 (1.66,3.86)] were significantly associated with thinness among the adolescent girls. Family size >5 [AOR = 2.05 (1.31,3.23)] and unimproved source of drinking water [AOR = 3.82 (2.20,6.62)] were significantly associated with stunting. Conclusion and Recommendation. Thinness and stunting are prevalent problems in the study area. Strategies to improve the nutritional status of girls should be given much attention. PMID:27294107

  12. Prevalence of Thinness and Stunting and Associated Factors among Adolescent School Girls in Adwa Town, North Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsgehana Gebregyorgis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Despite the fact that adolescence is a window of opportunity to break the intergenerational cycle of malnutrition, adolescents are the neglected age groups. Hence information regarding the nutritional status of adolescents is lacking making creating and implementing intervention programs difficult. Objective. To assess the prevalence of thinness, stunting, and associated factors among adolescent school girls in Adwa town, Northern Ethiopia. Methods. Data on 814 adolescent female students were collected from March to April 2015 using interviewer administered pretested semistructured questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Data were entered using EPI INFO version 3.5.3 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 and WHO Anthroplus software. Results. The prevalence of thinness and stunting was 21.4% and 12.2%, respectively. Age of adolescent [AOR = 2.15 (1.14,4.03], mother’s educational status [AOR = 2.34 (1.14,4.80], eating less than 3 meals per day [AOR = 1.66 (1.12,2.46], having family size >5 [AOR = 2.53 (1.66,3.86] were significantly associated with thinness among the adolescent girls. Family size >5 [AOR = 2.05 (1.31,3.23] and unimproved source of drinking water [AOR = 3.82 (2.20,6.62] were significantly associated with stunting. Conclusion and Recommendation. Thinness and stunting are prevalent problems in the study area. Strategies to improve the nutritional status of girls should be given much attention.

  13. The Healthy Teen Girls project: comparison of health education and STD risk reduction intervention for incarcerated adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela A; Robertson, Angela R; St Lawrence, Janet; Morse, David T; Baird-Thomas, Connie; Liew, Hui; Gresham, Kathleen

    2011-06-01

    Adolescent girls incarcerated in a state reformatory (N = 246) were recruited and assigned to an 18-session health education program or a time-equivalent HIV prevention program. Cohorts were assigned to conditions using a randomized block design separated by a washout period to reduce contamination. Post intervention, girls in the HIV risk reduction program demonstrated the acquisition of risk-reduction behavioral skills and improved condom application skill. At a follow-up assessment approximately 9 months after release from the correctional facility, girls in both conditions reported fewer unprotected sexual intercourse occasions and less sex while under the influence of alcohol or other drugs.

  14. Awareness of legal and social issues related to reproductive health among adolescent girls in rural Varanasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Kansal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on awareness of adolescent's on the legal and social issues/acts related to reproductive health, especially in rural areas, are scarce. Objectives: The aim of the present cross-sectional study is to assess the awareness level of legal and social issues related to reproductive health and its association with the various individual and family/household level characteristics. Methods: 650 adolescent girls in the age group of 15–19 years were interviewed with the help of pretested and semistructured questionnaire and focus group discussions were also conducted for qualitative findings in Chiraigaon block of district Varanasi. Results: It was observed that 42.9% of the respondents were aware of legal age of marriage, 14.9% knew about the right age of childbearing. Dowry prohibition act and domestic violence act were known to 46% and 27% respondents, respectively, and only 2.6% were aware of medical termination of pregnancy act. Logistic regression analysis shows the significant effect of education on awareness of legal age of marriage, right age of childbearing, domestic violence, and dowry prohibition acts, which is also supported by qualitative findings. Conclusion: All the important legal issues/acts should be included in high school curriculum and female teachers should be involved in training program for adolescents. Role of mass media in creating awareness about these issues in their routine programs should be ascertained. Accredited Social Health Activist and Anganwadi workers should be aware of and include these issues/acts in adolescent meetings.

  15. Awareness of legal and social issues related to reproductive health among adolescent girls in rural Varanasi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Sweta; Kumar, Alok

    2017-01-01

    Data on awareness of adolescent's on the legal and social issues/acts related to reproductive health, especially in rural areas, are scarce. The aim of the present cross-sectional study is to assess the awareness level of legal and social issues related to reproductive health and its association with the various individual and family/household level characteristics. 650 adolescent girls in the age group of 15-19 years were interviewed with the help of pretested and semistructured questionnaire and focus group discussions were also conducted for qualitative findings in Chiraigaon block of district Varanasi. It was observed that 42.9% of the respondents were aware of legal age of marriage, 14.9% knew about the right age of childbearing. Dowry prohibition act and domestic violence act were known to 46% and 27% respondents, respectively, and only 2.6% were aware of medical termination of pregnancy act. Logistic regression analysis shows the significant effect of education on awareness of legal age of marriage, right age of childbearing, domestic violence, and dowry prohibition acts, which is also supported by qualitative findings. All the important legal issues/acts should be included in high school curriculum and female teachers should be involved in training program for adolescents. Role of mass media in creating awareness about these issues in their routine programs should be ascertained. Accredited Social Health Activist and Anganwadi workers should be aware of and include these issues/acts in adolescent meetings.

  16. Higher cognitive ability buffers stress-related depressive symptoms in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riglin, Lucy; Collishaw, Stephan; Shelton, Katherine H; McManus, I C; Ng-Knight, Terry; Sellers, Ruth; Thapar, Ajay K; Frederickson, Norah; Rice, Frances

    2016-02-01

    Stress has been shown to have a causal effect on risk for depression. We investigated the role of cognitive ability as a moderator of the effect of stressful life events on depressive symptoms and whether this varied by gender. Data were analyzed in two adolescent data sets: one representative community sample aged 11-12 years (n = 460) and one at increased familial risk of depression aged 9-17 years (n = 335). In both data sets, a three-way interaction was found whereby for girls, but not boys, higher cognitive ability buffered the association between stress and greater depressive symptoms. The interaction was replicated when the outcome was a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. This buffering effect in girls was not attributable to coping efficacy. However, a small proportion of the variance was accounted for by sensitivity to environmental stressors. Results suggest that this moderating effect of cognitive ability in girls is largely attributable to greater available resources for cognitive operations that offer protection against stress-induced reductions in cognitive processing and cognitive control which in turn reduces the likelihood of depressive symptomatology.

  17. Evaluation of school-based reproductive health education program for adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbasi, Zehra; Taskin, Lale

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of school-based reproductive health education for adolescent girls on the reproductive knowledge level of the girls. This research was carried out as a quasi-experimental study at two vocational girls high schools, one of which was used as the study school and the other as the control school. The study group (97 students) consisted of three classes representing every grade. The control group consisted of students selected likewise (92 students). Reproductive health education was given to students in the study group for 10 weeks; the control group was not subjected to any educational program. The impact of the program was evaluated with reproductive health knowledge test designed for this study. A pretest evaluated baseline knowledge, and a posttest measured the gain in knowledge. Baseline knowledge score of students in study and control group were similar and low (p > 0.05). We found that the reproductive health knowledge level of students in the study group increased significantly after the program of education. Post-test knowledge scores (75.03 +/- 13.82) of the students in the study group were higher than those of the control group (36.65 +/- 14.17). The results showed students' low baseline knowledge and a good ability to learn. A school-based reproductive health education is needed to promote knowledge and prevention in reproductive health among teenagers.

  18. Nutritional status and effect of seaweed chocolate on anemic adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Thahira Banu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to study the nutritional status, develop a product incorporating seaweed and assess its impact on anemic adolescent girls. Five hundred adolescent girls in the age group of 15–18 years were selected from a women's college at Kilakarai, Tamil Nadu, India as the target group to find the prevalence of anemia. Among the 500 subjects 100 with a hemoglobin level of 7–9 g/dL (moderate anemia were selected by purposive sampling technique for supplementation. Seaweed incorporated chocolate was formulated, standardized, tested for consumer acceptability and in vitro iron bioavailability and supplemented to the selected subjects. The result of the study indicates that seaweed chocolate developed obtained the highest score for overall acceptability, 56 mg of iron/100 g and 11.80 mg of bioavailable iron. The results were found to be promising as there was a significant increase in hemoglobin, TIBC, MCH, MCV, serum iron and serum ferritin levels in the selected subjects. Seaweeds are a less consumed natural resource but abundantly available in the coastal areas of India as they are rich source of nutrients and can be used as an effective therapeutic and nutrient adjunct.

  19. The impact of thin models in music videos on adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Beth T; Lawton, Rebecca; Dittmar, Helga

    2007-06-01

    Music videos are a particularly influential, new form of mass media for adolescents, which include the depiction of scantily clad female models whose bodies epitomise the ultra-thin sociocultural ideal for young women. The present study is the first exposure experiment that examines the impact of thin models in music videos on the body dissatisfaction of 16-19-year-old adolescent girls (n=87). First, participants completed measures of positive and negative affect, body image, and self-esteem. Under the guise of a memory experiment, they then either watched three music videos, listened to three songs (from the videos), or learned a list of words. Affect and body image were assessed afterwards. In contrast to the music listening and word-learning conditions, girls who watched the music videos reported significantly elevated scores on an adaptation of the Body Image States Scale after exposure, indicating increased body dissatisfaction. Self-esteem was not found to be a significant moderator of this relationship. Implications and future research are discussed.

  20. Role of Leptin in the Pathogenesis of Reproductive Disorders in Adolescent Girls with Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Andreyeva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study a role of leptin in the pathogenesis of reproductive disorders in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa (AN.Subjects: Two groups of patients the common symptoms of whom were underweight, amenorrhea, the absence of chromosomal or monogenic abnormality. Group 1 consisted of 48 adolescent girls diagnosed as having anorexia nervosa; Group 2 included 41 patients without eating behavioral disorders. A control group comprised 24 patients with a body mass index (BMI of 20.3 (18.5; 24.9 without eating behavioral disorders and with a normal menstrual cycle. Methods: anthropometry, enzyme immunoassay of plasma leptin and neuropeptide Y levels. The statistical validity of group differences was estimated by the Mann-Whitney U-test.Results. There were reductions in the serum content of leptin in patients at an anorectic stage, its hyperproduction at the stage of AN reduction, and no relationship of the leptin concentration to BMI. Hypoleptinemia at the anorectic stage was accompanied by low neuropeptide Y levels. This suggests that resistance to low leptin levels develops, which may be caused by both impaired leptin transport across the blood-brain barrier and hypoinsulinemia.Conclusion. The low levels of leptin and neuropeptide Y at the anorectic stage may be considered to be an adaptive reaction that delays insulin effects in the presence of malnutrition and creates a vicious circle in the regulation of the lipostat system and vicious circle-associated reproductive disorders. 

  1. Development and validation of psychosocial determinants measures of physical activity among Iranian adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faghihzadeh Soghrate

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study aimed at assessing the psychometric properties of psychosocial determinants of physical activity-related measures in Iranian adolescent girls. Methods Several measures of psychosocial determinants of physical activity were translated from English into Persian using the back-translation technique. These translated measures were administered to 512 ninth and tenth-grade Iranian high school students. Results The results of a series of factor analysis showed that the self-efficacy scale contained a single factor, the social support scale contained two factors: family support and friend support, the physical activity 'pros & cons' scale contained two factors: physical activity pros scale and physical activity cons scale, the change strategies scale contained a single factor, the environment scale also contained a single factor. Chronbach's alphas, mean inter-item correlations and test-retest coefficients showed that these solutions were reliable. Conclusions These preliminary results provide support for using the mentioned scales to measure psychosocial determinants of physical activity in Iranian adolescent girls.

  2. Promoting Healthy Development among Adolescent Girls: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of the HERstory Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily MacFarlane

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Leadership Program’s HERstory is a school-based, universal, preventative intervention designed to promote healthy youth development among adolescent girls by increasing their connections to pro-social peers and to school and community while developing social-emotional skills that serve as protective factors. In this school-year-long program, a facilitator implements three program phases: group development activities in Community Building, self-reflective Writing Workshop exercises, and a final Creative Output project, an ethnographic theater production or literary journal developed from participants’ Writing Workshop responses. The current mixed-methods study presents early evidence of program effectiveness based on focus groups and school record data review at two NYC public schools during the 2010-2011 school year. Participants reported improvements in key areas targeted by HERstory, including peer connectedness, academic achievement, and a range of protective factors including future orientation and goal setting. Results suggest this program approach may be suitable promoting healthy adolescent development for girls.

  3. Effectiveness of reproductive health education among rural adolescent girls: a school based intervention study in Udupi Taluk, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, R S P; Lena, A; Nair, N S; Kamath, V; Kamath, A

    2008-11-01

    Adolescence is the most important and sensitive period of one's life [1] . According to the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee, adolescence is defined as the period between 10 and 19 years, the second decade of life. To determine the effectiveness of an educational intervention program on knowledge of reproductive health among adolescent girls. This educational intervention study was carried out over a period of one year. A total of 791 rural girls in the age group 16-19 years were randomly selected from coastal villages in Udupi District, Karnataka. Adolescent girls were educated regarding reproductive health and their awareness levels were evaluated immediately following intervention. Data was tabulated and analyzed using SPSS version 11.0 for Windows. Findings were described in terms of proportions and percentages. Chi square test was used to test the effect of the intervention. A significant increase in overall knowledge after the intervention (from 14.4 to 68%, P educational intervention program can bring about a desirable change in knowledge among adolescent girls regarding reproductive health.

  4. The relation between intra- and interpersonal factors and food consumption level among Iranian adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Zahraei, Nafisehsadat Nekuei; Nazarian, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Poor nutrition habits in adolescent girls endanger their health and are followed by serious systemic diseases in adulthood and negative effects on their reproductive health. To design health promotion programs, understanding of the intra- and interpersonal associated factors with treatment is essential, and this was the aim of this study. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 193 adolescent girls of age 11-15 years. Random cluster selection was used for sample selection. Food group consumption pattern was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Also, perceived susceptibility/severity and nutritional attitude as intrapersonal factors and social support as interpersonal factor were assessed. The relationship between food group consumption level and nutritional attitude and perceived treat (susceptibility/severity) as intrapersonal factors and perceived social support as interpersonal factor were assessed by linear multiple regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results showed that the level of sweetmeat food consumption was related to perceived social support (P = 0.03) and nutritional attitude (P = 0.01) negatively. In addition, an inverse and significant association was found between the level of junk food intake and informational perceived social support (P = 0.004). The association between the level of fast food intake and the perceived parental social support for preparation of healthy food was negatively significant (P = 0.03). Breakfast consumption was related to nutritional attitude (P = 0.03), social support (P = 0.03), and perceived severity (P = 0.045). Results revealed that perceived social support and nutritional attitude are the important and related factors in dietary intake among girls, and promotion of social support and modification of nutritional attitude may lead to healthy nutritional behaviors among them.

  5. Blood selenium levels and contribution of food groups to selenium intake in adolescent girls in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives: Significant changes have been reported in dietary habits and food availability in Iceland that would be expected to compromise selenium intake and status, especially among young people. These include substantial decreases in the consumption of fish and milk, as well as the selenium content of imported wheat. The aim of this study was to assess selenium in the diet and whole blood of adolescent girls, as well as define the most important foods contributing to intake and blood concentrations of selenium. Design: The subjects were 96 randomly selected girls, aged 16–20, who answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for dietary assessment. Selenium intake from each food group was calculated in µg/day. Blood samples were collected for measurement of whole blood selenium. Results: Mean dietary selenium was 51±25 µg/day. Milk/dairy products, including cheese, contributed 36±14% of total dietary selenium; fish 18±12%; and bread/cereal products 13±6%. Mean whole blood selenium was 117±12 µg/l (range 90–208; nearly 90% of subjects were above the optimal level of 100 µg/l. Fish and bread/cereal products were the only foods significantly correlated with selenium in blood (r=0.32; P = 0.002 and r=0.22; P = 0.04, respectively while no correlation was found with milk and dairy products in spite of their greater contribution to total selenium intake. Conclusion: In this population of Icelandic adolescent girls, selenium intake and status seem acceptable. Judging from associations between intake and blood levels, fish and cereals may be the most important contributors to blood selenium.

  6. [Comparison of boys' and girls' families for actor and partner effect of stress, depression and parent-adolescent communication on middle school students' suicidal ideation: triadic data analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung Hee; Ko, Suk Jeong; Yang, Yu Jeong; Oh, Hyun Su; Jang, Mi Young; Choi, Joong Myung

    2014-06-01

    This study was done to compare families of boys or of girls for actor and partner effect of stress, depression and parent-adolescent communication as perceived by mother, father and adolescent on adolescents' suicidal ideation. Participants were 183 families (104 boys' families, 79 girls' families) who met eligibility criteria. All measures were self-administered. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 and AMOS 18.0 program. In boys' families, boys' depression and communication with father showed actor effect on boys' suicidal ideation. Boys' stress showed indirect effect on boys' suicidal ideation through communication with father and boys' depression. Mothers' depression showed indirect partner effect on boys' suicidal ideation through boys' depression. In families of girls, girls' depression and stress showed actor effects on girls' suicidal ideation. Girls' communication with mother showed indirect effects through girls' depression. Also girls' stress showed indirect effect through girls' depression. Stress in mothers and/or fathers showed partner effect on girls' suicidal ideation. To intervene in adolescents' suicidal ideation and promote adolescents' mental health, programs should be developed differently according to gender and based on parent's psychological states.

  7. Nutritional status of adolescent girls residing in rural area: A community-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulakshana S Baliga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a period of transition between childhood and adulthood. Nutritional requirements during this period increase tremendously compared to preceding years of growth. The nutritional status of adolescent girls, the future mothers, contributes significantly to the nutritional status of the community. The present study was aimed to assess the current nutritional status of the adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: This one-year community-based, cross-sectional study was undertaken at a village Peeranwadi of District Belgaum, Karnataka among 400 adolescent girls of 10 to 19 years. Information on socio-demographic variables was collected by an interview using pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. A 24-hour recall method was used to assess nutrient intake. The nutrient intake was calculated using tables of nutritive value of Indian foods. For the comparison of anthropometric data, National Center for Health Statistics and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey standards were used. Results: The mean age among the study population was 12.9 ± 2.06 years. Majorities (73.5% of them were Hindus, 98.5% were literate, and 90% were currently studying. Adolescent girls between 10 and 14 years were more stunted (63.82% as compared to 15 to 19 years (40.84% (P = 0.0003 and thin (60.79% vs. 39.43%; P = 0.0009. Overall, the mean calorie intake was observed to be 1272.20 ± 133.28 kcal/day, protein intake was 40.99 ± 3.32 gm, and iron intake was 14.42 ± 2.58 mg. Conclusion: Overall, majority of girls were having dietary intake less than 50% of RDA, and almost three fourth of girls were anemic.

  8. Amygdala Response Predicts Trajectory of Symptom Reduction During Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy among Adolescent Girls with PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Cisler, Josh M.; Sigel, Benjamin A.; Kramer, Teresa L.; Smitherman, Sonet; Vanderzee, Karin; Pemberton, Joy; Kilts, Clinton D.

    2015-01-01

    Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is the gold standard treatment for pediatric PTSD. Nonetheless, clinical outcomes in TF-CBT are highly variable, indicating a need to identify reliable predictors that allow forecasting treatment response. Here, we test the hypothesis that functional neuroimaging correlates of emotion processing predict PTSD symptom reduction during Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) among adolescent girls with PTSD. Thirty-four adolescent...

  9. Identifying the clinical needs and patterns of health service use of adolescent girls and women with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tint, Ami; Weiss, Jonathan A; Lunsky, Yona

    2017-09-01

    Girls and women in the general population present with a distinct profile of clinical needs and use more associated health services compared to boys and men; however, research focused on health service use patterns among girls and women with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is limited. In the current study, caregivers of 61 adolescent girls and women with ASD and 223 boys and men with ASD completed an online survey. Descriptive analyses were conducted to better understand the clinical needs and associated service use patterns of girls and women with ASD. Sex/gender comparisons were made of individuals' clinical needs and service use. Adolescent girls and women with ASD had prevalent co-occurring mental and physical conditions and parents reported elevated levels of caregiver strain. Multiple service use was common across age groups, particularly among adolescent girls and women with intellectual disability. Overall, few sex/gender differences emerged, although a significantly greater proportion of girls and women accessed psychiatry and emergency department services as compared to boys and men. Though the current study is limited by its use of parent report and small sample size, it suggests that girls and women with ASD may share many of the same high clinical needs and patterns of services use as boys and men with ASD. Areas for future research are discussed to help ensure appropriate support is provided to this understudied population. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1558-1566. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Navigating Adolescence with a Chronic Health Condition: A Perspective on the Psychological Effects of HAIR-AN Syndrome on Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly K. McClanahan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available HAIR-AN syndrome is a subphenotype of polycystic ovary syndrome and is characterized by acne, obesity, hirsutism, and acanthosis nigricans. It usually manifests in early adolescence, a time of significant developmental change in females across physical, cognitive, social, and emotional domains. We contend that adolescent development for females is difficult, even in the best of circumstances, and having a chronic health condition, like HAIR-AN syndrome, will likely impact the afflicted individual’s development and psychological well-being. While many researchers have discussed the long-term health effects of HAIR-AN and similar disorders, little has been written about the potential psychological sequelae of HAIR-AN on the adolescent girl. We discuss the normal developmental sequence for adolescent girls across early, middle, and late adolescence; discuss common mental health problems that adolescents experience; define HAIR-AN syndrome and its clinical manifestations; and discuss its likely psychological impact on adolescent girls. We also make suggestions for future clinical interventions and research in the area of HAIR-AN syndrome and its psychological sequelae.

  11. Essential fatty acid intake and serum fatty acid composition among adolescent girls in central Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Riitta; Korkalo, Liisa; Vessby, Bengt; Tengblad, Siv; Vaara, Elina M; Hauta-alus, Helena; Selvester, Kerry; Mutanen, Marja

    2015-04-14

    Many African diets are low in fat but are currently changing because of nutrition transition. We studied fat and fatty acid (FA) intake and the essential fatty acid (EFA) status of adolescent girls (aged 14-19 years, n 262) in Zambezia Province, central Mozambique. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a city as well as in the towns and rural villages of a coastal and an inland district. Dietary intake and FA sources were studied in a 24 h dietary recall. FA compositions of cholesteryl esters and phospholipids of non-fasting serum samples were analysed by GLC. Fat intake was low (13-18 % of energy) in all areas. Coconut and palm oil were the main sources of fat, and soyabean oil and maize were the main sources of PUFA. Compared to Food and Agriculture Organization/WHO 2010 recommendations, intake of linoleic acid (LA, 18 : 2n-6) was inadequate in the coastal district, and intakes of n-3 PUFA were inadequate in all areas. FA compositions of serum lipids differed between areas. The proportions of LA tended to be highest in the city and lowest in the rural areas. The phospholipid mead (20 : 3n-9):arachidonic acid (20 : 4n-6) ratio did not indicate EFA insufficiency. LA proportions in phospholipids were low, but those of long-chain n-6 and n-3 PUFA were high in comparison with Western adolescents. To conclude, fat sources, FA intake and EFA status differed between adolescent girls living in different types of communities. Fat intake was low, but EFA insufficiency was not indicated.

  12. Psychosocial factors associated with smoking and drinking among Japanese early adolescent boys and girls: Cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simons-Morton Bruce G

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking and drinking alcohol among early adolescents are serious public health concerns, but few studies have been conducted in Japan to assess their prevalence and etiology. A regional survey was conducted in eight schools in two Japanese school districts to identify psychosocial factors associated with smoking and drinking behaviors for boys and girls. Methods Junior high school students from seventh to ninth grades (N = 2,923 completed a self-reported questionnaire between December 2002 and March 2003. Relationships between psychosocial variables (i.e., self-assertive efficacy to resist peer pressure, parental involvement, school adjustment, and deviant peer influence and smoking and drinking were investigated using logistic regression analyses and path analyses. Results Smoking in the last six months was significantly more prevalent in boys (7.9% than girls (5.1%. The prevalence of drinking in the last six months was similar in boys (23.7% and girls (21.8%. Self-efficacy to resist peer pressure was negatively associated with both smoking and drinking among both boys and girls and provided both direct and indirect effects through deviant peer influence. Parental involvement showed indirect effects through school adjustment and/or deviant peer influence to both smoking among both boys and girls and drinking among girls, although parental involvement showed direct effects on smoking only for boys. School adjustment was negatively associated with smoking among both boys and girls and drinking among girls. Conclusion These findings suggest that self-assertive efficacy to resist peer pressure, parental involvement, school adjustment and deviant peer influence are potentially important factors that could be addressed by programs to prevent smoking and/or drinking among early adolescent boys and girls in Japan.

  13. Comparing perceived and objectively measured access to recreational facilities as predictors of physical activity in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Molly M; Evenson, Kelly R; Cohen, Deborah A; Cox, Christine E

    2007-05-01

    A number of studies in recent years have identified both self-report and objectively measured accessibility of recreational facilities as important predictors of physical activity in youth. Yet, few studies have: (1) examined the relationship between the number and proximity of objectively measured neighborhood physical activity facilities and respondents' perceptions and (2) compared objective and self-report measures as predictors of physical activity. This study uses data on 1,367 6th-grade girls who participated in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) to explore these issues. Girls reported whether nine different types of recreational facilities were easily accessible. These facilities included basketball courts, golf courses, martial arts studios, playing fields, tracks, skating rinks, swimming pools, tennis courts, and dance/gymnastic clubs. Next, geographic information systems (GIS) were used to identify all the parks, schools, and commercial sites for physical activity located within a mile of each girl's home. These sites were then visited to inventory the types of facilities available. Girls wore accelerometers to measure their weekly minutes of non-school metabolic equivalent weighted moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MW-MVPA). The number of facilities within a half-mile of girls' homes strongly predicted the perception of easy access to seven out of nine facility types. Both individual facility perceptions and the total number of facilities perceived were associated with increased physical activity. For each additional facility perceived, girls clocked 3% more metabolic equivalent weighted moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (p girls tended to record 3% more of this kind of physical activity (p raising the profile of existing facilities may help increase physical activity among adolescent girls.

  14. Physical child abuse potential in adolescent girls: associations with psychopathology, maltreatment, and attitudes toward child-bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Kathleen A; Gardner, William; Lourie, Andrea; Chang, Chien-Ni; Wang, Wei; Currie, Lisa

    2014-02-01

    Adolescent mothers are at increased risk of mistreating their children. Intervening before they become pregnant would be an ideal primary prevention strategy. Our goal was to determine whether psychopathology, exposure to maltreatment, preparedness for child-bearing, substance use disorders (SUDs), IQ, race, and socioeconomic status were associated with the potential for child abuse in nonpregnant adolescent girls. The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) was administered to 195 nonpregnant girls (aged 15 to 16 years; 54% African American) recruited from the community. Psychiatric diagnoses from a structured interview were used to form 4 groups: conduct disorder (CD), internalizing disorders (INTs; that is, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, or both), CD + INTs, or no disorder. Exposure to maltreatment was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Childbearing Attitudes Questionnaire measured maternal readiness. CAPI scores were positively correlated with all types of psychopathology, previous exposure to maltreatment, and negative attitudes toward child-bearing. IQ, SUDs, and demographic factors were not associated. Factors associated with child abuse potential interacted in complex ways, but the abuse potential of CD girls was high, regardless of other potentially protective factors. Our study demonstrates that adolescent girls who have CD or INT are at higher risk of perpetrating physical child abuse when they have children. However, the core features of CD may put this group at a particularly high risk, even in the context of possible protective factors. Treatment providers should consider pre-pregnant counselling about healthy mothering behaviours to girls with CD.

  15. Anaemia and iron deficiency anaemia among young adolescent girls from the peri urban coastal area of Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Yustina Anie Indriastuti; Muslimatun, Siti; Achadi, Endang L; Sastroamidjojo, Soemilah

    2006-01-01

    Anaemia due to iron deficiency is still a widespread problem. Among adolescent girls, it will bring negative consequences on growth, school performance, morbidity and reproductive performance. This cross sectional study aimed to identify the different nutritional and iron status characteristics of young adolescent girls 10-12 years old with iron deficiency anaemia and anaemia without iron deficiency in the rural coastal area of Indonesia. Anaemic girls (N =133) were recruited out of 1358 girls from 34 elementary schools. Haemoglobin, serum ferritin, serum transferrin receptor and zinc protophorphyrin were determined for iron status, whilst weight and height were measured for their nutritional status. General characteristics and dietary intake were assessed through interview. Out of 133 anaemic subjects, 29 (21.8%) suffered from iron deficiency anaemia, which was not significantly related to age and menarche. About 50% were underweight and stunted indicating the presence of acute and chronic malnutrition. The proportion of thinness was significantly higher (P < 0.05) among subjects who suffered from iron deficiency anaemia (51.7% vs. 29.8%). Furthermore, thin subjects had a 5 fold higher risk of suffering from iron deficiency anaemia (P< 0.05) than non-thin subjects (OR: 5.1; 95%CI 1.34-19.00). Further study was recommended to explore other factors associated with anaemia and iron deficiency anaemia, such as the thalassemia trait and vitamin A deficiency. The current iron-folate supplementation program for pregnant women should be expanded to adolescent girls.

  16. A school-based intervention to promote physical activity among adolescent girls: Rationale, design, and baseline data from the Girls in Sport group randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puglisi Lauren

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity levels decline markedly among girls during adolescence. School-based interventions that are multi-component in nature, simultaneously targeting curricular, school environment and policy, and community links, are a promising approach for promoting physical activity. This report describes the rationale, design and baseline data from the Girls in Sport group randomised trial, which aims to prevent the decline in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA among adolescent girls. Methods/Design A community-based participatory research approach and action learning framework are used with measurements at baseline and 18-month follow-up. Within each intervention school, a committee develops an action plan aimed at meeting the primary objective (preventing the decline in accelerometer-derived MVPA. Academic partners and the State Department of Education and Training act as critical friends. Control schools continue with their usual school programming. 24 schools were matched then randomized into intervention (n = 12 and control (n = 12 groups. A total of 1518 girls (771 intervention and 747 control completed baseline assessments (86% response rate. Useable accelerometer data (≥10 hrs/day on at least 3 days were obtained from 79% of this sample (n = 1199. Randomisation resulted in no differences between intervention and control groups on any of the outcomes. The mean age (SE of the sample was 13.6 (± 0.02 years and they spent less than 5% of their waking hours in MVPA (4.85 ± 0.06. Discussion Girls in Sport will test the effectiveness of schools working towards the same goal, but developing individual, targeted interventions that bring about changes in curriculum, school environment and policy, and community links. By using community-based participatory research and an action learning framework in a secondary school setting, it aims to add to the body of literature on effective school

  17. Longitudinal associations between depressive problems, academic performance, and social functioning in adolescent boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verboom, Charlotte E; Sijtsema, Jelle J; Verhulst, Frank C; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Ormel, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Depressive problems and academic performance, social well-being, and social problems in adolescents are strongly associated. However, longitudinal and bidirectional relations between the two remain unclear, as well as the role of gender. Consequently, this study focuses on the relation between depressive problems and three types of functioning in adolescents while testing gender differences. Depressive problems and functioning of 2,230 children were measured with structured questionnaires. The measurements took place biennially over 3 waves, from late childhood into adolescence (age range = 10-18 years). To examine the longitudinal relation between depression and functioning, path analyses with cross-lagged effects were conducted with structural equation modeling. Multigroup analyses were used to test for gender differences, which were only observed for academic performance. Other findings indicated substantial stability in depressive problems and functioning over time and within-wave correlations between depression and the 3 types of functioning. Poor social well-being was predicted by depressive problems but not the other way around. The relation between depressive and social problems was bidirectional, that is, they predicted each other. Finally, depressive problems and academic performance were bidirectionally related as well but only in girls.

  18. STUDY OF ADOLESCENT GIRLS WITH MENSTRUALIRREGULARITIES FOR POLYCYSTIC OVARIES AND INSULIN RESISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The perimenarcheal onset of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS has long been recognized , through both its pathophysiology and the frequent onset of hirsutism and menstrual irregularities in this age group. How e ver , there is often a delay in diagnosing PCOS in adolescence because menstrual irregularity is frequently thought to be n ormal in the first 2 or 3 years after menarche, particularly if clinical signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism or acne are mild or absent. This was a Cross - sectional Study consisting of 102 adolescent girls, aged 12 to 19 years, selected from patients attending the Gynecology Outpatient Clinic. In present study, level of insulin resistance along with markers of PCOS was assessed and compared in adolescent women with (cases or without (controls menstrual irregularities, a hall mark of PCOS. 18(35.29% cases versus 01(1.96% controls the Rotterdam criteria of PCOS. Clinical manife stations of hyper androgenism were not yet present in all cases who met Rotterdam criteria of PCOS, suggesting menstrual irregularity, especially oligomenorrhoea ( 83.3% of all PCOS ( cases , as the most precocious marker of PCOS. CONCLUSIONS : A dolescents with persistent menstrual irregularities 2 years after menarche frequently have PCOS and elevated HOMA - IR values than controls, indicating a high probability of developing insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome later in life.

  19. Body Size and Social Self-Image among Adolescent African American Girls: The Moderating Influence of Family Racial Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.

    2009-01-01

    Social psychologists have amassed a large body of work demonstrating that overweight African American adolescent girls have generally positive self-images, particularly when compared with overweight females from other racial and ethnic groups. Some scholars have proposed that elements of African American social experience may contribute to the…

  20. Adolescent Girls' Experiences and Gender-Related Beliefs in Relation to Their Motivation in Math/Science and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaper, Campbell; Farkas, Timea; Brown, Christia Spears

    2012-01-01

    Although the gender gap has dramatically narrowed in recent decades, women remain underrepresented in many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. This study examined social and personal factors in relation to adolescent girls' motivation in STEM (math/science) versus non-STEM (English) subjects. An ethnically diverse…

  1. [The fight against AIDS among adolescent girls: the impact of the 2003 Carnival campaign by the Brazilian Ministry of Health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Mauro Pereira

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, the Brazilian Ministry of Health launched a nationwide campaign aimed at promoting condom use by adolescent girls. The "Carnival Campaign" was broadcast on television and radio from February 16 to March 3 and targeted adolescent girls (13-19 years), a group which had shown an increase in the number of cases of AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. The MoH hired Kelly Key, a Brazilian pop singer, to star the television and radio ads and deliver the campaign message. One of the objectives was to empower girls and encourage them not to be ashamed of purchasing condoms or of demanding that their partners use them. The article presents the results of a nationwide survey with 1,006 adolescent girls in 86 municipalities, sponsored by the MoH. The results show that campaign materials reached the main target public and were evaluated in a very positive light. Finally, the survey data show that the Carnival Campaign had important effects, stimulating discussions in the adolescent social environment and reinforcing positive attitudes towards condom use.

  2. Being admired or being liked : Classroom social status and depressive problems in early adolescent girls and boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, A.J.; Rosmalen, J.G.M.; Veenstra, R.; Dijkstra, J.K.; Ormel, Johan

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates associations between depressive problems and classroom social status in a large population cohort of Dutch early adolescents (N = 1046, age 13.52 +/- 0.51, 52.4% girls). Depressive problems were assessed by parent and self-reports and classroom status by peer nominations. We

  3. The Interactive Effects of Puberty and Peer Victimization on Weight Concerns and Depression Symptoms among Early Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compian, Laura J.; Gowen, L. Kris; Hayward, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Utilizing a cross-sectional design, the authors examined associations between pubertal status, peer victimization, and their interaction in relation to weight concerns and symptoms of depression in a sample of early adolescent girls (N = 261). Multivariate analyses revealed a significant interaction between pubertal status and relational…

  4. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Web-Based HIV/STD Prevention Program for Adolescent Girls Targeting Sexual Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, L.; Golin, C. E.; Kamke, K.; Massey, J.; Prinstein, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent girls are at substantial risk of sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. To reduce these risks, we developed Health Education And Relationship Training (HEART), a web-based intervention focused on developing sexual assertiveness skills and enhancing sexual decision-making. This study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of…

  5. Ethnic Identity Trajectories among Mexican-Origin Girls during Early and Middle Adolescence: Predicting Future Psychosocial Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A.; Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Allen, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    We examined trajectories of ethnic identity exploration, resolution, and affirmation and their associations with depressive symptoms and self-esteem 3.5 years later among early and middle adolescent Mexican-origin girls (N = 338). Findings indicated that exploration, resolution, and affirmation increased over time for both cohorts. Among early…

  6. The Role of Literary Mentors in Writing Development: How African American Women's Literature Supported the Writings of Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.

    2015-01-01

    Coupling Royster's (2000) conceptual framework of "zamani" with Rosenblatt's (1978) reader response theory, the researcher explores the ways African American women's writings supported, nurtured, and "mentored" the writings of adolescent girls. Findings show that the mentor texts helped in generating ideas for writing, thinking…

  7. Interpersonal Sensitivity, Romantic Stress, and the Prediction of Depression: A Study of Inner-City, Minority Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Christie J.; Daley, Shannon E.; Gunderson, Brent H.

    2006-01-01

    The role of interpersonal sensitivity in the relation between romantic stress and depression was examined in 55 adolescent girls from an inner-city high school. Depression, interpersonal sensitivity, and chronic and episodic romantic stress were measured at two time points, 6 months apart. Interpersonal sensitivity was found to moderate the…

  8. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background: We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. Methods: This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth…

  9. Measuring Peer Pressure, Popularity, and Conformity in Adolescent Boys and Girls: Predicting School Performance, Sexual Attitudes, and Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santor, Darcy A.; Messervey, Deanna; Kusumakar, Vivek

    2000-01-01

    Developed and validated short measures of peer pressure, peer conformity, and popularity with 148 adolescent Canadian boys and girls in grades 11 to 13. Results show all constructed measures to be internally consistent. Peer pressure and peer conformity were stronger predictors of risk behavior than measures assessing popularity, general…

  10. The Role of Literary Mentors in Writing Development: How African American Women's Literature Supported the Writings of Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.

    2015-01-01

    Coupling Royster's (2000) conceptual framework of "zamani" with Rosenblatt's (1978) reader response theory, the researcher explores the ways African American women's writings supported, nurtured, and "mentored" the writings of adolescent girls. Findings show that the mentor texts helped in generating ideas for writing, thinking…

  11. Ethnic Identity Trajectories among Mexican-Origin Girls during Early and Middle Adolescence: Predicting Future Psychosocial Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A.; Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Allen, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    We examined trajectories of ethnic identity exploration, resolution, and affirmation and their associations with depressive symptoms and self-esteem 3.5 years later among early and middle adolescent Mexican-origin girls (N = 338). Findings indicated that exploration, resolution, and affirmation increased over time for both cohorts. Among early…

  12. Being admired or being liked: Classroom social status and depressive problems in early adolescent girls and boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); J.G.M. Rosmalen (Judith); R. Veenstra (René); J.K. Dijkstra (Jan); J. Ormel (Johan Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigates associations between depressive problems and classroom social status in a large population cohort of Dutch early adolescents (N = 1046, age 13.52 ± 0.51, 52.4% girls). Depressive problems were assessed by parent and self-reports and classroom status by peer nomina

  13. Substance Use and Abuse Trajectories across Adolescence: A Latent Trajectory Analysis of a Community-Recruited Sample of Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, C. Nathan; Stice, Eric; Springer, David W.

    2010-01-01

    We used data from a school-based study of 496 adolescent girls to identify qualitatively distinct substance use and substance abuse developmental trajectory groups and tested whether the problematic groups differed from the non-problematic groups on baseline and outcome validation variables. Results identified four substance use groups (late…

  14. Body Size and Social Self-Image among Adolescent African American Girls: The Moderating Influence of Family Racial Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.

    2009-01-01

    Social psychologists have amassed a large body of work demonstrating that overweight African American adolescent girls have generally positive self-images, particularly when compared with overweight females from other racial and ethnic groups. Some scholars have proposed that elements of African American social experience may contribute to the…

  15. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background: We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. Methods: This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth…

  16. Risky Lifestyle as a Mediator of the Relationship between Deviant Peer Affiliation and Dating Violence Victimization among Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezina, Johanne; Hebert, Martine; Poulin, Francois; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have explored the possible contribution of the peer group to dating violence victimization. The current study tested the hypothesis that a risky lifestyle would mediate the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and dating violence victimization among adolescent girls. The proposed mediation model was derived from lifestyles and…

  17. Randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of a depression prevention program ('Op Volle Kracht') among adolescent girls with elevated depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnhoven, Lieke A M W; Creemers, Daan H M; Vermulst, Ad A; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-02-01

    Depression rates rise dramatically from the early to late adolescence. Especially young adolescent girls with elevated depressive symptoms are at high risk for developing a depression during adolescence or adulthood. Therefore, the prevention of depression is important especially in this high-risk group. The aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of the Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) component of the depression prevention program 'Op Volle Kracht' (OVK) among Dutch adolescent girls with elevated depressive symptoms. In total, 102 adolescent girls (11-15 years) in the first and second year of secondary school participated in this study. The girls in the experimental group (n = 50) followed the eight CBT-lessons of OVK and reported depressive symptoms 1 week prior to the start of the lessons, after every lesson, at one-month and 6-months follow-up. The girls in the control group (n = 52) exclusively reported depressive symptoms at the same time points. Latent Growth Curve Modeling showed that the decrease in depressive symptoms was significantly larger for girls in the experimental group compared to the girls in the control group. Furthermore, it was found that at 6-months follow-up, the girls in the experimental group had significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms compared to the girls in the control group. These findings indicate that the CBT-component of OVK effectively reduces depressive symptoms in short term and possibly prevents the development of a clinical depression.

  18. When a relationship is imperative, will young women knowingly place their sexual health at risk? A sample of African American adolescent girls in the juvenile justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiford, Jerris L; Seth, Puja; Fasula, Amy M; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2017-04-27

    Background: HIV and other sexually transmissible infections (HIV/STIs) are significant contributors to adolescent girls' morbidity in the US. Risks for HIV/STIs are increased among adolescent girls involved in the juvenile justice system, and African American adolescent girls comprise nearly 50% of adolescent girls in detention centres. Although HIV prevention programs focus on HIV/STI knowledge, increased knowledge may not be sufficient to reduce sexual risk. The present study examined the interactive effects of HIV/STI knowledge and the importance of being in a relationship (a relationship imperative) on sexual risk behaviours in a sample of detained African American adolescent girls. Methods: In all, 188 African American adolescent girls, 13-17 years of age, were recruited from a short-term detention facility in Atlanta, Georgia, and completed assessments on sexual risk behaviours, relationship characteristics, HIV/STI knowledge and several psychosocial risk factors. Results: When girls endorsed a relationship imperative, higher HIV/STI knowledge was associated with low partner communication self-efficacy, inconsistent condom use and unprotected sex, when controlling for demographics and self-esteem. Conclusions: Young girls with high HIV/STI knowledge may have placed themselves at risk for HIV/STIs given the importance and value they place on being in a relationship. Contextual factors should be considered when developing interventions.

  19. Perceptions of early adolescent African-American girls concerning virginity and romantic relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaioso V

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gwendolyn D Childs, Reashanda White, Connie Hataway, Linda Moneyham, Vanessa GaiosoUniversity of Alabama at Birmingham, School of Nursing, Birmingham, AL, USABackground: Nationally, African-American girls aged 15–19 years have a higher incidence of Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis compared with White and Hispanic girls in the same age group. To address this epidemic of sexually transmitted infection, it is imperative to target African-American girls during early adolescence and before sexual debut. According to the 2011 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey, approximately 7% of African-American girls initiate sex prior to the age of 13 years. The purpose of this descriptive qualitative study was to explore the perceptions of African-American girls aged 12–14 years about virginity and relationships, and how their perceptions influence their decision to engage in or abstain from sexual activity.Methods: A convenience sample of 64 participants was recruited from community organizations in Alabama. Data were collected using individual interviews and focus groups. Individual interviews focused on values and beliefs about being a virgin, choosing boyfriends, and perceptions about good and bad relationships. Focus groups were held to validate findings from the individual interviews. Verbatim transcripts of audiotapes, observation notes, and demographic data were used as the primary data for analysis. Content analysis was used and interpretation of qualitative data to formulate meaningful categories, themes, and patterns. Qualitative research software (QSR N-Vivo® was used to code and sort data into categories.Results: The mean age of the study sample was 12.9 years. Of 64 participants, five reported having engaged in sexual activity. The mean age of sexual debut was 13 years. Common themes that emerged included respecting oneself, the ideal boyfriend, and characteristics of a romantic relationship.Conclusion: Findings from this study suggest that

  20. Lacto-Vegetarian Diet and Correlation of Fasting Blood Sugar with Lipids in Population Practicing Sedentary Lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praharaj, Ardhendu Bhusan; Goenka, Ramesh Kumar; Dixit, Sujata; Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Kar, Shantanu Kumar; Negi, Sapna

    2017-09-11

    Rising burden of diabetes in India requires quick intervention that integrates policies and programs for effective prevention and control of disease. This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted to observe effect of diet in two Indian communities practicing sedentary lifestyle. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for blood sugar, glycated-hemoglobin (HbA1C), and lipid profile. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) measurements were recorded. Diabetes incidence was lower in lacto-vegetarian (1.7%) than in non-vegetarian group (5.3%) despite similar lipid profiles and BMI/WC between the groups. Fasting blood sugar (FBS) was positively correlated with LDL and VLDL levels and negatively correlated with HDL, only in lacto-vegetarian group. Study suggests: (1) Indian lacto-vegetarian diet has beneficial effects on diabetes incidence irrespective of high body weight and sedentary lifestyle; (2) intervention to reduce body lipids, such as lipid-lowering drugs and exercise, may have greater effect in reducing FBS levels in this lacto-vegetarian group.

  1. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder After Sexual Abuse in Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Bethany D; Kaul, Paritosh

    2016-12-01

    The sexual assault of girls and women in this country is estimated at approximately 20%. The development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after sexual abuse and assault is one of the potential lingering aftereffects. In this article we describe PTSD after sexual abuse and its effect on presenting complaints, such as sexually transmitted infections, contraception, and chronic pain, for the pediatric and adolescent gynecology (PAG) clinician. Treatment approaches, including the use of antidepressants and anxiolytics, as well as evidenced-based psychotherapies, are highlighted. In addition, this article will assist the PAG clinician in identifying trauma-related concerns during clinic visits and will cover specific screening tools to aid in identification of PTSD. A better understanding of PTSD after sexual abuse will allow PAG providers to deliver better care to their patients.

  2. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma in an adolescent girl: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-Qun; Sun, Xiao-Mei; Xiang, Cheng-Fa; Wu, Jin; Yu, Ping

    2016-07-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer in childhood is not as common in the adult population. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease associated with autoantibodies, and the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid remains controversial. The present study reported a 15-year-old adolescent girl with the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer. With the complexity of the clinical manifestations of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, it can be expressed as not only hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, but also normal thyroid function. The long-term treatment, and for children with thyroid cancer, early diagnosis is particularly difficult. In the present case, the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is primarily based on clinical manifestations, anti-thyroglobulin antibody and anti-thyroid microsomal antibody. The only diagnostic imaging ultrasound was negative. The present study discussed the possible reason and the identification of this unique case of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer.

  3. Knowledge amongst adolescent girls about nutritive value of foods and diet during diseases, pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, U; Bhasin, S; Manocha, S

    1991-10-01

    Knowledge about nutritive value of food, diet during diseases and antenatal and postnatal period was assessed amongst 152 adolescent school girls. A total of 23.69 and 55.93% students had incorrect knowledge that pulses and non-vegetarian foods should be avoided during later half of the pregnancy. A total of 63.82, 66.45 and 71.72% of subjects had incorrect knowledge that almonds have more nutritive value than groundnuts, fruits are rich sources of calories and desi ghee has more nutritive value than vanaspathi, respectively. Majority (90.78%) had correct knowledge that obesity is caused due to excess intake of calories than required by an individual and low iron content and poor availability of iron from food is a major cause of anemia in mothers and children.

  4. An adolescent girl with Rapunzel syndrome: Case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradnya M Diggikar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichobezoar is a collection of dense mass of hair in stomach. When this extends into any part of the small intestine it is called Rapunzel Syndrome (RS. We report here, a case of RS in an adolescent girl who had presented with epigastric pain and swelling. Gastroscopy confirmed the presence of trichobezoar. She underwent gastrotomy and a large dense mass of hair extending up to first part of duodenum was removed. Her parents revealed their daughter′s impulsive nature of scalp-hair pulling. Following surgery, Psychiatric consultation was sought to prevent recurrence. Trichobezoar is a very rare cause of upper abdominal mass and should be considered if there is a very strong history of impulsive hair pulling. Surgical removal of a large trichobezoar is the only treatment of cure and psychiatric treatment that prevents its recurrence.

  5. Prevalence of thinness among the adolescent girls (age group 13yrs-18yrs of Garhkhal village of Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Rani Garg

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition has now been redefined in terms of “under nutrition” and conceptualized in terms of thinness which is an important problem among children and adolescents in rural areas of developing countries like India. Therefore, present study was carried out to assess the prevalence of thinness among the adolescent girls (age group 13yrs-18yrs of Garhkhal Village of Himachal Pradesh, India. The study design was cross-sectional. Height and weight were measured and Body Mass Index (BMI was carried out. Identification of thinness was done according to the new International BMI-based classification cut offs as given by Cole et al., 2007. In general the mean BMI increased with increasing age. Overall age-combined prevalence was 79.5%. Present study indicated the poor health status of the adolescent girls of the selected area which indicates the high nutritional stress among them as evident from the thinness prevalent among them.

  6. Representin' in cyberspace: sexual scripts, self-definition, and hip hop culture in Black American adolescent girls' home pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Carla E

    2007-01-01

    Despite the importance of media in the lives of girls, sexuality researchers have largely overlooked how Black American adolescent girls engage with media to construct sexual self-definitions and explore their emerging sexuality. This study investigated sexual scripts, self-definition, and hip hop culture in internet home pages constructed by Black girls aged 14-17 years residing in southern states in the USA. Although some girls in the sample constructed sexual self-representations that mirrored sexual scripts portrayed in the media, hip hop, and youth cyberculture, others resisted stereotypical representations of Black female sexuality. This paper discusses the dominant sexual scripts that emerged from in-depth analysis of 27 home pages constructed by girls residing in Georgia. The focus is on 'Freaks', 'Virgins', 'Down-Ass Chicks/Bitches', 'Pimpettes', and Resisters. Findings suggest that a one-size-fits-all approach to sexuality education may fail to address key contextual issues of relevance to girls and young women. Innovative sexuality and media education strategies that respond to the significance of media in the lives of Black American girls and young women are needed.

  7. Psychosocial Adjustment and Perceived Risk Among Adolescent Girls From Families With BRCA1/2 or Breast Cancer History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Angela R; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Schwartz, Lisa A; Egleston, Brian L; Henry-Moss, Dare; Domchek, Susan M; Daly, Mary B; Tuchman, Lisa; Moore, Cynthia; Rauch, Paula K; Shorter, Rebecca; Karpink, Kelsey; Sands, Colleen Burke

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the impact of breast cancer family history and maternal BRCA1/2 mutation on the psychosocial adjustment and perceived risk in girls age 11 to 19 years old. Girls age 11 to 19 years old with one or more relatives with breast cancer or a familial BRCA1/2 mutation (breast cancer family history [BCFH] positive, n = 208; n = 69 with BRCA1/2-positive mother), peers (BCFH negative, n = 112), and their mothers completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment, breast cancer-specific distress, and perceived risk of breast cancer. General psychosocial adjustment did not differ significantly between BCFH-positive and BCFH-negative girls, either by self-report or mother report, except for higher self-esteem among BCFH-positive girls (P = .01). BCFH-positive girls had higher breast cancer-specific distress than BCFH-negative girls (P < .001), but girls from BRCA1/2-positive families did not differ from other BCFH-positive peers. BCFH-positive girls were more likely to report themselves at increased self-risk for breast cancer in adulthood than BCFH-negative peers (74% v 33%, respectively; P ≤ .001). Girls from BRCA1/2-positive families were more likely than other BCFH-positive and BCFH-negative peers to report themselves at increased risk (P < .001). In all groups, perceived risk of breast cancer was associated with older age. Higher breast cancer-specific distress among adolescent girls was associated with higher self-perceived risk of breast cancer and higher maternal breast cancer-specific distress. Adolescent girls from BRCA1/2-positive and breast cancer families have higher self-esteem and do not have poorer psychosocial adjustment than peers. However, they do experience greater breast cancer-specific distress and perceived risk of breast cancer, particularly among older girls. Understanding the impact is important to optimize responses to growing up in families at familial and genetic risk for breast cancer, particularly given the debate over the genetic

  8. Eating attitudes among adolescent girls in Tehran: A school-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasti Sanaei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Eating attitude disorders may indicate an increased risk for eating disorders and their chronic health complications. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of eating attitude disorders and to identify the factors associated with them among female students in Tehran.  Methods: A total of 14–18-year-old high school girls (N=619 completed a standardized self-report Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26 questionnaire and a demographic questionnaire. Mental health problems were investigated by means of the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 and the Generalized Anxiety Disorders-2.  Results: Based on EAT-26 scores, 153 (24.7% students had eating attitude disorders. There was no relationship between abnormal eating attitudes and both individual and socioeconomic factors (P>0.05. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that eating attitude disorders were significantly associated with depression [OR=1.8 (1.2-2.8, P=0.007], anxiety [OR=1.6 (1.1-2.4, P=0.04], and perception of body shape as overweight [OR=2.7 (1.7-4.3, P<0.001].  Conclusion: A relatively high rate of eating attitude disorders was found among adolescent school girls in Tehran. Related factors were body image and psychological issues including depression and anxiety. Preventive and screening programs in schools could identify students at risk and prevent development and complications of eating disorders.

  9. Food swamps and food deserts in Baltimore City, MD, USA: associations with dietary behaviours among urban adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Erin R; Cockerham, Alexandra; O'Reilly, Nicole; Harrington, Donna; Harding, James; Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M

    2017-10-01

    To determine whether living in a food swamp (≥4 corner stores within 0·40 km (0·25 miles) of home) or a food desert (generally, no supermarket or access to healthy foods) is associated with consumption of snacks/desserts or fruits/vegetables, and if neighbourhood-level socio-economic status (SES) confounds relationships. Cross-sectional. Assessments included diet (Youth/Adolescent FFQ, skewed dietary variables normalized) and measured height/weight (BMI-for-age percentiles/Z-scores calculated). A geographic information system geocoded home addresses and mapped food deserts/food swamps. Associations examined using multiple linear regression (MLR) models adjusting for age and BMI-for-age Z-score. Baltimore City, MD, USA. Early adolescent girls (6th/7th grade, n 634; mean age 12·1 years; 90·7 % African American; 52·4 % overweight/obese), recruited from twenty-two urban, low-income schools. Girls' consumption of fruit, vegetables and snacks/desserts: 1·2, 1·7 and 3·4 servings/d, respectively. Girls' food environment: 10·4 % food desert only, 19·1 % food swamp only, 16·1 % both food desert/swamp and 54·4 % neither food desert/swamp. Average median neighbourhood-level household income: $US 35 298. In MLR models, girls living in both food deserts/swamps consumed additional servings of snacks/desserts v. girls living in neither (β=0·13, P=0·029; 3·8 v. 3·2 servings/d). Specifically, girls living in food swamps consumed more snacks/desserts than girls who did not (β=0·16, P=0·003; 3·7 v. 3·1 servings/d), with no confounding effect of neighbourhood-level SES. No associations were identified with food deserts or consumption of fruits/vegetables. Early adolescent girls living in food swamps consumed more snacks/desserts than girls not living in food swamps. Dietary interventions should consider the built environment/food access when addressing adolescent dietary behaviours.

  10. Amygdala response predicts trajectory of symptom reduction during Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy among adolescent girls with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisler, Josh M; Sigel, Benjamin A; Kramer, Teresa L; Smitherman, Sonet; Vanderzee, Karin; Pemberton, Joy; Kilts, Clinton D

    2015-12-01

    Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) is the gold standard treatment for pediatric PTSD. Nonetheless, clinical outcomes in TF-CBT are highly variable, indicating a need to identify reliable predictors that allow forecasting treatment response. Here, we test the hypothesis that functional neuroimaging correlates of emotion processing predict PTSD symptom reduction during Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) among adolescent girls with PTSD. Thirty-four adolescent girls with PTSD related to physical or sexual assault were enrolled in TF-CBT, delivered in an approximately 12 session format, in an open trial. Prior to treatment, they were engaged in an implicit threat processing task during 3T fMRI, during which they viewed faces depicting fearful or neutral expressions. Among adolescent girls completing TF-CBT (n = 23), slopes of PTSD symptom trajectories during TF-CBT were significantly related to pre-treatment degree of bilateral amygdala activation while viewing fearful vs neutral images. Adolescents with less symptom reduction were characterized by greater amygdala activation to both threat and neutral images (i.e., less threat-safety discrimination), whereas adolescents with greater symptom reduction were characterized by amygdala activation only to threat images. These clinical outcome relationships with pre-treatment bilateral amygdala activation remained when controlling for possible confounding demographic or clinical variables (e.g., concurrent psychotropic medication, comorbid diagnoses). While limited by a lack of a control group, these preliminary results suggest that pre-treatment amygdala reactivity to fear stimuli, a component of neurocircuitry models of PTSD, positively predicts symptom reduction during TF-CBT among assaulted adolescent girls, providing support for an objective measure for forecasting treatment response in this vulnerable population.

  11. The effect of family centered empowerment model on quality of life in adolescent girls with iron deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh alsadat Seyed Nematollah Roshan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background : Iron deficiency anemia is the most common hematological disease in children and adolescents and like other chronic diseases affects patient's quality of life. The present study has been done in order to investigate the effect of family centered empowerment model on the quality of life of adolescent girls with iron deficiency anemia. Materials and Methods: The present semiexperimental practical research was performed by choosing 60 adolescent girls with iron deficiency anemia in test and control groups through random sampling. The research tools included the questionnaires of demographic information and the adolescent quality of life (KIDSCREEN-52. The family centered empowerment model was implemented in test group and the post test was carried out 1.5 month after the end of intervention. Results: Before the intervention independent t-test showed that there was no significant difference in the quality of life in adolescent girls between case and control groups(P=0.473While, after the intervention independent t-test showed a significant difference between the two groups from viewpoint of mean scores of life quality (P=0.000. Also, the paired t-test showed a significant difference before and after intervention in case group from view point of scores of the quality of life(P=0.000 While, this difference was not significant in control group (P=0.085. Conclusion: The findings showed that the family centered empowerment model was effective on increasing the quality of life in adolescent girls with iron deficiency anemia.

  12. Girls Discuss Choice of an All-Girl Middle School: Narrative Analysis of an Early Adolescent Identity Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Emilia; Bell, Nancy J.; Corson, Kimberly; Kostina-Ritchey, Erin; Frederick, Helyne

    2012-01-01

    The narrative creation of identity by young adolescents has so far been addressed mainly from an identity-in-interaction perspective, focusing attention on the multiplicity and variability of identity negotiation as adolescents interact with others, typically with peers. In contrast, a sociocultural/dialogical perspective draws attention to the…

  13. Girls who cut: treatment in an outpatient psychodynamic psychotherapy practice with adolescent girls and young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruberman, Louise

    2011-01-01

    The observation of deficits in the capacity for mature emotional self-regulation in girls who cut is noted in the literature (Daldin, 1990; Novick & Novick, 1991; Nock et al., 2008). The acquisition of the ability to respond in a healthy manner to stress and challenge, either from outside or inside the self is one of the most important tasks of early development; girls who cut have not accomplished this developmental task or are seriously compromised in their efforts to do so. The connection between this observation, the psychosexual developmental antecedents of this deficit, and psychodynamic approaches to treatment are explored in the literature and in case reviews.

  14. A 2-year longitudinal study of eating attitudes, BMI, perfectionism, asceticism and family climate in adolescent girls and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerberg, J; Edlund, B; Ghaderi, A

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study of 383 Swedish adolescent girls (11 and 13 years old at year 1) and their parents was to examine changes in eating attitudes over a two-year period, and to investigate the predictive value of eating attitudes, perfectionism, asceticism, family climate and body mass index (BMI) for the development of disturbed eating attitudes. The following self-report questionnaires were used: Children's Eating Attitudes test, Eating Attitudes Test, Eating Disorder Inventory for Children, Eating Disorder Inventory 2, I Think I Am and The Family Climate. The frequency of disturbed eating attitudes increased with increased age in the girls. Children's eating attitudes, higher BMI than peers, the girls rating of a less healthy relation to family and their fathers' eating attitudes at year 1 contributed most to the prediction of disturbed eating attitudes for the girls 2 years later. The results suggest that early signs of disturbed eating attitudes and higher BMI than peers may be important predictors for the development of more serious eating disturbances among adolescent girls.

  15. Coding task performance in early adolescence: A large-scale controlled study into boy-girl differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne eDekker

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined differences between boys and girls regarding efficiency of information processing in early adolescence. 306 healthy adolescents (50.3% boys in grade 7 and 9 (aged 13 and 15 respectively performed a coding task based on over-learned symbols. An age effect was revealed as subjects in grade 9 performed better than subjects in grade 7. Main effects for sex were found in the advantage of girls. The 25% best-performing students comprised twice as many girls as boys. The opposite pattern was found for the worst performing 25%. In addition, a main effect was found for educational track in favor of the highest track. No interaction effects were found. School grades did not explain additional variance in LDST performance. This indicates that cognitive performance is relatively independent from school performance. Student characteristics like age, sex and education level were more important for efficiency of information processing than school performance. The findings imply that after age 13, efficiency of information processing is still developing and that girls outperform boys in this respect. The findings provide new information on the mechanisms underlying boy-girl differences in scholastic performance.

  16. The meaning of seasonal changes, nature, and animals for adolescent girls' wellbeing in northern Finland: A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Varpu; Kyngäs, Helvi; Pölkki, Tarja

    2016-01-01

    Wellbeing is complex, holistic, and subjectively perceived. Issues such as gender, age, and environment seem to affect it. Therefore, the aim of this qualitative study was to describe the meaning of seasonal changes, nature, and animals towards 13-16-year-old girls' wellbeing in Northern Finland. In the spring of 2014, through purposive sampling, a total of 19 girls participated in semi-structured interviews from various parts of Northern Finland. The data were analysed using content analysis. Afterwards, the analysis combining the category participatory involvement with environment was found, and this consisted of three main categories: adaptation to seasonal changes, restorative nature, and empowering interactivity with animals. Seasonal changes had an effect on girls' wellbeing; in the summertime, they felt happy and vivacious, active, and outgoing. Instead, during the winter months, girls' mood and activity seemed to be lower and they felt lazier and depressed. Nature brought mainly positive feelings to girls; being in nature was experienced as liberating and relaxing, and it offered opportunities to relax and have sensory perceptions. Interaction with animals was perceived as empowering. They were experienced as altruistic and comforting companions. Animals were important to girls, and they contributed to girls' lives through positive effects towards their mental and physical wellbeing. Based on the results of this study, we can recommend that being in nature and interacting with animals should be supported because they seem to have benefits towards adolescent girls' health and wellbeing. In order to facilitate the negative effects of winter, the school days should be arranged in such a way that it would be possible for girls to have outdoor activities during the daytime. The challenge for the future is perhaps the purposeful utilisation of nature's and the animals' positive effects towards their wellbeing.

  17. Two-year outcomes of a randomized, family-based substance use prevention trial for Asian American adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lin; Schinke, Steven P

    2013-09-01

    Asian Americans have been largely ignored in the prevention outcome literature. In this study, we tested a parent-child program with a sample of Asian American adolescent girls and their mothers, and evaluated the program's efficacy on decreasing girls' substance use and modifying risk and protective factors at individual, family, and peer levels. A total of 108 Asian American mother-daughter dyads recruited through online advertisements and from community service agencies were randomly assigned to an intervention arm (n = 56) or to a test-only control arm (n = 52). The intervention consisted of a nine-session substance abuse prevention program, delivered entirely online. Guided by family interaction theory, the prevention program aimed to strengthen the quality of girls' relationships with their mothers while increasing girls' resilience to resist substance use. Intent-to-treat analyses showed that at 2-year follow-up, intervention-arm dyads had significantly higher levels of mother-daughter closeness, mother-daughter communication, maternal monitoring, and family rules against substance use compared with the control-arm dyads. Intervention-arm girls also showed sustained improvement in self-efficacy and refusal skills and had lower intentions to use substances in the future. Most important, intervention-arm girls reported fewer instances of alcohol and marijuana use and prescription drug misuse relative to the control-arm girls. The study suggests that a culturally generic, family-based prevention program was efficacious in enhancing parent-child relationships, improving girls' resiliency, and preventing substance use behaviors among Asian American girls. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. The effect of backpack load on the gait of normal adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Daniel H K; Kwok, Monica L Y; Au-Yang, Alexander C K; Holmes, Andrew D; Cheng, Jack C Y; Yao, Fiona Y D; Wong, M S

    2005-05-15

    Concerns regarding the effects of load carriage have led to recommendations that backpacks be limited to 10?-?15% of body weight, based on significant changes in physical performance. However, gait responses to backpack loads are not entirely consistent and there is a particular lack of data regarding load-bearing gait in adolescent females. Gait patterns of 22 normal adolescent girls were recorded at backpack loads of 0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5 and 15.0% body weight. Temporal-distance, ground reaction force and joint kinematic, moment and power parameters were analysed by repeated measures ANOVA with factors of backpack load and side (left or right). Walking speed and cadence decreased significantly with increasing backpack load, while double support time increased. Kinematic changes were most marked at the proximal joints, with a decreased pelvic motion but a significant increase in the hip sagittal plane motion. Increased moments and power at the hip, knee and ankle showed increasing demand with backpack load. Parameters showed different responses to increasing load, and those that suggested a critical load indicated this to be approximately 10% body weight. While this may be due to a change in gait due to increased demand, further work is required to verify this and also to examine the cumulative effects of backpack load on the musculoskeletal system, which may be more appropriate in determining recommended load limits.

  19. Fast Food Consumption, Quality of Diet, and Obesity among Isfahanian Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein; Mirseifinezhad, Maryam; Omrani, Nasrin; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Azadbakht, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective. Few data are available linking fast food intake to diet quality in developing countries. This study was conducted to determine the association between fast food consumption and diet quality as well as obesity among Isfahani girls. Methods. This cross-sectional study was done among 140 Iranian adolescents selected by the use of systematic cluster random sampling. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Diet quality was defined based on energy density and nutrient adequacy ratios (NARs). Results. Individuals in the highest quartile of fast food intake had significantly lower NARs for vitamin B1 (P = 0.008), phosphorus (P = 0.0250), selenium (P < 0.001) and vitamin B2 (P = 0.012) compared with those in the lowest quartile. Those in top quartile of fast food intake consumed more energy-dense diets than those in the bottom quartile (P = 0.022). High intakes of fast foods were significantly associated with overweight (top quartile: 40% versus bottom quartile: 0%, P = 0.0001) and obesity (11.4% versus 2.9%, P = 0.0001). Conclusion. Fast food consumption is associated with poor diet quality and high prevalence of overweight and obesity among Isfahani adolescents. Prospective data are required to confirm these findings. PMID:22619703

  20. Fast Food Consumption, Quality of Diet, and Obesity among Isfahanian Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Rouhani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Few data are available linking fast food intake to diet quality in developing countries. This study was conducted to determine the association between fast food consumption and diet quality as well as obesity among Isfahani girls. Methods. This cross-sectional study was done among 140 Iranian adolescents selected by the use of systematic cluster random sampling. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Diet quality was defined based on energy density and nutrient adequacy ratios (NARs. Results. Individuals in the highest quartile of fast food intake had significantly lower NARs for vitamin B1 (P=0.008, phosphorus (P=0.0250, selenium (P<0.001 and vitamin B2 (P=0.012 compared with those in the lowest quartile. Those in top quartile of fast food intake consumed more energy-dense diets than those in the bottom quartile (P=0.022. High intakes of fast foods were significantly associated with overweight (top quartile: 40% versus bottom quartile: 0%, P=0.0001 and obesity (11.4% versus 2.9%, P=0.0001. Conclusion. Fast food consumption is associated with poor diet quality and high prevalence of overweight and obesity among Isfahani adolescents. Prospective data are required to confirm these findings.