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Sample records for lactating cows environmentally

  1. Continuous lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Torben Gosvig; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Andersen, Jens Bech

    2008-01-01

    Reports over the past decade have indicated that normal lactational performance can be achieved in genetically superior and high-producing dairy cows, even when the dry period between 2 lactations is omitted. The hypothesis tested in this experiment was that normal lactogenesis I and metabolic...... function may be achievable in continuously milked high-yielding dairy cows as a result of the genetic selection for lactation performance and hence longevity of mammary epithelial cells. The milk production and mammary nutrient uptake in response to omission of the dry period for cows with an expected peak...... milk yield higher than 45 kg/d were studied in 28 Holstein dairy cows managed without bovine somatotropin. Performance and metabolic parameters were followed in late gestation and in the following early lactation. Fourteen cows were milked continuously throughout late gestation, and another 14 dairy...

  2. Effect of farm and simulated laboratory cold environmental conditions on the performance and physiological responses of lactating dairy cows supplemented with bovine somatotropin (BST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, B. A.; Johnson, H. D.; Li, R.; Collier, R. J.

    1990-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of bovine somatotropin (BST) supplementation in twelve lactating dairy cows maintained in cold environmental conditions. Six cows were injected daily with 25 mg of BST; the other six were injected with a control vehicle. Cows were maintained under standard dairy management during mid-winter for 30 days. Milk production was recorded twice daily, and blood samples were taken weekly. Animals were then transferred to environmentally controlled chambers and exposed to cycling thermoneutral (15° to 20° C) and cycling cold (-5° to +5° C) temperatures for 10 days in a split-reversal design. Milk production, feed and water intake, body weights and rectal temperatures were monitored. Blood samples were taken on days 1, 3, 5, 8 and 10 of each period and analyzed for plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), cortisol, insulin and prolactin. Under farm conditions, BST-treated cows produced 11% more milk than control-treated cows and in environmentally controlled chambers produced 17.4% more milk. No differences due to BST in feed or water intake, body weights or rectal temperatures were found under laboratory conditions. Plasma T3 and insulin increased due to BST treatment while no effect was found on cortisol, prolactin or T4. The results showed that the benefits of BST supplementation in lactating dairy cows were achieved under cold environmental conditions.

  3. Extended lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D. Donald; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2008-01-01

    of the lactation, protein and fat percentages increasing and lactose percentage decreasing, irrespective of treatment. The quality of the milk for processing into cheese, fermented products, heat-treated products and cream liqueurs was assessed by calculation of casein number (casein protein as a proportion...

  4. Free ferulic acid uptake in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soberon, M A; Cherney, J H; Liu, R H; Ross, D A; Cherney, D J R

    2012-11-01

    Ferulic acid (FRA), a phenolic compound with antioxidant and anticancer activities, naturally occurs in plants as a lignin precursor. Many veins of research have been devoted to releasing FRA from the lignin complex to improve digestibility of ruminant feeds. Thus, the objective of this research was to investigate the transfer of a given dosage of the free form of FRA into the milk of dairy cattle. Six mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows at the Cornell Research Farm (Harford, NY) were given 14-d adaptation to diet and stall position. Ad libitum access to a total mixed ration based on haylage and maize silage (31.1% neutral detergent fiber containing 5.52 mg of FRA/g) was provided during the study. A crossover design was implemented so that each cow alternated weekly between FRA-dosed and control. On d 1, jugular cannulas and urine catheters were placed in all cows. On d 2, FRA-dosed cows received a single dosage of 150 g of pure FRA powder at 0830 h via their fistula (n=4) or a balling gun for nonfistulated cows (n=2). Plasma, urine, feces, feed, orts, milk, and rumen fluid were sampled intensively for the next 36 h and analyzed for FRA concentration. On d 8, the cows crossed over and the experiment was repeated. When compared with the control, FRA administration did not have an effect on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk fat yield, milk protein yield, somatic cell count, or neutral detergent fiber content of orts and feces. The concentration of FRA in the feces did not change as a result of FRA dosage. As expected, FRA concentration increased dramatically upon FRA dosage and decreased over time until returning to basal levels in rumen fluid (4 h after dosage), plasma (5.5 h after dosage), urine (10 h after dosage), and milk (14 h after dosage). Baseline values for FRA in urine and rumen fluid were variable among cows and had an effect on FRA concentration in FRA-dosed cows. From this study, it is observed that orally ingested FRA can be transported into the

  5. Associations of insulin resistance later in lactation on fertility of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruselli, P S; Vieira, L M; Sá Filho, M F; Mingoti, R D; Ferreira, R M; Chiaratti, M R; Oliveira, L H; Sales, J N; Sartori, R

    2016-07-01

    The challenge of getting dairy cows pregnant during early lactation is a well-described, worldwide problem. However, specifically in farms with poor reproductive, nutritional, and environmental conditions/management, a low pregnancy rate during early lactation is followed inevitably by an increased number of nonpregnant cows after 150 days in milk, with even more difficulties to achieve pregnancy. Therefore, several studies were designed to understand and develop strategies to mitigate reduced fertility of cows during late lactation. Experiments were performed under tropical regions to determine metabolic status during lactation and association of stage of lactation on oocyte quality and fertility. Lactating cows with extended days not pregnant (e.g.,>150 days in milk) often had systemic metabolic alterations, including development of peripheral insulin resistance and various oocyte alterations, including reduced expression of genes encoding glucose transport proteins, reduced amounts of mtDNA, increased expression of mitochondria-related genes, and increased expression of apoptosis-related genes. Additionally, in vitro embryo production and pregnancy per AI were lower in late- versus early-lactation cows in some but not all studies. Notwithstanding, when a normal embryo was transferred to a cow in late lactation, the pregnancy per transfer was reasonable, reinforcing the assertion that fertility problems in late-lactation cows may be associated with oocyte quality, fertilization, and/or failure of early embryo development. In conclusion, insulin resistance may reduce oocyte competence and consequently fertility in late-lactation dairy cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Early lactation production, health, and welfare characteristics of cows selected for extended lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, J O; Mogensen, L; Kristensen, T

    2017-02-01

    Some cows are able to achieve relatively high milk yields during extended lactations beyond 305 d in milk, and farmers may be able to use this potential by selecting the most suitable cows for an extended lactation. However, the decision to postpone insemination has to rely on information available in early lactation. The main objectives of this study were, therefore, to assess the association between the information available in early lactation and the relative milk production of cows on extended lactation, and to investigate if this information can be used to differentiate time of first insemination between cows. Data came from 4 Danish private herds practicing extended lactation in which some cows are selected to have a delayed time of planned first insemination. Average herd size varied from 93 to 157 cows, and milk yield varied from 7,842 to 12,315 kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM) per cow per year across herds. The analysis was based on 422 completed extended lactations (427 ± 87 d), and each lactation was assigned to 1 of 3 (low, medium, and high) milk performance groups (MPG) within parity group within herd based on a standardized lactation yield. For cows in the high MPG, peak ECM yield, and ECM yield at dry off were significantly greater, the relative reduction in milk yield between 60 and 305 d in milk was significantly smaller, and a smaller proportion had a body condition score (scale: 1-5) at dry off of 3.5 or greater compared with cows in low MPG. Previous lactation days in milk at peak ECM yield and ECM yield at dry off were higher, the relative reduction in milk yield between 60 and 305 d in milk was smaller, and the number of inseminations per conception was higher for multiparous cows in high MPG compared with low. Current lactation ECM yield at second and third milk recording were greater for cows in high MPG compared with low. A principal component analysis indicated that variables related to fertility, diseases, and milk yield explained most

  7. Economic evaluation of stall stocking density of lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, De Albert; Dechassa, Hailegziabher; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-01-01

    An increase in stall stocking density (SSD), as measured by the number of lactating cows per stall in a freestall barn, reduces cow performance, such as milk yield and fertility, but may increase farm profitability. Our objectives were to calculate effects of varying SSD on profit per stall for a

  8. Events occurring during the previous lactation, the dry period, and peripartum as risk factors for early lactation mastitis in cows receiving 2 different intramammary dry cow therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, P J; Fleming, C; Risco, C A

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between mastitis events occurring during the previous lactation, the dry period, and the peripartum period on the incidence of early lactation mastitis in cows receiving ceftiofur hydrochloride or penicillin dihydrostreptomycin as intramammary dry cow antibiotic therapy. Cows (n=402) from 2 large dairy farms in Central Florida were enrolled in the study at the time of dry-off processing and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dry cow therapies: ceftiofur hydrochloride or penicillin dihydrostreptomycin. Composite milk samples were collected at dry-off and after calving for bacteriological examination and somatic cell count. Peripartal health disorders were monitored during the first 30 d of lactation and included calving difficulty, metritis, ketosis, and left displaced abomasum. Milk production and individual somatic cell scores (SCS) were recorded monthly by the Dairy Herd Improvement Association. The main outcome variables were the risk of clinical mastitis during the first 30 and 60 d of lactation, and the risk of subclinical mastitis at the first 2 monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association tests after calving (up to 70 d in milk). Additionally, the SCS and the presence of mastitis pathogens in milk at dry-off and at calving were analyzed. Explanatory variables consisted of events occurring during the previous lactation, at dry-off and during the dry period, at calving, and within the first 30 d after calving. Multiple events occurring during the previous lactation had a significant effect on the incidence of mastitis in the subsequent lactation. These events included low milk yield, intermediate lactation length, clinical mastitis, and lactation SCS average. Similarly, intramammary infections with environmental bacteria at dry-off increased the chances of clinical mastitis the first month after calving. Dry-off therapy had a significant effect on mastitis incidence; cows treated with ceftiofur

  9. Cow's milk quality and energy value during different lactation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamończyk, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    The quality of dairy products, raw milk in particular, depends on many factors. Low bacterial and somatic cell counts are basic determinants of the appropriate raw milk quality. The objective of the work was to assess the effect of selected factors, that is, the age of cows and their daily milk performance, on cytological quality (somatic cell count) and energy value of milk produced at individual stages of lactation. Somatic cell count and energy value of cow's milk were assessed. A total of 229 792 milk samples were examined. Data for analysis were taken from milk records of 350 dairy herds. It was demonstrated that, of all the lactations studied, the fi rst lactation (from calving to the 100th day of lactation) was characterised by the highest daily milk performance (25.1 kg) and the lowest somatic cell count (356 thous./1 ml), fat, protein and dry matter contents (4.06, 2.96 and 12.41%, respectively) and milk calorific value (732 kcal/kg). The highest energy value was recorded in cow's milk produced towards the end of lactation, that is from day 300 till the end of lactation (842 kcal/kg). High milk calorific value in late lactation and high fat and protein contents were accompanied by low raw milk quality.

  10. Survey Of Ketosis In Lactating Wadara Cows | Igbokwe | Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milk samples collected from 203 lactating Wadara cows at various periods of lactation from April to August, 1999, in Borno State, Nigeria, were negative for ketones by Rothera\\'s test. The protein, lactose, fat and total solids contents of 30 milk samples were 12.5 6.7mg/ml, 12.3 2.0mg/ml, 3.2 1.2% and 12.9 2.8%, ...

  11. Fate and metabolism of radiolabelled dicrotophos in Egyptian lactating cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.Z.; Zayed, S.A.D.; Hazzaa, N.I.

    1991-01-01

    The present study was initiated to determine the amount of dicrotophos and its metabolites which might appear in milk and meat of Egyptian lactating cows following dicrotophos treatment. 14 C-alkyl dicrotophos was synthesised and its metabolic fate in two cows was investigated. For each cow, two equal dermal applications with 2-week interval were made. One cow was sacrificed 24 hr. after the second application, and the second animal after two weeks later. Paper chromatographic analysis of milk showed the presence of dicrotophos and two of its metabolites. Insecticide residues in the different organs were found in low levels. Treatment produced no negative influence on the state of health or milk production of the cows.1 fig.,2 tab

  12. Effect of ambient temperature and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on water and electrolyte balances in dry and lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelil-Arfa, H; Faverdin, P; Boudon, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of the interaction between 2 constant ambient temperatures [thermoneutrality (TN; 15°C) and high temperature (HT; 28°C)] and 2 levels of Na bicarbonate supplementation [calculated to provide diet Na contents of 0.20%DM (Na-) and 0.50%DM (Na+)] on water partitioning in dairy cows. Treatments were compared on 4 dry and 4mid-lactation Holstein cows according to 2 Latin squares (1 for each physiological stage) over the course of 4 periods of 15d. Diets consisted of a total mixed ration based on maize silage. Dry cows were restricted to their protein and energy requirements, whereas lactating cows were fed ad libitum. The daily average temperature-humidity index was 59.4 for TN and 73.2 for HT. Lactating and dry cows had higher vaginal temperatures at HT than at TN, but the increase was more pronounced in lactating cows (+1.05 vs. +0.12°C for vaginal temperature, respectively). Dry matter intake (DMI) of lactating cows decreased by 2.3kg/d at HT. Free water intake (FWI) and estimated volume of water lost to evaporation increased at HT in both lactating and dry cows; no interactions were observed between temperature and physiological stage. When expressed as a proportion of DMI, the increase in evaporation that occurred with increasing temperature was completely compensated for by an increase in FWI for both physiological stages. The urinary water excretion increased slightly at HT in lactating cows but not in dry cows, which may be related to the low chloride content of the offered diet. High Na supplementation increased DMI slightly in lactating cows, but milk yield was not affected. Sodium supplementation did not limit the decrease in DMI observed in lactating cows at HT; this observation is likely due to the high diet electrolyte balance of the offered diets. Sodium supplementation increased FWI in lactating cows and urinary flow in both physiological states. The interaction between ambient temperature and Na

  13. Metabolism of antimony-124 in lactating dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruwaene, R. van; Gerber, G.B.; Kirchmann, R.; Colard, J.

    1982-01-01

    Lactating cows received oral and intravenous administrations of radioactive antimony (III) chloride to study its intestinal and urinary excretion, secretion into milk and organ distribution. Milk samples were taken twice a day and the milk, feces and urine assayed using gamma spectroscopy. Cows administered orally were sacrificed at 102 days and those injected intravenously at 70 days. Distribution of 124 Sb in the organs was determined at the time of sacrifice. Excretion of 124 Sb occurs mainly via urine, little is secreted into milk. Highest organ concentrations are in the spleen, liver and bone. (U.K.)

  14. Invited review: Carryover effects of early lactation feeding on total lactation performance in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carina; Spörndly, R; Bertilsson, J

    2016-01-01

    In comparison with the intensive research on the direct effects of energy supply on dairy cow lactation performance, little attention has been paid to the effect of early lactation feeding on subsequent production. The present paper reviews 9 studies carried out with the aim of quantifying...... the immediate and subsequent responses in milk production and body weight to early lactation feeding. Most results showed that a more generous feeding in early lactation caused a positive carryover effect on subsequent production, whereas an inadequate level of feed in early lactation has been shown to reduce...... to be determined by several factors including duration of the treatment and post-treatment feeding level. The most important factor though appears to be the magnitude of over- or underfeeding (i.e., a strong relationship between the treatment period feeding level and the subsequent response in production)....

  15. The economic benefit of treating subclinical Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, M; Goodger, W J; Weaver, L; Franti, C

    1987-12-15

    The economic benefits of treating lactating cows for Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis were studied at a large (689 milking cows) central California dairy. Postcure milk production of case cows (infected, treated, and cured) was compared with production of paired control cows (uninfected) and was matched for yield, days in milk, days in gestation, and parity. A simulation was used to plot expected lactation curves for mastitic cows (infected, not treated) with characteristics similar to those of each control cow, and these curves were compared with actual case-cow lactation curves. The difference in actual and expected production was used to calculate net economic benefits of treatment. Comparison of expected with actual production indicated a net benefit from treatment of $396/cow for cows treated in early lactation and $237 for cows treated in midlactation, but a net loss of $55 for cows treated in late lactation. Lactation number did not have a significant impact on economic benefits of treatment. In contrast to other studies indicating no economic benefit from treating mastitis during lactation, this study's positive results may have been attributable to the high cure rate (98%) and the subclinical form of mastitis being treated. Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis treatment during early and midlactation would appear to be an economically justifiable option for dairy managers.

  16. Effects of different dosages of propylene glycol in dry cows and cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Michaela; Peinhopf, Walter; Gottschalk, Jutta; Einspanier, Almut; Koeller, Gabor; Wittek, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    In this Research Paper we hypothesised that the temporary insulin resistance seen during the transition period in dairy cows may cause significant differences in the efficacy of PG at different sampling periods and that in some cases this effect will be dose dependent. Eighty four sampling sets were generated by studying 7 multiparous Holstein cows repeatedly at 4 sampling periods of 3 d length (dry cows: days 40, 39 and 38 antepartum; close up cows: days 10, 9 and 8 antepartum; fresh cows: days 3, 4 and 5 post-partum; lactating cows: days 38, 39 and 40 post-partum). On each of these days 3 h after morning feeding propylene glycol was drenched in different dosages of 100, 300 or 500 ml once per day (cross over study). The different doses were applied in an alternating order (Latin square). Blood samples were taken before, every 30 min up to 4 h, after 6 and 12 h after PG application. Following parameters have been measured: insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), betahydroxybutyrate (BHB), bilirubin, cholesterol, potassium, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH). Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (RQUICKI) was calculated. It was found that glucose, insulin, NEFA, BHB, bilirubin and potassium concentrations were influenced differently by the three defined dosages of propylene glycol at four different sampling periods. Whereas RQUICKI, cholesterol, AST and GLDH did not differ between the sampling periods and treatments. The major results of the study are that the effect of PG is dose-dependent and that the effect of PG is depending on the time of application according to calving. It can be concluded that in fresh cows higher dosages are necessary to provoke similar effects in comparison to dry, close up and lactating cows. Although the study did not compare to topdressing of PG from the results it is reasonable to believe that bolus application of a specific PG volume is necessary to provoke the effect.

  17. Heritability of methane emissions from dairy cows over a lactation measured on commercial farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pszczola, M; Rzewuska, K; Mucha, S; Strabel, T

    2017-11-01

    Methane emission is currently an important trait in studies on ruminants due to its environmental and economic impact. Recent studies were based on short-time measurements on individual cows. As methane emission is a longitudinal trait, it is important to investigate its changes over a full lactation. In this study, we aimed to estimate the heritability of the estimated methane emissions from dairy cows using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy during milking in an automated milking system by implementing the random regression method. The methane measurements were taken on 485 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows at 2 commercial farms located in western Poland. The overall daily estimated methane emission was 279 g/d. Genetic variance fluctuated over the course of lactation around the average level of 1,509 (g/d), with the highest level, 1,866 (g/d), at the end of the lactation. The permanent environment variance values started at 2,865 (g/d) and then dropped to around 846 (g/d) at 100 d in milk (DIM) to reach the level of 2,444 (g/d) at the end of lactation. The residual variance was estimated at 2,620 (g/d). The average repeatability was 0.25. The heritability level fluctuated over the course of lactation, starting at 0.23 (SE 0.12) and then increasing to its maximum value of 0.3 (SE 0.08) at 212 DIM and ending at the level of 0.27 (SE 0.12). Average heritability was 0.27 (average SE 0.09). We have shown that estimated methane emission is a heritable trait and that the heritability level changes over the course of lactation. The observed changes and low genetic correlations between distant DIM suggest that it may be important to consider the period in which methane phenotypes are collected.

  18. Short- and long-term effects of high milking frequency during the first 21 days of lactation on production and reproductive performance in high-lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshani, E; Cohen, M; Doekes, J J

    2017-01-01

    We examined short- and long-term effects of high milking frequency (HMF) for the first 21 days of lactation. The study included 122 Israeli Holstein cows - 32 pregnant heifers, 40 cows in second lactation and 50 cows in >second lactation. Heifers were paired according to predicted transmitting ability and cows according to energy-corrected milk (ECM) production, age, days in milk and expected calving date. Thin cows (body condition score second lactation cows relative to their control counterparts (-0.37%); ECM production was also higher in 6× milking first and second lactation (7.6% and 5%, respectively) but not for >second lactation cows. Furthermore, HMF had long-lasting effects, expressed as significantly higher milk production through the succeeding lactation in the previous first lactation cows (10%); a tendency toward significance in the second lactation cows relative to the controls (4.7%), but a deleterious effect on the >second lactation cows, reflected by lower milk production (-5.25%) than in controls; similar patterns were found for the ECM. For the entire 305 days of lactation, fat and protein yields were higher for first and second lactation cows, whereas protein yield for >second lactation cows was lower in the 6× milking v. Given that HMF during the first 21 days of first or second lactation increases milk and ECM yields throughout the concurrent and successive lactation with no adverse effect on energy balance, mastitis, metabolic diseases or reproduction, it seems to be economically beneficial. However, caution should be paid for >second lactation cows due to absence of significant effect in the entire of the first HMF applied lactation and the deleterious effect in the succeeding lactation.

  19. The use of urea by lactating dairy cows when fed maize silage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of urea by lactating dairy cows when fed maize silage. T.J. Dugmere, A.M. Breden and K.P. Walsh. Department of Agriculture and Water Supply, Natal Region, Pietermaritzburg. Maize silage is relatively high in energy but low in protein for the normal lactational requirements of dairy cows. Three trials were ...

  20. SUPPLEMENTARY FEEDING ON THE NUTRIENT BALANCE OF LACTATING DAIRY COW AT CONTRASTING TEMPERATURE REGIMES: ASSESSMENT USING CORNELL NET CARBOHYDRATE AND PROTEIN SYSTEM (CNCPS) MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    A. Jayanegara; A. Sofyan

    2014-01-01

    Dairy cows often do not receive adequate nutrient supply during their lactation period. This condition caneven be worse if the environmental temperature is not in comfortable range which may occur especially intropical regions. The present research was aimed to simulate the effect of supplementary feeding on nutrientbalance of lactating dairy cow at contrasting temperature regimes using Cornell Net Carbohydrate andProtein System (CNCPS) model. Treatments consisted of feeds (R1: Pennisetum pur...

  1. Non-linear modelling to describe lactation curve in Gir crossbred cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh C. Bangar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The modelling of lactation curve provides guidelines in formulating farm managerial practices in dairy cows. The aim of the present study was to determine the suitable non-linear model which most accurately fitted to lactation curves of five lactations in 134 Gir crossbred cows reared in Research-Cum-Development Project (RCDP on Cattle farm, MPKV (Maharashtra. Four models viz. gamma-type function, quadratic model, mixed log function and Wilmink model were fitted to each lactation separately and then compared on the basis of goodness of fit measures viz. adjusted R2, root mean square error (RMSE, Akaike’s Informaion Criteria (AIC and Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC. Results In general, highest milk yield was observed in fourth lactation whereas it was lowest in first lactation. Among the models investigated, mixed log function and gamma-type function provided best fit of the lactation curve of first and remaining lactations, respectively. Quadratic model gave least fit to lactation curve in almost all lactations. Peak yield was observed as highest and lowest in fourth and first lactation, respectively. Further, first lactation showed highest persistency but relatively higher time to achieve peak yield than other lactations. Conclusion Lactation curve modelling using gamma-type function may be helpful to setting the management strategies at farm level, however, modelling must be optimized regularly before implementing them to enhance productivity in Gir crossbred cows.

  2. Biochemical and Haematological Blood Parameters at Different Stages of Lactation in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Ovidiu COROIAN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The health status of cows is evaluated and depending on haematological and biochemical profile of blood. Nutrition is the main technological factor that can produce profound changes in the metabolic profile in animals (Dhiman et al., 1991; Khaled et al., 1999; Ingvartsen, 2006. Blood parameters analyze can lead to identify if there are errors in nutrition of lactating cows (Payne et al., 1970. The aim of this study was the evaluation of metabolic and biochemical changes that occur during colostrum period and in terms of number of lactations in cows. The biological material was represented by a total of 60 heads of dairy cows from a family farm from Sălaj County, Romania. The cows are all from Holstein breed and presented no clinical signs of any specific pathology. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of each cow and analyzed. 10 individuals from each of the six lactations have been randomly selected. Haematological and biochemical parameters showed variations depending on factors analyzed here. In lactation 1 Hb was 7.55±3.05 (g/dl, while in lactation 6 the value was 12.5±2.10 (g/dl. RBC ranged as follows: in lactation 1 - 28.50±2.05 and in lactation 6 - 30.02±2.05. Lymphocytes varied within very wide limits under the influence of lactation: in lactation 1 - 2.8±1.56 and in lactation 6 - 7.55±1.80. The number of lactations and lactation rank have influenced blood biochemical and hematological parameters in dairy cows. Biochemical parameters are influenced by post-partum day, showing the lowest values in the early days of colostral period and the highest in the last few days of the same period.

  3. Ingestive behavior of lactating cows fed sugarcane and crude glycerin levels on the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Teixeira Costa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The crude glycerin used as feed for ruminants has drawn attention of the researchers for dealing with environmental aspects. Considering current legislation did not establish how to treat this product, this is a low cost alternative of great amount of a residue of the biodiesel production. In this study we evaluated different crude glycerin levels on ingestive behavior which were studied as the diet of lactating cows fed with sugarcane. The glycerin levels were 0, 4, 8 and 12% of the dry matter; the diet was balanced to contain enough nutrients for the maintenance and milk production of 15 kg.dia-1. Sixteen (16 crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows were distributed into four 4x4 Latin Squares. The animals were submitted to observation of 24 hours every five minutes to evaluate ingestive behavior. The observation of the activities was recorded. The animal´s behavior was visually determined with five minutes of intervals to determine the times spent in idle, feeding, rumination, and were calculated patterns of feeding and rumination. The addition of glycerin to the diet did not affect the ingestive behavior parameter in lactating cows fed sugarcane, might be explained by the similarity in NDF content of diets, and up to 12% may be added of the diet’s dry matter.

  4. Relationship among blood indicators of lipomobilization and hepatic function during early lactation in high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Felix Diaz; Muiño, Rodrigo; Pereira, Víctor; Campos, Rómulo; Benedito, José Luis

    2011-09-01

    Blood indicators are used as a tool to diagnose metabolic disorders. The present work was conducted to study the relationships among blood indicators of lipomobilization and hepatic function in high-yielding dairy cows. Two groups of Holstein cows were studied: 27 early lactation cows and 14 mid lactation cows from four different herds with similar husbandry characteristics in Galicia, Spain. Blood samples were obtained to measure beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), triglycerides (TG), and the activity of aspartate transaminase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Cows in early lactation had higher levels of BHB and NEFA than mid lactation cows. High lipomobilization (NEFA > 400 µmol/L) was detected in 67% and 7% of early lactation and mid lactation cows, respectively, while subclinical ketosis (BHB > 1.2 mmol/L) was detected in 41% and 28% of the early lactation and lactation cows, respectively. TG concentrations were low in all cows suffering subclinical ketosis and in 61% of the cows with high lipomobilization. During early lactation, 30% of cows suffered hepatic lipidosis as detected by levels of AST. Compromised hepatic function was observed in early lactation cows as shown by lower concentrations of glucose, total protein, and urea.

  5. Radioimmunological determination of chloramphenicol in the saliva of lactating cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dotter, A.; Kroker, R.; Arnold, D.; Somogyi, A.

    1987-01-01

    In an effort to search for noninvasive methods suitable to monitor compliance with the ban of chloramphenicol (CAP) in milkproducing animals, the pharmacokinetic behavior of this drug in bovine saliva was investigated. As revealed by studies using a radioimmunological assay, CAP appears following its intracisternal (i.c.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) administration in the saliva of lactating cows. The level of sensitivity of the method (1.5 ng CAP per g saliva) was reached 14 and 18 days after i.c. and s.c. administration, respectively. At present, the question must remain open as to whether the concentration of CAP in the saliva can serve as a reliable indicator for the enforcement of the highest permissible level set at 1 ng CAP per g of milk by German regulations. (orig.) [de

  6. Radioimmunological determination of chloramphenicol in the saliva of lactating cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotter, A.; Kroker, R.; Arnold, D.; Somogyi, A.

    1987-02-01

    In an effort to search for noninvasive methods suitable to monitor compliance with the ban of chloramphenicol (CAP) in milk-producing animals, the pharmacokinetic behavior of this drug in bovine saliva was investigated. As revealed by studies using a radioimmunological assay, CAP appears following its intracisternal (i.c.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) administration in the saliva of lactating cows. The level of sensitivity of the method (1.5 ng CAP per g saliva) was reached 14 and 18 days after i.c. and s.c. administration, respectively. At present, the question must remain open as to whether the concentration of CAP in the saliva can serve as a reliable indicator for the enforcement of the highest permissible level set at 1 ng CAP per g of milk by German regulations.

  7. Milk composition and blood metabolic profile from holstein cows at different calving orders and lactation stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Borges de Castro Dias

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate milk composition and metabolic profile of Holstein cows at different calving orders in the beginning, middle, and end of lactation. One hundred ten Holstein cows were housed in a free stall system receiving the same diet and were grouped according to calving order (first, second, third, and fourth calving and days in milk (DIM: early (1-90 DIM, middle (91-180 DIM, and end of lactation (over 181 DIM for comparing milk yield, milk composition, and blood metabolic profile between the calving orders within the same lactation period. These parameters were also evaluated between lactation periods of the cows in different calving orders. The calving order, in any lactation stage, had no influence on milk yield per day and blood biochemical profile of Holstein cows receiving the same diet. However, calving order in all stages of lactation influenced milk composition. The first, second, third, and fourth calving order had no effect on the blood biochemical profile of Holstein cows, in any lactation stage. On the other hand, the different stages of lactation influenced milk yield and milk composition of Holstein cows.

  8. Prevalence of carrier state theileriosis in lactating cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjana Sahoo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to examine the carrier status of theileriosis among apparently healthy cross-bred jersey cattle population of Odisha using conventional blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Materials and Methods: A total of 34 apparently healthy cross-bred Jersey lactating cows were considered in this study. Blood samples were subjected to microscopic examination after staining with Giemsa stain and PCR based molecular diagnosis using two sets of primer, i.e., N516/N517 and TorF1/TorF2 specific for Theileria annulata and Theileria orientalis, respectively. Results: Examination of blood samples revealed presence of theileria parasites to a magnitude of 20.59% for T. annulata, 8.82% for T. orientalis, and 2.94% for both. Conclusion: Molecular diagnosis was found to be much more sensitive than conventional method for diagnosis of theileriosis. T. annulata was found to be the predominant species affecting the exotic cattle. T. orientalis was detected in apparently healthy cows.

  9. Fate of higher brominated PBDEs in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Amelie; Asplund, Lillemor; de Wit, Cynthia A; McLachlan, Michael S; Thomas, Gareth O; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C

    2007-01-15

    Dietary intake studies of lower brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) have shown that fish and animal products are important vectors of human exposure, but almost no data exist for higher brominated BDEs. Therefore, the fate of hepta- to decaBDEs was studied in lactating cows exposed to a naturally contaminated diet by analyzing feed, feces, and milk samples from a previous mass balance study of PCB. Tissue distribution was studied in one cow slaughtered after the experiment. BDE-209 was the dominant congener in feed, organs, adipose tissues, and feces, but not in milk. In contrast to PCBs and lower brominated BDEs, concentrations of hepta- to decaBDEs in adipose tissue were 9-80 times higher than in milk fat and the difference increased with degree of bromination/log K(OW). The congener profiles in adipose tissue and feed differed; BDE-207, BDE-196, BDE-197, and BDE-182 accumulated to a surprisingly greater extent in the fat compared to their isomers, suggesting metabolic debromination of BDE-209 to these BDEs. The results indicate that meat rather than dairy product consumption may be an important human exposure route to higher brominated BDEs.

  10. Evaluation of dietary betaine in lactating Holstein cows subjected to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, L W; Dunshea, F R; Allen, J D; Rungruang, S; Collier, J L; Long, N M; Collier, R J

    2016-12-01

    Betaine (BET), a natural, organic osmolyte, improves cellular efficiency by acting as a chaperone, refolding denatured proteins. To test if dietary BET reduced the effect of heat stress (HS) in lactating dairy cows, multiparous, lactating Holstein cows (n=24) were blocked by days in milk (101.4±8.6 d) and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 daily intakes of dietary BET: the control (CON) group received no BET, mid intake (MID) received 57mg of BET/kg of body weight, and high dose (HI) received 114mg of BET/kg of body weight. Cows were fed twice daily and BET was top-dressed at each feeding. Cows were milked 2 times/d and milk samples were taken daily for analysis. Milk components, yield, feed intake, and water intake records were taken daily. Rectal temperature and respiration rate were taken 3 times/d at 0600, 1400, and 1800h. Cows were housed in environmentally controlled rooms and were allowed acclimation for 7d at thermoneutral (TN) conditions with a mean temperature-humidity index of 56.6. Cows were then exposed to 7d of TN followed by 7d of HS represented by a temperature-humidity index of 71.5 for 14d. This was followed by a recovery period of 3d at TN. Dietary BET increased milk yield during the TN period. No differences were found between BET and CON in total milk production or milk composition during HS. The increase in water intake during HS was not as great for cows fed BET compared with controls. The cows on CON diets had higher p.m. respiration rate than both MID and HI BET during HS, but lower rectal temperature compared with BET. No difference was found in serum glucose during TN, but cows given HI had elevated glucose levels during HS compared with CON. No differences were found in serum insulin levels between CON and BET but an intake by environment interaction was present with insulin increasing in HI-treated lactating dairy cows during HS. The heat shock response [heat shock protein (HSP) 27 and HSP70] was upregulated in bovine mammary epithelial cells

  11. Effect of supplementing crossbt·ed lactating dairy cows fed elephant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of supplementing lactating c.rosshrcd dairy cows fed on elephant grass based diets with labjab hay ... causes a reduction in overall digestibility of herbage dry matter. ..... Selected Topics in animal. Nutrition. ... Working paper No. 99:pp.

  12. Body composition of lactating and dry Holstein cows estimated by deuterium dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.A.; Ehle, F.R.

    1986-01-01

    In three experiments patterns of water turnover and body composition estimated by deuterium oxide were studied in Holstein cows. In the first experiment, four lactating cows were infused with deuterium oxide, and blood samples were taken during 4-d collection. Milking was stopped; cows were reinfused with deuterium oxide and resampled. Slopes of deuterium oxide dilution curves indicated lactating cows turned water over more rapidly than nonlactating cows. In the second experiment with the same four cows, during 4-d collection, deuterium oxide concentrations in milk, urine, and feces showed dilution patterns similar to deuterium oxide in blood. Sampling milk may be an alternative to sampling blood. In the third experiment, 36 Holstein cows were fed 55, 65, or 75% alfalfa, smooth bromegrass, or equal parts of each forage as total mixed rations; remaining portions of rations were a grain mixture. Body composition was estimated at -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mo postpartum. Empty body water, protein, mineral, fat, and fat percentage decreased from prepartum to postpartum. First calf heifers contained less empty body water, protein, and mineral than older cows. Cows fed diets with 55% forage had more body fat than those fed diets with 75% forage. Cows fed alfalfa-based diets had more gastrointestinal fill regardless of grain than cows fed diets that contained alfalfa and smooth bromegrass. Gastrointestinal fill of cows increased from prepartum to 5 mo postpartum

  13. Runinal and Intermediary Metabolism of Propylene Glycol in Lactating Holstein Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl

    2007-01-01

    Four lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the mesenteric artery, mesenteric vein, hepatic portal vein, and hepatic vein were used in a cross-over design to study the metabolism of propylene glycol (PG).......Four lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the mesenteric artery, mesenteric vein, hepatic portal vein, and hepatic vein were used in a cross-over design to study the metabolism of propylene glycol (PG)....

  14. Effect of Probiotics Supplementation on the Performance of Lactating Crossbred Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D. Chavan

    Full Text Available Sixteen multifarious cows were selected on the basis of average daily milk yield and stage of lactation; they were divided into four groups (four cows in each group with parity within each group. These cows were fed 10gm, 15gm and 20gm probiotics just before evening milk. The multi-strain probiotic used were containing four strains consist of bacteria and fungi namely Lactobacillus acidophilus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces boulardii and Propionibacterium frendenreichii. It was found that, the use of probiotics proved to be effective in increasing milk production of lactating cows. Milk fat, milk protein and SNF content tended to be higher in cows supplemented with probiotics preparations. The appropriate level of 20 gm probiotic per day per animal was found effective. The economic advantage of probiotics depends on its relative prices and on the levels of milk production of the cows. [Vet. World 2011; 4(12.000: 557-561

  15. Circulating blood metabolites in early-lactation dairy cows fed canola or soybean meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    A successful transition from pregnancy to lactation is imperative for dairy cows to maximize milk production potential. Altering the dietary protein source can change the availability of energy to the cow. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of crude protein (CP) source canol...

  16. Simultaneous intramammary and intranasal inoculation of lactating cows with bovine herpesvirus 4 induce subclinical mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Wisselink, H.J.; Barkema, H.W.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether an experimental bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4) infection can induce bovine mastitis, or can enhance bovine mastitis induced by Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis). Four lactating cows were inoculated intramammarily and intranasally with BHV4, and four lactating control

  17. An attempt to define the sodium requirements of lactating dairy cows in a tropical environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiangtum, W.; Yawongsa, A.; Schonewille, J.T.; Rukkwamsuk, T.; Yuangklang, C.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lactating dairy cattle in the tropics may require more sodium (Na) owing to the hot and humid climatic conditions. It is unknown whether the current recommendations on Na for lactating cows can be quantitatively used in tropical countries. This study attempted to define the Na

  18. forage systems mixed with forage legumes grazed by lactating cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clair Jorge Olivo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Current research evaluates productivity, stocking and nutritional rates of three forage systems with Elephant Grass (EG + Italian Ryegrass (IR + Spontaneous Growth Species (SGS, without forage legumes; EG + IR + SGS + Forage Peanut (FP, mixed with FP; and EG + IR + SGS + Red Clover (RC, mixed with RC, in rotational grazing method by lactating cows. IR developed between rows of EG. FP was maintained, whilst RC was sow to respective forage systems. The experimental design was completely randomized, with three treatments and two replication, subdivided into parcels over time. Mean rate for forage yield and average stocking rate were 10.6, 11.6 and 14.4 t ha-1; 3.0, 2.8 and 3.1 animal unit ha-1 day-1, for the respective systems. Levels of crude protein and total digestible nutrients were 17.8, 18.7 and 17.5%; 66.5, 66.8 and 64.8%, for the respective forage systems. The presence of RC results in better and higher forage yield in the mixture, whilst FP results in greater control of SGS. The inclusion of forage legumes in pasture systems provides better nutritional rates.

  19. Environmental and cow-related factors affect cow locomotion and can cause misclassification in lameness detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nuffel, A; Van De Gucht, T; Saeys, W; Sonck, B; Opsomer, G; Vangeyte, J; Mertens, K C; De Ketelaere, B; Van Weyenberg, S

    2016-09-01

    To tackle the high prevalence of lameness, techniques to monitor cow locomotion are being developed in order to detect changes in cows' locomotion due to lameness. Obviously, in such lameness detection systems, alerts should only respond to locomotion changes that are related to lameness. However, other environmental or cow factors can contribute to locomotion changes not related to lameness and hence, might cause false alerts. In this study the effects of wet surfaces, dark environment, age, production level, lactation and gestation stage on cow locomotion were investigated. Data was collected at Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research research farm (Melle, Belgium) during a 5-month period. The gait variables of 30 non-lame and healthy Holstein cows were automatically measured every day. In dark environments and on wet walking surfaces cows took shorter, more asymmetrical strides with less step overlap. In general, older cows had a more asymmetrical gait and they walked slower with more abduction. Lactation stage or gestation stage also showed significant association with asymmetrical and shorter gait and less step overlap probably due to the heavy calf in the uterus. Next, two lameness detection algorithms were developed to investigate the added value of environmental and cow data into detection models. One algorithm solely used locomotion variables and a second algorithm used the same locomotion variables and additional environmental and cow data. In the latter algorithm only age and lactation stage together with the locomotion variables were withheld during model building. When comparing the sensitivity for the detection of non-lame cows, sensitivity increased by 10% when the cow data was added in the algorithm (sensitivity was 70% and 80% for the first and second algorithm, respectively). Hence, the number of false alerts for lame cows that were actually non-lame, decreased. This pilot study shows that using knowledge on influencing factors on cow

  20. Associations of herd- and cow-level factors, cow lying behavior, and risk of elevated somatic cell count in free-stall housed lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, M E Alexandrea; Meijer, Karin M A; Barkema, Herman W; Leslie, Kenneth E; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Devries, Trevor J

    2013-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the risk of intramammary infection in dairy cows is related to lying patterns. The objectives of this study were to quantify the standing and lying behavior of dairy cows milked 3×/d, determine the cow- and herd-level factors associated with these behaviors, and relate these findings to the risk of an elevated somatic cell count (SCC). Five commercial free-stall dairy herds in Eastern Ontario, milking 3×/d, were enrolled in a longitudinal study. Forty Holstein-Friesian cows/herd were randomly selected as focal animals based on days in milk (cow SCC was recorded at the beginning of each period and end of the final period. Elevated SCC (eSCC) was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis. A new incident eSCC was defined as an individual cow that started the period with a SCC cows for hygiene and lameness. Throughout the course of the study, cows averaged 11.2h/d of lying time, split into 8.6 lying bouts/d that were on average 84.6 min in length. Later lactation cows had longer daily lying times that were split into fewer lying bouts of longer duration than cows earlier in lactation. Lame cows had longer daily lying times and lying bout durations than non-lame cows. Cows with greater milk yield had lower lying times than lower producing cows. Average post-milking standing time across the study herds was 103 min. Manipulation of feed (feed delivery or push-up) by the stockperson, in the hour before milking or shortly thereafter, resulted in the longest post-milking standing times. Over the study period, 48 new eSCC were detected, resulting in a mean herd incidence rate of 0.91 eSCC/cow-year at risk for all study herds. A non-linear relationship between post-milking standing time and eSCC incidence was found; compared to those cows that lie down cows that lie down for the first time >90 min after milking had a lower risk of acquiring a new eSCC. The risk of experiencing an eSCC was also increased in multiparous cows, and in those cows

  1. Lactation performance and serum biochemistry of dairy cows fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... supplementation in multiparous dairy cows diet may improve their milk yield in transition period. Key words: Dairy cow, ... 20 multiparous Holsteins (parity 3) housed in free stalls at the. Esfahan-Kesht farm .... Corn gluten meal.

  2. Extended lactations may improve cow health, productivity and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from organic dairy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Jesper Overgård; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels

    2014-01-01

    The concept of extended lactation is a break with the tradition of getting one calf per cow per year that should improve cow health, increase productivity and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission per kg milk produced in high-yield organic dairy herds. These effects are achieved through fewer...... calvings per year and hence a production of fewer replacement heifers, which, in combination with fewer days dry per cow per year, will reduce the annual herd requirement for feed. Total herd feed use is a major determinant of GHG emission at farm gate. However, these effects also rely on the assumption...... calves and fewer culled cows will be available for sale. An on-going project at Aarhus University aims at characterising those cows that can maintain milk production through an extended lactation, and it aims at estimating the overall herd effect of this concept on farm profitability and GHG emission per...

  3. Metabolism of early-lactation dairy cows as affected by dietary starch and monensin supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M M; Yasui, T; Ryan, C M; Pelton, S H; Mechor, G D; Overton, T R

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary starch content and monensin (MON) on metabolism of dairy cows during early lactation. Before parturition, primiparous (n=21) and multiparous (n=49) Holstein cows were fed a common controlled-energy close-up diet with a daily topdress of either 0 or 400mg/d monensin. From d 1 to 21 postpartum, cows were fed a high-starch (HS; 26.2% starch, 34.3% neutral detergent fiber, 22.7% acid detergent fiber, 15.5% crude protein) or low-starch (LS; 21.5% starch, 36.9% neutral detergent fiber, 25.2% acid detergent fiber, 15.4% crude protein) total mixed ration with a daily topdress of either 0mg/d monensin (CON) or 450mg/d monensin (MON), continuing with prepartum topdress assignment. From d 22 through 63 postpartum, all cows were fed HS and continued with the assigned topdress treatment until d 63. Cows fed HS had higher plasma glucose and insulin and lower nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) than cows fed LS during d 1 to 21 postpartum. Cows fed LS had elevated early-lactation β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) compared with cows fed HS. Cows fed HS had greater insulin resistance and increased plasma haptoglobin in the early lactation period. There was no effect of MON on postpartum plasma NEFA. Cows fed MON had higher plasma glucose compared with CON cows, which was driven by a MON × parity interaction in which primiparous cows fed MON had greater plasma glucose concentrations than cows fed CON. Cows fed MON had lower plasma BHBA compared with CON, which was contributed to by a MON × parity interaction in which primiparous cows fed MON had lower BHBA concentrations than CON. Starch treatment had no effect on overall liver triglyceride content. Primiparous cows fed MON had increased liver triglyceride content compared with CON primiparous cows, and multiparous cows fed MON had decreased liver triglyceride content compared with CON cows. Multiparous cows fed LS with MON had higher liver glycogen content than multiparous

  4. Comparison between Serum and Saliva Biochemical Constituents in Dairy Cows during Lactation and Dry Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud R. Abd Ellah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to compare serum and salivary biochemical constituents during lactation and dry period in dairy cows. Also, the present study evaluated for the first time the salivary biochemical constituents in dairy cows. The study was carried out using 45 healthy multiparous Holstein cows maintained in dairy farms located in Morioka city (Iwate prefecture, Japan. Cows were classified into groups based on the month of lactation. Serum, saliva and milk samples were collected and analyzed. Data were statistically analyzed and the variation in serum and salivary biochemical constituents during lactation and dry period were discussed. From the present study, it could be concluded that the 1st month of lactation has the highest levels for serum free fatty acids (FFA, β- Hydroxy butyric acid (BHBA and aceto Acetic acid (ACAC. The dry period has the highest serum glucose level and the lowest serum FFA, BHBA and aspartate aminotransferase levels. Both serum and salivary FFA showed the highest value during the 1st month of lactation. Saliva contains a high level of gamma glutamyl transferase. The level of ammonia in saliva is higher than its serum level during all months of lactation and dry period. Most of the biochemical constituents in saliva change in different way from serum during lactation and dry period. Milk protein/fat ratio of 0.7 may be not indicative for subclinical ketosis.

  5. Supplementing an immunomodulatory feed ingredient to modulate thermoregulation, physiologic, and production responses in lactating dairy cows under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, T; Cooke, R F; Brandão, A P; Schubach, K M; Batista, L F D; Miranda, M F; Colombo, E A; Rodrigues, R O; Junior, J R G; Cerri, R L A; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2017-06-01

    This study compared vaginal temperature, physiologic, and productive parameters in lactating dairy cows supplemented or not with Omnigen-AF (Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ) during the summer months in a tropical environment. Thirty-two lactating, primiparous (n = 16) and multiparous (n = 16) pregnant Holstein × Gir cows were ranked by parity, days in milk, body weight, and body condition score (BCS), and assigned to receive (SUPP; n = 16) or not (CON; n = 16) Omnigen-AF (Phibro Animal Health, Teaneck, NJ) at 56 g/cow daily (as-fed basis). During the experimental period (d -6 to 56), cows were maintained in a single drylot pen with ad libitum access to water and a total mixed ration, and milked twice daily. Cows received Omnigen-AF mixed with 200 g of corn (as-fed basis) after the daily morning milking through self-locking head gates, whereas CON cows concurrently received 56 g of kaolin mixed with 200 g of corn. For feed intake evaluation, cows from both treatments were randomly divided in 4 groups of 8 cows each, and allocated to 8 individual feeding stations for 3 d. Intake was evaluated 4 times per group from d 1 to 56. From d -6 to 0, d 15 to 28, and d 43 to 56, cow vaginal temperature was recorded hourly. Environmental temperature-humidity index (THI) was also recorded hourly from d 15 to 28 and d 43 to 56. Cows were evaluated for body weight and BCS on d -6 and 56, individual milk production was recorded daily from d -6 to 56, and milk samples were collected on d -6, 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, and 56 for analyses of somatic cell count and milk components. Blood samples were collected on d -6, -3, 0, 9, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 36, 45, 48, 51, 54, and 56. Results from samples or observations collected from d -6 to 0 were included as an independent covariate in each respective analysis. Environmental THI was 74.2 ± 0.5 and cows were exposed to THI >68 for 633 h within a total of 672 h of evaluation. Cows assigned to CON had greater vaginal temperature on d

  6. Daidzein enhances immune function in late lactation cows under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, De-Yi; He, Shao-Jun; Liu, Shi-Qing; Tang, Yi-Guo; Jin, Er-Hui; Chen, Hui-Liang; Li, Sheng-He; Zhong, Liang-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress decreases natural immunity making cows more vulnerable to diseases. A previous study reported that daidzein can enhance animal resistance to heat stress and regulate animal immunocompetence. However, it is unclear whether daidzein regulates the immune performance of late lactation cows under heat stress. In this study, late lactation cows in four groups were raised in hot weather and fed with basic diet, basic diet plus 200, 300, 400 mg/day daidzein, respectively, and the experimental period was 60 days. Blood was collected to examine the changes of serum total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), immunoglobulin G (IgG), interferon alpha (IFN-α), and interleukin-2 (IL-2). We found the levels of serum IgG and INF-α were significantly higher in late lactation cows after 300 and 400 mg/day daidzein treatment compared to those in the control group and 200 mg/day daidzein treatment (P 0.05). Daidzein can enhance the immunocompetence of late lactation cows and strengthen cow resistance to heat stress. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Influence of cow breed type, age and previous lactation status on cow height, calf growth, and patterns of body weight, condition, and blood metabolites for cows grazing bahiagrass pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Riley, D G; Williams, M J

    2017-01-01

    This study was initiated to evaluate performance and patterns of cow traits and blood metabolites of 3 breeds of cows grazing bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flügge) pastures in central Florida. Purebred cows (n = 411) of either Angus (Bos taurus), Brahman (Bos indicus), or Romosinuano (Bos taurus) breeding, rotationally grazed (moved twice weekly) bahiagrass pastures year-round, and received bahiagrass hay supplemented with molasses and soyhulls or legume hay supplemented with unfortified molasses from October to June each production year. At monthly intervals, all cows were weighed, measured at the hip (HH), scored for BCS, and blood samples collected by jugular puncture from 10 cows per cow breed/block group for plasma urea N (PUN), glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Data were analyzed on cows that calved with a statistical model that included fixed effects of year, cowage, cow breed, month, block, supplement group (n = 2, but not presented), and whether the cow weaned a calf the previous year. Cow was a repeated observation over mo. Three-way interactions involving monthly patterns for cowage x year, year x lactation status the previous year, cowage × cow breed, year × cow breed, and cow breed × lactation status the previous year were significant (P cow breed × month was important (P cows compared to 3-yr old cows; 2) greater BW and BCS before calving for cows that did not lactate the previous year; 3) PUN levels were above 11 mg/dl except for February, August and September, and was generally greater in tropically adapted breeds; 4) GLU was greatest in Brahman, lowest in Angus, and intermediate in Romosinuano cows; and 5) plasma levels of NEFA escalated at calving and then declined, but Brahman cows maintained greater (P Cows that lactated the previous year had less NEFA than those that did not lactate. Brahman cows were less fertile than Bos taurus breeds, and weaned heavier calves.

  8. Estimating the Lactation Curve on a.m./p.m. Milkings in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Toma Cziszter

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A pilot study was conducted in order to assess the effect of a.m./p.m. milkings on the shape of the lactation curve during a normal lactation. Data from a.m. and p.m. milkings from 86 Romanian Spotted cows were used. Cows calved during January, February and March 2011 and concluded their lactations by the end of February 2012. Results showed that there was a difference between morning and evening milkings regarding the shape of the lactation curve. The shape of the lactation curve for morning milking was more resembling to the shape of the lactation curve for total daily milk. Modelling the lactation curve with gamma incomplete function led to a milk production estimate very close to the real production, although the model overestimated the yield in early lactation and underestimated it in middle lactation. If alternative milkings are going to use for milk yield estimation it is preferable to measure the evening milking at the beginning.

  9. The SLICK hair locus derived from Senepol cattle confers thermotolerance to intensively managed lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, S; Khan, F A; Huson, H J; Sonstegard, T S; Moss, J I; Dahl, G E; Hansen, P J

    2014-09-01

    The SLICK haplotype (http://omia.angis.org.au/OMIA001372/9913/) in cattle confers animals with a short and sleek hair coat. Originally identified in Senepol cattle, the gene has been introduced into Holsteins. The objectives of the current study were to determine (1) whether lactating Holsteins with the slick hair phenotype have superior ability for thermoregulation compared with wild-type cows or relatives not inheriting the SLICK haplotype, and (2) whether seasonal depression in milk yield would be reduced in SLICK cows. In experiment 1, diurnal variation in vaginal temperature in the summer was monitored for cows housed in a freestall barn with fans and sprinklers. Vaginal temperatures were lower in slick-haired cows than in relatives and wild-type cows. In experiment 2, acute responses to heat stress were monitored after cows were moved to a dry lot in which the only heat abatement was shade cloth. The increases in rectal temperature and respiration rate caused by heat stress during the day were lower for slick cows than for relatives or wild-type cows. Moreover, sweating rate was higher for slick cows than for cows of the other 2 types. In experiment 3, effects of season of calving (summer vs. winter) on milk yield and composition were determined. Compared with milk yield of cows calving in winter, milk yield during the first 90 d in milk was lower for cows calving in the summer. However, this reduction was less pronounced for slick cows than for wild-type cows. In conclusion, Holsteins with slick hair have superior thermoregulatory ability compared with non-slick animals and experience a less drastic depression in milk yield during the summer. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pregnancy rate evaluation in lactating and non-lactating Nelore cows subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination using injectable progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Tadeu Campos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI protocols utilize progesterone (P4 as a hormonal source to achieve synchronization of estrus in cattle. The use of an injectable P4 source to control estrus would be an interesting pharmacological strategy owing to the practicality of parenteral application. However, the effects of injectable P4 on estrus cycle control in cattle remain poorly studied. In particular, no existing studies have investigated the effect of injectable P4 on the fertility of cows subjected to FTAI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy rate of lactating and non-lactating Nelore cows subjected to FTAI with injectable P4. Of the 422 non-lactating cows in this study, 162 (38.3% became pregnant by 60 days post-FTAI. In the lactating group (n = 516, 166 (32.1% were pregnant by 60 days after treatment with injectable P4. The proportions of lactating and non-lactating cows becoming pregnant were compared using the chi-square test, adopting a significance level of P < 0.05. It was found that the pregnancy rate of the cows subjected to FTAI with injectable P4 was influenced by lactation status. Lactating cows had lower reproductive performance, possibly because of their higher nutritional requirements. However, the use of injectable P4 shows promising results and may prove to be a useful strategy in large-scale livestock production.

  11. Feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid affects enteric methane production and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.; Hatew, B.; Bannink, A.; Dijkstra, Jan

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study potential interaction between the effects of feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) on enteric CH4 production and performance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped into 7 blocks of 4

  12. EVIDENCE OF FEED CONTAMINATION DUE TO SAMPLE HANDLING AND PREPARATION DURING A MASS BALANCE STUDY OF DIOXINS IN LACTATING COWS IN BACKGROUND CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1997, the United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a mass balance study of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs) and dibenzofurans (CDFs) in lactating cows in background conditions. The field portion of the study occurred at the US Department of A...

  13. Effect of concentrate feeding method on the performance of dairy cows in early to mid lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, P J; Law, R A; Gordon, A W; McGettrick, S A; Ferris, C P

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of concentrate feeding method on milk yield and composition, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), body weight and body condition score, reproductive performance, energy balance, and blood metabolites of housed (i.e., accommodated indoors) dairy cows in early to mid lactation. Eighty-eight multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows were managed on 1 of 4 concentrate feeding methods (CFM; 22 cows per CFM) for the first 21 wk postpartum. Cows on all 4 CFM were offered grass silage plus maize silage (in a 70:30 ratio on a DM basis) ad libitum throughout the study. In addition, cows had a target concentrate allocation of 11 kg/cow per day (from d 13 postpartum) via 1 of 4 CFM, consisting of (1) offered on a flat-rate basis via an out-of-parlor feeding system, (2) offered based on individual cow's milk yields in early lactation via an out-of-parlor feeding system, (3) offered as part of a partial mixed ration (target intake of 5 kg/cow per day) with additional concentrate offered based on individual cow's milk yields in early lactation via an out-of-parlor feeding system, and (4) offered as part of a partial mixed ration containing a fixed quantity of concentrate for each cow in the group. In addition, all cows were offered 1 kg/cow per day of concentrate pellets via an in-parlor feeding system. We detected no effect of CFM on concentrate or total DMI, mean daily milk yield, concentrations and yields of milk fat and protein, or metabolizable energy intakes, requirements, or balances throughout the study. We also found no effects of CFM on mean or final body weight, mean or final body condition score, conception rates to first service, or any of the blood metabolites examined. The results of this study suggest that CFM has little effect on the overall performance of higher-yielding dairy cows in early to mid lactation when offered diets based on conserved forages. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association

  14. Resistin in Dairy Cows: Plasma Concentrations during Early Lactation, Expression and Potential Role in Adipose Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Reverchon, Maxime; Ramé, Christelle; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Elis, Sébastien; Guillaume, Daniel; Dupont, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP) and at five months of gestation (5 MG). We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigat...

  15. Responses to Starch Infusion on Milk Synthesis in Low Yield Lactating Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of starch infusion on production, metabolic parameters and relative mRNA abundance was investigated in low yield lactating cows from 86 days in milk. Six Holstein cows fitted with permanent ruminal cannulas were arranged into one of two complete 3×3 Latin squares and infused with a starch solution containing 800 grams starch for 16 days. The three treatments were: i ruminal and abomasal infusion with water (Control; ii ruminal infusion with cornstarch solution and abomasal infusion with water (Rumen; iii ruminal infusion with water and abomasal infusion with cornstarch solution (Abomasum. There were no significant differences (p>0.05 among the three treatments with low yield lactating cows in feed and energy intake, milk yield and composition, plasma metabolism, or even on gene expression. However, cows receiving starch through rumen performed better than directly through the abomasum during the glucose tolerance test procedure with a higher area under the curve (AUC; p = 0.08 and shorter half-time (t1/2; p = 0.11 of plasma insulin, therefore, it increased glucose disposal, which stated a lipid anabolism other than mobilization after energy supplementation. In conclusion, extra starch infusion at concentration of 800 g/d did not enhance energy supplies to the mammary gland and improve the lactating performance in low yield lactating cows.

  16. Variations in the milk yield and milk composition of dairy cows during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedö, S; Nikodémusz, E; Percsich, K; Bárdos, L

    1995-01-01

    Variations in the milk yield and milk composition of a dairy cow colony (n = 23) were analyzed during 11 months of lactation. Milk yield followed a characteristic decreasing pattern in negative correlations with solid components (milk protein, lactose, total solids, milk fat). Titrable acidity (degree SH) was significantly (p < 0.1) higher in the milk of fresh-milking cows and it correlated negatively with lactose and positively with milk protein, milk fat and total solids. The concentrations of Zn, Fe and Cu tended to decrease, while Mn showed insignificant variation during lactation. Milk vitamin A showed a significant positive whilst milk vitamin E had a negative correlation with milk fat.

  17. Claw Lesions Causing Clinical Lameness in Lactating Holstein Frisian Crossbred Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Nazir Zahid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify claw lesions causing clinical lameness in lactating Holstein Frisian (HF crossbred cows in dairy cattle. Seventy dairy farmers were interviewed at the monthly meetings of Progressive Dairy Farmers Association of Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Ten dairy farms were randomly selected as per probability proportional to size and a total of 450 lactating HF crossbred cows were taken into the study. All the lactating cows were scored for locomotion and rear leg view index. Trimming was done in all the clinically lame animals (animals with locomotion scores 2 and 3 and equal number of animals selected randomly from those with locomotion scores 0 and 1. Various claw lesions were evaluated in both the groups. There was a significant relationship between locomotion score and rear leg view index to identify lameness. Sole ulcers and white line fissures were the lesions responsible for clinical lameness. Other lesions did not cause clinical lameness but increased the asymmetry in lactating HF crossbred cows. Both locomotion score and rear leg view index could be reliably used to identify clinical lameness in lactating cattle.

  18. Yield of acid curd cheese produced from cow's milk from different lactation periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamończyk, Ewa; Młynek, Krzysztof; Guliński, Piotr; Zawadzka, Wiesława

    2017-01-01

    Milk production intensification has led in many countries, including Poland, to increased milk yields per cow. A higher milk yield resulted in changes in cow productivity, including extended lactations. There is a paucity of information on the quality of milk harvested during the last months of lactations exceed- ing 10 months. Production capacity cheese (“cheese expenditure”) is an important parameter of providing   a recovery as much as the possible components of the milk processed are dry substances, which in turn af- fects the economics of production. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the lactation period (from standard lactation; extended lactation phase) on the performance of the acid curd cheese. the relation- ship between total protein content and acidity of fresh milk collected in two separate periods of lactation on the yield of acid cheese was also evaluated. The study included 1384 samples of milk collected from Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, the Black-White variety. The basic chemical composition of fresh milk and acid-curd cheese produced in the laboratory were analyzed. The cheese milk yield was evaluated on the basis of the quantity of the re- sulting curd mass. According to our estimates, under laboratory conditions an average of 100 kg of milk per cow in population produced an estimated 20.1 kg of curd cheese. The basic chemical composition of raw milk, which was diverse in terms of the period of lactation, showed a higher dry matter, fat and protein content in milk acquired during the extension phase of lactation compared to the milk of standard lactation. It has been found that the lower titratable acidity of fresh milk appeared with a higher yield of cheese curd. This difference was between 1.76 kg (with milk from cows milked during the extended lactation phase) to 2.72 kg from 100 kg of cheese milk (milk with the standard lactation). Thus, the optimum level of titratable acidity of milk for cheese yield is 6.0–7.5

  19. Effects of niacin supplementation on the insulin resistance in Holstein cows during early lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Talija Hristovska; Marko R. Cincović; Branislava Belić; Dragica Stojanović; Milanka Jezdimirović; Radojica Đoković; Bojan Toholj

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance in early lactation includes low glucose concentration, low insulin release and responsiveness and high lipolysis. Niacin is important antilipolytic agent and leads to increase glucose and insulin concentration. The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of niacin on the insulin resistance in cows during early lactation using the difference of value and regression analysis between blood non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), glucose and insulin concentrations, r...

  20. Effects of injectable trace mineral supplementation in lactating dairy cows with elevated somatic cell counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganda, E K; Bisinotto, R S; Vasquez, A K; Teixeira, A G V; Machado, V S; Foditsch, C; Bicalho, M; Lima, F S; Stephens, L; Gomes, M S; Dias, J M; Bicalho, R C

    2016-09-01

    Objectives of this clinical trial were to evaluate the effects of injectable trace mineral supplementation (ITMS) on somatic cell count (SCC), linear score (LS), milk yield, milk fat and protein contents, subclinical mastitis cure, and incidence of clinical mastitis in cows with elevated SCC. Holstein cows from a commercial dairy farm in New York were evaluated for subclinical mastitis, defined as SCC ≥200×10(3) cells/mL on the test day preceding enrollment. Cows with a history of treatment for clinical mastitis in the current lactation and those pregnant for more than 150d were not eligible for enrollment. Cows fitting inclusion criteria were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 treatment groups. Cows assigned to ITMS (n=306) received 1 subcutaneous injection containing zinc (300mg), manganese (50mg), selenium (25mg), and copper (75mg) at enrollment (d 0). Control cows (CTRL; n=314) received 1 subcutaneous injection of sterile saline solution. Following treatment, visual assessment of milk was performed daily, and cows with abnormal milk (i.e., presence of flakes, clots, or serous milk) were diagnosed with clinical mastitis (CM). Chronic clinical mastitis was defined as cows with 3 or more cases of CM. Milk yield, milk fat and protein contents, SCC, and LS were evaluated once monthly. Additionally, randomly selected animals were sampled to test serum concentrations of selected minerals on d0 and 30 (n=30 cows/treatment). Treatment did not affect serum concentrations of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, copper, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc on d30. Injectable supplementation with trace minerals did not improve overall cure of subclinical mastitis (CTRL=42.8 vs. ITMS=46.5%), although a tendency was observed in cows with 3 or more lactations (CTRL=27.1 vs. ITMS=40.0%). Supplementation did not reduce treatment incidence of CM (CTRL=48.2 vs. ITMS=41.7%); however, it tended to reduce the proportion of cows diagnosed with chronic CM (CTRL=16.9 vs. ITMS=12

  1. SUPPLEMENTARY FEEDING ON THE NUTRIENT BALANCE OF LACTATING DAIRY COW AT CONTRASTING TEMPERATURE REGIMES: ASSESSMENT USING CORNELL NET CARBOHYDRATE AND PROTEIN SYSTEM (CNCPS MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jayanegara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cows often do not receive adequate nutrient supply during their lactation period. This condition caneven be worse if the environmental temperature is not in comfortable range which may occur especially intropical regions. The present research was aimed to simulate the effect of supplementary feeding on nutrientbalance of lactating dairy cow at contrasting temperature regimes using Cornell Net Carbohydrate andProtein System (CNCPS model. Treatments consisted of feeds (R1: Pennisetum purpureum, R2: P.purpureum + concentrate (60:40, R3: P. purpureum + Gliricidia sepium + Leucaena leucocephala(60:20:20, R4: P. purpureum + concentrate + G. sepium + L. leucocephala (60:20:10:10 and environmentaltemperatures (T1: 20 oC, T2: 30 oC. The dairy cow inputs in CNCPS were Holstein breed, body weight of500 kg, feed intake of 15 kg (dry matter basis per day and produced milk 15 kg/day. Based on the CNCPSmodel, there were negative balances of metabolisable energy (ME and metabolisable protein (MP if alactating dairy cow fed only by P. purpureum. The ME balance was worse at higher temperature, while theMP balance was remain unchanged. Addition of concentrate mixture (R2 fulfilled the ME and MPrequirements as well as other nutrients. Addition of leguminous tree leaves (R3 and R4 improved thenutritional status of the lactating cow model compared to R1, but did not better than R2. It was concludedthat supplementary feeding is necessary for improving the nutrient balance of lactating dairy cow, especiallywhen the cow is maintained under uncomfortable environmental temperature.

  2. Lactation Curve Pattern and Prediction of Milk Production Performance in Crossbred Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Jingar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data pertaining to 11728 test-day daily milk yields of normal and mastitis Karan Fries cows were collected from the institute herd and divided as mastitis and nonmastitis and parity-wise. The data of lactation curves of the normal and mastitis crossbred cows was analyzed using gamma type function. FTDMY in normal and mastitis cows showed an increasing trend from TD-1 to TD-4 and a gradual decrease (P<0.01 thereafter until the end of lactation (TD-21 in different parities. The FTDMY was maximum (peak yield in the fourth parity. Parity-wise lactation curve revealed a decrease in persistency, steeper decline in descending slope (c, and steeper increase in ascending slope (b from 1st to 5th and above parity. The higher coefficient of determination (R2 and lower root mean square error (RMSE indicated goodness and accuracy of the model for the prediction of milk prediction performance under field conditions. Clinical mastitis resulted in a significantly higher loss of milk yield (P<0.05. The FTDMY was maximum (P<0.05 in the fourth parity in comparison to the rest of parity. It is demonstrated that gamma type function can give the best fit lactation curve in normal and mastitis infected crossbred cows.

  3. Metabolic changes in early lactation and impaired reproductive performance in dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorritsma, R.; Wensing, T.; Kruip, T.A.M.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    This review addresses the suggestion that the decline in dairy reproductive performance, as increasingly observed these days, may be due to a hampered process of metabolic adaptation in early lactating cows. In our opinion, adaptation to the negative energy balance is a gradual process. Because

  4. Substantial differences between organ and muscle specific tracer incorporation rates in a lactating dairy cow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burd, N.A.; Hamer, H.M.; Pennings, B.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Senden, J.M.G.; Gijsen, A.; Loon, van L.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to produce intrinsically L-[1-13C]phenylalanine labeled milk and beef for subsequent use in human nutrition research. The collection of the various organ tissues after slaughter allowed for us to gain insight into the dynamics of tissue protein turnover in vivo in a lactating dairy cow. One

  5. Assessment of different bedding systems for lactating cows in freestall housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare different bedding systems for lactating cows in freestall housing. Bedding systems included new sand (NS), recycled byproducts of manure separation (organic solids [OS] and recycled sand [RS]), and foam-core mattresses with a shallow layer of OS (MS). The e...

  6. Proteomics and the Characterization of Fatty Liver Metabolism in Early Lactation Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne; Kuhla, Björn

    2018-01-01

    The high-yielding dairy cow faces major adaptions during the transition period from late pregnancy to early lactation where physiological changes occur in support of the dramatically increase in milk yield. The coordinated physiological changes secure mobilization of nutrients and energy from the...

  7. A structural equation model to analyze energy utilization in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraes, L.E.; Strathe, A.B.; Kebreab, E.; Casper, D.P.; Dijkstra, J.; France, J.; Fadel, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Energy balance trials from lactating cows have traditionally been analyzed using the regression approach. However, univariate analysis of mutually interacting animal traits can provide biased parameter estimates if one trait is used as an explanatory variable to model a second trait and the

  8. Liver protein expression in dairy cows with high liver triglycerides in early lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejersen, Henrik; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Fatty liver is a frequent subclinical health disorder in dairy cows that may lead to disorders related to the liver function. However, the effect of triglyceride (TG) accumulation on liver metabolic pathways is still unclear. The objective was, therefore, to characterize quantitative differences...... in the liver proteome between early lactation dairy cows with a low or high liver TG content. The liver proteome analysis indicated that a high liver TG content in early lactation dairy cows is associated with increased oxidation of saturated fatty acids, oxidative stress, and urea synthesis...... and decreasedoxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, liver gluconeogenesis is apparently not impaired by an increased liver TG content. Based on correlations between liver proteins and plasma components, we suggest that future studies investigate the sensitivity and specificity of plasma aspartate...

  9. Effects of Supplemental Levels of Fermentation Product on Lactation Performance in Dairy Cows under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of different supplemental levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; Original XP; Diamond V on lactation performance in Holstein dairy cows under heat stress. Eighty-one multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided into 27 blocks of 3 cows each based on milk yield (23.6±0.20 kg/d, parity (2.88±0.91 and day in milk (204±46 d. The cows were randomly assigned within blocks to one of three treatments: 0 (control, 120, or 240 g/d of SCFP mixed with 240, 120, or 0 g of corn meal, respectively. The experiment was carried out during the summer season of 2014, starting from 14 July 2014 and lasting for 9 weeks with the first week as adaption period. During the experimental period, average daily temperature-humidity index (measured at 08:00, 14:00, and 20:00 was above 68, indicating that cows were exposed to heat stress throughout the study. Rectal temperatures tended to decrease linearly (p = 0.07 for cows supplemented with SCFP compared to the control cows at 14:30, but were not different at 06:30 (p>0.10. Dry matter intake was not affected by SCFP supplementation (p>0.10. Milk yield increased linearly (p0.10 was observed among the treatments in conversion of dietary crude protein to milk protein yield. In summary, supplementation of SCFP alleviated the negative effect of heat stress in lactating Holstein dairy cows and allowed cows to maintain higher milk production, feed efficiency and net energy balance. Effects of SCFP were dose-dependent and greater effects were observed from higher doses.

  10. TRIENNIAL LACTATION SYMPOSIUM/BOLFA: Serotonin and the regulation of calcium transport in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, L L

    2017-12-01

    The mammary gland regulates maternal metabolism during lactation. Numerous factors within the tissue send signals to shift nutrients to the mammary gland for milk synthesis. Serotonin is a monoamine that has been well documented to regulate several aspects of lactation among species. Maintenance of maternal calcium homeostasis during lactation is a highly evolved process that is elegantly regulated by the interaction of the mammary gland with the bone, gut, and kidney tissues. It is well documented that dietary calcium is insufficient to maintain maternal calcium concentrations during lactation, and mammals must rely on bone resorption to maintain normocalcemia. Our recent work focused on the ability of the mammary gland to function as an accessory parathyroid gland during lactation. It was demonstrated that serotonin acts to stimulate parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in the mammary gland during lactation. The main role of mammary-derived PTHrP during mammalian lactation is to stimulate bone resorption to maintain maternal calcium homeostasis during lactation. In addition to regulating PTHrP, it was shown that serotonin appears to directly affect calcium transporters and pumps in the mammary gland. Our current working hypothesis regarding the control of calcium during lactation is as follows: serotonin directly stimulates PTHrP production in the mammary gland through interaction with the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway. Simultaneously, serotonin directly increases calcium movement into the mammary gland and, subsequently, milk. These 2 direct actions of serotonin combine to induce a transient maternal hypocalcemia required to further stimulate PTHrP production and calcium mobilization from bone. Through these 2 routes, serotonin is able to improve maternal calcium concentrations. Furthermore, we have shown that Holstein and Jersey cows appear to regulate calcium in different manners and also respond differently to serotonergic stimulation of the calcium

  11. Efficacy of an internal teat seal associated with a dry cow intramammary antibiotic for prevention of intramammary infections in dairy cows during the dry and early lactation periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívio R. Molina

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to evaluate the use of an internal dry period teat seal containing bismuth subnitrate (Teatseal®, Zoetis®, Florham Park, Nova Jersey, USA associated with a long-acting cloxacilin preparation (Orbenin® Extra dry cow, Zoetis®, Florham Park, Nova Jersey, USA, in preventing new infections during the dry-off and early postpartum period. A total of 150 Holstein cows (average production of 9,000 kg of milk per lactation, with four functional udder quarters without clinical mastitis was included in the study. All animals were dried-off 60 days before the expected calving date. Two teats positioned diagonal-contralaterally received only dry cow antibiotic, control group C (n=300 and the other two teats, treatment group T (n=300 received dry cow antibiotic and infusion with an internal teat seal. Data from SCC variable were transformed by log base-10 transformation. Duncan’s test was used accepting 5% as the level of statistical significance. The occurrence of intramammary infection (IMI and chronicity rate, and frequency of microorganisms isolated at drying and immediately postpartum in teats of group C and group T were evaluated using a non-parametric Chi-square Test, accepting 10% as the statistical significance level. There was a decrease in the occurrence of new infections in the early postpartum in cows which the sealant was used (C=19.6%, T=11.4%. In the postpartum period, Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 16 teats in C and seven in T. The greatest reduction was observed for Escherichia coli (8 vs 1 in group T. There was no effect using the internal sealant on the frequency of isolation of environmental Streptococus. The use of sealant reduced the prevalence of subclinical mastitis cows between drying-off and the early postpartum period (C=51% versus T=42% and resulted in a lower somatic cell count (SCC in the treatment group when compared with the control group (T=1,073x103, C=1,793x103. The use of

  12. ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FIRST THREE LACTATIONS OF HOLSTEIN COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Gantner

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate relationship between milk yield in the first three lactations regarding levels of milk yield in the first lactation and levels of age at the first calving. Prediction of milk yield in later lactation based on milk yield in the earlier one was also carried out. The data used in this study were 5743 lactation yields collected from 1995 to 2003. All cows finished the first three lactations. Mean value of milk yield in the first lactation was 5283.5 kg, 6033.5 kg in the second and 6338.4 kg the third one. The milk yield estimation coefficients between the first and second lactation was 1.164, between the first and third was 1.231, and 1.079 between the second and third. The levels of milk yield in the first lactation highly significant influenced the value of estimation coefficient between first three lactations, while the age at first calving influenced less significantly. Determination coefficient (R2 values for models used in prediction ranged from 0.348 to 0.396.

  13. Changes in serum metabolic hormone levels after glucose infusion during lactation cycles in Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar Chalmeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Negative energy balance can impair the metabolism of high producing dairy cows and supplying the glucose, as an energy source; can prevent the metabolic disorders in these animals. Hence, we hypothesized that bolus intravenous glucose administration may change the concentrations of metabolic hormones in order to prevent and control of metabolic dysfunctions of dairy cows. Twenty five multiparous Holstein dairy cows were divided to 5 equal groups containing early, mid and late lactations, far-off and close-up dry periods. All cows were received dextrose 50% intravenously at 500 mg/kg, 10 mL/kg/h. Blood samples were collected from all animals prior to and 1, 2, 3 and 4 after dextrose 50% infusion and sera were separated to determine glucose, triiodothyronine (T3, thyroxine (T4, serum free T3 (fT3, free T4 (fT4, cortisol and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1. The decreasing pattern of T3 concentration was detected in all studied animals following intravenous glucose infusion (P<0.05. The significant increasing pattern of T4 levels was seen in early and mid lactation cows after glucose administration (P<0.05. The significant decreasing pattern of IGF-1 was detected in mid and late lactations and far-off dry groups (P<0.05. There were no significant alterations in fT3, fT4 and cortisol concentrations following glucose infusion in all experimental groups. In conclusion, bolus intravenous glucose infusion could influence the metabolic hormones in high producing Holstein dairy cows. Alterations of metabolic hormones following bolus intravenous glucose administration indicated that glucose is an important direct controller of metabolic interactions and responses in dairy cows during different physiological states.

  14. Stage of lactation and corresponding diets affect in situ protein degradation by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadt, I; Mertens, D R; Van Soest, P J; Azzaro, G; Licitra, G

    2014-12-01

    The influence of stage of lactation and corresponding diets on rates of protein degradation (kd) is largely unstudied. Study objectives were to measure and compare in situ ruminal kd of crude protein (CP) and estimate rumen CP escape (rumen-undegradable protein; RUP) of selected feeds by cows at 3 stages of lactation fed corresponding diets, and to determine the incubation times needed in an enzymatic in vitro procedure, using 0.2 units of Streptomyces griseus protease per percent of true CP, that predicted in situ RUP. Residue CP was measured after in situ fermentation for 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 h of 5 protein sources and 3 total mixed rations, which were fed to the in situ cows. Two nonlactating (dry) cows and 2 cows each at 190 (mid) and 90 (peak) days of lactation were used. Each pair of cows was offered free-choice diets that differed in composition to meet their corresponding nutrient requirements. Diets had decreasing proportions of forages and contained (dry matter basis) 11.9, 15.1 and 16.4% CP and 54.3, 40.3 and 35.3% neutral detergent fiber, for dry, mid, and peak TMR (TMR1, TMR2, and TMR3), respectively. Intakes were 10.3, 21.4, and 23.8kg of dry matter/d, respectively. Kinetic CP fractions (extractable, potentially degradable, undegradable, or slowly degradable) were unaffected by treatment. Lag time and kd varied among feeds. The kd was faster for all feeds (0.136/h) when incubated in dry-TMR1 cows compared with mid-TMR2 (0.097/h) or peak-TMR3 (0.098/h) cows, and no differences in lag time were detected. Calculated RUP, using estimated passage rates for each cow based on intake, differed between dry-TMR1 (0.382) and mid-TMR2 (0.559) or peak-TMR3 (0.626) cows, with a tendency for mid-TMR2 to be different from peak-TMR3. Using the average kd and lag time obtained from dry-TMR1 to calculate RUP for mid-TMR2 and peak-TMR3 cows using their passage rates reduced RUP values by 6.3 and 9.5 percentage units, respectively. Except for that of herring meal

  15. Effects of lactation number, milk yield and milk composition on freezing point of milk of Polish Holstein-Friesian cows

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Otwinowska-Mindur; Ewa PTAK

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the influence of lactation number, daily milk yield, somatic cell count and milk composition on the freezing point of milk of Polish Holstein-Friesian cows. The data comprised 3,067,343 test day milk samples collected in 2014 from 865,198 first seven lactations of 714,018 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, made available by the Polish Federation of Cattle Breeders and Dairy Farmers. The cows calved in 20,043 herds in 2013 and 2014. Four lactation classes w...

  16. Identification of hepatic biomarkers for physiological imbalance of dairy cows in early and mid lactation using proteomic technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey; Bendixen, Emøke; Codrea, Marius Cosmin

    2013-01-01

    the ration with 60% wheat straw. Liver biopsies were collected −1 and 3 d relative to restriction. Before restriction, an index for PI was calculated based on plasma nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, and glucose concentrations. Within E and M cows, a subsets of 6 cow was classified as having...... as potential hepatic biomarkers for PI for cows during early lactation and alcohol dehydrogenase-4 and methylmalonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase for cows in mid lactation. This preliminary study identified new biomarkers in liver for PI and provided a better understanding of the differences in coping...

  17. Choline and Choline Metabolite Patterns and Associations in Blood and Milk during Lactation in Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artegoitia, Virginia M.; Middleton, Jesse L.; Harte, Federico M.; Campagna, Shawn R.; de Veth, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Milk and dairy products are an important source of choline, a nutrient essential for human health. Infant formula derived from bovine milk contains a number of metabolic forms of choline, all contribute to the growth and development of the newborn. At present, little is known about the factors that influence the concentrations of choline metabolites in milk. The objectives of this study were to characterize and then evaluate associations for choline and its metabolites in blood and milk through the first 37 weeks of lactation in the dairy cow. Milk and blood samples from twelve Holstein cows were collected in early, mid and late lactation and analyzed for acetylcholine, free choline, betaine, glycerophosphocholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphocholine and sphingomyelin using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and quantified using stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Total choline concentration in plasma, which was almost entirely phosphatidylcholine, increased 10-times from early to late lactation (1305 to 13,535 µmol/L). In milk, phosphocholine was the main metabolite in early lactation (492 µmol/L), which is a similar concentration to that found in human milk, however, phosphocholine concentration decreased exponentially through lactation to 43 µmol/L in late lactation. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine was the main metabolite in mid and late lactation (188 µmol/L and 659 µmol/L, respectively), with the increase through lactation positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine in plasma (R 2 = 0.78). Unlike previously reported with human milk we found no correlation between plasma free choline concentration and milk choline metabolites. The changes in pattern of phosphocholine and phosphatidylcholine in milk through lactation observed in the bovine suggests that it is possible to manufacture infant formula that more closely matches these metabolites profile in human milk. PMID:25157578

  18. Choline and choline metabolite patterns and associations in blood and milk during lactation in dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia M Artegoitia

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products are an important source of choline, a nutrient essential for human health. Infant formula derived from bovine milk contains a number of metabolic forms of choline, all contribute to the growth and development of the newborn. At present, little is known about the factors that influence the concentrations of choline metabolites in milk. The objectives of this study were to characterize and then evaluate associations for choline and its metabolites in blood and milk through the first 37 weeks of lactation in the dairy cow. Milk and blood samples from twelve Holstein cows were collected in early, mid and late lactation and analyzed for acetylcholine, free choline, betaine, glycerophosphocholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphocholine and sphingomyelin using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and quantified using stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Total choline concentration in plasma, which was almost entirely phosphatidylcholine, increased 10-times from early to late lactation (1305 to 13,535 µmol/L. In milk, phosphocholine was the main metabolite in early lactation (492 µmol/L, which is a similar concentration to that found in human milk, however, phosphocholine concentration decreased exponentially through lactation to 43 µmol/L in late lactation. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine was the main metabolite in mid and late lactation (188 µmol/L and 659 µmol/L, respectively, with the increase through lactation positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine in plasma (R2 = 0.78. Unlike previously reported with human milk we found no correlation between plasma free choline concentration and milk choline metabolites. The changes in pattern of phosphocholine and phosphatidylcholine in milk through lactation observed in the bovine suggests that it is possible to manufacture infant formula that more closely matches these metabolites profile in human milk.

  19. Partial replacement of corn grain by hydrogenated oil in grazing dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salado, E E; Gagliostro, G A; Becu-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I

    2004-05-01

    degradation was not affected. The partial replacement of corn grain with fat improved the productive performance of early-lactation cows grazing spring pastures. No negative effects of supplemental fat on ruminal fiber digestion were detected.

  20. On-farm evaluation of the effect of metabolic diseases on the shape of the lactation curve in dairy cows through the MilkBot lactation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostens, M; Ehrlich, J; Van Ranst, B; Opsomer, G

    2012-06-01

    The effects of metabolic diseases (MD) occurring during the transition period on milk production of dairy cows have been evaluated in many different ways, often with conflicting conclusions. The present study used a fitted lactation model to analyze specific aspects of lactation curve shape and magnitude in cows that avoided culling or death in the first 120 d in milk (DIM). Production and health records of 1,946 lactations in a 1-yr follow-up study design were collected from a transition management facility in Germany to evaluate both short- and long-term effects of MD on milk production. Milk production data were fitted with the nonlinear MilkBot lactation model, and health records were used to classify cows as healthy (H), affected by one MD (MD), or by multiple MD (MD+). The final data set contained 1,071 H, 348 MD, and 136 MD+ cows, with distinct incidences of 3.7% twinning, 4.8% milk fever, 3.6% retained placenta, 15.4% metritis, 8.3% ketosis, 2.0% displaced abomasum, and 3.7% mastitis in the first 30 DIM. The model containing all healthy and diseased cows showed that lactations classified as H had milk production that increased faster (lower ramp) and also declined faster (lower persistence) compared with cows that encountered one or more metabolic problems. The level of production (scale) was only lowered in MD+ cows compared with H and MD cows. Although the shape of the lactation curve changed when cows encounter uncomplicated (single) MD or complicated MD (more than one MD), the slower increase to a lower peak seemed to be compensated for by greater persistency, resulting in the overall 305-d milk production only being lowered in MD+ cows. In the individual disease models, specific changes in the shape of the lactation curve were found for all MD except twinning. Milk fever, retained placenta, ketosis, and mastitis mainly affected the lactation curve when accompanied by another MD, whereas metritis and displaced abomasum affected the lactation curve

  1. Incidence of double ovulation during the early postpartum period in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, Hiromi; Miura, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Motohiro; Sakaguchi, Minoru

    2017-03-15

    In lactating cattle, the incidence of twin calving has many negative impacts on production and reproduction in dairy farming. In almost all cases, natural twinning in dairy cattle is the result of double ovulation. It has been suggested that the milk production level of cows influences the number of ovulatory follicles. The objective of the present study was to investigate the incidence of double ovulations during the early postpartum period in relation to the productive and reproductive performance of dairy cows. The ovaries of 43 Holstein cows (26 primiparous and 17 multiparous) were ultrasonographically scanned throughout the three postpartum ovulation sequences. The incidence of double ovulation in the unilateral ovaries was 66.7%, with a higher incidence in the right ovary than in the left, whereas that in bilateral ovaries was 33.3%. When double ovulations were counted dividing into each side ovary in which ovulations occurred, the total frequency of ovulations deviated from a 1:1 ratio (60.3% in the right side and 39.7% in the left side, P cows, double ovulation occurred more frequently than in primiparous cows (58.8% vs. 11.5% per cow and 30.0% vs. 3.8% per ovulation, respectively P cows, the double ovulators exhibited higher peak milk yield (P cows. Two multiparous cows that experienced double ovulation during the early postpartum period subsequently conceived twin fetuses. It can be speculated that the incidence of double ovulations during the early postpartum period partly contributes to the increased incidence of undesirable twin births in multiparous dairy cows. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Proteomic analysis of physiological function response to hot summer in liver from lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiangjun; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Zijun; Zhao, Huiling; Huang, Dongwei; Cheng, Guanglong; Yang, Yongxin

    2017-04-01

    Lactation performance of dairy cattle is susceptible to heat stress. The liver is one of the most crucial organs affected by high temperature in dairy cows. However, the physiological adaption by the liver to hot summer conditions has not been well elucidated in lactating dairy cows. In the present study, proteomic analysis of the liver in dairy cows in spring and hot summer was performed using a label-free method. In total, 127 differentially expressed proteins were identified; most of the upregulated proteins were involved in protein metabolic processes and responses to stimuli, whereas most of the downregulated proteins were related to oxidation-reduction. Pathway analysis indicated that 3 upregulated heat stress proteins (HSP90α, HSP90β, and endoplasmin) were enriched in the NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, whereas several downregulated NADH dehydrogenase proteins were involved in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway. The protein-protein interaction network indicated that several upregulated HSPs (HSP90α, HSP90β, and GRP78) were involved in more interactions than other proteins and were thus considered as central hub nodes. Our findings provide novel insights into the physiological adaption of liver function in lactating dairy cows to natural high temperature. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Lactating cow response to lucerne silage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is unclear why bacterial silage inoculants improve milk production in lactating dairy cattle. However, recent in vitro results suggest that inoculated silage effects on milk production may be tied to greater production of rumen microorganisms. Our objective was to determine if alfalfa silage trea...

  4. Reproductive and Lactation Performance of Crossbreed Dairy Cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For several years, Ethiopia ranked first in cattle population in Africa. However, the dairy industry is not as developed as that of East African countries including Ethiopia. This study was conducted to assess the reproductive and lactation performance and factors affecting crossbreed dairy cattle in intensive dairy farm in ...

  5. Effects of niacin supplementation on the insulin resistance in Holstein cows during early lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talija Hristovska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance in early lactation includes low glucose concentration, low insulin release and responsiveness and high lipolysis. Niacin is important antilipolytic agent and leads to increase glucose and insulin concentration. The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of niacin on the insulin resistance in cows during early lactation using the difference of value and regression analysis between blood non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA, glucose and insulin concentrations, revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and glucose-to-insulin ratio. Niacin supplementation led to a decrease of NEFA concentration and an increase of glucose and insulin concentrations during the first three weeks after calving. Cows in the niacin group which were more resistant to insulin showed higher concentrations of non-esterified fatty acid in comparison with more sensitive cows from the same group, but still lower than the control. The regression analyses suggest the following characteristics of cows supplemented with niacin in comparison with the control group: the insulin response to glucose was more intense; the antilipolytic effect of insulin was lower; insulin efficiency expressed as glucose-to-insulin ratio increase with a decrease in NEFA. The metabolic changes due to niacin supplementation showed a dual influence on the insulin resistance in dairy cows during early lactation: decreased NEFA concentrations led to a decrease in the insulin resistance (due to an increase in insulin efficiency and insulin sensitivity index, but increased concentrations of insulin and glucose possibly caused an increase in the insulin resistance in dairy cows (due to lower insulin sensitivity index and possibly lower antilipolytic effects of insulin.

  6. The influence of elevated feed stalls on feeding behaviour of lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Benz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance level of high yielding cows can only be guaranteed by high quality forage and high feed intake. An about 15–20 cm elevated and 160 cm long feed stall with rubber flooring doesn’t only offer undisturbed meals but also a yielding and dry standing surface. In a pilot stable with 130 dairy cows (German Simmental the feeding alley was subsequently equipped with elevated feed stalls. The results show that animals frequented the feeding barn less often while the duration of single meals prolonged. The specific behavioural changes differed depending on milk yield and number of lactation.

  7. Metabolic effects of feeding high doses of propanol and propylacetate to lactating Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2012-01-01

    Three lactating Holstein cows implanted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in major splanchnic blood vessels were used to investigate alcohol metabolism and metabolic effects of feeding high doses of propanol and propylacetate. Cows were fed three diets control (basal ration......; C), propanol (C plus 50 g propanol/kg DM; P), and propylacetate (C plus 50 g propanol/kg DM and 15 g propylacetate/kg DM; PPA) in a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14 d period. Daily rations were fed in three equally sized portions at 8 hour intervals and 8 hourly sets of ruminal fluid, arterial...

  8. Simultaneous isolation of anaerobic bacteria from udder abscesses and mastitic milk in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeff, A S; du Preez, J H

    1985-12-01

    A variety of non-sporulating anaerobic bacterial species were isolated from udder abscesses in 10 lactating dairy cows. Fifty percent of the abscesses yielded multiple anaerobic species and the other 50% only 1 species. The anaerobic bacteria, however, were always accompanied by classical facultative anaerobic mastitogenic bacteria. In four of the five cows also afflicted with mastitis in the quarters with abscesses, the anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria were identical. Peptococcus indolicus was the most commonly isolated organism followed by Eubacterium and Bacteroides spp. Bacteroides fragilis was resistant to penicillin, ampicillin and tetracycline.

  9. Short communication: A reproductive tract scoring system to manage fertility in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C D; Schrick, F N; Pohler, K G; Saxton, A M; Di Croce, F A; Roper, D A; Wilkerson, J B; Edwards, J L

    2017-07-01

    We developed a reproductive tract size and position score (SPS) system as a reproductive management tool to identify lactating dairy cows with decreased fertility. This system, relying solely on transrectal palpation, considers the size (cervical and uterine) and position of the reproductive tract relative to the pelvis. Cows undergoing pre-breeding exams were identified as having reproductive tracts that were small (SPS1), medium (SPS2), or large (SPS3). Cows designated SPS1 had small and compact uterine horns that rested within the pelvic cavity; SPS2 cows had reproductive tracts that were intermediate in cervical and uterine horn diameter, with longer uterine horns resting partially outside the pelvic cavity; and SPS3 cows had reproductive tracts that were larger and rested mostly outside the pelvic cavity. Cows that were SPS1 had a higher rate of pregnancy per artificial insemination (43.3 ± 3.7%) than cows that were SPS2 (36.9 ± 3.6%) or SPS3 (27.7 ± 4.3%). The percentage of cows with an SPS2 score differed in pregnancies per artificial insemination compared with SPS3 cows. The average days in milk was similar for SPS1, SPS2, and SPS3 cows (104.3 ± 3.5, 98.4 ± 3.4, and 94.7 ± 7.7, respectively). Ultrasound measurements of the uterine horn and cervical diameter, and length measurements of the uterine horns, cervix, and vagina confirmed differences among the SPS groups derived by transrectal palpation. The ease with which transrectal palpation can be used to determine the size and position of the reproductive tract attests to the relevance and usefulness of this scoring system to identify less fertile lactating dairy cows. The ability to do so with ease provides an opportunity to make economically relevant management decisions and maximize reproductive efficiency in a given herd. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of live weight adjusted feeding strategy on plasma indicators of energy balance in Holstein cows managed for extended lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Vestergaard, Mogens; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    In early lactation, most of the dairy cows are in negative energy balance; the extent and duration depend in part on the feeding strategy. Previous studies showed an increased lactation milk yield by use of a live weight (LW) adjusted feeding strategy with a high energy diet before and a reduced......, the HD-LD cows had higher glucose and lower beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations than the LD-LD cows. After the shift until 36 weeks after calving, plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were not affected...... of the negative energy balance, and that the reduction in diet energy concentration from LW nadir will extend the negative energy balance period further. Sixty-two Holstein cows (30% first parity) were managed for 16 months extended lactation and randomly allocated to one of two feeding strategies at calving. Two...

  11. Response profiles of enteric methane emissions and lactational performance during habituation to dietary coconut oil in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, M; Powers, W J; Fogiel, A C; Liesman, J S; Beede, D K

    2013-03-01

    Dietary coconut oil (CNO) can reduce dry matter intake (DMI), enteric methane (eCH(4)) emissions, and milk fat yield of lactating cows. The goals of this research were to examine responses to different CNO concentrations during the habituation period (34-d) and to evaluate temporal patterns of DMI, eCH(4), and milk fat yield. Treatment diets contained (dry basis): 0.0% (CNO0), 1.3% (CNO1.3), 2.7% (CNO2.7), 3.3% (CNO3.3), or 4.0% CNO (CNO4). In experiment 1, 12 primi- or small secundiparous cows were housed in individual, environmentally controlled rooms and fed CNO0, CNO1.3, CNO2.7, or CNO4. Measurements included DMI, eCH(4), and milk yield and composition. Due to a precipitous drop in DMI (26%), cows fed CNO4 were replaced with cows fed CNO3.3 following d 10. Dietary CNO of 2.7% or more reduced eCH(4) emissions. Reduction was greater with increased CNO and during the first than the second half of the day. Simultaneously, decline in DMI of cows fed CNO2.7, CNO3.3, or CNO4 was increasingly precipitous with increased CNO concentration. Total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility during wk 5 was reduced in cows fed CNO2.7 or CNO3.3, which in part explained concomitantly reduced eCH(4)/DMI. In addition, milk fat yield was depressed at an increasing rate in cows fed CNO2.7, CNO3.3, and CNO4. In experiment 2, DMI was measured individually in 12 multiparous cows during habituation to CNO0, CNO1.3, CNO2.7, or CNO3.3 for 21 d before relocation to individual, environmentally controlled rooms. Dietary CNO2.7 or CNO3.3 reduced DMI by d 4 and total-tract NDF digestibility during wk 5. Relocation to individual rooms was associated with a 15% reduction in DMI, which was not affected by treatment. Results showed that 2.7% or more dietary CNO reduced eCH(4) and DMI, caused milk fat depression, and decreased NDF digestibility. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of two treatment strategies for cows with metritis in high-risk lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengol, Ramon; Fraile, Lorenzo

    2015-05-01

    Acute puerperal metritis (APM) and clinical metritis (CM) are uterine diseases frequently diagnosed in dairy cows. These diseases are responsible for important economic loss because of their effect not only on reproductive performance but also on milk production. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of two different treatments for metritis on dairy cows by measuring their reproductive performance in the next gestation. The end points to measure the reproductive performance included the conception rate at the first artificial insemination, the number of days at conception, and the proportion of nonpregnant cows at over 150 days after beginning milk production. The study was carried out in a high production dairy cow farm located in Lleida (northeast Spain). Recordings of 1044 parturitions of 747 Holstein cows were controlled in this farm from 2009 to 2014. Cows were diagnosed as suffering from metritis (APM or CM) if the following parameters were observed: an abnormally enlarged uterus; a fetid, watery, reddish brown uterine discharge with (APM) or without (CM) fever (>39.5 °C); and presence (APM) or absence (CM) of signs of systemic illness (decreased milk production, dullness, or other signs of toxemia) within 21 days postpartum. Afterwards, cows suffering from metritis (APM or CM) were randomly assigned and balanced to two groups: (1) animals receiving parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly plus intrauterine infusion with oxytetracycline (P + I group) and (2) animals receiving only parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly (P group). Furthermore, reproductive performance of cows without metritis was used as reference (control group). Metritis was diagnosed in 27.5% of the total parturitions included in the study (288 of 1044). In particular, metritis was diagnosed in 30.5% (118 of 387) and 25.9% (170 of 657) of parturitions from heifers and multiparous cows, respectively. Reproductive performance was not significantly affected by the parity, the

  13. Long-acting insulins alter milk composition and metabolism of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, L A; Overton, T R

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of 2 different types of long-acting insulin on milk production, milk composition, and metabolism in lactating dairy cows. Multiparous cows (n=30) averaging 88 d in milk were assigned to one of 3 treatments in a completely randomized design. Treatments consisted of control (C), Humulin-N (H; Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN), and insulin glargine (L). The H and L treatments were administered twice daily at 12-h intervals via subcutaneous injection for 10d. Cows were milked twice daily, and milk composition was determined every other day. Mammary biopsies were conducted on d 11, and mammary proteins extracted from the biopsies were analyzed by Western blot for components of insulin and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathways. Treatment had no effect on dry matter intake or milk yield. Treatment with both forms of long-acting insulin increased milk protein content and tended to increase milk protein yield over the 10-d treatment period. Analysis of milk N fractions from samples collected on d 10 of treatment suggested that cows administered L tended to have higher yields of milk protein fractions than cows administered H. Milk fat content and yield tended to be increased for cows administered long-acting insulins. Lactose content and yields were decreased by treatment with long-acting insulins. Administration of long-acting insulins, particularly L, tended to shift milk fatty acid composition toward increased short- and medium-chain fatty acids and decreased long-chain fatty acids. Plasma concentrations of glucose and urea N were lower for cows administered long-acting insulins; interactions of treatment and sampling time were indicative of more pronounced effects of L than H on these metabolites. Concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and insulin were increased in cows administered long-acting insulins. Decreased concentrations of urea N in both plasma and milk suggested more efficient use of N in cows

  14. Pro-inflammatory cytokine profile in dairy cows: consequences for new lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erminio Trevisi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To verify the potential relevance of proinflammatory cytokine (PIC with periparturient health problems and performances, the changes of plasma interleukin-1beta (IL-1β and interleukin-6 (IL-6 have been investigated in 21 Holstein-Friesian cows from 35 d before to 28 d after parturition. The overall PIC concentration was higher during late pregnancy compared to the first month of lactation, but showed a high variability among the cows. Therefore, cows were retrospectively divided in 3 groups according to the values of area under the concentration curve of IL- 1β concentrations from -35 d before to the day of parturition and designated as up (UPIL1, intermediate (INIL1 and low (LOIL1 IL-1β group. The concentrations of IL-6 and to some extent the concentrations of albumin and reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs were well related to the grouping based on IL-1β concentrations. After calving the UPIL1 cows showed a more severe acute phase reaction (APR, based on the marked increase of haptoglobin and the lower plasma albumin concentrations during the first week of lactation, and the highest oxidative stress, based on the higher concentrations of ROMs. Moreover, the UPIL1 group showed higher number of mastitis, lower feed intake and milk yield compared with INIL1 and LOIL1. Our results demonstrated that cows with the highest PIC concentrations in the last month of pregnancy showed the worse health status in early lactation (clinical and subclinical problems and a lower milk yield. Thus, these data support the utility of PIC measurement in late pregnancy as prognostic markers for a risky transition period.

  15. Beheersgraskuil als voeder voor melkgevende koeien = Grassilage form nature conservation areas as forage for lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duinkerken, van G.; Remmelink, G.J.; Valk, H.; Houwelingen, van K.M.; Hettinga, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    The response of lactating dairy cows on diets with varying ratio’s of common grass silage (approx. 6.2 MJ NEL/kg DM) and grass silage from nature conservation areas (approx. 4.8 MJ NEL/kg DM) was studied in a feeding trial with 36 HF dairy cows. If grass silage from nature conservation areas is

  16. Modification of immune responses and digestive system microbiota of lactating dairy cows by feeding Bovamine(R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the immune modulatory effects as well as effects on productivity of Bovamine® (Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Probionibacterium freudenreichii) fed to Holstein and Jersey dairy cows during late lactation (average DIM = 202.44 days on wk-0). Cows were randomized to treatment g...

  17. Effect of feeding a reduced-starch diet with or without amylase addition on lactation performance in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gencoglu, H.; Shaver, R.D.; Steinberg, W.; Ensink, J.; Ferraretto, L.F.; Bertics, S.J.; Lopes, J.C.; Akins, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine lactation performance responses of high-producing dairy cows to a reduced-starch diet compared with a normal-starch diet and to the addition of exogenous amylase to the reduced-starch diet. Thirty-six multiparous Holstein cows (51 +/- 22 DIM and 643 +/-

  18. Infusion of butyrate affects plasma glucose, butyrate, and ß-hydroxybutyrate but not plasma insulin in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effects on plasma metabolites and rumen measures when butyrate was infused into the rumen or abomasum of lactating cows. Jugular catheters were inserted into 5 ruminally fistulated Holstein cows (94.2 ± 26.3 days in milk [DIM]; 717 ± 45 kg body w...

  19. Relationships between fertility and postpartum changes in body condition and body weight in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, P D; Souza, A H; Amundson, M C; Hackbart, K S; Fuenzalida, M J; Herlihy, M M; Ayres, H; Dresch, A R; Vieira, L M; Guenther, J N; Grummer, R R; Fricke, P M; Shaver, R D; Wiltbank, M C

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between energy status and fertility in dairy cattle was retrospectively analyzed by comparing fertility with body condition score (BCS) near artificial insemination (AI; experiment 1), early postpartum changes in BCS (experiment 2), and postpartum changes in body weight (BW; experiment 3). To reduce the effect of cyclicity status, all cows were synchronized with Double-Ovsynch protocol before timed AI. In experiment 1, BCS of lactating dairy cows (n = 1,103) was evaluated near AI. Most cows (93%) were cycling at initiation of the breeding Ovsynch protocol (first GnRH injection). A lower percentage pregnant to AI (P/AI) was found in cows with lower (≤ 2.50) versus higher (≥ 2.75) BCS (40.4 vs. 49.2%). In experiment 2, lactating dairy cows on 2 commercial dairies (n = 1,887) were divided by BCS change from calving until the third week postpartum. Overall, P/AI at 70-d pregnancy diagnosis differed dramatically by BCS change and was least for cows that lost BCS, intermediate for cows that maintained BCS, and greatest for cows that gained BCS [22.8% (180/789), 36.0% (243/675), and 78.3% (331/423), respectively]. Surprisingly, a difference existed between farms with BCS change dramatically affecting P/AI on one farm and no effect on the other farm. In experiment 3, lactating dairy cows (n = 71) had BW measured weekly from the first to ninth week postpartum and then had superovulation induced using a modified Double-Ovsynch protocol. Cows were divided into quartiles (Q) by percentage of BW change (Q1 = least change; Q4 = most change) from calving until the third week postpartum. No effect was detected of quartile on number of ovulations, total embryos collected, or percentage of oocytes that were fertilized; however, the percentage of fertilized oocytes that were transferable embryos was greater for cows in Q1, Q2, and Q3 than Q4 (83.8, 75.2, 82.6, and 53.2%, respectively). In addition, percentage of degenerated embryos was least for cows in Q1, Q2

  20. Relationships between fertility and postpartum changes in body condition and body weight in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, P. D.; Souza, A. H.; Amundson, M. C.; Hackbart, K. S.; Fuenzalida, M. J.; Herlihy, M. M.; Ayres, H.; Dresch, A. R.; Vieira, L. M.; Guenther, J. N.; Grummer, R. R.; Fricke, P. M.; Shaver, R. D.; Wiltbank, M. C.

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between energy status and fertility in dairy cattle was retrospectively analyzed by comparing fertility with body condition score (BCS) near artificial insemination (AI; experiment 1), early postpartum changes in BCS (experiment 2), and postpartum changes in body weight (BW; experiment 3). To reduce the effect of cyclicity status, all cows were synchronized with Double-Ovsynch protocol before timed AI. In experiment 1, BCS of lactating dairy cows (n = 1,103) was evaluated near AI. Most cows (93%) were cycling at initiation of the breeding Ovsynch protocol (first GnRH injection). A lower percentage pregnant to AI (P/AI) was found in cows with lower (≤2.50) versus higher (≥2.75) BCS (40.4 vs. 49.2%). In experiment 2, lactating dairy cows on 2 commercial dairies (n = 1,887) were divided by BCS change from calving until the third week postpartum. Overall, P/AI at 70-d pregnancy diagnosis differed dramatically by BCS change and was least for cows that lost BCS, intermediate for cows that maintained BCS, and greatest for cows that gained BCS [22.8% (180/789), 36.0% (243/675), and 78.3% (331/423), respectively]. Surprisingly, a difference existed between farms with BCS change dramatically affecting P/AI on one farm and no effect on the other farm. In experiment 3, lactating dairy cows (n = 71) had BW measured weekly from the first to ninth week postpartum and then had superovulation induced using a modified Double-Ovsynch protocol. Cows were divided into quartiles (Q) by percentage of BW change (Q1 = least change; Q4 = most change) from calving until the third week postpartum. No effect was detected of quartile on number of ovulations, total embryos collected, or percentage of oocytes that were fertilized; however, the percentage of fertilized oocytes that were transferable embryos was greater for cows in Q1, Q2, and Q3 than Q4 (83.8, 75.2, 82.6, and 53.2%, respectively). In addition, percentage of degenerated embryos was least for cows in Q1, Q2, and

  1. Supplementing in the diet of lactating Holstein cows may naturally produce coenzyme Q10-enriched milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Seck Bae

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To examine the effects of Rhodobacter sphaeroides (R. sphaeroides supplementation as a direct-fed microbial (DFM on rumen fermentation in dairy cows and on coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 transition into milk, an in vitro rumen simulation batch culture and an in vivo dairy cow experiment were conducted. Methods The characteristics of in vitro ruminal fermentation were investigated using rumen fluids from six cannulated Holstein dairy cows at 2 h post-afternoon feeding. A control treatment was included in the experiments based on a typified total mixed ration (TMR for lactating dairy cows, which was identical to the one used in the in vivo study, plus R. sphaeroides at 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% TMR dry matter. The in vivo study employed six ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows randomly allotted to either the control TMR (C-TMR treatment or to a diet supplemented with a 0.5% R. sphaeroides culture (S-TMR, dry matter basis ad libitum. The presence of R. sphaeroides was verified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE applied to the bacterial samples obtained from the in vivo study. The concentration of CoQ10 in milk and in the supernatant from the in vitro study was determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Results The results of the in vitro batch culture and DGGE showed that the concentration of CoQ10 significantly increased after 2 h of R. sphaeroides supplementation above 0.1%. When supplemented to the diet of lactating cows at the level of 0.5%, R. sphaeroides did not present any adverse effect on dry matter intake and milk yield. However, the concentration of CoQ10 in milk dramatically increased, with treated cows producing 70.9% more CoQ10 than control cows. Conclusion The CoQ10 concentration in milk increased via the use of a novel DFM, and R. sphaeroides might be used for producing value-added milk and dairy products in the future.

  2. Direct and carryover effect of post-grazing sward height on total lactation dairy cow performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganche, E; Delaby, L; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Kennedy, E

    2013-08-01

    Grazing pastures to low post-grazing sward heights (PGSH) is a strategy to maximise the quantity of grazed grass in the diet of dairy cows within temperate grass-based systems. Within Irish spring-calving systems, it was hypothesised that grazing swards to very low PGSH would increase herbage availability during early lactation but would reduce dairy cow performance, the effect of which would persist in subsequent lactation performance when compared with cows grazing to a higher PGSH. Seventy-two Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (mean calving date, 12 February) were randomly assigned post-calving across two PGSH treatments (n = 36): 2.7 cm (severe; S1) and 3.5 cm (moderate; M1), which were applied from 10 February to 18 April (period 1; P1). This was followed by a carryover period (period 2; P2) during which cows were randomly reassigned within their P1 treatment across two further PGSH (n = 18): 3.5 cm (severe, SS and MS) and 4.5 cm (moderate, SM and MM) until 30 October. Decreasing PGSH from 3.5 to 2.7 cm significantly decreased milk (-2.3 kg/cow per day), protein (-95 g/day), fat (-143 g/day) and lactose (-109 g/day) yields, milk protein (-1.2 g/kg) and fat (-2.2 g/kg) concentrations and grass dry matter intake (GDMI; -1.7 kg dry matter/cow per day). The severe PGSH was associated with a lower bodyweight (BW) at the end of P1. There was no carryover effect of P1 PGSH on subsequent milk or milk solids yields in P2, but PGSH had a significant carryover effect on milk fat and lactose concentrations. Animals severely restricted at pasture in early spring had a higher BW and slightly higher body condition score in later lactation when compared with M1 animals. During P2, increasing PGSH from 3.5 to 4.5 cm increased milk and milk solids yield as a result of greater GDMI and resulted in higher mean BW and end BW. This study indicates that following a 10-week period of feed restriction, subsequent dairy cow cumulative milk production is unaffected. However, the substantial

  3. Utilization of kura clover-reed canarygrass silage versus alfalfa silage by lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammes, K L; Heemink, G B H; Albrecht, K A; Combs, D K

    2008-08-01

    The mixture of kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bieb.) and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) has proven to be extremely persistent in the northern United States, but information about dairy cow performance on this mixture is lacking. Twenty lactating Holstein cows were used in a crossover design to compare dry matter (DM) intake and milk production from diets containing kura clover-reed canarygrass silage (KRS) or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage (AS). Forages were cut, wilted, ensiled in horizontal plastic bags, and allowed to ferment for at least 50 d before beginning the feeding experiment. The KRS was approximately 40% kura clover and 60% reed canarygrass. Treatments were total mixed rations formulated with either 57% of total DM from 1) AS or 2) KRS. Experimental periods were 28 d, with the first 14 d for diet adaptation and the last 14 d for measurement of intake and milk production. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations of AS and KRS were 37.3 and 47.3%, respectively. The fermentation analyses indicated that both silages underwent a restricted fermentation, producing primarily lactic acid and some acetic acid. Dry matter intake (24.2 vs. 22.8 kg) and 4% fat-corrected milk (32.8 vs. 30.9 kg) were significantly higher for cows fed AS than for cows fed KRS. Cows consumed less NDF (6.7 vs. 8.0 kg) and less digestible NDF (3.0 vs. 4.4 kg) when fed AS diets compared with KRS diets, but the pool of ruminally undegraded NDF was similar (3.7 kg) between diets. Cows produced 1.5 kg of milk/kg of DM consumed regardless of the diet, indicating that digestible NDF of KRS was utilized with similar efficiency as the cell wall constituents of AS, but the intake of cows fed KRS may have been limited by rumen fill. Milk fat concentration tended to be higher for cows fed AS, but the milk true protein concentration and yields of fat and protein did not differ by treatment. Milk urea nitrogen content was higher when cows consumed AS (16.4 mg/ d

  4. Effects of dry period length and concentrate protein content in late lactation on body condition score change and subsequent lactation performance of thin high genetic merit dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, A J; Purcell, P J; Wylie, A R G; Gordon, A W; Ferris, C P

    2017-03-01

    Improving body condition score of thin cows in late lactation is necessary, because cows that are thin at drying off exhibit decreased fertility postpartum and are at increased risk of disease and of being culled in the subsequent lactation. Offering a diet low in crude protein (CP) content in late lactation may help to improve body condition score (BCS) at drying off, whereas imposing an extended dry period (EDP) has been advocated as another way to increase BCS at calving. To test these hypotheses, 65 thin cows (mean BCS 2.25 at 14 wk precalving) were managed on 1 of 3 treatments between 13 and 9 wk prepartum: normal protein control {NP; grass silage + 5 kg/d of a normal protein concentrate [228 g of CP/kg of dry matter (DM)]}, low protein [LP; grass silage + 5 kg/d of a low-protein concentrate (153 g of CP/kg of DM)], or EDP (cows dried off at 13 wk precalving and offered a grass silage-only diet). Both NP and LP cows were dried off at wk 8 prepartum, after which all cows were offered a grass silage-only diet until calving. After calving, all cows were offered a common diet (supplying 11.1 kg of concentrate DM/cow per day) for 19 wk. Between 13 and 9 wk prepartum, LP cows had lower DM intake, milk yield, and body weight than NP cows. Whereas EDP cows had lower serum β-hydroxybutyrate and fatty acid concentrations than those of NP cows, BCS at wk 9 prepartum did not differ between treatments. Cows on the LP treatment continued to have lower DMI and BW than those of NP and EDP cows between 8 wk prepartum and calving, but only EDP cows had a higher BCS at calving. Treatment did not affect calving difficulty score or calf birth weight. Although all cows were offered a common diet postpartum, cows on the LP treatment had lower DM intake and milk fat + plus protein yield than cows on any other treatment during the 19-wk period postpartum, but we found no differences in any postpartum indicator of body tissue reserves. The treatments imposed from wk 13 to 9 prepartum

  5. Elevating serotonin pre-partum alters the Holstein dairy cow hepatic adaptation to lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Samantha R.; Prichard, Allan S.; Maerz, Noah L.; Prichard, Austin P.; Endres, Elizabeth L.; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E.; Akins, Matthew S.; Bruckmaier, Rupert M.

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin is known to regulate energy and calcium homeostasis in several mammalian species. The objective of this study was to determine if pre-partum infusions of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), the immediate precursor to serotonin synthesis, could modulate energy homeostasis at the level of the hepatocyte in post-partum Holstein and Jersey dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows and twelve multiparous Jersey cows were intravenously infused daily for approximately 7 d pre-partum with either saline or 1 mg/kg bodyweight of 5-HTP. Blood was collected for 14 d post-partum and on d30 post-partum. Liver biopsies were taken on d1 and d7 post-partum. There were no changes in the circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, non-esterified fatty acids, or urea nitrogen in response to treatment, although there were decreased beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations with 5-HTP treatment around d6 to d10 post-partum, particularly in Jersey cows. Cows infused with 5-HTP had increased hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA expression of the serotonin 2B receptor on d1 and d7 post-partum. Minimal changes were seen in the hepatic mRNA expression of various gluconeogenic enzymes. There were no changes in the mRNA expression profile of cell-cycle progression marker cyclin-dependent kinase 4 or apoptotic marker caspase 3, although proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression tended to be increased in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Immunofluorescence assays showed an increased number of CASP3- and Ki67-positive cells in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Given the elevated hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA abundance of 5HTR2B, 5-HTP infusions may be stimulating an autocrine-paracrine adaptation to lactation in the Holstein cow liver. PMID:28922379

  6. Elevating serotonin pre-partum alters the Holstein dairy cow hepatic adaptation to lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha R Weaver

    Full Text Available Serotonin is known to regulate energy and calcium homeostasis in several mammalian species. The objective of this study was to determine if pre-partum infusions of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP, the immediate precursor to serotonin synthesis, could modulate energy homeostasis at the level of the hepatocyte in post-partum Holstein and Jersey dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows and twelve multiparous Jersey cows were intravenously infused daily for approximately 7 d pre-partum with either saline or 1 mg/kg bodyweight of 5-HTP. Blood was collected for 14 d post-partum and on d30 post-partum. Liver biopsies were taken on d1 and d7 post-partum. There were no changes in the circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, non-esterified fatty acids, or urea nitrogen in response to treatment, although there were decreased beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations with 5-HTP treatment around d6 to d10 post-partum, particularly in Jersey cows. Cows infused with 5-HTP had increased hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA expression of the serotonin 2B receptor on d1 and d7 post-partum. Minimal changes were seen in the hepatic mRNA expression of various gluconeogenic enzymes. There were no changes in the mRNA expression profile of cell-cycle progression marker cyclin-dependent kinase 4 or apoptotic marker caspase 3, although proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression tended to be increased in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Immunofluorescence assays showed an increased number of CASP3- and Ki67-positive cells in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP on d1 post-partum. Given the elevated hepatic serotonin content and increased mRNA abundance of 5HTR2B, 5-HTP infusions may be stimulating an autocrine-paracrine adaptation to lactation in the Holstein cow liver.

  7. Similarity of the ruminal bacteria across individual lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jami, Elie; Mizrahi, Itzhak

    2012-06-01

    Dairy cattle hold enormous significance for man as a source of milk and meat. Their remarkable ability to convert indigestible plant mass into these digestible food products resides in the rumen - an anaerobic chambered compartment - in the bovine digestive system. The rumen houses a complex microbiota which is responsible for the degradation of plant material, consequently enabling the conversion of plant fibers into milk and meat and determining their quality and quantity. Hence, an understanding of this complex ecosystem has major economic implications. One important question that is yet to be addressed is the degree of conservation of rumen microbial composition across individual animals. Here we quantified the degree of similarity between rumen bacterial populations of 16 individual cows. We used real-time PCR to determine the variance of specific ruminal bacterial species with different metabolic functions, revealing that while some bacterial strains vary greatly across animals, others show only very low variability. This variance could not be linked to the metabolic traits of these bacteria. We examined the degree of similarity in the dominant bacterial populations across all animals using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), and identified a bacterial community consisting of 32% operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared by at least 90% of the animals and 19% OTUs shared by 100% of the animals. Looking only at the presence or absence of each OTU gave an average similarity of 75% between each cow pair. When abundance of each OTU was added to the analysis, this similarity decreased to an average of less than 60%. Thus, as suggested in similar recent studies of the human gut, a bovine rumen core microbiome does exist, but taxa abundance may vary greatly across animals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy intake in late gestation affects blood metabolites in early lactation independently of milk production in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nicolaj Ingemann; Hameleers, A; Young, F J

    2010-01-01

    The present experiment examined the effect of offering either a high- (H) or low- (L) energy-density diet in late gestation and early lactation on physiological parameters, body condition score (BCS) and milk production in early lactation. In all, 40 multiparous Holstein cows were randomly alloca...

  9. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes across warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F cows in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Burke, J M; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W

    2016-01-01

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Criollo breeds, such as the Romosinuano, may have similar adaptation. The objectives were to estimate genetic effects in Romosinuano, Angus, and crossbred cows for their weights, weights of their calves, and ratios (calf weight:cow weight and cow weight change:calf weight gain) across lactation and to assess the influence of forage on traits and estimates. Cows ( = 91) were bred to Charolais bulls after their second parity. Calves ( = 214) were born from 2006 to 2009. Cows and calves were weighed in early (April and June), mid- (July), and late lactation (August and October). Animal was a random effect in analyses of calf data; sire was random in analyses of cow records and ratios. Fixed effects investigated included calf age, calf sex, cow age-year combinations, sire breed of cow, dam breed of cow, and interactions. Subsequent analyses evaluated the effect of forage grazed: endophyte-free or endophyte-infected tall fescue. Estimates of maternal heterosis for calf weight ranged from 9.3 ± 4.3 to 15.4 ± 5.7 kg from mid-lactation through weaning ( cow) were -6.8 ± 3.0 and -8.9 ± 4.2 kg for weights recorded in April and June. Calf weights and weight gains from birth were greater ( cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue except in mid-summer. Cow weight change from April to each time was negative for Angus cows and lower ( Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue were heavier ( cows had the lowest ( cow weight change:calf weight gain, indicating an energy-deficit condition. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue had more negative ( cow weight, 7.9 ± 3.0 to 15.8 ± 5.0 kg for cow weight change, and 0.07 ± 0.03 to 0.27 ± 0.1 for cow weight change:calf weight gain. Direct Romosinuano effects ranged from 14.8 ± 4.2 to 49.8 ± 7.7 kg for cow weight change and 0.2 ± 0.04 to 0.51 ± 0.14 for cow weight change:calf weight gain. The adaptive

  10. Effect of Calving Interval on Milk Yield and Quality Lactation in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Baul

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Researches were made on 125 lactations from Romanian Black Spotted cows, aimed at studying the evolution of the interval between calving on milk quantity and quality. Data were recorded and statistically analyzed by means of ANOVA / MANOVA determining the average values and dispersion indices. Based on averages parameters of lactation curves were calculated using the mathematical model proposed by Wood, called the incomplete gamma function. The interval between calving significantly influenced (p < 0.05 lactation curve aspect for the percentage of dry defatted from milk for the daily growth rate (parameter c between calving interval 351 to 450 days and of over 450 days (0.00008. Also we’ve met significant differences (p < 0.05 for the initial concentration of the percentage of total solids in milk for parameter a from the interval between calving up to 350 days and calving interval 351-450 days (0.80101.

  11. Energy partitioning in dairy cows : effects of lipogenic and glucogenic diets on energy balance, metabolites and reproduction variables in early lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: dairy cows; dietary energy source; glucogenic nutrients; lipogenic nutrients; negative energy balance; metabolic disorders; reproduction, immune system Dairy cows experience a negative energy balance (NEB) in early lactation which results from high energy requirements for milk production

  12. Prevalence of lameness and leg lesions of lactating dairy cows housed in southern Brazil: Effects of housing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Joao H C; Burnett, Tracy A; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Hötzel, Maria J

    2018-03-01

    1% of all cows scored on CB farms were observed with swollen or wounded knees (or both), which was lower than either the FS or FS+C farms [7.4% (3.6-11.9%) and 6.4% (2.6-11.8%) of all cows scored, respectively]. The same pattern was found for hock lesions, where the farm-level prevalence within the 3 different housing types was 0.5% (0-0.9%), 9.9% (0.8-15.3%), and 5.7% (2.6-10.9%) for CB, FS, and FS+C farms, respectively. No differences between farm systems were observed for hygiene or body condition score. On average, 2.7% (0.8-10.9%) of lactating cows had a soiled side, 15.4% (2.1-37.4%) had dirty legs and 1.7% (0-9.3%) had dirty udders. The average herd-level body condition score across farms was 2.9 (2.9-3), with 0.86% of the all cows scored having a body condition score <2.5. These results indicate that lameness prevalence on confined dairies in Brazil is high and highlight the need for remedial changes in environmental design and management practices. We found that CB farms in this region had reduced lameness and lesions in relation to FS or FS+C dairies. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Production performance of lactating dairy cows at pasture fed concentrate supplemented with licuri oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano dos Santos Lima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the optimal level of licuri oil to use in the concentrate of lactating dairy cows on pasture, through growth performance, feed conversion and cost of the supplementation. A total of 16 dairy cows, Holstein × Zebu crossbreed, were kept on Tanzania grass pasture. Cows were divided into four Latin squares, 4 × 4, formed by four experimental periods of 21 days, divided into 17 days for adaptation and four days for data collection. Cows received three kg of concentrate per day at the time of milking, and the treatments consisted of four diets containing licuri oil at levels of 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5% of the concentrated dry matter. There was a linear increase in the daily milk yield, corrected to 3.5% fat, and an improvement in the feed conversion of the dry matter and neutral detergent fiber with the inclusion of the licuri oil. The optimal level of licuri oil was 1.5% of the concentrated DM for dairy cows on pasture, whose level has the best profit sale of milk, with positive results in the corrected daily milk production and conversion of the feed nutrients.

  14. Enteric methane emissions and lactational performance of Holstein cows fed different concentrations of coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, M; Powers, W J; Fogiel, A C; Liesman, J S; Bello, N M; Beede, D K

    2012-05-01

    To determine if dietary medium-chain fatty acids (FA; C(8) to C(14)) may mitigate enteric methane emissions, 24 cows were blocked by body size (n=2) and randomly assigned to 1 sequence of dietary treatments. Diets were fed for 35 d each in 2 consecutive periods. Diets differed in concentrations of coconut oil (CNO; ~75% medium-chain FA): 0.0 (control) or 1.3, 2.7, or 3.3% CNO, dry matter basis. The control diet contained 50% forage (74% from corn silage), 16.5% crude protein (60% from rumen-degradable protein), 34% neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 71% from forage), and 28% starch, dry matter basis. Data and sample collections were from d 29 to 35 in environmentally controlled rooms to measure methane (CH(4)) production. Methane emitted was computed from the difference in concentrations of inlet and outlet air and flux as measured 8 times per day. Control cows emitted 464 g of CH(4)/d, consumed 22.9 kg of DM/d, and produced 34.8 kg of solids-corrected milk/d and 1.3 kg of milk fat/d. Treatment with 1.3, 2.7, or 3.3% dietary CNO reduced CH(4) (449, 291, and 253 g/d, respectively), but concomitantly depressed dry matter intake (21.4, 17.9, and 16.2 kg/d, respectively), solids-corrected milk yield (36.3, 28.4, and 26.8 kg/d, respectively), and milk fat yield (1.4, 0.9, and 0.9 kg/d, respectively). The amount of NDF digested in the total tract decreased with increased dietary CNO concentrations; thus, CH(4) emitted per unit of NDF digested rose from 118 to 128, 153, and 166 g/kg across CNO treatments. Dietary CNO did not significantly affect apparent digestibility of CP but increased apparent starch digestibility from 92 to 95%. No FA C(10) or shorter were detected in feces, and apparent digestibility decreased with increasing FA chain length. Coconut oil concentrations of 2.7 or 3.3% decreased yields of milk FA C(14). The highest milk fat concentration (3.69%; 1.3% CNO) was due to the greatest yields of C(12) to C(16) milk FA. Milk FA concentrations of C(18:2 trans-10,cis

  15. Substantial Differences between Organ and Muscle Specific Tracer Incorporation Rates in a Lactating Dairy Cow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Burd

    Full Text Available We aimed to produce intrinsically L-[1-(13C]phenylalanine labeled milk and beef for subsequent use in human nutrition research. The collection of the various organ tissues after slaughter allowed for us to gain insight into the dynamics of tissue protein turnover in vivo in a lactating dairy cow. One lactating dairy cow received a constant infusion of L-[1-(13C]phenylalanine (450 µmol/min for 96 h. Plasma and milk were collected prior to, during, and after the stable isotope infusion. Twenty-four hours after cessation of the infusion the cow was slaughtered. The meat and samples of the various organ tissues (liver, heart, lung, udder, kidney, rumen, small intestine, and colon were collected and stored. Approximately 210 kg of intrinsically labeled beef (bone and fat free with an average L-[1-(13C]phenylalanine enrichment of 1.8±0.1 mole percent excess (MPE was obtained. The various organ tissues differed substantially in L-[1-(13C]phenylalanine enrichments in the tissue protein bound pool, the highest enrichment levels were achieved in the kidney (11.7 MPE and the lowest enrichment levels in the skeletal muscle tissue protein of the cow (between 1.5-2.4 MPE. The estimated protein synthesis rates of the various organ tissues should be regarded as underestimates, particularly for the organs with the higher turnover rates and high secretory activity, due to the lengthened (96 h measurement period necessary for the production of the intrinsically labeled beef. Our data demonstrates that there are relatively small differences in L-[1-(13C]phenylalanine enrichments between the various meat cuts, but substantial higher enrichment values are observed in the various organ tissues. We conclude that protein turnover rates of various organs are much higher when compared to skeletal muscle protein turnover rates in large lactating ruminants.

  16. Comparative clinical and haematological investigations in lactating cows with subclinical and clinical ketosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Marutsova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ketosis of lactating cows is among the most common metabolic diseases in modern dairy farms. The economic importance of the disease is caused by the reduced milk yield and body weight loss, poor feed conversion, lower conception rates, culling and increased mortality of affected animals. In the present study, a total of 47 high-yielding dairy cows up to 45 days in milk (DIM are included. All animals were submitted to physical examination wich included checking the rectal body temperature, heart rate, respiratory and rumen contraction rates, and inspection of visible mucous coats. The body condition was scored, and blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA concentrations were assayed. The cows were divided into 3 groups: first group (control (n=24 with blood β-hydroxybutyrate level 2.6 mmol/l (clinical ketosis. Whole blood samples were obtained and analyzed for Red Blood Cell (RBC, 1012/l, Hemoglobin (HGB, g/l, Hematocrit (HCT, %, Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV, fl, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH, pg, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC, g/l, White Blood Cell (WBC, 109/l, Lymphocytes (LYM, 109/l, Monocytes (MON, 109/l, Granulocytes (GRA, 109/l, Red Blood Distribution Width (RDW, %, Red Blood Cell Distribution Width Absolute (RDWa, fl, Platelets (PLT, 109/l and Mean Platelet Volume (MPV, fl. In this study, deviations in the clinical parameters in the control group and in those with subclinical ketosis were not identified. The cows from the third group (clinical ketosis exhibited hypotonia, anorexia and body weight loss vs. control group. Hematological analysis showed leukocytosis and lymphocytosis in cows with subclinical ketosis vs. control group. In cows with clinical ketosis WBC counts decreased (leukopenia, while hemoglobin content and hematocrit values are higher vs. control group. Blood BHBA values are higher in both groups of ketotic cows vs. the control group. The other analyzed parameters (RBC, MCH, MCHC, MCV, RDW, RDWa, MON, GRA, PLT

  17. Risk factors for postpartum ovarian cysts and their spontaneous recovery or persistence in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gatius, F; Santolaria, P; Yániz, J; Fenech, M; López-Béjar, M

    2002-11-01

    Cystic ovarian disease is a major cause of reproductive failure and economic loss for the dairy industry. Many cysts that develop during the early postpartum period regress spontaneously. However, it is difficult to decide at what point it would be more cost effective to treat ovarian cysts than to wait for spontaneous recovery. The objective of this study was to analyze risk factors for the development of the ovarian cystic condition during early and late postpartum, and for its persistence or recovery during the pre-service period in lactating dairy cows. Using multiple logistic regression, we analyzed data derived from 873 lactating dairy cows from a single herd. An ovarian cyst was diagnosed if it was possible to observe a single follicular structure with an antrum diameter > or = 25 mm in the absence of a corpus luteum in three sonograms performed at 7-day intervals. The cystic condition was denoted as early if the cyst was diagnosed 43-49 days postpartum, and late if detected 57-63-day postpartum. Spontaneous cyst regression before 60-day postpartum was regarded as early cystic recovery. For the early cystic group, there were no significant effects of lactation number, body condition score on prepartum Day 60, at parturition or on postpartum Day 30, or of body condition loss from parturition to 30-day postpartum. Cows calving in summer were 2.6 times more likely to develop ovarian cysts than those giving birth in winter. The risk of having a cyst was 1.9 times higher in cows with an abnormal puerperium. A 1-kg increase in milk yield raised the risk of cysts by a factor of 1.05. A 1-unit increase in body condition score (scale from 1 to 5) from prepartum Day 60 to parturition increased the risk of cyst development 8.4 times. Milk production and lactation number were negatively correlated with spontaneous early cyst recovery. A 1-kg decrease in milk production increased the probability of cyst recovery by a factor of 1.06, and a 1-unit drop in lactation number

  18. Effects of high ambient temperature on urea-nitrogen recycling in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obitsu, Taketo; Kamiya, Mitsuru; Kamiya, Yuko; Tanaka, Masahito; Sugino, Toshihisa; Taniguchi, Kohzo

    2011-08-01

    Effects of exposure to hot environment on urea metabolism were studied in lactating Holstein cows. Four cows were fed ad libitum a total mixed ration and housed in a temperature-controlled chamber at constant moderate (18°C) or high (28°C) ambient temperatures in a cross-over design. Urea nitrogen (N) kinetics was measured by determining urea isotopomer in urine after single injection of [(15) N(2) ]urea into the jugular vein. Both dry matter intake and milk yield were decreased under high ambient temperature. Intakes of total N and digestible N were decreased under high ambient temperature but urinary urea-N excretion was increased. The ratio of urea-N production to digestible N was increased, whereas the proportion of gut urea-N entry to urea-N production tended to be decreased under high ambient temperature. Neither return to the ornithine cycle, anabolic use nor fecal excretion of urea-N recycled to the gut was affected by ambient temperature. Under high ambient temperature, renal clearance of plasma urea was not affected but the gut clearance was decreased. Increase of urea-N production and reduction of gut urea-N entry, in relative terms, were associated with increased urinary urea-N excretion of lactating dairy cows in higher thermal environments. 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Effect of phytase supplementation on rumen fermentation characteristics and phosphorus balance in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Winter

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exogenous phytase on rumen fermentation characteristics, the phosphorus (P-flow at the duodenum and the P-balance in lactating dairy cows. For this purpose ruminal and duodenally fistulated cows were assigned to one of three dietary treatments: high P (HP diet (n=7 provided a total of 45 g/d of P, archived by a supplementation of dicalcium phosphate to the diet; low P (LP diet (n=5 provided 34 g/d of P without supplementation; LP+phytase (LP+PHY diet (n=5 provided 34 g/d of P supplemented with an exogenous phytase. Dry matter intake and milk yield were recorded daily. In the first week of a sampling period Pbalance was determined. Samples of ruminal fluid were taken and duodenal chyme was collected in the second sampling week. Ruminal pH and the concentration of volatile fatty acids were not different between the treatments. The HP-group shows a higher P-flow at the duodenum than other groups. No differences in apparent total tract P-digestibility were found between the treatments. The P-balance in the HP-group (2.6 g/d was higher compared to the LP (-3.2 g/d and LP+PHY (-3.0 g/d group. Overall, phytase supplementation had no effect on P-digestibility in lactating dairy cows.

  20. First-lactation performance in cows affected by digital dermatitis during the rearing period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, A; Cook, N B; Socha, M T; Döpfer, D

    2015-07-01

    The long-term effects of prepartum digital dermatitis (DD) on first-lactation performance were evaluated in a cohort of 719 pregnant heifers. All heifers were followed for a period of 6 mo until calving and classified on the basis of the number of DD events diagnosed during this period as type I, type II, or type III (no DD, one DD event, and multiple DD events, respectively). Health during the initial 60d in milk (DIM), reproductive and hoof health outcomes, and milk production were compared between the 3 heifer type groups. All logistic and linear models were adjusted for age, height, and girth circumference at enrollment, and the type of trace mineral supplementation during the prepartum period. Overall, cows experiencing DD during the rearing period showed worse production and health outcomes compared with healthy heifers during the first lactation. The percentages of assisted calvings, stillbirths, culled before 60 DIM, and diseased cows during the fresh period were numerically higher in type III cows compared with type I cows. However, none of these differences were statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. Significantly lower conception at first service [odds ratio (OR)=0.55, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.33, 0.89] and increased number of days open (mean=24d, 95% CI: 5.2, 43) were observed in type III cows compared with type I cows. In relation to hoof health, a significantly increased risk of DD during the first lactation was found in type II and III cows (OR=5.16, 95% CI: 3.23, 8.29; and OR=12.5, 95% CI: 7.52, 21.1, respectively), as well as earlier occurrence of DD following calving (OR=59d, 95% CI=20, 96, and OR=74d, 95% CI: 37, 109). Compared with type I cows, statistically significant milk production losses during the initial 305 DIM of 199 and 335kg were estimated in type II and III cows, respectively. This difference was due to a greater rate of production decline (less persistence) after peak yield. No differences in monthly fat

  1. On the analysis of Canadian Holstein dairy cow lactation curves using standard growth functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, S; France, J; Odongo, N E; McBride, R A; Kebreab, E; AlZahal, O; McBride, B W; Dijkstra, J

    2015-04-01

    Six classical growth functions (monomolecular, Schumacher, Gompertz, logistic, Richards, and Morgan) were fitted to individual and average (by parity) cumulative milk production curves of Canadian Holstein dairy cows. The data analyzed consisted of approximately 91,000 daily milk yield records corresponding to 122 first, 99 second, and 92 third parity individual lactation curves. The functions were fitted using nonlinear regression procedures, and their performance was assessed using goodness-of-fit statistics (coefficient of determination, residual mean squares, Akaike information criterion, and the correlation and concordance coefficients between observed and adjusted milk yields at several days in milk). Overall, all the growth functions evaluated showed an acceptable fit to the cumulative milk production curves, with the Richards equation ranking first (smallest Akaike information criterion) followed by the Morgan equation. Differences among the functions in their goodness-of-fit were enlarged when fitted to average curves by parity, where the sigmoidal functions with a variable point of inflection (Richards and Morgan) outperformed the other 4 equations. All the functions provided satisfactory predictions of milk yield (calculated from the first derivative of the functions) at different lactation stages, from early to late lactation. The Richards and Morgan equations provided the most accurate estimates of peak yield and total milk production per 305-d lactation, whereas the least accurate estimates were obtained with the logistic equation. In conclusion, classical growth functions (especially sigmoidal functions with a variable point of inflection) proved to be feasible alternatives to fit cumulative milk production curves of dairy cows, resulting in suitable statistical performance and accurate estimates of lactation traits. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Supplementation with partially hydrogenated oil in grazing dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, G F; Gagliostro, G A; Becu-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I

    2002-03-01

    Effects of partially hydrogenated oil on performance, loss of body weight and body condition score, and blood metabolite and hormone concentrations were evaluated in 37 multiparous Holstein cows in grazing conditions during the first 100 d of lactation. Six additional Holstein cows, each fitted with a ruminal cannula, were allocated to a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square to evaluate effects of supplemental fat on rumen environment and pasture digestion. All cows grazed mixed pastures based on alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and received 5.4 kg/d of a basal concentrate to which 0, 0.5, or 1 kg/cow per day of partially hydrogenated oil (melting point 58 to 60 degrees C) containing 30.3, 34.9, 21.8, and 3.3% of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, and C182, respectively, was added. Feeding 1 kg/d of supplemental fat increased fat-corrected milk from 23.4 to 26.3 kg/d, milk fat content from 3.44 to 3.78%, and milk fat yield from 0.87 to 1.03 kg/d compared to control. Milk protein percentage and yield were not affected. Cows fed 1 kg/d of fat increased the content and yield of C16:0 and C18:0 in milk compared with cows fed no added oil. Dry matter intake (DMI) from pasture decreased from 17.8 kg/d for control cows to 13.6 kg/d for cows fed 1 kg of oil, whereas DMI from concentrate was higher for cows fed 1 kg/d of fat (6.0 kg/d) than for controls (5.2 kg/d). Supplemental fat did not affect total dry matter or estimated energy intake and did not change losses of body weight or body condition scores. Plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, somatotrophin, and insulin-like growth factor-I did not differ among treatments. Concentration of plasma triglycerides was lowered from 318.5 to 271.2 mg/dl, whereas plasma cholesterol was elevated from 185.0 to 235.8 mg/dl in cows receiving 1 kg/d of supplemental fat compared with controls. Responses to lipolytic or insulin challenges were not affected by feeding oil. Supplemental fat did not affect

  3. Feeding Frequency Effects in Early Lactation on Productive Efficiency of Holstein Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Karimzadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to determine the effects of feeding frequency (FF on dairy cow performance fed a total mixed ration (TMR based on chopped alfalfa hay. Eight multiparous early lactation Holstein cows were housed in the individual boxes (4 × 3 m and fed either once a day (1x at 0700 h or 4 times a day (4x at 0100, 0700, 1300 and 1900 h with TMR. The experiment was done as a 2 × 2 crossover design with two 20-d periods. When FF changed from 4x to 1x, dry matter intake (21.1 vs. 20.0 kg/d and NEL intake (36.4 vs. 34.3 Mcal/d increased (P

  4. Changes in cisternal compartment based on stage of lactation and time since milk ejection in the udder of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caja, G; Ayadi, M; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2004-01-01

    (by cannula) and cisternal area (by ultrasonography) in the front quarters. Cisternal milk and cisternal area were correlated (r = 0.74 to 0.82) for all stages of lactation. As lactation advanced, volumes of alveolar and cisternal milk and cisternal area decreased. Proportion of cisternal milk varied...... compartment. We termed this 'cisternal recoil.' In conclusion, ultrasonography was a useful method to evaluate dynamic changes in cisternal milk throughout lactation and after udder stimulation in dairy cows. Evidence exists that udder cisterns decrease when lactation advances and milk returns to the alveolar...

  5. Effects of cutting height and maturity on the nutritive value of corn silage for lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neylon, J M; Kung, L

    2003-06-01

    We studied the effect of increasing the cutting height of whole-plant corn at the time of harvest from 12.7 (NC) to 45.7 (HC) cm on yield and nutritive value of silage for dairy cows. Three leafy corn silage hybrids were harvested at NC and HC at about 34% dry matter (E) and 41% DM (L) and ensiled in laboratory silos. Increasing the height of cutting lowered yields of harvested DM/ha. In addition, the concentrations of DM and starch were higher but the concentrations of lactic acid, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber were lower in HC than in NC. The concentration of acid detergent lignin was also lower in HC, but only in corn harvested at E. In vitro digestion (30 h) of NDF was greater in HC (50.7%) than NC (48.3%). Calculated yield of milk per tonne of forage DM was greater for HC than for NC at E but not at L. In a lactation experiment, increasing the height of cutting of another leafy corn silage hybrid, TMF29400, in general also resulted in similar changes in nutrient composition as just described. When fed to lactating dairy cows, HC corn silage resulted in tendencies for greater NDF digestion in the total tract, higher milk production and improved feed efficiency, but there were no differences in 3.5% fat corrected milk between treatments. Results of this study suggest that increasing the cutting height of whole plant corn at harvest can improve the nutritive value of corn silage for lactating dairy cows.

  6. Randomized noninferiority clinical trial evaluating 3 commercial dry cow mastitis preparations: II. Cow health and performance in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, A G; Godden, S; Rapnicki, P; Gorden, P; Timms, L; Aly, S S; Lehenbauer, T W; Champagne, J

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this randomized noninferiority clinical trial was to compare the effect of treatment with 3 different dry cow therapy formulations at dry-off on cow-level health and production parameters in the first 100 d in milk (DIM) in the subsequent lactation, including 305-d mature-equivalent (305 ME) milk production, linear score (LS), risk for the cow experiencing a clinical mastitis event, risk for culling or death, and risk for pregnancy by 100 DIM. A total of 1,091 cows from 6 commercial dairy herds in 4 states (California, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) were randomly assigned at dry-off to receive treatment with 1 of 3 commercial products: Quartermaster (QT; Zoetis Animal Health, Madison, NJ), Spectramast DC (SP; Zoetis Animal Health) or ToMorrow Dry Cow (TM; Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St Joseph, MO). All clinical mastitis, pregnancy, culling, and death events occurring in the first 100 DIM were recorded by farm staff using an on-farm electronic record-keeping system. Dairy Herd Improvement Association test-day records of milk production and milk component testing were retrieved electronically. Mixed linear regression analysis was used to describe the effect of treatment on 305ME milk production and LS recorded on the last Dairy Herd Improvement Association test day before 100 DIM. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to describe the effect of treatment on risk for experiencing a case of clinical mastitis, risk for leaving the herd, and risk for pregnancy between calving and 100 DIM. Results showed no effect of treatment on adjusted mean 305 ME milk production (QT=11,759 kg, SP=11,574 kg, and TM=11,761 kg) or adjusted mean LS (QT=1.8, SP=1.9, and TM=1.6) on the last test day before 100 DIM. Similarly, no effect of treatment was observed on risk for a clinical mastitis event (QT=14.8%, SP=12.7%, and TM=15.0%), risk for leaving the herd (QT=7.5%, SP=9.2%, and TM=10.3%), or risk for pregnancy (QT=31.5%, SP=26.1%, and TM=26

  7. Relationships between milking frequency, lactation persistency and milk yield in Sweish Red heifers and cows milked in a voluntary attendance automatic milking system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersson, Gunnar; Svvenersten-Sjaunja, Kerstin; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2011-01-01

    A large dataset comprising output from an automatic milking (AM) system between 1999 and 2006 was examined and a total of 172 cow lactation curves and 68 heifer lactation curves were identified for further analysis. Relationships between milking frequency at different stages of lactation...... and lactation persistency and total lactation yield were determined. Cows had higher peak and total milk yields than heifers, but heifers had higher persistency (defined as the rate of decline in milk yield between days 100 and 300 post calving). Milking frequency did not differ significantly between cows...... and heifers in early lactation, but thereafter decreased significantly more in cows than in heifers. The effect of milking frequency on yield characteristics was analysed by comparing the highest and lowest quartiles for milking frequency. High milking frequency in early lactation was consistently associated...

  8. Circulating progesterone dynamics after intravaginal instillation of prostaglandin-F2α to lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijma, R; Stangaferro, M L; Giordano, J O

    2016-06-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate circulating progesterone (P4) concentration dynamics and test the feasibility of inducing luteal regression after intravaginal (IVG) instillation of the PGF2α analogue dinoprost (PGF) in lactating dairy cows. In two experiments, cows were synchronized using the Ovsynch protocol to induce the formation of a corpus luteum (CL). Cows with at least one functional (P4 ≥1 ng/mL) CL ≥15 mm 7.5 days after Ovsynch remained in the studies. In experiment 1, cows (n = 31) were stratified by parity group and received 5 mL of saline IVG (SAL-IVG, n = 6), 25 mg of PGF intramuscular (IM) (PGF25-IM, n = 7), 25 mg of PGF IVG (PGF25-IVG, n = 6), 50 mg of PGF IVG (PGF50-IVG, n = 6), and 125 mg of PGF IVG (PGF125-IVG, n = 6). Experiment 2 was conducted to test the hypothesis that IVG instillation of two 25 mg doses of PGF 12 hours apart would be more effective than a 25- or 50-mg dose in a single application. Cows (n = 32) were stratified by parity and received SAL-IVG (n = 7), PGF25-IM (n = 7), PGF25-IVG (n = 6), and PGF50-IVG (n = 6) as in experiment 1, whereas another group received two IVG instillations of 25 mg of PGF 12 hours apart (PGF25-2X-IVG, n = 6). Blood was collected at -1 hour, every 6 hours from 0 hour to 24 hours, and every 12 hours up to 96 hours after treatment (trt). In experiment 1, there was an effect of trt (P cows in the SAL-IVG group from 12 to 96 hours after trt. Although an initial decline in P4 concentrations was induced in all PGF-treated cows, some cows in the IVG-treated groups presented a rebound in plasma P4, indicating CL recovery. More cows in the PGF25-IVG and PGF125-IVG groups than in the PGF50-IVG and PGF25-IM groups presented CL recovery, suggesting that greater doses of PGF may not necessarily improve CL regression. In experiment 2, there was an effect of trt (P Cows in the PGF25-2X-IVG group had a P4 profile that was similar to that of cows in the PGF25-IM group and

  9. The genetic and biological basis of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, L C; VandeHaar, M J; Tempelman, R J; Weigel, K A; Armentano, L E; Wiggans, G R; Veerkamp, R F; de Haas, Y; Coffey, M P; Connor, E E; Hanigan, M D; Staples, C; Wang, Z; Dekkers, J C M; Spurlock, D M

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions and candidate genes associated with feed efficiency in lactating Holstein cows. In total, 4,916 cows with actual or imputed genotypes for 60,671 single nucleotide polymorphisms having individual feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, and body weight records were used in this study. Cows were from research herds located in the United States, Canada, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Feed efficiency, defined as residual feed intake (RFI), was calculated within location as the residual of the regression of dry matter intake (DMI) on milk energy (MilkE), metabolic body weight (MBW), change in body weight, and systematic effects. For RFI, DMI, MilkE, and MBW, bivariate analyses were performed considering each trait as a separate trait within parity group to estimate variance components and genetic correlations between them. Animal relationships were established using a genomic relationship matrix. Genome-wide association studies were performed separately by parity group for RFI, DMI, MilkE, and MBW using the Bayes B method with a prior assumption that 1% of single nucleotide polymorphisms have a nonzero effect. One-megabase windows with greatest percentage of the total genetic variation explained by the markers (TGVM) were identified, and adjacent windows with large proportion of the TGVM were combined and reanalyzed. Heritability estimates for RFI were 0.14 (±0.03; ±SE) in primiparous cows and 0.13 (±0.03) in multiparous cows. Genetic correlations between primiparous and multiparous cows were 0.76 for RFI, 0.78 for DMI, 0.92 for MBW, and 0.61 for MilkE. No single 1-Mb window explained a significant proportion of the TGVM for RFI; however, after combining windows, significance was met on Bos taurus autosome 27 in primiparous cows, and nearly reached on Bos taurus autosome 4 in multiparous cows. Among other genes, these regions contain β-3 adrenergic receptor and the physiological candidate gene

  10. A model of milk production in lactating dairy cows in relation to energy and nitrogen dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, I R; France, J; Cullen, B R

    2016-02-01

    A generic daily time-step model of a dairy cow, designed to be included in whole-system pasture simulation models, is described that includes growth, milk production, and lactation in relation to energy and nitrogen dynamics. It is a development of a previously described animal growth and metabolism model that describes animal body composition in terms of protein, water, and fat, and energy dynamics in relation to growth requirements, resynthesis of degraded protein, and animal activity. This is further developed to include lactation and fetal growth. Intake is calculated in relation to stage of lactation, pasture availability, supplementary feed, and feed quality. Energy costs associated with urine N excretion and methane fermentation are accounted for. Milk production and fetal growth are then calculated in relation to the overall energy and nitrogen dynamics. The general behavior of the model is consistent with expected characteristics. Simulations using the model as part of a whole-system pasture simulation model (DairyMod) are compared with experimental data where good agreement between pasture, concentrate and forage intake, as well as milk production over 3 consecutive lactation cycles, is observed. The model is shown to be well suited for inclusion in large-scale system simulation models. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Precalving and early lactation factors that predict milk casein and fertility in the transition dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, Rachael M; Hall, Jenianne K; Westwood, Charlotte T; Celi, Pietro; Lean, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    Multiparous Holstein cows (n=82) of either high or low genetic merit (GM) (for milk fat + protein yield) were allocated to 1 of 2 diets in a 2×2 factorial design. Diets differed in the ratio of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) to rumen-degradable protein (37% RUP vs. 15% RUP) and were fed from 21 d precalving to 150 days in milk. This study evaluated the effects of these diets and GM on concentrations of milk casein (CN) variants and aimed to identify precalving and early lactation variables that predict milk CN and protein yield and composition and fertility of dairy cows. It explored the hypothesis that low milk protein content is associated with lower fertility and extended this hypothesis to also evaluate the association of CN contents with fertility. Yields (kg/d) for CN variants were 0.49 and 0.45 of α-CN, 0.38 and 0.34 of β-CN, 0.07 and 0.06 for κ-CN, and 0.10 and 0.09 of γ-CN for high- and low-RUP diets, respectively. Increased RUP increased milk, CN, and milk protein yields. Increased GM increased milk protein and γ-CN yields and tended to increase milk CN yield. The effects of indicator variables on CN variant yields and concentrations were largely consistent, with higher body weight and α-amino nitrogen resulting in higher yields, but lower concentrations. An increase in cholesterol was associated with decreased CN variant concentrations, and disease lowered CN variant yield. A diet high in RUP increased proportion of first services that resulted in pregnancy from 41 to 58%. Increased precalving metabolizable protein (MP) balance decreased the proportion of first services that resulted in pregnancy when evaluated in a model containing CN percentage, milk protein yield, diet, and GM. This finding suggests that the positive effects of increasing dietary RUP on fertility may be curvilinear because cows with a very positive MP balance before calving were less fertile than those with a lower, but positive, MP balance. Prepartum MP balance was important

  12. Pattern of γ-glutamyl transferase activity in cow milk throughout lactation and relationships with metabolic conditions and milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamari, L; Gobbi, L; Russo, F; Cappelli, F Piccioli

    2015-08-01

    The main objective of this experiment was to study the γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity in milk during lactation and its relationship with metabolic status of dairy cows, milk yield, milk composition, and cheesemaking properties. The study was performed in a tied stall barn and involved 20 lactations from 12 healthy multiparous Italian Friesian dairy cows. During lactation starting at d 10, milk samples were collected weekly and analyzed for composition, somatic cells count, titratable acidity, and milk coagulation properties. The GGT activity was measured in defatted samples. Blood samples were collected weekly to assess biochemical indicators related to energy, protein, and mineral metabolism, markers of inflammation and some enzyme activities. The lactations of each cow were retrospectively categorized into 2 groups according to their milk GGT activity value through lactation. A median value of GGT activity in the milk of all lactations was calculated (3,045 U/L), and 10 lactations with lower GGT activity were classified as low while 10 lactations with greater GGT activity were classified as high. The average value of milk GGT activity during lactation was 3,863 and 3,024 U/L for high and low, respectively. The GGT activity decreased in early lactation and reached minimum values in the second month (3,289 and 2,355 U/L for high and low, respectively). Thereafter GGT activity increased progressively, reaching values in late lactation of 4,511 and 3,540 U/L in high and low, respectively. On average, milk yield was 40.81 and 42.76 kg/d in high and low, respectively, and a negative partial correlation with milk GGT activity was observed. A greater milk protein concentration was observed in high (3.39%) compared with low (3.18%), and a positive partial correlation with milk GGT activity was observed. Greater titratable acidity in high than that in low (3.75 vs. 3.45 degrees Soxhlet-Henkel/50 mL, respectively) was also observed. Plasma glucose was greater in

  13. Response of saliva Na/K ratio to changing Na supply of lactating cows under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiangtum, Wandee; Schonewille, J Thomas; Verstegen, Martin Wa; Arsawakulsudhi, Supot; Rukkwamsuk, Theera; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2017-06-01

    Factorial determination of the sodium (Na) requirement of heat-stressed lactating cows is hindered by accurate estimates of the Na losses through sweat. Direct studies, therefore, may be needed requiring information on the time course of healthy animals to become Na depleted and the subsequent rate of repletion. The rate of Na depletion and subsequent rate of Na repletion with two levels of dietary Na to lactating dairy cows housed under tropical conditions were investigated using the salivary Na/K. The 12 lactating cows (salivary Na/K ratio 14.6) rapidly developed clinical signs of Na deficiency, including pica, polyuria and polydipsia, reduced body weight and reduced milk yield when fed a low-Na ration (0.33 g kg -1 dry matter (DM)) for 3 weeks. Deficiency symptoms were associated with a rapid decrease in salivary Na/K ratio to cows with NaCl to a ration concentration of 1.1 or 1.6 g Na kg -1 DM for 5 weeks did not restore salivary Na/K ratio to values of >6. A daily Na intake of heat-stressed lactating cows to a ration intake of 1.6 g Na kg -1 DM was insufficient to restore Na deficiency. One week was sufficient to deplete heat-stressed lactating cows of Na, allowing for rapid dose-response studies utilizing the salivary Na/K ratio as a parameter for Na status of cows under tropical conditions. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Predisposition of cows to mastitis in non-infected mammary glands: effects of dietary-induced negative energy balance during mid-lactation on immune-related genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey; Drackley, James K; Morin, Dawn E

    2011-01-01

    Cows experiencing severe postpartal negative energy balance (NEB) are at greater risk of developing mastitis than cows in positive energy balance (PEB). Our objectives were to compare mammary tissue gene expression profiles between lactating cows (n = 5/treatment) subjected to feed restriction...... to induce NEB and cows fed ad libitum to maintain PEB in order to identify genes involved in immune response and cellular metabolism that may predispose cows to an intramammary infection in non-infected mammary gland. The NEB cows were feed-restricted to 60% of calculated net energy for lactation...... requirements, and cows fed PEB cows were fed the same diet ad libitum. At 5 days after feed restriction, one rear mammary gland from all cows was biopsied for RNA extraction and transcript profiling using microarray and quantitative PCR. Energy balance (NEB vs. PEB) resulted in 278 differentially expressed...

  15. Effects of mineral salt supplement on enteric methane emissions, ruminal fermentation and methanogen community of lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohua; Liu, Chong; Chen, Yongxing; Shi, Rongguang; Cheng, Zhenhua; Dong, Hongmin

    2017-08-01

    We evaluated the effects of mineral salt supplement on enteric methane emissions, ruminal fermentation and methanogen community of dairy cows over a whole lactation period. Ten Holstein cows fed a total mixed ration (TMR) diet were randomly allocated into two groups, one supplied with mineral salts as the treatment group and the other as the control group. The methane measurement showed that the ingestion of mineral salts lowered enteric methane emissions significantly (P methane emissions by mineral salt intake could be attributed to decreased density of methanogenic archaea and that fluctuations in methane emission over the lactation period might be related to Methanobrevibacter diversity. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Supplementation of organic and inorganic selenium to late gestation and early lactation beef cows effect on cow and preweaning calf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muegge, C R; Brennan, K M; Schoonmaker, J P

    2016-08-01

    Angus × Simmental cows ( = 48; BW = 595 ± 17.4 kg, BCS = 5.26 ± 0.05, and age = 2.3 ± 0.07 yr), pregnant with male fetuses, were used to determine the effect of Se source during the last 80 d of gestation and first 108 d of lactation on cow and calf performance. At 203 d in gestation, cows were blocked by BW, breed composition, age, and calf sire and randomly allotted to organic Se, inorganic Se, or no Se treatments. Diets contained corn silage, corn stover, haylage, dried distillers' grains with solubles, and minerals and were formulated to contain 10.4% CP and 0.90 Mcal/kg NEg during gestation and 12.1% CP and 1.01 Mcal/kg NEg during lactation. Diets were fed daily as a total mixed ration and none, 3 mg/d Se as sodium selenite, or 3 mg/d Se as Sel-Plex were top-dressed daily. At 68 d postpartum (DPP), milk production was calculated using the weigh-suckle-weigh procedure and a milk sample was collected to determine composition. At 108 DPP, cow-calf pairs were commingled until weaning at 210 DPP. Cow BW and BCS ( ≥ 0.56) did not differ between treatments at any time point during the study. Milk production, milk fat, and total solids ( ≥ 0.38) did not differ among treatments. Milk protein tended to increase in cows fed inorganic Se compared with cows fed organic Se ( = 0.07) and milk lactose tended to be greatest in cows fed organic Se ( = 0.10). Conception to AI and overall pregnancy rates did not differ between treatments ( ≥ 0.39). Calf weights and ADG did not differ through 108 DPP ( ≥ 0.77) or for the preweaning period ( ≥ 0.33). Plasma Se concentration was adequate for all cows and did not differ among treatments for cows ( ≥ 0.37) or calves ( ≥ 0.90). Liver Se concentrations in cows fed inorganic or organic Se were greater than in control cows ( < 0.01). Longissimus muscles biopsies taken from progeny at 108 DPP also did not differ between treatments ( = 0.45). In conclusion, dietary Se source did not affect cow performance, milk production

  17. Presynchronization with Double-Ovsynch improves fertility at first postpartum artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, M M; Giordano, J O; Souza, A H; Ayres, H; Ferreira, R M; Keskin, A; Nascimento, A B; Guenther, J N; Gaska, J M; Kacuba, S J; Crowe, M A; Butler, S T; Wiltbank, M C

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare circulating progesterone (P4) profiles and pregnancies per AI (P/AI) in lactating dairy cows bred by timed artificial insemination (TAI) following Ovsynch-56 after 2 different presynchronization protocols: Double-Ovsynch (DO) or Presynch-Ovsynch (PS). Our main hypothesis was that DO would increase fertility in primiparous cows, but not in multiparous cows. Within each herd (n=3), lactating dairy cows (n=1,687; 778 primiparous, 909 multiparous) were randomly assigned to DO [n=837; GnRH-7d-PGF(2α)-3d-GnRH-7d-Ovsynch-56 (GnRH-7d-PGF(2α)-56h-GnRH-16hTAI)] or PS (n=850; PGF(2α)-14d-PGF(2α)-12d-Ovsynch-56). In 1 herd, concentrations of P4 were determined at the first GnRH (GnRH1) of Ovsynch-56 and at d 11 after TAI (n=739). In all herds, pregnancy was diagnosed by palpation per rectum at 39 d. In 1 herd, the incidence of late embryo loss was determined at 74d, and data were available on P/AI at the subsequent second service. Presynchronization with DO reduced the percentage of animals with low P4 concentrations (cows treated with DO had low P4 concentrations at GnRH1 of Ovsynch-56 (3.3 vs. 19.7%, DO vs. PS primiparous; and 8.8 vs. 31.9%, DO vs. PS multiparous). Presynchronization with DO improved P/AI at the first postpartum service (46.3 vs. 38.2%, DO vs. PS). Statistically, a fertility improvement could be detected for primiparous cows treated with DO (52.5 vs. 42.3%, DO vs. PS, primiparous), but only a tendency could be detected in multiparous cows (40.3 vs. 34.3%, DO vs. PS, multiparous), consistent with our original hypothesis. Presynchronization treatment had no effect on the incidence of late embryo loss after first service (8.5 vs. 5.5%, DO vs. PS). A lower body condition score increased the percentage of cows with low P4 at GnRH1 of Ovsynch-56 and reduced fertility to the TAI. In addition, P4 concentration at d 11 after TAI was reduced by DO. The method of presynchronization at first service had no effect on P/AI at

  18. Replacing soybean meal for cottonseed meal on performance of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Hugo; De Souza, Jonas; Batistel, Fernanda; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2016-01-01

    Cottonseed meal (CSM) is an alternative source of protein, and previous studies have been shown that it can replace soybean meal (SBM) without decrease animal performance. However, Brazilian CSM has a different chemical composition compared with the usual CSM reported in the literature. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of replacing SBM for Brazilian CSM on performance and energy balance of mid-lactating dairy cows. Forty-two Holstein cows were used in a replicate 3 × 3 Latin square design. Increasing contents of CSM (0, 15, and 30% of dry matter (DM)) were fed in diets to replace SBM. Milk yield and feed efficiency were linearly reduced with the replacement of CSM for SBM (P = 0.001). Milk fat content tended to increase quadratically (P = 0.07) with CSM addition. Replacing SBM for CSM affected milk protein content quadratically (P = 0.05). Milk urea nitrogen and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) tended to respond quadratically (P = 0.06 and 0.10) when CSM replaced SBM to the diets. Variation in body weight (BW) also responded quadratically as CSM replaced SBM (P = 0.05). Altogether, the findings suggest better performance when cows receive SBM diet compared with the Brazilian CSM diet.

  19. Luteal function and conception in lactating cows and some factors influencing luteal function after first insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommeida, Abdelrahim; Nakao, Toshihiko; Kubota, Hirokazu

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the types and incidence of luteal sub-function in lactating cows after artificial insemination (AI) and their relationship with pregnancy, and to clarify the relationship between luteal function and parity, body condition score (BCS), milk yield, and dietary intake. In 19 cows, milk samples were collected daily from AI to confirmation of pregnancy. Milk progesterone concentrations were determined by EIA. Based on peak progesterone concentration and the day of onset of luteal phase, 15 of 30 progesterone profiles (50%) were normal, with progesterone concentration reaching 1.0 ng/ml within 5 days after insemination and > or =2.0 ng/ml thereafter. In addition, 6 (20%) were insufficient, (progesterone concentration remained 1.0 ng/ml for only 7 days), and one (3%) remained basal. Cows with a normal profile had a higher (P rate than those with an abnormal profile (87% versus 33%, respectively). The amount of progesterone secreted in milk after first AI, as indicated by progesterone area under curve (AUC), was negatively correlated with milk yield (r = -0.83, P rates and high milk production and increased dietary intake during breeding were associated with reduced progesterone concentrations.

  20. Feeding behavior of lactating cows fed palm kernel cake in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidiane Reis Pimentel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of including of palm kernel cake on feeding behavior of lactating crossbred cows. Twelve crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows were distributed in three 4 x 4 latin squares, with the following treatments: control; inclusion of 5%; inclusion of 10%; inclusion of 15% palm kernel cake in the diet dry matter. The animals were observed during four periods as to feeding behavior, 24 hours in each period. There was no effect of inclusion of palm kernel cake (p > 0.05 on time spent on eating, ruminating and idling. The feeding efficiencies of dry matter and corrected neutral detergent fiber, total digestible nutrients, and the rumination efficiency of corrected neutral detergent fiber were not influenced (p > 0.05. There was a linear increase with the inclusion of palm kernel cake (p 0.05. The inclusion of palm kernel cake in diets for dairy cows causes no change in behavior activities and efficiencies of feeding and rumination, until the 15% level of inclusion.

  1. Florfenicol concentrations in milk of lactating cows postreated by intramuscular or intramammary routes

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    John Ruiz B

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available intramammary administration to establish the optimum withdrawal time, therapeutic efficacy, and its influence on milk yield. Materials and method. Twelve healthy lactating Holstein cows were selected from the University of Antioquia’s teaching dairy herd (Colombia, were randomly assigned to a control (n=6 group or florfenicol (n=6 group that received 20 mg/kg of florfenicol by intramammary and intramuscular routes, with a 15 days washout period between treatments. Results. The Tmax and Cmax for the intramuscular route were 6 hoursand 2.86 mg/L respectively. The Tmax and Cmax for the intramammary route, were estimated at 0 hour and about 20000 mg/L respectively by extrapolated from regression line. The florfenicol elimination phase in milk had an average half-life of elimination (t½ of 19.8 hours and 4.9 hours for intramuscular and intramammary administration, respectively. The therapeutic efficacy only was reached by intramammary route, when minimal inhibitory concentration (M.I.C. of florfenicol by Stahphylococcus aureus, was used as reference value. There was no statistically significant difference in milk yield between treated and non-treated cows. Conclusions. According to these results, post-treatment milk withdrawal should be no less than 3 days for intramammary administration, and at least 7 days for intramuscular administration. The therapeutic efficacy only was reached by intramammary route. In addition, there was no statistically significant difference in milk yield between treated and nontreated cows.

  2. Environmental stress, TRH and lactation effects on plasma growth hormone of cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, H.D.; DeDios, O.; Lippincott, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    Plasma growth hormone (GH) levels of cattle are influenced by numerous environmental and metabolic factors. Acute heat stress increases GH threefold with maximum value at 30 minutes post-exposure. TRH infusion also shows a threefold increase as early as 2 minutes post-infusion but with a continual elevation for approximately 20 minutes. Longer-term environmental heat stress exposure, as occurs in tropics and the summer season, lowers plasma GH of cattle. GH levels in high-producing, lactating cows are greater than in low producers. In summary, plasma increases in levels of GH immediately reflect the stressor effects on cattle, presumably through involvement of TRH release. Long-term heat stressors, such as seasonal or tropic acclimatization, lowers GH of lactating cattle. (author)

  3. Effect of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes on performance and blood profile in early and mid-lactation Holstein cows

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    Anja Peters

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The supplementation of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE to dairy cows diets could be a strategy to improve fiber degradation in the rumen which is especially important for the early lactating cows characterized by a high milk energy output and an insufficient energy intake. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a fibrolytic enzyme product (Roxazyme G2 Liquid, 3.8 and 3.9 mL/kg total mixed ration [TMR] DM supplemented to a TMR on production performance and blood parameters of dairy cows during early (trial 1 and mid-lactation (trail 2. In addition, rumination activity was measured in trial 2. The nutrient digestibility of the experimental TMR was obtained by using wethers. In the digestibility trial, EFE was supplemented at a rate of 4.4 mL/kg Roxazyme G2 Liquid TMR-DM. The TMR contained 60% forage and 40% concentrate (DM basis. Twenty eight 50 ± 16 days in milk (DIM and twenty six 136 ± 26 DIM Holstein cows were used in two 8-wk completely randomized trails, stratified by parity and milk yield level. One milliliter of the enzyme product contained primarily cellulase and xylanase activities (8,000 units endo-1,4-ß glucanase, 18,000 units endo-1,3(4-ß glucanase and 26,000 units 1,4-ß xylanase. No differences in digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF and ADF were observed (P > 0.05 between the control and the EFE supplemented TMR. Addition of EFE to the TMR fed to early (trial 1 and mid-lactation cows (trial 2 did not affect daily dry matter intake (DMI, milk yield, 4% fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk (ECM, concentration of milk fat, protein, fat-protein-quotients, somatic cell score, energy balance, and gross feed efficiency of early and mid-lactation cows (P > 0.05. Mid-lactation cows (trial 2 fed with TMR enzyme showed a tendency of a slightly higher ECM yield (P = 0.09. The tested blood parameters were not affected by treatment in trials 1 and 2 (P > 0.05. Exogenous fibrolytic enzymes supplementation did not alter

  4. Effects of the dietary nonfiber carbohydrate content on lactation performance, rumen fermentation, and nitrogen utilization in mid-lactation dairy cows receiving corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zihai; Zhang, Baoxin; Liu, Jianxin

    2018-01-01

    Corn stover (CS) is an abundant source of feed for livestock in China. However, it is low in nutritional value that we have been seeking technologies to improve. Previous studies show that non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) might limit the utilization of a CS diet by lactating dairy cows. Thus, this study was conducted to investigate the lactation performance and rumen fermentation characteristics in lactating cows consuming CS with two contents of NFC compared to an alfalfa hay-containing diet. Twelve Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with three dietary treatments: (1) low-NFC diet (NFC = 35.6%, L-NFC), (2) high-NFC diet (NFC = 40.1%, H-NFC), and (3) alfalfa hay diet (NFC = 38.9%, AH). Intake of DM was lower for cows fed H-NFC compared to L-NFC and AH, while the milk yield was higher in AH than in H-NFC and L-NFC ( P  contents of milk protein and lactose were not different among the groups ( P  > 0.11), but milk fat content was higher for cows fed H-NFC and L-NFC compared to AH ( P  rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration and the concentrations of urea nitrogen in blood and milk were lower for cows fed H-NFC and AH compared to L-NFC ( P  rumen propionate and total volatile fatty acids were different among groups ( P  content in a diet containing corn stover can improve the feed efficiency and benefit the nitrogen conversion.

  5. Effect of dietary starch level and high rumen-undegradable protein on endocrine-metabolic status, milk yield, and milk composition in dairy cows during early and late lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccioli-Cappelli, F; Loor, J J; Seal, C J; Minuti, A; Trevisi, E

    2014-12-01

    Diet composition defines the amount and type of nutrients absorbed by dairy cows. Endocrine-metabolic interactions can influence these parameters, and so nutrient availability for the mammary gland can significantly vary and affect milk yield and its composition. Six dairy cows in early and then late lactation received, for 28 d in a changeover design, 2 diets designed to provide, within the same stage of lactation, similar amounts of rumen fermentable material but either high starch plus sugar (HS) content or low starch plus sugar content (LS). All diets had similar dietary crude protein and calculated supply of essential amino acids. Dry matter intake within each stage of lactation was similar between groups. Milk yield was similar between groups in early lactation, whereas a higher milk yield was observed in late lactation when feeding HS. At the metabolic level, the main difference observed between the diets in both stages of lactation was lower blood glucose in cows fed LS. The lower glucose availability during consumption of LS caused substantial modifications in the circulating and postprandial pattern of metabolic hormones. Feeding LS versus HS resulted in an increase in the ratio of bovine somatotropin to insulin. This increased mobilization of lipid reserves resulted in higher blood concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate, which contributed to the higher milk fat content in both stages of lactation in the LS group. This greater recourse to body fat stores was confirmed by the greater loss of body weight during early lactation and the slower recovery of body weight in late lactation in cows fed LS. The lower insulin to glucagon ratio observed in cows fed LS in early and late lactation likely caused an increase in hepatic uptake and catabolism of amino acids, as confirmed by the higher blood urea concentrations. Despite the higher catabolism of amino acids in LS in early lactation, similar milk protein output was observed for both

  6. Milk protein concentration, estimated breeding value for fertility, and reproductive performance in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, John M; Auldist, Martin J; Douglas, Meaghan L; Macmillan, Keith L

    2017-07-01

    Milk protein concentration in dairy cows has been positively associated with a range of measures of reproductive performance, and genetic factors affecting both milk protein concentration and reproductive performance may contribute to the observed phenotypic associations. It was of interest to assess whether these beneficial phenotypic associations are accounted for or interact with the effects of estimated breeding values for fertility. The effects of a multitrait estimated breeding value for fertility [the Australian breeding value for daughter fertility (ABV fertility)] on reproductive performance were also of interest. Interactions of milk protein concentration and ABV fertility with the interval from calving date to the start of the herd's seasonally concentrated breeding period were also assessed. A retrospective single cohort study was conducted using data collected from 74 Australian seasonally and split calving dairy herds. Associations between milk protein concentration, ABV fertility, and reproductive performance in Holstein cows were assessed using random effects logistic regression. Between 52,438 and 61,939 lactations were used for analyses of 4 reproductive performance measures. Milk protein concentration was strongly and positively associated with reproductive performance in dairy cows, and this effect was not accounted for by the effects of ABV fertility. Increases in ABV fertility had important additional beneficial effects on the probability of pregnancy by wk 6 and 21 of the herd's breeding period. For cows calved before the start of the breeding period, the effects of increases in both milk protein concentration and ABV fertility were beneficial regardless of their interval from calving to the start of the breeding period. These findings demonstrate the potential for increasing reproductive performance through identifying the causes of the association between milk protein concentration and reproductive performance and then devising management

  7. Determination of NABE in urine of high-yield dairy cows in early lactation in conditions of moderate heat stress

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    Fratrić Natalija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the results of investigations of the effect of moderate heat stress on the acidobasal status in high-yield dairy cows in early lactation. Improving performance in high-yield dairy cows increases their inclination toward metabolic disorders. The most likely to be affected is the acid-base balance, in particular when cows are exposed to heat stress. Investigations so far have shown that the taking of urine samples and their analysis is the best and fastest way to diagnose disorders in the acid-base balance. Investigations were carried out on 7 clinically healthy cows of the Holstein- Friesian breed in the phase of early lactation, 30 to 40 days (on days 30, 33 and 40 following calving during the summer period, during the month of July, when there were significant variations in daily and nightly temperatures. The cows were in the second and fourth lactation, the annual milk yield was 8000 L milk per cow. The average daily milk production in the early phase of lactation ranged from 35 to 40 L. The cows were fed mixed rations (TMR twice daily. Lucerne hay in limited quantities was given to the cows prior to the mixed feed ration. The ration for this animal category was optimized on the grounds of the daily milk production. The balance of cations and anions in the feed ration stood at 95 mEq/kg DM. The results clearly demonstrate the cows' response to moderate heat stress through the defense parameters in urine (urine pH, NABE (net-acid-base-excretion, acids, bases, ammonium ion (NH4. The determination of the kidney NABE yields more correct data than the urine pH on acidotic conditions. The results of examinations of the urine pH do not show any digressions from physiological values and are approximately the same in all cows during the investigated periods. Normal NABE values are from 100-200 mmol/L. Burdening with acid products results in a NABE range from 0-100mmol/L, and metabolic acidosis results in NAB<0 mmol/L. NABE in the cows

  8. Effects of rumen-protected methionine, lysine, and histidine on lactation performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallongo, F; Harper, M T; Oh, J; Lopes, J C; Lapierre, H; Patton, R A; Parys, C; Shinzato, I; Hristov, A N

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing a metabolizable protein (MP)-deficient diet with rumen-protected (RP) Met, Lys, and His, individually or combined, on the performance of lactating dairy cows. The experiment was a 9-wk randomized complete block design with 72 Holstein cows. Following a 2-wk covariate period, cows were blocked by days in milk, milk yield, and parity, and randomly assigned to 1 of the following 6 treatments: (1) MP-adequate diet [MPA; +243g/d MP balance, according to the National Research Council (2001) requirements]; (2) MP-deficient diet (MPD; -54g/d MP balance); (3) MPD supplemented with RPMet (MPDM); (4) MPD supplemented with RPLys (MPDL); (5) MPD supplemented with RPHis (MPDH); and (6) MPD supplemented with RPMet, RPLys, and RPHis (MPDMLH). Dry matter intake (DMI), yields of milk and milk components (fat, protein, lactose) and energy-corrected milk (ECM), feed and ECM feed efficiencies, and milk and plasma urea N were decreased by MPD, compared with MPA. Supplementation of the MPD diet with RPLys increased milk protein content and plasma glucose concentration and tended to increase milk urea N. Addition of RPHis tended to increase DMI, increased milk protein concentration, and numerically increased yields of milk fat, protein, and ECM. In addition to the trends for increased DMI and milk fat content, and higher milk protein concentration, supplementation of the 3 RP AA also increased yields of milk fat, protein, and ECM and ECM feed efficiency. Relative to MPA, milk N efficiency tended to be increased by MPD. Concentrations of plasma essential AA (except Met and Thr) were decreased by MPD compared with MPA. Supplementation of RPMet, RPLys, and RPHis increased plasma Met (except for MPDM), Lys, and His concentrations, respectively. Cows fed MPD had lower blood hemoglobin concentration and numerically higher plasma ghrelin than cows fed MPA. Concentration of total saturated fatty acids in milk fat were or

  9. Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles to lactating beef cows: impact of excess protein and fat on cow performance, milk production and pre-weaning progeny growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shee, C N; Lemenager, R P; Schoonmaker, J P

    2016-01-01

    Multiparous Angus×Simmental cows (n=54, 5.22±2.51 years) with male progeny were fed one of two diets supplemented with either dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) or soybean meal (CON), from calving until day 129 postpartum (PP) to determine effects of excess protein and fat on cow performance, milk composition and calf growth. Diets were formulated to be isocaloric and consisted of rye hay and DDGS (19.4% CP; 8.76% fat), or corn silage, rye hay and soybean meal (11.7% CP; 2.06% fat). Cow-calf pairs were allotted by cow and calf age, BW and breed. Cow BW and body condition score (BCS; P⩾0.13) were similar throughout the experiment. A weigh-suckle-weigh was performed on day 64 and day 110±10 PP to determine milk production. Milk was collected on day 68 and day 116±10 PP for analysis of milk components. Milk production was unaffected (P⩾0.75) by dietary treatments. Milk urea nitrogen was increased at both time points in DDGS compared with CON cows (Pcows on day 68 PP. Compared to CON, DDGS decreased medium chain FA (Pcows, which resulted in an increase (Pcows fed DDGS compared with cows fed CON (Pcows did not change cow BW or BCS, but did improve TAI rates and altered milk composition compared with CON. As a result, male progeny from cows fed DDGS during lactation had greater average daily gain and were heavier at day 129 and at weaning compared with male progeny from cows fed a control diet.

  10. Economic performance of lactating dairy cows submitted for first service timed artificial insemination after a voluntary waiting period of 60 or 88 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangaferro, M L; Wijma, R; Masello, M; Thomas, Mark J; Giordano, J O

    2018-05-23

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic performance of dairy cows managed with a voluntary waiting period (VWP) of 60 or 88 d. A secondary objective was estimating variation in cash flow under different input pricing scenarios through stochastic Monte Carlo simulations. Lactating Holstein cows from 3 commercial farms were blocked by parity group and total milk yield in their previous lactation and then randomly assigned to a VWP of 60 (VWP60; n = 1,352) or 88 d (VWP88; n = 1,359). All cows received timed-artificial insemination (TAI) for first service after synchronization of ovulation with the Double-Ovsynch protocol. For second and greater services, cows received artificial insemination (AI) after detection of estrus or the Ovsynch protocol initiated 32 ± 3 d after AI. Two analyses were performed: (1) cash flow per cow for the calving interval of the experimental lactation and (2) cash flow per slot occupied by each cow enrolled in the experiment for an 18-mo period after calving in the experimental lactation. Extending the VWP from 60 to 88 d delayed time to pregnancy during lactation (~20 d) and increased the risk of leaving the herd for multiparous cows (hazard ratio = 1.21). As a result, a smaller proportion of multiparous cows calved again and had a subsequent lactation (-6%). The shift in time to pregnancy combined with the herd exit dynamics resulted in longer lactation length for primiparous (22 d) but not multiparous cows. Longer lactations led to greater milk income over feed cost and a tendency for greater cash flow during the experimental lactation for primiparous but not multiparous cows in the VWP88 group. On the other hand, profitability per slot for the 18-mo period was numerically greater ($68 slot/18 mo) for primiparous cows but numerically reduced (-$85 slot/18 mo) for multiparous cows in the VWP88 treatment. For primiparous cows most of the difference in cash flow was explained by replacement cost, whereas for multiparous

  11. Effects of dietary energy source on energy balance, metabolites and reproduction variables in dairy cows in early lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Brand, van den H.; Dijkstra, J.; Kemp, B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes three recent studies by the same authors with the objective to study the effect of dietary energy source on the energy balance (EB) and risk for metabolic and reproductive disorders in dairy cows in early lactation. The first study, a literature survey, illustrated that feeding

  12. Response of saliva Na/K ratio to changing Na supply of lactating cows under tropical conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiangtum, Wandee; Schonewille, J Thomas; Verstegen, Martin Wa; Arsawakulsudhi, Supot; Rukkwamsuk, Theera; Hendriks, Wouter H

    BACKGROUND: Factorial determination of the sodium (Na) requirement of heat-stressed lactating cows is hindered by accurate estimates of the Na losses through sweat. Direct studies, therefore, may be needed requiring information on the time course of healthy animals to become Na depleted and the

  13. Response of saliva Na/K ratio to changing Na supply of lactating cows under tropical conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiangtum, Wandee; Schonewille, Thomas J.; Verstegen, Martin W.A.; Arsawakulsudhi, Supot; Rukkwamsuk, Theera; Hendriks, Wouter H.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Factorial determination of the sodium (Na) requirement of heat-stressed lactating cows is hindered by accurate estimates of the Na losses through sweat. Direct studies, therefore, may be needed requiring information on the time course of healthy animals to become Na depleted and the

  14. Relationships of body weight and carcass quality traits with first lactation milk production in Finnish Ayrshire cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liinamo, A.E.; Ojala, M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Relationships of body weight and carcass quality traits with first lactation milk production traits were estimated from a field data set of 28362 Finnish Ayrshire cows, using REML methodology and animal model. Studied body weight traits included heifer and mature live weight, estimated based on

  15. Effects of a combination of feed additives on methane production, diet digestibility, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, van S.M.; Fonken, B.C.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Perdok, H.B.; Fokkink, W.B.; Newbold, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of a mixture of dietary additives on enteric methane production, rumen fermentation, diet digestibility, energy balance, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows. Identical diets were fed in both experiments. The mixture of feed additives

  16. Relation of chemical composition of milk with the level of production stage of lactation and parity order cows crossbred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakeline Fernandes Cabral

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the physical and chemical composition of the raw milk of crossbred cows in different production levels and influence of parity order and stage of lactation on milk chemical composition of high producing cows. The search was conducted in the municipality of Rio Verde in southwestern Goiás, 784 samples were collected from raw milk of crossbred cows in experiment I and were divided into three levels of production. In the second experimental procedure, the samples resulted in 657 samples of raw milk, being divided into 4 stages of lactation stage of the cows and divided into eight parity order in which first-calf heifers corresponded to first order, and multiparous cows from the second until the eighth creates. For analysis of variance and mean comparison was used lineation all casualized and we used the Tukey test at 5% probability, using the software SISVAR. The different levels of production resulted in physico-chemical differences of the constituents of milk, thus the percentages found may be related not only the level but also at the stage of lactation and parity order of the animals.

  17. Milk Production of Lactating Cows Fed Pangola Silage Ensiled with Irradiated Silage Innoculant and Fresh Cut Pangola Grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasanpanich, Somkiert; Buaphan, Sirirat; Boon-ek, Lertchatand; Piadang, Nattayana

    2006-09-01

    Ten crossbred Holstein lactating cows of mid-lactation and similar body score condition were balanced across the 2 treatments containing Group 1: 5 cows given fresh cut Pangola grass and Group 2: 5 cows fed Pangola silage ensiled with silage innoculant, under Group Comparison Design. They were also provided with an exact amount of 1 kg meal concentrate to 1 kg of milk produced. Mineral supplement and water were supplied free choice. The results did show that the cows in Group 1 had significantly higher (P<0.05) roughage and total dry matter intake than did the cows in Group 2. However, milk production in Group 2 appeared to have a non-significant higher amount, the concentrations of Blood urea nitrogen, Blood glucose and Triiodothyronine were not significant different between groups. The body weight change increased in both groups. It can concluded that cows fed Pangola silage ensiled with silage innoculant seemed to have higher Digestibility Co-efficiency due to the high efficiency of silage innoculant fermentation. Then, silage quality would be improved by mean of silage innoculant application.

  18. THE USE OF DIETARY FATS AND CONCENTRATES TO ALLEVIATE THE NEGATIVE ENERGY BALANCE IN CROSSBRED COWS IN EARLY LACTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Aguilar-Pérez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy balance (EB is defined as the difference between energy intake and energy expenditure. Fertility in the high-merit cow has been adversely associated with high milk production, low intake of energy and mobilisation of body reserves in early lactation, which combine in the term negative energy balance (NEB.  The timing of insemination usually coincides with peak milk yield, when dairy cows are often in NEB. Crossbred cows (Bos taurus x Bos indicus in the tropics have comparatively lower nutrient requirements and different partition of nutrients than high merit dairy cows. Thus, it would be expected that both the magnitude and length of negative energy balance were different in a crossbred cow. Because of marked differences compared with high-merit cows, crossbred cows in the tropics would be expected to show greater response to additional energy in early lactation improving their energy status and hence reproductive performance. Knowing the influence of nutrition on reproduction, many methods have been proposed for manipulating the diet to avoid or to alleviate negative energy balance. The use of fats is one alternative, which has been extensively studied in dairy and beef cows but with inconclusive results. Another alternative is to use starch-based concentrates, taking into account level of inclusion and quality and availability of pasture, in order to avoid substitution effects and to get maximum profits. Two experiments were carried out in Yucatan Mexico, in order to evaluate the use of bypass fats (calcium soaps of long-chain fatty acids, CAFA or a starch-based concentrate to alleviate the NEB in grazing crossbred cows in early lactation. The NEB in early lactation was successfully avoided by the use of the starch-based concentrate but not by the use of bypass fats, this due to a reduction in the grass DM intake. It was concluded that crossbred cows in the tropics may experience a period of NEB postpartum, which can be avoided if

  19. Metabolic Response to Heat Stress in Late-Pregnant and Early Lactation Dairy Cows: Implications to Liver-Muscle Crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Franziska; Lamp, Ole; Eslamizad, Mehdi; Weitzel, Joachim; Kuhla, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Climate changes lead to rising temperatures during summer periods and dramatic economic losses in dairy production. Modern high-yielding dairy cows experience severe metabolic stress during the transition period between late gestation and early lactation to meet the high energy and nutrient requirements of the fetus or the mammary gland, and additional thermal stress during this time has adverse implications on metabolism and welfare. The mechanisms enabling metabolic adaptation to heat apart from the decline in feed intake and milk yield are not fully elucidated yet. To distinguish between feed intake and heat stress related effects, German Holstein dairy cows were first kept at thermoneutral conditions at 15°C followed by exposure to heat-stressed (HS) at 28°C or pair-feeding (PF) at 15°C for 6 days; in late-pregnancy and again in early lactation. Liver and muscle biopsies and plasma samples were taken to assess major metabolic pathway regulation using real-time PCR and Western Blot. The results indicate that during heat stress, late pregnant cows activate Cahill but reduce Cori cycling, prevent increase in skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation, and utilize increased amounts of pyruvate for gluconeogenesis, without altering ureagenesis despite reduced plane of nutrition. These homeorhetic adaptations are employed to reduce endogenous heat production while diverting amino acids to the growing fetus. Metabolic adaptation to heat stress in early lactation involves increased long-chain fatty acid degradation in muscle peroxisomes, allowance for muscle glucose utilization but diminished hepatic use of amino acid-derived pyruvate for gluconeogenesis and reduced peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and ATP production in liver of HS compared to PF cows in early lactation. Consequently, metabolic adaptation to heat stress and reduced feed intake differ between late pregnancy and early lactation of dairy cows to maintain energy supply for fetus development or milk production

  20. Metabolic Response to Heat Stress in Late-Pregnant and Early Lactation Dairy Cows: Implications to Liver-Muscle Crosstalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamizad, Mehdi; Weitzel, Joachim; Kuhla, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Climate changes lead to rising temperatures during summer periods and dramatic economic losses in dairy production. Modern high-yielding dairy cows experience severe metabolic stress during the transition period between late gestation and early lactation to meet the high energy and nutrient requirements of the fetus or the mammary gland, and additional thermal stress during this time has adverse implications on metabolism and welfare. The mechanisms enabling metabolic adaptation to heat apart from the decline in feed intake and milk yield are not fully elucidated yet. To distinguish between feed intake and heat stress related effects, German Holstein dairy cows were first kept at thermoneutral conditions at 15°C followed by exposure to heat-stressed (HS) at 28°C or pair-feeding (PF) at 15°C for 6 days; in late-pregnancy and again in early lactation. Liver and muscle biopsies and plasma samples were taken to assess major metabolic pathway regulation using real-time PCR and Western Blot. The results indicate that during heat stress, late pregnant cows activate Cahill but reduce Cori cycling, prevent increase in skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation, and utilize increased amounts of pyruvate for gluconeogenesis, without altering ureagenesis despite reduced plane of nutrition. These homeorhetic adaptations are employed to reduce endogenous heat production while diverting amino acids to the growing fetus. Metabolic adaptation to heat stress in early lactation involves increased long-chain fatty acid degradation in muscle peroxisomes, allowance for muscle glucose utilization but diminished hepatic use of amino acid-derived pyruvate for gluconeogenesis and reduced peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and ATP production in liver of HS compared to PF cows in early lactation. Consequently, metabolic adaptation to heat stress and reduced feed intake differ between late pregnancy and early lactation of dairy cows to maintain energy supply for fetus development or milk production

  1. Fertility, survival, and conformation of Montbéliarde × Holstein and Viking Red × Holstein crossbred cows compared with pure Holstein cows during first lactation in 8 commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, A R; Heins, B J; Hansen, L B

    2017-11-01

    Montbéliarde (MO) × Holstein (HO) and Viking Red (VR) × HO crossbred cows were compared with pure HO cows in 8 large, high-performance dairy herds in Minnesota. All cows calved for the first time from December 2010 to April 2014. Fertility and survival traits were calculated from records of insemination, pregnancy diagnosis, calving, and disposal that were recorded via management software. Body condition score and conformation were subjectively scored once during early lactation by trained evaluators. The analysis of survival to 60 d in milk included 536 MO × HO, 560 VR × HO, and 1,033 HO cows during first lactation. Cows analyzed for other fertility, survival, and conformation traits had up to 13% fewer cows available for analysis. The first service conception rate of the crossbred cows (both types combined) increased 7%, as did the conception rate across the first 5 inseminations, compared with the HO cows during first lactation. Furthermore, the combined crossbred cows (2.11 ± 0.05) had fewer times bred than HO cows (2.30 ± 0.05) and 10 fewer d open compared with their HO herdmates. Across the 8 herds, breed groups did not differ for survival to 60 d in milk; however, the superior fertility of the crossbred cows allowed an increased proportion of the combined crossbreds (71 ± 1.5%) to calve a second time within 14 mo compared with the HO cows (63 ± 1.5%). For survival to second calving, the combined crossbred cows had 4% superior survival compared with the HO cows. The MO × HO and VR × HO crossbred cows both had increased body condition score (+0.50 ± 0.02 and +0.25 ± 0.02, respectively) but shorter stature and less body depth than HO cows. The MO × HO cows had less set to the hock and a steeper foot angle than the HO cows, and the VR × HO cows had more set to the hock with a similar foot angle to the HO cows. The combined crossbred cows had less udder clearance from the hock than HO cows, more width between both front and rear teats, and longer

  2. Application of Wilmink’s Exponential Function in Genetic Analysis of 305-d Milk Production and Lactation Persistency in Holstein Cows of Razavi Khorasan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Izadkhah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available To estimate heritability and genetic trend for 305-d milk production and lactation persistency, a total of 130,668 monthly test day milk yields belonging to 15,183 first lactation Holstein cows in 131 herds and calved from 2000 to 2009 were used. To calculate 305-d milk yield as well as lactation persistency, estimated parameters of Wilmink’s exponential function were applied. The parameters of the function were estimated by SAS software. Genetic and environmental variance components and heritability of the traits were estimated by single trait animal model using DMU software. Genetic trend was estimated based upon weighted simple linear regression of average breeding values on calving year. Heritability estimate of 305-d milk yield and lactation persistency were found to be 0.184 and 0.05, respectively. A positive significant phenotypic trend (166.11 kg per year was observed for 305-d milk yield while a non-significant genetic trend (-2.0107 was revealed for the trait. For the lactation persistency, there were no significant phenotypic (0.054 % per year and genetic (0.003 % per year trends over the period of time.

  3. Limitations to ruminal absorption of volatile fatty acids in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Adam Christian

    experiments with multicatheterized lactating dairy cows and one dynamic model of ruminal absorption of VFA described in three papers as follows. Paper 1 is entitled “Effects of particle size and dry matter content of a total mixed ration on intraruminal equilibration and net portal flux of volatile fatty...... that the ruminal VFA concentrations and net portal flux of VFA were not manipulated by these dietary changes when feeding a balanced ration. The dry matter content of the TMR had generally no effect and the effect of dietary particle size was limited to the ruminal mat size and chewing activities. We observed......The symbiotic relationship between ruminants and the microbial inhabitants of the rumen constitutes a unique feature of the ruminant digestive system. Through the microbial utilization of feed carbohydrates and protein in the rumen, substantial amounts of fermentation products and microbial cell...

  4. Digestion site of starch from cereals and legumes in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R

    2009-01-01

    The effect of grinding and rolling (i.e. processing) of cereals and legumes (i.e. source) on site of starch digestion in lactating dairy cows was tested according to a 2×2 factorial design using a dataset derived from an overall dataset compiled from four experiments conducted at our laboratory...... digestibility of starch was decreased by rolling for legumes, whereas the three other source by processing combinations did not differ. The duodenal flow of microbial starch was estimated to 276 g/d as the intercept in the regression analysis. Apparent ruminal digestibilities of starch seemed to underestimate...... true ruminal digestibility in rations with low starch intake due to a relatively higher contribution of microbial starch to total duodenal starch flow compared to rumen escape feed starch. The small intestinal and total tract digestibility of legume starch was lower compared with starch from cereals...

  5. Measurement of water kinetics with deuterium oxide in lactating dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odwongo, W.O.; Conrad, H.R.; Staubus, A.E.; Harrison, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Following intravenous infusion with approximately 300 mg deuterium oxide per kg body weight, blood was drawn from lactating Holsteins (Trial 1, n = 4, and Trial 2, n = 5) at suitable intervals for up to 12 days while the cows were maintained on dietary regimens to which they were well adapted. Time results for deuterium oxide concentration in blood were described best by the three-compartment open model system, which showed that the central, shallow peripheral, and deep peripheral body water compartments contained 27.1, 25.0, and 23.2% body weight in trial 1 and 33.7, 27.1, and 19.9% body weight in trial 2. Total body water estimates averaged 75.3 and 80.7% body weight during trials 1 and 2. Estimates for biological half-life of water were 4.6 and 3.2 days and those for water turnover were 68.9 and 109.7 liters/day, respectively. The data fitted the two-compartment open model system when observations made prior to 25 min post-administration were excluded from the analyses, because the central and shallow peripheral compartments were apparently lumped into one. Blood sampling at 0.5, 1, and 1.5 days following infusion and thereafter at 1-day intervals was adequate for the estimates of the one compartment open model system. Estimates of total body water, water biological half-life, and water turnover were similar for the different models. It is concluded that the three-compartment open model provides greater detail and insight into the water dynamics of lactating dairy cows having regular access to food and water, whereas the two- and one-compartment open model systems provide good approximations only

  6. Using brown midrib 6 dwarf forage sorghum silage and fall-grown oat silage in lactating dairy cow rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, M T; Oh, J; Giallongo, F; Lopes, J C; Roth, G W; Hristov, A N

    2017-07-01

    Double cropping and increasing crop diversity could improve dairy farm economic and environmental sustainability. In this experiment, corn silage was partially replaced with 2 alternative forages, brown midrib-6 brachytic dwarf forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) or fall-grown oat (Avena sativa) silage, in the diet of lactating dairy cows. We investigated the effect on dry matter (DM) intake, milk yield (MY), milk components and fatty acid profile, apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility, N utilization, enteric methane emissions, and income over feed cost. We analyzed the in situ DM and neutral detergent fiber disappearance of the alternative forages versus corn silage and alfalfa haylage. Sorghum was grown in the summer and harvested in the milk stage. Oats were grown in the fall and harvested in the boot stage. Compared with corn silage, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber concentrations were higher in the alternative forages. Lignin content was highest for sorghum silage and similar for corn silage and oat silage. The alternative forages had less than 1% starch compared with the approximately 35% starch in the corn silage. Ruminal in situ DM effective degradability was similar, although statistically different, for corn silage and oat silage, but lower for sorghum silage. Diets with the alternative forages were fed in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design experiment with three 28-d periods and 12 Holstein cows. The control diet contained 44% (DM basis) corn silage. In the other 2 diets, sorghum or oat silages were included at 10% of dietary DM, replacing corn silage. Sorghum silage inclusion decreased DM intake, MY, and milk protein content but increased milk fat and maintained energy-corrected MY similar to the control. Oat silage had no effect on DM intake, MY, or milk components compared to the control. The oat silage diet increased apparent total-tract digestibility of dietary nutrients, except starch, whereas the sorghum diet slightly

  7. Utilization of urea/molasses liquid feed as a major source of nitrogen and energy for lactating cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjhan, S.K.; Krishna Mohan, D.V.G.; Pathak, N.N.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in which urea/molasses liquid feed along with a limited amount of intact protein and cereal forage was fed to lactating cows, and compared with another group receiving conventional concentrate and roughage-based rations. Voluntary consumption of liquid feed by cows was satisfactory. There was no significant difference in the milk yield between the two groups. The higher consumption of metabolizable energy and digestible crude protein by experimental cows from liquid feed was not reflected in their milk yields or body weights. Various other parameters such as digestibilities of nutrients, efficiency of energy and nitrogen utilization for milk production and N-balance have been presented in cows fed urea/molasses liquid diets and conventional diets. (author)

  8. Microbial biodiversity of the liquid fraction of rumen content from lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, M; Manfrin, C; Pallavicini, A; Stefanon, B

    2014-04-01

    Host and dietary interactions with the rumen microbiome can affect the efficacy of supplements, and their effect on the composition of the bacterial population is still unknown. A 16S rRNA metagenomic approach and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology were used to investigate the bacterial microbiome composition in the liquid fraction of the rumen content collected via stomach tubing. To investigate biodiversity, samples were taken from three groups of four lactating dairy cows given a supplement of either 50 g of potato protein (Ctrl group), or 50 g of lyophilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae (LY group) or 50 g of dried S. cerevisiae (DY group) in a potato protein support. Rumen samples were collected after 15 days of dietary treatments and milk production was similar between the three groups. Taxonomic distribution analysis revealed a prevalence of the Firmicutes phylum in all cows (79.76%) and a significantly (P<0.05) higher presence of the genus Bacillus in the DY group. Volatile fatty-acid concentration was not significantly different between groups, possibly because of relatively high inter-animal variability or limited effect of the treatments or both, and the correlation analysis with bacterial taxa showed significant associations, in particular between many Firmicutes genera and butyrate. Limited differences were observed between dietary treatments, but the lack of microbiome data before yeast administration does not allow to draw firm conclusions on the effect of dietary treatments.

  9. Metabolic fate of [U-14C]pentachlorophenol in a lactating dairy cow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinzell, J.H.; McKenzie, R.M.; Olson, B.A.; Kirsch, D.G.; Shull, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    A lactating Holstein-Friesen dairy cow was administered a single oral dose of [U- 14 C]pentachlorophenol (PCP). To better simulate chronic exposure conditions on a typical dairy farm, the cow was fed 0.2 mg/kg body wt/day technical PCP for 95 days prior to [U- 14 C]PCP administration and for the 4 days postadministration. Both absorption and elimination of PCP obeyed first-order kinetics and had half-lives of 4.3 and 43 h, respectively. Over the 76-h postadministration, 75% of the radiolabel was eliminated in urine, 5% in milk, and 5% in feces. The radiolabel was distributed widely into various tissues, but the highest levels were in liver, kidneys, and lungs. Skeletal muscle and adipose tissue contained among the lowest levels. In milk, the fat fraction contained the greatest amount of the radiolabel but the whey fraction represented the largest pool (62.2%). In whey and casein, both conjugated and unconjugated forms were quantified. There was no evidence of phase 1 metabolism of PCP, whereas phase 2 metabolism (conjugation) was highly evident. In urine, two-thirds of the PCP was present in a conjugated form, whereas in serum about 80% was present as unconjugated PCP. These data suggest that efficient conjugation and elimination of PCP prevent its accumulation in cattle tissues

  10. Seroprevalence of brucellosis and typing of Brucella melitensis biovar 2 in lactating cows in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel El-Gohary

    2016-09-01

    Results: The results showed that the overall seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis was 339 (7.25% by BAPAT, 332 (7.1% by RBPT, and 329 (7.04% by CFT. The results revealed that, 42 (8.6%, 5 (1.4% and 292 (7.6% sera were positive for brucellosis by BAPAT in the cows of Al-Wafra, Al-Kabed and Al-Salebia areas, respectively. Whereas, their respective number and seroreactive cases by RBPT were 39 (8.02%, 5 (1.4% and 288 (7.4%. Similarly, as confirmatory test by CFT, the number and seroreactive cases in these areas were 39 (8.02%, 5 (1.4% and 285 (7.46%. MRT revealed that the average positive case was 61.67% (59.46% in Al-Wafra; 60% in Al-Kabed and 66.6% in Al-Salebia. Two Brucella isolates could be recovered from the stomach content of the two aborted feti and typed as Brucella melitensis biovar 2. Conclusion: Brucellosis is prevalent among lactating cows in Kuwait. This indicates the potential role of these dairy animals in disseminating and spread of such zoonosis to human. Considering public health significance, appropriate preventive measures are suggestive for combating brucellosis in Kuwait. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(3.000: 229-235

  11. A mass balance of tri-hexabrominated diphenyl ethers in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Amelie; De Wit, Cynthia A; Asplund, Lillemor; McLachlan, Michael S; Thomas, Gareth O; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C

    2009-04-01

    Beef and dairy products can be important vectors of human exposure to polybrominated diphenylethers (BDEs), and hence an understanding of BDE transfer from feed to cows' milk and tissue is important for BDE exposure assessment The fate of tri- to hexaBDEs in lactating cows exposed to a naturally contaminated diet was studied by analyzing feed, feces, and milk samples from a mass balance study. Tissue distribution was studied in one cowslaughtered afterthe experiment The carryover rates from feed to milk ranged from 0.15 to 0.35 for the major congeners. Lower values were observed for several of the tetrabrominated congeners, and this was attributed to metabolism. The dietary absorption efficiency decreased with increasing octanol-water partition coefficient of the BDE congener. The absorption behavior was consistent with a model based on chemical lipophilicity, but agreed less well with a model based on effective molecular diameter, and it violated Lipinski's "rule of 5". The lipid normalized concentrations were similar in all tissues analyzed including liver and milk, suggesting that tissue distribution is governed by partitioning into lipids. Overall, the behavior of the tri- to hexaBDEs was consistent with that observed for other classes of halogenated aromatic contaminants such as PCBs and PCDD/Fs, but it differed markedly from the behavior of the hepta- decaBDEs.

  12. Nutritional strategies to combat physiological imbalance of dairy cows during early lactation: The effect of changes in dietary protein to starch-ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey; Friggens, Nic; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne

    2010-01-01

    Thirty Danish Holstein cows were used to determine how cows in early lactation adapt to changes in protein to starch supply in order to manipulate metabolism to combat physiological imbalance. During weeks 4 through 6 of lactation, 10 cows were fed either a high protein to starch ratio (high) diet...... for the low, control and high diets, respectively. Besides milk urea nitrogen, no other production or metabolic parameters were affected by treatment. In conclusion, manipulation of dietary protein to starch is not a potential strategy to combat physiological imbalance during early lactation...

  13. Effects of forage family on apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnino, D S; Seck, M; Beaudet, V; Kammes, K L; Linton, J A Voelker; Allen, M S; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L

    2016-03-01

    Effects of forage family (legume vs. grass) on apparent ruminal synthesis (ARS) and postruminal supply of B vitamins were evaluated in 2 experiments. Diets containing either alfalfa (AL) or orchardgrass (OG) silages as the sole forage were offered to ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows in crossover design experiments. Experiment 1 compared diets containing AL and OG [~23% forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~27% total NDF] offered to 8 cows in two 15-d treatment periods. Experiment 2 compared diets containing AL and OG (~25% forage NDF and ~30% total NDF) offered to 13 cows in two 18-d treatment periods. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12 were analyzed in feeds and duodenal digesta. Apparent ruminal synthesis was calculated as the duodenal flow of each vitamin minus its intake. Forage family affected B vitamin intakes, duodenal flow, and ARS. In both experiments, AL diets increased vitamin B6 and decreased folate intakes. In experiment 1, riboflavin and niacin intakes were greater with the OG diet, whereas in experiment 2 thiamin intake was greater but riboflavin intake was smaller with the OG diet. In spite of the low contribution of either silage to the dietary folate content, folate intake was greater with OG diets than AL due to the difference in soybean meal contribution between diets. Niacin and folate ARS were not affected by the forage family. Duodenal microbial nitrogen flow was positively correlated with ARS of riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12, but tended to be negatively correlated with thiamin ARS. Apparent ruminal synthesis of folates and vitamin B12 appear to be related to microbial biomass activity. Changes in nutrient composition of the diets likely affected the microbial population in the rumen and their B vitamin metabolism. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of three techniques for estimating the forage intake of lactating dairy cows on pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macoon, B; Sollenberger, L E; Moore, J E; Staples, C R; Fike, J H; Portier, K M

    2003-09-01

    Quantifying DMI is necessary for estimation of nutrient consumption by ruminants, but it is inherently difficult on grazed pastures and even more so when supplements are fed. Our objectives were to compare three methods of estimating forage DMI (inference from animal performance, evaluation from fecal output using a pulse-dose marker, and estimation from herbage disappearance methods) and to identify the most useful approach or combination of approaches for estimating pasture intake by lactating dairy cows. During three continuous 28-d periods in the winter season, Holstein cows (Bos taurus; n = 32) grazed a cool-season grass or a cool-season grass-clover mixture at two stocking rates (SR; 5 vs. 2.5 cows/ha) and were fed two rates of concentrate supplementation (CS; 1 kg of concentrate [as-fed] per 2.5 or 3.5 kg of milk produced). Animal response data used in computations for the animal performance method were obtained from the latter 14 d of each period. For the pulse-dose marker method, chromium-mordanted fiber was used. Pasture sampling to determine herbage disappearance was done weekly throughout the study. Forage DMI estimated by the animal performance method was different among periods (P forage mass. The pulse-dose marker method generally provided greater estimates of forage DMI (as much as 11.0 kg/d more than the animal performance method) and was not correlated with the other methods. Estimates of forage DMI by the herbage disappearance method were correlated with the animal performance method. The difference between estimates from these two methods, ranging from -4.7 to 5.4 kg/d, were much lower than their difference from pulse-dose marker estimates. The results of this study suggest that, when appropriate for the research objectives, the animal performance or herbage disappearance methods may be useful and less costly alternatives to using the pulse-dose method.

  15. Tomato seeds as a novel by-product feed for lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinerio, C A; Fadel, J G; Asmus, J; Heguy, J M; Taylor, S J; DePeters, E J

    2015-07-01

    Whole tomato seeds, a novel by-product feedstuff, were fed to lactating Holstein cows to determine the nutritive value of whole tomato seeds by replacing whole cottonseed in the total mixed ration. Four primiparous and 4 multiparous Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design and fed 1 of 4 total mixed rations. Whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed on a weight-to-weight basis for lipid. The proportion of whole tomato seeds to whole cottonseed in the diets were 100:0, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100 on a lipid basis. Thus, tomato seeds were 4.0, 2.4, 1.1, and 0% of the ration dry matter, respectively. Milk yield and the concentrations and yields of protein, lactose, and solids-not-fat did not differ for the effect of diet. However, milk fat concentration decreased and milk fat yield tended to decrease as whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed. Intakes of dry matter, lipid, and crude protein did not differ. Whole-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter and ash-free neutral detergent fiber did not differ, but digestibility of total fatty acids and crude protein decreased with increasing proportion of whole tomato seeds. Urea concentration in milk and plasma both decreased with increasing whole tomato seeds. Fecal concentration of linoleic and α-linolenic acids increased with increasing whole tomato seeds, suggesting that seeds were passing out of the digestive tract undigested. The concentrations of C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 in milk fat had small increases, but their yields were not different, suggesting that only a small amount of whole-tomato-seed lipid might have been digested postruminally. Amounts of trans C18:1 fatty acids in milk fat were higher with increasing whole cottonseed, which might suggest a shift in rumen biohydrogenation pathways. At the level of feeding used in the current study, whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed in the diet of lactating dairy cows without a change in production. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science

  16. Short communication: Associations between blood glucose concentration, onset of hyperketonemia, and milk production in early lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, J; Borchardt, S; Heuwieser, W

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the associations between hypoglycemia and the onset of hyperketonemia (HYK) within the first 6 wk of lactation, to evaluate the effects of body condition score at calving on glucose concentration, and to study the effects of hypoglycemia on milk production. A total of 621 dairy cows from 6 commercial dairy farms in Germany were enrolled between 1 and 4 d in milk (DIM). Cows were tested twice weekly using an electronic handheld meter for glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), respectively, for a period of 42 d. Hypoglycemia was defined as glucose concentration ≤2.2 mmol/L. Hyperketonemia was defined as a BHB concentration ≥1.2 mmol/L. The onset of HYK was described as early onset (first HYK event within the first 2 wk postpartum) and late onset (first HYK event in wk 3 to 6 postpartum). The effect of ketosis status on blood glucose within 42 DIM was evaluated using a generalized linear mixed model. No effect was observed of HYK on glucose concentration in primiparous cows. Multiparous cows with early-onset HYK had a lower glucose concentration (-0.21 mmol/L) compared with nonketotic cows. Overall, primiparous cows had a lower prevalence and incidence of hypoglycemia than multiparous cows. Hypoglycemia in multiparous cows was associated with higher first test-day milk production and 100 DIM milk production. In conclusion, hypoglycemia mainly occurred in multiparous cows with early-onset HYK, whereas primiparous cows were at a lower risk for hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Supplementation of monensin and Optimase to beef cows consuming low-quality forage during late gestation and early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linneen, S K; McGee, A L; Cole, J R; Jennings, J S; Stein, D R; Horn, G W; Lalman, D L

    2015-06-01

    Two experiments were designed to investigate the effects of feeding monensin and/or slow release urea with a fibrolytic feed enzyme (Optimase; Alltech, Inc., Nicholasville, KY) on performance, milk production, calf growth performance, and blood metabolites in beef cows. Spring-calving cows and heifers were used in a completely randomized design in Exp. 1 (N = 84; 534 ± 68 kg initial BW) and Exp. 2 (N = 107; 508 ± 72 kg initial BW). Exp. 1 supplements were formulated to meet cow protein requirements and fed daily and included 1) cottonseed meal with no monensin (control); or 2) monensin added to control to supply 200 mg per head per d (MON). In Exp. 2, experimental supplements included 1) cottonseed meal/wheat middlings (CS) fed at a rate to provide adequate DIP and CP according to , 2) the CS plus soybean hulls and 61 g per cow per d Optimase (OPT), 3) the CS plus monensin to supply 200 mg per cow per d (MON2), and 4) OPT plus MON2 (Combo). Cows were fed in last trimester through early lactation in Exp. 1 and during 2nd trimester in Exp. 2. Data were analyzed using the Mixed procedure in SAS with animal as the experimental unit. In Exp. 1, treatment did not affect cow BW or BCS change (P > 0.19). Calf birth BW was not affected by dam treatment (P = 0.24); however, calves from dams consuming MON weighed more (P Milk production did not significantly differ among treatments (P > 0.41). In Exp. 2, mean cow BW and BCS were similar (P > 0.35) among treatments on d 90. However, from d 0 to 54, cows assigned to the OPT supplement gained less BCS (P = 0.02) compared with cows assigned to the CS supplement. Cumulative BCS gain was greater (P calf performance during early lactation seems to be clearer. Replacing a portion of oilseed N in the supplement with Optimase may marginally reduce cow performance. Further research is needed to determine both the effects of monensin and the implications of combining monensin with Optimase on forage intake and cow performance at

  18. Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derno, Michael; Otten, Winfried; Mielenz, Manfred; Nürnberg, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS) and one pair-fed (PF) at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1), cows were challenged for 6 days (P2) by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI) = 76) or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows. PMID:25938406

  19. Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamp, Ole; Derno, Michael; Otten, Winfried; Mielenz, Manfred; Nürnberg, Gerd; Kuhla, Björn

    2015-01-01

    High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS) and one pair-fed (PF) at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1), cows were challenged for 6 days (P2) by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI) = 76) or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows.

  20. Metabolic Heat Stress Adaption in Transition Cows: Differences in Macronutrient Oxidation between Late-Gestating and Early-Lactating German Holstein Dairy Cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Lamp

    Full Text Available High ambient temperatures have severe adverse effects on biological functions of high-yielding dairy cows. The metabolic adaption to heat stress was examined in 14 German Holsteins transition cows assigned to two groups, one heat-stressed (HS and one pair-fed (PF at the level of HS. After 6 days of thermoneutrality and ad libitum feeding (P1, cows were challenged for 6 days (P2 by heat stress (temperature humidity index (THI = 76 or thermoneutral pair-feeding in climatic chambers 3 weeks ante partum and again 3 weeks post-partum. On the sixth day of each period P1 or P2, oxidative metabolism was analyzed for 24 hours in open circuit respiration chambers. Water and feed intake, vital parameters and milk yield were recorded. Daily blood samples were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, methyl histidine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. In general, heat stress caused marked effects on water homeorhesis with impairments of renal function and a strong adrenergic response accompanied with a prevalence of carbohydrate oxidation over fat catabolism. Heat-stressed cows extensively degraded tissue protein as reflected by the increase of plasma urea, creatinine and methyl histidine concentrations. However, the acute metabolic heat stress response in dry cows differed from early-lactating cows as the prepartal adipose tissue was not refractory to lipolytic, adrenergic stimuli, and the rate of amino acid oxidation was lower than in the postpartal stage. Together with the lower endogenous metabolic heat load, metabolic adaption in dry cows is indicative for a higher heat tolerance and the prioritization of the nutritional requirements of the fast-growing near-term fetus. These findings indicate that the development of future nutritional strategies for attenuating impairments of health and performance due to ambient heat requires the consideration of the physiological stage of dairy cows.

  1. Effect of Milking Frequency in Early Lactation on Milk Production, some Blood Metabolites and Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cow

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    Abolfazl Kiani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different milking frequencies in the first 6 weeks of lactation on milk production and milk constituents, blood metabolic profiles and reproductive performance of fresh dairy cows. The milking frequencies imposed were three times daily milking for 42 days (3X, six times daily milking for the first 21 days of lactation and three times daily subsequently (6X-3X and six times daily milking for 42 days. For this purpose 21 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were allocated to three groups based on BCS, parity, and body weight. Results showed that the mean of milk and FCM production was significantly higher for 6X than 3X cows in first and second 21 days and in the entire period. Among milk constituent only fat production was affected by milking frequencies. The milking frequency had no effect on mean DMI. Weight loss of the cows was higher for 6X cows (-32 kg than those the 6X-3X (-29 kg and 3X (-29.1 kg. Blood concentration of NEFA was affected by milking frequencies and it was significantly higher for 6X compared to 3X. The mean concentration of blood progesterone and reproductive parameters was not affected by milking frequencies. It was concluded that 6 time milking per day in a short term period may inrease Holstein dairy cows’ performance without any adverse effect on their reproductive parameters.

  2. Extending lactation in pasture-based dairy cows: I. Genotype and diet effect on milk and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolver, E S; Roche, J R; Burke, C R; Kay, J K; Aspin, P W

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of extended lactations in pastoral systems by using divergent dairy cow genotypes [New Zealand (NZ) or North American (NA) Holstein-Friesian (HF)] and levels of nutrition (0, 3, or 6 kg/d of concentrate dry matter). Mean calving date was July 28, 2003, and all cows were dried off by May 6, 2005. Of the 56 cows studied, 52 (93%) were milking at 500 d in milk (DIM) and 10 (18%) were milking at 650 DIM. Dietary treatments did not affect DIM (605 +/- 8.3; mean +/- SEM). Genotype by diet interactions were found for total yield of milk, protein, and milk solids (fat + protein), expressed per cow and as a percentage of body weight. Differences between genotypes were greatest at the highest level of supplementation. Compared with NZ HF, NA HF produced 35% more milk, 24% more milk fat, 25% more milk protein, and at drying off had 1.9 units less body condition score (1 to 10 scale). Annualized milk solids production, defined as production achieved during the 24-mo calving interval divided by 2 yr, was 79% of that produced in a normal 12-mo calving interval by NZ HF, compared with 94% for NA HF. Compared with NZ HF, NA HF had a similar 21-d submission rate (85%) to artificial insemination, a lower 42-d pregnancy rate (56 vs. 79%), and a higher final nonpregnancy rate (30 vs. 3%) when mated at 451 d after calving. These results show that productive lactations of up to 650 d are possible on a range of pasture-based diets, with the highest milk yields produced by NA HF supplemented with concentrates. Based on the genetics represented, milking cows for 2 yr consecutively, with calving and mating occurring every second year, may exploit the superior lactation persistency of high-yielding cows while improving reproductive performance.

  3. The influence of covering methods on the nutritive value of corn silage for lactating dairy cows

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    Rafael Camargo do Amaral

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of covering methods on the nutritive value of corn silage and performance of dairy cows. Whole-plant corn was harvested at 340 g/kg of dry matter (DM and ensiled for 135 d in horizontal silos covered with one of the following methods: oxygen barrier film (45-µm thick + white-on-black polyethylene film (200-µm thick over the oxygen barrier film (OB+WB; white-on-black polyethylene film (200-µm thick (WB; black polyethylene film (200-µm thick (B; or recycled black polyethylene film (200-µm thick covered with a layer of 10 cm of sugarcane bagasse (RB+SB. Nutrient composition, fermentation profile, and yeast and mold counts in edible silages were similar across treatments. Silage temperature during the storage period was 24.6, 28.7, 28.4 and 33.1 °C for RB+SB, OB+WB, WB and B, respectively, and the proportion of spoiled silage ranged from 28.7 (for the RB+SB treatment to 74.2 g/kg DM (for the B treatment. Dry matter intake was similar across treatments and averaged 21.9 kg/d. Milk production was higher for cows fed corn silage covered with RB+SB (34.4 kg/d compared with those fed corn silage covered with B (30.4 kg/d, resulting in higher feed efficiency for RB+SB treatment. Silages covered with OB+WB and WB had intermediate values. In vivo digestibility of organic matter was higher for cows fed corn silage covered with RB+SB compared with those fed corn silage covered with WB and B, but were similar to those fed corn silage covered with OB+WB. The utilization of oxygen barrier films and the protection of polyethylene film with sugarcane bagasse are effective strategies to increase the recovery of digestible nutrients and, consequently, to enhance production efficiency of lactating dairy cows.

  4. Particle length of silages affects apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnino, D S; Kammes, K L; Allen, M S; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L

    2016-08-01

    Effects of particle length of silages on apparent ruminal synthesis (ARS) and postruminal supply of B vitamins were evaluated in 2 feeding trials. Diets containing alfalfa (trial 1) or orchardgrass (trial 2) silages, chopped to either 19mm (long cut, LC) or 10mm (short cut, SC) theoretical particle length, as the sole forage were offered to ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows in crossover design experiments. Forages chopped to a theoretical particle length of 19 and 10mm had mean particles sizes of 14.1 and 8.1mm, respectively, in trial 1, and 15.3 and 11.3mm, respectively, in trial 2. Trial 1 was conducted with 13 multiparous cows in two 19-d treatment periods; both diets contained approximately 20% forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF), 25% total NDF, and forage-to-concentrate ratios were approximately 47:53. Trial 2 was conducted with 15 cows in two 18-d treatment periods; both diets contained approximately 23% forage NDF, 28% total NDF, and had a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 50:50. Thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12 were measured in feed and duodenal content. Daily ARS was calculated as the duodenal flow minus the intake. In trial 1, daily intake of individual B vitamins was increased with the LC diet, but ARS of thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and folates was reduced. In trial 2, except for folates, intakes of the other B vitamins were decreased with the LC diets, whereas ARS of riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin B6 was increased. Daily ARS of thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin B6 were correlated negatively with their intake, suggesting that ruminal bacteria reduced their synthesis when dietary supply increased. Microbial activity could have also reduced degradation of thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin, which is supported by (1) the negative correlation between ARS of these vitamins and ruminal pH or microbial N duodenal flow; and (2) the positive correlation between ARS and ruminal concentrations

  5. Productive and metabolic response to two levels of corn silage supplementation in grazing dairy cows in early lactation during autumn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Morales

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Corn (Zea mays L. silage (CS is a nutritious food that can be used as a supplement in dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of supplementation with two amounts of CS on milk production and composition, live weight and body condition, as well as on some blood indicators for energy and protein metabolism on dairy cows in early lactation and grazing low mass pasture during autumn. The study was carried out in 40 Holstein Friesian cows over 57 d. Prior to experimental treatment, milk production and days of lactation averaged 24.1 ± 2.8 kg d-1 and 62 ± 14 d, respectively. The dietary treatments consisted of two levels of supplementation with CS; 4.5 and 9 kg DM cow-1 d-1 (treatments LCS and HCS, respectively. Additionally, all the cows received a pasture allowance of 21 and 3 kg DM cow-1 d-1 of concentrate. Milk composition was determined using infrared spectrophotometry, while blood indicators were obtained using an autoanalyzer. There were not differences between treatments regarding milk production or composition, total DM or energy intake. Herbage and protein intake was higher for LCS treatment (P < 0.001. Increasing supplementation decreased (P < 0.001 daily weight gain but did not affect body condition. Plasma concentrations of βOH-butyrate were lower (P = 0.038 for the LCS treatment; while urea concentrations were higher (P = 0.003, with no differences for non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentrations. Supplementation with 4.5 kg d-1 of CS was sufficient to meet the production requirements of the cows.

  6. Replacing wheat with canola meal and maize grain in the diet of lactating dairy cows: Feed intake, milk production and cow condition responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Ruairi P; Staines, Martin vH

    2017-08-01

    This research paper describes the effect of partially replacing wheat with maize grain and canola meal on milk production and body condition changes in early lactation Holstein-Friesian dairy cows consuming a grass silage-based diet over an 83-d period. Two groups of 39 cows were stratified for age, parity, historical milk yield and days in milk (DIM), and offered one of two treatment diets. The first treatment (CON) reflected a typical diet used by Western Australian dairy producers in summer and comprised (kg DM/cow per d); 8 kg of annual ryegrass silage, 6 kg of crushed wheat (provided once daily in a mixed ration), 3·6 kg of crushed lupins (provided in the milking parlour in two daily portions) and ad libitum lucerne haylage. The second treatment diet (COMP) was identical except the 6 kg of crushed wheat was replaced by 6 kg of a more complex concentrate mix (27% crushed wheat, 34% maize grain and 37% canola meal). Lucerne haylage was provided independently in the paddock to all cows, and no pasture was available throughout the experiment. The COMP group had a greater mean overall daily intake (22·5 vs 20·4 kg DM/cow) and a higher energy corrected milk (ECM) yield (29·2 vs 27·1 kg/cow; P = 0·047) than the CON cows. The difference in overall intake was caused by a higher daily intake of lucerne haylage in COMP cows (4·5 vs 2·3 kg DM/cow). The CON group had a higher concentration of milk fat (42·1 vs 39·3 g/kg; P = 0·029) than COMP cows. Milk protein yield was greater in COMP cows (P < 0·021); however, milk fat yield was unaffected by treatment. It is concluded that partially replacing wheat with canola meal and maize grain in a grass silage-based diet increases voluntary DMI of conserved forage and consequently yields of ECM and milk protein.

  7. Cow and herd variation in milk urea nitrogen concentrations in lactating dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, M; Hanigan, M D; Tucker, H A; Jones, B L; Garbade, S K; McGilliard, M L; Stallings, C C; Knowlton, K F; James, R E

    2012-12-01

    Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) is correlated with N balance, N intake, and dietary N content, and thus is a good indicator of proper feeding management with respect to protein. It is commonly used to monitor feeding programs to achieve environmental goals; however, genetic diversity also exists among cows. It was hypothesized that phenotypic diversity among cows could bias feed management decisions when monitoring tools do not consider genetic diversity associated with MUN. The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of cow and herd variation on MUN. Data from 2 previously published research trials and a field trial were subjected to multivariate regression analyses using a mixed model. Analyses of the research trial data showed that MUN concentrations could be predicted equally well from diet composition, milk yield, and milk components regardless of whether dry matter intake was included in the regression model. This indicated that cow and herd variation could be accurately estimated from field trial data when feed intake was not known. Milk urea N was correlated with dietary protein and neutral detergent fiber content, milk yield, milk protein content, and days in milk for both data sets. Cow was a highly significant determinant of MUN regardless of the data set used, and herd trended to significance for the field trial data. When all other variables were held constant, a percentage unit change in dietary protein concentration resulted in a 1.1mg/dL change in MUN. Least squares means estimates of MUN concentrations across herds ranged from a low of 13.6 mg/dL to a high of 17.3 mg/dL. If the observed MUN for the high herd were caused solely by high crude protein feeding, then the herd would have to reduce dietary protein to a concentration of 12.8% of dry matter to achieve a MUN concentration of 12 mg/dL, likely resulting in lost milk production. If the observed phenotypic variation is due to genetic differences among cows, genetic choices could result in

  8. Serum amyloid A and haptoglobin concentrations and liver fat percentage in lactating dairy cows with abomasal displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzelbektes, H; Sen, I; Ok, M; Constable, P D; Boydak, M; Coskun, A

    2010-01-01

    There has been increased interest in measuring the serum concentration of acute phase reactants such as serum amyloid A [SAA] and haptoglobin [haptoglobin] in periparturient cattle in order to provide a method for detecting the presence of inflammation or bacterial infection. To determine whether [SAA] and [haptoglobin] are increased in cows with displaced abomasum as compared with healthy dairy cows. Fifty-four adult dairy cows in early lactation that had left displaced abomasum (LDA, n = 34), right displaced abomasum or abomasal volvulus (RDA/AV, n = 11), or were healthy on physical examination (control, n = 9). Inflammatory diseases or bacterial infections such as mastitis, metritis, or pneumonia were not clinically apparent in any animal. Jugular venous blood was obtained from all cows and analyzed. Liver samples were obtained by biopsy in cattle with abomasal displacement. [SAA] and [haptoglobin] concentrations were increased in cows with LDA or RDA/AV as compared with healthy controls. Cows with displaced abomasum had mild to moderate hepatic lipidosis, based on liver fat percentages of 9.3 +/- 5.3% (mean +/- SD, LDA) and 10.8 +/- 7.7% (RDA/AV). [SAA] and [haptoglobin] were most strongly associated with liver fat percentage, r(s) = +0.55 (P hepatic lipidosis in cattle with abomasal displacement.

  9. Consumption, nutrient digestibility and lactation performance of dairy cows fed soybeans in different forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria de Vasconcelos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Twelve Holstein cows were given diets containing soybean supplied in different ways in order to identify possible changes in lactation performance and evaluate the economic feasibility of the diets. The diets included: soybean meal only (SM-control; raw soybean (RaS; roasted soybean (RoS and soybean meal plus 5% urea (SMU. The forage consisted of corn silage. We analyzed the dry matter intake, milk production and collected milk samples. To estimate digestibility, we collected six samples of feces over a period of six consecutive days. The intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC did not differ among treatments. On the other hand, crude protein (CP intake was influenced by the diets, and the highest mean values of ether extract (EE were found with the RaS and RoS diets. The intake of total digestible nutrients (TDN was lower in the RaS and RoS diets compared to the control diet. DM, OM, CP, EE, and NDF digestibility were not affected by the different diets, while NFCs were reduced in the RoS diet and TDN decreased with both the RaS and RoS diets. There were also no differences observed across diets for total milk production, production corrected to 3.5% fat, diet efficiency, or milk per kilogram of dry matter and/or crude protein. We conclude that raw and roasted soybeans as well as concentrate plus 5% urea in dry matter may be used instead of soybean meal as feed for high-producing cows, without affecting milk production and composition. We also observed that the SMU diet was the least costly.

  10. Resistin in Dairy Cows: Plasma Concentrations during Early Lactation, Expression and Potential Role in Adipose Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverchon, Maxime; Ramé, Christelle; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Elis, Sébastien; Guillaume, Daniel; Dupont, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP) and at five months of gestation (5 MG). We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6) in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase) and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase) in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro. PMID:24675707

  11. Resistin in dairy cows: plasma concentrations during early lactation, expression and potential role in adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Reverchon

    Full Text Available Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP and at five months of gestation (5 MG. We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6 in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro.

  12. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on metabolic status and hepatic gene expression of dairy cows in early lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.C.; Gross, J.J.; Dorland, van H.A.; Remmelink, G.J.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    In a prior study, we observed that cows with a 0-d dry period had greater energy balance and lower milk production compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period in early lactation. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the influence of dry period length on metabolic status and

  13. Effects of intravenous administration of two volumes of calcium solution on plasma ionized calcium concentration and recovery from naturally occurring hypocalcemia in lactating dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doze, J.G.; Donders, R.; Kolk, J.H. van der

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of administration of 2 volumes of a calcium solution (calcium oxide and calcium gluconate) on plasma ionized calcium concentration (PICaC) and clinical recovery from naturally occurring hypocalcemia (NOHC; milk fever) in lactating dairy cows. ANIMALS: 123 cows with

  14. Effect of changes in diet energy density on feed intake, milk yield and metabolic parameters in dairy cows in early lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N.I.; Friggens, N.C.; Larsen, T.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate how early lactating cows adjust their metabolism and production to acute, but moderate changes in the energy density of the diet. Sixty dairy cows were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: two change-over groups (HNH and NHN) and two contr...

  15. Using an incomplete gamma function to quantify the effect of dystocia on the lactation performance of Holstein dairy cows in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashi, H; Abdolmohammadi, A R; Asaadi, A; Akhlaghi, A; Dadpasand, M; Ahangari, Y Jafari

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the effect of dystocia on lactation performance, using an incomplete gamma function. Data from March 2000 to April 2009 comprising 100,628 lactations of 65,421 cows in 204 dairy herds collected by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran were used. Of 100,628 births, 91.8% required no assistance, whereas 8.2% required assistance of some sort. Factors associated with the presence of dystocia were calving season, calving year, herd, calf sex, parity, and age of dam. Peak yield for primiparous cows with dystocia at calving occurred on d 87.2 [standard error (SE) 0.47], and for primiparous cows with easy calving, the peak of lactation was on d 83.3 (0.25). Peak yield was lowered by 0.39 (SE 0.07), 2.20 (SE 0.15), 2.22 (SE 0.21), and 2.54 (SE 0.32) kg for cows with incidence of dystocia compared with normal cows in parity 1 to 4, respectively. Dystocia was associated with decreased 305-d lactation performance in all parities, mostly in early lactation. Although more difficult births occurred in heifer calvings, loss in lactation performance was greater in second or later lactations following a difficult birth. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of physical effectiveness on digestibility of ration for cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic, B; Grubic, G; Djordjevic, N; Bozickovic, A; Ivetic, A; Davidovic, V

    2014-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of a diet particle size on nutrient digestibility in cows in early lactation. Treatments were diets with forage to concentrate ratio 43:57% in diet dry matter, with four different physically effective fibres (peNDF) content based on different cut length of corn silage and alfalfa haylage. The physical effectiveness factors (pef) and peNDF content of TMRs (total mixed ration) were determined using Penn State Particle Separator (PSPS) with two (pef8.0 , peNDF8.0) or three (pef1.18, peNDF1.18) sieves. The reducing of cut length of forages and particle size of diets did not affect on dry matter intake, while decreased peNDF intake by 16.34 and 8.83%, for peNDF8.0 and peNDF1.18 respectively. Apparent total tract digestibility of the nutrients was measured using two indicators: acid insoluble ash (AIA) and acid detergent insoluble lignin (ADL). Decreasing of forages cut length significantly increased apparent total tract digestibility of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) from 48.39% to 53.84% and from 53.9% to 58.66%, of crude protein from 73.96% to 79.24% and from 71.56% to 77.90%, with contemporary decreasing of non-fibre carbohydrate from 90.89% to 84.81% and from 91.99% to 86.80%, with AIA or ADL as indicator respectively. Dietary value of net energy for lactation (NEL) and energy intake was not affected by the peNDF content of the diet. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Inclusion of calcium hydroxide-treated corn stover as a partial forage replacement in diets for lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casperson, Brittany A; Wertz-Lutz, Aimee E; Dunn, Jim L; Donkin, Shawn S

    2018-03-01

    Chemical treatment may improve the nutritional value of corn crop residues, commonly referred to as corn stover, and the potential use of this feed resource for ruminants, including lactating dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of prestorage chopping, hydration, and treatment of corn stover with Ca(OH) 2 on the feeding value for milk production, milk composition, and dry matter intake (DMI). Multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows (n = 30) were stratified by parity and milk production and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets. Corn stover was chopped, hydrated, and treated with 6% Ca(OH) 2 (as-fed basis) and stored in horizontal silo bags. Cows received a control (CON) total mixed ration (TMR) or a TMR in which a mixture of treated corn stover and distillers grains replaced either alfalfa haylage (AHsub) or alfalfa haylage and an additional portion of corn silage (AH+CSsub). Treated corn stover was fed in a TMR at 0, 15, and 30% of the diet DM for the CON, AHsub, and AH+CSsub diets, respectively. Cows were individually fed in tiestalls for 10 wk. Milk production was not altered by treatment. Compared with the CON diet, DMI was reduced when the AHsub diet was fed and tended to be reduced when cows were fed the AH+CSsub diet (25.9, 22.7, and 23.1 ± 0.88 kg/d for CON, AHsub, and AH+CSsub diets, respectively). Energy-corrected milk production per unit of DMI (kg/kg) tended to increase with treated corn stover feeding. Milk composition, energy-corrected milk production, and energy-corrected milk per unit of DMI (kg/kg) were not different among treatments for the 10-wk feeding period. Cows fed the AHsub and AH+CSsub diets had consistent DMI over the 10-wk treatment period, whereas DMI for cows fed the CON diet increased slightly over time. Milk production was not affected by the duration of feeding. These data indicate that corn stover processing, prestorage hydration, and treatment with calcium hydroxide can serve as an alternative to

  18. Effects of Lactation Stage and Individual Performance on Milk -9, -11 Conjugated Linoleic Acids Content in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of lactation stage and individual performance on milk cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA content in dairy cows. In experiment 1, the milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA content from dairy cows in early (0.33±0.014%, middle (0.37±0.010%, and late stages (0.44±0.020% showed significant differences (p<0.05; and the individual contents of the major fatty acids, especially cis-9, trans-11 CLA in cows of the same lactation were also variable. In the second experiment design as a validation test, our results once again showed that the individual contents of cis-9, trans-11 CLA were various, and a difference of about 2-fold (0.55% vs 0.95% was observed, although the animals were offered same diet. These data demonstrated that lactation stage and individual performance have considerable effects on milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA contents.

  19. Inclusion of brown midrib dwarf pearl millet silage in the diet of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, M T; Melgar, A; Oh, J; Nedelkov, K; Sanchez, G; Roth, G W; Hristov, A N

    2018-06-01

    Brown midrib brachytic dwarf pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) forage harvested at the flag leaf visible stage and subsequently ensiled was investigated as a partial replacement of corn silage in the diet of high-producing dairy cows. Seventeen lactating Holstein cows were fed 2 diets in a crossover design experiment with 2 periods of 28 d each. Both diets had forage:concentrate ratios of 60:40. The control diet (CSD) was based on corn silage and alfalfa haylage, and in the treatment diet, 20% of the corn silage dry matter (corresponding to 10% of the dietary dry matter) was replaced with pearl millet silage (PMD). The effects of partial substitution of corn silage with pearl millet silage on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk components, fatty acid profile, apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients, N utilization, and enteric methane emissions were analyzed. The pearl millet silage was higher in crude protein and neutral detergent fiber and lower in lignin and starch than the corn silage. Diet did not affect dry matter intake or energy-corrected milk yield, which averaged 46.7 ± 1.92 kg/d. The PMD treatment tended to increase milk fat concentration, had no effect on milk fat yield, and increased milk urea N. Concentrations and yields of milk protein and lactose were not affected by diet. Apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter decreased from 66.5% in CSD to 64.5% in PMD. Similarly, organic matter and crude protein digestibility was decreased by PMD, whereas neutral- and acid-detergent fiber digestibility was increased. Total milk trans fatty acid concentration was decreased by PMD, with a particular decrease in trans-10 18:1. Urinary urea and fecal N excretion increased with PMD compared with CSD. Milk N efficiency decreased with PMD. Carbon dioxide emission was not different between the diets, but PMD increased enteric methane emission from 396 to 454 g/d and increased methane yield and intensity. Substituting corn silage with brown midrib dwarf

  20. Effect of decreasing dietary phosphorus supply on net recycling of inorganic phosphate in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puggaard, L; Kristensen, N B; Sehested, J

    2011-03-01

    Five ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows, fitted with permanent indwelling catheters in the mesenteric vein, hepatic vein, portal vein, and an artery were used to study intestinal absorption and net recycling of inorganic phosphate (P(i)) to the gastrointestinal tract. Treatments were low P (LP; 2.4 g of P/kg of DM) and high P (HP; 3.4 g of P/kg of DM). The dietary total P (tP) concentrations were obtained by replacing 0.50% calcium carbonate in the LP diet with 0.50% monocalcium phosphate in the HP diet. Diets were fed for 14 d and cows were sampled on d 14 in each period. Cows were fed restrictively, resulting in equal dry matter intakes as well as milk, fat, and protein yields between treatments. Net P(i) recycling (primarily salivary) was estimated as the difference between net portal plasma flux (net absorption of P(i)) and apparently digested tP (feed - fecal tP difference). Phosphorus intake, apparently digested tP, and fecal tP excretion decreased with LP. An effect of decreased tP intake on net portal plasma flux of P(i) could not be detected. However, despite numerically minute net fluxes across the liver, the net splanchnic flux of P(i) was less in LP compared with that in HP. Though arterial plasma P(i) concentration decreased, net P(i) recycling was not decreased when tP intake was decreased, and recycling of P(i) was maintained at the expense of deposition of P(i) in bones. Data are not consistent with salivary P(i) secretion being the primary regulator of P(i) homeostasis at low tP intakes. On the contrary, maintaining salivary P(i) recycling at low tP intakes indicates that rumen function was prioritized at the expense of bone P reserves. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of dietary Capsicum oleoresin on productivity and immune responses in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J; Giallongo, F; Frederick, T; Pate, J; Walusimbi, S; Elias, R J; Wall, E H; Bravo, D; Hristov, A N

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of Capsicum oleoresin in granular form (CAP) on nutrient digestibility, immune responses, oxidative stress markers, blood chemistry, rumen fermentation, rumen bacterial populations, and productivity of lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows, including 3 ruminally cannulated, were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design experiment. Experimental periods were 25 d in duration, including a 14-d adaptation and an 11-d data collection and sampling period. Treatments included control (no CAP) and daily supplementation of 250, 500, or 1,000 mg of CAP/cow. Dry matter intake was not affected by CAP (average 27.0±0.64 kg/d), but milk yield tended to quadratically increase with CAP supplementation (50.3 to 51.9±0.86 kg/d). Capsicum oleoresin quadratically increased energy-corrected milk yield, but had no effect on milk fat concentration. Rumen fermentation variables, apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients, and N excretion in feces and urine were not affected by CAP. Blood serum β-hydroxybutyrate was quadratically increased by CAP, whereas the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids was similar among treatments. Rumen populations of Bacteroidales, Prevotella, and Roseburia decreased and Butyrivibrio increased quadratically with CAP supplementation. T cell phenotypes were not affected by treatment. Mean fluorescence intensity for phagocytic activity of neutrophils tended to be quadratically increased by CAP. Numbers of neutrophils and eosinophils and the ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes in peripheral blood linearly increased with increasing CAP. Oxidative stress markers were not affected by CAP. Overall, in the conditions of this experiment, CAP did not affect feed intake, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, T cell phenotypes, and oxidative stress markers. However, energy-corrected milk yield was quadratically increased by CAP, possibly as a result of enhanced mobilization of body fat reserves. In

  2. First service pregnancy rates following post-AI use of HCG in Ovsynch and Heatsynch programmes in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabankareh, H Karami; Zandi, M; Ganjali, M

    2010-08-01

    Lactating dairy cows (n = 667) at random stages of the oestrous cycle were assigned to either ovsynch (O, n = 228), heatsynch (H, n = 252) or control (C, n = 187) groups. Cows in O and H groups received 100 microg of GnRH agonist, i.m. (day 0) starting at 44 +/- 3 days in milk (DIM), and 500 microg of cloprostenol, i.m. (day 7). In O group, cows received 100 microg of GnRH (day 9) and were artificially inseminated without oestrus detection 16-20 h later. In H group, cows received 1 mg oestradiol benzoate (EB) i.m., 24 h after the cloprostenol injection and were artificially inseminated without oestrus detection 48-52 h after the EB injection. Cows in C group were inseminated at natural oestrus. On the day of artificial insemination (AI), cows in all groups were assigned to subgroups as follows: human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (O-hCG) (n = 112), O-saline (n = 116), H-hCG (n = 123), H-saline (n = 129), C-hCG (n = 94) and C-saline (n = 93) subgroups. Cows in hCG and saline subgroups received 3000 IU hCG i.m. and or 10 ml saline at day 5 post-AI (day 15), respectively. Pregnancy status was assessed by palpation per rectum at days 40 to 45 after AI. The logistic regression model using just main effects of season (summer and winter), parity (primiparous and pluriparous), method(1) (O, H and C) and method(2) (hCG and saline) showed that all factors, except method(1), were significant. Significant effects of season (p days after AI significantly improved pregnancy rates in those cows that were treated with the H protocol compared with saline treatments (41.5% vs 24.8%; p < 0.01). O and H were more effective in primiparous than in pluriparous cows (46.1% vs 29.9%; p < 0.1 and 43.6% vs 24.6%; p < 0.01). First service pregnancy rates were higher in primiparous hCG-treated than in pluriparous hCG-treated cows (57.9% vs 32.3%; p < 0.01). The pregnancy rate was higher for the hCG-treated cows compared with saline-treated cows during warm period (37.9% vs 23.6%; p < 0.001).

  3. Coat and hair color: hair cortisol and serotonin levels in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi Nejad, Jalil; Kim, Byong-Wan; Lee, Bae-Hun; Sung, Kyung-Il

    2017-01-01

    The deleterious effects of heat stress on animal health are being increasingly recognized. This study aimed to determine hair cortisol (HC) and serotonin levels in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions with different coat and hair-cut color. Forty-five multiparous lactating Holstein cows (days in milk = 130 ± 47, body weight = 753 ± 85 kg) were divided to two main groups of over 80% black coat color (BC) and over 85% white coat color (WC) visually observed based on registry certificates and subdividing to black hair sample (BH) and white hair samples (WH) in 2 × 2 factorial arrangements. Hair samples were taken from the forehead of the individuals. Higher HC levels were observed in BC than WC cows (P  0.05). Serotonin levels showed no difference between BC and WC (P > 0.05). Interaction between coat color and hair color was not significant (P > 0.05). The cortisol levels in hair are not affected by pigmentation. However, pigmentation within the coat alters cortisol levels. In conclusion, white coat color retains less cortisol than the black coat. Therefore, white coats are preferable for dairy cows under heat stress conditions. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Major advances associated with hormone and growth factor regulation of mammary growth and lactation in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, R M

    2006-04-01

    In recent years, the number of researchers interested in mammary development and mammary function in dairy animals has declined. More importantly this cadre of workers has come to rely more than ever on scientists focused on and funded by breast cancer interests to provide fundamental mechanistic and basic cellular insights. Philosophically and practically this is a risky path to better understand, manipulate, and control a national resource as important as the dairy cow. The efficiency, resourcefulness, and dedication of dairy scientists have mirrored the actions of many dairy producers but there are limits. Many of the applications of research, use of bovine somatotropin, management of transition cows, estrus synchronization techniques, and so on, are based on decades-old scientific principles. Specific to dairy, do rodents or breast cancer cell lines adequately represent the dairy cow? Will these results inspire the next series of lactation-related dairy improvements? These are key unanswered questions. Study of the classic mammogenic and lactogenic hormones has served dairy scientists well. But there is an exciting, and bewildering universe of growth factors, transcription factors, receptors, intracellular signaling intermediates, and extracellular molecules that must ultimately interact to determine the size of the mature udder and the functional capacity of mammary gland in the lactating cow. We can only hope that enough scientific, fiscal, and resource scraps fall from the biomedical research banquet table to allow dairy-focused mammary gland research to continue.

  5. Effects of Combination of Rice Straw with Alfalfa Pellet on Milk Productivity and Chewing Activity in Lactating Dairy Cows

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    Y. J. Na

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diets containing coarse-texture rice straw and small particle size alfalfa pellets as a part of total mixed ration (TMR on milk productivity and chewing activity in lactating dairy cows. Sixteen multiparous Holstein dairy cows (670±21 kg body weight in mid-lactation (194.1±13.6 days in milk were randomly assigned to TMR containing 50% of timothy hay (TH or TMR containing 20% of rice straw and 30% of alfalfa pellet mixture (RSAP. Geometric mean lengths of TH and RSAP were found to be 5.8 and 3.6, respectively. Dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition were measured. Moreover, eating and ruminating times were recorded continuously using infrared digital camcorders. Milk yield and milk composition were not detected to have significant differences between TH and RSAP. Dry matter intake (DMI did not significantly differ for cows fed with TH or RSAP. Although particle size of TH was larger than RSAP, eating, ruminating and total chewing time (min/d or min/kg of DMI on TH and RSAP were similar. Taken together, our results suggest that using a proper amount of coarse-texture rice straw with high value nutritive alfalfa pellets may stimulate chewing activity in dairy cows without decreasing milk yield and composition even though the quantity of rice straw was 40% of TH.

  6. EFFECTS OF RUMEN PROTECTED METHIONINE AND VITAMIN B12 ON RBC PARAMETERS OF DAIRY COWS IN EARLY LACTATION

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    Morteza Safarkhanlou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of rumen-protected methionine and vitamin B12 as well as their interactions on the parameters of red blood cells of dairy cows in early lactation, 16 Holstein cows in early lactation in experiment with randomized complete block design with the 2×2 factorial arrangement used for 42 days. In this experiment, there were four treatments, which in each treatment is placed two cows primi-parous and two cows multi-parous. Treatments included: 1 The group receiving the basal diet, 2 The group receiving the basal diet with vitamin B12 injections, 3 The group receiving the basal diet with rumen-protected methionine, 4 The group receiving the basal diet with vitamin B12 injections and rumen-protected methionine. The results showed that in the use of vitamin B12 and rumen-protected methionine, there is no significant difference between the experimental groups in the number of red blood cells, hemoglobin levels and blood hematocrit. Mean corpuscular (cell volume and mean corpuscular (cell hemoglobin did increase with vitamin B12 supplementation. In a general conclusion, it seems that increasing MCV and MCH may result in improvement in oxygenation and in turn lead to improvement on dry matter intake and milk production.

  7. Differences of hormones involved in adipose metabolism and lactation between high and low producing Holstein cows during heat stress

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    Mingzi Qu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate hormonal involvement in the adipose metabolism and lactation between high and low producing dairy cows in a hot environment. Forty Holstein healthy cows with a similar parity were used and assigned into high producing group (average production 41.44 ± 2.25 kg/d and low producing group (average production 29.92 ± 1.02 kg/d with 20 cows in each group. Blood samples were collected from caudal vein to determine the difference of hormones related to adipose metabolism and lactation. The highest, lowest, and average temperature humidity index (THI, recorded as 84.02, 79.35 and 81.89, respectively, indicated that cows were at the state of high heat stress. No significant differences between high and low producing groups were observed in the levels of nonestesterified fatty acid (NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB, total cholesterol (TCHO, and insulin (INS (P > 0.05. However, the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, apolipoprotein B100 (apoB-100, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C and estrogen (E2 concentrations in high producing group were significantly higher than those of low producing group (P  0.05, whereas high producing group had a rise in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 level compared with low producing group (P < 0.05. These results indicated that, during summer, high and low producing dairy cows have similar levels of lipid catabolism, but high producing dairy cows have advantages in outputting hepatic triglyceride (TG.

  8. The effect of partial replacement of corn silage on rumen degradability, milk production and composition in lactating primiparous dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Biricik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of corn silage with long alfalfa hay and/or coarse chopped wheat straw on neutral detergent fibre (NDF rumen degradability, milk yield and composition in late lactating dairy cows fed diets with 50% forage on dry matter basis. Twelve late lactating Holstein primiparous cows including four cows equipped with a rumen cannula, averaging 210 ± 20 d in milk and weighing 575 ± 50 kg were randomly assigned in a 4x4 Latin square design. During each of four 21-d periods, cows were fed 4 total mixed diets that were varied in the forage sources: 1 50% corn silage (CS, 2 35% corn silage + 15% wheat straw (CSW, 3 35% corn silage + 15% alfalfa hay (CSA, 4 25% corn silage + 10% wheat straw + 15% alfalfa hay (CSWA. The production of milk averaged 18.55, 20.41 and 20.06 kg/d for unadjusted milk production, 4% fat corrected milk and solid corrected milk, respectively, and was not affected by treatments. Likewise, milk composition or production of milk components was not affected by diets and averaged 4.69% fat, 3.66% protein, 4.51% lactose, 866 g/d fat, 665 g/d protein, 824 g/d lactose. Treatments had no effect on in situ NDF soluble, degradable and potential degradability of all diets, whereas the effective degradability (ED of NDF was greater for cows fed CS diet than for cows fed CSW, CSA and CSWA diets (P<0.05. These values suggested that the partial replacement of corn silage with alfalfa hay and/or wheat straw has no unfavourable effect on the productive parameters.

  9. Adipose tissue remodeling in late-lactation dairy cows during feed-restriction-induced negative energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, G Andres; Thelen, Kyan; Schmidt, Sarah E; Strieder-Barboza, Clarissa; Preseault, Courtney L; Raphael, William; Kiupel, Matti; Caron, John; Lock, Adam L

    2016-12-01

    Excessive rates of demand lipolysis in the adipose tissue (AT) during periods of negative energy balance (NEB) are associated with increased susceptibility to disease and limited lactation performance. Lipolysis induces a remodeling process within AT that is characterized by an inflammatory response, cellular proliferation, and changes in the extracellular matrix (ECMT). The adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) is a key component of the inflammatory response. Infiltration of ATM-forming cellular aggregates was demonstrated in transition cows, suggesting that ATM trafficking and phenotype changes may be associated with disease. However, it is currently unknown if ATM infiltration occurs in dairy cows only during NEB states related to the transition period or also during NEB-induced lipolysis at other stages of lactation. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in ATM trafficking and inflammatory phenotypes, and the expression of genetic markers of AT remodeling in healthy late-lactation cows during feed restriction-induced NEB. After a 14-d (d -14 to d -1) preliminary period, Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 feeding protocols, ad libitum (AL) or feed restriction (FR), for 4 d (d 1-4). Caloric intake was reduced in FR to achieve a targeted energy balance of -15 Mcal/d of net energy for lactation. Omental and subcutaneous AT samples were collected laparoscopically to harvest stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells on d -3 and 4. The FR induced a NEB of -14.1±0.62 Mcal/d of net energy for lactation, whereas AL cows remained in positive energy balance (3.2±0.66 Mcal/d of NE L ). The FR triggered a lipolytic response reflected in increased plasma nonesterified fatty acids (0.65±0.05 mEq/L on d 4), enhanced phosphorylation of hormone sensitive lipase, and reduced adipocyte diameter. Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that on d 4, FR cows had increased numbers of CD172a + , an ATM (M1 and M2) surface marker, cells in SVF that

  10. Performance evaluation and adaptability of lactating dairy cows fed soybean and its by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria de Vasconcelos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to evaluate the lactation performance and adaptability of confined dairy cows fed diets containing soybean and its by-products, this study used 12 Holsteincows with initial production of 30 kg milk-1 day-1 day-1 in feedlot system distributed in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The experimental period lasted 84 days. The dry matter intake (DMI and meteorological variables were recorded daily. Milk production was measured from the 15th to the 21st day, with milk analysis twice in each period, and physiological variables collected on the 15, 17th and 21st days of each experimental period. The thermal comfort indices and rectal temperature were considered normal, however the respiratory frequency and heart rate were different between the periods. Total milk production and percentage of crude protein were not affected. The thermal environment had influence on the CMS and on the percentage of milk fat in warmer periods, but the mechanism of heat dissipation was efficient for the animals to maintain homeothermy without affecting milk production.

  11. Absorption and elimination of a prostaglandin F analog, fenprostalene, in lactating dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomlinson, R.V.; Spires, H.R.; Bowen, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic characteristics of the prostaglandin F2 alpha analog, fenprostalene, were studied in five lactating Holstein cows. Blood samples, milk, urine, and feces were collected for up to 7 d following a single subcutaneous injection of 1 mg of 13,14-hydrogen-3-fenprostalene in polyethylene glycol-400. The maximum concentration of tritium in plasma was observed 4 h after injection and declined by 48 h. Likewise, milk contained .53 ngeq/ml fenprostalene at 4 h and the concentration declined with a fractional disappearance rate of .069 X h -1 to less than .03 ngeq/ml by 48 h. Milk was a very minor route of elimination of fenprostalene. Recovery of tritium in urine accounted for 55% of the total dose and recovery in feces accounted for an additional 43%. Residues from fenprostalene at 7 d after injection were less than .1 ppb in all edible tissues. Differences in the molecular structure, formulation, and route of injection of fenprostalene resulted in a slower rate of absorption and elimination of this analog than previously reported for other prostaglandin products. Nonetheless, the percentage of the injected dose of fenprostalene secreted in milk was not increased appreciably, and no persistent tissue residues of fenprostalene were observed

  12. Feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid affects enteric methane production and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klop, G; Hatew, B; Bannink, A; Dijkstra, J

    2016-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to study potential interaction between the effects of feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) on enteric CH4 production and performance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped into 7 blocks of 4 cows. Within blocks, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: control (CON; urea as alternative nonprotein N source to nitrate), NO3 [21 g of nitrate/kg of dry matter (DM)], DHA (3 g of DHA/kg of DM and urea as alternative nonprotein N source to nitrate), or NO3 + DHA (21 g of nitrate/kg of DM and 3 g of DHA/kg of DM, respectively). Cows were fed a total mixed ration consisting of 21% grass silage, 49% corn silage, and 30% concentrates on a DM basis. Feed additives were included in the concentrates. Cows assigned to a treatment including nitrate were gradually adapted to the treatment dose of nitrate over a period of 21 d during which no DHA was fed. The experimental period lasted 17 d, and CH4 production was measured during the last 5d in climate respiration chambers. Cows produced on average 363, 263, 369, and 298 g of CH4/d on CON, NO3, DHA, and NO3 + DHA treatments, respectively, and a tendency for a nitrate × DHA interaction effect was found where the CH4-mitigating effect of nitrate decreased when combined with DHA. This tendency was not obtained for CH4 production relative to dry matter intake (DMI) or to fat- and protein corrected milk (FPCM). The NO3 treatment decreased CH4 production irrespective of the unit in which it was expressed, whereas DHA did not affect CH4 production per kilogram of DMI, but resulted in a higher CH4 production per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) production. The FPCM production (27.9, 24.7, 24.2, and 23. 8 kg/d for CON, NO3, DHA, and NO3 + DHA, respectively) was lower for DHA-fed cows because of decreased milk fat concentration. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat was decreased by DHA, and the proportion of

  13. Utilization of protein in red clover and alfalfa silages by lactating dairy cows and growing lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Glen A

    2018-02-01

    Feeding trials were conducted with lactating cows and growing lambs to quantify effects of replacing dietary alfalfa silage (AS) with red clover silage (RCS) on nutrient utilization. The lactation trial had a 2 × 4 arrangement of treatments: AS or RCS fed with no supplement, rumen-protected Met (RPM), rumen-protected Lys (RPL), or RPM plus RPL. Grass silage was fed at 13% of dry matter (DM) with AS to equalize dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and crude protein contents. All diets contained (DM basis) 5% corn silage and 16% crude protein. Thirty-two multiparous (4 ruminally cannulated) plus 16 primiparous Holstein cows were blocked by parity and days in milk and fed diets as total mixed rations in an incomplete 8 × 8 Latin square trial with four 28-d periods. Production data (over the last 14 d of each period) and digestibility and excretion data (at the end of each period) were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Although DM intake was 1.2 kg/d greater on AS than RCS, milk yield and body weight gain were not different. However, yields of fat and energy-corrected milk as well as milk content of fat, true protein, and solids-not-fat were greater on AS. Relative to AS, feeding RCS increased milk and energy-corrected milk yield per unit of DM intake, milk lactose content, and apparent N efficiency and reduced milk urea. Relative to AS, apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, NDF, and acid detergent fiber were greater on RCS, whereas apparent and estimated true N digestibility were lower. Urinary N excretion and ruminal concentrations of ammonia, total AA, and branched-chain volatile fatty acids were reduced on RCS, indicating reduced ruminal protein degradation. Supplementation of RPM increased intake, milk true protein, and solids-not-fat content and tended to increase milk fat content. There were no silage × RPM interactions, suggesting that RPM was equally limiting on both AS and RCS. Supplementation of RPL did not

  14. Effect of condensed corn distillers solubles concentration on lactation performance of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, M E; Forbes, S; Moreira, V R; Blouin, D C; Han, K J

    2015-03-01

    Forty-eight Holstein cows (32 multiparous and 16 primiparous) in mid to late lactation averaging 219±71 days in milk and 30.5±6.6 kg/d of 3.5% fat-corrected milk were used in a 56-d completely randomized design experiment to evaluate condensed corn distillers solubles (CCDS) inclusion in high-fiber total mixed rations (TMR). Inclusion rates evaluated were 0, 6.6, 13.2, and 19.8% CCDS as a percentage of dry matter (DM). Distiller solubles substituted for soybean meal, corn grain, and whole cottonseed such that diets were similar in protein (16.6%) and fat (4.50%). Water was added to 0, 6.6, and 13.2% CCDS treatments so that final TMR DM concentrations (47.8%) were similar across diets. The forage portion of the diet was kept constant at 19.6% annual ryegrass hay and 26.0% sorghum baleage. Diet in vitro true digestibility tended to increase as CCDS addition increased, but neutral detergent fiber digestibility trended lower in CCDS diets. Percent P (0.39, 0.55, 0.69, and 0.73%) and S (0.32, 0.35, 0.39, and 0.42%) in TMR increased as CCDS concentration increased. Milk yield (23.5, 24.7, 25.5, and 24.8 kg/d of 3.5% fat-corrected milk) was similar for control and CCDS diets. Milk fat (3.88, 3.73, 3.78, and 3.68%), protein (3.28, 3.27, 3.31, and 3.31%), and lactose (4.61, 4.66, 4.69, and 4.77) percentages were similar across diets. Milk urea nitrogen (16.60, 15.58, 15.43, and 14.75 mg/dL) declined with increasing CCDS addition. Animal activity, body weight, body condition scores, and locomotion scores were not influenced by CCDS. Day 28 poststudy locomotion scores were similar across diets. Ruminal acetate concentrations did not differ among diets, but propionate and butyrate concentrations were elevated in rumen fluid of cows receiving 19.6% CCDS. Although rumen fluid pH values were similar (6.5, 6.4, 6.3, and 6.2), the two highest CCDS diets exhibited depressed acetate:propionate ratios relative to controls. The results from this study indicate that CCDS may be

  15. Effects of two different prepartum diets on some metabolic traits and productive response in multiparous Holstein cows in early lactation

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    Gianfranco Gabai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-six multiparous Italian Holstein cows were used to compare two feeding strategies for the prepartum period. Cowswere allocated to two dietary treatments on the basis of their parity (3.1 ± 1.1 and mature equivalent production (11473± 1449 kg. From 20 ± 7 d precalving to the calving day, one group of 13 cows (parity = 3.1 ± 1.0; mature equivalentproduction = 11473 ± 1606 kg was fed a Control diet made by mixing a 50:50 as fed combination of the far off dryration and the lactation diet fed postpartum. The remaining cows (parity = 3.1 ± 1.1; mature equivalent production =11473 ± 1338 kg were fed a prepartum diet (Anionic obtained by supplementing the far off dry ration with energy andprotein sources plus calcium chloride. This diet had a lower dietary cation-anion difference than the Control diet (7.35 vs26.66 meq/100 g DM; Pfed the Anionic diet had the lowest DM intake during the prepartum (12.0 vs 13.4 kg/d; Pshowed a limited drop in plasma Ca reducing the incidence of subclinical hypocalcaemia in comparison with the Controlgroup (8 vs 62%; Pof hepatic function (aspartate-amino transferase, ϒ-glutamil transferase, creatin-kinase and bilirubine. After calving,all the cows were co-mingled and fed the same lactation ration and those that had received the Anionic diet duringthe prepartum showed a significant increase in milk yield with no changes in milk quality. Average production at the peakof lactation was 43.8 kg/d for Control cows while it raised up to 47.8 kg/d (Pduring the prepartum. This positive result was obtained with a lower loss in cows’ body condition score measured at 30and 60 days in milk and without any effect on the uterine involution process. The use of the Anionic diet has proven tobe an effective alternative to the common practice of feeding close-up diets made by a partial replacement of the far offdry ration with the diet fed to the lactating cows. This strategy should be particularly recommended for dairy

  16. Feeding glycerol-enriched yeast culture improves performance, energy status, and heat shock protein gene expression of lactating Holstein cows under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Ye, G; Zhou, Y; Liu, Y; Zhao, L; Liu, Y; Chen, X; Huang, D; Liao, S F; Huang, K

    2014-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplemental common yeast culture (CY) and glycerol-enriched yeast culture (GY) on performance, plasma metabolites, antioxidant status, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA expression in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress. During summer months, 30 healthy multiparous lactating cows (parity 3.25 ± 0.48; 60 ± 13 d in milk [DIM]; 648 ± 57 kg BW; an average milk yield of 33.8 ± 1.6 kg/d) were blocked by parity, previous milk yield, and DIM and randomly allocated to 3 dietary treatments: no supplemental yeast culture (Control), 1 L/d of CY (33.1 g yeast) per cow, and 2 L/d of GY (153.2 g glycerol and 31.6 g yeast) per cow. During the 60-d experiment, values of air temperature and relative humidity inside the barn were recorded hourly every 3 d to calculate temperature-humidity index (THI). Weekly rectal temperatures (RT) and respiration rates and daily DMI and milk yield were recorded for all cows. Milk and blood samples were taken twice monthly, and BW and BCS were obtained on d 0 and 60. In this experiment, THI values indicated cows experienced a moderate heat stress. Cows supplemented with CY and GY had greater yields of milk, energy-corrected milk and milk fat, and milk fat percent but lower HSP70 mRNA expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes than Control cows (P cows. In conclusion, either CY or GY supplementation partially mitigated the negative effects of heat stress on performance and HSP70 mRNA expression of lactating cows, and GY supplementation provided additional improvements in energy status and HSP70 gene expression of lactating cows.

  17. Relationships between certain metabolic diseases and selected serum biochemical parameters in seropositive dairy cows against Neospora caninum infection in different stages of lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekish, Myassar O.; Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Alshehabat, Musa A; Ismail, Zuhair A Bani

    Neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in dairy cattle. The general health of affected cows has not been investigated before. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to identify possible relationships between certain metabolic diseases and selected serum biochemical parameters in seropositive dairy cows against N. caninum antibodies in different stages of lactation. The study was carried out using 72 N. caninum seropositive cows and 61 seronegative dairy cows (control). Serum from all cows was tested to determine their N. caninum status (seropositive vs seronegative) using commercially available indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test kit (iELISA). In addition, serum biochemical parameters including beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), glucose, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) were determined using routine laboratory methods. The stage of lactation was obtained at the time of sampling from farm records. Student independent t-test showed that there was a significant difference in the serum concentrations of BHB, AST, ALT, and LDH between seropositive and seronegative cows. There was no significant association between seropositivity and the stage of lactation. However, multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that there was a strong association between seropositivity and BHB concentrations. Results of this study indicate a possible relationship between N. caninum seropositivity and certain metabolic diseases such as ketosis and fatty liver syndrome in dairy cows.

  18. Responses of plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acids to intravenous insulin tolerance tests in dairy cows during a 670-day lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marett, L C; Auldist, M J; Wales, W J; Macmillan, K L; Dunshea, F R; Leury, B J

    2017-04-01

    The metabolic response of dairy cows undergoing an extended lactation to an insulin tolerance test (ITT) was investigated. Twelve multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows that calved in late winter in a pasture-based system were managed for a 670-d lactation by delaying rebreeding. Four 5-wk experimental periods commenced at approximately 73, 217, 422, and 520 d in milk (DIM). Cows were offered a diet of perennial ryegrass (73 and 422 DIM) or pasture hay and silage (217 and 520 DIM) supplemented with 1 kg dry matter (DM) of grain (control; CON) or 6 kg DM of grain (GRN). Daily energy intake was approximately 160 and 215 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow for CON and GRN, respectively. At all other times, cows were managed as a single herd and grazed pasture supplemented with grain to an estimated daily intake of 180 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow. Cows were fitted with a jugular catheter during the final week of each experimental period. An ITT using 0.12 IU of insulin/kg of body weight (BW) was conducted on each cow at approximately 100, 250, 460, and 560 DIM. Cows in the GRN treatment had greater milk yield, milk solids yield, and BW than cows in the CON treatment. Within treatment, individual cow responses to the ITT were highly variable. Plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations declined at all stages of lactation. The clearance rate of plasma glucose was slower before 300 DIM than after 300 DIM, which indicates greater inhibition of hepatic glucose synthesis and uptake of glucose by insulin-dependent tissues later in the lactation. The clearance rate, area under the curve, and recovery of plasma NEFA were greatest at 100 DIM, indicating greater responsiveness to the antilipolytic effect of insulin in early lactation, but also greater lipolytic responsiveness. The variation in response to the ITT was mostly a result of DIM rather than diet. However, the plasma NEFA response showed interactions between diet and DIM, indicating that energy intake

  19. Repeatability of metabolic responses to a nutrient deficiency in early and mid lactation and implications for robustness of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, J J; Bruckmaier, R M

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient partitioning toward the mammary gland during insufficient energy and nutrient supply is a strategy to ensure survival of the offspring in mammalian species. This homeorhetic priority of the mammary gland is also present in the modern dairy cow, in particular in early lactation. However, despite similar metabolic loads, the adaptive response to a given metabolic load varies considerably among animals. The aim of this study was to investigate if individual cows respond in a consistent manner to a negative energy balance (NEB) in early and mid lactation. Twenty-five dairy cows experienced the usual NEB after parturition and were subjected to a second 3-wk NEB induced by feed restriction in mid lactation. Animals were retrospectively ranked according to their highest plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration in wk 1 to 4 postpartum. The animals with the 33% highest and 33% lowest values were selected and classified either as the high response (HR) or low response (LR) group. Before parturition, no differences in the studied parameters, dry matter intake, energy balance, concentrations of glucose, NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate, cholesterol, triglycerides, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-1, were detected between LR and HR. After parturition, milk yield and energy-corrected milk yield was higher for HR compared with LR in wk 2 to 14 and wk 1 to 6, respectively. During feed restriction in wk 15 to 17 postpartum, no differences in energy-corrected milk between LR and HR were found. Energy balance was more negative in HR during the NEB in early lactation, but not different from LR during feed restriction in mid lactation. Although plasma concentrations of glucose, growth hormone, triglycerides, and cholesterol showed group differences in early lactation, but not during feed restriction, the plasma concentrations of NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate, and insulin-like growth factor-1 in HR changed repeatedly to a greater extent during the NEB at the 2

  20. Evaluation of Coarsely Ground Wheat as a Replacement for Ground Corn in the Diets of Lactating Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Q. Guo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Eight multiparous Holstein cows (569±47 kg of BW; 84±17 DIM were used to evaluate the effects of different levels of coarsely ground wheat (CGW as replacements for ground corn (GC in diets on feed intake and digestion, ruminal fermentation, lactation performance, and plasma metabolites profiles in dairy cows. The cows were settled in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 3-wk treatment periods; four cows in one of the replicates were fitted with rumen cannulas. The four diets contained 0, 9.6, 19.2, and 28.8% CGW and 27.9, 19.2, 9.6, and 0% GC on dry matter (DM basis, respectively. Increasing dietary levels of CGW, daily DM intake tended to increase quadratically (p = 0.07; however, apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF were significantly decreased (p<0.01 in cows fed the 28.8% CGW diets. Ruminal pH remained in the normal physiological range for all dietary treatments at all times, except for the 28.8% CGW diets at 6 h after feeding; moreover, increasing dietary levels of CGW, the daily mean ruminal pH decreased linearly (p = 0.01. Increasing the dietary levels of CGW resulted in a linear increase in ruminal propionate (p<0.01 and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N (p = 0.06 concentration, while ruminal acetate: propionate decreased linearly (p = 0.03 in cows fed the 28.8% CGW diets. Milk production was not affected by diets; however, percentage and yield of milk fat decreased linearly (p = 0.02 when the level of CGW was increased. With increasing levels of dietary CGW, concentrations of plasma beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA (p = 0.07 and cholesterol (p<0.01 decreased linearly, whereas plasma glucose (p = 0.08, insulin (p = 0.02 and urea nitrogen (p = 0.02 increased linearly at 6 h after the morning feeding. Our results indicate that CGW is a suitable substitute for GC in the diets of dairy cows and that it may be included up to a level of 19.2% of DM without adverse effects on feed intake and digestion

  1. Prediction of the lifetime productive and reproductive performance of Holstein cows managed for different lactation durations, using a model of lifetime nutrient partitioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Martin, O; Blavy, P

    2016-01-01

    The GARUNS model is a lifetime performance model taking into account the changing physiological priorities of an animal during its life and through repeated reproduction cycles. This dynamic and stochastic model has been previously used to predict the productive and reproductive performance...... of various genotypes of cows across feeding systems. In the present paper, we used this model to predict the lifetime productive and reproductive performance of Holstein cows for different lactation durations, with the aim of determining the lifetime scenario that optimizes cows' performance defined...... by lifetime efficiency (ratio of total milk energy yield to total energy intake) and pregnancy rate. To evaluate the model, data from a 16-mo extended lactation experiment on Holstein cows were used. Generally, the model could consistently fit body weight, milk yield, and milk components of these cows...

  2. The effect of reducing alfalfa haylage particle size on cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononoff, P J; Heinrichs, A J

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate effects of reducing forage particle size on cows in early lactation based on measurements of the Penn State Particle Separator (PSPS). Eight cannulated, multiparous cows averaging 19 +/- 4 d in milk and 642 +/- 45 kg BW were assigned to one of two 4 x 4 Latin Squares. During each of the 23-d periods, animals were offered one of four diets, which were chemically identical but included alfalfa haylage of different particle size; short (SH), mostly short (MSH), mostly long (MLG), and long (LG). Physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) was determined by measuring the amount of neutral detergent fiber retained on a 1.18 mm screen and was similar across diets (25.7, 26.2, 26.4, 26.7%) but the amount of particles >19.0 mm significantly decreased with decreasing particle size. Reducing haylage particle size increased dry matter intake linearly (23.3, 22.0, 20.9, 20.8 kg for SH, MSH, MLG, LG, respectively). Milk production and percentage fat did not differ across treatments averaging 35.5 +/- 0.68 kg milk and 3.32 +/- 0.67% fat, while a quadratic effect was observed for percent milk protein, with lowest values being observed for LG. A quadratic effect was observed for mean rumen pH (6.04, 6.15, 6.13, 6.09), while A:P ratio decreased linearly (2.75, 2.86, 2.88, 2.92) with decreasing particle size. Total time ruminating increased quadratically (467, 498, 486, 468 min/d), while time eating decreased linearly (262, 253, 298, 287 min/d) with decreasing particle size. Both eating and ruminating per unit of neutral detergent fiber intake decreased with reducing particle size (35.8, 36.7, 44.9, 45.6 min/kg; 19.9, 23.6, 23.5, 23.5 min/kg). Although chewing activity was closely related to forage particle size, effects on rumen pH were small, indicating factors other than particle size are critical in regulating pH when ration neutral detergent fiber met recommended levels. Feeding alfalfa haylage based rations of reduced

  3. Association between subclinical hypocalcemia in the first 3 days of lactation and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caixeta, L S; Ospina, P A; Capel, M B; Nydam, D V

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of subclinical hypocalcemia on reproductive performance in dairy cows. In a prospective cohort study, 97 cows on 2 dairy farms with automatic milking systems were monitored for subclinical hypocalcemia. Animals were enrolled 7 ± 3 days prior to estimated calving date and three parity groups were defined based on the lactation that the animals were going to start: lactation = 1, lactation = 2, and lactation ≥3. Serum calcium concentration (Ca) was measured in all animals in the first 3 DIM and subclinical hypocalcemia (SCH) was defined as Ca ≤ 8.6 mg/dL; animals that presented a low Ca level during all 3 days were classified as chronic SCH (cSCH). Return to cyclicity during the voluntary waiting period was analyzed based on weekly progesterone concentrations measured in serum. Information on reproductive outcomes (i.e., number of breedings, pregnancy status, days open, etc.), were collected from on-farm software after all study cows had completed their study period. Chronic SCH was present in all parity groups with higher incidence in multiparous animals (20% of parity = 1, 32% of parity = 2; and 46% of parity ≥ 3 animals). The cSCH animals took longer to show active ovaries when compared to eucalcemic and SCH animals. In a multivariable Cox's Proportional Hazard model animals with normal Ca were 1.8 times more likely to return to cyclicity by the end of the voluntary waiting period when compared to cSCH animals. Animals with cSCH also had 0.27 odds of being pregnant at first service compared to eucalcemic cows when analyzed by multivariable logistic regression. Subclinical hypocalcemia had a negative effect on return of ovarian function during the voluntary waiting period and decreased the odds of pregnancy at first service. Those cows with cSCH had an even more pronounced impaired reproductive function than those with one subclinical measurement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  4. Evaluation of between-cow variation in milk urea and rumen ammonia nitrogen concentrations and the association with nitrogen utilization and diet digestibility in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtanen, P; Cabezas-Garcia, E H; Krizsan, S J; Shingfield, K J

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations of milk urea N (MUN) are influenced by dietary crude protein concentration and intake and could therefore be used as a biomarker of the efficiency of N utilization for milk production (milk N/N intake; MNE) in lactating cows. In the present investigation, data from milk-production trials (production data set; n=1,804 cow/period observations from 21 change-over studies) and metabolic studies involving measurements of nutrient flow at the omasum in lactating cows (flow data set; n=450 cow/period observations from 29 studies) were used to evaluate the influence of between-cow variation on the relationship of MUN with MNE, urinary N (UN) output, and diet digestibility. All measurements were made on cows fed diets based on grass silage supplemented with a range of protein supplements. Data were analyzed by mixed-model regression analysis with diet within experiment and period within experiment as random effects, allowing the effect of diet and period to be excluded. Between-cow coefficient of variation in MUN concentration and MNE was 0.13 and 0.07 in the production data set and 0.11 and 0.08 in the flow data set, respectively. Based on residual variance, the best model for predicting MNE developed from the production data set was MNE (g/kg)=238 + 7.0 × milk yield (MY; kg/d) - 0.064 × MY(2) - 2.7 × MUN (mg/dL) - 0.10 body weight (kg). For the flow data set, including both MUN and rumen ammonia N concentration with MY in the model accounted for more variation in MNE than when either term was used with MY alone. The best model for predicting UN excretion developed from the production data set (n=443) was UN (g/d)=-29 + 4.3 × dry matter intake (kg/d) + 4.3 × MUN + 0.14 × body weight. Between-cow variation had a smaller influence on the association of MUN with MNE and UN output than published estimates of these relationships based on treatment means, in which differences in MUN generally arise from variation in dietary crude protein concentration. For

  5. Production and calving traits of Montbéliarde × Holstein and Viking Red × Holstein cows compared with pure Holstein cows during first lactation in 8 commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, A R; Heins, B J; Hansen, L B

    2017-05-01

    Montbéliarde (MO) × Holstein (HO) and Viking Red (VR) × HO crossbred cows were compared with pure HO cows in 8 large, high-performance dairy herds. All cows were either 2-breed crossbred or pure HO cows that calved for the first time from December 2010 to April 2014. Best Prediction was used to calculate 305-d milk, fat, and protein production, as well as somatic cell score, and 513 MO × HO, 540 VR × HO, and 978 HO cows were analyzed for production in first lactation. Calving difficulty was scored from 1 (no assistance) to 5 (extreme difficulty). The analysis of calving traits included 493 MO × HO, 504 VR × HO, and 971 HO cows at first calving. Age at first calving was similar for breed groups, and the herds calved both crossbred (23.8 mo) and HO (23.9 mo) cows at young ages. The MO × HO crossbred cows had +3% higher production of 305-d fat plus protein production (actual basis, not mature equivalent) than the HO cows, and the VR × HO were similar to the HO cows for fat plus protein production. Breed groups did not differ for SCS during first lactation. The VR-sired 3-breed crossbred calves (from MO × HO dams) were similar to pure HO calves for calving difficulty; however, MO-sired male calves born to VR × HO dams had a mean score that was +0.5 points higher for calving difficulty than pure HO male calves. The 3-breed crossbred calves from both MO × HO (4%) and VR × HO (5%) first-lactation dams had a much lower stillbirth rate compared with pure HO calves (9%) from first-lactation dams. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of complementation of cattle cooling systems with feedline soakers on lactating dairy cows in a desert environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, X A; Smith, J F; Bradford, B J; Harner, J P; Oddy, A

    2011-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted on a commercial dairy farm in eastern Saudi Arabia to investigate the effects of Korral Kool (KK; Korral Kool Inc., Mesa, AZ) cattle cooling systems complemented with feedline soakers on core body temperature (CBT) of dairy cows. In both experiments, cows had access to KK 24h/d. In the first experiment, 7 primiparous and 6 multiparous lactating Holstein dairy cows were assigned to 1 of 2 pens, which were assigned randomly to treatment sequence over 4 d in a switchback design. Soakers were on (ON24) or off (OFF24) for 24h/d. For the second experiment, 20 multiparous lactating Holstein cows were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 pens, which were assigned randomly to treatment sequence in a switchback design. This experiment lasted 4 d and feedline soakers alternately remained off or were on (ON12) for 12h/d. In experiment 1, average ambient temperature was 30 ± 0.9°C and average relative humidity was 44 ± 14% (mean ± SD). Feedline soakers complementing KK systems for 24 h/d decreased the mean CBT of lactating dairy cows compared with KK systems alone (38.80 vs. 38.98 ± 0.061°C, respectively). A significant treatment by time interaction was found. The greatest treatment effects occurred at 2100 h; treatment means at this time were 39.26 and 38.85 ± 0.085°C for OFF24 and ON24 treatments, respectively. In experiment 2, average ambient temperature was 35 ± 1.5°C and average relative humidity was 33 ± 16%. Feedline soakers running for 12 h/d significantly decreased the mean 24-h CBT from 39.16 to 38.99 ± 0.084°C. Treatment by time interaction was also significant; the greatest treatment effects occurred at 1500 h, when ON12 reduced CBT from 39.38 to 38.81 ± 0.088°C. These results demonstrate that complementing the KK system with feedline soakers decreased the CBT of dairy cows housed in desert environments. However, the combined systems were not sufficient to lower CBT to normal temperatures in this extreme environment. Copyright

  7. Strategic supplementation of cassava top silage to enhance rumen fermentation and milk production in lactating dairy cows in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Viennasay, Bounnaxay; Phesatcha, Burarat; Ampapon, Thiwakorn; Kang, Sungchhang

    2018-04-19

    High-quality protein roughage is an important feed for productive ruminants. This study examined the effects of strategic feeding of lactating cows with cassava (Manihot esculenta) top silage (CTS) on rumen fermentation, feed intake, milk yield, and quality. Four early lactating crossbred dairy cows (75% Holstein-Friesian and 25% Thai) with body weight (BW) 410 ± 30 kg and milk yield 12 ± 2 kg/day were randomly allotted in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to four different supplementation levels of CTS namely, 0, 0.75, 1.50, and 2.25 kg/day of dry matter (DM). Strategic supplementation of CTS significantly affected ruminal fermentation end-products, especially increased propionate production, decreased protozoal population and suppressed methane production (P < 0.05). Increasing the CTS supplementation level substantially enhanced milk yield and the 3.5% FCM from 12.7 to 14.0 kg/day and from 14.6 to 17.2 kg/day (P < 0.05) for non-supplemented group and for the 2.25 kg/day supplemented group, respectively. We conclude that high-quality protein roughage significantly enhances rumen fermentation end-products, milk yield, and quality in dairy cows.

  8. Effects of different levels of physically effective fibers in diets for cows in early lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanovic, B.; Grubic, G.; Djordjevic, N.; Glamocie, D.; Bozieckovic, A.; Ivetic, A.

    2012-11-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of a total mixed ration (TMR) particle size on digestibility and production performances of the high-yielding cows in early lactation. The treatments were TMRs with forage-toconcentrate ratio 43:57 in diet dry matter, with four different mean particle lengths and physically effective fiber (PENDF) content based on different cut length of corn silage and alfalfa haylage. Determined values of PEF (physical effectiveness factor) and PENDF (through original and modified Penn State Particle Separator, PSPS) were considerably higher for forages and TMRs using the modified PSPS. The cut length of forage and particle size of TMRs did not affect dry matter intake. However reduced forage cut length significantly increased the apparent total tract digestibility of NDF (from 53.9 to 58.66%), and crude protein (from 71.56 to 77.90%), with the decrease in the non-fiber carbohydrate digestibility (from 91.99 to 86.80%). The increase in the milk yield (35.62 vs. 38.36 kg), and decrease in the milk fat (3.50 vs. 3.10%) and protein content (3.11 vs. 2.99%) were observed with the reduction of particle size in forages. There was no effect on milk fat daily yield, but the increase of the milk protein yield (1.08 vs. 1.15 kg) was determined with the reduced forage cut lengths. The milk fat to protein ratio had tendency to decrease with the reduced forage cut length. Decrease in forage particle size improved feed conversion ratio for milk production, improved digestibility and the milk yield, whereas milk protein content was reduced. (Author) 25 refs.

  9. The metabolism of tritium and water in the lactating dairy cow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van den Hoek, J; ten Have, M H.J.

    1983-02-01

    Two lactating Friesian cows received tritiated water (19 nCi of tritium per ml) to drink for 25 days. Urine and milk samples were collected and analyzed for tritium content. Plateau levels in milk water, and in milk fat, lactose and casein were reached in about 18 days. Tritium concentration in milk water and urine water was about 82% that in drinking water, indicating dilution with water from food and metabolic processes, and as a result of exchange through lungs and skin. At steady state, tritium activity in milk fat, lactose and casein was about 30, 28 and 15% of that in drinking water on a weight basis; at this time, about 1.5% of the daily ingested tritium appeared in one litre of milk in both animals. Comparison of the specific activity of the various milk constituents with the specific activity of the body water showed that the highest tritium incorporation occurred in lactose (0.58), followed by milk fat (0.36) and casein (0.27). Tritium incorporation in milk dry matter (0.45) is considerably higher than in most tissue components of several mammalian species after continuous ingestion of THO as reported in the literature. Tritium levels fell rapidly in milk and urine after the administration of THO was stopped, with half-times of around 4 days for the rapid components in all milk constituents. A slow component of 44 days, 225 days and 24 days half-time was found in milk water, milk fat and casein respectively.

  10. Effect of increasing dietary nonfiber carbohydrate with starch, sucrose, or lactose on rumen fermentation and productivity of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X; Oba, M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate effects of increasing dietary nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC) with starch, sucrose, or lactose on rumen fermentation, volatile fatty acid absorption, and milk production of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight multiparous, lactating Holstein cows (141 ± 50 d in milk; 614 ± 53 kg of body weight) including 8 ruminally cannulated cows were used in this study. Cows were assigned to 4 dietary treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. The treatments were control [27% starch and 4% sugar on a dry matter (DM) basis], a high-NFC diet by increasing dietary starch content (STA; 32% starch and 4% sugar on a DM basis), and 2 more high-NFC diets by increasing dietary sugar content (27% starch and 9% sugar on a DM basis) in which sucrose (SUC) or lactose (LAC) was supplemented. Dry matter intake was greater for cows fed high-NFC diets compared with control diet (27.1 vs. 26.3 kg/d), but rumen pH and milk production did not differ between cows fed control and high-NFC diets. However, cows fed high-disaccharide diets had lower mean rumen pH than those fed STA diet (6.19 vs. 6.32). Although molar proportion of butyrate was greater for high-disaccharide treatments than STA treatment (15.2 vs. 13.7 mol/100 mol), absorption rate of volatile fatty acid in the rumen was not affected by treatment. In addition, cows fed high-disaccharide diets had higher energy-corrected milk yield than cows fed STA diet (39.6 vs. 38.0 kg/d). Dry matter intake did not differ between cows fed 2 high-disaccharide diets. Although cows fed the SUC diet had lower molar proportion of butyrate in the rumen compared with those fed the LAC diet (14.4 vs. 15.9 mol/100 mol), the SUC diet did not decrease rumen pH. In addition, cows fed the SUC diet had lower nutrient digestibility of organic matter than did those fed the LAC diet (59.7 vs. 64.4%), but milk component yields did not differ between the 2 high-disaccharide diet treatments. The results of the

  11. Metabolic and production profiles of dairy cows in response to decreased nutrient density to increase physiological imbalance at different stages of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerre-Harpøth, V; Friggens, N C; Thorup, V M; Larsen, T; Damgaard, B M; Ingvartsen, K L; Moyes, K M

    2012-05-01

    Physiological imbalance (PI) is a situation in which physiological parameters deviate from the normal, and cows consequently have an increased risk of developing production diseases and reduced production or reproduction. Our objectives were to (1) determine the effect of stage of lactation and milk yield on metabolic and production responses of cows during a nutrient restriction period to experimentally increase PI; (2) identify major metabolites that relate to degree of PI; and (3) identify potential biomarkers in milk for on-farm detection of PI throughout lactation. Forty-seven Holstein cows in early [n=14; 49±22 d in milk (DIM); parity=1.6±0.5], mid (n=15; 159±39 DIM; parity=1.5±0.5), and late (n=18; 273±3 DIM; parity=1.3±0.5) lactation were used. Prior to restriction, all cows were fed the same total mixed ration ad libitum. All cows were then nutrient restricted for 4 d by supplementing the ration with 60% wheat straw to induce PI. After restriction, cows returned to full feed. Daily milk yield was recorded and composite milk samples were analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, citrate, somatic cells, uric acid, alkaline phosphatase, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), and milk urea nitrogen. Blood was collected daily and analyzed for metabolites: nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), BHBA, glucose, plasma urea nitrogen, and insulin. The revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (RQUICKI) was calculated for each cow. Liver biopsies collected before and during restriction were analyzed for triglycerides, glycogen, phospholipids, glucose, and total lipid content. A generalized linear mixed model was used to determine the effect of stage of lactation on responses during restriction. Regression analyses were used to examine the effect of pre-restriction levels on changes during restriction. Similar decreases in milk yield among groups indicate that the capacity of individual responses is dependent on milk yield but the coping strategies used are dependent on

  12. Efficacy of carprofen on conception rates in lactating dairy cows after subcutaneous or intrauterine administration at the time of breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuwieser, W; Iwersen, M; Goetze, L

    2011-01-01

    Manipulation of the reproductive tract can cause inflammatory processes in the endometrium and release of cytokines and prostaglandins. It has been shown that PGF2α has direct negative effects on embryonic survival and development. Treatment with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (e.g., ibuprofen lysinate, flunixin meglumine) might improve pregnancy rates after embryo transfer in recipient heifers. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug on reproductive performance in lactating dairy cows when administered at the time of first-service artificial insemination (AI) based on the hypothesis that uterine manipulation during AI might be similarly intense compared with embryo transfer in its effect on prostaglandin release. A total of 970 cows (333 primiparous and 637 multiparous) from 17 Holstein dairy farms were enrolled. On the day of first AI, cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 treatment groups. Cows of group 1 received 1.4 mg/kg of body weight (BW) of carprofen subcutaneously immediately after AI (SC group). In group 2, 1.4 mg/kg of BW of carprofen was administered into the uterus using a sterile disposable catheter 12 to 24 h after AI (IU group). Animals of group 3 remained as untreated controls. First AI conception rate was similar for the SC group (42.2%) compared with the untreated control group (45.1%). A binary logistic regression model for the odds of conception at first AI revealed a negative effect of an intrauterine administration of carprofen on conception rate (38.3%). Cows allocated to the IU group had a lower likelihood of being pregnant within 200 d in milk than cows in the control group. In summary, subcutaneous treatment with the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug carprofen at the time of AI did not influence conception rate, whereas an intrauterine administration of carprofen 12 to 24 h after first AI had a negative effect on first-service conception rate in lactating dairy cows

  13. The effect of dry corn gluten feed on chewing activities and rumen parameters in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ismet Turkmen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of dry corn gluten feed (DCGF on dry matter intake (DMI, chewing activity, and rumen fermentation when used to replace a portion of corn silage in diets for lactating Holstein cows. Eight lactating Holstein primiparous cows averaging 98±20 d in milk and weighing 515±20 kg were randomly assigned in a 4x4 Latin square design with 4 week periods. Dietary treatments were 1 a control diets (C of 50% forage (corn silage and wheat straw, 35%, 15% DM basis, respectively, 2 a low DCGF diet (L-DCGF in which 10% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF, 3 a medium DCGF diet (M-DCGF in which 18% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF, and 4 a high DCGF diet (H-DCGF in which 25% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF. The proportion of particles retained on the 19.0 mm screen and physical effectiveness factor of the HDCGF was lower (P<0.05 than in the other groups. Increasing the level of DCGF did not change DMI. Cows fed the C diet spent significantly more time ruminating and chewing per day compared with the MDCGF and H-DCGF diets (483.88, 435.63, 431.25 min/d, P<0.05; and 818.38, 753.00, 745.75 min/d respectively, P<0.05. Cows fed the C diet had ruminal pH values higher than the cows fed the M-DCGF and H-DCGF diets (6.02, 5.95, and 5.91, P<0.05. The total volatile fatty acid and propionate levels of H-DCGF fed cows were higher than the control (P<0.05. The changes in acetate (A and propionate (P concentrations resulted in a decrease in A/P ratio, when corn silage was replaced by DCGF, which led to a reduction in the particle size of the diets (P<0.05. It was concluded that when ratio 18 and 25% DCGF were substituted for corn silage, rumination time, chewing activities and ruminal pH are negatively affected. The optimum level for the addition of DCGF was found to be below 18% of the diet for a healthy rumen and a chewing behaviour in dairy cows.

  14. Pre-and postcalving supplementation of multinutrient blocks on lactation and reproductive performances of grazing Bali cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L.L Belli

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of multinutrient blocks during pre and postcalving on lactation and reproductive performances of Bali cows were evaluated. Seventeen multiparous pregnant cows with body condition score (BCS 1 to 2, approximately 90 d before the expected date of calving, were divided randomly into groups A (n=9 and B (n=8, and were grazed on the native pasture as a basal diet, while those of Group B received 1.25 kg multinutrient blocks, whose constituent was as follows (%: molasses (28, urea (5, coconut cake (15, fishmeal (5, rice bran (25, lime (8.5, salt (7.5, grit (5 and ultramineral (1. Cows were weighed and assessed for BCS (on a five-point scale every two weeks, commencing at 12 weeks prior to calving, within 24 h after calving up to 16 weeks after calving. Milk production and composition were assessed by the weigh-suckle-weigh technique at four times i.e. 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after calving. Suckling behaviour i.e. frequency of suckling, duration of nursing and total min nursed were observed 6 times in the course of lactation at weekly intervals commencing at 1 week after calving. Calf birth weight was measured within 24 h after calving and continued at weekly intervals until 12 weeks of age. Uterine involution was determined by rectal palpation at 7 d postcalving. The interval from calving to first estrus was monitored by estrus observation twice a day. Conception at first service was assessed by pregnancy diagnosis 45 to 60 d after insemination. Cows fed multinutrient blocks supplement had higher liveweight, BCS throughout the experiment. The cows produced significantly more milk and had higher growth rates of the calves than the unsupplemented cows. The mean values of the characteristics of suckling were influenced by supplementation. The rate of uterine involution and conception to first service were similar in the two treatment groups, but interval from calving to the exhibition of the first estrus was shorter in supplemented cows.

  15. The effect of Zataria multiflora extract on the clinical endometritis and reproductive indices in lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajibemani, Abolfazl; Mirzaei, Abdolah; Rowshan Ghasrodashti, Abbas; Memarzadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of intrauterine infusion of Zataria multiflora extract on the clinical endometritis was investigated. Vaginal examination, transrectal palpation and ultrasonography were used to inspect the genital tract at 30-40 days in milk and two weeks later the same approach was applied. Cows with clinical endometritis were randomly divided into three treatment groups: Z. multiflora extract (n = 56), penicillin + streptomycin (pen + strep, n = 55), and placebo (n = 20). Cervical cytology, reagent strip test and cell counting by means of Neubauer hemocytometer were carried out in both examinations. Clinical cure rate of cows with endometritis of score 1 were 45.5, 34.5 and 53.6% in placebo, pen + strep and Z. multiflora , respectively. Clinical cure rate of cows with endometritis of score 2, 3 were 66.7, 84.6 and 56.0% in placebo, pen + strep and Z. multiflora , respectively. Overall, proportions of successfully treated cows were 55.0, 58.2 and 54.7% in placebo, pen + strep and Z. multiflora , respectively ( p > 0.05). In placebo, none of the parameters were significantly different between first and second examination, while we found the significant differences in percentage of neutrophils and leukocyte esterase activity in other groups ( p conception rate of cows was higher in Z. multiflora compared to other groups; however, this difference was not significant. In conclusion, pen + strep and Z. multiflora extract can be effective on the clinical endometritis and may improve reproductive performance. The extract of Z. multiflora can be useful as an alternative therapy for treatment of clinical endometritis in lactating dairy cows.

  16. Acute phase response in lactating dairy cows during hyperinsulinemic hypoglycaemic and hyperinsulinemic euglycaemic clamps and after intramammary LPS challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Matteis, L; Bertoni, G; Lombardelli, R; Wellnitz, O; Van Dorland, H A; Vernay, M C M B; Bruckmaier, R M; Trevisi, E

    2017-06-01

    The link between energy availability, turnover of energy substrates and the onset of inflammation in dairy cows is complex and poorly investigated. To clarify this, plasma inflammatory variables were measured in mid-lactating dairy cows allocated to three groups: hyperinsulinemic hypoglycaemic clamp, induced by insulin infusion (HypoG, n = 5); hyperinsulinemic euglycaemic clamp, induced by insulin and glucose infusion (EuG; n = 6); control, receiving a saline solution infusion (NaCl; n = 6). At 48 h after the start of i.v. infusions, two udder quarters per cow were challenged with 200 μg of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Individual blood samples were taken before clamps, before LPS challenge (i.e. 48 h after clamps) and 6.5 h after. At 48 h, positive acute phase proteins (posAPP) did not differ among groups, whereas albumin and cholesterol (index of lipoproteins), negative APP (negAPP), were lower (p insulin at the tissue-level makes dairy cows more susceptible to inflammatory events. In contrast, HypoG seems to attenuate the inflammatory response. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Effect of supplementation with protein differ for rumen degradability on milk production and nutrients utilization in early lactating Sahiwal cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talat N. Pasha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Early lactating Sahiwal cows (n=24 of approximately similar yield and lactation were selected and randomly divided into four groups of six cows in each. These groups were fed ad libitum four iso- energetic and iso- proteic diets with different rumen undegradable protein (RUP sources: diet A 30% RUP, diet B 40% RUP, diet C 50% RUP and diet D 60% RUP in a completely randomized design. Among nutrients intake, dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP intake was significantly (P<0.01 different, while neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF intakes were similar across four diets. DM, CP and NDF digestibility were also different (P<0.05 except, NDF digestibility. Whole milk yield (kg/d and 4% fat corrected milk (FCM (kg/d, fat (g/d and protein (g/d was found maximum on diet B, followed by diet A. Not significant differences were found in fat, solid not fat (SNF, protein, lactose, salts and total solids percentage across all diet except SNF, lactose and salts percentages which were significantly lower (P<0.05 on diet D. Nitrogen intake, balance and utilization were statistically similar across all diets however, nitrogen excretion in milk (g/d and percentage of intake and urine (percentage of intake were significantly different across diets. Nitrogen intake and output varied (P<0.01 across all diets. Nitrogen balance and its utilization were maximum (P<0.001 on diet B, while other diets showed not significant differences among themselves. Based on presenting findings, it is concluded that feed intake, digestibility and production performance was maximum in early lactating Sahiwal cows when fed 40% rumen undegradable protein in total mixed ration based diet.

  18. Effect of the temperature-humidity index on body temperature and conception rate of lactating dairy cows in southwestern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabenishi, Hisashi; Ohta, Hiroshi; Nishimoto, Toshihumi; Morita, Tetsuo; Ashizawa, Koji; Tsuzuki, Yasuhiro

    2011-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the temperature-humidity index (THI) and the conception rate of lactating dairy cows in southwestern Japan, one of the hottest areas of the country. We also investigated the relationship between measurement of the vaginal temperature of lactating dairy cows as their core body temperature at one-hour intervals for 25 consecutive days in hot (August-September, n=6) and cool (January-February, n=5) periods and their THI. Furthermore, we discussed the above relationship using these vaginal temperatures, the conception rates and the THI. As a result, when the conception rates from day 2 to 0 before AI were classified into day 2, 1 and 0 groups by the six maximum THI values in each group (mTHI; 80), only the conception rate for the mTHI over 80 at 1 day before AI group was significantly lower (P80) was significantly lower (P80. There was a significant positive correlation (Ptemperature, but not during the cool period. When the mTHI reached 69, the vaginal temperature started to increase. As for the relationship between the conception rates and vaginal temperatures for all mTHI classes, in the mTHI>80 at 1 day before AI group, the vaginal temperature increased by 0.6 C from 38.7 C, resulting in a reduction of 11.6% in the conception rate from 40.5%. In conclusion, these results suggest that one of the causes of the fall in conception rate of lactating dairy cows during the summer season in southwestern Japan may be an increase in their core body temperature with a higher mTHI than the critical mTHI of 69 at 1 day before AI.

  19. Effect of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen environment, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantasook, N; Wanapat, M; Cherdthong, A; Gunun, P

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows. Four multiparous early-lactating dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian cross-bred, 75%) with an initial body weight (BW) of 405 ± 40 kg and 36 ± 8 day in milk were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were unsupplemented (control), supplemented with rain tree pod (S. saman) meal (RPM) at 60 g/kg, supplemented with palm oil (PO) at 20 g/kg, and supplemented with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO), of total dry matter (DM) intake. Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effect on ruminal pH, blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen concentration (p > 0.05). However, supplementation with RPM resulted in lower ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) concentration (p rumen environment and increased milk yield, content of milk protein and milk fat. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Relationship between fat globule size and chemical and fatty acid composition of cow's milk in mid lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosima Scolozzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The milk in 57 Italian Fresian cows in mid lactation was analysed in order to define the relationship between some qualitative milk parameters and the size of milk fat globules. The study focused on the morphometric evaluation of milk fat globules, chemical parameteres and fatty acid composition of the milk. The results show that a prevalence of milk fat globules with a diameter 6 um was associated (P<0.01 with greater milk yield nad a higher percentage of lactose, non-fat dry matter and ash............

  1. Relationship between fat globule size and chemical and fatty acid composition of cow's milk in mid lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Martini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The milk in 57 Italian Fresian cows in mid lactation was analysed in order to define the relationship between some qualitative milk parameters and the size of milk fat globules. The study focused on the morphometric evaluation of milk fat globules, chemical parameteres and fatty acid composition of the milk. The results show that a prevalence of milk fat globules with a diameter 6 um was associated (P<0.01 with greater milk yield nad a higher percentage of lactose, non-fat dry matter and ash............

  2. Comparative composition, diversity, and abundance of oligosaccharides in early lactation milk from commercial dairy and beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sischo, William M.; Short, Diana M.; Geissler, Mareen; Bunyatratchata, Apichaya; Barile, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Prebiotics are nondigestible dietary ingredients, usually oligosaccharides (OS), that provide a health benefit to the host by directly modulating the gut microbiota. Although there is some information describing OS content in dairy-source milk, no information is available to describe the OS content of beef-source milk. Given the different trait emphasis between dairy and beef for milk production and calf survivability, it is plausible that OS composition, diversity, and abundance differ between production types. The goal of this study was to compare OS in milk from commercial dairy and beef cows in early lactation. Early-lactation multiparous cows (5–12 d in milk) from 5 commercial Holstein dairy herds and 5 Angus or Angus hybrid beef herds were sampled once. Milk was obtained from each enrolled cow and frozen on the farm. Subsequently, each milk sample was assessed for total solids, pH, and OS content and relative abundance. Oligosaccharide diversity and abundance within and between samples was transformed through principal component analysis to reduce data complexity. Factors from principal component analysis were used to create similarity clusters, which were subsequently used in a multivariate logistic regression. In total, 30 OS were identified in early-lactation cow milk, including 21 distinct OS and 9 isomers with unique retention times. The majority of OS detected in the milk samples were present in all individual samples regardless of production type. Two clusters described distribution patterns of OS for the study sample; when median OS abundance was compared between the 2 clusters, we found that overall OS relative abundance was consistently greater in the cluster dominated by beef cows. For several of the structures, including those with known prebiotic effect, the difference in abundance was 2- to 4-fold greater in the beef-dominated cluster. Assuming that beef OS content in milk is the gold standard for cattle, it is likely that preweaning dairy

  3. Accuracy of a cow-side test for the diagnosis of hyperketonemia and hypoglycemia in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, K; López Helguera, I; Behrouzi, A; Gobikrushanth, M; Hoff, B; Colazo, M G

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of a cow-side device (FreeStyle Precision Neo™) to diagnose ketosis and hypoglycemia based on measures of blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and glucose. Eleven commercial dairy farms were visited and blood samples were taken from Holstein cows between 2 and 14days in milk, yielding 441 samples for BHBA analysis and 308 samples for glucose analysis. Concentrations of BHBA and glucose were measured in two ways, 1) using the cow-side device with whole blood immediately after sampling and 2) serum samples analyzed with a standard laboratory assay (Animal Health Laboratory, University of Guelph, Canada). The accuracy of the device was determined by comparing the results to the laboratory method as well as the ability to diagnose ketosis (BHBA ≥1.2mmol/L) and hypoglycemia (glucose cow-side device is accurate for rapid measurement of blood BHBA and diagnosis of ketosis on farms but is not accurate for measurement of blood glucose concentrations and diagnosis of hypoglycemia. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of urea formaldehyde condensation polymer treatment of flaxseed on ruminal digestion and lactation in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, A; Yuan, K; Armendariz, C K; Highland, G; Bello, N M; Winowiski, T; Drouillard, J S; Titgemeyer, E C; Bradford, B J

    2013-06-01

    Flaxseed is a potent source of the n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA), yet most ALA is lost during ruminal biohydrogenation when ground flaxseed is fed to ruminants. Heat processing and urea formaldehyde condensation polymer (UFCP) treatment of flaxseed were investigated as possible means of protecting ALA from ruminal degradation. Ground flaxseed (GF), heated ground flaxseed (HGF), or UFCP-treated ground flaxseed (UFCPGF) were incubated for 0, 4, 8, and 12h in 4 ruminally cannulated multiparous lactating Holstein cows. Compared with GF, HGF and UFCPGF decreased ruminal disappearance of dry matter, crude protein, and ALA. Pepsin-digestible protein remaining after 12h of ruminal incubation was greater for UFCPGF and HGF than for GF. Twenty-four lactating Holstein cows (207 ± 37 d in milk, 668 ± 66 kg of body weight, and 1.33 ± 0.56 lactations) were then used in a randomized complete block design experiment with a basal feeding period to assess effects of flaxseed treatment on ALA enrichment of plasma and milk as well as lactational performance. No evidence existed that supplementation of HGF and UFCPGF affected dry matter intake, milk fat content, milk protein content, or energy-corrected milk yield, but UFCPGF marginally decreased milk yield compared with HGF. Plasma concentration of ALA was not affected by treatment. Concentrations of n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in milk fat were increased by UFCPGF relative to HGF, but ALA yield was not affected. Taken together, in situ results suggest that heat-treated flaxseed, with or without UFCP treatment, slowed ruminal disappearance of ALA. Feeding UFCP-treated flaxseed failed to alter ALA content of plasma or milk ALA yield relative to heating alone. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of bedding with recycled sand on lying behaviors, udder hygiene, and preference of lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kull, J A; Ingle, H D; Black, R A; Eberhart, N L; Krawczel, P D

    2017-09-01

    Effects of bedding with recycled sand and season on lying behaviors, hygiene, and preferences of late-lactation Holstein cows were studied. It was hypothesized that recycled sand will decrease lying time and increase hygiene scores due to increased moisture content and organic matter, and thus a preference for the control sand will be evident. Cows (n = 64) were divided into 4 groups (n = 8 per group) per season. In summer (August to September), cows were balanced by days in milk (268.1 ± 11.9 d) and parity (2.0 ± 0.2). In winter (January to February), mean DIM was 265.5 ± 34.1 d. Cows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments using a crossover design with each treatment lasting 7 d (no-choice phase): bedding with recycled sand (RS; n = 32) or control (CO; clean sand; n = 32). Stocking density was maintained at 100%. The choice phase allowed cows to have access to either treatment with stocking density at 50%. Accelerometers recorded daily lying time, number of lying bouts per day, lying bout duration (min/bout), and total steps per day. Teat swabs, milk, sand samples, and udder hygiene scores were collected on d 0, 3, and 7 of each experimental week. Samples were cultured for streptococci, staphylococci, and gram-negative bacteria. Video data were used to assess bedding preferences. All data were analyzed using the MIXED and GLIMMIX procedures of SAS 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Lying time was not affected by treatment, but cows did take more steps during winter. Bacterial counts were elevated for cows on recycled sand. A preference was observed for clean sand during the summer, but no preference was observed for sand during the winter. Regardless of bedding, the most commonly observed behavior was lying in the stalls, which suggested either bedding might be suitable. Caution should be used with this interpretation of preference, as sand was recycled only once. This limited reclamation was still sufficient to potentially alter the composition of sand, driving

  6. Production and nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy cows fed ground field peas with or without ruminally protected lysine and methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A B D; Whitehouse, N L; Aragona, K M; Schwab, C S; Reis, S F; Brito, A F

    2017-08-01

    Previous research has shown that cows fed ≥24% of the diet dry matter (DM) as field peas decreased milk yield as well as concentration and yield of milk protein, possibly due to reduced DM intake and limited supply of Lys and Met. Twelve multiparous and 4 primiparous lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. The diets contained (DM basis) 34.8% corn silage, 15.2% grass-legume silage, 5.9% roasted soybean, 2.4% mineral-vitamin premix, 2.0% alfalfa pellets, and either (1) 36% ground corn, 2.4% soybean meal, and 1.3% urea (UR), (2) 29.7% ground corn, 9.8% soybean meal, 0.13% ruminally protected (RP) Lys, and 0.07% RP-Met (CSBAA), (3) 25% ground field peas, 12.3% ground corn, and 2.4% soybean meal (FP), or (4) FP supplemented with 0.15% RP-Lys and 0.05% RP-Met (FPAA). Our objective was to test the effects of FP versus UR, FPAA versus CSBAA, and FPAA versus FP on milk yield and composition, N utilization, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation profile, and plasma concentration of AA. Milk yield did not differ across diets. Compared with cows fed UR, those fed FP had greater DM intake, concentration and yield of milk true protein, apparent total-tract digestibility of fiber, urinary excretion of purine derivatives, and concentrations of total volatile fatty acids in the rumen and Lys in plasma, and less milk urea N and ruminal NH 3 -N. The concentration of milk urea N, as well as the concentration and yield of milk fat increased in cows fed FPAA versus CSBAA. Moreover, cows fed FPAA had greater ruminal concentration of total volatile fatty acids, increased proportions of acetate and isobutyrate, and decreased proportions of propionate and valerate than those fed CSBAA. The plasma concentrations of His, Leu, and Phe decreased, whereas plasma Met increased and plasma Lys tended to increase in cows fed FPAA versus CSBAA. Concentration of milk true protein, but not yield, was increased in cows fed FPAA

  7. Prevalence of subclinical ketosis in mainly pasture-grazed dairy cows in New Zealand in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, C W R; McDougall, S; Young, L; Bryan, M A

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of primary subclinical ketosis (SCK) in mainly pasture-grazed dairy cows in three dairy-farming regions of New Zealand 7-12, and 35-40 days post-calving. A second aim was to investigate herd- and cow-level factors associated with the prevalence of SCK. A cross-sectional longitudinal prevalence survey was undertaken in 1,620 dairy cows from 57 herds. A random sample of cows without disease in the prior 30 days were enrolled at one farm visit within 5 days of calving, and blood samples were collected 7 and 28 days later (7-12 and 35-40 days post-calving) for measurement of beta-hydroxy butyrate (BHBA) concentrations using an electronic cow-side meter. SCK was defined as blood BHBA concentration ≥1.4 mmol/L. Mean cow-level prevalence of SCK varied with interval post-calving (16.8 and 3.2% at 7-12 days and 35-40 days post-calving, respectively) and age (13.0 and 13.1% of 2-year olds and ≥8-year olds, respectively, compared to 7.2% of 3-4-year-old cows). Mean herd-level prevalence of SCK was 14.3 (min 0, max 60.0)% and 2.6 (min 0, max 24.4)% at 7-12 days and 35-40 days post-calving, respectively, and was greater in Southland (13.3%) than Waikato and Canterbury herds (6.9 and 4.7%, respectively). This is the first population-based report of the prevalence of SCK in New Zealand dairy herds and demonstrates that age and interval post-calving are important risk factors determining prevalence; and that there is wide variation in prevalence between herds. Subclinical ketosis may be unrecognised but common in many New Zealand dairy cows in the first 2 weeks of lactation.

  8. Metabolic and production profiles of dairy cows in response to decreased nutrient density to increase physiological imbalance at different stages of lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke; Friggens, N C; Thorup, Vivi Mørkøre

    2012-01-01

    . Blood was collected daily and analyzed for metabolites: nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), BHBA, glucose, plasma urea nitrogen, and insulin. The revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (RQUICKI) was calculated for each cow. Liver biopsies collected before and during restriction were analyzed...... for triglycerides, glycogen, phospholipids, glucose, and total lipid content. A generalized linear mixed model was used to determine the effect of stage of lactation on responses during restriction. Regression analyses were used to examine the effect of pre-restriction levels on changes during restriction. Similar...... decreases in milk yield among groups indicate that the capacity of individual responses is dependent on milk yield but the coping strategies used are dependent on stage of lactation. Milk yield was a better predictor of feed intake than DIM. Plasma glucose decreased for all cows, and cows in early lactation...

  9. Corn silage hybrid type and quality of alfalfa hay affect dietary nitrogen utilization by early lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, M S; Neal, K; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Hall, J O; Nestor, K E

    2013-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn silage (CS) hybrids and quality of alfalfa hay (AH) in high-forage dairy diets on N utilization, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance by early-lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. The 8 cows (average days in milk = 23 ± 11.2) were surgically fitted with ruminal cannula, and the 2 squares were conducted simultaneously. Within square, cows were randomly assigned to a sequence of 4 diets: conventional CS (CCS) or brown midrib CS (BMR) was combined with fair-quality AH [FAH: 46.7% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 18.4% crude protein (CP)] or high-quality AH (HAH: 39.2% NDF and 20.7% CP) to form 4 treatments: CCS with FAH, CCS with HAH, BMR with FAH, and BMR with HAH. Diets were isonitrogenous across treatments, averaging 15.9% CP. Each period lasted a total of 21 d, with 14 d for treatment adaptation and 7d for data collection and sampling. Intake of DM and milk yield did not differ in response to CS hybrids or AH quality. Although feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N output by 24%, it did not affect fecal N output. Feeding HAH decreased urinary N output by 15% but increased fecal N output by 20%. Nitrogen efficiency [milk N (g/d)/intake N (g/d)] tended to increase for BMR treatments. Ruminal ammonia-N concentration was lower for cows fed BMR-based diets than for those fed CCS-based diets but was not affected by quality of AH. Feeding BMR-based diets or HAH decreased milk urea N concentration by 23 or 15%, respectively, compared with CCS-based diets or FAH. Total volatile fatty acid concentration increased with HAH but was not influenced by CS hybrids. Feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N-to-fecal N ratio (UN:FN), and it was further reduced by feeding HAH. Although cows fed the BMR-based diets tended to increase milk N-to-manure N ratio, the

  10. An automated walk-over weighing system as a tool for measuring liveweight change in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R A; Morton, J M; Beggs, D S; Anderson, G A; Pyman, M F; Mansell, P D; Blackwood, C B

    2013-07-01

    Automated walk-over weighing systems can be used to monitor liveweights of cattle. Minimal literature exists to describe agreement between automated and static scales, and no known studies describe repeatability when used for daily measurements of dairy cows. This study establishes the repeatability of an automated walk-over cattle-weighing system, and agreement with static electronic scales, when used in a commercial dairy herd to weigh lactating cows. Forty-six lactating dairy cows from a seasonal calving, pasture-based dairy herd in southwest Victoria, Australia, were weighed once using a set of static scales and repeatedly using an automated walk-over weighing system at the exit of a rotary dairy. Substantial agreement was observed between the automated and static scales when assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. Weights measured by the automated walkover scales were within 5% of those measured by the static scales in 96% of weighings. Bland and Altman's 95% limits of agreement were -23.3 to 43.6 kg, a range of 66.9 kg. The 95% repeatability coefficient for automated weighings was 46.3 kg. Removal of a single outlier from the data set increased Lin's concordance coefficient, narrowed Bland and Altman's 95% limits of agreement to a range of 32.5 kg, and reduced the 95% repeatability coefficient to 18.7 kg. Cow misbehavior during walk-over weighing accounted for many of the larger weight discrepancies. The automated walk-over weighing system showed substantial agreement with the static scales when assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. This contrasted with limited agreement when assessed using Bland and Altman's method, largely due to poor repeatability. This suggests the automated weighing system is inadequate for detecting small liveweight differences in individual cows based on comparisons of single weights. Misbehaviors and other factors can result in the recording of spurious values on walk-over scales. Excluding

  11. Physiological and productive responses of multiparous lactating Holstein cows exposed to short-term cooling during severe summer conditions in an arid region of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño-Reyes, L.; Hernández-Rivera, J. A.; Álvarez-Valenzuela, F. D.; Macías-Cruz, U.; Díaz-Molina, R.; Correa-Calderón, A.; Robinson, P. H.; Fadel, J. G.

    2012-11-01

    Heat stress generates a significant economic impact for the dairy industry in arid and semi-arid regions of the world, so that heat abatement is an important issue for dairy producers. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of two short-term cooling periods on physiological and productive status of lactating Holstein cows during hot ambient temperatures. Thirty-nine multiparous cows were blocked by milk yield and assigned to one of three treatments including: control group (C), cows cooled before milking time (0500 and 1700 h daily, 1 h cooling); AM group, cows cooled at 1000 h and before milking (2 h cooling); and AM + PM group, cows cooled at 1100, 1500 and 2200 h, as well as before milking (4 h cooling). The cooling system was placed in the holding pen which the cows were moved through for cooling. Respiratory rate, and temperatures of thurl and right flank, were lower ( P cows from the AM + PM group than AM and C cows during the morning and afternoon. However, udder temperature was higher in the AM + PM group compared to AM and C groups during the afternoon, although lower than the AM group during the morning. Rectal temperature was similar in all groups. Thyroxin concentrations tended ( P cows had a trend ( P cows.

  12. Effect of yeast culture on milk production and metabolic and reproductive performance of early lactation dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalmus Piret

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of this study was to estimate the effect of supplementation with Saccaromyces cerevisiae (SC (Yea-Sacc® 1026 on milk production, metabolic parameters and the resumption of ovarian activity in early lactation dairy cows. Methods The experiment was conducted during 2005/2006 in a commercial tied-house farm with an average of 200 milking Estonian Holstein Friesian cows. The late pregnant multiparous cows (n = 46 were randomly divided into two groups; one group received 10 g yeast culture from two weeks before to 14 weeks after calving. The groups were fed a total mixed ration with silages and concentrates. Milk recording data and blood samples for plasma metabolites were taken. Resumption of luteal activity was determined using milk progesterone (P4 measurements. Uterine bacteriology and ovarian ultrasonography (US were performed and body condition scores (BCS and clinical disease occurrences were recorded. For analysis, the statistical software Stata 9.2 and R were used to compute Cox proportional hazard and linear mixed models. Results The average milk production per cow did not differ between the groups (32.7 ± 6.4 vs 30.7 ± 5.3 kg/day in the SC and control groups respectively, but the production of milk fat (P P 4 results, all cows in both groups ovulated during the experimental period. The resumption of ovarian activity (first ovulations and time required for elimination of bacteria from the uterus did not differ between the groups. Conclusion Supplementation with SC had an effect on milk protein and fat production, but did not influence the milk yield. No effects on PP metabolic status, bacterial elimination from the uterus nor the resumption of ovarian activity were found.

  13. Intravenous lipid infusion affects dry matter intake, methane yield, and rumen bacteria structure in late-lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamp, Ole; Reyer, Henry; Otten, Winfried; Nürnberg, Gerd; Derno, Michael; Wimmers, Klaus; Metges, Cornelia C; Kuhla, Björn

    2018-03-28

    Increasing the dietary fat content of ruminant diets decreases methane (CH 4 ) production. This effect is caused by the toxic properties of fatty acids on rumen microbial populations, coating of feed particles diminishing the accessibility for microbes, and a reduction in dry matter intake (DMI). The latter effect is caused by postabsorptive long-chain fatty acids eliciting anorexic signaling; however, whether circulating long-chain fatty acids affect rumen CH 4 production alike is unknown. To approach this question, 5 rumen-cannulated Holstein cows in late lactation received 2 jugular catheters and were kept in respiration chambers to measure CH 4 production and DMI for 48 h. In a crossover design, cows were intravenously infused with a 20% lipid emulsion (LIPO) or 0.9% NaCl (CON). The LIPO cows received 2.1 kg of triglycerides/d [0.152 ± 0.007 g of triglycerides/(kg of BW × h) -1 ] consisting of 12.1% palmitic acid, 4.2% stearic acid, 31.1% oleic acid, and 52.7% linoleic acid. Blood and rumen fluid samples were taken hourly during the day. Results showed that LIPO compared with CON infusion increased plasma triglyceride as well as free fatty acid and serotonin concentrations but reduced the proportion of de novo synthesized milk fatty acids (sum of C6 to C16). Daily CH 4 production and DMI were lower, whereas daily CH 4 yield (CH 4 /DMI) was greater in LIPO than CON cows, although CH 4 yield decreased from d 1 to d 2 by 2 to 14% in LIPO-infused cows only. This effect was associated with a higher (acetate + butyrate)/propionate ratio, tending lower propionate concentrations between 24 and 34 h of infusion, reduced relative abundances of genera belonging to Succinivibrio, Ruminococcaceae, and Ruminiclostridium, and greater relative Bacteroidetes genus abundances in the rumen. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of azithromycin in lactating dairy cows with subclinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, M F; Errecalde, J O; Mestorino, N

    2010-04-01

    Azithromycin is a time-dependent antimicrobial with long persistence. The main characteristics of azithromycin suggest that it could be useful for treating bovine mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus. To investigate this possibility, its pharmacokinetic (PK) behavior was studied. Six Holstein lactating cows with subclinical mastitis were administered two 10 mg/kg intramuscular (i.m.) doses of azithromycin, with a 48-h interval. Milk and plasma concentrations were measured by microbiological assay. The MIC(90) was determined in 51 S. aureus isolations to calculate pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameters. Milk maximal concentration (C(max)) was 7.76 +/- 1.76 microg/mL (16.67 h post-first administration) and 7.82 +/- 2.18 microg/mL (14 h post-2(nd) administration). In plasma C(max) was 0.18 +/- 0.03 microg/mL (2 h post-1(rst) administration) and 0.11 +/- 0.03 microg/mL (14 h post-2(nd) administration). Azithromycin was eliminated from the milk with a half-life (T(1/2)lambda) of 158.26 +/- 137.7 h after 2(nd) administration, meanwhile plasma T(1/2)lambda resulted shorter(13.97 +/- 11.1 h). The mean area under the concentration vs. time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC(0-24h)) was 153.82 +/- 34.66 microg.h/mL in milk secretion and 2.61 +/- 0.59 microgxh/mL in plasma. Infection presence in the quarters had a significant effect (P time curve from 0 to infinity (AUC(0-infinity)) and clearance from the mammary gland (Cl(mam)/F). Moreover, it had influence on milk bioavailability (F(milk)), T(1/2)lambda, AUC(0-infinity) and mean residence time (MRT) in milk, which values resulted increased in mastitic quarters. In this study, it was determined that the production level and the mammary health status have an influence on PK parameters of azithromycin treatments in bovine mastitis.

  15. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with thermoregulation in lactating dairy cows exposed to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, S; Wang, X-z; Ortega, M S; Cole, J B; Null, D J; Hansen, P J

    2015-12-01

    Dairy cows with increased rectal temperature experience lower milk yield and fertility. Rectal temperature during heat stress is heritable, so genetic selection for body temperature regulation could reduce effects of heat stress on production. One aim of the study was to validate the relationship between genotype and heat tolerance for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with resistance to heat stress. A second aim was to identify new SNPs associated with heat stress resistance. Thermotolerance was assessed in lactating Holsteins during the summer by measuring rectal temperature (a direct measurement of body temperature regulation; n = 435), respiration rate (an indirect measurement of body temperature regulation, n = 450) and sweating rate (the major evaporative cooling mechanism in cattle, n = 455). The association between genotype and thermotolerance was evaluated for 19 SNPs previously associated with rectal temperature from a genomewide analysis study (GWAS), four SNPs previously associated with change in milk yield during heat stress from GWAS, 2 candidate gene SNPs previously associated with rectal temperature and respiration rate during heat stress (ATPA1A and HSP70A) and 66 SNPs in genes previously shown to be associated with reproduction, production or health traits in Holsteins. For SNPs previously associated with heat tolerance, regions of BTA4, BTA6 and BTA24 were associated with rectal temperature; regions of BTA6 and BTA24 were associated with respiration rate; and regions of BTA5, BTA26 and BTA29 were associated with sweating rate. New SNPs were identified for rectal temperature (n = 12), respiration rate (n = 8) and sweating rate (n = 3) from among those previously associated with production, reproduction or health traits. The SNP that explained the most variation were PGR and ASL for rectal temperature, ACAT2 and HSD17B7 for respiration rate, and ARL6IP1 and SERPINE2 for sweating rate. ARL6IP1 was associated with all three

  16. Effects of calcium salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids on productive and reproductive parameters of lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, M M; Cooke, R F; Ranches, J; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2012-12-01

    Two experiments evaluated milk production, serum progesterone and insulin, and reproductive performance of lactating Holstein cows receiving or not receiving Ca salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or receiving Ca salts of PUFA at different daily frequencies. In experiment 1, 1,125 cows randomly distributed in 10 freestall barns were enrolled. Barns were assigned randomly to receive a high-concentrate diet containing (PF) or not containing (control, CON) 1.1% (dry matter basis) Ca salts of PUFA. Diets were offered 6 times daily, whereas the Ca salts of PUFA were included in the PF treatment in the first feeding of the day. In experiment 2, 1,572 cows were randomly distributed in 10 freestall barns, which were assigned randomly to receive a diet similar to PF, but with Ca salts of PUFA included only in the first feeding of the day (PF1X), or equally distributed across all 6 feedings (PF6X). During both experiments, cows were artificially inseminated 12 h after the onset of estrus. Once per month, cows that did not conceive to artificial insemination were assigned to a fixed-time embryo transfer protocol. Pregnancy was determined via transrectal ultrasonography 28 and 60 d after expected ovulation. Pregnancy loss was considered in cows that were pregnant on d 28 but nonpregnant on d 60. During both experiments, feed intake, milk yield, and milk protein and fat content were recorded weekly. Blood samples were collected concurrently with embryo transfer. During experiment 1, feed intake was similar between treatments. Compared with CON, PF cows had greater milk yield (37.8 vs. 35.3 kg/d), and reduced milk fat content (3.41 vs. 3.55%). However, PF cows had reduced pregnancy losses per service compared with CON (12.6 vs. 18.3%). Serum progesterone was greater and serum insulin tended to be greater in primiparous cows receiving PF compared with CON cohorts (4.50 vs. 3.67 ng of progesterone/mL, and 10.4 vs. 7.5 µUI of insulin/mL). During experiment 2, no treatment

  17. Studies on test-day and lactation milk, fat and protein yield of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilmink, J.B.M.

    1987-01-01

    Data of milk recording provides the basis to control herd management and genetic improvement of cows. Different management guides can be presented to dairy farmers. Breeding values are predicted for 305-day yields in order to select bulls and cows. However, breeding values should be

  18. Natural Antibodies Related to Energy Balance in Early Lactation Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Vries Reilingh, de G.; Meulenberg, S.; Brand, van den H.; Dijkstra, J.; Kemp, B.; Parmentier, H.K.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the presence of natural antibodies (NAb) in plasma and milk of individual dairy cows and to study the relation between NAb concentrations and energy balance (EB) and dietary energy source. Cows (n = 76) were fed a mainly glucogenic, lipogenic, or a

  19. Factors affecting synchronization and conception rate after the Ovsynch protocol in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, K N; Santos, J E P

    2010-06-01

    Objectives were to evaluate risk factors affecting ovulatory responses and conception rate to the Ovsynch protocol. Holstein cows, 466, were submitted to the Ovsynch protocol [day 0, GnRH-1; day 7, prostaglandin (PG) F(2alpha); day 9, GnRH-2] and 103 cows were inseminated 12 h after GnRH-2. Information on parity, days in milk at GnRH-1, body condition, milk yield, exposure to heat stress, pre-synchronization with PGF(2alpha) and the use of progesterone insert from GnRH-1 to PGF(2alpha) was collected. Ovaries were scanned to determine responses to treatments. Overall, 54.7%, 10.6%, 2.2%, 81.1%, 9.0%, 91.5% and 36.9% of the cows ovulated to GnRH-1, multiple ovulated to GnRH-1, ovulated before GnRH-2, ovulated to GnRH-2, multiple ovulated to GnRH-2, experienced corpus luteum (CL) regression and conceived, respectively. Ovulation to GnRH-1 was greater in cows without a CL at GnRH-1, cows with follicles >19 mm and cows not pre-synchronized with PGF(2alpha) 14 days before GnRH-1. Multiple ovulations to GnRH-1 increased in cows without CL at GnRH-1 and cows with follicles Conception rate at 42 days after AI increased in cows with body condition score > 2.75 and cows that ovulated to GnRH-2. Strategies that optimize ovulation to GnRH-2, such as increased ovulation to GnRH-1, should improve response to the Ovsynch protocol.

  20. Effects of butafosfan with or without cyanocobalamin on the metabolism of early lactating cows with subclinical ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuber, U; van Dorland, H A; Bruckmaier, R M

    2016-02-01

    Fifty-one dairy cows with subclinical ketosis were used to investigate the effects of butafosfan alone or in combination with cyanocobalamin on metabolism. Treatments included i.v. injection of 10 ml/100 kg of body weight with butafosfan (BUT) or combined cyanocobalamin with butafosfan (BUTCO) at a similar concentration as in Catosal(®) . Control cows (CON) received a 0.9% saline solution. Cows were injected on days 1-3 at 22.3 ± 0.7 days post-partum. Milk production and composition were not affected by the treatments. In plasma, CON cows had a significantly higher plasma NEFA concentration (0.59 ± 0.03 mm) across the study period than BUTCO cows (p < 0.05; 0.42 ± 0.03 mm), whereas the plasma NEFA concentration of BUT was intermediate (0.52 ± 0.03 mm) but not significantly different from CON. Both BUTCO and BUT cows had lower (p < 0.05) plasma BHBA concentrations (1.02 ± 0.06 mm and 1.21 ± 0.06 mm, respectively) across the study period than CON (1.34 ± 0.06 mm). Plasma glucose was not different between treatments, but plasma glucagon concentrations were consistently high in BUT compared to BUTCO and CON. Lowest post-treatment glucagon levels were observed in BUTCO. Hepatic mRNA abundance of liver X receptor α, a nuclear receptor protein involved in lipid metabolism, was higher in BUTCO compared to BUT and CON (p < 0.05) on day 7. Furthermore, on day 7, the mRNA abundance of beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 2 was higher in BUTCO compared to BUT and CON (p < 0.01). In conclusion, injections of combined cyanocobalamin with butafosfan post-partum in early lactation ketotic dairy cows act on lipid metabolism with effects on plasma metabolites, most likely mediated via modified activity of key factors in the liver. Results indicate that the application of butafosfan only in combination with cyanocobalamin exhibits the expected positive effects on metabolism. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Exposure of Lactating Dairy Cows to Acute Pre-Ovulatory Heat Stress Affects Granulosa Cell-Specific Gene Expression Profiles in Dominant Follicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanselow, Jens; Vernunft, Andreas; Koczan, Dirk; Spitschak, Marion; Kuhla, Björn

    2016-01-01

    High environmental temperatures induce detrimental effects on various reproductive processes in cattle. According to the predicted global warming the number of days with unfavorable ambient temperatures will further increase. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of acute heat stress during the late pre-ovulatory phase on morphological, physiological and molecular parameters of dominant follicles in cycling cows during lactation. Eight German Holstein cows in established lactation were exposed to heat stress (28°C) or thermoneutral conditions (15°C) with pair-feeding for four days. After hormonal heat induction growth of the respective dominant follicles was monitored by ultrasonography for two days, then an ovulatory GnRH dose was given and follicular steroid hormones and granulosa cell-specific gene expression profiles were determined 23 hrs thereafter. The data showed that the pre-ovulatory growth of dominant follicles and the estradiol, but not the progesterone concentrations tended to be slightly affected. mRNA microarray and hierarchical cluster analysis revealed distinct expression profiles in granulosa cells derived from heat stressed compared to pair-fed animals. Among the 255 affected genes heatstress-, stress- or apoptosis associated genes were not present. But instead, we found up-regulation of genes essentially involved in G-protein coupled signaling pathways, extracellular matrix composition, and several members of the solute carrier family as well as up-regulation of FST encoding follistatin. In summary, the data of the present study show that acute pre-ovulatory heat stress can specifically alter gene expression profiles in granulosa cells, however without inducing stress related genes and pathways and suggestively can impair follicular growth due to affecting the activin-inhibin-follistatin system. PMID:27532452

  2. Relationship between residual feed intake and digestibility for lactating Holstein cows fed high and low starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, S B; Boerman, J P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S; VandeHaar, M J

    2017-01-01

    We determined if differences in digestibility among cows explained variation in residual feed intake (RFI) in 4 crossover design experiments. Lactating Holstein cows (n=109; 120±30d in milk; mean ± SD) were fed diets high (HS) or low (LS) in starch. The HS diets were 30% (±1.8%) starch and 27% (±1.2%) neutral detergent fiber (NDF); LS diets were 14% (±2.2%) starch and 40% (±5.3%) NDF. Each experiment consisted of two 28-d treatment periods, with apparent total-tract digestibility measured using indigestible NDF as an internal marker during the last 5d of each period. Individual cow dry matter (DM) intake and milk yield were recorded daily, body weight was measured 3 to 5 times per week, and milk components were analyzed 2 d/wk. Individual DM intake was regressed on milk energy output, metabolic body weight, body energy gain, and fixed effects of parity, experiment, cohort (a group of cows that received treatments in the same sequence) nested within experiment, and diet nested within cohort and experiment, with the residual being RFI. High RFI cows ate more than expected and were deemed less efficient. Residual feed intake correlated negatively with digestibility of starch for both HS (r=-0.31) and LS (r=-0.23) diets, and with digestibilities of DM (r=-0.30) and NDF (r=-0.23) for LS diets but was not correlated with DM or NDF digestibility for HS diets. For each cohort within an experiment, cows were classified as high RFI (HRFI; >0.5 SD), medium RFI (MRFI; ±0.5 SD), and low RFI (LRFI; Digestibility of DM was similar (~66%) among HRFI and LRFI for HS diets but greater for LRFI when fed LS diets (64 vs. 62%). For LS diets, digestibility of DM could account for up to 31% of the differences among HRFI and LRFI for apparent diet energy density, as determined from individual cow performance, indicating that digestibility explains some of the between-animal differences for the ability to convert gross energy into net energy. Some of the differences in digestibility

  3. Use of inline measures of l-lactate dehydrogenase for classification of posttreatment mammary Staphylococcus aureus infection status in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carina; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard; Østergaard, Søren

    2016-01-01

    An automated method for determining whether dairy cows with subclinical mammary infections recover after antibiotic treatment would be a useful tool in dairy production. For that purpose, online . l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) measurements was modeled using a dynamic linear model; the variance...... . Staphylococcus aureus infection from 4 herds collected in 2010. The uninfected data set came from 35 uninfected cows collected during 2013 from 2 herds. Bacteriological culturing was used as gold standard. To test the model, we collected data from the 48 infected cows 50 d after antibiotic treatment. As a result...

  4. Long term effect of reduced dietary phosphorus on feed intake and milk yield in dry and lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puggaard, Liselotte; Lund, Peter; Liesegang, A.

    2014-01-01

    Eighteen multiparous Holstein cows were used to study the long term effect of reducing dietary P concentration on intake of DM and milk yield, on blood levels of inorganic phosphate (Pi), Ca, vitamin D3, parathyroid hormone (PTH) as well as assessing bone turnover by the use of bone formation......) (2.1g P/kg DM) and High P (HP) (2.5g P/kg DM). After parturition and throughout lactation treatments were LP (2.3g P/kg DM), MP (2.8g P/kg DM) and HP (3.4g P/kg DM). Differences in dietary P were obtained by adding 0.60 and 1.19% mono-sodium phosphate per kg DM to MP and HP, respectively. The cows...... were fed restrictively pre-partum and for ad libitum intake from one week before expected calving and throughout the experiment. Due to a high number of health problems, LP treatment was terminated after sampling in week 12, and cows were shifted to HP and continued on this treatment until week 36...

  5. Feed-derived volatile basic nitrogen increases reactive oxygen species production of blood leukocytes in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Ei; Gross, Josef J; Kawashima, Chiho; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Kida, Katsuya; Miyamoto, Akio

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated over 9 months the changes of fermentative quality of total mixed rations (TMR) containing grass silage (GS) as a major component, associated with changes in the volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) levels in an experimental dairy farm. Effects of VBN levels in TMR on metabolic parameters, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and conception rates for dairy cows were analyzed. According to VBN levels in TMR during survey periods, three distinct phases were identified; phase A with low VBN; phase B with high VBN; and phase C with mid-VBN. Metabolic parameters in blood were all within normal range. However, during phases B and C, nitrogen metabolic indices such as blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen showed higher levels compared to those in phase A, and a simultaneous increase in ROS production by blood PMNs and the load on hepatic function in metabolic parameters was observed in the cows with a lower conception rate. This suggests that feeding TMR with elevated VBN levels due to poor fermented GS results in stimulation of ROS production by PMNs by ammonia, and negatively affects metabolism and reproductive performance in lactating dairy cow. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Rumen Fermentation and Performance of Lactating Dairy Cows Affected by Physical Forms and Urea Treatment of Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gunun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different physical forms and urea treatment of rice straw on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and milk production. Four, multiparous Holstein crossbred dairy cows in mid-lactation with initial body weight (BW of 409±20 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments were as follows: untreated, long form rice straw (LRS, urea-treated (5%, long form rice straw (5% ULRS, urea-treated (2.5%, long form rice straw (2.5% ULRS and urea-treated (2.5%, chopped (4 cm rice straw (2.5% UCRS. Cows were fed with concentrate diets at a ratio of concentrate to milk yield of 1:2 and rice straw was fed ad libitum. The findings revealed significant improvements in total DM intake and digestibility by using long and short forms of urea-treated rice straw (p0.05, whereas ruminal NH3-N, BUN and MUN were found to be increased (p<0.01 by urea-treated rice straw as compared with untreated rice straw. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs concentrations especially those of acetic acid were decreased (p<0.05 and those of propionic acid were increased (p<0.05, thus acetic acid:propionic acid was subsequently lowered (p<0.05 in cows fed with long or short forms of urea-treated rice straw. The 2.5% ULRS and 2.5% UCRS had greater microbial protein synthesis and was greatest when cows were fed with 5% ULRS. The urea-treated rice straw fed groups had increased milk yield (p<0.05, while lower feed cost and greater economic return was in the 2.5% ULRS and 2.5% UCRS (p<0.01. From these results, it could be concluded that 2.5% ULRS could replace 5% ULRS used as a roughage source to maintain feed intake, rumen fermentation, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, milk production and economical return in mid-lactating dairy cows.

  7. Effects of feeding brown midrib corn silage with a high dietary concentration of alfalfa hay on lactational performance of Holstein dairy cows for the first 180 days of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, M S; Eun, J-S; Thacker, C R; Young, A J; Dai, X; Nestor, K E

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to test a hypothesis that lactating dairy cows fed 35% brown midrib (BMR) corn silage and 25% alfalfa hay (dry matter (DM) basis) would consume more DM around peak lactation compared with those fed conventional corn silage (CS), resulting in longer peak milk production. Twenty-eight multiparous Holstein cows were used starting at the onset of lactation through 180 d in milk (DIM). Treatments were formulated to maintain a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 60:40, differing only in the CS hybrids used. Two dietary treatments were assessed in a completely randomized design: total mixed ration based on conventional CS (CCS) and total mixed ration based on BMR silage. Through peak lactation (1-60 DIM), DM intake was not different between dietary treatments, whereas DM intake post-peak lactation (61-180 DIM) tended to increase by feeding the BMR diet compared with the CCS diet (25.8 vs. 24.7 kg/d). Cows fed the BMR diet tended to lose less body weight through peak lactation compared with those fed the CCS diet (-0.22 vs. -0.52 kg/d). Although milk yield was not different between dietary treatments through peak lactation, milk yield post-peak lactation increased by feeding the BMR diet compared with the CCS diet (41.0 vs. 38.8 kg/d). Yield of 3.5% fat-corrected milk was similar between dietary treatments throughout the experiment (41.4 kg/d, on average), but milk fat concentration decreased by feeding the BMR diet compared with the CCS diet post-peak lactation (3.47 vs. 3.80%). Overall milk protein concentration was similar between dietary treatments throughout the experiment (2.96%, on average), whereas milk protein yield tended to be higher for the BMR diet post-peak lactation compared with the CCS diet (1.19 vs.1.13 kg/d). Feeding BMR silage with a high dietary concentration of alfalfa hay maintained more body weight, but did not affect milk production through peak lactation; however, cows fed the BMR diet post-peak lactation consumed more

  8. The control of short-term feed intake by metabolic oxidation in late-pregnant and early lactating dairy cows exposed to high ambient temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamizad, Mehdi; Lamp, Ole; Derno, Michael; Kuhla, Björn

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to integrate the dynamics of feed intake and metabolic oxidation in late pregnant and early lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions. On day 21 before parturition and again on day 20 after parturition, seven Holstein cows were kept for 7days at thermoneutral (TN) conditions (15°C; temperature-humidity-index (THI)=60) followed by a 7day heat stress (HS) period at 28°C (THI=76). On the last day of each temperature condition, gas exchange, feed intake and water intake were recorded every 6min in a respiration chamber. Pre- and post-partum cows responded to HS by decreasing feed intake. The reduction in feed intake in pre-partum cows was achieved through decreased meal size, meal duration, eating rate and daily eating time with no change in meal frequency, while post-partum cows kept under HS conditions showed variable responses in feeding behavior. In both pre- and post-partum cows exposed to heat stress, daily and resting metabolic heat production decreased while the periprandial respiratory quotient (RQ) increased. The prolonged time between meal and the postprandial minimum in fat oxidation and the postprandial RQ maximum, respectively, revealed that HS as compared to TN early-lactating cows have slower postprandial fat oxidation, longer feed digestion, and thereby showing a shift from fat to glucose utilization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of a point-of-care electrochemical meter to detect subclinical ketosis and hypoglycaemia in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakian, A; Tehrani-Sharif, M; Mokhber-Dezfouli, M R; Nouri, M; Constable, P D

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate and validate a hand-held electrochemical meter (Precision Xtra®) as a screening test for subclinical ketosis and hypoglycaemia in lactating dairy cattle. Method comparison study using a convenience sample. Blood samples were collected into plain tubes from the coccygeal vessels of 181 Holstein cows at 2-4 weeks of lactation during summer in Iran. Blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration (BHB) and glucose concentration were immediately measured by the electrochemical meter after applying 20 μL of blood to the reagent strip. Passing-Bablok regression and Bland-Altman plots were used to determine the accuracy of the meter against laboratory reference methods (BHB dehydrogenase and glucose oxidase). Serum BHB ranged from 0.1 to 7.3 mmol/L and serum glucose ranged from 0.9 to 5.1 mmol/L. Passing-Bablok regression analysis indicated that the electrochemical meter and reference methods were linearly related for BHB and glucose, with a slope estimate that was not significantly different from 1.00. Clinically minor, but statistically significant, differences were present for the intercept value for Passing-Bablok regression analysis for BHB and glucose, and bias estimates in the Bland-Altman plots for BHB and glucose. The electrochemical meter provided a clinically useful method to detect subclinical ketosis and hypoglycaemia in lactating dairy cows. Compared with other method validation studies using the meter, we attributed the improved performance of the electrochemical meter to application of a fixed volume of blood (20 μL) to the reagent strip, use of the meter in hot ambient conditions and use of glucose oxidase as the reference method for glucose analysis. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  10. Models to estimate lactation curves of milk yield and somatic cell count in dairy cows at the herd level for the use in simulations and predictive models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaare Græsbøll

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Typically, central milk recording data from dairy herds are recorded less than monthly. Over-fitting early in lactation periods is a challenge, which we explored in different ways by reducing the number of parameters needed to describe the milk yield and somatic cell count of individual cows. Furthermore, we investigated how the parameters of lactation models correlate between parities and from dam to offspring. The aim of the study was to provide simple and robust models for cow level milk yield and somatic cell count (SCC for fitting to sparse data to parameterise herd- and cow-specific simulation of dairy herds.Data from 610 Danish Holstein herds were used to determine parity traits in milk production regarding milk yield and SCC of individual cows. Parity was stratified in first, second and third and higher for milk, and first to sixth and higher for SCC. Fitting of herd level parameters allowed for cow level lactation curves with three, two or one-parameters per lactation. Correlations of milk yield and SCC were estimated between lactations and between dam and offspring.The shape of the lactation curves varied markedly between farms. The correlation between lactations for milk yield and SCC were 0.2-0.6 and significant on more than 95% of farms. The variation in the daily milk yield was observed to be a source of variation to the SCC, and the total SCC was less correlated with the milk production than somatic cells per ml. A positive correlation was found between relative levels of the total SCC and the milk yield.The variation of lactation and SCC curves between farms highlights the importance of a herd level approach. The one-parameter per cow model using a herd level curve allows for estimating the cow production level from first the recording in the parity, while a two-parameter model requires more recordings for a credible estimate, but may more precisely predict persistence, and given the independence of parameters, these can be

  11. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, Katiéli Caroline; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; de Palma, André Soligo Vizeu; Martins, Mellory Martinson; Dos Reis, Bárbara Roqueto; Schmidt, Bárbara Laís Unglaube; Saran Netto, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce.

  12. Productive, physiological and biochemical changes in imported and locally born Friesian and holstein lactating cow under hot summer conditions of egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habeeb, A.A.M.; Marai, I.F.M.; Gabr, H.; Farghaly, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    A number of 20 of each of healthy lactating friesian and holstein cows similar age and body weight, non-pregnant at the 3 rd lactation season, 80-100 days postpartum, were used in the present study. The investigation was carried out in two farms at the same time during the hot summer season of egypt and lasted 8 weeks. The first farm was in damietta (North east of the nile delta, 31 degree 40 N) including 20 friesian cows and the second one was in Fakous (East of the Nile delta 30 degree 40 N) including 20 holstein cows. In each of the two farms, 10 cows were newly imported and other 10 ones were born in egypt. The results showed that the newly imported cows were significantly (P <0.01) higher than the locally born cows in average daily milk yield, as well as, milk production in both friesian and holstein strains at the same time, the newly imported cows were significantly (P < 0.01 or 0.05) lower than the locally born in T4, T3, urea-N, blood picture values and GPT enzyme activity in the two strains of cattle, while the locally born cows showed significantly (P < 0.01 or 0.05) lower values in rectal temperature and respiration rate, as well as, Got and ALK-P enzymes activities than in the newly imported cows either in friesian or holstein cattle. Holstein cows surpassed friesian ones (P < 0.01 or 0.05) in milk production, thyroid hormones content, cholesterol, haemoglobin, packed cell volume and erythrocyte count values. The opposite was true in serum total protein, urea-N, creatinine concentrations, leucocyte counts, Got, GPT and ALK-P enzymes activities

  13. Effects of temperature-humidity index and chromium supplementation on antioxidant capacity, heat shock protein 72, and cytokine responses of lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F J; Weng, X G; Wang, J F; Zhou, D; Zhang, W; Zhai, C C; Hou, Y X; Zhu, Y H

    2014-07-01

    Heat stress adversely affects the productivity and immune status of dairy cows. The temperature-humidity index (THI) is commonly used to indicate the degree of heat stress on dairy cattle. We investigated the effects of different THI and Cr supplementation on the antioxidant capacity, the levels of heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72), and cytokine responses of lactating cows. The study used a total of 24 clinically healthy uniparous midlactation Holstein cows, which were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 12 per group), and was conducted in 3 designated THI periods: low THI period (LTHI; THI = 56.4 ± 2.5), moderate THI period (MTHI; THI = 73.9 ± 1.7), and high THI period (HTHI; THI = 80.3 ± 1.0). The 2 groups of cows were fed corn and corn silage based basal diet supplemented chromium picolinate to provide 3.5 mg of Cr/cow daily (Cr+) or basal diet with no Cr (Cr-). The experiment was a 3 × 2 factorial design. The numbers of leukocytes (P Cows supplemented with Cr had lower (P = 0.009) serum concentrations of cholesterol but greater (P cows supplemented with Cr had greater (P = 0.038) expression of the inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B α (IκBα) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) compared with those without Cr supplementation in the HTHI, whereas the expression of Hsp72 in PBMC was unaltered. Data indicate that there is a decrease in glucose and increases in BUN and creatinine in the serum of midlactation cows under hot conditions during the summer and that these cows have a lowered oxidative capacity but an elevated antioxidant capacity. In addition, Cr may play an anti-inflammatory role in lactating cows by promoting the release of Hsp72, increasing the production of IL-10, and inhibiting the degradation of IκBα under hot conditions during the summer.

  14. Effects of first postpartum progesterone rise, metabolites, milk yield, and body condition score on the subsequent ovarian activity and fertility in lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafi, Mojtaba; Mirzaei, Abdolah

    2010-04-01

    Seventy multiparous healthy lactating Holstein cows (fat-corrected milk yield = 7,561.8 kg) were monitored from 14 days before to 70 days after calving. Transrectal ultrasound scanning was performed twice weekly from 7 to 65 days postpartum. Blood samples were also collected twice weekly to measure serum P(4) and biweekly to detect serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (betaHB) and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations. Body condition score (BCS) was taken biweekly after calving. Based on the serum P(4) profile of 59 cows (11 cows were excluded due to the occurrence of postpartum diseases) studied, 27 (45.8%) had normal ovarian activity, while 21 (35.6%), six (10.1%), three (5.1%), and two (3.4%) had delayed ovulation (DOV), prolonged luteal phase (PLP), short luteal phase (SLP), and cessation of ovarian activity, respectively. Cows with PLP had an earlier ovulation compared to that of cows with normal ovarian activity (23.16 +/- 4.02 vs 31.9 +/- 8.35 days; P cows also had a greater mean +/- standard deviation peak milk yield (44.2 +/- 5.8 vs 37.2 +/- 5.7 kg/day, 75 days postpartum; P cows with normal postpartum ovarian activity. The PLP group also had greater milk production in the previous lactation period. Logistic regression analysis indicated that cows with P(4) concentration > or =1 ng/ml on day 24 after calving were more at risk for PLP by 1.1 for each 1 kg increase in mean peak milk yield during 75 days after calving. BCS was lower in cows with DOV compared to that of cows with normal ovarian activity at any time after calving (P cows were significantly higher than that of normal cows on day 42 after calving (0.69 +/- 0.29 vs 0.54 +/- 0.12 mmol/L, P cows in different groups at any time after calving (P > 0.05). The concentrations of P(4) on days 28 and 31 were negatively correlated with betaHB concentration on day 42 after calving in cows with normal ovarian activity (R = -0.44, P = 0.02). In conclusion, these findings suggest that early ovulation and hence

  15. Investigation of the Incidence and Diagnosis of Subclinical Mastitis in Early Lactation Period Cows

    OpenAIRE

    BAŞTANC, Ayhan; KAÇAR, Cihan; ACAR, Duygu B.; ŞAHİN, Mithat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the results of the California mastitis test (CMT) and bacteriological culture for detection of subclinical intramammary infections after 10 days postpartum. Samples were collected from 102 cows. The CMT was performed once on each cow. The results of bacteriological culture and the CMT were compared in 344 milk samples. Two hundred fifty samples were CMT (+) and 94 samples were CMT (-); 224 samples were bacteriologic culture (+) and 120 samples were culture...

  16. Effects of rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin on productivity and responses to a glucose tolerance test in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J; Harper, M; Giallongo, F; Bravo, D M; Wall, E H; Hristov, A N

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin (RPC) supplementation on feed intake, milk yield and composition, nutrient utilization, fecal microbial ecology, and responses to a glucose tolerance test in lactating dairy cows. Nine multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design balanced for residual effects with three 28-d periods. Each period consisted of 14 d for adaptation and 14 d for data collection and sampling. Treatments were 0 (control), 100, and 200 mg of RPC/cow per day. They were mixed with a small portion of the total mixed ration and top-dressed. Glucose tolerance test was conducted once during each experimental period by intravenous administration of glucose at a rate of 0.3 g/kg of body weight. Dry matter intake was not affected by RPC. Milk yield tended to increase for RPC treatments compared to the control. Feed efficiency was linearly increased by RPC supplementation. Concentrations of fat, true protein, and lactose in milk were not affected by RPC. Apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein was linearly increased, and fecal nitrogen excretion was linearly decreased by RPC supplementation. Rumen-protected Capsicum oleoresin did not affect the composition of fecal bacteria. Glucose concentration in serum was not affected by RPC supplementation post glucose challenge. However, compared to the control, RPC decreased serum insulin concentration at 5, 10, and 40 min post glucose challenge. The area under the insulin concentration curve was also decreased 25% by RPC. Concentration of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate in serum were not affected by RPC following glucose administration. In this study, RPC tended to increase milk production and increased feed efficiency in dairy cows. In addition, RPC decreased serum insulin concentration during the glucose tolerance test, but glucose concentration was not affected

  17. Effect of feeding biotin on milk production and hoof health in lactating dairy cows: a quantitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, I J; Rabiee, A R

    2011-03-01

    Objectives of this study were to critically review randomized controlled trials, evaluate the effectiveness of supplementation with biotin on milk yield and composition and hoof health in lactating dairy cows, explore sources of heterogeneity among studies, and evaluate publication bias. Quantitative assessments can increase the statistical power with which we study the effect of treatments, such as biotin, on outcomes. A total of 9 papers, with 6 production and 3 hoof health studies, met the eligibility criteria for meta-analysis. Eight studies evaluated various hoof lesions in biotin-supplemented cows that did not meet the inclusion criteria. Eleven comparisons were made of milk production responses to biotin treatment. Data extracted included the number of cows in control and treatment groups, measures of variance of responses (standard error or standard deviation) and P-values. Other data obtained included the duration of treatment before and after calving, parity, breed of cow, type and dose of biotin, delivery method of supplementation, and types of diets. Biotin increased milk production by 1.29 kg per head per day (95% confidence interval=0.35 to 2.18 kg) with no evidence of heterogeneity (I(2)=0.0%). Treatment did not affect milk fat or protein percentages, and a trend to increase fat and protein yields was observed. Milk production and composition results were not influenced by duration of treatment before calving, parity, or diet type. Assessment of biotin supplementation on hoof health indicated that more studies had improved rather than negative or neutral outcomes. The effect of biotin treatment on milk production was relatively large and the effects on fat and protein yields, although not significant, were consistent in direction and magnitude with the milk response. The hoof health responses to biotin should encourage further studies to more effectively define the nature of these responses using consistent criteria for examination of hoof conditions

  18. Consequences of dietary energy source and energy level on energy balance, lactogenic hormones, and lactation curve characteristics of cows after a short or omitted dry period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoeij, R J; Dijkstra, J; Bruckmaier, R M; Gross, J J; Lam, T J G M; Remmelink, G J; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2017-10-01

    Omitting the dry period (DP) generally reduces milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary energy source-glucogenic (G) or lipogenic (L)-and energy level-standard (std) or low-on milk production; energy balance (EB); lactogenic hormones insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone (GH); and lactation curve characteristics between wk 1 and 44 postpartum in cows after a 0-d or 30-d DP. Cows (n = 110) were assigned randomly to 3 transition treatments: a 30-d DP with a standard energy level required for expected milk yield [30-d DP(std)], a 0-d DP with the same energy level as cows with a 30-d DP [0-d DP(std)], and a 0-d DP with a low energy level [0-d DP(low)]. In wk 1 to 7, cows were fed the same basal ration but the level of concentrate increased to 6.7 kg/d for cows fed the low energy level and to 8.5 kg/d for cows fed the standard energy level in wk 4. From wk 8 postpartum onward, cows received a G ration (mainly consisting of corn silage and grass silage) or an L ration (mainly consisting of grass silage and sugar beet pulp) with the same energy level contrast (low or std) as in early lactation. Cows fed the G ration had greater milk, lactose, and protein yields, lower milk fat percentage, greater dry matter and energy intakes, and greater plasma IGF-1 concentration compared with cows fed the L ration. Dietary energy source did not affect EB or lactation curve characteristics. In cows with a 0-d DP, the reduced energy level decreased energy intake, EB, and weekly body weight gain, but did not affect milk production or lactation curve characteristics. A 30-d DP resulted in a greater total predicted lactation yield, initial milk yield after calving, peak milk yield, energy intake, energy output in milk, days to conception [only when compared with 0-d DP(low)], plasma GH concentration [only when compared with 0-d DP(std)], and decreased weekly body weight gain compared with a 0-d DP. A

  19. Molecular insights into the mechanisms of liver-associated diseases in early-lactating dairy cows: hypothetical role of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringseis, R; Gessner, D K; Eder, K

    2015-08-01

    The transition period represents the most critical period in the productive life of high-yielding dairy cows due to both metabolic and inflammatory stimuli, which challenge the liver and predispose dairy cows to develop liver-associated diseases such as fatty liver and ketosis. Despite the fact that all high-yielding dairy cows are affected by marked metabolic stress due to a severe negative energy balance (NEB) during early lactation, not all cows develop liver-associated diseases. Although the reason for this is largely unknown, this indicates that the capacity of the liver to cope with metabolic and inflammatory challenges varies between individual high-yielding dairy cows. Convincing evidence exists that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a key role in the development of fatty liver, and it has been recently shown that ER stress occurs in the liver of high-yielding dairy cows. This indicates that ER stress may be involved in the development of liver-associated diseases in dairy cows. The present review shows that the liver of dairy cows during early lactation is exposed to several metabolic and inflammatory challenges, such as non-esterified fatty acids, tumour necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β, reactive oxygen species and lipopolysaccharides, which are known inducers of ER stress. Thus, ER stress may represent a molecular basis for fatty liver development and account for the frequent occurrence of fatty liver and ketosis in high-yielding dairy cows. Interindividual differences between dairy cows in the activation of hepatic stress response pathways, such as nuclear factor E2-related factor 2, which is activated during ER stress and reduces the sensitivity of tissues to oxidative and inflammatory damage, might provide an explanation at the molecular level for differences in the capacity to cope with pathological inflammatory challenges during early lactation and the susceptibility to develop liver-associated diseases between early-lactating dairy cows

  20. Stocking density, milking duration, and lying times of lactating cows on Canadian freestall dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, G L; Haley, D B; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M

    2014-05-01

    Lying time is an important measure of cow comfort, and the lying behavior of dairy cattle can now be recorded automatically with the use of accelerometers. To assess the effect that stall stocking density and the time that cows spend away from the home pen being milked has on the lying behavior of Holstein cattle, a total of 111 commercial freestall dairy farms were visited in Canada. Accelerometers were used to automatically record the lying behavior of 40 focal cows per farm. Total duration of lying, lying bout frequency, and the mean duration of lying bouts were calculated. Pen population was the total number of cows in the pen. To calculate stall stocking density (%) the number of cows in the pen and the number of useable stalls were counted and multiplied by 100, and the length × width of the pen was divided by the number of cows in the pen to calculate area/cow (m(2)). Time away from the pen per day was recorded from when the first cow in each pen was taken out of the home pen for milking until the last cow returned to the home pen after milking, and this time was multiplied by daily milking frequency. The median value for lying duration at the farm level was 10.6h/d, with 10.5 lying bouts/d, and a median lying bout duration of 1.2h. Stall stocking density ranged from 52.2 to 160.0%, with very few farms (7%) stocking at greater than 120%. Although stall stocking density was not significantly correlated with lying behavior, the results showed that no farm with stocking density greater that 100% achieved an average herd lying duration of 12h/d or higher, whereas 21.6% of farms with a stocking density of 100% or less did achieve the target lying time of ≥ 12 h/d, as recommended by the Canadian Code of Practice (χ(2)=4.86, degrees of freedom = 1). Area/cow (m(2)) was not correlated with any aspect of lying behavior, but regardless of space per cow, pen population was correlated with daily frequency and duration of lying bouts. As the number of cows in the pen

  1. Development of insulin resistance in dairy cows by 150 days of lactation does not alter oocyte quality in smaller follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, L H; Nascimento, A B; Monteiro, P L J; Guardieiro, M M; Wiltbank, M C; Sartori, R

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that high-producing dairy cows become increasingly resistant to insulin throughout lactation and that, consequently, oocyte quality is compromised. We used Holstein cows at 50 (51.5±3.7; n=30), 100 (102.3±9.4; n=30), and 150 (154.5±18.9; n=30) days in milk (DIM). We measured circulating insulin and glucose and performed a glucose tolerance test (GTT) after 5h of fasting. To evaluate oocyte quality, we performed ovum pickup on the day before the GTT (581 oocytes). We performed statistical analyses using the MIXED procedure of SAS. The model included the fixed effects of DIM, period, time, parity, and an interaction between DIM and time. We observed no difference in the GTT between groups for any variable related to circulating glucose (for example, glucose peak=203.3±7.2, 208.8±6.3, and 194.3±5.9mg/dL). However, various measures of circulating insulin were different in cows at 150 DIM compared with 50 or 100 DIM: higher basal insulin (8.8±0.9, 8.8±0.8, and 11.9±0.8 µIU/mL), peak insulin (61.9±6.2 , 69.1±5.7, and 89.0±6.1 µIU/mL), delta maximum insulin (51.1±5.5 , 59.4±5.0, and 73.5±5.4 µIU/mL), and area under the curve 5-60 (1,874.8±171.0 , 2,189.5±157.8, and 2,610.5±174.0 µIU/mL × min). Nevertheless, we observed no difference among groups in the number of viable oocytes (3.2±0.7, 3.9±0.7, and 3.6±0.7 per cow per ovum pickup) or percentage of viable oocytes (49.3, 52.2, and 51.8%). Increased circulating insulin before and throughout the GTT in cows at 150 DIM indicates that cows develop increasing insulin resistance with increasing DIM; however, increased insulin resistance was not associated with a detectable alteration in the quality of oocytes aspirated from small and medium-sized follicles. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Adding liquid feed to a total mixed ration reduces feed sorting behavior and improves productivity of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, T J; Gill, R M

    2012-05-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of adding a molasses-based liquid feed (LF) supplement to a total mixed ration (TMR) on the feed sorting behavior and production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (88.2±19.5 DIM) were exposed, in a crossover design with 21-d periods, to each of 2 treatment diets: 1) control TMR and 2) control TMR with 4.1% dietary dry matter LF added. Dry matter intake (DMI), sorting, and milk yield were recorded for the last 7 d of each treatment period. Milk samples were collected for composition analysis for the last 3 d of each treatment period; these data were used to calculate 4% fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk yield. Sorting was determined by subjecting fresh feed and orts samples to particle separation and expressing the actual intake of each particle fraction as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Addition of LF did not noticeably change the nutrient composition of the ration, with the exception of an expected increase in dietary sugar concentration (from 4.0 to 5.4%). Liquid feed supplementation affected the particle size distribution of the ration, resulting in a lesser amount of short and a greater amount of fine particles. Cows sorted against the longest ration particles on both treatment diets; the extent of this sorting was greater on the control diet (55.0 vs. 68.8%). Dry matter intake was 1.4 kg/d higher when cows were fed the LF diet as compared with the control diet, resulting in higher acid-detergent fiber, neutral-detergent fiber, and sugar intakes. As a result of the increased DMI, cows tended to produce 1.9 kg/d more milk and produced 3.1 and 3.2 kg/d more 4% fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk, respectively, on the LF diet. As a result, cows tended to produce more milk fat (0.13 kg/d) and produced more milk protein (0.09 kg/d) on the LF diet. No difference between treatments was observed in the efficiency of milk production. Overall, adding a molasses

  3. Association between antral follicle count and reproductive measures in New Zealand lactating dairy cows maintained in a pasture-based production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Marcelo F; Sanderson, Neil; Quirke, Laurel D; Lawrence, Stephen B; Juengel, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    The antral follicle count (AFC) in cattle is consistent throughout the estrous cycle of individual cows, and cows with a lower AFC have lower fertility. We assessed the AFC at random stages of the estrous cycle, examined the correlation between AFC classifications, and determined the relationship between the most rapid and practical laboratory-based AFC classification (AFC of follicles of ≥ 2 mm in diameter) and fertility measures in New Zealand lactating dairy cows. Cows detected in estrus (n = 202) or not (n = 239) during the first 4 weeks of the breeding season were subjected to ultrasonography and classified as having a high, medium, or low AFC at the time of scanning (on-site classification). Images from ultrasound scanning were recorded onto video for accurate follicle counting in an imaging laboratory. A strong association (P Cows with a high AFC had a shorter (P cows with a low AFC. The AFC was positively associated (P cows (7.6 ± 0.3 ng/mL) than in low-AFC cows (6.5 ± 0.3 ng/mL), whether these were pregnant (7.7 ± 0.3 ng/mL) or not (6.3 ± 0.2 ng/mL). A rapid on-site scoring system determined that cows classified as having a high AFC had a shorter (P cows with a low on-site AFC. Collectively, we have confirmed an association between AFC2 and fertility, and these results support the hypothesis that cows with a greater number of antral follicles are more fertile than cows with a lesser number of follicles. Although the on-site classification was related to resumption of estrous cycles after calving, associations with other fertility measurements could not be observed, highlighting a need for further refinement of the on-site classification system for rapid phenotyping of the AFC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of molasses and corn grain at 2 levels of ruminally degradable protein on lactating cow ruminal fermentation and rumen content mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate lactating dairy cow ruminal fermentation and rumen content mass with diets containing molasses (M) or finely ground dry corn grain at 3 levels of M (0, 5.25, 10.5% DM) and with differing levels of ruminally degradable protein (+RDP or –RDP). Twelve ruminal...

  5. Effect of substituting barley with glycerol as energy feed on feed intake, milk production and milk quality in dairy cows in mid or late lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2018-01-01

    The experiment reported in this research paper aimed to determine the level at which glycerol can substitute barley in grass-clover silage-based ration for dairy cows in mid or late lactation, without affecting milk production, milk composition, milk free fatty acid (FFA) profile, and milk sensor...

  6. Effect of Glucogenic vs. Lipogenic Diets on Energy Balance, Blood Metabolites, and Reproduction in Primiparous and Multiparous Dairy Cows in Early Lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Brand, van den H.; Dijkstra, J.; Straalen, van W.M.; Jorritsma, R.; Tamminga, S.; Kemp, B.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing the availability of glucogenic nutrients relative to lipogenic nutrients has been hypothesized to decrease the production of milk fat, to improve the energy balance (EB), and to decrease the incidence and severity of metabolic and reproductive disorders in dairy cows in early lactation.

  7. Amino acid profile of metabolisable protein in lactating dairy cows is affected by dry matter concentration in grass-clover silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2018-01-01

    Our previous study showed that supply of metabolisable protein (MP) to lactating dairy cows increased with increasing dry matter (DM) concentration in grass-clover silage. The aim of this study was to examine how amino acid (AA) profile of MP was affected by silage DM concentration. Eight grass-c...

  8. Effect of dietary protein levels on rumen metabolism and milk yield in mid-lactating cows under hot and humid conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiangtum, W.; Schonewille, J.T.; Yawongsa, A.; Rukkwamsuk, T.; Kanjanapruthipong, J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of 2 levels of dietary Crude Protein (CP) in concentrates with similar proportions of Rumen Undegradable Protein (RUP) on rumen metabolism, milk yield and composition in mid lactating cows in Thailand. Eight 87.5% Holsteinx12.5% indigenous

  9. Effect of dietary protein levels on rumen metabolism and milk yield in mid-lactating cows under hot and humid conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiangtum, W; Schonewille, Thomas; Yawongsa, A; Rukkwamsuk, T; Kanjanapruthipon, J; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, Wouter

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of 2 levels of dietary Crude Protein (CP) in concentrates with similar proportions of Rumen Undegradable Protein (RUP) on rumen metabolism, milk yield and composition in mid lactating cows in Thailand. Eight 87.5% Holsteinx12.5% indigenous

  10. Changes in milk proteome and metabolome associated with dry period length, energy balance and lactation stage in post parturient dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.; Antunes Fernandes, E.C.; Páez Cano, A.E.; Vinitwatanakhun, J.; Boeren, S.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Vervoort, J.; Hettinga, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    The early lactation period of dairy cows, which produce high quantities of milk, is normally characterized by an insufficient energy intake to cover milk production and maintenance requirements. Mobilization of body reserves occurs to compensate this negative energy balance (NEB), and probably as a

  11. The Effect of Silage and Concentrate Type on Intake Behavior, Rumen Function, and Milk Production in Dairy Cows in Early and Late Lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, P.A.; Vlaeminck, B.; Tamminga, S.; Dijkstra, J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of feeding total mixed rations (TMR) that differ in structural and nonstructural carbohydrates to dairy cows in early and late lactation on short-term feed intake, dry matter intake (DMI), rumen fermentation variables, and milk yield. A 5 x

  12. Effect of feeding different sources of rumen-protected methionine on milk production and N-utilization in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives of this study were to quantify production responses of lactating dairy cows to supplying absorbable Met as isopropyl-2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid (HMBi), or rumen-protected Met (RPM, Smartamine® M) fed with or without 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid (HMB), and to determin...

  13. Effect of processed cereal grains as a supplement on grass intake, rumen pool sizes, ruminal kinetics and the performance of grazing lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tothi, R.; Zhang, R.H.; Chilibroste, P.; Boer, H.; Tamminga, S.

    2003-01-01

    Five multiparous lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows fitted with rumen cannula were allowed to graze perennial ryegrass swards. Next to a control treatment of grazing only, pelleted barley (PB), pelleted maize (PM), toasted and subsequently pelleted barley (TPB), and toasted and subsequently

  14. Udder diseases in dairy cows — field observations on incidence, somatic and environmental factors, and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Saloniemi

    1980-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of udder diseases and the predisposing factors were examined in 32 herds, in a total of 500 cows. During a 3-year-period 0.32 cases of clinical mastitis occurred per cow per annum. Subclinical mastitis was detected in 61.2 % of the cows during one year. The average incidence based on a single sampling was 36.5 %. In order to obtain reliable information on the udder health of a herd the occurrence of both clinical and subclinical mastitis must be followed. Clinical cases, both those treated by a veterinarian on a farm visit and those treated by the owner according to phone prescription must be filed statistically. In this study the incidence of mastitis as reported by owner was only half of that actually detected. The incidence of teat injuries requiring veterinary treatment was 0.03 cases per cow per annum. The diagnosis »presence of bacteria» obtained from a milk sample examination using Nordic methods means according to this study in most cases the probable occurrence of infection and mastitis. Scoring of observations made from udder health, and indexes based on these scores prove to be good tools when studying relationships between udder diseases and predisposing factors. Of the somatic factors the age of the cow, stage of lactation, the distance of the rear teats from the stall floor and the position of the teats influence the incidence of mastitis. Therefore, these factors must be taken into consideration in preventive work, especially in the culling of cows. Neither teat shape nor milkability had any connection with the incidence of udder diseases. With regard to the factors in the production environment the incidence of clinical mastitis was influenced especially by the function of the milking machine. Diurnal changes in temperature, when exceeding5 degrees centigrade, increased the occurrence of mastitis. The use of a thermohygrograph is proposed in preventive work. Because of the small number of the herds only in few

  15. Effect of different levels of rapidly degradable carbohydrates calculated by a simple rumen model on performance of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenbos, J; Martín-Tereso, J; Dijkstra, J; van Laar, H

    2017-07-01

    Aggregating rumen degradation characteristics of different carbohydrate components into the term modeled rapidly degradable carbohydrates (mRDC) can simplify diet formulation by accounting for differences in rate and extent of carbohydrate degradation within and between feedstuffs. This study sought to evaluate responses of lactating dairy cows to diets formulated with increasing levels of mRDC, keeping the supply of other nutrients as constant as possible. The mRDC content of feedstuffs was calculated based on a simple rumen model including soluble, washable, and nonwashable but potentially degradable fractions, as well as the fractional degradation and passage rates, of sugar, starch, neutral detergent fiber, and other carbohydrates. The mRDC term effectively represents the total amount of carbohydrates degraded in the rumen within 2 h after ingestion. Fifty-two lactating Holstein cows (of which 4 were rumen fistulated) were assigned to 4 treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were fed as a total mixed ration consisting of 25.4% corn silage, 23.1% grass silage, 11.6% grass hay, and 39.9% concentrate on a dry matter basis. Differences in mRDC were created by exchanging nonforage neutral detergent fiber-rich ingredients (mainly sugar beet pulp) with starch-rich ingredients (mainly wheat) and by exchanging corn (slowly degradable starch) with wheat (rapidly degradable starch) in the concentrate, resulting in 4 treatments that varied in dietary mRDC level of 167, 181, 194, or 208 g/kg of dry matter. Level of mRDC did not affect dry matter intake. Fat- and protein-corrected milk production and milk fat and lactose yield were greatest at 181 mRDC and decreased with further increases in mRDC. Milk protein yield and concentration increased with increasing mRDC level. Mean rumen pH and diurnal variation in ruminal pH did not differ between treatments. Total daily meal time and number of visits per meal were smaller at 181 and 194 mRDC. Despite milk

  16. Effects of corn-based diet starch content and neutral detergent fiber source on lactation performance, digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredin, S M; Akins, M S; Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of corn-based dietary starch content and source of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on lactation performance, nutrient digestion, bacterial protein flow, and ruminal parameters in lactating dairy cows. Eight ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows averaging 193±11d in milk were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatment diets were high corn grain (HCG; 38% corn silage, 19% dry ground corn, and 4% soy hulls), high soy hulls (HSH; 38% corn silage, 11% dry ground corn, and 13% soy hulls), high corn silage (HCS; 50% corn silage, 6% dry ground corn, and 4% soy hulls), and low corn silage (LCS; 29% corn silage, 15% corn, and 19% soy hulls). The HCG, HSH, HCS, and LCS diets contained 29, 23, 24, and 22% starch; 27, 32, 30, and 32% total NDF; and 21, 21, 25, and 17% forage NDF (dry matter basis), respectively. Mean dry matter intake and milk yield were unaffected by treatment. Cows fed LCS had reduced milk fat content compared with HSH and HCS. The concentration of milk urea nitrogen was greater for cows fed HCS compared with the other treatments. Total-tract digestion of NDF was reduced for cows fed the HCG diet. Total-tract starch digestion was increased for cows fed the HSH and HCS compared with HCG and LCS diets. Bacterial protein flow was unaffected by treatment. Ruminal ammonia concentration was reduced in cows fed the HCG and LCS diets compared with the HCS diet. Ruminal propionate increased and the acetate:propionate ratio decreased in cows fed the LCS diet compared with the HCS diet. Ruminal pH was greater for cows fed the HCS diet compared with cows fed the LCS diet. Diet digestibility and performance of mid- to late-lactation cows fed reduced-starch diets by partially replacing corn grain with soy hulls or corn silage was similar to or improved compared with cows fed a normal-starch diet. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association

  17. Effects of Dexamethasone and Insulin Alone or in Combination on Energy and Protein Metabolism Indicators and Milk Production in Dairy Cows in Early Lactation - A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Sami

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of dexamethasone and insulin, when administered at 3rd or 10th day of lactation on energy and protein metabolism in dairy cows.Two hundred Holstein cows were enrolled in a randomized controlled clinical trial. The cows were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 treatments at 3 or 10 days in milk: control group, 10-mL i.m. injection of sterile water, group insulin, s.c. injection of 100 units of insulin, group dexamethasone, i.m. injection of 20 mg of dexamethasone, group insulin plus dexamethasone, i.m. injection of 20 mg of dexamethasone and 100 units of insulin. The cows randomly assigned to receive the treatments on 3 or 10 days of lactation. Serum samples obtained at the time of enrollment, time of treatment and at 2, 4, 7 and 14 days after intervention. The sera were analyzed for β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA, glucose, cholesterol, albumin, urea, and aspartate amino transferase (AST. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures mixed model that accounted for the effects of parity, body condition score, dystocia, retained placenta, metritis and the random effect of cow.There was no significant interaction of group of treatment and time of intervention (day 3 or 10 post-partum on serum components. Cows that received insulin or dexamethasone alone or in combination, had lower BHBA 2 days after treatment compared with control cows, whereas concentrations of NEFA, were unaffected suggesting that glucocorticoids lipolytic effects do not appear to be important in healthy cows. AST activities significantly reduced in cows that received dexamethasone with or without insulin at 2 and 4 days after treatment. Albumin and urea concentrations 2 days after treatment were higher for cows that received dexamethasone only or dexamethasone plus insulin compared with control and Ins received cows. There were no treatment effects on test-day milk production, milk fat and protein percentages

  18. Effects of Dexamethasone and Insulin Alone or in Combination on Energy and Protein Metabolism Indicators and Milk Production in Dairy Cows in Early Lactation - A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Mehrdad; Mohri, Mehrdad; Seifi, Hesam A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dexamethasone and insulin, when administered at 3rd or 10th day of lactation on energy and protein metabolism in dairy cows. Two hundred Holstein cows were enrolled in a randomized controlled clinical trial. The cows were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 treatments at 3 or 10 days in milk: control group, 10-mL i.m. injection of sterile water, group insulin, s.c. injection of 100 units of insulin, group dexamethasone, i.m. injection of 20 mg of dexamethasone, group insulin plus dexamethasone, i.m. injection of 20 mg of dexamethasone and 100 units of insulin. The cows randomly assigned to receive the treatments on 3 or 10 days of lactation. Serum samples obtained at the time of enrollment, time of treatment and at 2, 4, 7 and 14 days after intervention. The sera were analyzed for β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose, cholesterol, albumin, urea, and aspartate amino transferase (AST). Data were analyzed using a repeated measures mixed model that accounted for the effects of parity, body condition score, dystocia, retained placenta, metritis and the random effect of cow. There was no significant interaction of group of treatment and time of intervention (day 3 or 10 post-partum) on serum components. Cows that received insulin or dexamethasone alone or in combination, had lower BHBA 2 days after treatment compared with control cows, whereas concentrations of NEFA, were unaffected suggesting that glucocorticoids lipolytic effects do not appear to be important in healthy cows. AST activities significantly reduced in cows that received dexamethasone with or without insulin at 2 and 4 days after treatment. Albumin and urea concentrations 2 days after treatment were higher for cows that received dexamethasone only or dexamethasone plus insulin compared with control and Ins received cows. There were no treatment effects on test-day milk production, milk fat and protein percentages. The results suggested

  19. Effects of corn-based diet starch content and corn particle size on lactation performance, digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredin, S M; Ferraretto, L F; Akins, M S; Bertics, S J; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary starch content in corn-based diets and corn particle size on lactation performance, nutrient digestibility, and bacterial protein flow in dairy cows using the omasal and reticular sampling technique. Eight ruminally cannulated lactating multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were fine (FG; mean particle size=552µm) and coarse (CG; 1,270µm) ground dry shelled corn in normal- (NS) and reduced- (RS) starch diets fed as total mixed rations. The NS and RS rations contained 27 and 18% starch (dry matter basis), respectively, and were formulated by partially replacing corn with soy hull pellets. Mean dry matter intake was unaffected by treatment (23.2kg/d). Cows fed NS diets produced 1.9kg/d more milk and 0.06kg/d more milk protein compared with cows fed RS diets. Cows fed NSFG and RSCG diets produced more fat-corrected milk than did cows fed NSCG and RSFG diets. Milk urea concentration was decreased for cows fed NS diets (12.4mg/dL) compared with RS diets (13.5mg/dL). Ruminal digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF; % of NDF intake) determined by the omasal sampling technique was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with NS diets (43.4 vs. 34.9%), and total-tract digestibility of NDF (% of NDF intake) was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with those fed NS diets (50.1 vs. 43.1%). Ruminal digestibility of starch (% of starch intake) determined by the omasal sampling technique was greater in cows fed NS diets compared with those fed RS diets (85.6 vs. 81.6%). Total-tract starch digestion was increased in cows fed RS diets compared with those fed NS diets (96.9 vs. 94.6%) and in cows fed FG diets compared with those fed CG diets (98.0 vs. 93.5%). Bacterial protein flow was unaffected by treatment. The omasal and reticular sampling techniques resulted in similar treatment effects for nutrient flow

  20. Sub-clinical mastitis and associated risk factors on lactating cows in the Savannah Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shittu Aminu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-clinical mastitis limits milk production and represents an important barrier to profitable livestock economics worldwide. Milk production from cows in Nigeria is not at optimum levels in view of many factors including sub-clinical mastitis. Results The overall herd-level prevalence rate for SCM was 85.33% (256/300 heads of cows while the quarter-level prevalence rate of SCM was 43.25% (519/1,200 quarters. The prevalence of SCM was 50.67%, 43.67%, 39.67% and 39.13% for the left fore-quarter, right hind-quarter, left hind-quarter and right fore-quarter, respectively. The Rahaji breed had the highest prevalence of SCM with 65.91% (29/44, while the White Fulani breed had the least with 32.39% (57/176. A total of 32.33% (97/300 had only one mammary quarter affected, 30.33% (91/300 had two quarters affected, 16.00% (48/300 had three quarters affected while 6.67% (20/300 had all the four quarters affected. A total of 53.00% had SCM in multiple quarters (159/300. The risk of SCM decreased significantly among young lactating cows compared to older animals (OR = 0.283; P P = 0.013; 95% CI = 1.557; 43.226. Improved sanitation (washing hands before milking will decrease the risk of SCM (OR = 0.173; P = 0.003; 95% CI = 0.054; 0.554. Conclusion SCM is prevalent among lactating cows in the Nigerian Savannah; and this is associated with both animal characteristics (age, breed and individual milk quarters and milking practices (hand washing.Good knowledge of the environment and careful management of the identified risk factors with improved sanitation should assist farm managers and veterinarians in implementing preventative programmes to reduce the incidence of SCM.

  1. Changes in various metabolic parameters in blood and milk during experimental Escherichia coli mastitis for primiparous Holstein dairy cows during early lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey M; Larsen, Torben; Sørensen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundThe objective of this study was to characterize the changes in various metabolic parameters in blood and milk during IMI challenge with Escherichia coli (E. coli) for dairy cows during early lactation. Thirty, healthy primiparous Holstein cows were infused (h = 0) with ~20-40 cfu of live...... the effect of IMI challenge on metabolic responses of cows during early lactation.ResultsBy 12 h, E. coli was recovered from challenged quarters and shedding continued through 72 h. Rectal temperature peaked by 12 h post-challenge and returned to pre-challenge values by 36 h post-IMI challenge. Daily feed...... intake and milk yield decreased (P mastitis challenge. Plasma BHBA decreased (12 h; P

  2. Postpartum suppression of ovarian activity with a Deslorelin implant enhanced uterine involution in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, F T; Bartolome, J A; Kamimura, S; Arteche, A C; Pancarci, S M; Trigg, T; Thatcher, W W

    2009-01-01

    Holstein cows received, subcutaneously a non-degradable implant containing 5mg of the GnRH agonist Deslorelin (DESL) or no implant (CON) at 2+/-1 days postpartum (dpp). All cows were injected with PGF(2alpha) at 9 dpp. Previous pregnant (PPH) and non-pregnant uterine horns (PNPH) were determined by palpation per rectum. In Experiment 1, cows [DESL implant (n=10) and CON (n=9)] were examined by ultrasonography to record ovarian structures (23, 30 and 37 dpp) and uterine horn and cervical diameters (16, 23, 30 and 37 dpp). Uterine tone was scored before ultrasonography. Vaginoscopy was conducted just after ultrasonography examination to assess cervical discharge and color of the external cervical os. Blood samples were collected on a weekly basis for hormonal analyses. In Experiment 2, cows [DESL implant (n=77) and CON (n=70)] were palpated per rectum and vaginoscopy at 30 dpp for scoring of uterine tone, uterine horns, cervical diameter, and discharge. Blood samples were collected only at 9 dpp. In Experiment 1, DESL-implant-treated cows had more Class 1 follicles (Pscore did not differ between treatments. Treatment with non-degradable Deslorelin (5mg) implant during postpartum: (1) suppressed ovarian follicular development, (2) enhanced physical involution of the uterus and cervix, (3) increased tone of the uterine wall, (4) decreased frequency of purulent cervical discharges, and (5) reduced inflammatory processes of the reproductive tract.

  3. Evaluation of forage legume Lablab purpureus as a supplement for lactating Bunaji cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eduvie, L.O.; Barje, P.P.; Bawa, E.K.; Ehoche, O.W.; Makun, H.J.; Sekoni, V.O.; Rekwot, P.I.; Chiezey, N.P.; Bale, J.O.; Malau-Aduli, A.E.O.; Osuhor, C.U.; Alawa, C.B.I.; Okaiyeto, P.O.; Olorunju, S.A.S.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of forage legume lablab (Lablab purpureus) as a supplement for Bunaji cows was investigated both on-station and on-farm. The results of the on-farm trial involving five herds in each of two villages (control and supplemented) showed that supplementation with 3 kg of lablab increased milk off-take significantly (P<0.001) (1.27±0.09 vs. 0.71±0.1 kg per cow/day for supplemented and non-supplemented cows, respectively). Cows in the supplemented group showed a higher gain in body weight compared to non-supplemented animals (411±1.4 vs. 127±1.8 g/day respectively). They also showed a higher (P<0.001) body condition score than those in the non-supplemented group (3.5-4.5 vs. 2.0-3.5). Overall mean weight gain for calves was however, similar for both supplemented and non-supplemented groups (428±5.3 vs. 428±1.5 g/day). Supplementation of suckling Bunaji cows with lablab improved the performance of the animals and the income of the farmers. (author)

  4. INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND GENETICAL FACTORS ON UREA CONTENT IN HOLSTEIN BREED COWS MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draženko Budimir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper were to determine to which extent the environmental factors (order and stadium of lactation, age with the first calving, calving season, region and herd have the influence on the content of urea in milk, and connection of urea content in milk with other features of milk production with cows. The largest share of urea content in milk was recorded in the first lactation, in the period between 110 and 140 days, when it was around 23.6 mg/100 ml. In the end of the first lactation the average urea content in milk was around 21.6 mg/100 ml. The second lactation is chara¬cterized by somewhat bigger urea content, in the period immediately after calving when the highest values from all tracked lactations was recorded. The age of cows with their first calving also had an impact on urea con¬tent in milk. Cows that calved in the age from 24th to 26th month had the highest value of urea content, being 23.2 mg/100 ml for the stated period. The lowest value of urea content was recorded with cows that calved in the age of 18 months and it was below 20 mg/100 ml. Season of calving also influenced the urea content in milk. In winter season 2004 the lowest values of urea content in milk were recorded while in the autumn sea¬son of the same year the highest urea content in milk was measured (24 mg/100 ml. In the following calving season increase of urea content in milk followed. The differences in urea content in milk were determined between the counties. The highest value of heritabi-lity (0.08 was estimated by the model where, as a comparison group, the interaction between the herds and control day was used. In the research the share of variability was explained by the interaction herd-control day and it was 67%, while 25% of variability of urea con¬tent in milk remained unexplained. This model was used when estimating the breeding values. A model was also tested where the influence of herd was used as a comparison group, and by this

  5. Effects of corn straw or mixed forage diet on rumen fermentation parameters of lactating cows using a wireless data logger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chunfu; Bu, Dengpan; Sun, Peng; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Peihua; Wang, Jiaqi

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different forage types on rumen fermentation parameters and profiles using a wireless data logger. Eight lactating cows were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments with a low forage diet with corn straw (CS) or a high forage diet with mixed forage (MF) as the forage source, respectively. Dietary physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) content was 11.3% greater in CS. Dry matter intake and milk fatty acid content decreased upon CS (P rumen fermentation parameters were affected by forage types and dietary peNDF content might be predominant in ruminal pH regulation. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Metabolisable protein supply to lactating dairy cows increased with increasing dry matter concentration in grass-clover silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of increased dry matter (DM) concentration in grass-clover silage, obtained by extending the pre-wilting period before ensiling, on the amount of metabolisable protein (MP) supplied to lactating dairy cows. Spring growth and first regrowth of grass...... and faeces, respectively, were collected over 94 h to cover the diurnal variation, pooled, and subsequently analysed. Rumen fluid was collected in same sampling procedure. To estimate the duodenal flow of microbial protein, microbes were isolated from the rumen and analysed for amino acids (AA) and purines...... flow of AA. The higher duodenal flow of AA derived from a lower rumen degradation of feed protein and a tendency towards a higher microbial synthesis in the rumen. Fibre digestibility and CH4 production were not affected by silage DM concentration. In conclusion, MP concentration in grass-clover silage...

  7. Fatty Acid Metabolism in the Digestive Tract of Lactating Cows Fed Tallow in Increasing Amounts at Two Feed Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Børsting, Christian Friis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1992-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acid metabolism in the digestive tract was studied in lactating cows fed at two levels of dry matter intake (L, 8.6 kg DM and H, 12.6 kg DM), with 0, 4 and 6% added tallow at low feed level (L0, L4 and L6), and 0, 2, 4 and 6% fat at high feed level (H0, H2, H4 and H6). Mean fatty...... in the diet. As a mean 68% of the unsaturated C18 fatty acids were hydrogenated in the rumen. Fatty acid and crude fat true digestibilities decreased with increasing fat intakes owing to a decrease in stearic acid (C18:0) digestibility....

  8. Once-daily milking during a feed deficit decreases milk production but improves energy status in early lactating grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, J K; Phyn, C V C; Rius, A G; Morgan, S R; Grala, T M; Roche, J R

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of milking frequency (MF) at 2 feeding levels (FL) on milk production, body condition score, and metabolic indicators of energy status in grazing dairy cows during early lactation. Multiparous Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian × Jersey cows (n=120) grazed pasture and were milked twice daily (2×) from calving until 34 ± 6 d in milk (mean ± standard deviation). Cows were then allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted of 2 FL: adequately fed [AF; 14.3 kg dry matter intake (DMI)/cow per d] or underfed (UF; 8.3 kg of DMI/cow per d) and 2 MF: 2× or once daily (1×). Treatments were imposed for 3 wk. After the treatment period, all cows were offered a generous pasture allowance (grazing residuals >1,600 kg of dry matter/ha) and milked 2×. During the 3-wk treatment period, we observed an interaction between FL and MF for energy-corrected milk (ECM), such that the decrease due to 1× milking was greater in AF than in UF cows (20 and 14% decrease, respectively). No interactions were found posttreatment. Cows previously UF produced 7% less ECM than AF cows during wk 4 to 12; however, no subsequent effect was observed of the previous underfeeding. Cows previously milked 1× produced 5% less ECM during wk 4 to 12, and differences remained during wk 13 to 23. During the 3-wk treatment period, UF cows lost 0.2 body condition score units (1-10 scale) and this was not affected by 1× milking. During the treatment period, UF cows had lower plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I, and greater nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations than AF cows. Cows milked 1× had greater plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I, and lower nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations compared with cows milked 2×. In conclusion, energy status was improved by 1× milking; however, when UF cows were milked 1

  9. Response of plasma glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids to intravenous glucose tolerance tests in dairy cows during a 670-day lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marett, L C; Auldist, M J; Moate, P J; Wales, W J; Macmillan, K L; Dunshea, F R; Leury, B J

    2015-01-01

    This experiment investigated the metabolic response of dairy cows undergoing an extended lactation to a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. The experiment used 12 multiparous Holstein cows that calved in late winter in a seasonally calving pasture-based system and were managed for a 670-d lactation by delaying rebreeding. In each of four 5-wk experimental periods commencing at approximately 73, 217, 422, and 520 (±9.1) days in milk (DIM), cows were offered a diet of perennial ryegrass (73 and 422 DIM) or pasture hay and silage (217 and 520 DIM) supplemented with 1kg of DM grain (control; CON) or 6kg of DM grain (GRN) as a ration. Daily energy intake was approximately 160 and 215 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow for the CON and GRN treatments, respectively. At all other times, cows were managed as a single herd and grazed pasture supplemented with grain to an estimated minimum daily total intake of 180 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow. Cows were fitted with an indwelling jugular catheter during the final week of each experimental period. The standard intravenous glucose tolerance test using 0.3g of glucose per kilogram of body weight was performed on each cow at approximately 100, 250, 460, and 560 DIM. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) responses were measured. Milk yield, milk solids yield, body weight, and basal plasma glucose were greater in the GRN compared with the CON treatment. The area under the plasma response curve relative to baseline (AUC) for glucose, insulin, and NEFA and their apparent fractional clearance rates indicated varied whole body responsiveness to insulin in terms of glucose metabolism throughout the 670-d lactation. The glucose AUC 0 to 20 min postinfusion was increased at 560 DIM, indicating reduced utilization of glucose by the mammary gland at this stage of lactation. The NEFA clearance rate, 6 to 30 min postinfusion, was greater at 460 and 560 DIM. These data indicated an

  10. Intestinal digestibility of long-chain fatty acids in lactating dairy cows: A meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerman, J P; Firkins, J L; St-Pierre, N R; Lock, A L

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this analysis was to examine the intestinal digestibility of individual long-chain fatty acids (FA) in lactating dairy cows. Available data were collated from 15 publications containing 61 treatments, which reported total and individual FA duodenal flows and calculations of intestinal digestibility. All studies involved lactating dairy cows, and estimates of digestibility were based on measurements either between the duodenum and ileum (18 treatments) or between the duodenum and feces (43 treatments). Fatty acid digestibility was calculated for C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 (cis and trans isomers), C18:2, and C18:3. Digestibility of C18:0 was lower than for C18:1 and C18:3, with no difference in digestibility between saturated FA (C16:0 and C18:0). We weighted the studies by the reciprocal of the variance to generate best-fit equations to predict individual FA digestibility based on duodenal flow of FA and dietary independent variables. The flow of C18:0 negatively affected the digestibility of C18:0 and was also included in the best-fit equations for all other 18-carbon FA using duodenal flow characteristics. The type of fat supplemented had an effect on digestibility of individual FA, with whole seeds having reduced digestibility. Our meta-analysis results showed minimal differences in the digestibility of individual FA. However, C18:0 flow through the duodenum had a negative effect on the digestibility of several individual FA, with the largest negative effect on C18:0 digestibility. The mechanisms that reduce C18:0 absorption at high concentrations are unknown and warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Regulatory effect of dietary intake of chromium propionate on the response of monocyte-derived macrophages from Holstein cows in mid lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M; Qu, Y; Scholte, C M; O'Connor, D; Rounds, W; Moyes, K M

    2017-08-01

    Chromium (Cr) has been reported to enhance immune function and improve insulin sensitivity and performance in beef and dairy cattle. However, its effect on bovine macrophage inflammatory and metabolic response is unknown. The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of dietary Cr on the inflammatory and metabolic response of polarized macrophages ex vivo. Twelve primiparous and 16 multiparous healthy Holstein cows in mid lactation (143 ± 37 d in milk) were enrolled in this study. Cows were fed a common total mixed ration once per day that was top-dressed with 200 g of ground corn containing 1 of 2 dietary treatments: control (CTL, no Cr supplementation) or Cr propionate (CrP, 8 mg of Cr/cow per day) for 35 d. At d 1, 17, and 35 of treatment, blood monocytes were isolated and cultured to obtain 3 monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) phenotypes: M0 (non-polarized), M1 (pro-inflammatory; IFN-γ polarized) and M2 (anti-inflammatory; IL-4 polarized). The experiment was set in a randomized complete block design. Neither dry matter intake nor milk yield was affected by treatment. Plasma concentrations of metabolites and the metabolic and inflammatory response of MDM in spent media were not affected by treatment. Neither the whole blood cell population nor the specific proportion of leukocytes was affected by the main effect of treatment. However, we did observe a trend for fewer circulating neutrophils in cows fed CrP than in cows fed CTL for 35 d, which may be partly attributable to a greater influx of neutrophils into peripheral tissues, a reduced pro-inflammatory response during disease, or both; this warrants future study. Expression of IGFI was increased in MDM-M0, and expression of CXCL11 tended to increase in MDM-M2 from cows fed CrP compared with cows fed CTL. Expression of SLC2A3 also tended to increase in MDM-M2 from cows fed CrP compared with cows fed CTL at 17 d. Our results suggest that CrP has minimal effect on the inflammatory and metabolic

  12. Phenotypic, genetic, and single nucleotide polymorphism marker associations between calf diseases and subsequent performance and disease occurrences of first-lactation German Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, M; Yin, T; Brügemann, K; König, S

    2017-03-01

    A total of 31,396 females born from 2010 to 2013 in 43 large-scale Holstein-Friesian herds were phenotyped for calf and cow disease traits using a veterinarian diagnosis key. Calf diseases were general disease status (cGDS), calf diarrhea (cDIA), and calf respiratory disease (cRD) recorded from birth to 2 mo of age. Incidences were 0.48 for cGDS, 0.28 for cRD, and 0.21 for cDIA. Cow disease trait recording focused on the early period directly after calving in first parity, including the interval from 10 d before calving to 200 d in lactation. For cows, at least one entry for the respective disease implied a score = 1 (sick); otherwise, score = 0 (healthy). Corresponding cow diseases were first-lactation general disease status (flGDS), first-lactation diarrhea (flDIA), and first-lactation respiratory disease (flRD). Additional cow disease categories included mastitis (flMAST), claw disorders (flCLAW), female fertility disorders (flFF), and metabolic disorders (flMET). A further cow trait category considered first-lactation test-day production traits from official test-days 1 and 2 after calving. The genotype data set included 41,256 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from 9,388 females with phenotypes. Linear and generalized linear mixed models with a logit link-function were applied to Gaussian and categorical cow traits, respectively, considering the calf disease as a fixed effect. Most of the calf diseases were not significantly associated with the occurrence of any cow disease. By trend, increasing risks for the occurrence of cow diseases were observed for healthy calves, indicating mechanisms of disease resistance with aging. Also by trend, occurrence of calf diseases was associated with decreasing milk, protein, and fat yields. Univariate linear and threshold animal models were used to estimate heritabilities and breeding values (EBV) for all calf and cow traits. Heritabilities for cGDS and cRD were 0.06 and 0.07 for cDIA. Genetic correlations among all

  13. Effects of supplementing mid-lactation dairy cows with seaweed and vitamin E on plasma and milk α-tocopherol and antibody response to immunization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidane, A; Nesheim, I L; Larsen, H J S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current experiment was to compare the effects of supplementing mid-lactation dairy cows with all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate (SyntvE), RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate (NatvE) or seaweed meal (Seaweed) in the presence of a Control group (no supplemental vitamin E or seaweed......) on the concentration of α-tocopherol in plasma and milk, and antibody response following immunization. The hypothesis was that supplementation of dairy cows with vitamin E, regardless of its form, would increase plasma and milk α-tocopherol compared to the control diet and this incremental response would be bigger...... with NatvE than SyntvE. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that vitamin E, regardless of its form, will provide an improved adaptive immune response to immunization than the Control diet, and cows supplemented with Seaweed meal would produce better adaptive immune response following immunization than cows...

  14. Supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol of dairy cows in early lactation - Effects on metabolic status, body condition, and milk yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomander, H; Frössling, J; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this field study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol to dairy cows in early lactation on metabolic status, body condition and milk yield. In total, 673 newly calved cows from 12 commercial Swedish dairy herds were randomized to daily....... No differences in BCS or HG or in plasma concentrations of glucose, BHBA, NEFA, or IGF-1 were found between the control group and any of the treatment groups. Cows in the GLY group had lower plasma insulin concentrations during DIM 0 to 63 compared with group CON, but no difference in insulin was found between...... supplementation with 450 g of glycerol (GLY), 300 g of propylene glycol (PG), or nothing (control, CON). Supplements were fed twice daily from 0 to 21 d in milk (DIM) as a top dress on concentrates. For each cow, data on parity, breed, calving date, monthly test-day milk yield, and cases of diseases were...

  15. Atherogenicity index and health-related fatty acids in different stages of lactation from Friesian, Jersey and Friesian×Jersey cross cow milk under a pasture-based dairy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantapo, C T W; Muchenje, V; Hugo, A

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of stage of lactation on the fatty acid profiles of milk from Friesian, Jersey and Friesian×Jersey cows. Linoleic acid in pastures was highest in the second phase which coincided with mid-lactation days (p<0.05). Highest milk moisture content and lowest fat free dry matter content was seen in early lactation (p<0.05). Higher fat content was observed in late lactation than early lactation. Highest butyric, caproic, linoleic, omega-6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed for milk from Friesian cows. Highest conjugated fatty acids, α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-6, and omega-3 were observed in early lactation. Atherogenicity index and desaturase activity indices were highest in late lactation. In conclusion, stage of lactation and genotype affected milk health-related fatty acid profiles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Energy evaluation of fresh grass in the diets of lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinenberg, M.H.; Zom, R.L.G.; Valk, H.

    2002-01-01

    The discrepancy between the estimated feeding value of fresh grass and the output per kg grass in terms of milk and maintenance was studied by evaluating 12 experiments with grass-fed dairy cows. The percentage grass in the diets varied between 40 and 90. Intake and milk production were recorded

  17. Factors influencing recalving rate in lactating beef cows in the sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    goups the majority was also late calving. Recalving rate was high in all other breeding groups and was not influenced by date of calving. In general, Bos taurus type cows calve significantly earlier in the calving season than Bos indicus types (Bonsma &. Skinner, 1969; Holroyd et al., 1979; Gotti el a/., 1985). This is to some ...

  18. Absorption and Intermediary Metabolism of Purines and Pyrimidines in Lactating Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Stentoft; Røjen, Betina Amdisen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2015-01-01

    About 20 % of ruminal microbial N in dairy cows derives from purines and pyrimidines; however, their intermediary metabolism and contribution to the overall N metabolism has sparsely been described. In the present study, the postprandial patterns of net portal-drained viscera (PDV) and hepatic...

  19. Simulating the effects of grassland management and grass ensiling on methane emission from lactating cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bannink, A.; Smits, M.C.J.; Kebreab, E.; Mills, J.A.N.; Ellis, J.L.; Klop, A.; France, J.; Dijkstra, J.

    2010-01-01

    A dynamic, mechanistic model of enteric fermentation was used to investigate the effect of type and quality of grass forage, dry matter intake (DMI) and proportion of concentrates in dietary dry matter (DM) on variation in methane (CH4) emission from enteric fermentation in dairy cows. The model

  20. On the analysis of Canadian Holstein dairy cow lactation curves using standard growth functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López, S.; France, J.; Odongo, N.E.; McBride, R.A.; Kebreab, E.; Alzahal, O.; McBride, B.W.; Dijkstra, J.

    2015-01-01

    Six classical growth functions (monomolecular, Schumacher, Gompertz, logistic, Richards, and Morgan) were fitted to individual and average (by parity) cumulative milk production curves of Canadian Holstein dairy cows. The data analyzed consisted of approximately 91,000 daily milk yield records

  1. Skeletal muscle and hepatic insulin signaling is maintained in heat-stressed lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, G; Cole, L C; Zhao, L D; Skrzypek, M V; Sanders, S R; Rhoads, M L; Baumgard, L H; Rhoads, R P

    2016-05-01

    Multiparous cows (n=12; parity=2; 136±8 d in milk, 560±32kg of body weight) housed in climate-controlled chambers were fed a total mixed ration (TMR) consisting primarily of alfalfa hay and steam-flaked corn. During the first experimental period (P1), all 12 cows were housed in thermoneutral conditions (18°C, 20% humidity) with ad libitum intake for 9 d. During the second experimental period (P2), half of the cows were fed for ad libitum intake and subjected to heat-stress conditions [WFHS, n=6; cyclical temperature 31.1 to 38.9°C, 20% humidity: minimum temperature humidity index (THI)=73, maximum THI=80.5], and half of the cows were pair-fed to match the intake of WFHS cows in thermal neutral conditions (TNPF, n=6) for 9 d. Rectal temperature and respiration rate were measured thrice daily at 0430, 1200, and 1630 h. To evaluate muscle and liver insulin responsiveness, biopsies were obtained immediately before and after an insulin tolerance test on the last day of each period. Insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), AKT/protein kinase B (AKT), and phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT) were measured by Western blot analyses for both tissues. During P2, WFHS increased rectal temperature and respiration rate by 1.48°C and 2.4-fold, respectively. Heat stress reduced dry matter intake by 8kg/d and, by design, TNPF cows had similar intake reductions. Milk yield was decreased similarly (30%) in WFHS and TNPF cows, and both groups entered into a similar (-4.5 Mcal/d) calculated negative energy balance during P2. Insulin infusion caused a less rapid glucose disposal in P2 compared with P1, but glucose clearance did not differ between environments in P2. In liver, insulin increased p-AKT protein content in each period. Phosphorylation ratio of AKT increased 120% in each period after insulin infusion. In skeletal muscle, protein abundance of the IR, IRS, and AKT remained stable between periods and environment. Insulin increased skeletal muscle p-AKT in each

  2. Exigências nutricionais de vacas nelores primíparas lactantes Nutritional requirements of primiparous lactating Nellore cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozart Alves Fonseca

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar as exigências nutricionais de proteína e energia de vacas nelores em lactação no período de 0 a 180 dias. Foram utilizadas 20 vacas primíparas com peso corporal médio ao parto de 362±25 kg. Quatro vacas foram abatidas logo após o parto e foram consideradas grupo referência. Do parto aos 90 dias, quatro vacas receberam alimentação restrita na proporção de 1,5% do peso corporal (PC, em porcentagem da matéria seca (MS, e 12 foram alimentadas à vontade. Aos 90 dias do pós-parto, foram abatidas oito vacas (quatro de cada oferta alimentar. Dos 90 aos 180 dias, quatro vacas foram realocadas para mantença (1,8% PC em MS e quatro continuaram em consumo voluntário, sendo todas abatidas ao final do período. Os conteúdos corporais de proteína e energia foram estimados pelo equação Y = a . Xb, em que X é o peso de corpo vazio (PCVZ e a e b os parâmetros da equação. Foram obtidas relações médias de 0,894 para PCVZ/PC e de 0,936 para ganho de PCVZ (GPCVZ/ganho de PC (GPC. As exigências líquidas de energia para mantença (ELm foram de 97,84 kcal/PCVZ0,75 e as de energia metabolizável para mantença (EMm, 140,17 kcal/PCVZ0,75. As eficiências de utilização da energia para mantença e ganho de peso foram 0,70 e 0,44, respectivamente. Os conteúdos corporais de proteína diminuíram com o aumento do PC, enquanto os de energia aumentaram. No leite das vacas, foram determinados teores médios de 3,71; 3,88; e 4,74%, respectivamente, de proteína bruta, gordura e lactose. A exigência de ELm para lactação de vacas nelores é de 97,84 kcal/PCVZ0,75, enquanto a de EMm é de 140,17 kcal/PCVZ0,75 e a de proteína metabolizável, de 52,8 g. Para produzir 1 kg de leite com 4% de gordura, vacas nelores necessitam de 0,300 kg de NDT.This study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional requirements of protein and energy of primiparous lactating Nellore cows from 0 to 180 days after calving. A total of 20 lactating

  3. Prevalence of lesions associated with subclinical laminitis in first-lactation cows from herds with high milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilie, R H; Hoblet, K H; Weiss, W P; Eastridge, M L; Rings, D M; Schnitkey, G L

    1996-05-01

    To determine prevalence of lesions associated with subclinical laminitis in first-lactation Holstein cows during early lactation and pregnant Holstein heifers during late gestation in herds with high milk production. Cross-sectional study. 203 cattle in 13 herbs. Cattle were placed in lateral recumbency to allow visual examination and photography of their hooves. Claws on a forelimb and hind limb were examined on all cattle. Observable categories of lesions considered to be associated with subclinical laminitis in our study included yellow waxy discoloration of the sole, hemorrhage of the sole, separation of the white line, and erosion of the heel. Lesions in at least 1 of the categories were found in all herds. Lesions in all categories were found in 11 of 13 herds. Among claws, hemorrhage of the sole was observed most frequently in the lateral claw of the hoof of the hind limb. When days in milk was treated as a covariate, significant (P < 0.01) differences were detected in the prevalence of lesions between herds. Because the prevalence of lesions differed significantly among herds, it is logical to believe that causative factors and corrective measures also may have differed among herds.

  4. INTERNAL MILIEAU OF DAIRY COWS AT THE BEGINNING OF LACTATION AND ITS INFLUENCE ON COMPOSITION OF RAW MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tušimová Eva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate selected blood biochemical parameters and milk composition of dairy cows at the beginning of lactation and to observe the correlations between blood and milk parameters. In total, 15 Holstein cows at the beginning of lactation were chosen. Blood and milk samples were collected. Energetic (glucose - GLU, d-beta-hydroxybutyrate - D-BHB, triglycerides - TG, nitrogenous (total proteins - TP, UREA, hepatic (aspartate aminotransferase - AST, alanine aminotransferase - ALT, gamma-glutamyltransferase - GGT, alkaline phosphatase - ALP, bilirubin - BILI, cholesterol - CHOL and mineral (sodium - Na, potassium - K, chlorides - Cl-, calcium – Ca, phosphorus – P, magnesium - Mg profiles were determined in the blood serum. Levels of lactose, fat, proteins and minerals (sodium - Na, potassium – K, calcium – Ca, phosphorus – P, magnesium - Mg were determined in milk. Most of the parameters outside physiological limits were found among mineral and hepatic profile. Levels of calcium, phosphorus and sodium were decreased in comparison to reference values. Average concentration of urea was also lower. On the other hand, increase of aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase were observed. Levels of lactose (4.82 g.100g-1, fat (4.21 g.100g-1, protein (3.14 g.100g-1 and calcium (4.82 g.l-1 in milk complied with Slovak national standard (STN 57 0529. In our study, ratio of fat to protein lower than 0.75 was observed in 13 % of cows (risk of ketosis and higher than 1.4 in 40 % (NEB. Strong negative correlation between serum cholesterol and milk fat (-0.716; P<0.01 and middle strong negative correlation between cholesterol and milk protein (-0.397; P<0.01 were observed. ALT affected negatively amount of phosphorus in milk (-0.417; P<0.001, which complied with demineralization of the organism and following restriction of liver detoxification activity. On the other hand, strong positive correlation was observed

  5. Effects of water restriction following feeding on nutrient digestibilities, milk yield and composition and blood hormones in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ghassemi Nejad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water restriction following feeding under heat stress conditions on nutrient digestibilities, milk yield and composition and some blood hormones in lactating Holstein cows were evaluated. The design was completely randomized with 30 high producing lactating Holstein cows (80.8±40.5 DIM which were assigned to two treatment groups (15 cows per treatment. Treatments were free access to water (FAW and 2 h water restriction (2hWR following feeding. Average temperature-humidity index (THI in the farm was over 80 throughout the experiment which defines heat stress conditions. Neutral detergent fibre, organic matter and ether extract digestibilities increased by water restriction (P0.05. Water intake was recorded daily during the digestibility period and was not different between FAW and 2hWR group (P>0.05. Fat corrected milk was higher in 2hWR group than FAW group (P0.05. Somatic cell counts were greater in 2hWR than FAW group (P0.05. Blood prolactin and growth hormone were higher in 2hWR group than the FAW group (P<0.05. It is concluded that water restriction for 2 hours following feeding improved nutrient digestibility of some dietary components and increased milk fat percentage in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions.

  6. Effect of one or three timed artificial inseminations before natural service on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows not observed for detection of estrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, F S; Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S; Ayres, H; Greco, L F; Galvão, K N; Risco, C A; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2012-06-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of one or three timed artificial insemination (AI) before natural service (NS) in lactating dairy cows not observed for detection of estrus on hazard of pregnancy, days nonpregnant, and 21-days cycle pregnancy rate. A total of 1050 lactating Holstein cows were subjected to a double Ovsynch program for their first postpartum AI. On the day of first AI (78 ± 3 days in milk), cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to receive either one timed AI (1TAI, n = 533) or three timed AI (3TAI, n = 517) before being exposed to NS. Cows assigned to 1TAI were exposed to bulls 7 days after the first AI. Nonpregnant cows in 3TAI were resynchronized with the Ovsynch protocol supplemented with progesterone twice, with intervals between AI of 42 days, before being exposed to NS 7 days after the third AI. Cows were evaluated for pregnancy 32 days after each timed AI, or every 28 days after being exposed to NS. Pregnant cows were re-examined for pregnancy 28 days later (i.e., 60-day gestation). Exposure to heat stress was categorized based on the first AI being performed during the hot or cool season, according to the temperature-humidity index. Body condition was scored at first AI. All cows were allowed a period of 231 days of breeding, after which nonpregnant cows were censored. Pregnancy to the first AI did not differ between 1TAI and 3TAI on Day 60 after insemination (30.8 vs. 33.5%). Cows receiving 3TAI had a 15% greater hazard of pregnancy and a 17% greater 21-days cycle pregnancy rate than 1TAI and these benefits originated from the first 84 days of breeding. These changes in rate of pregnancy reduced the median and mean days nonpregnant by 9 and 10 d, respectively. Despite the long inter-AI interval in cows subjected to 3TAI, reproductive performance was improved compared with a single timed AI and subsequent exposure to NS. In dairy herds that use a combination of AI and NS, allowing cows additional opportunities to AI

  7. Milk production and composition, nitrogen utilization, and grazing behavior of late-lactation dairy cows as affected by time of allocation of a fresh strip of pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibart, R E; Tavendale, M; Otter, D; Schwendel, B H; Lowe, K; Gregorini, P; Pacheco, D

    2017-07-01

    Eighty late-lactation dairy cows were used to examine the effects of allocating a new pasture strip of a sward based on ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in the morning (a.m.; ∼0730 h) or in the afternoon (p.m.; ∼1530 h) on milk production and composition, nitrogen (N) utilization, and grazing behavior. Cows grazed the same pasture strips for 24 h and were offered the same daily herbage allowance. Herbage composition differed among treatments; p.m. herbage had greater dry matter (DM; 22.7 vs. 19.9%), organic matter (OM; 89.5 vs. 88.9%), and water-soluble carbohydrate (10.9 vs. 7.6%) concentrations and lesser crude protein (20.5 vs. 22.2%) and neutral detergent fiber (48.8 vs. 50.4%) concentrations compared with a.m. herbage. Total fatty acids (FA), α-linolenic acid, and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) were greater in a.m. herbage, whereas monounsaturated FA were greater in p.m. herbage. Estimates of herbage DM intake did not differ among treatments. Daily milk yields and milk fat and milk protein concentrations were similar among treatments, whereas milk fat (684 vs. 627 g/cow), milk protein (545 vs. 505 g/cow), and milk solids (milk fat + milk protein) yields (1,228 vs. 1,132 g/cow) tended to be greater for cows on p.m. herbage. Rumenic acid and total PUFA in milk were greater for cows on a.m. herbage, whereas oleic acid was greater for cows on p.m. herbage. Estimates of urinary N excretion (g/d) did not differ among treatments, but urinary N concentrations were greater for cows on a.m. herbage (5.85 vs. 5.36 g/L). Initial herbage mass (HM) available (kg of DM/ha) and instantaneous HM disappearance rates (kg of DM/ha and kg of DM/h) did not differ, but fractional disappearance rates (0.56 vs. 0.74 per hour for a.m. vs. p.m., respectively) differed. Under the current conditions, timing of pasture strip allocation altered the herbage nutrient supply to cows; allocating a fresh strip of pasture later in the day resulted in moderate increases in milk and milk solids yields

  8. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on metabolic status and hepatic gene expression of dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Gross, J J; van Dorland, H A; Remmelink, G J; Bruckmaier, R M; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2015-02-01

    In a prior study, we observed that cows with a 0-d dry period had greater energy balance and lower milk production compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period in early lactation. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the influence of dry period length on metabolic status and hepatic gene expression in cows fed a lipogenic or glucogenic diet in early lactation. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=167) were assigned randomly to 3×2 factorial design with 3 dry period lengths (n=56, 55, and 56 for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry, respectively) and 2 early lactation diets (n=84 and 83 for glucogenic and lipogenic diet, respectively). Cows were fed a glucogenic or lipogenic diet from 10d before the expected calving date and onward. The main ingredient for a glucogenic concentrate was corn, and the main ingredients for a lipogenic concentrate were sugar beet pulp, palm kernel, and rumen-protected palm oil. Blood was sampled weekly from 95 cows from wk 3 precalving to wk 8 postcalving. Liver samples were collected from 76 cows in wk -2, 2, and 4 relative to calving. Liver samples were analyzed for triacylglycerol concentrations and mRNA expression of 12 candidate genes. Precalving, cows with a 0-d dry period had greater plasma β-hydroxybutyrate, urea, and insulin concentrations compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. Postcalving, cows with a 0-d dry period had lower liver triacylglycerol and plasma nonesterified fatty acids concentrations (0.20, 0.32, and 0.36mmol/L for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry period, respectively), greater plasma glucose, insulin-like growth factor-I, and insulin (24.38, 14.02, and 11.08µIU/mL for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry period, respectively) concentrations, and lower hepatic mRNA expression of pyruvate carboxylase, compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. Plasma urea and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were greater in cows fed a lipogenic diet compared with cows fed a glucogenic diet. In conclusion, cows with a 0-d dry period had

  9. Modification of digestive system microbiome of lactating dairy cows by feeding Bovamine: effect on ruminal fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the immune modulatory effects as well as effects on productivity of Bovamine® (Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Probionibacterium freudenreichii) on the digestive system microbiome of dairy cattle during late lactation (average DIM = 202). To unveil the underlying mechanisms, ...

  10. Effect of fat supplementation and stage of lactation on methane production in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Lene; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of fat supplementation on methane (CH4) production and to study if the effect persists over time as lactation progresses. Rumen microbial protein synthesis and thereby milk yield may be reduced when fermentable organic matter (OM) is replaced by nonfermentable...

  11. Effects of extruded corn on milk yield and composition and blood parameters in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to a 2x2 cross over design, fourteen Holstein dairy cows at 99±55 DIM were fed two diets containing 21.5% DM of either ground corn (GC or extruded corn (EC. Performance and metabolic profile were detected during the third week of each experimental period. DMI and milk yield were not affected by dietary treatments. Milk fat and protein percentage of EC diet were significantly (P<0.10 lower than those of GC diet. Probably the higher rumen degradability of starch from EC thesis modified the synthesis of specific fatty acids leading to a milk fat depression event. Diets did not influence blood parameters, except for lower values of total protein and glucose content in EC diet-fed cows. Results suggested that the dietary inclusion of extruded corn should not be used at the tested level of substitution.

  12. Effect of decreasing dietary phosphorus supply on net recycling of inorganic phosphate in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puggaard, Liselotte; Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Sehested, Jens Jakob

    2011-01-01

    (LP; 2.4 g of P/kg of DM) and high P (HP; 3.4 g of P/kg of DM). The dietary total P (tP) concentrations were obtained by replacing 0.50% calcium carbonate in the LP diet with 0.50% monocalcium phosphate in the HP diet. Diets were fed for 14 d and cows were sampled on d 14 in each period. Cows were fed...... restrictively, resulting in equal dry matter intakes as well as milk, fat, and protein yields between treatments. Net Pi recycling (primarily salivary) was estimated as the difference between net portal plasma flux (net absorption of Pi) and apparently digested tP (feed – fecal tP difference). Phosphorus intake...

  13. Effect of lactation stage, its number, current milk performance and barn air temperature on laterality of Holstein dairy cows laying behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Zejdová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine effect of lactation stage and number, current milk performance and ambient temperature on laterality of dairy cows laying behaviour (i.e. preference of either left or right body side. The monitoring was performed at the University Training Farm in Žabčice, Czech Republic, (geographical coordinates 49° 0’4’’ N and 16° 36’ E, the altitude 179 m within the six warmest months of the year 2010 (i.e. from 1 April 2010 to 30 September 2010. Observed were altogether 70 Holstein dairy cows with the average daily milk production of 34.48 kg of milk, which were kept in loose housing boxes with bedding (size of boxes: 2500 mm x 1250 mm. Animals were directly observed once a week (always at 9.00 a.m.. In the course of observation, the position of dairy cows in the barn was exactly recorded. In case of laying animals, it was recorded on which body side they were resting. Altogether 1,239 records of laying position of individual dairy cows were analysed and it was found out that the experimental animals preferred the left body side of their body (left and right laterality was observed in 671 and 568 animals, respectively. This left-side laterality was more frequent among animals in later stages of lactation (more than 200 days and also in dairy cows with a higher number of lactations (4th and more. Dairy cows with a below-average milk performance rested on their left body side more frequently than those with a high level of milk production. As compared with average and/or low air temperatures, the left laterality was more frequent in periods of high ambient temperatures.

  14. Longitudinal profiling of the tissue-specific expression of genes related with insulin sensitivity in dairy cows during lactation focusing on different fat depots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Saremi

    Full Text Available In dairy cows the milk associated energy output in early lactation exceeds the input via voluntary feed intake. To spare glucose for mammary lactose synthesis, peripheral insulin sensitivity (IS is reduced and fat mobilization is stimulated. For these processes a link between IS and the endocrine functions of adipose tissue (AT is likely; we thus aimed to characterise the mRNA expression from bovine AT derived proteins and receptors that are related to IS according to the literature in metabolically active tissues plus systemic IS throughout lactation. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA reduce milk fat thus decreasing the milk drain of energy and potentially dampening lipolysis, but may also affect IS. Subcutaneous (s.c. AT and liver from pluriparous cows receiving either control fat or CLA supplement (100 g/day from 1 to 182 days in milk each were biopsied covering week -3 to 36 relative to parturition. In an additional trial with primiparous cows treated analogously and slaughtered on days in milk 1, 42 or 105, samples from liver, udder, skeletal muscle and 3 visceral and 3 s.c. AT were obtained and assayed for mRNA abundance of adiponectin, its receptors, leptin, leptin receptor, PPARγ, PPARγ2, IL-6, and TNF-α. In pluriparous animals, the mRNA abundance of most of the target genes decreased after parturition in s.c. AT but increased in liver. In primiparous cows, AT depot specific differences were mostly related to retroperitoneal AT; adiponectin receptor 1 and TNF-α were affected predominantly. CLA effects in primiparous cows were largely limited to decreased PPARγ2 mRNA abundance in udder tissue. In pluriparous cows, insulin secretion was increased by CLA resulting in decreased systemic IS but without consistent changes in tissue target mRNA abundance. The temporal gene expression profiles from the adipokines and related receptors support their coactive function in adapting to the needs of lactation.

  15. Longitudinal Profiling of the Tissue-Specific Expression of Genes Related with Insulin Sensitivity in Dairy Cows during Lactation Focusing on Different Fat Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Behnam; Winand, Sarah; Friedrichs, Paula; Kinoshita, Asako; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven; Häussler, Susanne; Breves, Gerhard; Mielenz, Manfred; Sauerwein, Helga

    2014-01-01

    In dairy cows the milk associated energy output in early lactation exceeds the input via voluntary feed intake. To spare glucose for mammary lactose synthesis, peripheral insulin sensitivity (IS) is reduced and fat mobilization is stimulated. For these processes a link between IS and the endocrine functions of adipose tissue (AT) is likely; we thus aimed to characterise the mRNA expression from bovine AT derived proteins and receptors that are related to IS according to the literature in metabolically active tissues plus systemic IS throughout lactation. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) reduce milk fat thus decreasing the milk drain of energy and potentially dampening lipolysis, but may also affect IS. Subcutaneous (s.c.) AT and liver from pluriparous cows receiving either control fat or CLA supplement (100 g/day from 1 to 182 days in milk each) were biopsied covering week −3 to 36 relative to parturition. In an additional trial with primiparous cows treated analogously and slaughtered on days in milk 1, 42 or 105, samples from liver, udder, skeletal muscle and 3 visceral and 3 s.c. AT were obtained and assayed for mRNA abundance of adiponectin, its receptors, leptin, leptin receptor, PPARγ, PPARγ2, IL-6, and TNF-α. In pluriparous animals, the mRNA abundance of most of the target genes decreased after parturition in s.c. AT but increased in liver. In primiparous cows, AT depot specific differences were mostly related to retroperitoneal AT; adiponectin receptor 1 and TNF-α were affected predominantly. CLA effects in primiparous cows were largely limited to decreased PPARγ2 mRNA abundance in udder tissue. In pluriparous cows, insulin secretion was increased by CLA resulting in decreased systemic IS but without consistent changes in tissue target mRNA abundance. The temporal gene expression profiles from the adipokines and related receptors support their coactive function in adapting to the needs of lactation. PMID:24465964

  16. Effects of intrauterine infusion of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide on uterine health, resolution of purulent vaginal discharge, and reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, João G N; Silva, Paula R B; Mendonça, Luís G D; Scanavez, Alexandre A; Silva, Joseane C C; Chebel, Ricardo C

    2017-06-01

    The objectives of the current experiment were to evaluate the effects of intrauterine infusion of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in cows diagnosed with purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) on intrauterine cell population, resolution of PVD, uterine health, and reproductive performance. Jersey cows (n = 3,084) were examined using the Metricheck device to diagnose PVD at 35 ± 6 d postpartum. Purulent vaginal discharge was defined as the presence of purulent (≥50% pus) discharge detectable in the vagina. Of the 310 cows positive for PVD, 267 cows were enrolled in the current experiment. To ensure proper timing of treatment and collection of samples, only 9 PVD-positive cows were treated per day. Selected cows were balanced at 35 ± 6 d postpartum for lactation number, body condition score, and milk yield and were randomly assigned to receive an intrauterine infusion of 20 mL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; control, n = 87), 20 mL of PBS with 150 µg LPS (LPS150, n = 91), or 20 mL of PBS with 300 µg of LPS (LPS300, n = 89). Uterine cytology was performed immediately before treatment and 1, 2, and 7 d after treatment to evaluate the effect of LPS treatment on intrauterine cell population. Cows were examined with the Metricheck device at 7 and 28 d after treatment to evaluate the effects of treatment on resolution of PVD. Reproductive status was recorded up to 200 d postpartum. Cows diagnosed with PVD had greater incidence of twinning, dystocia, retained placenta, and metritis after calving than cows without PVD. Count of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) in uterine cytology 1, 2, and 7 d after intrauterine infusion was not statistically different among treatments. From d 0 to 1, however, PMNL count in uterine cytology of PBS cows increased by 5%, whereas the PMNL count in uterine cytology of LPS150 and LPS300 cows increased by 54 and 48%, respectively. Treatment did not affect the likelihood of cows being diagnosed with PVD 7 and 28 d after intrauterine

  17. Purine derivatives/creatinine ratio as an index of microbial protein synthesis in lactating Holstein cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orellana, R.; Pulido, P.; Briones, M.; Sarabia, A.

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to study creatinine excretion in milking cows, and its relationship to food intake and purine derivatives (PD) excretion as an index of microbial N synthesized in the rumen. In the first experiment, differences in creatinine determination method were studied: creatinine excretion was 26.8 ± 1.2 and 27.4 ± 2.2 mg/kg live weight, or 1,175.39 ± 74.69 and 1,199.9 ± 103.9 mmol/kgW 0.75 respectively for HPLC and colorimetry analysis. In the second experiment, the effect of concentrate supplement on the PDC index was studied. The inclusion of different levels of concentrate (0, 16, 33 and 50%) increased the PDC index significantly. The PDC index (Y) also showed a significant relationship with DOMI (X, kg/d): Y 16.85 X + 6.23; R 2 =0.84. Total PD excretion was calculated assuming constant daily excretion of creatinine (1.199 mmol/kgW 0.75 ). In the third experiment the effect of different roughage on the PDC index was studied. The substitution of a 23% of rye grass (Lolium sp.) silage by alkali treated wheat straw did not modify DOMI and the PDC index although among groups there was a significant decrease in milk production (1.5 L/cow/d) and in growth rate (-380 g/cow/d). (author)

  18. The effect of administering equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) post artificial insemination on fertility of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolome, J A; Wallace, S Perez; de la Sota, R L; Thatcher, W W

    2012-09-15

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and hCG post artificial insemination (AI) on fertility of lactating dairy cows. In Experiment 1, cows were either treated with eCG on Day 22 post AI (400 IU; n = 80) or left untreated (n = 84). On Day 29, pregnant cows were either treated with hCG (2500 IU; n = 32) or left untreated (n = 36). Pregnancy and progesterone were evaluated on Days 29 and 45. In Experiment 2, cows (n = 28) were either treated with eCG on Day 22 (n = 13) or left untreated (n = 15) and either treated with hCG on Day 29 (n = 14) or left untreated (n = 14). Blood sampling and ultrasonography were conducted between Days 22 and 45. In Experiment 3, cows were either treated with eCG on Day 22 post AI (n = 229) or left untreated (n = 241). Pregnancy was evaluated on Days 36 and 85. In Experiment 1, eCG on Day 22 increased (P cows on Day 29 (50.0 vs. 33.3%) and on Day 45, the increase was higher (P cows with timed AI (41.2 vs. 6.5%) than in cows AI at detected estrus (50.0 vs. 37.8%). Pregnancy losses were reduced by eCG and hCG, but increased in cows that did not receive eCG but were given hCG (P cows, but not in cows treated with eCG. In Experiment 2, hCG increased (P cows (P cows with low body condition (eCG = 45.6 and 43.5%; Control = 22.9 and 22.9%). In conclusion, eCG at 22 days post insemination increased fertility, primarily in cows with low body condition and reduced pregnancy losses when given 7 days before hCG; hCG induced accessory CLs and slightly increased progesterone, but hCG given in the absence of a prior eCG treatment reduced fertility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of inclusion or non-inclusion of short lactations and cow and/or dam genetic group on genetic evaluation of Girolando dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaza-Cayo, A W; Silva, M V G B; Cobuci, J A; Martins, M F; Lopes, P S

    2016-04-04

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of inclusion or non-inclusion of short lactations and cow (CGG) and/or dam (DGG) genetic group on the genetic evaluation of 305-day milk yield (MY305), age at first calving (AFC), and first calving interval (FCI) of Girolando cows. Covariance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method in an animal model of single trait analyses. The heritability estimates for MY305, AFC, and FCI ranged from 0.23 to 0.29, 0.40 to 0.44, and 0.13 to 0.14, respectively, when short lactations were not included, and from 0.23 to 0.28, 0.39 to 0.43, and 0.13 to 0.14, respectively, when short lactations were included. The inclusion of short lactations caused little variation in the variance components and heritability estimates of traits, but their non-inclusion resulted in the re-ranking of animals. Models with CGG or DGG fixed effects had higher heritability estimates for all traits compared with models that consider these two effects simultaneously. We recommend using the model with fixed effects of CGG and inclusion of short lactations for the genetic evaluation of Girolando cattle.

  20. The effects of energy concentration in roughage and allowance of concentrates on performance, health and energy efficiency of pluriparous dairy cows during early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Rolf; Schnabel, Karina; von Soosten, Dirk; Meyer, Ulrich; Spiekers, Hubert; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different energy supplies from roughage and concentrates on performance, health and energy efficiency during early lactation. For this purpose an experiment was conducted containing 64 pluriparous German Holstein cows from 3 weeks prepartum until 16 weeks postpartum. During dry period all cows received an equal dry cow ration. After calving, cows were assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement to one of four groups, receiving either a moderate (MR, 6.0 MJ NE L ) or a high (HR, 6.4 MJ NE L ) energy concentration in roughage and furthermore moderate (MC, 150 g/kg energy-corrected milk (ECM)) or high amounts of concentrates (HC, 250 g/kg ECM) on dry matter (DM) basis, which were allocated from an automatic feeding system. Higher allocation of concentrates resulted in an increase of DM intake at expense of roughage intake. HC cows had a higher milk yield than MC cows, whereas ECM was higher in HR cows due to a decrease of milk fat yield in MR groups. Energy balance and body condition score were elevated in HC cows, but no differences occurred in development of subclinical ketosis. Furthermore, energy efficiency variables were lower in HC groups because the greater energy intake was not associated with a considerable elevation of milk yield. Consistency of faeces did not indicate digestive disorders in any of the treatment groups although the faecal manure score was significantly lower in HR groups. Our results underline the importance of a high energy uptake from roughage, which can contribute to an adequate performance and beneficial efficiency, especially at lower amounts of concentrates in ration. Feeding concentrates on an average amount of 9.4 kg/d compared to 6.4 kg/d on DM basis improved the energy balance in our trial, but without consequences for metabolic blood variables and general health of the cows.

  1. Effect of core body temperature, time of day, and climate conditions on behavioral patterns of lactating dairy cows experiencing mild to moderate heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J D; Hall, L W; Collier, R J; Smith, J F

    2015-01-01

    Cattle show several responses to heat load, including spending more time standing. Little is known about what benefit this may provide for the animals. Data from 3 separate cooling management trials were analyzed to investigate the relationship between behavioral patterns in lactating dairy cows experiencing mild to moderate heat stress and their body temperature. Cows (n=157) were each fitted with a leg data logger that measured position and an intravaginal data logger that measures core body temperature (CBT). Ambient conditions were also collected. All data were standardized to 5-min intervals, and information was divided into several categories: when standing and lying bouts were initiated and the continuance of each bout (7,963 lying and 6,276 standing bouts). In one location, cows were continuously subjected to heat-stress levels according to temperature-humidity index (THI) range (THI≥72). The THI range for the other 2 locations was below and above a heat-stress threshold of 72 THI. Overall and regardless of period of day, cows stood up at greater CBT compared with continuing to stand or switching to a lying position. In contrast, cows lay down at lower CBT compared with continuing to lie or switching to a standing position, and lying bouts lasted longer when cows had lower CBT. Standing bouts also lasted longer when cattle had greater CBT, and they were less likely to lie down (less than 50% of lying bouts initiated) when their body temperature was over 38.8°C. Also, cow standing behavior was affected once THI reached 68. Increasing CBT decreased lying duration and increased standing duration. A CBT of 38.93°C marked a 50% likelihood a cow would be standing. This is the first physiological evidence that standing may help cool cows and provides insight into a communally observed behavioral response to heat. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Extending lactation in pasture-based dairy cows. II: Effect of genetic strain and diet on plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, J K; Phyn, C V C; Roche, J R; Kolver, E S

    2009-08-01

    Fifty-six genetically divergent New Zealand and North American Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows grazed pasture, and were offered 0, 3, or 6 kg of concentrate DM/cow per day for an extended lactation (605 +/- 8.3 d in milk; mean +/- standard error of the mean). Weekly blood samples collected from individual cows from wk 1 to 10 postpartum (early lactation), and from wk 47 to 63 postpartum (extended lactation) were analyzed for nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose, insulin, leptin, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), calcium, and urea. During early lactation, NEFA and GH concentrations were greater and IGF-I concentrations were less, and increased at a slower rate in North American HF. During this 10-wk period, there were no strain effects on plasma glucose, leptin, insulin, or calcium. During the extended lactation period, North American HF had greater NEFA and GH concentrations; there were strain x diet interactions for insulin and leptin, and a tendency for a strain x diet interaction for glucose. These interactions were primarily due to greater plasma insulin, leptin, and glucose concentrations in the New Zealand HF fed 6 kg of concentrate DM/cow per day, a result of excessive body condition in this treatment. In this period, there was no strain effect on plasma IGF-I, calcium, or urea concentration. During early lactation, there was a linear increase in glucose and IGF-I, and a linear decrease in GH and urea with increasing concentrate in the diet. However, plasma calcium, NEFA, insulin, and leptin remained unchanged. During the extended lactation period, there was an effect of feed supplementation on GH and urea, which decreased linearly with increasing concentrate in the diet. There was, however, no supplementation effect on NEFA, calcium, or IGF-I. These data indicate potential strain differences in recoupling of the somatotropic axis, insulin resistance, and energy partitioning, and may help explain the physiology behind the previously

  3. Effects of an individual weight-adjusted feeding strategy in early lactation on milk production of Holstein cows during extended lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Friggens, N.C.; Taghipoor, M.

    2016-01-01

    . The primiparous cows used the extra energy to grow and gain weight, but not to produce more milk. After the shift in diet, the treatment had little short-term carryover effect on milk yield or LW, but it affected the slopes of some curves. From 0 to 50 d from shift, milk fat content of the LD-LD cows decreased...... faster than that of the HD-LD cows whereas milk lactose increased. From 250 to 350 d from shift, the energy-corrected milk decreased faster for the HD-LD cows than for the LD-LD cows. The lactose content in milk decreased faster for the LD-LD cows than for the HD-LD cows, and the fat content in milk...

  4. Effect of energy source and ruminally degradable protein addition on performance of lactating beef cows and digestion characteristics of steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, T A; Lardy, G P; Caton, J S; Anderson, V L

    2004-09-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine the effect of energy source (ENG) and ruminally degradable protein (RDP) on lactating cow performance and intake and digestion in beef steers. In Trial 1, 78 cow-calf pairs were used in a 2 x 2 factorial design to determine the effect of ENG (corn or soyhulls; SH) and RDP (with our without sunflower meal) to a forage diet for lactating beef cows. The basal diet consisted of 75% grass hay (11.5% CP) and 25% wheat straw (7.4% CP). Supplement treatments and predicted RDP balances were corn (-415 g of RDP/d); SH (-260 g of RDP/d); corn plus RDP (0 g of RDP/d); or SH plus RDP (0 g of RDP/d). Data were analyzed as a split-plot in time, with pen as the experimental unit (two pens per treatment). No interaction between ENG and RDP was present (P > 0.08) for any response variable. No differences (P > 0.39) due to ENG or RDP were noted for BW, BCS, or milk yield; however, final calf weight tended to increase with ENG (P = 0.06). In Trial 2, a 5 x 5 Latin square was used to determine effects of ENG and RDP on intake and digestion in steers (686 +/- 51 kg BW). Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 2 plus one factorial and comprised a control (CON; grass hay, 7% CP), grass hay plus 0.4% BW SH, grass hay plus 0.4% BW SH and 0.15% BW sunflower meal, grass hay plus 0.4% BW corn, and grass hay plus 0.4% BW corn and 0.2% BW sunflower meal. Preplanned contrasts included main effects of ENG and RDP, ENG x RDP interaction, and CON vs. supplemented (SUP) treatments. Supplementation increased total DMI compared with CON (P = 0.001), but forage DMI was greater (P = 0.001) for CON than for SUP. An ENG x RDP interaction occurred for forage DMI (P = 0.02); addition of RDP to corn decreased forage intake, whereas addition of RDP to SH had no effect. There was an ENG x RDP interaction (P = 0.001) for ruminal pH; pH tended to increase with RDP addition to SH (P = 0.07), but decreased with RDP addition to corn (P = 0.001). Supplementation increased ruminal

  5. Effects of forage type and extruded linseed supplementation on methane production and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, K M; Humphries, D J; Kirton, P; Kliem, K E; Givens, D I; Reynolds, C K

    2015-06-01

    Replacing dietary grass silage (GS) with maize silage (MS) and dietary fat supplements may reduce milk concentration of specific saturated fatty acids (SFA) and can reduce methane production by dairy cows. The present study investigated the effect of feeding an extruded linseed supplement on milk fatty acid (FA) composition and methane production of lactating dairy cows, and whether basal forage type, in diets formulated for similar neutral detergent fiber and starch, altered the response to the extruded linseed supplement. Four mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows were fed diets as total mixed rations, containing either high proportions of MS or GS, both with or without extruded linseed supplement, in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 28-d periods. Diets contained 500 g of forage/kg of dry matter (DM) containing MS and GS in proportions (DM basis) of either 75:25 or 25:75 for high MS or high GS diets, respectively. Extruded linseed supplement (275 g/kg ether extract, DM basis) was included in treatment diets at 50 g/kg of DM. Milk yields, DM intake, milk composition, and methane production were measured at the end of each experimental period when cows were housed in respiration chambers. Whereas DM intake was higher for the MS-based diet, forage type and extruded linseed had no significant effect on milk yield, milk fat, protein, or lactose concentration, methane production, or methane per kilogram of DM intake or milk yield. Total milk fat SFA concentrations were lower with MS compared with GS-based diets (65.4 vs. 68.4 g/100 g of FA, respectively) and with extruded linseed compared with no extruded linseed (65.2 vs. 68.6 g/100 g of FA, respectively), and these effects were additive. Concentrations of total trans FA were higher with MS compared with GS-based diets (7.0 vs. 5.4 g/100 g of FA, respectively) and when extruded linseed was fed (6.8 vs. 5. 6g/100 g of FA, respectively). Total n-3 FA were higher when extruded linseed was fed compared with no

  6. Reciprocal combinations of barley and corn grains in oil-supplemented diets: feeding behavior and milk yield of lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargar, S; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Schingoethe, D J

    2014-11-01

    The effect of barley-based (BBD) or corn-based diets (CBD), or their equal blend (BCBD) on dry matter (DM) intake, feeding and chewing behavior, and production performance of lactating dairy cows was evaluated. Nine multiparous Holstein cows (75.6 ± 11.0 d in milk) were used in a triplicate 3 × 3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Forage-to-concentrate ratio (40:60), forage neutral detergent fiber (20% of DM), total neutral detergent fiber (>29% of DM), and geometric mean particle size (4.3mm) were similar among treatments. Meal patterns, including meal size and intermeal interval, were not affected by the dietary treatments and DM intake (25.6 kg/d) was not different among treatments. Ether extract intake increased linearly with increasing amount of the corn grain in the diets. Due to similar feed intake, actual milk (48.6 kg/d), 4% fat-corrected milk (36.8 kg/d), and fat- and protein-corrected milk (38.1 kg/d) yields were not affected by treatments. Average milk protein percentage and yield were 2.83% and 1.37 kg/d, respectively, and were not different across treatments. Milk fat percentage increased linearly with increasing amount of corn grain in the diets and was greater in CBD relative to BCBD but not BBD (2.31, 2.28, and 2.57%, for BBD, BCBD, and CBD, respectively). However, milk fat yield tended to show a linear increase as the amount of corn grain included in the diets increased. Results indicated that changing diet fermentability by replacing barley grain for corn grain in oil-supplemented diets did not influence feeding patterns and thereby no changes in feed intake and milk yield occurred. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of including NaOH-treated corn straw as a substitute for wheat hay in the ration of lactating cows on performance, digestibility, and rumen microbial profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jami, E; Shterzer, N; Yosef, E; Nikbachat, M; Miron, J; Mizrahi, I

    2014-03-01

    This study measured the effects of including 5% NaOH-treated corn straw (T-CS) as a substitute for 15% wheat hay in the control total mixed ration (TMR) of lactating cows on performance, digestibility, and rumen microbial profile. Two groups of 21 cows each, similar in initial performance, were fed individually 1 of the 2 TMR examined. Voluntary dry matter intake of cows fed the control TMR was 4.3% higher than that of the T-CS cows, but in vivo dry matter and organic matter digestibilities of both groups were similar. Crude protein digestibility was higher in the control cows but digestibility of neutral detergent fiber polysaccharides (cellulose and hemicelluloses) was higher in the T-CS TMR. This was followed by 4.6% reduction in rumination time of the T-CS group. A slightly higher milk yield was observed in the control cows compared with the T-CS group; however, milk fat and milk protein content were higher in cows fed the T-CS TMR. This was reflected in 1.3% increase in energy-corrected milk yield and 5.34% increase in production efficiency (energy-corrected milk yield/intake) of the T-CS cows compared with the control. Welfare of the cows, as assessed by length of daily recumbence time, was improved by feeding the T-CS TMR relative to the control group. As a whole, the rumen bacterial community was significantly modulated in the T-CS group in the experimental period compared with the preexperimental period, whereas the bacterial community of the control group remained unchanged during this period. Out of the 8 bacterial species that were quantified using real-time PCR, a notable decrease in cellulolytic bacteria was observed in the T-CS group, as well as an increase in lactic acid-utilizing bacteria. These results illustrate the effect of T-CS on the composition of rumen microbiota, which may play a role in improving the performance of the lactating cow. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prediction of Fecal Nitrogen and Fecal Phosphorus Content for Lactating Dairy Cows in Large-scale Dairy Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QU Qing-bo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate efficient and sustainable manure management and reduce potential pollution, it's necessary for precise prediction of fecal nutrient content. The aim of this study is to build prediction models of fecal nitrogen and phosphorus content by the factors of dietary nutrient composition, days in milk, milk yield and body weight of Chinese Holstein lactating dairy cows. 20 kinds of dietary nutrient composition and 60 feces samples were collected from lactating dairy cows from 7 large-scale dairy farms in Tianjin City; The fecal nitrogen and phosphorus content were analyzed. The whole data set was divided into training data set and testing data set. The training data set, including 14 kinds of dietary nutrient composition and 48 feces samples, was used to develop prediction models. The relationship between fecal nitrogen or phosphorus content and dietary nutrient composition was illustrated by means of correlation and regression analysis using SAS software. The results showed that fecal nitrogen(FN content was highly positively correlated with organic matter intake(OMI and crude fat intake(CFi, and correlation coefficients were 0. 836 and 0. 705, respectively. Negative correlation coefficient was found between fecal phosphorus(FP content and body weight(BW, and the correlation coefficient was -0.525. Among different approaches to develop prediction models, the results indicated that determination coefficients of multiple linear regression equations were higher than those of simple linear regression equations. Specially, fecal nitrogen content was excellently predicted by milk yield(MY, days in milk(DIM, organic matter intake(OMI and nitrogen intake(NI, and the model was as follows:y=0.43+0.29×MY+0.02×DIM+0.92×OMI-13.01×NI (R2=0.96. Accordingly, the highest determination coefficient of prediction equation of FP content was 0.62, when body weight(BW, phosphorus intake(PI and nitrogen intake(NI were combined as predictors. The prediction

  9. Basal levels and diurnal variations of some hormones and metabolites in blood of dairy cows treated daily with rbSTin early and late lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgen Blum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The variations of basal value (before morning feeding at 3-4 days interval and daily pattern (on 4and 18day of treat-  ment with 8 blood collections within 24h of hormones and metabolites were studied in four dairy cows; 2 in early and  2 in late lactation, which were alternatively injected daily for a period of 21 days with 26.3 mg rbST or saline.  The rbST  injection significantly increased the basal and daily levels of GH, IGF-I in both stages of lactation. Daily levels of NEFA  were significantly increased by rbST in both stages of lactation and their variations, due to the effect of meals, were coun-  teracted by the rbST; the higher level of NEFA allowed a greater sparing of glucose, the blood level of which resulted  higher (P  blood urea level (P  ticular the high availability of glucose, determined a significantly higher blood level of insulin and T3, and lower level of  glucagon. Despite the similar GH, IGF-I and NEFA increases observed in the cows treated in early and late lactation, other  metabolic and endocrine consequences resulted more evident in late lactation. Furthermore, some of these variations  were affected by the forage meals. It can be concluded, therefore, that the changes occurring in the blood subsequent  to a rbST treatment are not equal to those which occur at the start of lactation; moreover, they are affected by the daily  feeding pattern and perhaps by the stage of  lactation

  10. Effect of substituting barley with glycerol as energy feed on feed intake, milk production and milk quality in dairy cows in mid or late lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2018-01-01

    intake, and milking frequency were recorded daily, while milk composition and milk FA daily were analyzed weekly. Milk sensory analysis was performed on fresh and 7 d stored samples for the four diets. The PMR intake increased almost 1 kg from Gly0 to Gly12, and decreased by approximately 1 kg from Gly12......The experiment reported in this research paper aimed to determine the level at which glycerol can substitute barley in grass-clover silage-based ration for dairy cows in mid or late lactation, without affecting milk production, milk composition, milk free fatty acid (FFA) profile, and milk sensory...... quality. Forty Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design. Crude glycerol substituted barley in the partially mixed ration (PMR) of the cows at inclusion levels of 0% (Gly0), 6% (Gly6), 12% (Gly12), and 18% (Gly18) of dietary dry matter (DM). Individual milk production, feed...

  11. Effects of nitrogen supply on inter-organ fluxes of urea-N and renal urea-N kinetics in lactating Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjen, Betina Amdisen; Theil, Peter Kappel; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2011-01-01

    The effects of decreasing ruminal urea infusion in lactating dairy cows fed a basal diet deficient in rumen degradable protein on inter-organ urea-N fluxes, epithelial urea-N extraction, and renal urea-N kinetics were investigated. Eight Danish Holstein cows fitted with a ruminal cannula...... and permanent indwelling catheters in the major splanchnic blood vessels and the gastrosplenic vein were used. The cows were randomly allocated to a triplicate incomplete 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Treatments were continuous ventral ruminal infusion of water, 4.1 g of feed urea/kg of dry...... matter intake, and 8.5 g of feed urea/kg of dry matter intake. Dry matter intake and milk yield decreased linearly with decreasing urea infusion. Arterial blood urea-N and ruminal ammonia concentrations decreased linearly with decreasing urea infusion. In absolute amounts, the urea-N recycling did...

  12. Plasma ceramides are elevated in overweight Holstein dairy cows experiencing greater lipolysis and insulin resistance during the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, J E; Bandaru, V V R; Dorskind, J M; Haughey, N J; McFadden, J W

    2015-11-01

    Insulin resistance is a homeorhetic adaptation to parturition in dairy cows transitioning from late pregnancy to early lactation. An increase in prepartum adiposity can predispose periparturient cows to greater lipolysis and insulin resistance, thus increasing the risk for metabolic disease. Mechanisms mediating the development of insulin resistance in overweight peripartal dairy cows may depend on ceramide metabolism. The sphingolipid ceramide accumulates in plasma and tissues of overweight monogastric animals, and facilitates saturated fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Considering this evidence, we hypothesized that plasma ceramides would be elevated in periparturient dairy cattle and that these sphingolipids would correlate with the magnitude of lipolysis and insulin resistance. To test our central hypothesis, multiparous Holstein cows were allocated into 2 groups according to their body condition score (BCS) at d -30 prepartum: lean (BCS 4.0; n=11). Blood samples were collected at d -45, -30, -15, and -7, relative to expected parturition, and at d 4 postpartum. Plasma glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations were measured, and insulin sensitivity was estimated. The concentrations of individual plasma ceramide and glycosylated ceramide were determined using liquid chromatography-based mass spectrometry. Results demonstrated that greater adiposity was associated with a greater loss in body condition during late pregnancy. Overweight cows had greater circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, and NEFA, and lower insulin sensitivity relative to lean cows. We detected 30 different sphingolipids across 6 lipid classes with acyl chains ranging from 16 to 26 carbons. The most abundant plasma sphingolipids detected were C24:0-ceramide, C24:0-monohexosylceramide, and C16:0-lactosylceramide. Plasma concentrations of total ceramide and monohexosylceramide increased as lactation approached, and saturated

  13. The effects of increasing doses of 2 preparations of long-acting insulin on short-term plasma profiles of glucose and insulin in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, L A; Overton, T R

    2012-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate effects of administering increasing doses of 2 different preparations of long-acting insulin on the 24-h profiles of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in mid lactation dairy cows. The 2 separately analyzed experiments investigated the effects administering either Humulin N (H), a neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin, or insulin glargine (Lantus, L), an insulin analog, at doses of 0 (control), 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 IU/kg of body weight in a randomized complete block design. Sixteen cows (237±11 d in milk for H; 213±10 d in milk for L; mean ± SD) were used for each insulin preparation, resulting in n=4 for each dose within insulin preparation. Cows were fitted with a single jugular catheter on the day before the study. On the day of the study, cows were given treatments by subcutaneous injection of either sterile water or the designated insulin type and dose. Blood samples were taken hourly from the jugular catheter. Subcutaneous injection of both H and L resulted in linear decreases in plasma glucose concentrations, increased area under the curve, and decreased nadir for plasma glucose following administration of the insulin preparations. Plasma insulin concentration linearly increased with increasing dose of H. Though elevated concentrations of insulin were measurable in cows treated with H, they were not measurable in cows treated with L. Attempts to measure overall insulin concentrations and metabolites of L by a commercially available ELISA and a commercially available RIA kit were not successful and did not retrieve values that we felt truly represented the amount of insulin activity exhibited during this treatment. Both long-acting insulin preparations elicited insulin-like activity in lactating dairy cows, as evidenced by reduced plasma glucose concentrations. Given these results, the potential exists to use both H and L to study the effects of insulin in mid lactation dairy cows without the confounding

  14. Intake, milk yield, and physiological parameters of lactating cows fed on diets containing different quantities of xiquexique (Pilosocereus gounellei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Nogueira Furtado

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of substituting Tifton-85 grass hay with different quantities of xiquexique (Pilosocereus gounellei (0, 12, 24, and 36% on the nutrient intake and physiological responses of lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous crossbred cows at approximately 100 days in milk, with an average milk yield of 15 kg of milk per day-1, and an average body weight (BW of 465.20 ± 39.37 kg, were distributed in a 4 × 4 double Latin square design. Each experimental period lasted 16 days, consisting of 10 days for adaptation and 6 days for data collection, giving a total of 64 experimental days. The roughage: concentrate ratio was 60:40, on a dry matter (DM basis. The DM intake, expressed in kg day-1, was affected quadratically by the levels of xiquexique in the diets. The intakes of DM, expressed in % BW and g kg-0.75, and neutral detergent fiber (NDF in the three units analyzed (kg day-1, % BW, and g kg-0.75, as well as the intakes of organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, and total carbohydrates (TC, expressed in kg/day-1, decreased linearly with the levels of xiquexique in the diet. Milk yield (kg day-1 was reduced by the addition of xiquexique into the diet, but feed efficiency was not influenced. Water intake from feed (WIFeed, expressed in kg day-1 and % BW, incresed linearly with increasing levels of xiquexique in the total diet, while voluntary water intake, expressed in kg day-1 and % BW (WIVoluntary, decreased linearly. The total water intake (WITotal was not affected by experimental treatments. Participation of WIVoluntary in the WITotal linearly reduced with Xiquexique levels in the diet. The respiratory rate and surface temperature during both periods of the day (morning and afternoon, and rectal temperature during the morning were not influenced by the levels of xiquexique in the diet. Therefore, xiquexique can be utilized in the feeding of medium and high producing dairy cows

  15. Short communication: Effect of fatty acid supplements on apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnino, D S; Harvatine, K J; Allen, M S; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L

    2017-10-01

    The effect of fat supplements (FS) providing different proportions of saturated (SFA) and unsaturated (UFA) fatty acids on supply, apparent ruminal synthesis (ARS), and duodenal flow (DF) of some B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B 6 , folates, and vitamin B 12 ) were evaluated in an experiment using 8 ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows. The experiment was a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d treatment periods. The 4 treatments were a control diet without fatty acid supplement and 3 diets with 2.5% additional fatty acids from supplements containing (1) SFA, (2) an intermediate mixture of SFA and UFA, or (3) UFA. All diets were served as a total mixed ration once daily at 115% of the expected intake. B-vitamin concentrations were analyzed in feed and duodenal digesta. Apparent ruminal synthesis of each B vitamin was calculated as the DF minus the intake. B-vitamin concentrations were similar among the 4 treatments; consequently, daily intake of the vitamins followed the same pattern as dry matter intake. Adding FS decreased B-vitamin intakes (except vitamin B 12 ), as did increasing the proportion of UFA. Riboflavin and niacin DF and ARS, expressed as total daily amount or per unit of dry matter intake, were not affected by FS, but increasing the proportion of UFA decreased riboflavin and niacin DF and ARS. Fat supplements decreased DF of vitamin B 6 , expressed either as total daily amount or per unit of dry matter intake. No treatment effects were observed on total daily folate DF and ARS. However, when expressed per unit of dry matter intake, folate DF and ARS were greater when cows were fed FS and they increased linearly with the proportion of UFA in the supplement. Inclusion of fat supplements into the dairy cow diet had a limited effect on the fate of most B vitamins in the rumen although increasing the proportion of UFA in the FS linearly decreased apparent synthesis of riboflavin and niacin in the rumen

  16. Effect of dietary roughage level on chewing activity, ruminal pH, and saliva secretion in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, F G; Lin, X Y; Yan, Z G; Hu, Z Y; Liu, G M; Sun, Y D; Liu, X W; Wang, Z H

    2017-04-01

    Increasing dietary roughage level is a commonly used strategy to prevent subacute ruminal acidosis. We hypothesized that high-roughage diets could promote chewing activity, saliva secretion, and hence more alkaline to buffer rumen pH. To verify the hypothesis, 12 multiparous Holstein cows in mid lactation were randomly allocated to 4 treatments in a triplicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with one cow in each treatment surgically fitted with a ruminal cannula. Treatments were diets containing 40, 50, 60, or 70% of roughage on a DM basis. Increasing dietary roughage level decreased DM, CP, OM, starch, and NE L intake, increased ADF intake, and decreased milk yield linearly. Intake of NDF was quite stable across treatments and ranged from 7.8 to 8.1 kg/d per cow. Daily eating time increased linearly with increased roughage level. The increase in eating time was due to increased eating time per meal but not number of meals per day, which was stable and ranged from 8.3 to 8.5 meals per day across treatments. Increasing dietary roughage level had no effect on ruminating time (min/d), the number of ruminating periods (rumination periods per d), and chewing time per ruminating period (min/ruminating period). Ruminating time per kilogram of NDF intake and total chewing time per kilogram of ADF intake were similar across treatments (57.4 and 183.8 min/kg, respectively). Increasing dietary roughage level linearly increased daily total chewing time; linearly elevated the mean, maximum, and minimum ruminal pH; and linearly decreased total VFA concentration and molar proportion of propionate in ruminal fluid. Saliva secretion during eating was increased, the secretion during rumination was unaffected, but the secretion during resting tended to decrease with increased dietary roughage level. As a result, total saliva secretion was not affected by treatments. In conclusion, the results of the present study did not support the concept that high-roughage diets elevated ruminal p

  17. Effect of corn silage hybrids differing in starch and neutral detergent fiber digestibility on lactation performance and total-tract nutrient digestibility by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraretto, L F; Fonseca, A C; Sniffen, C J; Formigoni, A; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    Selection for hybrids with greater starch and NDF digestibility may be beneficial for dairy producers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a TMR containing a floury-leafy corn silage hybrid (LFY) compared with a brown midrib corn silage hybrid (BMR) for intake, lactation performance, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows. Ninety-six multiparous Holstein cows, 105±31d in milk at trial initiation, were stratified by DIM and randomly assigned to 12 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments, BMR or LFY, in a completely randomized design; a 2-wk covariate period with cows fed a common diet followed by a 14-wk treatment period with cows fed their assigned treatment diet. Starch digestibilities, in situ, in vitro, and in vivo, were greater for LFY compared with BMR; the opposite was observed for NDF digestibility. Cows fed BMR consumed 1.7kg/d more dry matter than LFY. Although, actual-, energy-, and solids-corrected milk yields were greater for BMR than LFY, feed conversions (kg of milk or component-corrected milk per kg of DMI) did not differ. Fat-corrected milk and milk fat yield were similar, as milk fat content was greater for cows fed LFY (4.05%) than BMR (3.83%). Cows fed BMR had lower milk urea nitrogen concentration, but greater milk protein and lactose yields compared with LFY. Body weight change and condition score were unaffected by treatment. Total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage; however, dry matter intake and milk and protein yields were greater for cows fed the BMR corn silage. Although total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage, feed efficiency was not affected by hybrid type due to greater dry matter intake and milk and protein yields by cows fed the BMR corn silage. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of hepatic transcript profile and plasma lipid profile in early lactating dairy cows fed grape seed and grape marc meal extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Denise K; Winkler, Anne; Koch, Christian; Dusel, Georg; Liebisch, Gerhard; Ringseis, Robert; Eder, Klaus

    2017-03-23

    transition period at 1 week postpartum indicates that polyphenol-rich feed components are able to inhibit ER stress-induced UPR and inflammatory processes, both of which are considered to contribute to liver-associated diseases and to impair milk performance in dairy cows, in the liver of dairy cows during early lactation.

  19. Carryover effect of postpartum inflammatory diseases on developmental biology and fertility in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, E S; Gomes, G; Greco, L F; Cerri, R L A; Vieira-Neto, A; Monteiro, P L J; Lima, F S; Bisinotto, R S; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this series of studies was to investigate the effects of inflammatory diseases occurring before breeding on the developmental biology and reproductive responses in dairy cows. Data from 5 studies were used to investigate different questions associating health status before breeding and reproductive responses. Health information for all studies was composed of the incidence of retained fetal membranes, metritis, mastitis, lameness, and respiratory and digestive problems from parturition until the day of breeding. Retained placenta and metritis were grouped as uterine disease (UTD). Mastitis, lameness, digestive and respiratory problems were grouped as nonuterine diseases (NUTD). Study 1 evaluated the effect of disease before artificial insemination (AI), anovulation before synchronization of the estrous cycle, and low body condition score at AI on pregnancy per AI, as well as their potential interactions or additive effects. Study 2 investigated the effect of site of inflammation (UTD vs. NUTD) and time of occurrence relative to preantral or antral stages of ovulatory follicle development, and the effect of UTD and NUTD on fertility responses of cows bred by AI or by embryo transfer. Study 3 evaluated the effect of disease on fertilization and embryonic development to the morula stage. Study 4 evaluated the effect of disease on preimplantation conceptus development as well as secretion of IFN-τ and transcriptome. Study 5 investigated the effect of diseases before AI on the transcript expression of interferon-stimulated genes in peripheral blood leukocytes during peri-implantation stages of conceptus development after first AI postpartum. Altogether, these studies demonstrated that inflammatory disease before breeding reduced fertilization of oocytes and development to morula, and impaired early conceptus development to elongation stages and secretion of IFN-τ in the uterine lumen. Diseases caused inflammation-like changes in transcriptome of

  20. Chronic Effects of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Rations with or without Increased Concentrate Proportion on the Insulin Sensitivity in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Asako; Keese, Christina; Meyer, Ulrich; Starke, Alexander; Wrenzycki, Christine; Dänicke, Sven

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term exposure to a Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON, 5 mg/kg DM) on the energy metabolism in lactating cows fed diets with different amounts of concentrate. In Period 1 27 German Holstein cows were assigned to two groups and fed a control or mycotoxin-contaminated diet with 50% concentrate for 11 weeks. In Period 2 each group was further divided and fed either a diet containing 30% or 60% concentrate for 16 weeks. Blood samples were collected in week 0, 4, 8, 15, 21, and 27 for calculation of the Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index and biopsy samples of skeletal muscle and the liver in w 0, 15, and 27 for analysis by real-time RT-qPCR. The DON-fed groups presented lower insulin sensitivities than controls at week 27. Concomitantly, muscular mRNA expression of insulin receptors and hepatic mRNA expression of glucose transporter 2 and key enzymes for gluconeogenesis and fatty acid metabolism were lower in DON-fed cows compared to the control. The study revealed no consistent evidence that DON effects were modified by dietary concentrate levels. In conclusion, long-term dietary DON intake appears to have mild effects on energy metabolism in lactating dairy cows. PMID:29738450

  1. Chronic Effects of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Rations with or without Increased Concentrate Proportion on the Insulin Sensitivity in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asako Kinoshita

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term exposure to a Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON, 5 mg/kg DM on the energy metabolism in lactating cows fed diets with different amounts of concentrate. In Period 1 27 German Holstein cows were assigned to two groups and fed a control or mycotoxin-contaminated diet with 50% concentrate for 11 weeks. In Period 2 each group was further divided and fed either a diet containing 30% or 60% concentrate for 16 weeks. Blood samples were collected in week 0, 4, 8, 15, 21, and 27 for calculation of the Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index and biopsy samples of skeletal muscle and the liver in w 0, 15, and 27 for analysis by real-time RT-qPCR. The DON-fed groups presented lower insulin sensitivities than controls at week 27. Concomitantly, muscular mRNA expression of insulin receptors and hepatic mRNA expression of glucose transporter 2 and key enzymes for gluconeogenesis and fatty acid metabolism were lower in DON-fed cows compared to the control. The study revealed no consistent evidence that DON effects were modified by dietary concentrate levels. In conclusion, long-term dietary DON intake appears to have mild effects on energy metabolism in lactating dairy cows.

  2. Shifts in Rumen Fermentation and Microbiota Are Associated with Dissolved Ruminal Hydrogen Concentrations in Lactating Dairy Cows Fed Different Types of Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Wang, Rong; Xie, Tian Yu; Janssen, Peter H; Sun, Xue Zhao; Beauchemin, Karen A; Tan, Zhi Liang; Gao, Min

    2016-09-01

    Different carbohydrates ingested greatly influence rumen fermentation and microbiota and gaseous methane emissions. Dissolved hydrogen concentration is related to rumen fermentation and methane production. We tested the hypothesis that carbohydrates ingested greatly alter the rumen environment in dairy cows, and that dissolved hydrogen concentration is associated with these changes in rumen fermentation and microbiota. Twenty-eight lactating Chinese Holstein dairy cows [aged 4-5 y, body weight 480 ± 37 kg (mean ± SD)] were used in a randomized complete block design to investigate effects of 4 diets differing in forage content (45% compared with 35%) and source (rice straw compared with a mixture of rice straw and corn silage) on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and microbial populations. Feed intake (10.7-12.6 kg/d) and fiber degradation (0.584-0.692) greatly differed (P ≤ 0.05) between cows fed the 4 diets, leading to large differences (P ≤ 0.05) in gaseous methane yield (27.2-37.3 g/kg organic matter digested), dissolved hydrogen (0.258-1.64 μmol/L), rumen fermentation products, and microbiota. Ruminal dissolved hydrogen was negatively correlated (r 0.40; P Ruminal dissolved hydrogen was positively correlated (r = 0.93; P ruminal dissolved hydrogen in lactating dairy cows. An unresolved paradox was that greater dissolved hydrogen was associated with greater numbers of methanogens but with lower gaseous methane emissions. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Effect of feeding long or short wheat hay v. wheat silage in the ration of lactating cows on intake, milk production and digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaani, Y; Nikbachat, M; Yosef, E; Ben-Meir, Y; Mizrahi, I; Miron, J

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in lactating cows the effect of either chopping or ensiling of wheat roughage on: intake, digestibility, lactation performance and animal behavior. Three groups of 14 lactating cows each, were fed total mixed rations (TMRs) based on either long wheat hay (HL), short wheat hay (HS) or wheat silage (SI), as the sole roughage source (30% of TMR dry matter (DM)). Parameters examined: sorting behavior, DM intake, milk yield and composition, rumination, recumbence, average daily rumen pH, digesta passage rate, and in-vivo digestibility. Performance data was summarized by day and analyzed using a proc-mixed model. The content of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) was similar in the HL and SI and lower in the HS, resulting in similar differences among the three corresponding TMRs. In vitro DM digestibility of wheat silage was higher than that of the two hays (65.6% v. 62.8%) resulting in higher in vitro DM digestibility of the SI-TMR compared with the hay-based TMRs (79.3 v. 77.0%). HS-TMR was better than HL- or SI-TMRs at preventing feed sorting by cows after 12 or 24 h eating of the diets. Cows fed HS-TMR consumed more DM and NDF but less peNDF than the other two groups. Average daily rumen pH was similar in the three groups, but daily rumination time was highest in the cows fed HS-TMR. Rumen retention time was longest in cows fed HL-TMR. DM digestibility in cows fed SI-TMR was higher than that of HS and HL groups (65.2%, 61.8% and 62.4%, respectively), but NDF digestibility was similar in the three treatments. The highest intake of digestible DM was observed in cows fed SI-TMR, HS cows were intermediate and HL cows were the lowest. Consequently, cows fed SI-TMR had higher yields of milk, 4% fat corrected milk and energy-corrected milk (47.1, 42.9 and 43.2 kg/day, respectively) than cows fed HS-TMR (45.7, 41.0 and 41.0 kg/day, respectively) or HL-TMR (44.1, 40.3 and 40.3 kg/day, respectively). Net energy

  4. Effect of reducing dietary forage in lower starch diets on performance, ruminal characteristics, and nutrient digestibility in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, E R; Tucker, H A; Dann, H M; Cotanch, K W; Mooney, C S; Lock, A L; Yagi, K; Grant, R J

    2014-09-01

    This experiment evaluated the effect of feeding a lower starch diet (21% of dry matter) with different amounts of forage (52, 47, 43, and 39% of dry matter) on lactational performance, chewing activity, ruminal fermentation and turnover, microbial N yield, and total-tract nutrient digestibility. Dietary forage consisted of a mixture of corn and haycrop silages, and as dietary forage content was reduced, chopped wheat straw (0-10% of dry matter) was added in an effort to maintain chewing activity. Dietary concentrate was adjusted (corn meal, nonforage fiber sources, and protein sources) to maintain similar amounts of starch and other carbohydrate and protein fractions among the diets. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows were used in replicated 4×4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. Dry matter intake increased while physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF1.18) intake was reduced as forage content decreased from 52 to 39%. However, reducing dietary forage did not influence milk yield or composition, although we observed changes in dry matter intake. Time spent chewing, eating, and ruminating (expressed as minutes per day or as minutes per kilogram of NDF intake) were not affected by reducing dietary forage. However, addition of chopped wheat straw to the diets resulted in greater time spent chewing and eating per kilogram of peNDF1.18 consumed. Reducing dietary forage from 52 to 39% did not affect ruminal pH, ruminal digesta volume and mass, ruminal pool size of NDF or starch, ruminal digesta mat consistency, or microbial N yield. Ruminal acetate-to-propionate ratio was reduced, ruminal turnover rates of NDF and starch were greater, and total-tract digestibility of fiber diminished as dietary forage content decreased. Reducing the dietary forage content from 52 to 39% of dry matter, while increasing wheat straw inclusion to maintain chewing and rumen function, resulted in similar milk yield and composition although feed intake increased. With the lower starch

  5. Effects of differential supplementation of fatty acids during the peripartum and breeding periods of Holstein cows: I. Uterine and metabolic responses, reproduction, and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, F T; Carvalho, T S M; Francisco, N; Santos, J E P; Staples, C R; Jenkins, T C; Thatcher, W W

    2011-01-01

    loss was less in FO-fed cows. At second AI, pregnancy was greater in FO-fed cows at 32 d and in SO-FO-fed cows at 60 d post AI. Pregnancy loss after second AI was not affected by diets. Overall pregnancy per AI was greater in cows fed SO followed by FO at 60 d of pregnancy and pregnancy loss was reduced in FO-fed cows. Monthly milk yield was greater (0.7 kg/d) in SO-fed cows. In conclusion, strategic feeding of CS of FA during transition and breeding periods can benefit fertility and milk production of lactating dairy cows. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pregnancy, bovine somatotropin, and dietary n-3 fatty acids in lactating dairy cows: I. Ovarian, conceptus, and growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor system responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilby, T R; Sozzi, A; Lopez, M M; Silvestre, F T; Ealy, A D; Staples, C R; Thatcher, W W

    2006-09-01

    The objective was to examine effects of bovine somatotropin (bST), pregnancy, and dietary fatty acids on reproductive responses in lactating dairy cows. Beginning at approximately 17 d in milk (DIM), a comparison was made of isoenergetic diets comprising supplementary lipids of whole cottonseed vs. calcium salts of fish oil enriched lipid (FO). Ovulation was synchronized in cows with a presynchronization plus Ovsynch protocol, and cows were inseminated artificially by appointment or not inseminated (d 0 = time of synchronized ovulation; 77 +/- 12 DIM). On d 0 and 11, cows received bST (500 mg) or no bST. All cows were slaughtered on d 17. Number of cows in each group was as follows: control diet had 5 bST-treated cyclic (bST-C), 5 non-bST-treated cyclic (no bST-C), 4 bST-treated pregnant (bST-P), and 5 non-bST-treated pregnant (no bST-P) cows; and cyclic cows fed FO diet had 4 bST-treated (bST-FO) and 5 non-bST-treated cyclic (no bST-FO-C) cows. Feeding FO increased milk production, number of class 1 follicles (2 to 5 mm), and decreased insulin during the period before d 0 compared with control-fed cows. The bST increased milk production, pregnancy rate [83% (5/6) vs. 40% (4/10)], conceptus length (45 vs. 34 cm), and interferon-tau in the uterine luminal flushings (9.4 vs. 5.3 microg) with no effect on interferon-tau mRNA concentration in the conceptus. Treatment with bST increased plasma growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I. Among control-fed cows (cyclic and pregnant), bST decreased progesterone concentration in plasma. Cows fed FO had less plasma insulin than control-fed cyclic cows, and FO altered the plasma GH (bST-FO > bST-C) and IGF-I (bST-C > bST-FO-C) responses to bST injections. Endometrial IGF-I mRNA was reduced in pregnant cows and tended to decrease in those fed FO. The IGF-II mRNA was increased in the endometrium of pregnant and bST-treated cows fed the control diet. Cows fed FO had increased concentrations of IGF-II mRNA, when b

  7. Cubic-spline interpolation to estimate effects of inbreeding on milk yield in first lactation Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makram J. Geha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk yield records (305d, 2X, actual milk yield of 123,639 registered first lactation Holstein cows were used to compare linear regression (y = β0 + β1X + e ,quadratic regression, (y = β0 + β1X + β2X2 + e cubic regression (y = β0 + β1X + β2X2 + β3X3 + e and fixed factor models, with cubic-spline interpolation models, for estimating the effects of inbreeding on milk yield. Ten animal models, all with herd-year-season of calving as fixed effect, were compared using the Akaike corrected-Information Criterion (AICc. The cubic-spline interpolation model with seven knots had the lowest AICc, whereas for all those labeled as "traditional", AICc was higher than the best model. Results from fitting inbreeding using a cubic-spline with seven knots were compared to results from fitting inbreeding as a linear covariate or as a fixed factor with seven levels. Estimates of inbreeding effects were not significantly different between the cubic-spline model and the fixed factor model, but were significantly different from the linear regression model. Milk yield decreased significantly at inbreeding levels greater than 9%. Variance component estimates were similar for the three models. Ranking of the top 100 sires with daughter records remained unaffected by the model used.

  8. Early lactation feed intake and milk yield responses of dairy cows offered grass silages harvested at early maturity stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randby, A T; Weisbjerg, M R; Nørgaard, P

    2012-01-01

    was available in automatic feed stations. Intake of grass silage when fed as the sole feed was 16.9 kg of DM on average for lactation wk 1 to 16. When H1 was supplemented with 4 or 8 kg of concentrates, silage DM intake did not change, but total DM intake increased to 20.6 and 23.7 kg/d, respectively. Energy......The main objective was to evaluate the potential of grass silages of very high quality to support a high milk yield with a low or moderate, or even without concentrate supplementation. Production responses to increased levels of concentrate supplementation with 3 primary growth grass silages...... differing in digestibility were studied using 66 Norwegian Red dairy cows. Roundbale silage was produced from a timothy-dominated sward at very early (H1), early (H2), and normal (H3) stages of crop maturity. Crops were rapidly wilted (h) and a formic acid-based additive was applied. All silages were...

  9. Unraveling the microbiota of teat apices of clinically healthy lactating dairy cows, with special emphasis on coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braem, G; De Vliegher, S; Verbist, B; Piessens, V; Van Coillie, E; De Vuyst, L; Leroy, F

    2013-03-01

    Swab samples (n=72) obtained from the teat apex of lactating dairy cows without visual signs of inflammation (n=18) were gathered on 2 well-managed Flemish dairy herds (herds 1 and 2) during the same month to assess the bacterial diversity of teat apices before milking. A combination of both culture-dependent [plating and (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprinting of the colonies] and culture-independent [denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE)] techniques indicated that the teat apices contain a wide diversity of bacterial genera. Despite a low bacterial load, 20 bacterial genera of 3 phyla (Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria) were present. The most prevalent bacteria were the coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), encompassing a total of 15 species, which were identified to the species level using a combination of (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprinting, gene sequencing (16S ribosomal RNA and rpoB genes), and a novel PCR-DGGE technique based on the tuf-PCR amplicon. Overall bacterial diversity did not differ significantly between the herds or between noninfected and subclinically infected quarters in herd 1. In herd 1, borderline significant lower CNS species diversity was found on teat apices of noninfected quarters compared with subclinically infected quarters. The most prevalent CNS species were Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus equorum in both herds and Staphylococcus carnosus in herd 2. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Metabolic and productive response to ruminal protein degradability in early lactation cows fed untreated or xylose-treated soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani-Moghadam, M; Amanlou, H; Nikkhah, A

    2009-12-01

    Effects of different dietary rumen undegradable (RUP) to degradable (RDP) protein ratios on ruminal nutrient degradation, feed intake, blood metabolites and milk production were determined in early lactation cows. Four multiparous (43 ± 5 days in milk) and four primiparous (40 ± 6 days in milk) tie-stall-housed Holstein cows were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with four 21-day periods. Each period had 14-day of adaptation and 7-day of sampling. Diets contained on a dry matter (DM) basis, 23.3% alfalfa hay, 20% corn silage and 56.7% concentrate. Cows were first offered alfalfa hay at 7:00, 15:00 and 23:00 hours, and 30 min after each alfalfa hay delivery were offered a mixture of corn silage and concentrate. Treatments were diets with RUP:RDP ratios of (i) 5.2:11.6 (control), (ii) 6.1:10.6, (iii) 7.1:9.5 and (iv) 8.1:8.5, on a dietary DM% basis. Different RUP:RDP ratios were obtained by partial and total replacement of untreated soybean meal (SBM) with xylose-treated SBM (XSBM). In situ study using three rumen-cannulated non-lactating cows showed that DM and crude protein (CP) of SBM had greater rapidly degradable fractions. The potentially degradable fractions were degraded more slowly in XSBM. Treatment cows produced greater milk, protein, lactose, solids-non-fat and total solids than control cows. Increasing RUP:RDP reduced blood urea linearly. Feed costs dropped at RUP:RDP ratios of 6.1:10.6 and 7.1:9.5, but not at 8.1:8.5, compared with the 5.2:11.6 ratio. Intake of DM and CP, rumen pH, blood glucose, albumin and total protein, faecal and urine pH, changes in body weight and body condition score, and milk lactose and solids-non-fat percentages did not differ among treatments. Results provide evidence that increasing dietary RUP:RDP ratio from 5.2:11.6 to 7.1:9.5 optimizes nitrogen metabolism and milk production and reduces feed costs in early lactation cows. Reduced blood urea suggests reprodutive benefits.

  11. Efficacy of using a combination of rendered protein products as an undegradable intake protein supplement for lactating, winter-calving, beef cows fed bromegrass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encinias, A M; Lardy, G P; Leupp, J L; Encinias, H B; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S

    2005-01-01

    Seventy-two (36 in each of two consecutive years) lactating, British-crossbred cows (609 +/- 19 kg) were used to evaluate effects of feeding a feather meal-blood meal combination on performance by beef cows fed grass hay. Bromegrass hay (9.6% CP, DM basis) was offered ad libitum and intake was measured daily in individual Calan electronic headgates. Acclimation to Calan gates began approximately 20 d after parturition, and treatments were initiated 21 d later. Cows were assigned randomly to one of four treatments (DM basis) for 60 d: 1) nonsupplemented control (CON), 2) energy control (ENG; 790 g/d; 100% beet pulp), 3) degradable intake protein (DIP; 870 g/d; 22% beet pulp and 78% sunflower meal), or 4) undegradable intake protein (UIP; 800 g/d; 62.5% sunflower meal, 30% hydrolyzed feather meal, and 7.5% blood meal). Net energy concentrations of supplements were formulated to provide similar NE(m) intakes (1.36 Mcal/d). The DIP and UIP supplements were calculated to supply similar amounts of DIP (168 g/d) and to supply 64 and 224 g/d of UIP, respectively. Forage DMI (kg/d) decreased in supplemented vs. nonsupplemented (P = 0.03) and DIP vs. UIP (P = 0.001); however, when expressed as a percentage of BW, forage DMI was not different (P = 0.23). Supplemented cows tended (P = 0.17) to lose less BW than CON. Body condition change was not affected (P = 0.60) by postpartum supplementation. No differences were noted in milk production (P = 0.29) or in calf gain during the supplementation period (P = 0.74). Circulating insulin concentrations were not affected by treatment (P = 0.42). In addition, supplementation did not affect circulating concentrations of NEFA (P = 0.18) or plasma urea nitrogen (P = 0.38). Results of the current study indicate that supplementation had little effect on BW, BCS, milk production, or calf BW when a moderate-quality forage (9.6% CP) was fed to postpartum, winter-calving cows in optimal body condition (BCS > 5). Supplemental UIP did not enhance

  12. Feed degradability, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in response to essential oil addition to fistulated non-lactating dairy cow diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Nanon, Atitthan; Meeprom, Chayapol; Lounglawan, Pipat

    2017-09-01

    The effects of essential oils (EOs) on ruminal nutrient disappearance, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites in fistulated non-lactating dairy cows were studied. Four fistulated non-lactaing dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design; the experiment consisted of four periods of 21 days in each period, with the first 14 days for adaptation followed by 7 days of measurement period. Animals were fed 3 kg/day of 21% crude protein (CP) concentrate and ad libitum corn silage. Treatments were: (i) control; (ii) 2 mL Allicin/cow/day; (iii) 2 mL zingiberene/cow/day; and (iv) 2 mL citral/cow/day. The results demonstrated that EOs increased dry matter and neutral detergent fiber degradabilities at 48 and 72 h, but had no effect on acid detergent fiber and CP degradabilities. EOs did not change ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen, protozoa, volatile fatty acid concentrations and blood glucose but reduced blood urea nitrogen at 4 h. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Effects of antibiotic dry-cow therapy and internal teat sealant on milk somatic cell counts and clinical and subclinical mastitis in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, H M; Hodge, A; Lean, I J

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of an internal teat sealant (TS; Teatseal; Zoetis Australia, Silverwater, NSW, Australia), when used in combination with antibiotic dry-cow therapy (ADCT) administered at dry-off, on milk individual somatic cell count (ISCC), milk production and components, and the incidence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cows up to 60 d after calving, when compared with ADCT only. Multiparous Holstein, Jersey, or Holstein cross cows (n=2,200) from 8 farms in southern and eastern Australia were randomly assigned to treatment of all 4 quarters with ADCT alone or with ADCT plus TS (ADCT + TS) at dry-off in this randomized, multisite clinical trial. Individual milk yield, fat and protein percentages, and ISCC were measured at intervals of 14±3 d after calving for the first 60 d of lactation. The first measurement occurred between 10 and 24 d after calving. Clinical mastitis and health events were recorded from dry-off to 60 d of lactation. Milk samples were collected from first cases of clinical mastitis and subjected to bacteriology. Treatment and the interaction of treatment by time did not affect milk yield, ISCC weighted by milk yield, or fat and protein percentages. Treatment with ADCT + TS decreased geometric mean ISCC compared with treatment with ADCT alone over the first 60 d of lactation. Geometric mean ISCC (×10(3) cells/mL) was 32.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 26.8 to 38.3] and 43.5 (95% CI: 36.2 to 52.1) for ADCT + TS and ADCT alone, respectively. The odds of at least 1 case of subclinical mastitis (ISCC ≥250,000 cells/mL) were 1.9 times higher (95% CI: 1.4 to 2.6) with ADCT alone in the first 60 d of lactation compared with ADCT + TS. Use of ADCT + TS reduced the estimated incidence of at least 1 case of subclinical mastitis on all 8 farms, compared with use of ADCT alone. Only 4 cows that calved 40 to 100 d after dry-off had a first case of clinical mastitis in the dry period. Five percent of

  14. Changes in freezing point of blood and milk during dehydration and rehydration in lactating cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, M.; Rasmussen, M.D.; Nielsen, Mette Olaf

    2005-01-01

    108 h and was divided into 3 periods: 1) control (38 h); 2) dehydration/rehydration with 4 consecutive 12-h sequences: 8 h without water, 0.5-h access to water, 1.5 h without water, and 2-h access to water; and (3) 22 h for reconstitution. Cows were milked at 12-h intervals. Blood was sampled from...... the jugular vein hourly throughout the experiment, and at 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, and 240 min after initiated rehydration following the 8-h dehydration sequences. Intakes of free water and water in feed were recorded every hour. The PCV was negatively affected by water intake within the hour...... before sampling. Dehydration lowered FP blood steadily, whereas FP blood increased by 0.024°C within 30 min following a large water intake in the rehydration period. The FP blood was not significantly influenced by actual water intake, but was highly correlated with the available water pool at time...

  15. The relationship between freezing point of milk and milk components and its changes during lactation in Czech Pied and Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Chládek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The freezing point of milk (FPM is an instant indicator of violated technological quality of raw milk, especially of dilution. FPM can also vary due to numerous effects associated with changes in milk composition and milk characteristics. Beside the effect of season, phase of lactation, breed, milk yield, sub-clinical mastitis etc. the impacts of nutrition and dietary or metabolic disorders are the most significant and the most frequent (GAJDŮŠEK, 2003. FPM is a relatively stable physical characteristic and due to osmotically active elements it ranges from – 0.510 to – 0.535 °C (HANUŠ et al., 2003b. Recently ŠUSTOVÁ (2001 studied the freezing point of milk in pool samples; she observed seasonal changes in FPM of mixed milk and the effect of different diets on FPM values. KOLOŠTA (2003 looked into the effect of grazing season on FPM. HANUŠ et al. (2003a analysed possible effects of handling of milk components on FPM.The aim of this work was to describe the relationship between FPM and milk components and the impact of breed, number and phase of lactation on FPM. We analysed 328 milk samples in total, out of which 137 samples were of Czech Pied cows and 191 samples of Holstein cows. The effect of number and phase of lactation was evaluated for both breeds together. The greatest coefficients of correlation in total were found between FPM and lactose content (r = 0.600 and solids non fat (r = 0.523. Lower coefficients of correlation were found between FPM and milk fat content (r = 0.235, milk protein content (r = 0.260 and urea concentration (r = 0.256. These coefficients were considerably lower in Holstein cows than in Czech Pied cows. The coefficients of correlation between FPM and number and phase of lactation and somatic cells count were insignificant. The total mean value of FPM was – 0.534 °C. Breed statistically significantly (P<0.01 affected FPM (+0.006 °C in C breed and milk fat content (+0.19 % in H

  16. Effect of niacin supplementation on rumen fermentation characteristics and nutrient flow at the duodenum in lactating dairy cows fed a diet with a negative rumen nitrogen balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschemann, Martina; Lebzien, Peter; Hüther, Liane; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to ascertain if a daily niacin supplementation of 6 g/cow to lactating dairy cow diets can compensate for the decrease in rumen microbial fermentation due to a negative rumen nitrogen balance (RNB). A total of nine ruminally and duodenally fistulated lactating multiparous German Holstein cows was used. The diets consisted of 10 kg dry matter (DM) maize silage and 7 kg DM concentrate and differed as follows: (i) Diet RNB- (n = 6) with energy and utilisable crude protein (CP) at the duodenum (uCP) according to the average requirement of the animals, but with a negative RNB (-0.41 g N/MJ metabolisable energy [ME]); (ii) Diet RNB0 (n = 7) with energy, uCP, and RNB (0.08 g N/MJ ME) according to the average requirement of the animals; and (iii) Diet NA (nicotinic acid; n = 5), which was the same diet as RNB-, but supplemented with 6 g niacin/d. The negative RNB affected the rumen fermentation pattern and reduced ammonia content in rumen fluid and the daily duodenal flows of microbial CP (MP) and uCP. Niacin supplementation increased the apparent ruminal digestibility of neutral detergent fibre. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis per unit of rumen degradable CP was higher, whereby the amount of MP reaching the duodenum was unaffected by niacin supplementation. The number of protozoa in rumen fluid was higher in NA treatment. The results indicated a more efficient use of rumen degradable N due to changes in the microbial population in the rumen when niacin was supplemented to diets deficient in RNB for lactating dairy cows.

  17. Variations in carotenoids, vitamins A and E, and color in cow's plasma and milk during late pregnancy and the first three months of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, F; Chauveau-Duriot, B; Martin, B; Graulet, B; Doreau, M; Nozière, P

    2007-05-01

    The main aim of this work was to assess the effect of lactation period on the secretion of carotenoids in cow's milk. Our objective was to determine the variations in carotenoids in the plasma and milk of dairy cows from drying off to wk 12 of lactation, and to specify whether these variations depend on body stores of these micronutrients at calving. We also investigated the relationship between beta-carotene (BC) and color in plasma and milk to evaluate the methods based on direct or indirect characterization of these micronutrients for traceability of feeding management. The experiment was carried out on 18 dairy cows, which were dried off 8 wk before their expected date of parturition. They were then divided into 2 homogeneous groups and fed diets contrasting in carotenoid content, high (grass silage) vs. low (corn silage), from wk -7 until parturition. From parturition through wk 12 of lactation, both groups received a grass silage-based diet. Variations in concentrations of carotenoids and the color index (CI) in plasma and milk were monitored from drying off to wk 12 of lactation. Other components of nutritional interest (i.e., vitamins A and E) were also measured. Lutein, all-trans BC and cis-13 BC were the carotenoids found in plasma and milk. Plasma concentrations of carotenoids, vitamin A, and vitamin E decreased throughout the dry period and in the first week of lactation, then increased through the first 3 mo of lactation, parallel to grass silage intake. For both groups, carotenoid and vitamin concentrations in milk drastically decreased during the first week of lactation, then did not vary significantly throughout the remainder to the experiment (wk 12). Plasma concentrations of carotenoids and vitamins were higher in the high-carotenoid group than in the low-carotenoid group during the dry period. Those differences were also observed in colostrum and disappeared in both plasma and milk during the first 10 d of the lactation period. This work allowed

  18. The effect of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) on lactation and on proliferation of mammary epithelial cells from dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaoming; Hu, Hongliu; Lin, Ye; Qu, Bo; Gao, Xuejun; Li, Qingzhang

    2016-07-01

    Milk protein is an important component of milk and a nutritional source for human consumption. To better understand the molecular events underlying synthesis of milk proteins, the global gene expression patterns in mammary glands of dairy cow with high-quality milk (>3% milk protein; >3.5% milk fat) and low-quality milk (milk protein; milk fat) were examined via digital gene expression study. A total of 139 upregulated and 66 downregulated genes were detected in the mammary tissues of lactating cows with high-quality milk compared with the tissues of cows with low-quality milk. A pathway enrichment study of these genes revealed that the top 5 pathways that were differentially affected in the tissues of cows with high- versus low-quality milk involved metabolic pathways, cancer, cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, and insulin signaling. We also found that the G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) was one of the most highly upregulated genes in lactating mammary tissue with low-quality milk compared with tissue with high-quality milk. The knockdown of GRK2 in cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells enhanced CSN2 expression and activated signaling molecules related to translation, including protein kinase B, mammalian target of rapamycin, and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), whereas overexpression of GRK2 had the opposite effects. However, expression of genes involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway was positively regulated by GRK2. Therefore, GRK2 seems to act as a negative mediator of milk-protein synthesis via the protein kinase B-mammalian target of rapamycin signaling axis. Furthermore, GRK2 may negatively control milk-protein synthesis by activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of selective dry cow treatment following on-farm culture: risk of postcalving intramammary infection and clinical mastitis in the subsequent lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, M; McKenna, S L; MacDonald, K A; Dohoo, I R; Roy, J P; Keefe, G P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the utility of a Petrifilm-based on-farm culture system when used to make selective antimicrobial treatment decisions on low somatic cell count cows (cows from 16 commercial dairy herds with a low bulk tank somatic cell count (cow therapy (DCT) or Petrifilm-based selective DCT. Cows belonging to the blanket DCT group were infused with a commercial dry cow antimicrobial product and an internal teat sealant (ITS) at drying off. Using composite milk samples collected on the day before drying off, cows in the selective DCT group were treated at drying off based on the results obtained by the Petrifilm on-farm culture system with DCT + ITS (Petrifilm culture positive), or ITS alone (Petrifilm culture negative). Quarters of all cows were sampled for standard laboratory bacteriology on the day before drying off, at 3 to 4d in milk (DIM), at 5 to 18 DIM, and from the first case of clinical mastitis occurring within 120 DIM. Multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the effect of study group (blanket or selective DCT) and resulting dry cow treatment (DCT + ITS, or ITS alone) on the risk of intramammary infection (IMI) at calving and the risk of a first case of clinical mastitis between calving and 120 DIM. According to univariable analysis, no difference was observed between study groups with respect to quarter-level cure risk and new IMI risk over the dry period. Likewise, the risk of IMI at calving and the risk of clinical mastitis in the first 120 DIM was not different between quarters belonging to cows in the blanket DCT group and quarters belonging to cows in the selective DCT group. The results of this study indicate that selective DCT based on results obtained by the Petrifilm on-farm culture system achieved the same level of success with respect to treatment and prevention of IMI over the dry period as blanket DCT and did not affect the risk of clinical mastitis in the first 120 d of the subsequent lactation

  20. Lactation performance of Holstein cows treated with 2 formulations of recombinant bovine somatotropin in a large commercial dairy herd in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, J P G; da S Cruz, A P; Minami, N S; Veronese, L P; Del Valle, T A; Aramini, J

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of this controlled study were to compare the effects of 2 different formulations of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on milk yield, milk composition (fat and protein), milk somatic cell count, and body condition score (BCS) among dairy cattle in a large commercial herd. Regulatory approved 500-mg zinc sesame oil base rbST (ZSO-rbST; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) and vitamin E lecithin base rbST (VEL-rbST; LG Life Sciences, Seoul, South Korea) formulations were administered per the manufacturers' recommendations every 14 d over 17 injection cycles starting at 57 to 70 d of lactation (90 cows per rbST group). Control cows (n = 60) received no rbST. Somatotropin-treated animals (VEL-rbST and ZSO-rbST combined) had increased average milk yield and protein percentage and lower average BCS compared with control cows. For primiparous cows, average milk yield was 37.75 kg/d with the ZSO-rbST treatment and 35.72 kg/d with the VEL-rbST treatment. For multiparous cows, average milk yield was 40.13 kg/d with the ZSO-rbST treatment and 38.81 kg/d with the VEL-rbST treatment. There were no differences in milk fat percentage between VEL-rbST and ZSO-rbST treatments, but milk protein content was greater with VEL-rbST treatment than with ZSO-rbST treatment. Nonetheless, cows treated with ZSO-rbST yielded more kilograms of fat and protein per day than cows treated with VEL-rbST. No significant differences in BCS were found between both rbST treatment groups. The differential increase in milk yield between cows treated with ZSO-rbST and VEL-rbST was driven by rbST response differences both within the 14-d cycle and throughout the 17 injection cycles. The cows treated with VEL-rbST demonstrated a more variable 14-d milk yield response curve, with more pronounced valleys between injections compared with the ZSO-rbST formulation. In addition, only the ZSO-rbST treatment was effective in modifying the lactation persistency compared with control cows. Compared

  1. Efeito da composição genética e de fatores de meio sobre a produção de leite, a duração da lactação e a produção de leite por dia de intervalo de partos de vacas mestiças Holandês-Gir Effects of genetic composition and environmental factors on milk production, lactation length and milk production per day of calving interval in crossbred Holstein-Gyr cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Glória

    2006-12-01

    environmental factors on milk production (MP, lactation length (LL and milk yield per day of calving intervals (P/I (n=2,016 of 822 crossbred (1/2, 3/4 and 7/8 Holstein-Gyr cows, raised in the West of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, were evaluated using least squares methodology. The effect of predicted transmitting ability (PTA of the Holstein sires on MP of their daughters was also evaluated. The effect of genetic composition on the three traits was an important source of variation. MP, LL and P/I increased with the increase of Holstein contribution. Season of calving was an important source of variation for MP of 3/4 cows and for LL of 3/4 and 1/2 cows. The highest MP and LL were observed for lactations starting at the end of the rainy season. The effect of age at calving on MP was linear for 1//2 and 3/4 cows and curvilinear for 7/8 cows. For LL the effect of age at calving was curvilinear for 1/2 and 3/4 cows and linear for 7/8 cows. On P/I was linear for 3/4 and 7/8 cows and curvilinear for 1/2 cows. The effect of PTA on MP was not different from zero. Estimated repeatability for MP were .72, .69 and .63, respectively, for the 1/2, 3/4 and 7/8 Holstein-Gyr cows.

  2. Effects of concentrate type and chromium propionate on insulin sensitivity, productive and reproductive parameters of lactating dairy cows consuming excessive energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, T; Cooke, R F; Brandão, A P; Pardelli, U; Rodrigues, R O; Corrá, F N; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2017-03-01

    This experiment compared insulin sensitivity parameters, milk production and reproductive outcomes in lactating dairy cows consuming excessive energy, and receiving in a 2×2 factorial arrangement design: (1) concentrate based on ground corn (CRN; n=13) or citrus pulp (PLP; n=13), and (2) supplemented (n=14) or not (n=12) with 2.5 g/day of chromium (Cr)-propionate. During the experiment (day 0 to 182), 26 multiparous, non-pregnant, lactating Gir×Holstein cows (initial days in milk=80±2) were offered corn silage for ad libitum consumption, and individually received concentrate formulated to allow diets to provide 160% of their daily requirements of net energy for lactation. Cow BW and body condition score (BCS) were recorded weekly. Milk production was recorded daily and milk samples collected weekly. Blood samples were collected weekly before the morning concentrate feeding. Glucose tolerance tests (GTT; 0.5 g of glucose/kg of BW) were performed on days -3, 60, 120 and 180. Follicle aspiration for in vitro embryo production was performed via transvaginal ovum pick-up on days -1, 82 and 162. No treatment differences were detected (P⩾0.25) for BW and BCS change during the experiment. Within weekly blood samples, concentrations of serum insulin and glucose, as well as insulin : glucose ratio were similar among treatments (P⩾0.19), whereas CRN had less (Pinsulin : glucose ratio. Serum insulin concentrations were less (P=0.04) in CRN supplemented with Cr-propionate compared with non-supplemented CRN (8.2 v. 13.5 µIU/ml, respectively; SEM=1.7), whereas Cr-propionate supplementation did not impact (P=0.70) serum insulin within PLP cows. Milk production, milk fat and solid concentrations were similar (P⩾0.48) between treatments. However, CRN had greater (Pdairy cows consuming excessive energy did not improve insulin sensitivity, milk production and reproductive outcomes, whereas Cr-propionate supplementation only enhanced insulin sensitivity in cows receiving a

  3. Effect of peripartum dietary energy supplementation on thyroid hormones, insulin-like growth factor-i and its binding proteins in early lactation dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirovski Danijela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary energy supplementation on hormones that are considered to be the main signals of a shift in energy balance around parturition. Sixty dry cows, 15 days before calving, were chosen and divided into two eaqual groups: control and experimental (GLY. Both groups were fed a standard ration balanced in accordance to the stage of the productivereproductive cycle. Additionally, each cow in the GLY group was given glycerol based dietary energy supplementation (250 mL daily during the dry and 300 mL daily during the lactation period, which provided additional 9.30 MJ NEL during the dry and 13.95 MJ NEL during the early lactation period. Milk production was measured on days 30 and 60 of lactation and milk production was significantly higher in GLY compared to control group at day 60 of lactation (p<0.05. Service period and insemination index were used as reproductive outcome parameters. Average service period in the control group was significantly longer than in the GLY group (p<0.05. Average insemination index in the control group was not significantly different than the index obtained for the GLY group. Blood samples were taken before the begining of the experiment (15 days before parturition, and at days 7, 30 and 60 of lactation. Concentrations of thyroid hormones, IGF-I, relative abundance of IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-4, concentrations of total protein and albumin in the blood were measured. Results showed that at days 7 and 30 after parturition, T4 concentrations were significantly higher (p<0.001, respectively in GLY than in the control group, while T3 concentrations were significantly higher in GLY group only at day 7 after parturition (p<0.001. IGF-I concentrations and IGFBP-3 abundance were significantly higher in the GLY compared to the control group in all three examined postpartum periods. IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-4 concentrations were higher in GLY compared to the control group in all

  4. TNFα altered inflammatory responses, impaired health and productivity, but did not affect glucose or lipid metabolism in early-lactation dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yuan

    Full Text Available Inflammation may be a major contributing factor to peripartum metabolic disorders in dairy cattle. We tested whether administering an inflammatory cytokine, recombinant bovine tumor necrosis factor-α (rbTNFα, affects milk production, metabolism, and health during this period. Thirty-three Holstein cows (9 primiparous and 24 multiparous were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments at parturition. Treatments were 0 (Control, 1.5, or 3.0 µg/kg body weight rbTNFα, which were administered once daily by subcutaneous injection for the first 7 days of lactation. Statistical contrasts were used to evaluate the treatment and dose effects of rbTNFα administration. Plasma TNFα concentrations at 16 h post-administration tended to be increased (P0.10 was detected; rbTNFα treatments increased (P0.10 by rbTNFα administration, but 6 out of 16 measured eicosanoids changed (P0.10 by rbTNFα treatment. Glucose turnover rate was unaffected (P=0.18 by rbTNFα administration. The higher dose of rbTNFα tended to increase the risk of cows developing one or more health disorders (P=0.08. Taken together, these results indicate that administration of rbTNFα daily for the first 7 days of lactation altered inflammatory responses, impaired milk production and health, but did not significantly affect liver triglyceride accumulation or nutrient metabolism in dairy cows.

  5. Effect of abomasal infusion of oligofructose on portal-drained visceral ammonia and urea-nitrogen fluxes in lactating Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjen, Betina Amdisen; Larsen, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2012-01-01

    by reduced NH3 input to hepatic urea-N synthesis caused by increased sequestration of NH3 in the hindgut and excretion in feces. Increasing the hindgut fermentation in lactating dairy cows by abomasal infusion of 1,500 g/d of oligofructose shifted some N excretion from the urine to feces and possibly reduced......The effects of abomasal infusion of oligofructose in lactating dairy cows on the relationship between hindgut fermentation and N metabolism, and its effects on NH3 absorption and transfer of blood urea-N across the portal-drained viscera versus ruminal epithelia were investigated. Nine lactating...... treatments. Eight sample sets of arterial, portal, hepatic, and ruminal vein blood, ruminal fluid, and urine were obtained at 0.5 h before the morning feeding and at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 5.5, and 6.5 h after feeding. It was hypothesized that an increased supply of fermentable substrate to the hindgut...

  6. The effect of silage cutting height on the nutritive value of a normal corn silage hybrid compared with brown midrib corn silage fed to lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, L; Moulder, B M; Mulrooney, C M; Teller, R S; Schmidt, R J

    2008-04-01

    A brown midrib (BMR) hybrid and a silage-specific non-BMR (7511FQ) hybrid were harvested at a normal cut height leaving 10 to 15 cm of stalk in the field. The non-BMR hybrid was also cut at a greater height leaving 45 to 50 cm of stalk. Cutting high increased the concentrations of dry matter (+4%), crude protein (+5%), net energy for lactation (+3%), and starch (+7%), but decreased the concentrations of acid detergent fiber (-9%), neutral detergent fiber (-8%), and acid detergent lignin (-13%) for 7511FQ. As expected, the BMR corn silage was 30% lower in lignin concentration than 7511FQ. After 30 h of in vitro ruminal fermentation, the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber for normal cut 7511FQ, the same hybrid cut high, and the normal cut BMR hybrid were 51.7, 51.4, and 63.5%, respectively. Twenty-seven multiparous lactating cows were fed a total mixed ration composed of the respective silages (45% of dry matter) with alfalfa haylage (5%), alfalfa hay (5%), and concentrate (45%) (to make the TMR isocaloric and isonitrogenous) in a study with a 3 x 3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Milk production was greater for cows fed the BMR hybrid (48.8 kg/d) compared with those fed the normal cut 7511FQ (46.8 kg/d) or cut high (47.7 kg/d). Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. Feed efficiency for cows fed the BMR silage (1.83) was greater than for those fed high-cut 7511FQ (1.75), but was not different from cows fed the normal cut 7511FQ (1.77). Cows fed the BMR silage had milk with greater concentrations of lactose but lower milk urea nitrogen than cows on other treatments. Harvesting a silage-specific, non-BMR corn hybrid at a high harvest height improved its nutritive content, but the improvement in feeding value was not equivalent to that found when cows were fed BMR corn silage.

  7. Short communication: Species group-specific predictors at the cow and quarter level for intramammary infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci in dairy cattle throughout lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Visscher, A; Piepers, S; Supré, K; Haesebrouck, F; De Vliegher, S

    2015-08-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are frequently isolated from quarters with subclinical mastitis, teat apices, and the cows' environment. Virulence, ecology, epidemiological behavior, and effect on udder health vary between different CNS species. Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staph. simulans, and Staph. xylosus are frequently present in milk and have a more substantial effect on quarter milk somatic cell count than other species. Therefore, these species are considered the "more relevant" CNS. As species-specific factors associated with CNS intramammary infection (IMI) have not yet been identified and susceptibility for IMI differs between cows and quarters, this study aimed to identify predictors for CNS IMI at the cow and quarter level (some of them changing over time) with a specific focus on the aforementioned more relevant CNS. Precise data were available from a longitudinal study (3,052 observations from 344 quarters from 86 dairy cows belonging to 3 commercial dairy herds). All CNS were molecularly identified to the species level, and multivariable, multilevel logistic regression models taking into account the longitudinal nature of the data, were fit to study the likelihood of infection. Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staph. xylosus, and Staph. cohnii were the most frequently isolated species from CNS IMI in older cows, whereas Staph. chromogenes, Staph. xylosus, and Staph. simulans were the main species found in IMI in heifers. Quarters from heifers (as opposed to multiparous cows), from heifers and multiparous cows in third or fourth month in lactation (as opposed to early lactation, <60 d in milk), and with an increasing quarter milk SCC were more likely to be infected with the more relevant CNS species. Quarter milk SCC was identified as the sole statistically significant predictor for IMI with other CNS species, although the size of the effect was lower [odds ratio of 1.6 (1.4-1.9) vs. 2.1 (1.8-2.5)] than the effect for IMI with the more relevant CNS

  8. The effect of body condition at calving and supplementation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae on energy status and some reproductive parameters in early lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlIbrahim, R M; Crowe, M A; Duffy, P; O'Grady, L; Beltman, M E; Mulligan, F J

    2010-08-01

    Improving the energy status of dairy cows during the early post-partum (PP) period by adding a safe dietary supplement such as live yeast culture (YS) may have a positive effect on reproductive function. The objective was to examine potential benefits of YS supplementation on PP energy status and fertility indices of dairy cows managed to have low or high body condition score (BCS, 1-5 scale) at calving. Forty (10 primiparous and 30 multiparous) Holstein/Friesian dairy cows were blocked by yield, parity, BCS, and predicted calving date. Within each block, cows were randomly allocated to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments which were: BCS at calving (low or =3.75; n=20) and YS supplementation (2.5g/cow/day for pre-calving and 10g/cow/day for post-calving x 10(8) CFU of Saccharomyces cerevisiae/g) (supplemented or control; n=20). Daily milk yield was recorded and weekly milk composition, BCS and BW were assessed from calving to week 10 PP. Forage (100% grass silage pre-calving; 50% grass silage, 50% maize silage post-calving; ad libitum) intake was recorded individually. Concentrate (2kg of pre-calver nuts+/-YS for pre-calving and 8 kg of lactating nuts+/-YS for post-calving) feeding was controlled individually. Estimated energy balance PP was calculated on a weekly basis individually as the difference between the net energy (NE) intake and the sum of NE for maintenance and milk production. Insulin and IGF-I concentrations were determined on days 14 and 7 pre-calving and 1, 5, 15, 25 and 35 post-calving. Daily ovarian ultrasonography was performed from day 10 PP to monitor the size and development of the first dominant follicle (>10mm in diameter with absence of other large growing follicles), first ovulatory follicle and days to first ovulation PP. Pre-ovulatory peak of serum oestradiol concentration was determined during the 2 days before ovulation day. Cows with high BCS (over-conditioned) at calving ingested less NE, produced more milk NE output, and

  9. The effect of dietary supplementation with Aurantiochytrium limacinum on lactating dairy cows in terms of animal health, productivity and milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, C A; Morlacchini, M; Keegan, J D; Fusconi, G

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich microalgae, Aurantiochytrium limacinum (AURA), on a variety of health and productivity parameters in lactating cows. Twenty-four cows were blocked by parity and number of days in milk and then randomly assigned to a control (CON; n = 12) group with no algal supplementation, or a treatment group (AURA; n = 12) provided with 100 g AURA cow -1  day -1 or 16 g DHA cow -1  day -1 . A variety of health and productivity measurements were taken, and results indicated that supplementation had no negative effects on animal health in terms of somatic cell count, haematological and biochemical blood parameters, while body condition was marginally improved by algal supplementation. No differences were found for the various production parameters measured; however, a tendency towards increased milk production was observed for the AURA group during the final stage of the study (+4.5 kg cow -1  day -1 , day 78-84). The fatty acid profile of milk was improved by supplementation, with significantly lower saturated fatty acids, significantly higher omega-3 fatty acids and an improved omega-3/omega-6 ratio observed when compared to the control group. The amount of DHA in the milk of cows provided 105 g AURA head -1  day -1 was 4.7 mg/100 g milk with a peak transfer efficiency from feed to milk at day 49 of 8.3%. These results indicate that supplementation with 105 g AURA head -1  day -1 resulted in the successful enrichment of milk with DHA without negatively impacting the health or productivity of the animals. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Lowering rumen-degradable and rumen-undegradable protein improved amino acid metabolism and energy utilization in lactating dairy cows exposed to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J D; Pohler, K G; Mulliniks, J T; Ríus, A G

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of reducing dietary rumen-degradable protein (RDP) and rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) on protein and energy metabolism in heat-stressed dairy cows. Eighteen primiparous and 30 multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows were used in a completely randomized design arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial (n = 12/treatment). Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments that included 2 levels of RDP (10 and 8%; D) and 2 levels of RUP (8 and 6%; U) of dry matter for 21 d as (1) 10D:8U, (2) 8D:8U, (3) 10D:6U, and (4) 8D:6U. Diets were isoenergetic and contained 50% forage and 50% concentrate (dry matter basis). Cows were housed in a freestall barn. Three weeks before start of treatments, all animals were fed the 10D:8U diet and received supplemental cooling to prevent heat stress. During the treatment period, cows experienced a daily increment in temperature-humidity index from 74 to 82 for 1000 to 2000 h. Blood samples were collected on d -1 and 21 of the treatment period to determine plasma concentrations of AA, glucose, insulin, fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate. For primiparous cows, reducing from 10 to 8% RDP decreased insulin concentrations. For multiparous cows, we found significant RDP by RUP interactions for insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, fatty acids, total essential AA, and 3-methylhistidine concentrations. Reducing from 10 to 8% RDP decreased insulin concentrations at 6% RUP, but concentrations did not change when reducing RDP at 8% RUP. Reducing from 10 to 8% RDP decreased β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations at 8% RUP, but concentrations did not change when reducing RDP at 6% RUP. Reducing from 10 to 8% RDP increased nonesterified fatty acid and total essential AA concentrations at 8% RUP, but concentrations did not change when reducing RDP at 6% RUP. Reducing from 8 to 6% RUP decreased 3-methylhistidine concentration at 8% RDP, but not at 10% RDP. Reducing from 8 to 6% RUP increased milk protein yield

  11. Effects of dietary nitrogen concentration on messenger RNA expression and protein abundance of urea transporter-B and aquaporins in ruminal papillae from lactating Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjen, Betina Amdisen; Poulsen, Søren Brandt; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2011-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that dietary N concentrations affect gut epithelial urea transport by modifying the expression of urea transporter B (UT-B) and aquaporins (AQP), the mRNA expression and protein abundance of UT-B and AQP3, AQP7, AQP8, and AQP10 were investigated in ruminal papillae from 9...... lactating dairy cows. Ruminal papillae were harvested from cows fed low N (12.9% crude protein) and high N (17.1% crude protein) diets in a crossover design with 21-d periods. The mRNA expression was determined by real-time reverse transcription-PCR and protein abundance by immunoblotting. The m......RNA expression of UT-B was not affected by dietary treatment, whereas mRNA expression of AQP3, 7, and 10 were greater in the high N compared with the low N fed cows. Using peptide-derived rabbit antibodies to cow AQP3, 7, and 8, immunoblotting revealed bands of approximately 27, 27, and 24 kDa in ruminal...

  12. Effect of dietary nitrogen content and intravenous urea infusion on ruminal and portal-drained visceral extraction of arterial urea in lactating Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Storm, Adam Christian; Larsen, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    Urea extraction across ruminal and portal-drained visceral (PDV) tissues were investigated using 9 rumen-cannulated and multi-catheterized lactating dairy cows adapted to low-N (12.9% crude protein) and high-N (17.1% crude protein) diets in a crossover design. The interaction between adaptation...... to arterial urea concentrations. Urea extraction increased more across the rumen wall than across the total PDV for low-N compared with high-N, which implies that a larger proportion of total PDV uptake of arterial urea is directed toward the rumen with decreasing N intake. The ruminal vein - arterial (RA......) concentration difference for ammonia increased instantly (first sampling 15 min after initiation of infusion) to the primed intravenous infusion when cows were adapted to the low-N diet. The RA difference for ammonia correlated poorly to the ventral ruminal concentration of ammonia (r = 0.55). Relating the RA...

  13. Strategies to gain body condition score in pasture-based dairy cows during late lactation and the far-off nonlactating period and their interaction with close-up dry matter intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, J R; Heiser, A; Mitchell, M D; Crookenden, M A; Walker, C G; Kay, J K; Riboni, M Vailati; Loor, J J; Meier, S

    2017-03-01

    In pasture-based systems, cows are generally thinner at the end of lactation than cows fed total mixed rations and, as a result, over-feeding of metabolizable energy (ME) during the far-off nonlactating period is a standard management policy to achieve optimum calving body condition score (BCS). An alternative would be to manage cows to gain BCS through late lactation, such that cows ended lactation close to optimum calving BCS and maintenance of BCS through to calving. We sought to quantify the effect of moderate or excessive ME intakes during the far-off nonlactating period in cows that had been managed to gain or maintain BCS through late lactation and whether the far-off management strategy interacted with close-up level of feeding. Effects on milk production and circulating indicators of energy balance and metabolic health in early lactation were evaluated. A herd of 150 cows was randomly assigned to 1 of 2 feeding levels in late lactation to achieve a low and high BCS at the time of dry-off (approximately 4.25 and 5.0 on a 10-point scale). Following dry-off, both herds were managed to achieve a BCS of 5.0 one month before calving; this involved controlled feeding (i.e., maintenance) and over-feeding of ME during the far-off dry period. Within each far-off feeding-level treatment, cows were offered 65, 90, or 120% of their pre-calving ME requirements for 3 wk pre-calving in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (i.e., 25 cows/treatment). Body weight and BCS were measured weekly before and after calving, and milk production was measured weekly until wk 7 postcalving. Blood samples were collected weekly for 4 wk pre-calving and 5 wk postcalving, and on d 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 relative to calving, and analyzed for indicators of energy balance (e.g., blood fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate), calcium status, and inflammatory state. No interaction was observed between far-off and close-up feeding levels. Over-feeding of ME to low BCS cows during the far-off nonlactating period

  14. Influence of environmental health in the cow-calf dyad system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayná Barcelos Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Health factors influence the cow-calf dyad system in the postpartum period until the first suckling. The use of maternity paddock is a recommended management to facilitate the monitoring of parturient cows and calves. However, side effects occur due to environmental health conditions of maternity paddock that can affect the behaviour of the cow and result in the separation of calf from the mother, undermining sucking and the formation of the cow-calf dyad. To improve the understanding of this complex and dynamic system we built a conceptual model using the technique of causal loop diagram, Figure 1. By hypothesis, the environmental variables that act in maternity paddock influence the variable "Sources of pathogens in maternity". Those sources present a positive effect (in the same direction in the infection process of the calf and cow. Thus, a recommended practice is exposing the parturient cow to pathogens in maternity for sufficient period to stimulate their immune system and build disease resistance. That process contributes to improve the quality of colostrum that will be consumed by the calf during the first hours postpartum which has the function of increasing calf immunity, minimizing the occurrence of infections. In the model, sanitary environmental factors work in two Balance feedback loops (B1 and B2. The B1 cycle refers to the production of a healthy cow with a low level of infection by means of the variables: “Vaccine”, "Stimulation of cow immune system" and "Health resistance" with delay. The variable "Cow infection" has a negative influence (in the opposite direction in the "Maternal behaviour", thus the more infected the cow, the less investment will occur in maternal behaviour. The B2 cycle refers to the calf’s health condition, which is positively influenced by “Calf infection” which, in turn, has positive influence, contributing to the increase of "Calf diseases". The increase in “Calf diseases” generates an

  15. Estimation of microbial protein supply of lactating dairy cows under smallholder farms in north-east Thailand using urinary purine derivative technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimpa, O.; Liang, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the potential of urinary purine derivative (PD) as a predictive index of microbial protein supply in ruminant livestock under farm conditions. Results of Experiment 1 indicated that diurnal variation in the PDC index ( [mmol/L PD]/[mmol/L creatinine] kgW 0.75 ) in spot urine samples of zebu cattle was small and highly correlated with the daily PD output, suggesting that spot urine samples could be used to derive an index for estimating microbial protein supply of cattle under farm conditions. However, the PDC index for buffaloes was poorly correlated to daily urinary PD output, therefore the use of spot urine samples appeared to be unsuitable for buffaloes. Based on the above results, spot urine samples were used to estimate the microbial protein supply of lactating dairy cows under farm conditions in a follow-up experiment. The study was conducted using 24 lactating cows in 6 smallholder dairy farms situated in Khon Kaen province of Northeast Thailand. The study was conducted over two climatic seasons (raining and dry), where the animals were fed 5 kg of farm-mixed concentrate feed supplemented either with green grass (cut or grazing) or rice straw as roughage source during the raining and dry seasons, respectively. The results indicated that microbial protein supply was not significantly different and therefore, the nutritional status of the lactating cows was not significantly different between the two seasons. The absence of differences in milk yield between seasons seems to support our findings. We conclude that urinary PD technique could be used to estimate rumen microbial protein production for dairy cattle under farm conditions. (author)

  16. Effects of 1 or 2 treatments with prostaglandin F₂α on subclinical endometritis and fertility in lactating dairy cows inseminated by timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, F S; Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S; Greco, L F; Ayres, H; Favoreto, M G; Carvalho, M R; Galvão, K N; Santos, J E P

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of the current study were to investigate the efficacy of PGF₂α as a therapy to reduce the prevalence of subclinical endometritis and improve pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) in cows subjected to a timed artificial insemination (AI) program. A total of 1,342 lactating Holstein dairy cows were allocated randomly at 25 ± 3 d in milk (DIM) to remain as untreated controls (control, n=454) or to receive a single PGF₂α treatment at 39 ± 3 DIM (1PGF, n=474) or 2 treatments with PGF(α at 25 ± 3 and 39 ± 3 DIM (2PGF, n=414). All cows were enrolled in the double Ovsynch program at 48 ± 3 DIM and were inseminated at 75 ± 3 DIM. A subset of 357 cows had uterine samples collected for cytological examination at 25 ± 3, 32 ± 3, and 46 ± 3 DIM to determine the percentage of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL). Subclinical endometritis was defined by the presence of ≥ 5% PMNL. Vaginal discharge score was evaluated at 25 ± 3 DIM and used to define the prevalence of purulent vaginal discharge. Body condition score was assessed at 25 ± 3 DIM. Pregnancy was diagnosed 32 d after AI and reconfirmed 28 d later. At 32 ± 3 DIM, the prevalence of subclinical endometritis was reduced by treatment with PGF₂α at 25 ± 3 DIM in 2PGF (control=23.5% vs. 1PGF=28.3% vs. 2PGF=16.7%); however, this benefit disappeared at 46 ± 3 DIM, and 14% of the cows remained with subclinical endometritis. One or 2 treatments with PGF₂α did not influence P/AI on d 32 or 60 after timed AI, which averaged 39.9 and 35.2%. Similarly, treatment with PGF₂α had no effect on pregnancy loss between 32 and 60 d of gestation (11.9%). Cows diagnosed with both purulent vaginal discharge and subclinical endometritis had the lowest P/AI and the highest pregnancy loss compared with those diagnosed with only 1 of the 2 diseases or compared with cows having no diagnosis of uterine diseases. Interestingly, subclinical endometritis depressed P/AI and increased pregnancy loss only

  17. Feed handling of lactating crossbred cows maintained in a semi-arid region during the hot season: physiological parameters, ingestive behavior and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Xavier de Andrade, Rafael; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; de Azevedo, Marcílio; da Silva, Emmanuelle Cordeiro; Urbano, Stela Antas; da Conceição, Maria Gabriela; de Lima Silva, Janaina

    2017-01-01

    The effects of time of feed delivery (14.00 hours; 14.00 and 20.00 hours; 16.00 and 18.00 hours) on the physiological parameters, ingestive behavior, nutrient intake and production of lactating cows maintained in a semi-arid region during the hot season were evaluated. Regardless of treatment, all animals received the first feeding supply at 06.00 hours. Eight cows with an average body weight of 600 kg, average milk yield of 20 kg/day and 80 days in milk were utilized. The rectal temperature, respiratory rate and sweating rate were not affected (P > 0.05), with average values of 38.5°C, 53.8 movements/min and 104 g/m 2 /h respectively. There was no effect (P > 0.05) on the eating time (314 min/day), ruminating time (564 min/day), drinking time (61 min/day) and idle time (502 min/day). Similarly, the intake of nutrients and performance of lactating cows were not affected (P > 0.05), with average dry matter intake of 19.8 kg/day, 4% fat-corrected milk of 20.6 kg/day and milk fat concentration of 4.03 g/100 g. Since the behavior and performance have not altered, any times of feed delivery evaluated could be used to crossbred Holstein × Zebu cows maintained on a feedlot in semi-arid regions during the hot season. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Effects of decreasing metabolizable protein and rumen-undegradable protein on milk production and composition and blood metabolites of Holstein dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami-Yekdangi, H; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Alikhani, M; Jahanian, R; Kamalian, E

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of decreasing dietary protein and rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) on production performance, nitrogen retention, and nutrient digestibility in high-producing Holstein cows in early lactation. Twelve multiparous Holstein lactating cows (2 lactations; 50 ± 7 d in milk; 47 kg/d of milk production) were used in a Latin square design with 4 treatments and 3 replicates (cows). Treatments 1 to 4 consisted of diets containing 18, 17.2, 16.4, and 15.6% crude protein (CP), respectively, with the 18% CP diet considered the control group. Rumen-degradable protein levels were constant across the treatments (approximately 10.9% on a dry matter basis), whereas RUP was gradually decreased. All diets were calculated to supply a postruminal Lys:Met ratio of about 3:1. Dietary CP had no significant effects on milk production or milk composition. In fact, 16.4% dietary CP compared with 18% dietary CP led to higher milk production; however, this effect was not significant. Feed intake was higher for 16.4% CP than for 18% CP (25.7 vs. 24.3 kg/d). Control cows had greater CP and RUP intakes, which resulted in higher concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen; cows receiving 16.4 and 15.6% CP, respectively, exhibited lower concentrations of milk urea nitrogen (15.2 and 15.1 vs. 17.3 mg/dL). The control diet had a significant effect on predicted urinary N. Higher CP digestibility was recorded for 18% CP compared with the other diets. Decreasing CP and RUP to 15.6 and 4.6% of dietary dry matter, respectively, had no negative effects on milk production or composition when the amounts of Lys and Met and the Lys:Met ratio were balanced. Furthermore, decreasing CP and RUP to 16.4 and 5.4%, respectively, increased dry matter intake. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol of dairy cows in early lactation--effects on metabolic status, body condition, and milk yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomander, H; Frössling, J; Ingvartsen, K L; Gustafsson, H; Svensson, C

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this field study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol to dairy cows in early lactation on metabolic status, body condition and milk yield. In total, 673 newly calved cows from 12 commercial Swedish dairy herds were randomized to daily supplementation with 450 g of glycerol (GLY), 300 g of propylene glycol (PG), or nothing (control, CON). Supplements were fed twice daily from 0 to 21 d in milk (DIM) as a top dress on concentrates. For each cow, data on parity, breed, calving date, monthly test-day milk yield, and cases of diseases were collected. Blood samples were taken at approximately 2, 5, and 8 wk postpartum (pp) and analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and insulin. Samples taken within 3 wk pp were also analyzed for insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Measurements of body condition score (BCS) and heart girth (HG) were obtained at approximately 2 and 5 wk pp and at time of first insemination. The effects of supplemental feeding with GLY or PG on the plasma concentrations of glucose, NEFA, BHBA, insulin, and IGF-1, and BCS, HG, and occurrence of disease were analyzed. No differences in BCS or HG or in plasma concentrations of glucose, BHBA, NEFA, or IGF-1 were found between the control group and any of the treatment groups. Cows in the GLY group had lower plasma insulin concentrations during DIM 0 to 63 compared with group CON, but no difference in insulin was found between the PG group and the CON group. Cows supplemented with GLY had a higher milk yield (kg of milk and kg of energy-corrected milk) during the first 90 DIM. Cows in the PG group tended to yield more milk during the same period. No differences in the occurrence of diseases were seen between the groups. In conclusion, supplementation with GLY in early lactation did increase milk yield without a subsequent decrease of metabolic status, and supplementation with PG tended to do the same

  20. Effect of biotin and pantothenic acid on performance and concentrations of avidin-binding substances in blood and milk of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gonzalo; Brown, Alston N; Teets, Christy L

    2015-09-01

    We hypothesized that pantothenic acid reduces the absorption of biotin in lactating dairy cows. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the plausible interaction between biotin and pantothenic acid on production performance and concentration of avidin-binding substances (ABS), an indicator of biotin concentration, in blood and milk of lactating dairy cows. Eight primiparous and 16 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 1 of 4 diet sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 18-d periods. Cows were housed in a freestall barn and fed once daily (0730 h) by means of a Calan gate system (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH). Treatments consisted of a control diet that contained no B-vitamins, a biotin diet that contained 0.87 mg of biotin per kilogram of dry matter (DM), a pantothenic acid diet that contained 21 mg of pantothenic acid per kilogram of DM, and a biotin plus pantothenic acid diet that contained 0.87 mg of biotin and 21 mg of calcium pantothenic acid per kilogram of DM. Four different concentrates were prepared in a commercial feed mill. These concentrates were mixed with corn silage and grass hay and delivered ad libitum as a total mixed ration. Biotin supplementation did not affect DM intake, milk yield, or milk fat, protein, lactose, and milk-urea-nitrogen concentrations. Fat, protein, and lactose yields were not affected by treatments. The fat-to-protein ratio was Biotin supplementation did not increase the concentration of ABS in plasma. The supplementation of pantothenic acid did not affect the concentration of ABS in plasma when either supplemented alone or in combination with biotin. Biotin supplementation increased the concentration of ABS in milk relative to control. Contrary to our hypothesis, the supplementation of pantothenic acid did not decrease the concentration of ABS in milk relative to the control. When cows were supplemented with both biotin and pantothenic acid, the concentration of ABS in milk was similar

  1. Effect of barley and its amylopectin content on ruminal fermentation and nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, A E; Hristov, A N; Melgar, A; Ropp, J K; Etter, R P; Zaman, S; Hunt, C W; Huber, K; Price, W J

    2006-11-01

    The effect of type of grain (corn vs. barley) and amylopectin content of barley grain (normal vs. waxy) on ruminal fermentation, digestibility, and utilization of ruminal ammonia nitrogen for milk protein synthesis was studied in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design trial with 6 lactating dairy cows. The experimental treatments were (proportion of dietary dry matter): CORN, 40% corn grain, NBAR, 30% normal Baronesse barley:10% corn grain, and WBAR, 30% high-amylopectin (waxy) Baronesse barley:10% corn grain. All grains were steam-rolled and fed as part of a total mixed ration. The NBAR and WBAR diets resulted in increased ruminal ammonia concentrations compared with CORN (8.2, 7.4, and 5.6 mM, respectively), but other ruminal fermentation parameters were not affected. Ruminal digestibility of dietary nutrients and microbial protein synthesis in the rumen were also not affected by diet. Corn grain had greater in situ effective ruminal dry matter degradability (62.8%) than the barley grains (58.2 and 50.7%, respectively), and degradability of the normal barley starch was greater than that of the waxy barley (69.3 and 58.9%, respectively). A greater percentage of relative starch crystallinity was observed for the waxy compared with the normal barley grain. Total tract apparent digestibility of dry matter and organic matter were decreased by WBAR compared with CORN and NBAR. Total tract starch digestibility was greater and milk urea nitrogen content was lower for CORN compared with the 2 barley diets. In this study, the extent of processing of the grain component of the diet was most likely the factor that determined the diet responses. Minimal processing of barley grain (processing indexes of 79.2 to 87.9%) reduced its total tract digestibility of starch compared with steam-rolled corn (processing index of 58.8%). As a result of the increased ammonia concentration and reduced degradability of barley dry matter in the rumen, the utilization of ruminal ammonia

  2. Effect of group size and health status on behavior and feed intake of multiparous dairy cows in early lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Proudfoot, Kathryn L.

    2017-01-01

    an existing group pen for 6 (N6) or 24 cows (N24) on d 4 after calving. Cows were considered sick if they were diagnosed with and treated for milk fever, mastitis, or retained placenta, diagnosed with subclinical ketosis or metritis within 3 d of calving, or were diagnosed and treated for any other infection...

  3. Effect of partially replacing a barley-based concentrate with flaxseed-based products on the rumen bacterial population of lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Lopez, E; Moats, J; Aluthge, N D; Ramirez Ramirez, H A; Christensen, D A; Mutsvangwa, T; Penner, G B; Fernando, S C

    2018-01-01

    The effects of partial replacement of a barley-based concentrate with flaxseed-based products on the rumen bacterial population of lactating Holstein dairy cows were evaluated. Treatments fed were CONT, a normal diet that included barley silage, alfalfa hay and a barley-based concentrate that contained no flaxseed or faba beans; FLAX, inclusion of a nonextruded flaxseed-based product containing 55·0% flaxseed, 37·8% field peas and 6·9% alfalfa; EXT, similar to FLAX, but the product was extruded and EXTT, similar to FLAX, but product was extruded and field peas were replaced by high-tannin faba beans. The rumen bacterial population was evaluated by utilizing 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Most abundant phyla, families and genera were unaffected. However, some taxa were affected; for example, unsaturated fatty acid content was negatively correlated with Clostridiaceae, and tannin content was negatively correlated with BS11 and Paraprevotellaceae. Predominant rumen bacterial taxa were not affected, but the abundance of some taxa found in lower proportions shifted, possibly due to sensitivity to unsaturated fatty acids or tannins. Flaxseed-based products were effective for partially replacing barley-based concentrate in rations of lactating dairy cows. No negative effects of these products were observed on the abundance of predominant rumen bacterial taxa, with only minor shifts in less abundant bacteria. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Effects of feeding fatty acid calcium and the interaction of forage quality on production performance and biochemical indexes in early lactation cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z Y; Yin, Z Y; Lin, X Y; Yan, Z G; Wang, Z H

    2015-10-01

    Multiparous early lactation Holstein cows (n = 16) were used in a randomized complete block design to determine the effects of feeding fatty acid calcium and the interaction of forage quality on production performance and biochemical indexes in early lactation cow. Treatments were as follows: (i) feeding low-quality forage without supplying fatty acid calcium (Diet A), (ii) feeding low-quality forage with supplying 400 g fatty acid calcium (Diet B), (iii) feeding high-quality forage without supplying fatty acid calcium (Diet C) and (iv) feeding high-quality forage with supplying 400 g fatty acid calcium. This experiment consisted 30 days. The milk and blood samples were collected in the last day of the trail. Intakes were recorded in the last 2 days of the trail. Supplementation of fatty acid calcium decreased significantly dry matter intake (DMI) (p < 0.01). Addition fatty acid calcium decreased milk protein percentage (p < 0.01) and milk SNF percentage (p < 0.01), but increased MUN (p < 0.05). Supplemented fatty acid decreased concentration of blood BHBA (p < 0.05), but increased TG, NEFA, glucagon, GLP-1, CCK, leptin, ApoA-IV, serotonin and MSH concentration in blood, the CCK concentration and feed intake showed a significant negative correlation (p < 0.05). Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles to lactating beef cows: impact of excess protein and fat on post-weaning progeny growth, glucose tolerance and carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shee, C N; Lemenager, R P; Schoonmaker, J P

    2018-04-01

    Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a feed high in fat and protein, to lactating beef cows can alter milk production and composition, resulting in improved pre-weaning growth of progeny. This alteration in milk profile may consequently alter the growth and carcass composition of the offspring after weaning. Therefore, Angus×Simmental steers (n=48) whose dams were fed one of two diets supplemented with either DDGS or soybean meal (CON) from calving to mid-lactation were placed in a feedlot to determine the effects of maternal nutrition during lactation on progeny development and carcass composition. Cow-calf pairs were allotted to two treatments at birth based on cow and calf BW, breed and age. Maternal diets were isocaloric (3.97 MJ/kg NEg) and consisted of rye hay supplemented with DDGS at 1% of BW (19.4% CP; 8.76% fat) or rye hay and corn silage supplemented with CON (11.7% CP; 2.06% fat). After conclusion of the treatments at 129 days postpartum, cow-calf pairs were comingled and managed as one group until weaning at 219 days postpartum. Steers were then transitioned to a common diet composed of 60% DDGS, 34% corn silage and 6% vitamin/mineral supplement and were placed indoors in individual pens with slatted floors. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was performed 134 days after feedlot entry on 16 steers (CON, n=7; DDGS, n=9) to determine the effect of maternal diet on glucose and insulin sensitivity. Steers were slaughtered at a target BW of 645 kg. Categorical and continuous data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX and MIXED procedures of SAS, respectively. Steers from DDGS dams tended to be heavier on day 85 of feedlot finishing (P=0.09) compared with steers from CON dams. However, there were no differences in final weight, average daily gain, dry matter intake or efficiency (gain:feed, P⩾0.18). Maternal treatments did not affect progeny days on feed (P=0.15), despite a mean difference of 9 days in favor of DDGS. Glucose and

  6. Tocopherols and tocotrienols in serum and liver of dairy cows receiving conjugated linoleic acids or a control fat supplement during early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadri, H; Dänicke, S; Meyer, Ulrich; Rehage, J; Frank, J; Sauerwein, H

    2015-10-01

    The fat-soluble vitamin E comprises the 8 structurally related compounds (congeners) α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol (with a saturated side chain) and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienol (with a 3-fold unsaturated side chain). Little is known regarding the blood and liver concentrations of the 8 vitamin E congeners during the transition from pregnancy to lactation in dairy cows. We thus quantified tocopherols (T) and tocotrienols (T3) in serum and liver and hepatic expression of genes involved in vitamin E metabolism in pluriparous German Holstein cows during late gestation and early lactation and investigated whether dietary supplementation (from d 1 in milk) with conjugated linoleic acids (CLA; 100g/d; each 12% of trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9,trans-11 CLA; n=11) altered these compared with control-fat supplemented cows (CTR; n=10). Blood samples and liver biopsies were collected on d -21, 1, 21, 70, and 105 (liver only) relative to calving. In both groups, the serum concentrations of αT, γT, βT3, and δT3 increased from d -21 to d 21 and remained unchanged between d 21 and 70, but were unaffected by CLA. The concentrations of the different congeners of vitamin E in liver did not differ between the CTR and the CLA groups. In both groups, the concentrations of the vitamin E forms in liver changed during the course of the study. The hepatic mRNA abundance of genes controlling vitamin E status did not differ between groups, but α-tocopherol transfer protein and tocopherol-associated protein mRNA increased with time of lactation in both. In conclusion, the concentrations of vitamin E congeners and the expression of genes related to vitamin E status follow characteristic time-related changes during the transition from late gestation to early lactation but are unaffected by CLA supplementation at the dosage used. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of adjustable and stationary fans with misters on core body temperature and lying behavior of lactating dairy cows in a semiarid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S D; Bradford, B J; Harner, J P; Tucker, C B; Choi, C Y; Allen, J D; Hall, L W; Rungruang, S; Collier, R J; Smith, J F

    2013-07-01

    Cows readily seek shade to reduce solar heat load during periods of high ambient temperature. Typically, auxiliary cooling systems are oriented to maximize cooling for shaded cows. However, when a shade structure is oriented north-south, stationary fan and mister cooling systems are unable to track shade as the sun's angle shifts throughout the day, and thus can become ineffective. The FlipFan Dairy Cooling System (Schaefer Ventilation Equipment, Sauk Rapids, MN) employs fans and misters that follow shade and compensate for wind speed by rotating on a horizontal axis. Multiparous, lactating Holstein cows (n=144) on a commercial dairy in Arizona were cooled by a fixed system comprised of stationary fans and misters acting as control or the adjustable FlipFan operated for 16.5 h/d (0830 to 0100 h). Core body temperatures (CBT) of 64 cows (4 pens/treatment; 8 cows/pen; 6d) and lying behavior of 144 cows (4 pens/treatment; 18 cows/pen; 5d) were collected by intravaginal and leg data loggers, respectively. Cows were balanced by milk production, blocked by days in milk, and randomly assigned to pen within block. Pen was the experimental unit. In a second experiment, isothermal maps were developed using a fixed system of thermal data loggers arranged in the shaded areas of the pens at different times of day and were analyzed for differences in the temperature-humidity index (THI) achieved by each cooling treatment. Ambient conditions consisted of a mean temperature of 33.0°C, mean relative humidity of 40.3%, and mean THI of 80.2. Mean 24-h CBT for FlipFan was lower than control (38.9 vs. 39.1±0.04°C). A treatment × time interaction was observed in which CBT of FlipFan was 0.4°C lower than control from 0600 to 0800h and 1500 to 1600h. Cows cooled by FlipFan spent more time lying down compared with those cooled by control (9.5 vs. 8.6 h/d). Cows under FlipFan had more frequent lying bouts than did those under control (12.8 vs. 10.7 bouts/d). Lower CBT and decreased

  8. Lowering rumen-degradable protein maintained energy-corrected milk yield and improved nitrogen-use efficiency in multiparous lactating dairy cows exposed to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J D; Kassube, K R; Ríus, A G

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of reducing rumen-degradable protein (RDP) and rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) proportions on feed intake, milk production, and N-use efficiency in primiparous and multiparous cows exposed to warm climates. Eighteen primiparous and 30 multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows were used in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments formulated to contain 2 proportions of RDP (10 and 8%) and 2 proportions RUP (8 and 6%) of dry matter (DM) indicated as follows: (1) 10% RDP, 8% RUP; (2) 8% RDP, 8% RUP; (3) 10% RDP, 6% RUP; and (4) 8% RDP, 6% RUP. Protein sources were manipulated to obtain desired RDP and RUP proportions. Diets were isoenergetic and contained 50% forage and 50% concentrate (DM basis). Cows were individually fed the 10% RDP, 8% RUP diet 3 wk before treatment allocation. Cows were exposed to the prevailing Tennessee July and August temperature and humidity in a freestall barn with no supplemental cooling. Main effects and their interaction were tested using the Mixed procedure of SAS (least squares means ± standard error of the mean; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Observed values of nutrient intake and milk production were used to obtain NRC (2001) model predictions. Cows showed signs of heat stress throughout the study. Reducing from 10 to 8% RDP decreased dry matter intake (DMI; 0.9 kg/d) at 8% RUP, but increased DMI (2.6 kg/d) at 6% RUP in primiparous cows. Reducing from 10 to 8% RDP decreased milk yield (10%) at 8% RUP, but increased yield (14%) at 6% RUP. Treatments did not affect yield of energy-corrected milk. For multiparous cows, treatments did not affect DMI. Reducing from 10 to 8% RDP decreased yield of energy-corrected milk (3.4%) at 8% RUP, but increased yield (8.8%) at 6% RUP. Reducing from 10 to 8% RDP and 8 to 6% RUP both increased N-use efficiency for primiparous and multiparous cows. The NRC

  9. Postpartum levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α in plasma and milk phospholipid fractions as biomarker of oxidative stress in first-lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernunft, A; Viergutz, T; Plinski, C; Weitzel, J M

    2014-08-01

    F2-isoprostanes such as 8-iso-prostaglandin F2 (8-iso-PGF2α) are formed by free radical-catalyzed mechanisms from membrane phospholipids and from low density lipoproteins through peroxidation of arachidonic acid. Esterified 8-iso-PGF2α is cleaved by phospholipases, circulates in blood and is excreted as putatively harmful oxidatively modified lipid via the kidney into urine. In this study we demonstrate that 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations in plasma samples from heifers are higher (piso-PGF2α concentrations vary with ovarian activity and differ in response to luteolytic initiation as well as activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis between heifers and first-lactating cows. Sustainable concentrations of 8-iso-PGF2α (50-150 pg/ml) are detectable in the phospholipid fraction of milk, suggesting milk as an additional excretion route for 8-isoprostanes. Plasma levels largely paralleled levels in milk (piso-PGF2α concentrations in cyclic cows decreased (piso-PGF2α rather increased (piso-PGF2α were not correlated with milk yield (p>0.05). Our data indicate 8-iso-PGF2α may be a novel biomarker of oxidative stress in dairy cow, which is detectable in blood as well as in milk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of sources of calcium salts of fatty acids on production, nutrient digestibility, energy balance, and carryover effects of early lactation grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Jonas; Batistel, Fernanda; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2017-02-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of sources of calcium salts of fatty acids (FA) on production, nutrient digestibility, energy balance, and carryover effects of early lactation grazing dairy cows. Treatment diets were offered from 3 to 16 wk postpartum (the treatment period), in which all cows grazed elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum 'Cameroon') and treatments were added to a concentrate supplement. The treatments were (1) control (concentrate without supplemental fat); (2) concentrate with calcium salts of soybean FA (CSSO); and (3) concentrate with calcium salts of palm FA (CSPO). From 17 to 42 wk postpartum (the carryover period), all cows received a common diet fed as a total mixed ration. During the treatment period, CSPO increased milk yield, milk fat yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, and cumulative milk yield compared with control and CSSO. Treatment CSSO increased the yield of milk but did not affect 3.5% fat-corrected milk or energy-corrected compared with control. Also, CSSO decreased milk fat yield, dry matter intake, neutral detergent fiber digestibility, and body weight and body condition loss. Compared with control, both CSSO and CSPO increased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk:dry matter intake), and CSPO increased feed efficiency compared with CSSO. When considering energy partitioning (as % energy intake), CSPO increased energy partitioning toward milk and increased energy mobilized from body reserves compared with control and CSSO. Furthermore, CSSO tended to reduce the mobilization of energy from body reserves compared with control. In the carryover period, no differences in milk composition were observed among treatments. A treatment by time interaction was observed during the carryover period for milk yield because cows on CSPO maintained higher production compared with control and CSSO cows until 30 wk postpartum; CSSO had a lower carryover effect sustaining higher milk yield compared with

  11. Comparison of brown midrib-6 and -18 forage sorghum with conventional sorghum and corn silage in diets of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, A L; Grant, R J; Pedersen, J F; O'Rear, J

    2004-03-01

    Total mixed rations containing conventional forage sorghum, brown midrib (bmr)-6 forage sorghum, bmr-18 forage sorghum, or corn silage were fed to Holstein dairy cows to determine the effect on lactation, ruminal fermentation, and total tract nutrient digestion. Sixteen multiparous cows (4 ruminally fistulated; 124 d in milk) were assigned to 1 of 4 diets in a replicated Latin square design with 4-wk periods (21-d adaptation and 7 d of collection). Diets consisted of 40% test silage, 10% alfalfa silage, and 50% concentrate mix (dry basis). Acid detergent lignin concentration was reduced by 21 and 13%, respectively, for the bmr-6 and bmr-18 sorghum silages when compared with the conventional sorghum. Dry matter intake was not affected by diet. Production of 4% fat-corrected milk was greatest for cows fed bmr-6 (33.7 kg/d) and corn silage (33.3 kg/d), was least for cows fed the conventional sorghum (29.1 kg/d), and was intermediate for cows fed the bmr-18 sorghum (31.2 kg/d), which did not differ from any other diet. Total tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility was greatest for the bmr-6 sorghum (54.4%) and corn silage (54.1%) diets and was lower for the conventional (40.8%) and bmr-18 sorghum (47.9%) diets. In situ extent of NDF digestion was greatest for the bmr-6 sorghum (76.4%) and corn silage (79.0%) diets, least for the conventional sorghum diet (70.4%), and intermediate for the bmr-18 sorghum silage diet (73.1%), which was not different from the other diets. Results of this study indicate that the bmr-6 sorghum hybrid outperformed the conventional sorghum hybrid; the bmr-18 sorghum was intermediate between conventional and bmr-6 in most cases. Additionally, the bmr-6 hybrid resulted in lactational performance equivalent to the corn hybrid used in this study. There are important compositional differences among bmr forage sorghum hybrids that need to be characterized to predict animal response accurately.

  12. TNFα Altered Inflammatory Responses, Impaired Health and Productivity, but Did Not Affect Glucose or Lipid Metabolism in Early-Lactation Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedova, Laman K.; Sordillo, Lorraine M.; Bradford, Barry J.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation may be a major contributing factor to peripartum metabolic disorders in dairy cattle. We tested whether administering an inflammatory cytokine, recombinant bovine tumor necrosis factor-α (rbTNFα), affects milk production, metabolism, and health during this period. Thirty-three Holstein cows (9 primiparous and 24 multiparous) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments at parturition. Treatments were 0 (Control), 1.5, or 3.0 µg/kg body weight rbTNFα, which were administered once daily by subcutaneous injection for the first 7 days of lactation. Statistical contrasts were used to evaluate the treatment and dose effects of rbTNFα administration. Plasma TNFα concentrations at 16 h post-administration tended to be increased (P0.10) was detected; rbTNFα treatments increased (P0.10) by rbTNFα administration, but 6 out of 16 measured eicosanoids changed (Pinsulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids, triglyceride, 3-methylhistidine, and liver triglyceride were unaffected (P>0.10) by rbTNFα treatment. Glucose turnover rate was unaffected (P = 0.18) by rbTNFα administration. The higher dose of rbTNFα tended to increase the risk of cows developing one or more health disorders (P = 0.08). Taken together, these results indicate that administration of rbTNFα daily for the first 7 days of lactation altered inflammatory responses, impaired milk production and health, but did not significantly affect liver triglyceride accumulation or nutrient metabolism in dairy cows. PMID:24260367

  13. Field Study of Dairy Cows with Reduced Appetite in Early Lactation: Clinical Examinations, Blood and Rumen Fluid Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The study included 125 cows with reduced appetite and with clinical signs interpreted by the owner as indicating bovine ketosis 6 to 75 days postpartum. Almost all of the cows were given concentrates 2 to 3 times daily. With a practitioners view to treatment and prophylaxis the cows were divided into 5 diagnostic groups on the basis of thorough clinical examination, milk ketotest, decreased protozoal activity and concentrations, increased methylene blue reduction time, and increased liver parameters: ketosis (n = 32, indigestion (n = 26, combined ketosis and indigestion (n = 29, liver disease combined with ketosis, indigestion, or both (n = 15, and no specific diagnosis (n = 17. Three cows with traumatic reticuloperitonitis and 3 with abomasal displacement were not grouped. Nonparametric methods were used when groups were compared. Aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, gamma-glutamyl transferase and total bilirubin were elevated in the group with liver disease. Free fatty acids were significantly elevated in cows with ketosis, compared with cows with indigestion. Activity and concentrations of large and small protozoas were reduced, and methylene blue reduction time was increased in cows with indigestion. The rumen fluid pH was the same for groups of cows with and without indigestion. Prolonged reduced appetite before examination could have led to misclassification. Without careful interpretation of the milk ketotest, many cases with additional diagnoses would have been reported as primary ketosis. Thorough clinical examination together with feasible rumen fluid examination and economically reasonable blood biochemistry did not uncover the reason(s for reduced appetite in 14% of the cows. More powerful diagnostic methods are needed.

  14. Comparison and evaluation of mathematical lactation curve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    A mathematical model of the lactation curve provides summary information about culling and milking strategies ..... Table 2 Statistics of the edited data for first lactation Holstein cows ..... Application of different models to the lactation curves of.

  15. Shifts in bacterial community composition in the rumen of lactating dairy cows under milk fat-depressing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, P J; Stevenson, D M; Mertens, D R

    2010-01-01

    Eighteen ruminally cannulated dairy cattle were fed a series of diets (in 28-d periods) designed to elicit different degrees of milk fat depression (MFD) for the purpose of relating MFD to ruminal bacterial populations. Cows were fed a TMR containing 25% starch (DM basis) supplied as corn silage, a slowly fermented starch (SFS treatment, period 1), then switched to a TMR containing 27% starch, much of it supplied as ground high-moisture corn, a rapidly fermented starch (RFS treatment, period 2). In period 3, the RFS diet was amended with 13.6 mg of monensin/kg of DM (RFS/Mon treatment), and in period 4, the cows were returned to the RFS diet without monensin (RFS/Post treatment). Effect of both starch source and monensin on milk fat percentage varied by cow, and cluster analysis identified 4 pairs of cows having distinct milk fat patterns. Archived ruminal liquors and solids from the 4 pairs were processed to isolate bacterial DNA, which was subjected to automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis followed by correspondence analysis to visualize bacterial community composition (BCC). One pair of cows (S-responsive) showed MFD on RFS feeding, but displayed no additional MFD upon monensin feeding and a fat rebound upon monensin withdrawal. The second pair of cows (M-responsive) showed no MFD upon switch from the SFS diet to the RFS diet, but displayed strong MFD upon monensin feeding and no recovery after monensin withdrawal. Both groups displayed major shifts in BCC upon dietary shifts, including dietary shifts that both did and did not change milk fat production. The third pair of cows (SM-responsive) displayed reduction of milk fat on both RFS and RFS/Mon diets, and fat returned to the levels on the RFS diet upon monensin withdrawal; these cows showed a more gradual shift in BCC in response to both starch source and monensin. The fourth pair of cows (nonresponsive) did not display changes in milk fat percentage with dietary treatment and showed only minor

  16. Content and Composition of Branched-Chain Fatty Acids in Bovine Milk Are Affected by Lactation Stage and Breed of Dairy Cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Melissa L; Cersosimo, Laura M; Wright, André-Denis G; Kraft, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products contain bioactive fatty acids (FA) and are a unique dietary source of an emerging class of bioactive FA, branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA). The objective of this study was to compare the content and profile of bioactive FA in milk, with emphasis on BCFA, among Holstein (HO), Jersey (JE), and first generation HO x JE crossbreeds (CB) across a lactation to better understand the impact of these factors on FA of interest to human health. Twenty-two primiparous cows (n = 7 HO, n = 7 CB, n = 8 JE) were followed across a lactation. All cows were fed a consistent total mixed ration (TMR) at a 70:30 forage to concentrate ratio. Time points were defined as 5 days in milk (DIM), 95 DIM, 185 DIM, and 275 DIM. HO and CB had a higher content of n-3 FA at 5 DIM than JE and a lower n-6:n-3 ratio. Time point had an effect on the n-6:n-3 ratio, with the lowest value observed at 5 DIM and the highest at 185 DIM. The content of vaccenic acid was highest at 5 DIM, yet rumenic acid was unaffected by time point or breed. Total odd and BCFA (OBCFA) were higher in JE than HO and CB at 185 and 275 DIM. Breed affected the content of individual BCFA. The content of iso-14:0 and iso-16:0 in milk was higher in JE than HO and CB from 95 to 275 DIM. Total OBCFA were affected by time point, with the highest content in milk at 275 DIM. In conclusion, HO and CB exhibited a higher content of several bioactive FA in milk than JE. Across a lactation the greatest content of bioactive FA in milk occurred at 5 DIM and OBCFA were highest at 275 DIM.

  17. Short communication: amino acid supplementation and stage of lactation alter apparent utilization of nutrients by blood neutrophils from lactating dairy cows in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glutamine is the preferred AA used by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) during the inflammatory response. However, the effect of other AA on bovine PMN response during inflammation and how this is altered by stage of lactation has not been fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to dete...

  18. Associations between the degree of early lactation inflammation and performance, metabolism, and immune function in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M M; Yasui, T; Felippe, M J B; Overton, T R

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine associations between the severity of systemic inflammation during the early postpartum period and performance, energy metabolism, and immune function in dairy cows. Cows were assigned to categorical quartiles (Q; Q1=0.18-0.59, Q2=0.60-1.14, Q3=1.15-2.05, and Q4=2.06-2.50 g of haptoglobin/L) based on the highest plasma haptoglobin (Hp) concentration measured during wk 1 postpartum. Although cows were assigned to different categories of inflammation during the postpartum period, we detected a quadratic relationship of inflammation on prepartum dry matter intake (DMI) and body weight (BW) such that cows in Q2 had lower prepartum DMI and cows in Q2 and Q3 had lower prepartum BW compared with cows in the other quartiles. We also detected a quadratic association of inflammation with postpartum DMI and BW such that cows in Q2 and Q3 also had generally lower postpartum DMI and BW compared with cows in Q1. There was a tendency for a Q × time interaction for milk yield and Q × time interactions for 3.5% fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk yields; quadratic relationships suggested decreased milk yield for Q2 and Q3 cows. We also found Q × parity and Q × time interactions for plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, suggesting alterations with differing degrees of inflammation. There was also a Q × time interaction for plasma nonesterified fatty acids concentration. In addition, alterations in liver triglyceride and glycogen contents for cows with inflammation as well as alterations in [1-(14)C]propionate oxidation in vitro were observed. Although we observed limited effects of inflammation on neutrophil and monocyte phagocytosis at d 7 postpartum, inflammation appeared to alter neutrophil and monocyte oxidative burst. Overall, cows with any degree of elevated haptoglobin in the first week after calving had alterations in both pre- and postpartum intake and postpartum metabolism. Copyright © 2016 American

  19. Effect of human chorionic gonadotropin on luteal function and reproductive performance of high-producing lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J E; Thatcher, W W; Pool, L; Overton, M W

    2001-11-01

    The objectives were to evaluate effects of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (3,300 IU i.m.) administered on d 5 after AI on CL number, plasma progesterone concentration, conception rate, and pregnancy loss in high-producing dairy cows. Following the synchronization of estrus and AI, 406 cows were injected with either hCG or saline on d 5 after AI in a randomized complete block design. Blood sampling and ovarian ultrasonography were conducted once between d 11 and 16 after AI. Pregnancy diagnoses were performed on d 28 by ultrasonography and on d 45 and 90 after AI by rectal palpation. Treatment with hCG on d 5 resulted in 86.2% of the cows with more than one CL compared with 23.2% in controls. Plasma progesterone concentrations were increased by 5.0 ng/mL in hCG-treated cows. The presence of more than one CL increased progesterone concentration in hCG-treated cows but not in controls. Conception rates were higher for hCG-treated cows on d 28 (45.8 > 38.7%), 45 (40.4 > 36.3%), and 90 (38.4 > 31.9%) after AI. Treatment with hCG improved conception rate in cows losing body condition between AI and d 28 after Al. Pregnancy losses were similar between treatment groups. Treatment with hCG on d 5 after AI induces accessory CL, enhances plasma progesterone concentration, and improves conception rate of high-producing dairy cows.

  20. Evaluation of an automated milk leukocyte differential test and the California Mastitis Test for detecting intramammary infection in early- and late-lactation quarters and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godden, S M; Royster, E; Timmerman, J; Rapnicki, P; Green, H

    2017-08-01

    Study objectives were to (1) describe the diagnostic test characteristics of an automated milk leukocyte differential (MLD) test and the California Mastitis Test (CMT) to identify intramammary infection (IMI) in early- (EL) and late-lactation (LL) quarters and cows when using 3 different approaches to define IMI from milk culture, and (2) describe the repeatability of MLD test results at both the quarter and cow level. Eighty-six EL and 90 LL Holstein cows were sampled from 3 Midwest herds. Quarter milk samples were collected for a cow-side CMT test, milk culture, and MLD testing. Quarter IMI status was defined by 3 methods: culture of a single milk sample, culture of duplicate samples with parallel interpretation, and culture of duplicate samples with serial interpretation. The MLD testing was completed in duplicate within 8 h of sample collection; MLD results (positive/negative) were reported at each possible threshold setting (1-18 for EL; 1-12 for LL) and CMT results (positive/negative) were reported at each possible cut-points (trace, ≥1, ≥2, or 3). We created 2 × 2 tables to compare MLD and CMT results to milk culture, at both the quarter and cow level, when using each of 3 different definitions of IMI as the referent test. Paired MLD test results were compared with evaluate repeatability. The MLD test showed excellent repeatability. The choice of definition of IMI from milk culture had minor effects on estimates of MLD and CMT test characteristics. For EL samples, when interpreting MLD and CMT results at the quarter level, and regardless of the referent test used, both tests had low sensitivity (MLD = 11.7-39.1%; CMT = 0-52.2%) but good to very good specificity (MLD = 82.1-95.2%; CMT = 68.1-100%), depending on the cut-point used. Sensitivity improved slightly if diagnosis was interpreted at the cow level (MLD = 25.6-56.4%; CMT = 0-72.2%), though specificity generally declined (MLD = 61.8-100%; CMT = 25.0-100%) depending on the cut-point used. For LL

  1. Allocation of feed based on individual dairy cow live weight changes: I: Feed intake and live weight changes during lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Dorte; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Munksgaard, Lene

    2009-01-01

    based on automatic milking (AMS). The objective was to examine the relationship between feed intake and live weight changes in response to the three feeding strategies examined. All cows were allowed a combination of a mixed ration (MR) and individually separately offered concentrate (ISC) in the AMS......) or late (MR2-L) change to a low energy ration. The early and late change was defined as a live weight gain after live weight minimum of 15 and 35 kg respectively for DR/DH and 11 and 25 kg respectively for DJ. Peak energy intake obtained by primiparous cows and cows of DJ was not significantly higher......Based on individual cow live weight changes, feeding strategies were designed for individual feeding of dairy cows in loose-housing systems and examined in a four-year production trial including 115 Danish Red (DR), 91 Danish Holstein (DH) and 93 Danish Jersey (DJ). Cows were kept in a dairy system...

  2. A randomized controlled trial on the effect of incomplete milking during early lactation on ketonemia and body condition loss in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, P-A; Krug, C; Chorfi, Y; Dubuc, J; Lacasse, P; Roy, J-P; Santschi, D E; Dufour, S

    2018-05-01

    Limiting milk production for a short period of time in early lactation could be a relevant strategy to prevent hyperketonemia (HYK). From December 2013 to March 2015, 838 multiparous Holstein cows from 13 herds were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of incomplete milking in early lactation on ketonemia and its effect on body condition score (BCS) loss. Cows were randomly assigned 4 wk before expected calving date to 1 of 2 treatment groups, (1) a conventional milking protocol (CON) for which cows were completely milked or (2) an incomplete milking protocol (INC) for which a maximum of 10 to 14 kg of milk/d were withdrawn during the first 5 d in milk (DIM). β-Hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations were measured from blood samples collected on each cow 3 times at weekly intervals. Hyperketonemia was defined as BHB ≥1.4 mmol/L. Body condition score variation in the postcalving period was calculated by subtracting BCS assessed at wk 7 from BCS assessed at first week after calving. Effect of treatment on ketonemia and prevalence of HYK were evaluated for 4 specific time periods: 1 to 3, 4 to 7, 8 to 17, and 18 to 26 DIM. Effect of treatment on ketonemia was investigated using linear mixed models with natural logarithm of BHB measurements as outcome and treatment groups as fixed effect. Generalized linear mixed models with HYK as outcome, using logit link, and treatment groups as fixed effect were used to investigate effect of treatment on odds of HYK. A logistic regression model with BCS loss (effects was used to study effect of INC on odds of having BCS loss ≥0.75. A total of 813 lactations had complete data and were used for statistical analysis of ketonemia and HYK. A total of 709 lactations had complete data and were used for analysis of BCS loss. Geometric means of blood BHB concentrations during the 1 to 3, 4 to 7, 8 to 17, and 18 to 26 DIM periods were, respectively, 0.72 (95% confidence interval = 0.66, 0.80), 0.66 (0.60, 0

  3. Linseed oil and DGAT1 K232A polymorphism: Effects on methane emission, energy and nitrogen metabolism, lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and rumen microbial composition of Holstein-Friesian cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gastelen, van S.; Visker, M.H.P.W.; Edwards, J.E.; Antunes Fernandes, E.C.; Hettinga, K.A.; Alferink, S.J.J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Bovenhuis, H.; Smidt, H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2017-01-01

    Complex interactions between rumen microbiota, cow genetics, and diet composition may exist. Therefore, the effect of linseed oil, DGAT1 K232A polymorphism (DGAT1), and the interaction between linseed oil and DGAT1 on CH4 and H2 emission, energy and N metabolism, lactation performance, ruminal

  4. Effect of abomasal infusion of oligofructose on portal-drained visceral ammonia and urea-nitrogen fluxes in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røjen, B A; Larsen, M; Kristensen, N B

    2012-12-01

    The effects of abomasal infusion of oligofructose in lactating dairy cows on the relationship between hindgut fermentation and N metabolism, and its effects on NH(3) absorption and transfer of blood urea-N across the portal-drained viscera versus ruminal epithelia were investigated. Nine lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in major splanchnic blood vessels were used in an unbalanced crossover design with 14-d periods. Treatments were continuous abomasal infusion of water or 1,500 g/d of oligofructose. The same basal diet was fed with both treatments. Eight sample sets of arterial, portal, hepatic, and ruminal vein blood, ruminal fluid, and urine were obtained at 0.5h before the morning feeding and at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 5.5, and 6.5 h after feeding. It was hypothesized that an increased supply of fermentable substrate to the hindgut would increase the uptake of urea-N from blood to the hindgut at the expense of urea-N uptake to the forestomach. The study showed that abomasal oligofructose infusion decreased the total amount of urea-N transferred from the blood to the gut, NH(3) absorption, and arterial blood urea-N concentration. Subsequently, hepatic NH(3) uptake and urea-N production also decreased with oligofructose infusion. Additionally, urea-N concentration in milk and urinary N excretion decreased with oligofructose treatment. The oligofructose infusion did not affect ruminal NH(3) concentrations or any other ruminal variables, nor did it affect ruminal venous - arterial concentration differences for urea-N and NH(3). The oligofructose treatment did not affect milk yield, but did decrease apparent digestibility of OM, N, and starch. Nitrogen excreted in the feces was greater with the oligofructose infusion. In conclusion, the present data suggest that increased hindgut fermentation did not upregulate urea-N transfer to the hindgut at the expense of urea-N uptake by the rumen, and the observed reduction

  5. Effects of feeding hulled and hull-less barley with low- and high-forage diets on lactation performance, nutrient digestibility, and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Ferreira, G; Teets, C L; Corl, B A; Thomason, W E; Griffey, C A

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate lactation performance, nutrient digestibility, and milk fatty acid composition of high-producing dairy cows consuming diets containing hulled or hull-less barley as the grain source when feeding low-forage (LF) or high-forage (HF) diets. Eight primiparous (610 ± 40 kg of body weight and 72 ± 14 d in milk) and 16 multiparous (650 ± 58 kg of body weight and 58 ± 16 d in milk) Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments and 21-d periods. Cows were assigned to squares based on parity (1, 2, and ≥3) and days in milk. Diets were formulated to contain on a dry matter basis (1) 45% forage and hulled barley as the sole grain source, (2) 65% forage and hulled barley as the sole grain source, (3) 45% forage and hull-less barley as the sole grain source, and (4) 65% forage and hull-less barley as the sole grain source. Dry matter intake tended to be lower for the diet with 65% forage and hulled barley than for the rest of the diets (24.4 vs. 26.6 kg/d). Neither the type of barley nor the forage-to-concentrate ratio affected milk yield (41.7 kg/d). Barley type did not affect milk fat or protein concentrations. Feeding LF diets decreased milk fat concentration from 3.91% to 3.50%. This decrease was less than anticipated and resulted in a 7% decrease in milk fat yield relative to cows consuming HF diets (1.60 and 1.49 kg/d for HF and LF diets, respectively). Feeding LF diets increased the concentration of C18:1 trans-10 in milk fat, suggesting that feeding LF diets may have marginally altered rumen function. In conclusion, LF diets containing barley grains can marginally decrease milk fat concentration. Overall, and based on the conditions of this study, there is limited evidence to anticipate a dramatic or acute milk fat depression when feeding hull-less barley as the grain source in diets for high-producing dairy cows. Copyright

  6. Effects of Dexamethasone and Insulin Alone or in Combination on Energy and Protein Metabolism Indicators and Milk Production in Dairy Cows in Early Lactation – A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Mehrdad