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Sample records for lactate level improved

  1. Supplementation of selenium, vitamin E, chromium and betaine above recommended levels improves lactating performance of sows over summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fan; Cottrell, Jeremy James; Collins, Cherie Louise; Henman, David James; O'Halloran, Kirrily Sharon Beatrice; Dunshea, Frank Rowland

    2017-07-19

    Heat stress (HS) exacerbates the body weight loss of lactating sows and reduces litter weight gain. Selenium (Se), vitamin E (VE), chromium (Cr) and betaine have been shown to ameliorate symptoms of HS, and yeast nucleotides and mannan oligosaccharides have been reported to improve lactational performance and immune response in pigs. Therefore, a combination of these nutrients may improve lactational performance of sows in summer. The effects of two nutritionally enhanced diets on lactational performance of sows in summer were investigated in two experiments. In experiment 1, we compared the effects of a nutritionally fortified diet (0.4 ppm Se, 95 IU/kg VE, 0.4 ppm Cr and 0.2% betaine; named as SVCB diet) with the NRC 2012 standard diet (0.15 ppm Se, 44 IU/kg VE) on lactational performance of sows in summer. Results showed that the SVCB diet reduced body weight loss (P = 0.039) and tended to reduce backfat loss (P = 0.075) of sows without affecting feed intake, while litter weight gain was not influenced. In experiment 2, we further enhanced the nutrients in the SVCB diet (0.8 ppm Se, 1% yeast nucleotides, and 0.1% mannan oligosaccharides; named as SNM diet). Results showed that the SNM diet did not improve feed intake of sows, farrowing performance, or litter weight gain compared with the SVCB diet, but increased body weight loss of the third parity sows (P = 0.037). Overall, a combined supplementation of Se, VE, Cr, and betaine above the NRC recommended levels can reduce mobilisation of body reserve of lactating sows in summer.

  2. Extended lactations may improve cow health, productivity and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from organic dairy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Jesper Overgård; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels

    2014-01-01

    The concept of extended lactation is a break with the tradition of getting one calf per cow per year that should improve cow health, increase productivity and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission per kg milk produced in high-yield organic dairy herds. These effects are achieved through fewer...... calvings per year and hence a production of fewer replacement heifers, which, in combination with fewer days dry per cow per year, will reduce the annual herd requirement for feed. Total herd feed use is a major determinant of GHG emission at farm gate. However, these effects also rely on the assumption...... of an unchanged milk production per feeding day (days lactating plus days dry) when changing from lactations of traditional length to extended lactations. Thus, milk yield per feeding day becomes a primary determinant of the success of using extended lactations at farm level. Cows undergoing an extended lactation...

  3. Blood lactate levels in 31 female dogs with pyometra

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    Karlstam Erika

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine pyometra is a life-threatening disease common in countries where spaying of dogs is not routinely performed. The disease is associated with endotoxemia, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS and a 3–4% mortality rate. Blood lactate analysis is clinically valuable in predicting prognosis and survival, evaluating tissue perfusion and treatment response in human and veterinary critical care settings. The aims of the present study were to investigate 1 the blood lactate levels of female dogs with pyometra by a hand-held analyser and 2 if these levels are related with the clinical status or other biochemical or hematological disorders. Methods In total 31 female dogs with pyometra admitted for surgical ovariohysterectomy and 16 healthy female control dogs were included in the present study. A complete physical examination including SIRS-status determination was performed. Blood samples for lactate concentrations, hematological and biochemical parameters, acid-base and blood gas analysis and other laboratory parameters were collected and subsequently analysed. The diagnosis pyometra was verified with histopathological examination of the uterus and ovaries. Increased hospitalisation length and presence of SIRS were used as indicators of outcome. Results In the pyometra group the median blood lactate level was 1,6 mmol l-1 (range -1. In the control group the median lactate level was 1,2 mmol l-1 (range -1. Of the 31 bitches 19 (61% fulfilled 2 or more criteria for SIRS at inclusion, 10 bitches (32% fulfilled 3 of the SIRS criteria whereas none accomplished more than 3 criteria. Lactate levels did not differ significantly between the pyometra and control group, or between the SIRS positive and SIRS negative dogs with pyometra. Increased lactate concentration (>2.5 mmol l-1 was demonstrated in one female dog with pyometra (3%, and was not associated with longer hospitalisation or presence of SIRS. Lactate

  4. Blood lactate levels in 31 female dogs with pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Reezigt, Bert Jan; Bergström Ledin, Hanna; Karlstam, Erika

    2009-01-09

    Canine pyometra is a life-threatening disease common in countries where spaying of dogs is not routinely performed. The disease is associated with endotoxemia, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and a 3-4% mortality rate. Blood lactate analysis is clinically valuable in predicting prognosis and survival, evaluating tissue perfusion and treatment response in human and veterinary critical care settings. The aims of the present study were to investigate 1) the blood lactate levels of female dogs with pyometra by a hand-held analyser and 2) if these levels are related with the clinical status or other biochemical or hematological disorders. In total 31 female dogs with pyometra admitted for surgical ovariohysterectomy and 16 healthy female control dogs were included in the present study. A complete physical examination including SIRS-status determination was performed. Blood samples for lactate concentrations, hematological and biochemical parameters, acid-base and blood gas analysis and other laboratory parameters were collected and subsequently analysed. The diagnosis pyometra was verified with histopathological examination of the uterus and ovaries. Increased hospitalisation length and presence of SIRS were used as indicators of outcome. In the pyometra group the median blood lactate level was 1.6 mmol l(-1) (range pyometra and control group, or between the SIRS positive and SIRS negative dogs with pyometra. Increased lactate concentration (>2.5 mmol l(-1)) was demonstrated in one female dog with pyometra (3%), and was not associated with longer hospitalisation or presence of SIRS. Lactate measurement was not indicative of peritonitis. None of the bitches died during or within two months of the hospital stay. The measurements of temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, percentage bandforms of neutrophilic granulocytes, alpha2-globulins, creatinin, pvCO2, TCO2 and base excess showed significant differences between the SIRS positive and the SIRS

  5. Blood lactate levels in 31 female dogs with pyometra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Reezigt, Bert Jan; Bergström Ledin, Hanna; Karlstam, Erika

    2009-01-01

    Background Canine pyometra is a life-threatening disease common in countries where spaying of dogs is not routinely performed. The disease is associated with endotoxemia, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and a 3–4% mortality rate. Blood lactate analysis is clinically valuable in predicting prognosis and survival, evaluating tissue perfusion and treatment response in human and veterinary critical care settings. The aims of the present study were to investigate 1) the blood lactate levels of female dogs with pyometra by a hand-held analyser and 2) if these levels are related with the clinical status or other biochemical or hematological disorders. Methods In total 31 female dogs with pyometra admitted for surgical ovariohysterectomy and 16 healthy female control dogs were included in the present study. A complete physical examination including SIRS-status determination was performed. Blood samples for lactate concentrations, hematological and biochemical parameters, acid-base and blood gas analysis and other laboratory parameters were collected and subsequently analysed. The diagnosis pyometra was verified with histopathological examination of the uterus and ovaries. Increased hospitalisation length and presence of SIRS were used as indicators of outcome. Results In the pyometra group the median blood lactate level was 1,6 mmol l-1 (range 2.5 mmol l-1) was demonstrated in one female dog with pyometra (3%), and was not associated with longer hospitalisation or presence of SIRS. Lactate measurement was not indicative of peritonitis. None of the bitches died during or within two months of the hospital stay. The measurements of temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, percentage bandforms of neutrophilic granulocytes, α2-globulins, creatinin, pvCO2, TCO2 and base excess showed significant differences between the SIRS positive and the SIRS negative pyometra cases. Conclusion Increased blood lactate concentrations were demonstrated in 3% (1

  6. PLASMA ZINC LEVEL IN LACTATING WOMEN: ISFAHAN – 2001

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    A MAHMOUDIAN

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Zinc is an important trace mineral for human health specially in children. The zinc of nursing mothers affects on their milk and so health of their childs. This study assesses the serum zinc level in lactating women of Isfahan city. Methods. In a cross sectional study, 100 lactating women who were sited under care of Isfahan rural and urban health centers were selected by multistage cluster and simple random sampling. The food recall questionnair was completed and 10 ml blood sample was obtained from each subject. Serum zinc level was measered by atomic absorption. Results. Mean age of participants was 24.7 ± 4.9 years. Mean zinc concentration was 70.4±8.01 µg/dl. About 63 percent of subjects had serum zinc level less than 75 µg/dl (significant zinc deficiency and of this group 19/1 percent had severe zinc deficiency (less than 60 µg/dl. The mean of serum zinc level by BMI (< 20, 20-25, > 25 were 63.1, 70 and 75.7 (P < 0.0001. In person s that eat more frequency of meat and dairy products weekly, zinc levels were more than others (P < 0.01. Discussion. Zinc deficiency was common problem in lactating women of Isfahsn and this have harm effects on their childrens. Zinc deiifciency in children is one of causes responsible for growth retardation, suscebtibility to infections and learning disabilities. The nutrition of our people aren"t sufficient for lactating women"s needs. Other data indicated for zinc deficiency of soils. Planning such as fortification of soils, subside to meat the important source of zinc and using of zinc supplements for lactating women and other high risk groups must be done by responsible structures.

  7. Plasma Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels Predict Mortality in Acute Aortic Syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Morello, Fulvio; Ravetti, Anna; Nazerian, Peiman; Liedl, Giovanni; Veglio, Maria Grazia; Battista, Stefania; Vanni, Simone; Pivetta, Emanuele; Montrucchio, Giuseppe; Mengozzi, Giulio; Rinaldi, Mauro; Moiraghi, Corrado; Lupia, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In acute aortic syndromes (AAS), organ malperfusion represents a key event impacting both on diagnosis and outcome. Increased levels of plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a biomarker of malperfusion, have been reported in AAS, but the performance of LDH for the diagnosis of AAS and the relation of LDH with outcome in AAS have not been evaluated so far. This was a bi-centric prospective diagnostic accuracy study and a cohort outcome study. From 2008 to 2014, patients from 2 Emergency...

  8. Heart Rate and Lactate Levels during Weight-Training Exercise in Trained and Untrained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Michael H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study of effects of squatting exercise on heart rate and blood lactate levels in trained and untrained males indicated that trained subjects performed more work and had higher heart rates and lactate levels at exhaustion untrained subjects, though heart rate and lactate levels were lower for trained subjects at a given bar mass or submaximal…

  9. Plasma Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels Predict Mortality in Acute Aortic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Fulvio; Ravetti, Anna; Nazerian, Peiman; Liedl, Giovanni; Veglio, Maria Grazia; Battista, Stefania; Vanni, Simone; Pivetta, Emanuele; Montrucchio, Giuseppe; Mengozzi, Giulio; Rinaldi, Mauro; Moiraghi, Corrado; Lupia, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In acute aortic syndromes (AAS), organ malperfusion represents a key event impacting both on diagnosis and outcome. Increased levels of plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a biomarker of malperfusion, have been reported in AAS, but the performance of LDH for the diagnosis of AAS and the relation of LDH with outcome in AAS have not been evaluated so far. This was a bi-centric prospective diagnostic accuracy study and a cohort outcome study. From 2008 to 2014, patients from 2 Emergency Departments suspected of having AAS underwent LDH assay at presentation. A final diagnosis was obtained by aortic imaging. Patients diagnosed with AAS were followed-up for in-hospital mortality. One thousand five hundred seventy-eight consecutive patients were clinically eligible, and 999 patients were included in the study. The final diagnosis was AAS in 201 (20.1%) patients. Median LDH was 424 U/L (interquartile range [IQR] 367–557) in patients with AAS and 383 U/L (IQR 331–460) in patients with alternative diagnoses (P < 0.001). Using a cutoff of 450 U/L, the sensitivity of LDH for AAS was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI] 37–51) and the specificity was 73% (95% CI 69–76). Overall in-hospital mortality for AAS was 23.8%. Mortality was 32.6% in patients with LDH ≥ 450 U/L and 16.8% in patients with LDH < 450 U/L (P = 0.006). Following stratification according to LDH quartiles, in-hospital mortality was 12% in the first (lowest) quartile, 18.4% in the second quartile, 23.5% in the third quartile, and 38% in the fourth (highest) quartile (P = 0.01). LDH ≥ 450 U/L was further identified as an independent predictor of death in AAS both in univariate and in stepwise logistic regression analyses (odds ratio 2.28, 95% CI 1.11–4.66; P = 0.025), in addition to well-established risk markers such as advanced age and hypotension. Subgroup analysis showed excess mortality in association with LDH ≥ 450 U/L in elderly, hemodynamically stable

  10. Improving lactate metabolism in an intensified CHO culture process: productivity and product quality considerations.

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    Xu, Sen; Hoshan, Linda; Chen, Hao

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we discussed the development and optimization of an intensified CHO culture process, highlighting medium and control strategies to improve lactate metabolism. A few strategies, including supplementing glucose with other sugars (fructose, maltose, and galactose), controlling glucose level at Productivity and product quality attributes differences between batch, fed-batch, and concentrated fed-batch cultures were discussed. The importance of process and cell metabolism understanding when adapting the existing process to a new operational mode was demonstrated in the study.

  11. Negative correlation between CSF lactate levels and MoCA scores in male Chinese subjects.

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    Wang, Haijun; Tan, Xiaohua; Xu, Jinzhong; Li, Hui; Wang, Meiling; Chen, Suling; Yang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yanlong; Wang, Fan

    2017-09-01

    Lactate is a product of glycolysis by astrocytes and can be generated as a primary metabolic energy source by neurons. Lactate plays multifunctional role in human brain energy metabolism and cognitive function. However, no direct evidence demonstrated the link between lactate and cognition in normal condition. In the present study, concentrations of lactate in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood were measured to investigate the association of lactate with cognitive ability, which was assessed by Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), in 99 male Chinese subjects. Correlation analyses revealed that serum lactate levels were negatively correlated with age, and CSF lactate levels were negatively correlated with MoCA scores after Box-Cox transformations. But no correlation was found between serum lactate levels and MoCA scores after Box-Cox transformations. In conclusion, the results indicate that CSF lactate levels were negatively correlated with MoCA scores in male Chinese subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Failure of maintained hyperprolactinemia to improve lactational performance in late puerperium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barguño, J M; del Pozo, E; Cruz, M; Figueras, J

    1988-04-01

    Although stimulation of PRL secretion in the early postpartum period has been found to improve lactational performance, the effect of chronic maintenance of elevated plasma PRL levels on milk production is not known. In a randomized design, 66 lactating women were assigned to receive either a placebo (n = 32) or the dopamine antagonist sulpiride (n = 34; 100 mg, three times daily), for 4 days, followed by 50 mg, three times daily, for a 90-day period). Their basal and 30 min postsuckling plasma PRL levels as well as the weights of their infants were measured 1, 4, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days postpartum. Forty-one women (20 sulpiride-treated and 21 placebo-treated) completed the study. Compared with the placebo group, which had the expected postpartum plasma PRL decline, the sulpiride-treated women maintained significantly elevated basal plasma PRL values up to the 90th postpartum day. In contrast, the postsuckling plasma PRL level was significantly diminished in the latter group, and on day 90 was practically absent. On day 15, weight gain was significantly greater in the infants whose mothers received sulpiride, but later, no differences were detectable between groups of infants despite the disparity in PRL levels in their mothers. We conclude that enhancement of PRL secretion in the early postpartum period may transiently increase milk production, but chronic hyperprolactinemia has no effect on lactational performance. The plasma PRL response to suckling is not essential for the maintenance of milk secretion. Instead, basal plasma PRL levels and neurogenic reflexes may be more instrumental in maintaining established lactation.

  13. Two Levels of Caffeine Ingestion on Blood Lactate and Free Fatty Acid Responses during Incremental Exercise.

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    McNaughton, Lars

    1987-01-01

    Research was conducted to determine the effects of two doses of caffeine on the lactate threshold and also to examine the effects on substrate utilization during incremental cycle ergometry. Results found that caffeine increased heart rates and free fatty acid levels for all workloads and decreased blood lactate levels at some of the workloads.…

  14. Triiodothyronine activates lactate oxidation without impairing fatty acid oxidation and improves weaning from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena R.; Xu, Chun; Kajimoto, Hidemi; Isern, Nancy G.; Portman, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides a rescue for children with severe cardiac failure. We previously showed that triiodothyronine (T3) improves cardiac function by modulating pyruvate oxidation during weaning. This study was focused on fatty acid (FA) metabolism modulated by T3 for weaning from ECMO after cardiac injury. Methods: Nineteen immature piglets (9.1-15.3 kg) were separated into 3 groups with ECMO (6.5 hours) and wean: normal circulation (Group-C);transient coronary occlusion (10 minutes) followed by ECMO (Group-IR); and IR with T3 supplementation (Group-IR-T3). 13-Carbon labeled lactate, medium-chain and long-chain FAs were infused as oxidative substrates. Substrate fractional contribution to the citric acid cycle (FC) was analyzed by 13-Carbon nuclear magnetic resonance. Results: ECMO depressed circulating T3 levels to 40% baseline at 4 hours and were restored in Group-IR-T3. Group-IR decreased cardiac power, which was not fully restorable and 2 pigs were lost because of weaning failure. Group-IR also depressed FC-lactate, while the excellent contractile function and energy efficiency in Group-IR-T3 occurred along with a marked FC-lactate increase and [ATP]/[ADP] without either decreasing FC-FAs or elevating myocardial oxygen consumption over Group-C or -IR. Conclusions: T3 releases inhibition of lactate oxidation following ischemia-reperfusion injury without impairing FA oxidation. These findings indicate that T3 depression during ECMO is maladaptive, and that restoring levels improves metabolic flux and enhances contractile function during weaning.

  15. Performance of sows fed high levels of nonstarch polysaccharides during gestation and lactation over three parities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Kemp, B.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Hartog, den L.A.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of feeding sows a starch diet or a diet with a high level of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) during gestation, lactation, or both gestation and lactation during the first three parities on reproductive performance, body weight, and backfat was studied. Four-hundred and forty-four postpube

  16. Increased Blood Lactate Level Deteriorates Running Economy in World Class Endurance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Jan; Støren, Øyvind; Finstad, Arnstein; Wang, Eivind; Helgerud, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Blood lactate accumulation is associated with development of muscle fatigue and negatively correlated to endurance performance. No research has quantified the effects of lactate presence at moderate levels of lactate accumulation. The purpose of this study was to test whether 2 moderate blood lactate concentration levels affect running economy (RE) when running at the individual lactate threshold (LT). Seven male world class endurance athletes with an average V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of 80.7 ± 2.7 ml·kg·min or 5.8 ± 0.5 L·min participated in this study. After the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max test, the subjects were resting or walking and in a random order tested for RE at their LT velocity when the blood lactate level reached either 3 mmol·L or 5 mmol·L. After a new 5-minute exercising period at maximal aerobic velocity, the crossover lactate value RE testing was performed. Running economy was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) deteriorated from 0.668 ± 0.044 to 0.705 ± 0.056 ml·kg·m or 5.5% (p ≤ 0.05) for blood lactate level of 3 mmol·L compared with 5 mmol·L, respectively. Increased lactate level from 3 to 5 mmol·L is thus accompanied by deteriorated RE at LT running velocity. The deteriorated RE at moderate levels of lactate concentration emphasizes the importance of avoiding intensities above LT in the early parts of a dominantly aerobic endurance competition. It also emphasizes the importance of a high V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for aerobic endurance athletes and may partly explain the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 slow component as impaired RE.

  17. Etiology and Therapeutic Approach to Elevated Lactate Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiuff Andersen, Lars; Mackenhauer, Julie; Roberts, Jonathan C

    2013-01-01

    on a comprehensive PubMed search between the dates of January 1, 1960, to April 30, 2013, using the search term lactate or lactic acidosis combined with known associations, such as shock, sepsis, cardiac arrest, trauma, seizure, ischemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, thiamine, malignancy, liver, toxins, overdose...

  18. Diagnostic value of MRS-quantified brain tissue lactate level in identifying children with mitochondrial disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunsing, Roelineke J.; Strating, Kim [University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Child Neurology, Groningen (Netherlands); Koning, Tom J. de [University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Pediatric Metabolic Diseases, Groningen (Netherlands); Sijens, Paul E. [University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2017-03-15

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of children with or without neurometabolic disease is used for the first time for quantitative assessment of brain tissue lactate signals, to elaborate on previous suggestions of MRS-detected lactate as a marker of mitochondrial disease. Multivoxel MRS of a transverse plane of brain tissue cranial to the ventricles was performed in 88 children suspected of having neurometabolic disease, divided into 'definite' (n = 17, ≥1 major criteria), 'probable' (n = 10, ≥2 minor criteria), 'possible' (n = 17, 1 minor criterion) and 'unlikely' mitochondrial disease (n = 44, none of the criteria). Lactate levels, expressed in standardized arbitrary units or relative to creatine, were derived from summed signals from all voxels. Ten 'unlikely' children with a normal neurological exam served as the MRS reference subgroup. For 61 of 88 children, CSF lactate values were obtained. MRS lactate level (>12 arbitrary units) and the lactate-to-creatine ratio (L/Cr >0.22) differed significantly between the definite and the unlikely group (p = 0.015 and p = 0.001, respectively). MRS L/Cr also differentiated between the probable and the MRS reference subgroup (p = 0.03). No significant group differences were found for CSF lactate. MRS-quantified brain tissue lactate levels can serve as diagnostic marker for identifying mitochondrial disease in children. (orig.)

  19. Lactate versus pH levels in fetal scalp blood during labor - using the Lactate Scout System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, Christina; Perslev, Anette; Nickelsen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    (ABL), (2) the correlation between lactate and pH measured in scalp blood and (3) the correlation between fetal scalp lactate and umbilical cord SBE. The sensitivity/specificity and positive/negative predictive values of lactate in predicting low pH were analyzed and expressed as Receiver Operating......OBJECTIVE: To assess if lactate measured with the Scout Lactate System is a reliable alternative to pH in intrapartum monitoring of the fetus. METHODS: A prospective study analyzing (1) the correlation between scalp lactate measured by the Scout Lactate System and the Automatic Blood Laboratory...... Curves (ROC). RESULTS: Lactate measured by the Scout Lactate System and the ABL correlated well (r(2 )= 0.85). Both lactate and pH were measured in 1009 scalp blood samples. The sensitivity and specificity of lactate ≥4.8 mmol/l in predicting a pH

  20. Longitudinal lactate levels from routine point-of-care monitoring in adult Malawian antiretroviral therapy patients: associations with stavudine toxicities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagoma, Newton; Mallewa, Jane; Kaunda, Symon; Njalale, Yasin; Kampira, Elizabeth; Mukaka, Mavuto; Heyderman, Robert S; van Oosterhout, Joep J

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Stavudine is still widely used in under-resourced settings such as Malawi due to its low price. It frequently causes peripheral neuropathy and lipodystrophy and increases the risk of lactic acidosis and other high lactate syndromes. Methods We studied the association of longitudinal lactate levels, obtained by routine, 3-monthly point-of-care monitoring, with peripheral neuropathy, lipodystrophy and high lactate syndromes in adult Malawians who were in the second year of stavudine containing antiretroviral therapy (ART). Results Point-of-care lactate measurements were feasible in a busy urban ART clinic. Of 1170 lactate levels collected from 253 patients over the course of one year, 487 (41.8%) were elevated (>2.2mg/dl), 58 (5.0%) were highly elevated (>3.5mg/dl). At least one elevated lactate level occurred in 210 (83.0%) of patients and sustained hyperlactatemia in 65 (26.4%). In random effects analyses lipodystrophy and peripheral neuropathy were associated with higher lactate levels. Only five patients developed high lactate syndromes (one lactic acidosis) of whom no preceding lactate measurements were available because events had started before enrolment. Lactate levels significantly decreased over time and no high lactate syndromes were observed after the 15th month on ART. Conclusion Lipodystrophy and peripheral neuropathy were associated with higher lactate levels. Lactate levels decreased over time, coinciding with absence of new high lactate syndromes after the 15th month on ART. PMID:23926161

  1. Triggering for submaximal exercise level in gastric exercise tonometry: serial lactate, heart rate, or respiratory quotient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Johannes A; Oostveen, Ellie; Mensink, Peter B F; Geelkerken, Robert H; Kolkman, Jeroen J

    2007-08-01

    Gastric exercise tonometry is a functional diagnostic test in chronic gastrointestinal ischemia. As maximal exercise can cause false-positive tests, exercise buildup should be controlled to remain submaximal. We evaluated three parameters for monitoring and adjusting exercise levels (heart rate [HR], respiratory quotient [RQ], and serial lactate measurements) in 178 tests in both healthy volunteers and patients suspected of gastrointestinal ischemia. Exercise levels above submaximal occurred in 20% of HR-, 2% of RQ-, and 5% of lactate-monitored tests (Pnegatives (5% vs. 6%). Although RQ monitoring yielded the greatest proportion of optimal exercise tests, serial lactate monitoring is our method of choice, combining optimal diagnostic accuracy, low cost, and simplicity.

  2. Urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins in pregnant and lactating women in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Sano, Mitsue; Suzuki, Kahoru; Hiratsuka, Chiaki; Aoki, Asami; Nagai, Chiharu

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins can be used as biomarkers for the nutritional status of these vitamins. To determine changes in the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins during pregnant and lactating stages, we surveyed and compared levels of nine water-soluble vitamins in control (non-pregnant and non-lactating women), pregnant and lactating women. Control women (n=37), women in the 2nd (16-27 wk, n=24) and 3rd trimester of pregnancy (over 28 wk, n=32), and early- (0-5 mo, n=54) and late-stage lactating (6-11 mo, n=49) women took part in the survey. The mean age of subjects was ~30 y, and mean height was ~160 cm. A single 24-h urine sample was collected 1 d after the completion of a validated, self-administered comprehensive diet history questionnaire to measure water-soluble vitamins or metabolites. The average intake of each water-soluble vitamin was ≍ the estimated average requirement value and adequate intake for the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes in all life stages, except for vitamin B6 and folate intakes during pregnancy. No change was observed in the urinary excretion levels of vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, biotin or vitamin C among stages. Urine nicotinamide and folate levels were higher in pregnant women than in control women. Urine excretion level of vitamin B1 decreased during lactation and that of pantothenic acid decreased during pregnancy and lactation. These results provide valuable information for setting the Dietary Reference Intakes of water-soluble vitamins for pregnant and lactating women.

  3. [Fetal distress: Information provided by lactate levels and antioxidant status, compared with the Apgar score].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abessolo, Felix Ovono; Ngou, J P J F Ngou-Mve; Meye, J F; Yangou, Jf Moutsinga; Lemamy, G J J F; Ngou-Milama, E J F

    2009-01-01

    The multitude of criteria used to assess fetal distress and the subjective character of the Apgar score led us to compare the information it provides with that from measurements of lactate and two principal antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). We measured plasma lactates, SOD, and GPX from the umbilical cord blood of live-born children whose mothers had had at least three prenatal consultations. The correlation of these measurements with the 5-minute Apgar score was tested with the Spearman correlation coefficient. Lactate levels were correlated with the baby's blood glucose (r=0.212; p=0.0084), and GPx activity (r=0.179; p=0.0061), the Apgar score (r=0.258; p=0.001) and the mother's blood glucose (r=0.167; p=0.035). GPx was correlated not only with the lactate level but also with birth weight (r=0.205; p=0.000) and height (r=0.316; p=0.0056), while SOD was correlated only with the mother's blood glucose (r=0.161; p=0.046). In multivariate analysis, followed by stepwise analysis, lactate was the main variable associated with the Apgar score. It thus seems better able to replace the Apgar score than the antioxidant enzyme levels. GPx was higher in children of high birth weight and may make them better able to combat the free radicals due to anoxia or hypoxia.

  4. Improving 1H MRSI measurement of cerebral lactate for clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Neva M; Richards, Todd L; Friedman, Seth D; Petropoulos, Helen; Dager, Stephen R

    2010-04-30

    Accurate measurement of cerebral lactate is critical to the understanding of brain function for psychiatric disorders such as panic disorder and bipolar disorder as well as mitochondrial dysfunction. Proton magnetic spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) techniques can be used to study lactate in vivo; however, accurate measurement of cerebral lactate, which is normally at low basal abundance, can be challenging. In this study, regional lactate measurements obtained with two different MRSI analytic approaches were evaluated using proton echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI) data from 18 healthy adults participating in an in vivo sodium lactate infusion study. The results demonstrate that averaging data within a region of interest (ROI) before spectral fitting with LCModel results in significantly improved lactate measurement as compared to averaging chemical concentrations derived from the fitting of individual voxels in the ROI. Simulation results that confirm this finding are also presented. This study additionally outlines an atlas-based approach for the systematic computation of regional distributions of chemical concentrations in large MRSI data sets.

  5. Effect of LED phototherapy on blood lactate level in Taekwondo contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H. C.; Lee, B. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, S.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of LED phototherapy on blood lactate level in the muscle was studied. A 450cm2 large red and near infrared LED pad with its irradiance of 10mW/cm2 was applied for 10 minutes to brachial muscle and quadriceps muscle of thigh to the participants before and after the Taekwondo contest. Blood samples from the participants were taken at 5 minutes after the competition and 10 minutes after the recovery. The test results showed that the LED therapy (LEDT) before and after the competition had a significant effect on the decrease of blood lactate level of the participants.

  6. Plasma lactate, GH and GH-binding protein levels in exercise following BCAA supplementation in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palo, E F; Gatti, R; Cappellin, E; Schiraldi, C; De Palo, C B; Spinella, P

    2001-01-01

    Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) stimulate protein synthesis, and growth hormone (GH) is a mediator in this process. A pre-exercise BCAA ingestion increases muscle BCAA uptake and use. Therefore after one month of chronic BCAA treatment (0.2 gkg(-1) of body weight), the effects of a pre-exercise oral supplementation of BCAA (9.64 g) on the plasma lactate (La) were examined in triathletes, before and after 60 min of physical exercise (75% of VO2 max). The plasma levels of GH (pGH) and of growth hormone binding protein (pGHBP) were also studied. The end-exercise La of each athlete was higher than basal. Furthermore, after the chronic BCAA treatment, these end-exercise levels were lower than before this treatment (8.6+/-0.8 mmol L(-1) after vs 12.8+/-1.0 mmol L(-1) before treatment; p BCAA chronic treatment, this end-exercise pGHBP was 738+/-85 pmol L(-1) before vs 1691+/-555 pmol L(-1) after. pGH/pGHBP ratio was unchanged in each athlete and between the groups, but a tendency to increase was observed at end-exercise. The lower La at the end of an intense muscular exercise may reflect an improvement of BCAA use, due to the BCAA chronic treatment. The chronic BCAA effects on pGH and pGHBP might suggest an improvement of muscle activity through protein synthesis.

  7. Remifentanil Prevents Increases of Blood Glucose and Lactate Levels during Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaki, Tomohiro; Nawa, Yuko; Tamashiro, Keishi; Mizuno, Eri; Hirata, Naoyuki; Yamakage, Michiaki

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can cause stress response that increases levels of cytokine and catecholamine in plasma, resulting in hyperglycemia. In adults, it has been demonstrated that remifentanil infusion during CPB could prevent increases of cytokine, catecholamine, and blood glucose levels, but such effects of remifentanil in children have not been elucidated. Aim: In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of remifentanil on blood glucose and lactate levels during CPB in children. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included children who underwent ventricular septal defect or atrial septal defect closure. Data for patients who did not receive, during CPB period, remifentanil infusion (non-Remi group) and patients who received remifentanil infusion at 0.5 μg/kg/min (Remi group) during CPB were used for analysis. Primary outcomes were lactate and blood glucose levels just before and after CPB. Data are presented as medians and interquartile ranges. Data were analyzed by the Mann–Whitney U-test and Chi-square test. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: During CPB, 13 and 11 patients were allocated into Remi and non-Remi groups, respectively. Pre-CPB lactate and blood glucose levels were not significantly different between the two groups, but post-CPB lactate and blood glucose levels in the Remi group were significantly lower than that in the non-Remi group. Conclusion: 0.5 μg/kg/min remifentanil infusion during CPB suppresses the increases of blood glucose and lactate levels in children. PMID:28074792

  8. Starch levels on performance, milk composition and energy balance of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, Carolina Almeida; Batistel, Fernanda; de Souza, Jonas; Martinez, Junio Cesar; Correa, Paulo; Pedroso, Alexandre Mendonça; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of starch levels in diets with the replacement of citrus pulp for corn on milk yield, milk composition, and energy balance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in seven 4 × 4 Latin squares conducted concurrently, and each experimental period consisted of 20 days (16 days for adaptation and 4 days for sampling). The experimental treatments comprised four starch levels: 15, 20, 25, and 30% in the diet. The dry matter intake increased linearly with increasing starch levels. The milk yield and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield showed quadratic response to increasing starch levels. The milk protein content and milk total solids content responded linearly to increasing starch levels. The feed efficiency, milk lactose content, milk urea nitrogen, plasma urea nitrogen, and plasma glucose concentration were not affected by starch levels. The estimated net energy for lactation (NEL) intake increased linearly as the starch level was raised. Although the milk NEL output per kilogram of milk was not affected by starch, the milk NEL output daily responded quadratically to starch levels. In addition, the NEL in body weight gain also responded quadratically to increasing starch levels. The efficiency of energy use for milk yield and the NEL efficiency for production also responded quadratically to increasing starch levels. Diets for mid-lactating dairy cows producing around 30 kg/day of milk should be formulated to provide around 25% starch to optimize performance.

  9. Effect of high-dose dexamethasone on perioperative lactate levels and glucose control : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottens, Thomas H.; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.; Hofland, Jan; Dieleman, Jan M.; Hoekstra, Miriam; van Dijk, Diederik; van der Maaten, Joost M. A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Blood lactate levels are increasingly used to monitor patients. Steroids are frequently administered to critically ill patients. However, the effect of steroids on lactate levels has not been adequately investigated. We studied the effect of a single intraoperative high dose of

  10. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and exercise capacity in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy and elevated p-lactate levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røge, Birgit Thorup; Calbet, José A L; Møller, Kirsten

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy or elevated p-lactate levels.......To investigate the skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy or elevated p-lactate levels....

  11. Unaltered lactate and glucose transporter levels in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puchades, Maja; Sogn, Carl Johan; Maehlen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Metabolic impairment contributes to development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in degeneration of nigral dopamine neurons. Also, in PD there are alterations in glucose metabolism in nigro-striatal pathways, and increased cerebral lactate levels have...... of MCT1, MCT2 and GLUT1 is not changed following dopaminergic neurodegeneration. This is in contrast to findings in other neurodegenerative disease, such as mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, where there are large alterations in MCT levels....

  12. A two-diet feeding regime for lactating sows reduced nutrient deficiency in early lactation and improved milk yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Friis; Sønderby Bruun, Thomas; Feyera, Takele

    2016-01-01

    to their individual requirements for maintenance and milk production. Thus, a basal diet was formulated and supplied to meet the energy requirement for maintenance and a lactation supplement was formulated to meet the dynamic requirement of nutrients for milk production. Sows and piglets were weighed and feed intake......The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether a new feeding concept composed of two dietary components fed daily throughout lactation could minimize sow weight loss and increase milk yield (MY) and piglet weight gain. In total, 14 sows were included in the experiment from parturition...... until weaning 28 d later. The sows were fed one of two dietary feeding regimes from lactation d 2 and throughout lactation. The 1-diet feeding regime represented the Danish feeding standards and recommendations. The new 2-diet regime supplied sows feed and nutrients (ME and AA) according...

  13. Triclosan exposure reduces thyroxine levels in pregnant and lactating rat dams and in directly exposed offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Boberg, Julie; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid disrupting chemicals can potentially disrupt brain development. Two studies investigating the effect of the antibacterial compound triclosan on thyroxine (T4) levels in rats are reported. In the first, Wistar rat dams were gavaged with 75, 150 or 300 mg triclosan/kg bw/day throughout...... gestation and lactation. Total T4 serum levels were measured in dams and offspring, and all doses of triclosan significantly lowered T4 in dams, but no significant effects on T4 levels were seen in the offspring at the end of the lactation period. Since this lack of effect could be due to minimal exposure...... through maternal milk, a second study using direct per oral pup exposure from postnatal day 3–16 to 50 or 150 mg triclosan/kg bw/day was performed. This exposure pointed to significant T4 reductions in 16 day old offspring in both dose groups. These results corroborate previous studies showing...

  14. Elucidation of drivers of high-level production of lactates throughout a cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Liu, Chao; Cao, Sha; Xu, Ying

    2015-06-01

    Lactates play key roles in facilitating or protecting the development of a cancer in most cancer types. While its beneficial effects to cancer development have been extensively studied, very little is known about what derives the high-level production of lactates in a cancer throughout its entire development. Here we present a novel computational analysis of transcriptomic data of nine primary cancer types, plus a few precancerous and metastatic cancer, to address this issue. Our approach is to identify stress types, which are known to play key roles in cancer development and show strong co-expressions with lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDHA), at different stages of cancer development. A number of interesting observations are made through our analyses, including (i) all nine primary cancer types show similar association patterns between stresses and LDHA, namely the strengths of the associations increase from early- to intermediate-stage cancer tissues but then make a substantial down turn at the most advanced stage; (ii) while the detailed stress types associated with LDHA may vary across different cancer types, stresses induced by apoptosis and adaptive immune responses are present universally, suggesting that these two stresses are possibly two key drivers to keep the high-level production of lactates; and (iii) there is a clear distinction between stress types associated with LDHA in precancerous tissues vs. cancer and metastasis tissues. We anticipate that the analyses can provide highly useful information for designing personalized treatments for different cancers at different stages, as stopping lactate production could have devastating effects on a cancer development. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Responses of blood pressure and lactate levels to various aquatic exercise movements in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, K-Y; Chen, W-C; Kan, N-W; Hsu, M-C; Lee, S-L

    2015-12-01

    Middle-aged and elderly women represent the main attending group in head-out aquatic exercise (HOAE). Blood pressure (BP) significantly increases both during water immersion and aquatic walking. Based on risk concerns, it is important to evaluate BP responses in postmenopausal women doing HOAE. The aim of this study was to determine BP, lactate levels, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) changes associated with performing 3 different movements at 3 levels of exercise intensity in water. Twelve postmenopausal women (59.9±0.6 years old) participated in 3 aquatic trials involving running (RU), rocking (RO), and scissor kicks (SK) on separate days. Systolic BP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), lactate levels, RPE, and motion cadence were measured at rest; upon reaching 50%, 65%, and 80% of heart rate reserve for 6 minutes; and 10 and 30 minutes after exercise. Under similar RPE responses at 3 levels of intensity, SK resulted in higher systolic BP, MAP, and lactate levels than RO at 10 minutes after exercise (Pexercise (Phigh exercise intensity (Pexercise. These findings suggest that RO movement in aquatic exercises is more suitable for people at high risk for cardiovascular disease.

  16. Effect of vitamin A administration on free radicals and lactate levels in individuals exercised to exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlar, Suleyman; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2016-09-01

    This study was performed to explore the effect of vitamin A administration on Free Radicals production and antioxidant system activity and lactate levels in individuals exercised to exhaustion The study registered 10 healthy sedentary males their mean age was 22,85±0,26 years. The subjects were orally administrated with 300 mg vitamin A (retinol) for 4 weeks and engaged in strenuous exercise (using the Bruce protocol) once a week. Blood samples were collected from the subjects at four different times, before and after the supplementation and before and after exercise to analyze Malondialdehyde (MDA), Nitric oxide (NO), Glutathione (GSH), Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), Catalase (CAT), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels using colorimetric ELISA test kits and plasma lactate levels using an autoanalyzer. Exhaustion exercise leaded to an increase in both MDA, NO, and lactate, and GSH, GSH-Px, CAT and SOD levels compared to resting levels both before and after supplementation (plevels found in pre-supplementation exhaustion showed a significant decrease after the supplementation of vitamin A (plevels of the free radical NO was offset by vitamin A supplementation. It can be suggested that supplementation of vitamin A at physiological doses has a limited effect on lipid peroxidation caused by strenuous exercise.

  17. Triclosan exposure reduces thyroxine levels in pregnant and lactating rat dams and in directly exposed offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Christiansen, Sofie; Hass, Ulla

    2013-09-01

    Thyroid disrupting chemicals can potentially disrupt brain development. Two studies investigating the effect of the antibacterial compound triclosan on thyroxine (T₄) levels in rats are reported. In the first, Wistar rat dams were gavaged with 75, 150 or 300 mg triclosan/kg bw/day throughout gestation and lactation. Total T₄ serum levels were measured in dams and offspring, and all doses of triclosan significantly lowered T₄ in dams, but no significant effects on T₄ levels were seen in the offspring at the end of the lactation period. Since this lack of effect could be due to minimal exposure through maternal milk, a second study using direct per oral pup exposure from postnatal day 3-16 to 50 or 150 mg triclosan/kg bw/day was performed. This exposure pointed to significant T₄ reductions in 16 day old offspring in both dose groups. These results corroborate previous studies showing that in rats lactational transfer of triclosan seems limited. Since an optimal study design for testing potential developmental neurotoxicants in rats, should include exposure during both the pre- and postnatal periods of brain development, we suggest that in the case of triclosan, direct dosing of pups may be the best way to obtain that goal.

  18. Conventional hemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass increases the serum lactate level in adult cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabie Soliman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of hemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass on lactate level in adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery. Design: An observational study. Setting: Prince Sultan cardiac center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Participants: The study included 283 patients classified into two groups: Hemofiltration group (n=138, hemofiltration was done during CPB. Control group (n = 145, patients without hemofiltration. Interventions: Hemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass. Measurements and Main Results: Monitors included hematocrit, lactate levels, mixed venous oxygen saturation, amount of fluid removal during hemofiltration and urine output. The lactate elevated in group H than group C (P < 0.05, and the PH showed metabolic acidosis in group H (P < 0.05. The mixed venous oxygen saturation decreased in group H than group C (P < 0.05. The number of transfused packed red blood cells was lower in group H than group C (P < 0.05. The hematocrit was higher in group H than group C (P < 0.05. The urine output was lower in group H than group C (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Hemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass leads to hemoconcentration, elevated lactate level and increased inotropic support. There are some recommendations for hemofiltration: First; Hemofiltration should be limited for patients with impaired renal function, positive fluid balance, reduced response to diuretics or prolonged bypass time more than 2 hours. Second; Minimal amount of fluids should be administered to maintain adequate cardiac output and reduction of priming volumes is preferable to maintain controlled hemodilution. Third; it should be done before weaning of or after cardiopulmonary bypass and not during the whole time of cardiopulmonary bypass.

  19. Maternal consumption of flaxseed during lactation affects weight and hemoglobin level of offspring in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Ludmila F M F; Soares, Lavínia L; Chagas, Maurício A; Boaventura, Gilson T

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effects of maternal flaxseed consumption during lactation on the body weight, hematological indicators and visceral fat mass of male offspring in adulthood. Sixteen female Wistar rats were divided into two groups after giving birth. During lactation the control group (CG) was fed a casein-based diet and the flaxseed group (FG) was fed a casein-based diet containing 25% flaxseed. After weaning, male offspring were fed on commercial chow until adulthood and euthanized at 170 days for blood collection and visceral fat mass assessment. Offspring of rats in the FG had lower body weight (FG = 42.69+/-3.06 g; CG = 47.31+/-4.72 g; p = 0.036) at weaning. At 170 days, lower hemoglobin levels were observed in the FG (FG = 12.30+/-1.28 g/dL; CG = 13.88+/-0.91 g/dL; p = 0.02). There was no statistically significant difference in visceral fat mass between groups. Maternal consumption of a flaxseed-based diet during lactation resulted in lower body weight at weaning and lower hemoglobin levels in adulthood, when compared with the control group.

  20. Effects of Hypergravity Exposure on Prolactin Levels in Pre-parturient , Parturient and Lactating Rat Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer. Lisa A.; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.; Sun, Sid (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of 2.0-g, 1.75-g and 1.5-g hypergravity exposure on plasma concentrations of the lactotrophic hormone, prolactin (PRL), in female rats on pre-parturient (Gestation Day 20), parturient (Post-natal day 0) and lactating (P10) days. PRL levels have been found to be reduced in rat dams around the time of birth following exposure to gravitational loads varying from 2.16 to 3.14-g (Megory et. al., Aviation, Space and Environs 1129-1135, 1984). It has also been reported that at these high gravitational loads, neonatal mortality has been extremely high, suggesting a possible interaction between dam PRL concentration and neonatal outcome. We have previously reported no significant differences in PRL levels of parturient (PO) and lactating (P6 & P 15) dams when exposed to 1.5-g hypergravity, but did observe a slight elevation of PRL on PO and P 15, with a decrease on P6. In the present study, time-bred pregnant dams were exposed to either continuous 2.0-g, 1.75-g or 1.5-g centrifugation, beginning on Gestational day (G) 11 of the rats' 22-day pregnancy. We observed no significant differences in PRL concentrations between SC and any of the HG conditions. On G20 and PO, PRL concentrations of the 2.0-g and 1.5-g groups were slightly elevated as compared to SC. Similar to what we previously reported. PRL secretion was elevated in both HG and SC conditions on the day of birth relative to later during lactation, but on P10 it appeared to be reduced in HG relative to SC dams. These findings suggests that hypergravity slightly elevates plasma concentration of PRL in pre-parturient and lactating rat dams, with effects most pronounced during the periparturitional period and in a direction opposite to that observed following microgravity exposure.

  1. Aggression and cortisol levels in three different group housing routines for lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsson, Ola; Bergqvist, Ann-Sofi; Sjunnesson, Ylva; Eliasson-Selling, Lena; Lundeheim, Nils; Magnusson, Ulf

    2015-02-18

    Lactating sows in Swedish organic piglet production are commonly group-housed with piglets in a multi-suckling pen within 14 days after farrowing. Nursing behaviour may be disturbed when lactating sows are moved to a new environment and mixed with other sows, as they spend more time fighting with other sows and exploring the new surroundings. This can disrupt the inhibitory effect of suckling on ovarian activity and increase the risk of lactational oestrus, making efficient reproductive management difficult. Therefore this study evaluated aggression and levels of the stress hormone cortisol in lactating sows group-housed together with their piglets at one (W1), two (W2) or three (W3) weeks post farrowing. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the three management routines (W1, W2, W3) regarding number of attacks initiated or received in the mixed group. After mixing, W2 sows had a lower number of shoulder scratches (P sows. Among the W3 sows, there was a lower (P sows were group housed compared to when they were individually housed. The cortisol response, measured as variation in cortisol concentration in saliva, was also lower (P sows compared with W1 sows. For all management routines, sows already living in the new environment (resident sows) initiated more attacks (P sows entering the new environment (intruder sows). Overall, multiparous sows initiated more attacks and received fewer attacks than primiparous sows (P sows at three weeks post farrowing is less stressful than mixing and group housing sows at one week post farrowing. The results also indicate that parity and whether a sow is a resident or intruder in the group housing environment may have an effect on aggression levels when sows are group-housed.

  2. TNF-α and plasma D(-)-lactate levels in rats after intestinal ischemia and reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongming YAO; Ailan REN; Shengli DONG; Ning DONG; Yan YU; Zhiyong SHENG

    2004-01-01

    Objective To study the potential role of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induction in the development of mucosal barrier dysfunction in rats caused by acute intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury, and to examine whether pretreatment with monoclonal antibody against TNF-α (TNF-α MoAb) would affect the release of D(-)-lactate after local gut ischemia followed by reperfusion. Methods Anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats underwent superior mesenteric artery occlusion for 75 min followed by reperfusion for 6 hr. The rats were treated intravenously with either TNF-α MoAb (20 mg/kg) or albumin (20 mg/kg) 30 min prior to the onset of ischemia. Plasma D(-)-lactate levels were measured in both the portal and systemic blood by an enzymatic spectrophotometric assay. Intestinal TNF-αmRNA expression as well as protein levels were also measured at various intervals. In addition, a postmortem examination was performed together with a macropathological evaluation based on a four-grade scoring system.Results Intestinal ischemia resulted in a significant elevation in D(-)-lactate levels in the portal vein blood in both the control and treatment groups ( P <0.05). However, animals pretreated with TNF-α MoAb at 6 hr after reperfusion showed significant attenuation of an increase in both portal and systemic D(-)-lactate levels when compared with those only receiving albumin (P < 0.05). In the control animals, a remarkable rise in intestinal TNF-α level was measured at 0.5 hr after clamp release ( P < 0.01); however, prophylactic treatment with TNF-α MoAb completely annulled the increase of local TNF-α levels seen in the control animals. Similarly, after anti-TNF-α MoAb administration, intestinal TNF-α mRNA expression was markedly inhibited, which showed significant differences when compared with the control group at 0.5 hr, 2 hr and 6 hr after the release of occlusion ( P < 0.05-0.01 ). In addition, the pathological examination showed marked intestinal lesions that

  3. Effects of dietary tallow level on performance of Alpine does in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Crowder, I E.; Hart, S P.; Cameron, M; Sahlu, T; Goetsch, A L.

    2001-03-01

    Sixty Alpine does (initial BW 47+/-1.3kg) were used to determine effects of dietary inclusion of different levels of partially hydrogenated tallow on performance in early lactation (weeks 3-11). Treatments entailed a 30% concentrate, negative control (NC) diet and five diets higher in concentrate (42-46%) with 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 or 6.0% DM of partially hydrogenated tallow (0T, 1.5T, 3.0T, 4.5T and 6.0T, respectively). DM intake was 1.54kg per day for the NC and 1.86, 1.80, 1.99, 2.17 and 1.96kg per day for the five tallow treatments, respectively, BW was similar among treatments and increased as the trial progressed (47.4, 48.4, 49.8, 50.4, 50.8 and 51.3kg at weeks 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13, respectively). Milk yield was lower (Ptallow level increased (2.85, 3.08, 3.14, 3.21 and 2.69kg per day for the five tallow treatments, respectively). Milk fat concentration was lower (Ptallow level (3.00, 3.17, 3.34, 3.48 and 3.58%) whereas, milk protein concentration was not affected by level of tallow (2.72, 2.80, 2.93, 2.85, 2.90 and 2.90% for NC, and the five tallow treatments, respectively). The estimated NE(l):4% fat-corrected milk yield ratio was 0.93Mcal/kg for NC and 1.30, 1.11, 1.21, 1.37 and 1.44Mcal/kg for the five tallow treatments, respectively. The results indicated that in Alpine does, milk yield in early lactation increased as dietary tallow level was increased to 3 and 4.5% but decreased when the level was increased to 6%, although milk fat concentration increased linearly and the protein level was unchanged. These results suggest beneficial usage by lactating Alpine does of low to moderate levels of partially hydrogenated tallow in diets moderate in concentrate level, although ingredient availability and costs will influence ultimate dietary ingredient decisions.

  4. Ringer's lactate improves liver recovery in a murine model of acetaminophen toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Runkuan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetaminophen (APAP overdose induces massive hepatocyte necrosis. Liver regeneration is a vital process for survival after a toxic insult. Since hepatocytes are mostly in a quiescent state (G0, the regeneration process requires the priming of hepatocytes by cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6. Ringer's lactate solution (RLS has been shown to increase serum TNF-α and IL-6 in patients and experimental animals; in addition, RLS also provides lactate, which can be used as an alternative metabolic fuel to meet the higher energy demand by liver regeneration. Therefore, we tested whether RLS therapy improves liver recovery after APAP overdose. Methods C57BL/6 male mice were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of APAP (300 mg/kg dissolved in 1 mL sterile saline. Following 2 hrs of APAP challenge, the mice were given 1 mL RLS or Saline treatment every 12 hours for a total of 72 hours. Results 72 hrs after APAP challenge, compared to saline-treated group, RLS treatment significantly lowered serum transaminases (ALT/AST and improved liver recovery seen in histopathology. This beneficial effect was associated with increased hepatic tissue TNF-α concentration, enhanced hepatic NF-κB DNA binding and increased expression of cell cycle protein cyclin D1, three important factors in liver regeneration. Conclusion RLS improves liver recovery from APAP hepatotoxicity.

  5. Effect of different levels of rapidly degradable carbohydrates calculated by a simple rumen model on performance of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenbos, J; Martín-Tereso, J; Dijkstra, J; van Laar, H

    2017-07-01

    production responses, increasing dietary mRDC levels, while maintaining net energy and intestinal digestible protein as well as other nutrients at similar levels, did not influence rumen pH parameter estimates and had minor effects on feeding behavior. These results indicate that aggregating rapidly degradable carbohydrate content into one term may be a simple way to further improve predictability of production responses in practical diet formulation for lactating dairy cows. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Improvement of Neuroenergetics by Hypertonic Lactate Therapy in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury Is Dependent on Baseline Cerebral Lactate/Pyruvate Ratio

    KAUST Repository

    Quintard, Hervé

    2015-09-30

    Energy dysfunction is associated with worse prognosis after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recent data suggest that hypertonic sodium lactate infusion (HL) improves energy metabolism after TBI. Here, we specifically examined whether the efficacy of HL (3h infusion, 30-40 μmol/kg/min) in improving brain energetics (using cerebral microdialysis [CMD] glucose as a main therapeutic end-point) was dependent on baseline cerebral metabolic state (assessed by CMD lactate/pyruvate ratio [LPR]) and cerebral blood flow (CBF, measured with perfusion computed tomography [PCT]). Using a prospective cohort of 24 severe TBI patients, we found CMD glucose increase during HL was significant only in the subgroup of patients with elevated CMD LPR >25 (n = 13; +0.13 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.19] mmol/L, p < 0.001; vs. +0.04 [-0.05-0.13] in those with normal LPR, p = 0.33, mixed-effects model). In contrast, CMD glucose increase was independent from baseline CBF (coefficient +0.13 [0.04-0.21] mmol/L when global CBF was <32.5 mL/100 g/min vs. +0.09 [0.04-0.14] mmol/L at normal CBF, both p < 0.005) and systemic glucose. Our data suggest that improvement of brain energetics upon HL seems predominantly dependent on baseline cerebral metabolic state and support the concept that CMD LPR - rather than CBF - could be used as a diagnostic indication for systemic lactate supplementation following TBI. Copyright © 2016 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  7. Validity of a New Kit Measuring Salivary Lactate Dehydrogenase Level for Screening Gingivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekuni, Daisuke; Kataoka, Kota; Yokoi, Aya; Taniguchi-Tabata, Ayano; Mizuno, Hirofumi; Miyai, Hisataka; Uchida, Yoko; Fukuhara, Daiki; Sugiura, Yoshio; Morita, Manabu

    2017-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of a new kit that can evaluate salivary lactate dehydrogenase (LD) level in real time for screening gingivitis. Materials and Methods. The study included 70 systemic healthy volunteers [29 males and 41 females; mean age ± SD: 24.1 ± 2.6 years]. Resting saliva was collected from each participant and LD level was evaluated in real time using the kit (a color-changing sheet with an integer scale ranging from 1 to 10). A dentist measured probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, and the proportion of sites with bleeding on probing (% BOP) at six sites on all teeth. Gingivitis was diagnosed when the BOP value was ≥20%. Results. Salivary LD level was positively correlated with mean % BOP (odds ratio: 1.47, 95% confidence interval: 1.132–1.916, and P gingivitis in young adults, which contributes to early detection of future periodontitis. PMID:28337048

  8. Dietary Supplementation of Magnesium Sulfate during Late Gestation and Lactation Affects the Milk Composition and Immunoglobulin Levels in Sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, W X; Cheng, S Y; Liu, S T; Shi, B M; Shan, A S

    2014-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) during late gestation and lactation on sow and litter performance, fecal moisture, blood biochemistry parameters, immunoglobulin levels and milk composition in sows. Forty-eight sows (Yorkshire×Landrace, 4th to 5th parity) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments supplemented with 0, 200, 400, or 600 mg/kg MgSO4 (n = 12). The experiment started on day 90 of gestation and continued through day 21 of lactation. Blood samples were collected on day 107 of gestation, day 0 (farrowing) and 21 (weaning) of lactation for the analyses of the blood biochemistry parameters and immunoglobulin levels. The colostrum and milk samples were obtained on day 0 and 14 of lactation, respectively. Fecal samples were collected from the sows on day 107 of gestation as well as day 7 and 20 of lactation to determine fecal moisture content. The results showed that the survival percentage of piglets and the litter weight at weaning were decreased linearly (p0.05) by MgSO4 supplementation. The fecal moisture content of the sows were increased (pplasma magnesium (Mg) level linearly (p0.05 and pplasma on day of farrowing and immunoglobulin A (IgA) level in colostrum (quadratic, p<0.05) and milk (linear, p<0.05) of the sows. These results indicated that supplementation with MgSO4 during late gestation and lactation may have the potential to prevent sow constipation, but may also result in some negative effects.

  9. The effect of stage of lactation on daily milk yield, and milk fat and protein content in Tsigai and Improved Valachian ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Oravcová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of stage of lactation on daily milk yield, and milk fat and protein content in Tsigai and Improved Valachian ewes. Breed lactation curves for daily milk yield, and milk fat and protein content were modelled as a sub-model of the three-trait animal model based on repeated test-day records that were collected by the Breeding Services of the Slovak Republic between 1995 and 2010. Data included 188403 (Tsigai and 352094 (Improved Valachian ewe’s performance records. Pedigree file included 35484 (Tsigai and 66994 (Improved Valachian animals with genetic ties to ewes with milk performance data. The fixed part of the model included parity, litter size and stage of lactation. The effect of days in milk (i.e. stage of lactation was fitted using Ali and Schaeffer lactation curve. The random part of the model included flock-test day effect, direct additive genetic effect, and permanent environmental effect of ewe nested within lactation. Due to limited number of test-day records in the first and the eighth month of lactation and related difficulties in modelling milk traits in these phases of lactation, the lactation curves were plotted between days 30 and 210. During lactation period the daily milk yield curves were decreasing, while milk fat and protein content were increasing. Because of higher changes at the beginning of lactation balanced with higher changes at the end of lactation in Tsigai and smaller changes at the beginning of lactation balanced with smaller changes at the end of lactation in Improved Valachian, 150d milk yield and average milk fat and protein content were almost the same in both breeds.

  10. Response of the modern lactating sow and progeny to source and level of supplemental dietary fat during high ambient temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero, D S; van Heugten, E; Odle, J; Arellano, C; Boyd, R D

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the response to increments of 2 sources of dietary fat on lactating sow and progeny performance during high ambient temperatures. Data were collected from 391 sows (PIC Camborough) from June to September in a 2,600-sow commercial unit in Oklahoma. Sows were randomly assigned to a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments and a control diet. Factors included 1) fat sources, animal-vegetable blend (A-V) and choice white grease (CWG), and 2) fat levels (2%, 4%, and 6%). The A-V blend contained 14.5% FFA with an iodine value of 89, peroxide value of 4.2 mEq/kg, and anisidine value of 23, whereas CWG contained 3.7% FFA with an iodine value of 62, peroxide value of 9.8 mEq/kg, and anisidine value of 5. Diets were corn-soybean meal based, with 8.0% distillers dried grains with solubles and 6.0% wheat middlings, and contained 3.56-g standardized ileal digestible Lys/Mcal ME. Sows were balanced by parity, with 192 and 199 sows representing parity 1 and parity 3 to 5, respectively. Feed refusal increased linearly (P feed and energy intake increased linearly (P Sows fed CWG diets had reduced (linear, P sow and litter gain relative to feed intake) compared with the G:F of sows fed the control diet or the diets containing the A-V blend (0.50, 0.43, and 0.44, respectively; P feed efficiency than CWG. Subsequent litter size and reproductive performance was improved by inclusion of both sources of fat in diets fed to lactating sows.

  11. Triennial Lactation Symposium: Opportunities for improving milk production efficiency in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, E E; Hutchison, J L; Olson, K M; Norman, H D

    2012-05-01

    Increasing feed costs and the desire to improve environmental stewardship have stimulated renewed interest in improving feed efficiency of livestock, including that of US dairy herds. For instance, USDA cost projections for corn and soybean meal suggest a 20% increase over 2010 pricing for a 16% protein mixed dairy cow ration in 2011, which may lead to a reduction in cow numbers to maintain profitability of dairy production. Furthermore, an October 2010 study by The Innovation Center for US Dairy to assess the carbon footprint of fluid milk found that the efficiency of feed conversion is the single greatest factor contributing to variation in the carbon footprint because of its effects on methane release during enteric fermentation and from manure. Thus, we are conducting research in contemporary US Holsteins to identify cows most efficient at converting feed to milk in temperate climates using residual feed intake (RFI), a measure used successfully to identify the beef cattle most efficient at converting feed to gain. Residual feed intake is calculated as the difference between predicted and actual feed intake to support maintenance and production (e.g., growth in beef cattle, or milk in dairy cattle). Heritability estimates for RFI in dairy cattle reported in the literature range from 0.01 to 0.38. Selection for a decreased RFI phenotype can reduce feed intake, methane production, nutrient losses in manure, and visceral organ weights substantially in beef cattle. We have estimated RFI during early lactation (i.e., to 90 d in milk) in the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center Holstein herd and observed a mean difference of 3.7 kg/d (P 0.20) in mean BW, ADG, or energy-corrected milk exhibited between the 2 groups. These results indicate promise for using RFI in dairy cattle to improve feed conversion to milk. Previous and current research on the use of RFI in lactating dairy cattle are discussed, as well as opportunities to improve production efficiency of dairy

  12. Influence of high levels of dietary zinc in milk performance and biochemistry of lactating cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.J.; Clifton, C.M.; Fowler, P.R.; Perkins, H.F.

    1965-01-01

    Twenty-four lactating dairy cows were fed either a) 0, b) 500, c) 1000, or d) 2000 ppm of supplemental zinc (as ZnO) in the concentrate portion of the diet for 6 wk. Coastal Bermudagrass and Sudan grass silages were fed ad libitum as the only source of forage and constituted 43% of dry matter intake. Average zinc contents of the total dry matter of the four groups were: a) 44, b) 372, c) 692, and d) 1279 ppm. The level of supplemental zinc did not significantly affect milk production; FCM production; fat, SNF, protein, or magnesium content of milk; voluntary forage dry matter intake; body weight changes; blood hemoglobin; packed cell volume; blood serum lactic dehydrogenase; blood scrum alkaline phosphatase; or apparent animal health. The addition of the supplement zinc materially increased the zinc content of the milk. However, the higher levels had progressively less effect with the milk from cows given 1000 ppm supplemental zinc containing as much zinc as those fed 2000 ppm. The average ppm of zinc in the milk of the four groups were: a) 4.2, b) 6.7, c) 8.0, and d) 8.4. Recoveries of zinc in the milk as percentages of dietary zinc were: a) 12.5, b) 2.2, c) 1.6 and d) 0.8 for those fed the four levels of zinc. The blood plasma zinc concentration increased with increasing levels of supplemental zinc. The values were: a) 2.1, b) 3.2, c) 4.0, and d) 7.5 ppm. Thus, the zinc concentrations increased at a much more rapid rate in plasma than in milk. This suggests that the udder is discriminating against zinc at the higher dietary and blood levels. 14 references, 2 tables.

  13. Fatty Acid Metabolism in the Digestive Tract of Lactating Cows Fed Tallow in Increasing Amounts at Two Feed Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Børsting, Christian Friis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1992-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acid metabolism in the digestive tract was studied in lactating cows fed at two levels of dry matter intake (L, 8.6 kg DM and H, 12.6 kg DM), with 0, 4 and 6% added tallow at low feed level (L0, L4 and L6), and 0, 2, 4 and 6% fat at high feed level (H0, H2, H4 and H6). Mean fatty...

  14. The effectiveness of two energy drinks on selected indices of maximal cardiorespiratory fitness and blood lactate levels in male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama, Nader; Gaeini, Abbas Ali; Kazemi, Fahimeh

    2010-05-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has become widespread among athletes. The effectiveness of Red Bull and Hype energy drinks on selected indices of maximal cardiorespiratory fitness and blood lactate levels in male athletes was examined in this study. TEN MALE STUDENT ATHLETES (AGE: 22.4 ± 2.1 years, height: 180.8 ± 7.7 cm, weight: 74.2 ± 8.5 kg) performed three randomized maximal oxygen consumption tests on a treadmill. Each test was separated by four days and participants were asked to ingest Red Bull, Hype or placebo drinks 40 minutes before the exercise bout. The VO (2max), time to exhaustion, heart rate and lactate were measured to determine if the caffeine-based beverages influence performance. ANOVA test was used for analyzing data. A greater value was observed in VO (2max)and time to exhaustion for the Red Bull and Hype trial compared to the placebo trial (p drinks (p > 0.05). For blood lactate levels no significant changes were observed before and two minute after the test (p > 0.05). Ingestion of Red Bull and Hype prior to exercise testing is effective on some indices of cardiorespiratory fitness but not on the blood lactate levels.

  15. The effectiveness of two energy drinks on selected indices of maximal cardiorespiratory fitness and blood lactate levels in male athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Rahnama

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of energy drinks has become widespread among athletes. The effectiveness of Red Bull and Hype energy drinks on selected indices of maximal cardiorespiratory fitness and blood lactate levels in male athletes was examined in this study. Methods: Ten male student athletes (age: 22.4 ± 2.1 years, height: 180.8 ± 7.7 cm, weight: 74.2 ± 8.5 kg performed three randomized maximal oxygen consumption tests on a treadmill. Each test was separated by four days and participants were asked to ingest Red Bull, Hype or placebo drinks 40 minutes before the exercise bout. The VO 2max , time to exhaustion, heart rate and lactate were measured to determine if the caffeine-based beverages influence performance. ANOVA test was used for analyzing data. Results: A greater value was observed in VO 2max and time to exhaustion for the Red Bull and Hype trial compared to the placebo trial (p 0.05. For blood lactate levels no significant changes were observed before and two minute after the test (p > 0.05. Conclusions: Ingestion of Red Bull and Hype prior to exercise testing is effective on some indices of cardiorespira-tory fitness but not on the blood lactate levels.

  16. Lactate levels as a marker of tissue hypoperfusion in acute heart failure patients seen in the emergency department: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kori Sauser

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute heart failure (AHF may lead to subclinical tissue ischemia due to hypoperfusion from inadequate forward flow or congestion. The aim of the present study is to test whether lactate levels are elevated in emergency department (ED patients with AHF. A prospective pilot study of ED AHF patients was conducted. Venous lactate level was measured at baseline and 6-12 hours after initial draw. Of the 50 patients enrolled, mean age was 65.3 years, 68% were male. Only 7 (14% had an elevated lactate on either draw, with no differences in baseline characteristics between patients with and without elevated lactate. Patients with an elevated lactate had a higher mean heart rate (99 vs 81, P=0.03 and trended toward an increased rate of abnormal initial temperature (57 vs 23%, P=0.06. In this pilot study, only a minority of acute HF patients had an elevated lactate on presentation.

  17. Effects of Mouthpiece Use on Lactate and Cortisol Levels During and After 30 Minutes of Treadmill Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Garner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Protective mouthpieces have been used in a variety of sports to decrease the risk of orofacial injury. There is limited data to suggest that mouthpiece use during exercise may also provide an ergogenic effect. Aim: To investigate the effects of mouthpiece use (the Edge, Bite Tech Corp on physiological parameters. Methods: Twenty-four college-aged recreationally fit subjects ran for 30 minutes on 2 separate trials with a mouthpiece randomly assigned to each trial for all subjects. Lactate and cortisol levels were assessed before, during (lactate only and after testing. Results: This study found that lactate levels were significantly lowered in the mouthpiece condition at 30 minutes of exercise (4.01 mmol/L MP versus 4.92 mmol/L no MP, P-value = 0.024. In 22 of the 24 subjects salivary cortisol samples were assessed with no significant difference between mouthpiece and no mouthpiece condition (0.151 ug/dL MP, 0.214 ug/dL No MP, P = 0.08. Conclusions: The outcomes of this study suggest that use of a mouthpiece may affect lactate post moderate intensity exercise in this population.

  18. Effects of different levels of physically effective fibers in diets for cows in early lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanovic, B.; Grubic, G.; Djordjevic, N.; Glamocie, D.; Bozieckovic, A.; Ivetic, A.

    2012-11-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of a total mixed ration (TMR) particle size on digestibility and production performances of the high-yielding cows in early lactation. The treatments were TMRs with forage-toconcentrate ratio 43:57 in diet dry matter, with four different mean particle lengths and physically effective fiber (PENDF) content based on different cut length of corn silage and alfalfa haylage. Determined values of PEF (physical effectiveness factor) and PENDF (through original and modified Penn State Particle Separator, PSPS) were considerably higher for forages and TMRs using the modified PSPS. The cut length of forage and particle size of TMRs did not affect dry matter intake. However reduced forage cut length significantly increased the apparent total tract digestibility of NDF (from 53.9 to 58.66%), and crude protein (from 71.56 to 77.90%), with the decrease in the non-fiber carbohydrate digestibility (from 91.99 to 86.80%). The increase in the milk yield (35.62 vs. 38.36 kg), and decrease in the milk fat (3.50 vs. 3.10%) and protein content (3.11 vs. 2.99%) were observed with the reduction of particle size in forages. There was no effect on milk fat daily yield, but the increase of the milk protein yield (1.08 vs. 1.15 kg) was determined with the reduced forage cut lengths. The milk fat to protein ratio had tendency to decrease with the reduced forage cut length. Decrease in forage particle size improved feed conversion ratio for milk production, improved digestibility and the milk yield, whereas milk protein content was reduced. (Author) 25 refs.

  19. Spinal Fluid Lactate Dehydrogenase Level Differentiates between Structural and Metabolic Etiologies of Altered Mental Status in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid KHOSROSHAHI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Khosroshahi N, Alizadeh P, Khosravi M, Salamati P, Kamrani K. Spinal Fluid Lactate Dehydrogenase Level Differentiates between Structural and Metabolic Etiologies of Altered Mental Status in Children. Iran J Child Neurol. 2015 Winter;9(1:31-36.AbstractObjectiveAltered mental status is a common cause of intensive care unit admission inchildren. Differentiating structural causes of altered mental status from metabolic etiologies is of utmost importance in diagnostic approach and management of the patients. Among many biomarkers proposed to help stratifying patients with altered mental status, spinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase appears to be the most promising biomarker to predict cellular necrosis.Materials & MethodsIn this cross sectional study we measured spinal fluid level of lactatedehydrogenase in children 2 months to 12 years of age admitted to a single center intensive care unit over one year. Spinal fluid level of lactate dehydrogenase in 40 pediatric cases of febrile seizure was also determined as the control group.ResultsThe study group included 35 boys (58.3% and 25 girls (41.7%. Their meanage was 2.7+/-3 years and their mean spinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase levelwas 613.8+/-190.4 units/liter. The control group included 24 boys (55.8% and19 girls (44.2%. Their mean age was 1.3+/-1.2 years and their mean spinalfluid lactate dehydrogenase level was 18.9+/-7.5 units/liter. The mean spinalfluid lactate dehydrogenase level in children with abnormal head CT scan was246.3+/-351.5 units/liter compared to 164.5+/-705.7 in those with normal CTscan of the head (p=0.001.ConclusionSpinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase level is useful in differentiating structural andmetabolic causes of altered mental status in children. ReferencesFesk SK. Coma and confusional states: emergency diagnosis and management. Neurol Clin 1998; 16: 237- 56.Cucchiara BL, Kanser SE, Wolk DA, et al. Early impairment in consciousness Predicts

  20. Adaptive Activation of a Stress Response Pathway Improves Learning and Memory Through Gs and β-Arrestin-1-Regulated Lactate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun-Hong; Wang, Yi-Jing; Cui, Min; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Zheng, Wen-Shuai; Ma, Ming-Liang; Yang, Fan; He, Dong-Fang; Hu, Qiao-Xia; Zhang, Dao-Lai; Ning, Shang-Lei; Liu, Chun-Hua; Wang, Chuan; Wang, Yue; Li, Xiang-Yao; Yi, Fan; Lin, Amy; Kahsai, Alem W; Cahill, Thomas Joseph; Chen, Zhe-Yu; Yu, Xiao; Sun, Jin-Peng

    2017-04-15

    Stress is a conserved physiological response in mammals. Whereas moderate stress strengthens memory to improve reactions to previously experienced difficult situations, too much stress is harmful. We used specific β-adrenergic agonists, as well as β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and arrestin knockout models, to study the effects of adaptive β2AR activation on cognitive function using Morris water maze and object recognition experiments. We used molecular and cell biological approaches to elucidate the signaling subnetworks. We observed that the duration of the adaptive β2AR activation determines its consequences on learning and memory. Short-term formoterol treatment, for 3 to 5 days, improved cognitive function; however, prolonged β2AR activation, for more than 6 days, produced harmful effects. We identified the activation of several signaling networks downstream of β2AR, as well as an essential role for arrestin and lactate metabolism in promoting cognitive ability. Whereas Gs-protein kinase A-cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein signaling modulated monocarboxylate transporter 1 expression, β-arrestin-1 controlled expression levels of monocarboxylate transporter 4 and lactate dehydrogenase A through the formation of a β-arrestin-1/phospho-mitogen-activated protein kinase/hypoxia-inducible factor-1α ternary complex to upregulate lactate metabolism in astrocyte-derived U251 cells. Conversely, long-term treatment with formoterol led to the desensitization of β2ARs, which was responsible for its decreased beneficial effects. Our results not only revealed that β-arrestin-1 regulated lactate metabolism to contribute to β2AR functions in improved memory formation, but also indicated that the appropriate management of one specific stress pathway, such as through the clinical drug formoterol, may exert beneficial effects on cognitive abilities. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  1. Diamond nanoparticles as a way to improve electron transfer in sol–gel L-lactate biosensing platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briones, M.; Casero, E. [Departamento de Química Analítica y Análisis Instrumental, Facultad de Ciencias, c/Francisco Tomás y Valiente, No7, Campus de Excelencia de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Vázquez, L. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), c/Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz No3, Campus de Excelencia de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Pariente, F.; Lorenzo, E. [Departamento de Química Analítica y Análisis Instrumental, Facultad de Ciencias, c/Francisco Tomás y Valiente, No7, Campus de Excelencia de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Petit-Domínguez, M.D., E-mail: mdolores.petit@uam.es [Departamento de Química Analítica y Análisis Instrumental, Facultad de Ciencias, c/Francisco Tomás y Valiente, No7, Campus de Excelencia de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-02-18

    In the present work, we have included for the first time diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) in a sol–gel matrix derived from (3-mercaptopropyl)-trimethoxysilane (MPTS) in order to improve electron transfer in a lactate oxidase (LOx) based electrochemical biosensing platform. Firstly, an exhaustive AFM study, including topographical, surface potential (KFM) and capacitance gradient (CG) measurements, of each step involved in the biosensing platform development was performed. The platform is based on gold electrodes (Au) modified with the sol–gel matrix (Au/MPTS) in which diamond nanoparticles (Au/MPTS/DNPs) and lactate oxidase (Au/MPTS/DNPs/LOx) have been included. For the sake of comparison, we have also characterized a gold electrode directly modified with DNPs (Au/DNPs). Secondly, the electrochemical behavior of a redox mediator (hydroxymethyl-ferrocene, HMF) was evaluated at the platforms mentioned above. The response of Au/MPTS/DNPs/LOx towards lactate was obtained. A linear concentration range from 0.053 mM to 1.6 mM, a sensitivity of 2.6 μA mM{sup −1} and a detection limit of 16 μM were obtained. These analytical properties are comparable to other biosensors, presenting also as advantages that DNPs are inexpensive, environment-friendly and easy-handled nanomaterials. Finally, the developed biosensor was applied for lactate determination in wine samples. - Highlights: • We have included for the first time diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) in a sol–gel matrix for developing lactate biosensors. • DNPs facilitate electron-transfer within the sol–gel network in electrochemical biosensors. • Lactate biosensors show good sensitivity, detection limit, reproducibility and stability.

  2. Wearable Sensor System Powered by a Biofuel Cell for Detection of Lactate Levels in Sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S O; Ulyanova, Y V; Figueroa-Teran, R; Bhatt, K H; Singhal, S; Atanassov, P

    An NAD(+)-dependent enzymatic sensor with biofuel cell power source system for non-invasive monitoring of lactate in sweat was designed, developed, and tested. The sensor component, based on lactate dehydrogenase, showed linear current response with increasing lactate concentrations with limits of detection from 5 to 100 mM lactate and sensitivity of 0.2 µA.mM(-1) in the presence of target analyte. In addition to the sensor patch a power source was also designed, developed and tested. The power source was a biofuel cell designed to oxidize glucose via glucose oxidase. The biofuel cell showed excellent performance, achieving over 80 mA at 0.4 V (16 mW) in a footprint of 3.5 × 3.5 × 0.7 cm. Furthermore, in order to couple the sensor to the power source, system electronic components were designed and fabricated. These consisted of an energy harvester (EH) and a micropotentiostat (MP). The EH was employed for harvesting power provided by the biofuel cell as well as up-converting the voltage to 3.0 V needed for the operation of the MP. The sensor was attached to MP for chronoamperometric detection of lactate. The Sensor Patch System was demonstrated under laboratory conditions.

  3. Impact of Pre-Treatment Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels on Prognosis and Bevacizumab Efficacy in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Passardi

    Full Text Available To investigate the impact of pre-treatment lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels on the outcome of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with first-line chemotherapy with or without the anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody, bevacizumab, in a phase III prospective multicentre randomized ITACa (Italian Trial in Advanced Colorectal Cancer trial.Three hundred and seventy patients enrolled onto the ITACa first-line trial were considered for this study, 176 receiving chemotherapy (either FOLFIRI or FOLFOX plus bevacizumab and 194 receiving chemotherapy only. Pre-treatment LDH levels were evaluated to identify a potential correlation with progression-free survival (PFS, overall survival (OS and objective response rate.Information on pre-treatment LDH levels was available for 344 patients. High LDH levels were predictive of a lower median PFS (8.1 months vs. 9.2 months, p< 0.0001 and median OS (16.1 months vs. 25.2 months, p< 0.0001 in the overall population. In the chemotherapy plus bevacizumab group, median PFS was 9.1 and 9.8 months in patients with high LDH and low LDH, respectively (p= 0.073, whereas in the chemotherapy-only arm it was 6.9 and 9.1 months, respectively (p < 0.0001. In patients with high LDH, the addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy led to a reduction in the rate of progressive disease (16.4 vs. 30.5%, p= 0.081 and to a prolonged PFS (p= 0.028.A high LDH value was confirmed as a marker of poor prognosis. Bevacizumab reduced the progressive disease rate and improved PFS in the high-LDH subgroup, making serum LDH a potentially effective an easily available and marker to select patients who benefit from bevacizumab.NCT01878422 ClinicalTrials.gov.

  4. Caffeine ingestion after rapid weight loss in judo athletes reduces perceived effort and increases plasma lactate concentration without improving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P; Felippe, Leandro J C; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E

    2014-07-22

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this "loading period", subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg-1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (-3.9% ± 1.6% and -4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  5. Diamond nanoparticles as a way to improve electron transfer in sol-gel L-lactate biosensing platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, M; Casero, E; Vázquez, L; Pariente, F; Lorenzo, E; Petit-Domínguez, M D

    2016-02-18

    In the present work, we have included for the first time diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) in a sol-gel matrix derived from (3-mercaptopropyl)-trimethoxysilane (MPTS) in order to improve electron transfer in a lactate oxidase (LOx) based electrochemical biosensing platform. Firstly, an exhaustive AFM study, including topographical, surface potential (KFM) and capacitance gradient (CG) measurements, of each step involved in the biosensing platform development was performed. The platform is based on gold electrodes (Au) modified with the sol-gel matrix (Au/MPTS) in which diamond nanoparticles (Au/MPTS/DNPs) and lactate oxidase (Au/MPTS/DNPs/LOx) have been included. For the sake of comparison, we have also characterized a gold electrode directly modified with DNPs (Au/DNPs). Secondly, the electrochemical behavior of a redox mediator (hydroxymethyl-ferrocene, HMF) was evaluated at the platforms mentioned above. The response of Au/MPTS/DNPs/LOx towards lactate was obtained. A linear concentration range from 0.053 mM to 1.6 mM, a sensitivity of 2.6 μA mM(-1) and a detection limit of 16 μM were obtained. These analytical properties are comparable to other biosensors, presenting also as advantages that DNPs are inexpensive, environment-friendly and easy-handled nanomaterials. Finally, the developed biosensor was applied for lactate determination in wine samples.

  6. Dinosaur lactation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else, Paul L

    2013-02-01

    Lactation is a process associated with mammals, yet a number of birds feed their newly hatched young on secretions analogous to the milk of mammals. These secretions are produced from various sections (crop organ, oesophageal lining and proventriculus) of the upper digestive tract and possess similar levels of fat and protein, as well as added carotenoids, antibodies and, in the case of pigeons and doves, epidermal growth factor. Parental care in avian species has been proposed to originate from dinosaurs. This study examines the possibility that some dinosaurs used secretory feeding to increase the rate of growth of their young, estimated to be similar to that of present day birds and mammals. Dinosaur 'lactation' could also have facilitated immune responses as well as extending parental protection as a result of feeding newly hatched young in nest environments. While the arguments for dinosaur lactation are somewhat generic, a case study for lactation in herbivorous site-nesting dinosaurs is presented. It is proposes that secretory feeding could have been used to bridge the gap between hatching and establishment of the normal diet in some dinosaurs.

  7. Urinary d-lactate levels reflect renal function in aristolochic acid-induced nephropathy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tzu-Chuan; Chen, Shih-Ming; Li, Yi-Chieh; Lee, Jen-Ai

    2013-09-01

    Urinary d-lactate is highly correlated to diabetic nephropathy - a progressive kidney disease in renal glomeruli. In this study, we used a C3H/3e mouse model to investigate the relationship between urinary d-lactate and aristolochic acid nephropathy where the glomerular structure is not affected. The nephropathy was induced using intravenous injections of aristolochic acid at a dosage of 10 mg/kg per day for 5 days and was characterized biochemically and histologically. The urinary excretions of proteins, N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase and serum creatinine were determined and connected to histological conventional findings. Urinary d-lactate was analyzed using column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The results showed a remarkable increase of urinary markers, including of urinary proteins and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase, and the histological examination confirmed a diagnosis of acute tubule necrosis. The ratio of d-lactate to creatinine in the urine of aristolochic acid-treated mice was approximately 36 times greater than that of the mice in the control group (p nephropathy.

  8. Improving the performance of lactate/oxygen biofuel cells using a microfluidic design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona-Villalpando, Ricardo A.; Reid, Russell C.; Milton, Ross D.; Arriaga, L. G.; Minteer, Shelley D.; Ledesma-García, Janet

    2017-02-01

    Lactate/O2 biofuel cells (BFC) can have high theoretical energy densities due to high solubility and high fuel energy density; however, they are rarely studied in comparison to glucose BFCs. In this paper, lactate oxidase (LOx) was coupled with a ferrocene-based redox polymer (dimethylferrocene-modified linear polyethylenimine, FcMe2-LPEI) as the bioanode and laccase (Lc) connected to pyrene-anthracene modified carbon nanotubes (PyrAn-MWCNT) to facilitate the direct electron transfer (DET) at the biocathode. Both electrodes were evaluated in two BFC configurations using different concentrations of lactate, in the range found in sweat (0-40 mM). A single compartment BFC evaluated at pH 5.6 provided an open circuit potential (OCP) of 0.68 V with a power density of 61.2 μWcm-2. On the other hand, a microfluidic BFC operating under the same conditions resulted in an OCP of 0.67 V, although an increase in the power density, increasing to 305 μW cm-2, was observed. Upon changing the pH to 7.4 in only the anolyte, its performance was further increased to 0.73 V and 404 μW cm-2, respectively. This work reports the first microfluidic lactate/oxygen enzymatic BFC and shows the importance of microfluidic flow in high performing BFCs where lactate is utilized as the fuel and O2 is the final electron acceptor.

  9. Unusually high serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase without perivalvular leakage following double valve replacement: predictor of tetany attack after thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryomoto, Masaaki; Miyamoto, Yuji; Mitsuno, Masataka; Yamamura, Mitsuhiro; Ohata, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Hiroe

    2006-11-01

    A 57-year-old woman who complained of exertional dyspnea was diagnosed as having severe aortic valve stenosis and mitral valve regurgitation. The patient underwent double valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis. Postoperative laboratory data showed unusually high serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, even though no perivalvular leakage was detected by echocardiography. Tetany occurred suddenly owing to hypoparathyroidism, which seemed to be a late complication after thyroidectomy. After calcium administration, the symptoms dramatically diminished, as did the serum LDH levels. Hypoparathyroidism should be doubted if serum LDH levels increase higher than the normal range following valve replacement without obvious perivalvular leakage.

  10. The association of early combined lactate and glucose levels with subsequent renal and liver dysfunction and hospital mortality in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire Jorge, Pedro; Wieringa, Nienke; de Felice, Eva; van der Horst, Iwan C C; Oude Lansink, Annemieke; Nijsten, Maarten W

    2017-08-21

    The development of renal and liver dysfunction may be accompanied by initially subtle derangements in the gluconeogenetic function. Discrepantly low glucose levels combined with high lactate levels might indicate an impaired Cori cycle. Our objective was to examine the relation between early lactate and glucose levels with subsequent renal and liver dysfunction and hospital mortality in critically ill patients. Over a 4-year period (2011 to 2014), all adult patients admitted to our adult 48-bed teaching hospital intensive care unit (ICU) for at least 12 h were retrospectively analyzed. Lactate and glucose were regularly measured with point-of-care analyzers in all ICU patients. Lactate and glucose measurements were collected from 6 h before to 24 h after ICU admission. Patients with fewer than four lactate/glucose measurements were excluded. Patients received insulin according to a computer-guided control algorithm that aimed at a glucose level 2.3 mmol/L) and glucose quintiles (≤7.0; 7.0-7.6; 7.6-8.2; 8.2-9.0; >9.0 mmol/L) were related with outcome in univariate analysis (p < 0.001). Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) IV, lactate, and glucose were associated with renal and liver dysfunction in multivariate analysis (p < 0.001), with a U-shaped relationship for glucose. The combination of the highest lactate quintile with the lowest glucose quintile was associated with the highest rates of renal dysfunction, liver dysfunction, and mortality (p < 0.001) with a significant interaction between lactate and glucose (p ≤ 0.001). Abnormal combined lactate and glucose measurements may provide an early indication of organ dysfunction. In critically ill patients a 'normal' glucose with an elevated lactate should not be considered desirable, as this combination is related with increased mortality.

  11. Pathogen group specific risk factors at herd, heifer and quarter levels for intramammary infections in early lactating dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepers, S; Peeters, K; Opsomer, G; Barkema, H W; Frankena, K; De Vliegher, S

    2011-05-01

    Risk factors for intramammary infections caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci, contagious major pathogens and environmental major pathogens in early lactating heifers were evaluated at the herd, heifer and quarter levels. In total, 764 quarters of 191 dairy heifers in 20 randomly selected farms in Flanders (Belgium) were sampled. Quarter milk samples were collected between 1 and 4 days in milk and between 5 and 8 days in milk for bacteriological culture. Data were analyzed using multivariable, multilevel logistic regression analysis. Higher average herd milk somatic cell count (>200,000 cells/mL), not having an effective fly control strategy, contact with lactating cows prior to calving and moderate to severe udder edema prior to calving increased the odds of intramammary infections caused by contagious major pathogens. Poor heifer hygiene and lack of mineral/vitamin supplementation prior to calving were risk factors for intramammary infection caused by environmental major pathogens. Teat apex colonization with coagulase-negative staphylococci prior to calving seemed to protect quarters against intramammary infections caused by major pathogens. Poor heifer hygiene before calving, a non-clipped udder and not practicing of teat dipping prior to calving increased the odds of intramammary infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci. Although management is important in the prevention and control of intramammary infections in early lactating heifers, most variation in the prevalence of intramammary infections resided at the heifer and quarter levels, indicating that the susceptibility for intramammary infections around calving is mainly determined by heifer and quarter characteristics.

  12. Aerobic glycolysis and high level of lactate in cancer metabolism and microenvironment

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic abnormalities is a hallmark of cancer. About 100 years ago, Nobel laureate Otto Heinrich Warburg first described high rate of glycolysis in cancer cells. Recently more and more novel opinions about cancer metabolism supplement to this hypothesis, consist of glucose uptake, lactic acid generation and secretion, acidification of the microenvironment and cancer immune evasion. Here we briefly review metabolic pathways generating lactate, and discuss the function of higher lactic acid i...

  13. Aerobic glycolysis and high level of lactate in cancer metabolism and microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Jiang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic abnormalities is a hallmark of cancer. About 100 years ago, Nobel laureate Otto Heinrich Warburg first described high rate of glycolysis in cancer cells. Recently more and more novel opinions about cancer metabolism supplement to this hypothesis, consist of glucose uptake, lactic acid generation and secretion, acidification of the microenvironment and cancer immune evasion. Here we briefly review metabolic pathways generating lactate, and discuss the function of higher lactic acid in cancer microenvironments.

  14. Effect of motivational music on lactate levels during recovery from intense exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliakim, Michal; Bodner, Ehud; Eliakim, Alon; Nemet, Dan; Meckel, Yoav

    2012-01-01

    The effects of music played during an exercise task on athletic performance have been previously studied. Yet, these results are not applicable for competitive athletes, who can use music only during warm-up or recovery from exercise. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of motivational music (music that stimulates or inspires physical activity) during recovery from intense exercise, on activity pattern, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate concentration. Twenty young, active men (mean age 26.2 ± 2.1 years) performed a 6-minute run at peak oxygen consumption speed (predetermined from the VO(2) max test). The mean heart rate (HR), RPE, number of steps (determined by step counter), and blood lactate concentrations were determined at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 minutes during the recovery from the exercise, with and without motivational music (2 separate sessions, at random order). There was no difference in the mean HR during the recovery with and without music. Listening to motivational music during the recovery was associated with increased voluntary activity of the participants, determined by increased number of steps (499.4 ± 220.1 vs. 413.2 ± 150.6 steps, with and without music, respectively; p ≤ 0.05). The increased number of steps during the recovery was accompanied by a significantly greater decrease in blood lactate concentration percentage (28.1 ± 12.2 vs. 22.8 ± 10.9%, with and without music, respectively, p ≤ 0.05). This was associated with a greater decrease in RPE (77.7 ± 14.4 vs. 73.1 ± 14.7% with and without music, respectively; p ≤ 0.05). Our results suggest that listening to motivational music during nonstructured recovery from intense exercise leads to increased activity, faster lactate clearance, and reduced RPE and therefore may be used by athletes in their effort to enhance recovery.

  15. Modification of Rhizopus lactate dehydrogenase for improved resistance to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizopus oryzae is frequently used for fermentative production of lactic acid. We determined that one of the key enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), involved in synthesis of lactic acid by R. oryzae was significantly inhibited by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) at physiological concentrations. Thi...

  16. Comparison of the Effect of Energy Drinks with a Simple Carbohydrate Solution on Anaerobic Power, Fatigue Index and Blood Lactate Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Forozesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, the consumption of energy drinks has been increased among athletes due to the extensive advertisings of manufacturers about their effects on athletes' performance. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of Redbull energy drink with simple carbohydrate solution on anaerobic power, fatigue index and blood lactate levels in the male students of physical education. Methods: Ten male students were randomly selected from 20 volunteer students. Their mean age, height and weight was 21.1±1.8 years, 170.7±7.2 cm and 63.3±5 kg, respectively. All 10 subjects were tested at three stages, first step after the consumption of Redbull energy drink(6 ml/kg body weight, the second step after drinking a carbohydrate solution(6 ml/kg body weight that was iso-caloric with Redbull, and third step, after drinking placebo. Anaerobic test, including Wingate 30 second test was performed at all three stages(in the same way 40 minutes after drinks. We used Kolmogorov Smirnov test to evaluate the normality of distribution and dependent t-test to compare the results of the three stages. Results: The results showed that anaerobic power after Redbull consumption was lower than carbohydrate solution or placebo consumption(p=0.005 and p=0.002, respectively. Fatigue index and lactate level after 2 and 6 minutes was not significantly different among three groups(P>0.05. Conclusion: The overall results showed that consumption of Redbull energy drinks not only doesn’t have a positive effect on improvement of anaerobic power and lactate level comparing carbohydrate solution, but also is harmful in these cases.

  17. Competitive level, recovery type and blood lactate removal after a judo combat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Augusta Pedutti Dal'Molin Kiss

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify if competitive level influences blood lactate [LA] removal during both AR and passive recovery (PR after a judo combat. Twenty-five male adult judo players (10 elite – medallists in Brazilian National or International competitions and 15 nonelite – non medallists in those competitions performed, in two different days, a 5-min judo combat, followed by 15-min PR or AR (70% of the AT velocity, ≅ 50% VO2peak, randomly determined. [LA] was measured at rest, 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 min after each combat. VO2peak and anaerobic threshold velocity (ATv were measured in a treadmill test. The comparison between situations was done through a three way ANOVA (group, recovery type and time with repeated measures, followed by Tukey test. There was an effect of the three factors on [LA] and interactions time-competitive level and time-recovery type. [LA] was lower after combat in elite compared to nonelite judo players, during AR compared to PR and as expected decreased over time. The interactions showed that the differences in [LA] between elite and nonelite groups decreased over recovery time. The opposite was observed between AR and PR. The difference between elite and nonelite judo players could not be attributed to the aerobic power or capacity. RESUMO A possible explanation for this difference can be a lower glycolytic activation due to a higher technical level in elite compared to nonelite. O objetivo desse estudo foi verificar a influência do nível competitivo na remoção do lactato sangüíneo [La] durante a recuperação ativa (RA e a recuperação passiva (RP após uma luta de judô. Vinte e cinco judocas adultos do sexo masculino (10 atletas de elite – medalhistas em competições nacionais ou internacionais e 15 atletas não elite – não medalhistas nessas competições foram submetidos, em dias diferentes, a uma luta de judô de 5min, seguida por 15min de RP ou RA (70% da velocidade de LAn, ≅ 50

  18. Feeding protein supplements in alfalfa hay-based lactation diets improves nutrient utilization, lactational performance, and feed efficiency of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, K; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Mjoun, K; Hall, J O

    2014-12-01

    mixture of soybean meal and canola meal with SRU and YMP in alfalfa hay-based dairy diets can be a good approach to improve nutrient utilization efficiencies in lactating dairy cows.

  19. Effects of exercise in polluted air on the aerobic power, serum lactate level and cell blood count of active individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargarfard, Mehdi; Poursafa, Parinaz; Rezanejad, Saber; Mousavinasab, Firouzeh

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of exercise on the aerobic power, serum lactate level, and cell blood count among active individuals in the environments with similar climatic characteristics differing in their level of air pollution. This trial comprised 20 volunteer students of Physical education in The University of Isfahan, Iran. Two places with the same climate (altitude, temperature, and humidity), but low and high level of air pollutants air were selected in Isfahan, Iran. Participants underwent a field Cooper test with a 12-minute run for fitness assessment. Then the aerobic power, serum lactate, and cell blood counts were measured and compared between the two areas. The study participants had a mean (SD) age of 21.70 (2.10) years and body mass index (BMI) of 24.44 (2.32) Kg/m2. We found a significant decrease in mean Vo2 max, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, as well as significant increase in mean lactate level, white blood cell count and mean corpuscular volume in the higher-polluted than in the lower-polluted area. No significant difference was documented for other parameters as platelet counts or maximum heart rate. Exercise in high-polluted air resulted in a significant reduction in the performance at submaximal levels of physical exertion. Therefore, the acute exposure to polluted air may cause a significant reduction in the performance of active individuals. The clinical importance of these findings should be assessed in longitudinal studies.

  20. Effects of Protein Level and Mangosteen Peel Pellets (Mago-pel) in Concentrate Diets on Rumen Fermentation and Milk Production in Lactating Dairy Crossbreds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrapoke, T.; Wanapat, M.; Wanapat, S.

    2012-01-01

    Four, lactating dairy crossbreds (50%×50% Holstein Friesian×Native Zebu cattle) were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement (two protein levels and two levels of mangosteen peel pellets (Mago-pel)) in a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. All cows received concentrate at a proportion of 1 kg concentrate per 2 kg of milk yield, and urea-treated 5% rice straw (UTRS) was given ad libitum. It was found that total dry matter intakes, nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH and NH3-N concentrations were not affected (p>0.05) by treatments. Concentrations of ruminal pH and NH3-N were not affected by dietary treatments although the concentration of BUN varied significantly (p0.05); however, the population of protozoa was decreased (p0.05) among dietary treatments (p>0.05); however, copy numbers of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was increased when protein level increased (p0.05) milk composition except solids-not-fat which was higher in cows fed the diet with 19% CP. Therefore, feeding a concentrate containing 16% CP together with 300 g/hd/d Mago-pel supplementation results in changes in rumen fermentation and microbial population and improvements in milk production in lactating dairy crossbreds fed on UTRS. PMID:25049652

  1. Opinions on College Students' Improving English level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡迎春

    2002-01-01

    This thesis includes three aspects: discuss the necessity of improving English level, analyze the present situation of students' level, propose some methods to improve English level. Its aim is to encourage college students to improve their English level as possible as they can for the purpose of social development.

  2. Coat and hair color: hair cortisol and serotonin levels in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi Nejad, Jalil; Kim, Byong-Wan; Lee, Bae-Hun; Sung, Kyung-Il

    2017-01-01

    The deleterious effects of heat stress on animal health are being increasingly recognized. This study aimed to determine hair cortisol (HC) and serotonin levels in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions with different coat and hair-cut color. Forty-five multiparous lactating Holstein cows (days in milk = 130 ± 47, body weight = 753 ± 85 kg) were divided to two main groups of over 80% black coat color (BC) and over 85% white coat color (WC) visually observed based on registry certificates and subdividing to black hair sample (BH) and white hair samples (WH) in 2 × 2 factorial arrangements. Hair samples were taken from the forehead of the individuals. Higher HC levels were observed in BC than WC cows (P  0.05). Serotonin levels showed no difference between BC and WC (P > 0.05). Interaction between coat color and hair color was not significant (P > 0.05). The cortisol levels in hair are not affected by pigmentation. However, pigmentation within the coat alters cortisol levels. In conclusion, white coat color retains less cortisol than the black coat. Therefore, white coats are preferable for dairy cows under heat stress conditions. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. The addition of a Buttiauxella sp. phytase to lactating sow diets deficient in phosphorus and calcium reduces weight loss and improves nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wealleans, A L; Bold, R M; Dersjant-Li, Y; Awati, A

    2015-11-01

    Improving the efficiency of P use by pigs is especially important for lactating sows, whose metabolic requirements for P and Ca are high. The effect of a sp. phytase on lactating sow performance and nutrient digestibility was investigated using the combined data set for 6 studies. Treatments included a nutritionally adequate positive control diet (PC), a negative control diet (NC; with an average reduction of 0.16% available phosphorous and 0.15% Ca vs. PC), and NC supplemented with a sp. phytase at 250, 500, 1,000 or 2,000 phytase unit (FTU)/kg, respectively. Phosphorus and Ca deficiency in the NC resulted in significantly higher BW loss compared with the PC. All phytase treatments maintained BW loss at the same level as the PC. Increasing doses of phytase significantly ( phytase supplementation. Digestible P and Ca were significantly improved (linear, phytase supplementation. Significantly lower apparent total tract digestibility of energy, Ca, and P was found in the NC treatment vs. the PC treatment, whereas no significant differences were found between phytase treatment and the PC treatment. In conclusion, phytase supplementation at a level of 250 FTU/kg can replace 0.16% available phosphorous and 0.15% Ca; however, increasing the phytase dose can further reduce BW loss in sows fed P- and Ca- deficient diets.

  4. Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao P. Lopes-Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg−1 or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (−3.9% ± 1.6% and −4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05. At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (−3.0% ± 1.3% and −2.7% ± 2.2%. There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05. In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  5. Use of residual feed intake in Holsteins during early lactation shows potential to improve feed efficiency through genetic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, E E; Hutchison, J L; Norman, H D; Olson, K M; Van Tassell, C P; Leith, J M; Baldwin, R L

    2013-08-01

    Improved feed efficiency is a primary goal in dairy production to reduce feed costs and negative impacts of production on the environment. Estimates for efficiency of feed conversion to milk production based on residual feed intake (RFI) in dairy cattle are limited, primarily due to a lack of individual feed intake measurements for lactating cows. Feed intake was measured in Holstein cows during the first 90 d of lactation to estimate the heritability and repeatability of RFI, minimum test duration for evaluating RFI in early lactation, and its association with other production traits. Data were obtained from 453 lactations (214 heifers and 239 multiparous cows) from 292 individual cows from September 2007 to December 2011. Cows were housed in a free-stall barn and monitored for individual daily feed consumption using the GrowSafe 4000 System (GrowSafe Systems, Ltd., Airdrie, AB, Canada). Animals were fed a total mixed ration 3 times daily, milked twice daily, and weighed every 10 to 14 d. Milk yield was measured at each milking. Feed DM percentage was measured daily, and nutrient composition was analyzed from a weekly composite. Milk composition was analyzed weekly, alternating between morning and evening milking periods. Estimates of RFI were determined as the difference between actual energy intake and predicted intake based on a linear model with fixed effects of parity (1, 2, ≥ 3) and regressions on metabolic BW, ADG, and energy-corrected milk yield. Heritability was estimated to be moderate (0.36 ± 0.06), and repeatability was estimated at 0.56 across lactations. A test period through 53 d in milk (DIM) explained 81% of the variation provided by a test through 90 DIM. Multiple regression analysis indicated that high efficiency was associated with less time feeding per day and slower feeding rate, which may contribute to differences in RFI among cows. The heritability and repeatability of RFI suggest an opportunity to improve feed efficiency through genetic

  6. Emperor penguin oxygen consumption, heart rate and plasma lactate levels during graded swimming exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooyman, G L; Ponganis, P J

    1994-10-01

    Oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate and blood chemistry were measured in four emperor penguins, Aptenodytes forsteri (Gray), during graded swimming exercise. The maximum VO2 obtained, 52 ml O2 kg-1 min-1, was 7.8 times the measured resting VO2 of 6.7 ml O2 kg-1 min-1 and 9.1 times the predicted resting VO2. As the swimming effort rose, a linear increase in surface and submerged heart rates (fH) occurred. The highest average maximum surface and submersion heart rates of any bird were 213 and 210 beats min-1, respectively. No increase in plasma lactate concentrations occurred until VO2 was greater than 25 ml O2 kg-1 min-1. At the highest VO2 values measured, plasma lactate concentration reached 9.4 mmol l-1. In comparison with other animals of approximately the same mass, the aerobic capacity of the emperor penguin is less than those of the emu and dog but about the same as those of the seal, sea lion and domestic goat. For aquatic animals, a low aerobic capacity seems to be consistent with the needs of parsimonious oxygen utilization while breath-holding.

  7. Maternal exposure to low levels of corticosterone during lactation protects against experimental inflammatory colitis-induced damage in adult rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Petrella

    Full Text Available Opposing emotional events (negative/trauma or positive/maternal care during the postnatal period may differentially influence vulnerability to the effects of stress later in life. The development and course of intestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease are negatively affected by persistent stress, but to date the role of positive life events on these pathologies has been entirely unknown. In the present study, the effect of early life beneficial experiences in the development of intestinal dysfunctions, where inflammation and stress stimuli play a primary role, was investigated. As a "positive" experimental model we used adult male rat progeny nursed by mothers whose drinking water was supplemented with moderate doses of corticosterone (CORT (0.2 mg/ml during the lactation period. Such animals have been generally shown to cope better with different environmental situations during life. The susceptibility to inflammatory experimental colitis induced by intracolonic infusion of TNBS (2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid was investigated in CORT-nursed rats in comparison with control rats. This mild increase in maternal corticosterone during lactation induced, in CORT-nursed rats, a long lasting protective effect on TNBS-colitis, characterized by improvements in some indices of the disease (increased colonic myeloperoxidase activity, loss of body weight and food intake and by the involvement of endogenous peripheral pathways known to participate in intestinal disorder development (lower plasma corticosterone levels and colonic mast cell degranulation, alterations in the colonic expression of both corticotrophin releasing factor/CRF and its receptor/CRH-1R. All these findings contribute to suggesting that the reduced vulnerability to TNBS-colitis in CORT-nursed rats is due to recovery from the colonic mucosal barrier dysfunction. Such long lasting changes induced by mild hormonal manipulation during lactation, making the adult also

  8. Contraception during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badraoui, M H; Hefnawi, F; Bahgat, R; Fawzi, G; El Gaali, O; Ismail, H; Hegab, M

    1982-01-01

    Seven hundred and seventy-two lactating mothers were studied from delivery for 1 year to select the best contraceptive method (oral drug, injected drug, or IUD) which did not affect lactation. Ten groups of mothers were studied, including 234 control subjects. The injectable progestational contraceptives caused an improvement in the amount of milk and its protein concentration, whereas the IUCDs did not influence the lactation pattern. Sulpiride was an ineffective contraceptive but a potent lactation stimulant. The side effects of each method (effects on milk yield, protein content and prolactin concentrations) were also noted; it was concluded that IUCDs are the ideal contraceptive method during lactation, with the use of a lactation stimulant when indicated.

  9. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed varying levels of total mixed ration and pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibart, Ronaldo E; Fellner, Vivek; Burns, Joseph C; Huntington, Gerald B; Green, James T

    2008-11-01

    Two, 8-week experiments, each using 30 lactating Holstein cows, were conducted to examine performance of animals offered combinations of total mixed ration (TMR) and high-quality pasture. Experiment 1 was initiated in mid October 2004 and Experiment 2 was initiated in late March 2005. Cows were assigned to either a 100% TMR diet (100:00, no access to pasture) or one of the following three formulated partial mixed rations (PMR) targeted at (1) 85% TMR and 15% pasture, (2) 70% TMR and 30% pasture and (3) 55% TMR and 45% pasture. Based on actual TMR and pasture intake, the dietary TMR and pasture proportions of the three PMR in Experiment 1 were 79% TMR and 21% pasture (79:21), 68% TMR and 32% pasture (68:32), and 59% TMR and 41% pasture (59:41), respectively. Corresponding proportions in Experiment 2 were 89% TMR and 11% pasture (89:11), 79% TMR and 21% pasture (79:21) and 65% TMR and 35% pasture (65:35), respectively. Reducing the proportion of TMR in the diets increased pasture consumption of cows on all PMR, but reduced total dry matter intake compared with cows on 100:00. An increase in forage from pasture increased the concentration of conjugated linoleic acids and decreased the concentration of saturated fatty acids in milk. Although milk and milk protein yields from cows grazing spring pastures (Experiment 2) increased with increasing intakes of TMR, a partial mixed ration that was composed of 41% pasture grazed in the fall (Experiment 1) resulted in a similar overall lactation performance with increased feed efficiency compared to an all-TMR ration.

  10. Flaxseed flour (Linum usitatissinum) consumption improves bone quality and decreases the adipocyte area of lactating rats in the post-weaning period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Danielle Cavalcante; Pereira, Aline D'Avila; da Silva, Paula Cristina Alves; dos Santos, Aline de Sousa; de Santana, Fernanda Carvalho; Boueri, Bianca Ferolla da Camara; Pessanha, Carolina Ribeiro; de Abreu, Maíra Duque Coutinho; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; da Silva, Eduardo Moreira; do Nascimento-Saba, Celly Cristina Alves; da Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of flaxseed flour in the intake on adiposity and femur structure of the lactating rats during the post-weaning period. After weaning, the lactating rats were divided into control (C, n = 6) and experimental (F, n = 6) groups treated with a diet containing flaxseed flour. Serum hormone and fatty acids composition, morphology of intra-abdominal adipocytes, computed tomography and biomechanical analyses of femur were determined. Food intake, body mass and hormone analysis have shown similar results. The F group showed the following (p < 0.05): lower arachidonic acid (-60%), total polyunsaturated fatty acids (-30%) and retroperitoneal adipocytes (-36%) area. Higher radiodensity of femoral head region (+29%) and higher maximum force (+18%), breaking strength (+18%) and rigidity (+31%). Fatty acid composition of flaxseed flour decreased the area of adipocytes and improved the bone quality, which may be associated with lower serum levels of arachidonic acid levels, during the post-weaning period.

  11. Basal levels and diurnal variations of some hormones and metabolites in blood of dairy cows treated daily with rbSTin early and late lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgen Blum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The variations of basal value (before morning feeding at 3-4 days interval and daily pattern (on 4and 18day of treat-  ment with 8 blood collections within 24h of hormones and metabolites were studied in four dairy cows; 2 in early and  2 in late lactation, which were alternatively injected daily for a period of 21 days with 26.3 mg rbST or saline.  The rbST  injection significantly increased the basal and daily levels of GH, IGF-I in both stages of lactation. Daily levels of NEFA  were significantly increased by rbST in both stages of lactation and their variations, due to the effect of meals, were coun-  teracted by the rbST; the higher level of NEFA allowed a greater sparing of glucose, the blood level of which resulted  higher (P  blood urea level (P  ticular the high availability of glucose, determined a significantly higher blood level of insulin and T3, and lower level of  glucagon. Despite the similar GH, IGF-I and NEFA increases observed in the cows treated in early and late lactation, other  metabolic and endocrine consequences resulted more evident in late lactation. Furthermore, some of these variations  were affected by the forage meals. It can be concluded, therefore, that the changes occurring in the blood subsequent  to a rbST treatment are not equal to those which occur at the start of lactation; moreover, they are affected by the daily  feeding pattern and perhaps by the stage of  lactation

  12. Crude protein levels in diets containing pelleted concentrate for lactating goats: intake, digestibility, milk production and composition

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    Edileusa de Jesus dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of crude protein (100, 130, 160 and 190 g kg-1 of dry matter of diets composed of 200 g kg-1 of Tifton 85 grass hay and 800 g kg-1 of pelleted concentrate on intake, nutrient digestibility, production and composition of milk in lactating goats. Eight female Saanen goats with 42.7 ± 1.43 kg and 57.7 ± 7.37 days of lactation and milk production of 2 ± 0.22 kg at the beginning of the experiment were housed in individual 1.32 × 3.10 m stalls and distributed into two 4 × 4-balanced Latin squares. Intake of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein, ether extract and total digestible nutrients showed a quadratic effect, with maximum intake of 2.030; 2.000; 305; 769; 55 and 1.574 g day-1 at the levels of 140.7; 140.8; 189.2; 140.9; 144.9 e 142.7 g kg-1 DM, respectively. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrates, ether extract and total digestible nutrient level varied linearly, with increases estimated at 0.54; 0.50, 2.02, 0.49, 0.80 and 0.63 g/100g for each percentage unit of protein added to the diet, respectively. Milk production was affected, with increase of 0.54 g for each 1% crude protein added to the diet. Milk lactose level decreased linearly, unlike the fat level, which increased linearly. Protein level showed a quadratic behavior, with a maximum of 36.7 g per kg of milk at the level of 160.5 g per kg of DM. It is recommended to use crude protein between 135 g and 150 g per kg of dry matter of diets consisting of 800 g of pelleted concentrate (composed of soybean meal replacing the alfalfa hay as protein source per kg of DM for lactating goats producing 2 kg of milk per day.

  13. One-third of pregnant and lactating women may not be meeting their folate requirements from diet alone based on mandated levels of folic acid fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Kelly L; Houghton, Lisa A; Tarasuk, Valerie; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2006-11-01

    Many women are advised to consume a folic acid-containing prenatal supplement for the duration of pregnancy and lactation. Whether this remains necessary after folic acid fortification of the food supply in North America has yet to be determined. Our objective was to assess the dietary folate intake of a sample of pregnant and lactating women at mandated and predicted folic acid-fortification levels and determine the prevalence of inadequate and excessive intakes. Weighed food records (for 3 d) were collected from predominantly university-educated women (32 +/- 4 y of age) at 36 wk of pregnancy (n = 61) and at 4 and 16 wk of lactation (n = 60). Dietary folate intakes during pregnancy and lactation, assuming fortification at mandated levels (140-150 micro g/100 g), were 562 +/- 106 and 498 +/- 99 micro g/d dietary folate equivalents (DFE), respectively. The prevalence of inadequacy for folate, or the proportion of individuals with usual folate intakes less than their nutrient requirement, was 36% for women during pregnancy (estimated average requirement of 520 micro g/d DFE), and 32% during lactation (estimated average requirement of 450 micro g/d DFE). Assuming fortification at twice the mandated level, mean dietary intakes during pregnancy and lactation were 786 +/- 132 and 716 +/- 150 micro g/d DFE, respectively, producing only a 3% prevalence of folate inadequacy. Grains contributed approximately 41% of total folate intake followed by fruits and vegetables (approximately 21%). To conclude, at mandated levels of fortification many pregnant and lactating women are unlikely to meet their folate requirements from dietary sources alone; however, the actual level of inadequacy cannot be determined until the level of folic acid in the food supply is known with greater precision.

  14. Can the Preoperative Serum Lactate Level Predict the Extent of Bowel Ischemia in Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department with Acute Mesenteric Ischemia?

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    Peter C. Ambe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Early recognition of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI can be challenging. Extensive bowel necrosis secondary to AMI is associated with high rates of mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between preoperative serum lactate level and the extent of bowel ischemia in patients with AMI. Methods. Data of patients with abdominal pain and elevated serum lactate undergoing emergency laparotomy for suspected AMI within 24 hours of presentation was retrospectively abstracted. The length of the ischemic bowel segment was compared with the preoperative serum lactate level. Results. 36 female and 39 male patients, with median age 73.1 ± 12.3 years, were included for analysis. The median preoperative lactate was 2.96 ± 2.59 mmol/l in patients with ≤50 cm, 6.86 ± 4.08 mmol/l in patients with 51–100 cm, 4.73 ± 2.76 mmol/l in patients with >100 cm ischemic bowel, and 14.07 ± 4.91 mmol/l in the group with multivisceral ischemia. Conclusion. Although elevated serum lactate might permit an early suspicion and thus influence the clinical decision-making with regard to prioritization of surgery in patients with suspected AMI, a linear relationship between serum lactate and the extent of bowel ischemia could not be established in this study.

  15. Can the Preoperative Serum Lactate Level Predict the Extent of Bowel Ischemia in Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department with Acute Mesenteric Ischemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kai; Papadakis, Marios; Zirngibl, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. Early recognition of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) can be challenging. Extensive bowel necrosis secondary to AMI is associated with high rates of mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between preoperative serum lactate level and the extent of bowel ischemia in patients with AMI. Methods. Data of patients with abdominal pain and elevated serum lactate undergoing emergency laparotomy for suspected AMI within 24 hours of presentation was retrospectively abstracted. The length of the ischemic bowel segment was compared with the preoperative serum lactate level. Results. 36 female and 39 male patients, with median age 73.1 ± 12.3 years, were included for analysis. The median preoperative lactate was 2.96 ± 2.59 mmol/l in patients with ≤50 cm, 6.86 ± 4.08 mmol/l in patients with 51–100 cm, 4.73 ± 2.76 mmol/l in patients with >100 cm ischemic bowel, and 14.07 ± 4.91 mmol/l in the group with multivisceral ischemia. Conclusion. Although elevated serum lactate might permit an early suspicion and thus influence the clinical decision-making with regard to prioritization of surgery in patients with suspected AMI, a linear relationship between serum lactate and the extent of bowel ischemia could not be established in this study. PMID:28261615

  16. Reaction norm of fertility traits adjusted for protein and fat production level across lactations in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez-Buxadera, A; Carabaño, M J; Gonzalez-Recio, O; Cue, R I; Ugarte, E; Alenda, R

    2013-07-01

    A total of 304,001 artificial insemination outcomes in up to 7 lactations from 142,389 Holstein cows, daughters of 5,349 sires and 101,433 dams, calving between January 1995 and December 2007 in 1,347 herds were studied by a reaction norm model. The (co)variance components for days to first service (DFS), days open, nonreturn rate in the first service (NRFS), and number of services per conception were estimated by 6 models: 3 Legendre polynomial degrees for the genetic effects and adjustment or not for the level of fat plus protein (FP) production recorded at day closest to DFS. For all traits and type of FP adjustment, a second degree polynomial showed the best fit. The use of the adjusted FP model did not increase the level of genetic (co)variance components except for DFS. The heritability for each of the traits was low in general (0.03-0.10) and increased from the first to fourth calving; nevertheless, very important variability was found for the estimated breeding value (EBV) of the sires. The genetic correlations (rg) were close to unity between adjacent calvings, but decreased for most distant parities, ranging from rg=0.36 (for DFS) to rg=0.63 (for NRFS), confirming the existence of heterogeneous genetic (co)variance components and EBV across lactations. The results of the eigen decomposition of rg shows that the first eigenvalue explained between 82 to 92% and the second between 8 to 14% of the genetic variance for all traits; therefore, a deformation of the overall mean trajectory for reproductive performance across the trajectory of the different calving could be expected if selection favored these eigenfunctions. The results of EBV for the 50 best sires showed a substantial reranking and variation in the shape of response across lactations. The more important aspect to highlight, however, is the difference between the EBV of the same sires in different calvings, a characteristic known as plasticity, which is particularly important for DFS and NRFS. This

  17. Effect of various partial separations of the litters from their mother on plasma prolactin levels of lactating rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánky, Z; Nagy, G M; Halász, B

    1994-01-01

    Removal of the pups results in an abrupt and marked depression in plasma prolactin (PRL) level of the lactating mother. The present studies were undertaken to investigate what kind of sensory input (smell, sound, visual, touch etc.) from the pups is essential for the mother to avoid the pituitary PRL response to pup-removal. Therefore, various partial separations were made and their effect on plasma PRL levels tested: a. The pups were placed into a small glass having holes on its cover; b. they were put into a long measuring tube not covered; c. the pups were placed into the feeding trough made of a wireframe; d. a dividing wall made of glass or metal was slowly let down when the mother spontaneously went away from her pups; e. the nipples were covered by a cotton plaster. Pituitary PRL responses were almost identical after all these separations and similar to that one obtained after removal of the pups from the cage. In addition, separation of the mother resulted in a rise in plasma corticosterone concentrations. The findings suggest that the pup-removal induced inhibition of PRL secretion is a very complex event for the mother and cannot be prevented by partial separations when the mother can see, smell her pups, or hear them or even can touch them with her nose. We assume that separation of the pups is a stress for the mother and cannot simply be due to the lack of just one kind of sensory input from the pups. This assumption is in line with our recent observations indicating that in lactating rat stress causes a decrease in plasma PRL level.

  18. How well do blood folate concentrations predict dietary folate intakes in a sample of Canadian lactating women exposed to high levels of folate? An observational study

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    Sherwood Kelly L

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1998, mandatory folic acid fortification of white flour and select cereal grain products was implemented in Canada with the intention to increase dietary folate intakes of reproducing women. Folic acid fortification has produced a dramatic increase in blood folate concentrations among reproductive age women, and a reduction in neural tube defect (NTD-affected pregnancies. In response to improved blood folate concentrations, many health care professionals are asking whether a folic acid supplement is necessary for NTD prevention among women with high blood folate values, and how reliably high RBC folate concentrations predict folate intakes shown in randomized controlled trials to be protective against NTDs. The objective of this study was to determine how predictive blood folate concentrations and folate intakes are of each other in a sample of well-educated lactating Canadian women exposed to high levels of synthetic folate. Methods The relationship between blood folate concentrations and dietary folate intakes, determined by weighed food records, were assessed in a sample of predominantly university-educated lactating women (32 ± 4 yr at 4-(n = 53 and 16-wk postpartum (n = 55. Results Median blood folate concentrations of all participants were well above plasma and RBC folate cut-off levels indicative of deficiency (6.7 and 317 nmol/L, respectively and all, except for 2 subjects, were above the cut-off for NTD-risk reduction (>906 nmol/L. Only modest associations existed between total folate intakes and plasma (r = 0.46, P P nd quartile of intake did not differ from that of women consuming >410 μg/d (3rd and 4th quartile. Conclusion Folate intakes, estimated by food composition tables, and blood folate concentrations are not predictive of each other in Canadian lactating women exposed to high levels of folate. Synthetic intakes > 151–410 μg/d in these women produced little additional benefit in terms of maximizing

  19. Milk yield, composition and qua­li­ty of organic milk of ewes crossbreeds of Lacaune, East Friesian and Improved Wallachian during lactation

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    Michaela Pokorná

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of milk yield, composition and quality of organic milk of crossbreeds of Lacaune (L, East Friesian (EF and Improved Wallachian (IW, (n = 10, L 50 EF 43.75 IW 6.25 during lactation was carried out on organic farm in Valašská Bystřice in 2007. All sheep were on the third lactation and during study they were reared on permanent pasture. The stage of lactation (SL had a highly significant effect on milk yield (MY and contents of total solids (TS, fat (F, protein (P, casein (C, lactose (L and urea (U. The SL had also a highly significant effect on pH and titrable acidity (TA, whereas on rennet clotting time (RCT the SL had a significant effect. On the other hand the SL had not a significant effect on somatic cell counts (SCC and rennet curd quality (RCQ. The highest contents of TS, F and C were found at the end of the lactation, whereas their lowest contents were found on the 120th day. Between the second and the last sampling the lactose content decreased. The content of U and RCT were the most variable indicators whithin the frame of our study. On the other hand SCCs were, during the whole lactation, very well-balanced and relatively low. Between pH and SCC was found positive correlation. TA gradually increased and RCT gradually prolonged with advanced lactation.

  20. Nutrition in pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udipi, S A; Ghugre, P; Antony, U

    2000-09-01

    Nutrition at optimal levels is fundamental in the maintenance of positive health. Matemal nutrition is very important for the course and outcome of pregnancy. Lactation represents a stage wherein health and nutritional status of the infant are dependent on the mother. Successful pregnancy and lactation require adjustments in maternal body composition, metabolism and function of various physioogical systems. A diet that meets matemal nutritional needs is required for these adjustments, so that maternal well-being is safeguarded with birth of an healthy infant. Adequate nutrition supports the growth of both matemal and foetal tissues. Chronic undernutrition throughout pregnancy affects birth weights of newborns. Poor nutrition causes intra-uterine growth retardation. Specific nutrients like zinc, iodine and folate are also required for development of the foetus. Foetal iron deficiency exists in maternal iron deficiency anaemia. Maternal nutritional status, breast milk composition and volume are elaborated in the article. Proteins, fats, minerals and vitamins and their requirements are narrated in detail. Additional nutritional requirements during lactation have been tabulated in this article. Thus improving the nutrition and health of girls and younger women and of mothers during pregnancy and lactation will derive benefits in terms of improved health of their children throughout their lives.

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid lactate levels and brain [18F]FDG PET hypometabolism within the default mode network in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liguori, Claudio [University of Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Neurophysiopathology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, Rome (Italy); University of Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Neurology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, Rome (Italy); Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Schillaci, Orazio [University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' , Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, Rome (Italy); IRCSS Neuromed, Pozzilli (Italy); Sancesario, Giuseppe; Stefani, Alessandro [University of Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Neurology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, Rome (Italy); IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, Rome (Italy); Sancesario, Giulia Maria [IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, Rome (Italy); Mercuri, Nicola Biagio [University of Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Neurophysiopathology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, Rome (Italy); University of Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Neurology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, Rome (Italy); IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, Rome (Italy); Pierantozzi, Mariangela [University of Rome ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Neurology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, Rome (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    It has been suggested that neuronal energy metabolism may be involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this view, the finding of increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate levels in AD patients has been considered the result of energetic metabolism dysfunction. Here, we investigated the relationship between neuronal energy metabolism, as measured via CSF lactate levels, and cerebral glucose metabolism, as stated at the 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography ([18F]FDG PET) in AD patients. AD patients underwent lumbar puncture to measure CSF lactate levels and [18F]FDG PET to assess brain glucose metabolism. CSF and PET data were compared to controls. Since patients were studied at rest, we specifically investigated brain areas active in rest-condition owing to the Default Mode Network (DMN). We correlated the CSF lactate concentrations with the [18F]FDG PET data in brain areas owing to the DMN, using sex, age, disease duration, Mini Mental State Examination, and CSF levels of tau proteins and beta-amyloid as covariates. AD patients (n = 32) showed a significant increase of CSF lactate levels compared to Control 1 group (n = 28). They also showed brain glucose hypometabolism in the DMN areas compared to Control 2 group (n = 30). Within the AD group we found the significant correlation between increased CSF lactate levels and glucose hypometabolism in Broadman areas (BA) owing to left medial prefrontal cortex (BA10, mPFC), left orbitofrontal cortex (BA11, OFC), and left parahippocampal gyrus (BA 35, PHG). We found high CSF levels of lactate and glucose hypometabolism within the DMN in AD patients. Moreover, we found a relationship linking the increased CSF lactate and the reduced glucose consumption in the left mPFC, OFC and PHG, owing to the anterior hub of DMN. These findings could suggest that neural glucose hypometabolism may affect the DMN efficiency in AD, also proposing the possible role of damaged brain energetic machine in impairing

  2. Productive and metabolic response to two levels of corn silage supplementation in grazing dairy cows in early lactation during autumn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Morales

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Corn (Zea mays L. silage (CS is a nutritious food that can be used as a supplement in dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of supplementation with two amounts of CS on milk production and composition, live weight and body condition, as well as on some blood indicators for energy and protein metabolism on dairy cows in early lactation and grazing low mass pasture during autumn. The study was carried out in 40 Holstein Friesian cows over 57 d. Prior to experimental treatment, milk production and days of lactation averaged 24.1 ± 2.8 kg d-1 and 62 ± 14 d, respectively. The dietary treatments consisted of two levels of supplementation with CS; 4.5 and 9 kg DM cow-1 d-1 (treatments LCS and HCS, respectively. Additionally, all the cows received a pasture allowance of 21 and 3 kg DM cow-1 d-1 of concentrate. Milk composition was determined using infrared spectrophotometry, while blood indicators were obtained using an autoanalyzer. There were not differences between treatments regarding milk production or composition, total DM or energy intake. Herbage and protein intake was higher for LCS treatment (P < 0.001. Increasing supplementation decreased (P < 0.001 daily weight gain but did not affect body condition. Plasma concentrations of βOH-butyrate were lower (P = 0.038 for the LCS treatment; while urea concentrations were higher (P = 0.003, with no differences for non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentrations. Supplementation with 4.5 kg d-1 of CS was sufficient to meet the production requirements of the cows.

  3. The use of finger-stick blood to assess lactate in critically ill surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabat, Joseph; Gould, Scott; Gillego, Ezra; Hariprashad, Anita; Wiest, Christine; Almonte, Shailyn; Lucido, David J; Gave, Asaf; Leitman, I Michael; Eiref, Simon D

    2016-09-01

    Using finger-stick capillary blood to assess lactate from the microcirculation may have utility in treating critically ill patients. Our goals were to determine how finger-stick capillary lactate correlates with arterial lactate levels in patients from the surgical intensive care unit, and to compare how capillary and arterial lactate trend over time in patients undergoing resuscitation for shock. Capillary whole blood specimens were obtained from finger-sticks using a lancet, and assessed for lactate via a handheld point-of-care device as part of an "investigational use only" study. Comparison was made to arterial blood specimens that were assessed for lactate by standard laboratory reference methods. 40 patients (mean age 68, mean APACHEII 18, vasopressor use 62%) were included. The correlation between capillary and arterial lactate levels was 0.94 (p < 0.001). Capillary lactate measured slightly higher on average than paired arterial values, with a mean difference 0.99 mmol/L. In patients being resuscitated for septic and hemorrhagic shock, capillary and arterial lactate trended closely over time: rising, peaking, and falling in tandem. Clearance of capillary and arterial lactate mirrored clinical improvement, normalizing in all patients except two that expired. Finger-stick capillary lactate both correlates and trends closely with arterial lactate in critically ill surgical patients, undergoing resuscitation for shock.

  4. Glucose homeostasis and metabolic adaptation in the pregnant and lactating sheep are affected by the level of nutrition previously provided during her late fetal life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Sanne Munch; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Blache, D.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether undernutrition (UN) during late fetal life can programme the subsequent adult life adaptation of glucose homeostasis and metabolism during pregnancy and lactation. Twenty-four primiparous experimental ewes were used. Twelve had been exposed to a prenatal NORM level...

  5. Dynamic changes in cytosolic ATP levels in cultured glutamatergic neurons during NMDA-induced synaptic activity supported by glucose or lactate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Sofie Cecilie; Winkler, Ulrike; Andresen, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that synaptic transmission fails in cultured neurons in the presence of lactate as the sole substrate. Thus, to test the hypothesis that the failure of synaptic transmission is a consequence of insufficient energy supply, ATP levels were monitored employing the ATP biosen...

  6. Thyroid hormone levels and hepatic enzyme activity in lactating dams after gestational exposure to low dose PBDE 47

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuriyama, S.N.; Grande, S.W.; Akkoc, Z.; Souza, C.A.M. de; Chahoud, I. [Charite Univ. Medical School Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Dept. Toxicology, Campus Benjamin Franklin; Fidalgo-Neto, A.A. [Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Lab. of Environmental Toxicology

    2004-09-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of widely used flame retardants, are found extensively in the environment (shown by several studies on sentinel animal species), as well as in humans. In rodents, technical commercial PBDE mixtures and individual congeners have shown to interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis, produce a mix-type induction of hepatic microsomal enzymes, disrupt spontaneous behaviour, impair learning and memory and alter the cholinergic transmitter system. In rat and mice, some technical PBDE commercial mixtures such as DE-71 and Bromkal 70 and the congener PBDE 47 have shown to decrease circulating thyroid hormone levels. PBDEs are also able to induce both hepatic phase I and phase II detoxification enzymes, demonstrated by several investigations in laboratory animals. For example, induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), pentoxyresorufin-Odespenthylase (PROD) and uridinediphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT) has been shown in rodents and cell lines after exposure to technical mixtures or individual congeners. However, these studies deal with doses much higher than that found in human tissues, highlighting the importance of assessing the adverse effects of doses close to human exposure levels. PBDE 47 is the most predominant congener found in environmental and human samples (including human milk) and, therefore, hazard identification is extremely important for human risk assessment. We administered a single dose to gravid dams on gestation day 6 of either 140 {mu}g/kg BW or 700 {mu}g/kg BW of the congener, 2,2'4,4'-tetrabromo diphenyl ether (PBDE 47). These doses are pertinent to human exposure levels because a study by She et al. found a mean level of 33.3 {mu}g PBDE 47 /kg fat in human breast adipose tissue with a range from 7.01 to 196 {mu}g PBDE 47 /kg fat. In this study, thyroid hormone levels and hepatic enzyme activity were evaluated in lactating dams after in utero administration of low dose PBDE 47.

  7. Urea-N recycling in lactating dairy cows fed diets with 2 different levels of dietary crude protein and starch with or without monensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recktenwald, E B; Ross, D A; Fessenden, S W; Wall, C J; Van Amburgh, M E

    2014-03-01

    Rumensin (monensin; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) has been shown to reduce ammonia production and microbial populations in vitro; thus, it would be assumed to reduce ruminal ammonia production and subsequent urea production and consequently affect urea recycling. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of 2 levels of dietary crude protein (CP) and 2 levels of starch, with and without Rumensin on urea-N recycling in lactating dairy cattle. Twelve lactating Holstein dairy cows (107 ± 21 d in milk, 647 kg ± 37 kg of body weight) were fed diets characterized as having high (16.7%) or low (15.3%) CP with or without Rumensin, while dietary starch levels (23 vs. 29%) were varied between 2 feeding periods with at least 7d of adaptation between measurements. Cows assigned to high or low protein and to Rumensin or no Rumensin remained on those treatments to avoid carryover effects. The diets consisted of approximately 40% corn silage, 20% alfalfa hay, and 40% concentrate mix specific to the treatment diets, with 0.5 kg of wheat straw added to the high starch diets to enhance effective fiber intake. The diets were formulated using Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (version 6.1), and the low-protein diets were formulated to be deficient for rumen ammonia to create conditions that should enhance the demand for urea recycling. The high-protein diets were formulated to be positive for both rumen ammonia and metabolizable protein. Rumen fluid, urine, feces, and milk samples were collected before and after a 72-h continuous jugular infusion of (15)N(15)N-urea. Total urine and feces were collected during the urea infusions for N balance measurements. Milk yield and dry matter intake were improved in cows fed the higher level of dietary CP and by Rumensin. Ruminal ammonia and milk and plasma urea nitrogen concentrations corresponded to dietary CP concentration. As has been shown in vitro, Rumensin reduced rumen ammonia concentration by

  8. Lactation curves and economic results of Saanen goats fed increasing dietary energy levels obtained by the addition of calcium salts of fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA to increase the dietary energy levels for Saanen goats and their effects on the lactation curve, dry matter intake, body weight, and economic results of the goats. Twenty multiparous goats, weighing an average of 63.5±10.3 kg, were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups, each receiving one of the following dietary energy levels: a control diet consisting of 2.6 Mcal of metabolizable energy per kg of dry matter (Mcal ME/kg DM or a test diet supplemented with CSFA (Lactoplus® to obtain 2.7, 2.8, or 2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM. Goats were housed in individual stalls and were fed and milked twice daily. The animals were evaluated until 180 days in milk by measuring dry matter intake and milk yield. These measurements were used to calculate feed efficiencies and the cost-benefit ratio of diet and lactation curves using Wood's nonlinear model. Increasing dietary energy levels showed no effect on body weight. Supplementation with CSFA did not limit dry matter intake; however, it changed the shape of the lactation curve by promoting a late peak lactation with a longer duration. Milk yields at 180 days in milk had a quadratic increase with a maximum energy level at 2.85 Mcal ME/kg DM. Increasing the dietary energy level for Saanen goats using CSFA changes their lactation curves, with the best milk production achieved with a 2.85 Mcal ME/kg DM diet; however, the greatest economic results were obtained with a 2.7 Mcal ME/kg DM diet.

  9. Early postweaning exercise improves central leptin sensitivity in offspring of rat dams fed high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Liang, Nu-Chu; Ewald, Erin R; Purcell, Ryan H; Boersma, Gretha J; Yan, Jianqun; Moran, Timothy H; Tamashiro, Kellie L K

    2013-11-01

    Maternal high-fat (HF) diet has long-term consequences on the metabolic phenotype of the offspring. Here, we determined the effects of postweaning exercise in offspring of rat dams fed HF diet during gestation and lactation. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on chow or HF diet throughout gestation and lactation. All pups were weaned onto chow diet on postnatal day (PND) 21. At 4 wk of age, male pups were given free access to running wheels (RW) or remained sedentary (SED) for 3 wk, after which all rats remained sedentary, resulting in four groups: CHOW-SED, CHOW-RW, HF-SED, and HF-RW. Male HF offspring gained more body weight by PND7 compared with CHOW pups and maintained this weight difference through the entire experiment. Three weeks of postweaning exercise did not affect body weight gain in either CHOW or HF offspring, but reduced adiposity in HF offspring. Plasma leptin was decreased at the end of the 3-wk running period in HF-RW rats but was not different from HF-SED 9 wk after the exercise period ended. At 14 wk of age, intracerebroventricular injection of leptin suppressed food intake in CHOW-SED, CHOW-RW, and HF-RW, while it did not affect food intake in HF-SED group. At death, HF-RW rats also had higher leptin-induced phospho-STAT3 level in the arcuate nucleus than HF-SED rats. Both maternal HF diet and postweaning exercise had effects on hypothalamic neuropeptide and receptor mRNA expression in adult offspring. Our data suggest that postweaning exercise improves central leptin sensitivity and signaling in this model.

  10. Impact of probiotic-supplemented diet on the expression level of lactate dehydrogenase in the leukocytes of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Magdy A E; Moselhy, Said S

    2014-04-01

    Probiotics are known as living, nonpathogenic microorganisms that colonize the intestine and provide benefit to the host. The present study aims to measure one important energy metabolism-related enzyme activity in blood of rabbits fed on probiotics of recommended concentration. In addition, it also aims for the evaluation of the expression level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. Two groups of rabbits are used: control group receiving normal standardized diet and the other probiotic-supplemented group receiving the same diet containing probiotic, namely, Mega acidophilus (200 million cfu/kg body weight/day) for 4 weeks. The obtained results revealed that the rabbits supplemented with probiotics showed a significant decrease in the levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) when compared with control group. Risk factors detected by measuring TC/HDL-c and LDL-c/HDL-c ratios showed statistically significant decrease in probiotic-supplemented rabbits when compared with control group. In addition, blood glucose and total LDH activity were elevated in probiotic-supplemented rabbits when compared with control group. RT-PCR products of LDH-M gene produced two specific amplicons. One amplicon has the expected size of 243 bp from all samples of rabbits as revealed by GelPro software. The level of LDH-M expression was found to be increased in the probiotic-supplemented group. However, unexpected amplicons are produced at 586 bp in all the samples, which may be a dimeric form of the amplified region. It was concluded that this probiotic blend is beneficiary for the metabolic reactions of lipids in the body. Moreover, LDH expression level can be considered as a biomarker for the effect of probiotic and hence monitoring the metabolic changes as reflected from its administration.

  11. Vitamin B12 levels in human milk during the first nine months of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, C; Rendle, M; Tracy, M; Richardson, V; Ford, H

    1996-01-01

    Vitamin B12 concentration was measured by competitive binding radioassay in 48 samples of human milk from healthy mothers eating unrestricted diets. Specimens were collected 1-35 weeks after full-term delivery and were subjected to proteolytic digestion before radioassay in order to destroy binding proteins. The distribution of the results was skewed, but the distribution of the logged values was not significantly different from normal. The geometric mean vitamin B12 level remained almost unchanged during the first 12 weeks postpartum (261-297 pmol/l) and then declined to a low of 139 pmol/l at 27-35 weeks. A significant (P = 0.033) decline in vitamin B12 concentration between 6-12 weeks and 19-25 weeks postpartum was observed.

  12. Intermittent suckling and extended lactation : Improving adaptation of piglets to postweaning challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkeveld, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834211

    2008-01-01

    Conventional weaning of piglets at the young age of 3 to 4 wk is associated with reduced nutrient intake, reduced growth, altered behavioral patterns, and a greater susceptibility to diarrhoea. It is known that an older age at weaning is associated with an improved adaptation to postweaning

  13. Intermittent suckling and extended lactation : Improving adaptation of piglets to postweaning challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkeveld, M.

    2008-01-01

    Conventional weaning of piglets at the young age of 3 to 4 wk is associated with reduced nutrient intake, reduced growth, altered behavioral patterns, and a greater susceptibility to diarrhoea. It is known that an older age at weaning is associated with an improved adaptation to postweaning challeng

  14. Stretching and deep and superficial massage do not influence blood lactate levels after heavy-intensity cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cè, Emiliano; Limonta, Eloisa; Maggioni, Martina A; Rampichini, Susanna; Veicsteinas, Arsenio; Esposito, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to assess the role of deep and superficial massage and passive stretching recovery on blood lactate concentration ([La(-)]) kinetics after a fatiguing exercise compared to active and passive recovery. Nine participants (age 23 ± 1 years; stature 1.76 ± 0.02 m; body mass 74 ± 4 kg) performed on five occasions an 8-min fatiguing exercise at 90% of maximum oxygen uptake, followed by five different 10-min interventions in random order: passive and active recovery, deep and superficial massage and stretching. Interventions were followed by 1 hour of recovery. Throughout each session, maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of the knee extensor muscles, [La(-)], cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables were determined. Electromyographic signal (EMG) from the quadriceps muscles was also recorded. At the end of the fatiguing exercise, [La(-)], MVC, EMG amplitude, and metabolic and cardiorespiratory parameters were similar among conditions. During intervention administration, [La(-)] was lower and metabolic and cardiorespiratory parameters were higher in active recovery compared to the other modalities (P Stretching and deep and superficial massage did not alter [La(-)] kinetics compared to passive recovery. These findings indicate that the pressure exerted during massage administration and stretching manoeuvres did not play a significant role on post-exercise blood La(-) levels.

  15. Leptin level in plasma of lactating buffaloes fed two diets with different energy and protein concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Parmeggiani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Leptin, a protein mainly secreted from the white adipocytes, has been shown to contribute to the regulation of energy metabolism, feeding behaviour and whole body energy balance. Moreover, leptin gene activity and leptin secretion are correlated with body adiposity and changes in food intake. Furthermore, leptin could also modulate endocrine response to changes in nutritional status and/or tissue sensitivity to hormones (Houseknecht et al., 1998; Romsos, 1998. Several factors are known to influence plasma leptin in rodents and humans: particularly it increases by body fatness, insulin, glucocorticoids, estrogens and decreases by food deprivation (Saladin et al., 1995; Ahima et al., 1996; Shimizu et al., 1997. These ones and several other observations have led to the hypothesis that leptin is a signal arising from adipose tissue, linked to the level of fat reserves and/or the nutritional status. This signal directly influences the central nervous system and peripheral organs, resulting in a better adaptation of body metabolism and physiological functions to the availability of metabolic energy...........

  16. Venous lactate, pH and partial pressure of carbon dioxide levels as prognostic indicators in 110 premature calves with respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, R; Aydogdu, U; Guzelbektes, H; Coskun, A; Sen, I

    2017-06-24

    Hyperlactatemia, hypercapnia, low pH and low oxygen saturation (SatO2) are commonly observed in premature calves. These clinical indicators are associated with increased mortality in preterm human newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic importance of venous pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and lactate level and which parameters are related with mortality in premature calves with RDS. All premature calves (52 male/58 female) were admitted to clinic within 12-24 hours after birth and blood samples were also taken into heparinised plastic syringes from the jugular vein within 30 minutes following admission. Diagnosis of RDS was made by both clinical signs and blood gas results. For the evaluation of independent samples, t test was used to compare the venous blood gas indicators of surviving and non-surviving premature calves. Receiver operating characteristics curves were used to determine a cut-off value in terms of lactate and pCO2 measurements among non-surviving and surviving calves. Venous pH, pCO2, SatO2, base deficit, bicarbonate (HCO3) and lactate levels showed a significant variance between surviving and non-surviving calves. Mean venous pH, pCO2, SatO2, lactate levels in non-surviving premature calves was 7.05, 78.9 mm Hg, 16.1 per cent and 9.50 mmol/l, respectively. Mean pH, pCO2, SatO2 and lactate levels in surviving premature calves were 7.29, 56.3 mm Hg, 25.5 per cent and 5.1 mmol/l, respectively. The cut-off values for lactate and pCO2 were 7.5 mmol/l and 63.5 mm Hg, respectively. In conclusion, the results of the study show that venous blood lactate and pCO2 have prognostic importance in premature calves with RDS. British Veterinary Association.

  17. Timed artificial insemination in blocks: A new alternative to improve fertility in lactating beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, L F M; Castro, N A; Melo, V T O; Neves, P M A; Cestaro, J P; Schneider, A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether changing the interval from CIDR removal to timed artificial insemination (TAI) according to the diameter of the preovulatory follicle (POF) would improve pregnancy per AI in cows. In Study 1, a retrospective analysis of TAI experiments (n=96 cows) was performed to characterize the time of ovulation according to the diameter of the dominant follicle. It was observed that cows with a larger POF had ovulations earlier than cows with smaller POF, according to the equation: y=0.72x(2)-26.74x+264.54 (R(2)=0.63; Pinseminated once at one of the following time points, according to the diameter of the POF on Day 10: B0 (POF≥15mm, TAI 0 h after convetional TAI), B1 (POF 13-14.9 mm, TAI 6h later), B2 (POF 10.1-12.9 mm, TAI 24h later) and B3 (POF≤10mm, TAI 30 h later). The cows of the Block Group had greater pregnancy rates per AI than the Control Group (129/203, 63.5% when compared with 102/209, 48.8%, respectively; P<0.01). In conclusion, results of the present study demonstrate that adjusting the timing of TAI according to the diameter of the POF can be an effective practice for improving fertility of cows in TAI protocols.

  18. Targeting lactate metabolism for cancer therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Joanne R.; Cleveland, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Lactate, once considered a waste product of glycolysis, has emerged as a critical regulator of cancer development, maintenance, and metastasis. Indeed, tumor lactate levels correlate with increased metastasis, tumor recurrence, and poor outcome. Lactate mediates cancer cell intrinsic effects on metabolism and has additional non–tumor cell autonomous effects that drive tumorigenesis. Tumor cells can metabolize lactate as an energy source and shuttle lactate to neighboring cancer cells, adjacen...

  19. Humoral defence improvement and haematopoiesis stimulation in sows and offspring by oral supply of shark-liver oil to mothers during gestation and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitre, Romain; Etienne, Michel; Martinais, Sophie; Salmon, Henri; Allaume, Patrick; Legrand, Philippe; Legrand, Alain B

    2005-11-01

    Shark-liver oil (SLO) contains two bioactive lipids: alkylglycerols and n-3 PUFA. Alkylglycerols have immunostimulating and haematopoietic properties, while n-3 PUFA are essential for optimal neonatal development. We investigated the beneficial effects of dietary supplementation with 32 g SLO/d to twelve pregnant and then lactating sows (from day 80 of pregnancy to weaning) on the growth and immune status of their offspring, compared with a control group. Sows were vaccinated against Aujeszky's disease 21 d before term. Blood samples were collected from sows before treatment, on delivery and 14 d later, and from five piglets per litter on days 2, 21 and 36 after birth; colostrum and milk samples were collected 12 h, 14 and 28 d postpartum. Compared with controls, supplemented sows had higher levels of both erythrocytes and Hb in their blood, and higher concentrations of IgG, alkylglycerols and n-3 PUFA in their mammary secretions. In piglets from supplemented sows, leucocytes and IgG were higher. Supplementation with SLO resulted in an increase in Aujeszky antibodies in both blood and colostrum of sows after vaccination, together with an increase in Aujeszky antibodies in piglet blood. Our findings demonstrate that improvement of both passive and active immune status in piglets is related to the consumption of alkylglycerols associated with n-3 PUFA in the sow diet. The overall improvement in offspring health status by SLO supplementation to the mother could be of interest for optimisation of the lipid diet during and after pregnancy.

  20. Lactogenic study of the ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa linn seed on pituitary prolactin level of lactating albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I G Bako

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The effect of ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa l. seed on pituitary prolactin and milk production was evaluated in albino rats. Twenty four lactating rats were randomly grouped at parturition into control, metoclopramide-treated and Ethyl-acetate-treated group consist of six rats in each group (n=6. The lactating rats were administered control (normal saline, metoclopramide (5mg/kg and ethyl-acetate fraction (100 and 200mg/kg respectively from day 3-17 of lactation. Milk yield for rats were estimated by pup weight and weight gain. The animals were then euthanized on the day 18 and pituitary prolactin was analyzed using prolactin kit. The prolactin level of ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa showed a significant increase (P<0.01 when compared to control group. Pup weight gain was also significantly higher (P<0.05 than the control group. This can be inferred that ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa l. seed has lactogenic activity because it increases pituitary prolactin level and milk production in lactating female albino rats. The LD50 of Ethyl-acetate fraction Hibiscus sabdariffa l. was found to be above 5000mg/kg. Industrial relevance. The outstanding advantage of this galactagogue option is that, it is safer, affordable and tolerable, and it is taken as an alternative in preference to anti-psychotic drugs that have side effect of drowsiness and depression. The plant calyces, leaves and seeds are eaten as foods because it contain substantial amount of essential fatty, Tocopherol (Vitamin E, ascorbic acid (Vitamin C, mineral salts calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and phosphorus. Keywords. Hibiscus sabdariffa; prolactin; lactation; milk; pituitary

  1. Glucose homeostasis and metabolic adaptation in the pregnant and lactating sheep are affected by the level of nutrition previously provided during her late fetal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husted, S M; Nielsen, M O; Blache, D; Ingvartsen, K L

    2008-05-01

    This study investigated whether undernutrition (UN) during late fetal life can programme the subsequent adult life adaptation of glucose homeostasis and metabolism during pregnancy and lactation. Twenty-four primiparous experimental ewes were used. Twelve had been exposed to a prenatal NORM level of nutrition (maternal diet approximately 15 MJME/d) and 12 to a LOW level of nutrition (maternal diet approximately 7 MJME/d) during the last 6 weeks pre-partum. The experimental ewes were subjected to two intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IGTT) in late gestation (one prior to (G-IGTT) and one by the end of a feed restriction period (RG-IGTT)), and a third around peak lactation (L-IGTT). LOW had lower basal insulin concentrations during lactation, and significantly decreased absolute insulin secretion during the L-IGTT in spite of similar glucose tolerance, indicating increased insulin sensitivity in LOW during lactation. There was no effect of prenatal UN on glucose tolerance during G-IGTT, however, during RG-IGTT LOW was more glucose intolerant and apparently more insulin resistant compared to NORM. In conclusion, UN during late fetal life in sheep impairs subsequent pancreatic insulin secretory capacity during adult life, and reduces plasticity of down-regulation of insulin secretion in response to a metabolic challenge. Furthermore, prenatal UN appears to programme mechanisms, which in young adult females can shift the insulin hypersensitivity observed during early lactation into an insulin resistance observed during late gestation and feed restriction. Early postnatal UN caused by lowered milk intake in early postnatal life may have contributed to these phenomena.

  2. Quantitative analyses of schizophrenia-associated metabolites in serum: serum D-lactate levels are negatively correlated with gamma-glutamylcysteine in medicated schizophrenia patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Fukushima

    Full Text Available The serum levels of several metabolites are significantly altered in schizophrenia patients. In this study, we performed a targeted analysis of 34 candidate metabolites in schizophrenia patients (n = 25 and compared them with those in age- and gender-matched healthy subjects (n = 27. Orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis revealed that complete separation between controls and patients was achieved based on these metabolites. We found that the levels of γ-glutamylcysteine (γ-GluCys, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, D-serine, 3-hydroxybutyrate, glutathione (GSH, 5-hydroxytryptamine, threonine, and tyrosine were significantly lower, while D-lactate, tryptophan, kynurenine, and glutamate levels were significantly higher in schizophrenia patients compared to controls. Using receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, and the area under curve of γ-GluCys, a precursor of GSH, and D-lactate, a terminal metabolite of methylglyoxal, were 88.00%, 81.48%, and 0.8874, and 88.00%, 77.78%, and 0.8415, respectively. In addition, serum levels of D-lactate were negatively correlated with γ-GluCys levels in patients, but not in controls. The present results suggest that oxidative stress-induced damage may be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

  3. Modulation of Intracellular Calcium Levels by Calcium Lactate Affects Colon Cancer Cell Motility through Calcium-Dependent Calpain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaramoorthy, Pasupathi; Sim, Jae Jun; Jang, Yeong-Su; Mishra, Siddhartha Kumar; Jeong, Keun-Yeong; Mander, Poonam; Chul, Oh Byung; Shim, Won-Sik; Oh, Seung Hyun; Nam, Ky-Youb; Kim, Hwan Mook

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cell motility is a key phenomenon regulating invasion and metastasis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a major role in cellular adhesion and metastasis of various cancers. The relationship between dietary supplementation of calcium and colon cancer has been extensively investigated. However, the effect of calcium (Ca2+) supplementation on calpain-FAK-motility is not clearly understood. We sought to identify the mechanism of FAK cleavage through Ca2+ bound lactate (CaLa), its downstream signaling and role in the motility of human colon cancer cells. We found that treating HCT116 and HT-29 cells with CaLa immediately increased the intracellular Ca2+ (iCa2+) levels for a prolonged period of time. Ca2+ influx induced cleavage of FAK into an N-terminal FAK (FERM domain) in a dose-dependent manner. Phosphorylated FAK (p-FAK) was also cleaved in to its p-N-terminal FAK. CaLa increased colon cancer cells motility. Calpeptin, a calpain inhibitor, reversed the effects of CaLa on FAK and pFAK cleavage in both cancer cell lines. The cleaved FAK translocates into the nucleus and modulates p53 stability through MDM2-associated ubiquitination. CaLa-induced Ca2+ influx increased the motility of colon cancer cells was mediated by calpain activity through FAK and pFAK protein destabilization. In conclusion, these results suggest that careful consideration may be given in deciding dietary Ca2+ supplementation to patient undergoing treatment for metastatic cancer. PMID:25629974

  4. Modulation of intracellular calcium levels by calcium lactate affects colon cancer cell motility through calcium-dependent calpain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasupathi Sundaramoorthy

    Full Text Available Cancer cell motility is a key phenomenon regulating invasion and metastasis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK plays a major role in cellular adhesion and metastasis of various cancers. The relationship between dietary supplementation of calcium and colon cancer has been extensively investigated. However, the effect of calcium (Ca2+ supplementation on calpain-FAK-motility is not clearly understood. We sought to identify the mechanism of FAK cleavage through Ca2+ bound lactate (CaLa, its downstream signaling and role in the motility of human colon cancer cells. We found that treating HCT116 and HT-29 cells with CaLa immediately increased the intracellular Ca2+ (iCa2+ levels for a prolonged period of time. Ca2+ influx induced cleavage of FAK into an N-terminal FAK (FERM domain in a dose-dependent manner. Phosphorylated FAK (p-FAK was also cleaved in to its p-N-terminal FAK. CaLa increased colon cancer cells motility. Calpeptin, a calpain inhibitor, reversed the effects of CaLa on FAK and pFAK cleavage in both cancer cell lines. The cleaved FAK translocates into the nucleus and modulates p53 stability through MDM2-associated ubiquitination. CaLa-induced Ca2+ influx increased the motility of colon cancer cells was mediated by calpain activity through FAK and pFAK protein destabilization. In conclusion, these results suggest that careful consideration may be given in deciding dietary Ca2+ supplementation to patient undergoing treatment for metastatic cancer.

  5. Correlation between the Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels with Laboratory Variables in the Clinical Severity of Sickle Cell Anemia in Congolese Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tite Minga Mikobi

    Full Text Available Sickle cell anemia is an inflammatory disease and is characterized by chronic hemolysis. We sought to evaluate the association of lactate dehydrogenase levels with specific clinical phenotypes and laboratory variables in patients with sickle cell anemia.The present cross-sectional study was conducted in Sickle Cell Centre of Yolo in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo. Two hundred and eleven patients with Sickle Cell Anemia in steady state were recruited. Seventy-four participants with normal Hb (Hb-AA were selected as a control group.The average rates of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cells tended to be significantly lower in subjects with Hb-SS (p<0.001. The average rates of white blood cells, platelets, reticulocytes and serum LDH were significantly higher in subjects with Hb-SS (p<0.001. The average rates of Hb, HbF, hematocrit and red blood cells of Hb-SS patients with asymptomatic clinical phenotype were significantly higher than those of the two other phenotypes. However, the average rates of white blood cells, platelets, reticulocytes, and LDH of Hb-SS patients with the severe clinical phenotype are higher than those of two other clinical phenotypes. Significant correlations were observed between Hb and white blood cell in severe clinical phenotype (r3 = -0.37 * between Hb and red blood cells in the three phenotypes (r1 = 0.69 * r2 * = 0.69, r3 = 0.83 *, and finally between Hb and reticulocytes in the asymptomatic clinical phenotype and severe clinical phenotype (r1 = -0.50 * r3 = 0.45 *. A significant increase in LDH was observed in patients with leg ulcer, cholelithiasis and aseptic necrosis of the femoral head.The increase in serum LDH is accompanied by changes in hematological parameters. In our midst, serum LDH may be considered as an indicator of the severity of the disease.

  6. Correlation between the Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels with Laboratory Variables in the Clinical Severity of Sickle Cell Anemia in Congolese Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikobi, Tite Minga; Lukusa Tshilobo, Prosper; Aloni, Michel Ntetani; Mvumbi Lelo, Georges; Akilimali, Pierre Zalagile; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean Jacques; Race, Valérie; Matthijs, Gert; Mbuyi Mwamba, Jean Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background Sickle cell anemia is an inflammatory disease and is characterized by chronic hemolysis. We sought to evaluate the association of lactate dehydrogenase levels with specific clinical phenotypes and laboratory variables in patients with sickle cell anemia. Methods The present cross-sectional study was conducted in Sickle Cell Centre of Yolo in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo. Two hundred and eleven patients with Sickle Cell Anemia in steady state were recruited. Seventy-four participants with normal Hb (Hb-AA) were selected as a control group. Results The average rates of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cells tended to be significantly lower in subjects with Hb-SS (p<0.001). The average rates of white blood cells, platelets, reticulocytes and serum LDH were significantly higher in subjects with Hb-SS (p<0.001). The average rates of Hb, HbF, hematocrit and red blood cells of Hb-SS patients with asymptomatic clinical phenotype were significantly higher than those of the two other phenotypes. However, the average rates of white blood cells, platelets, reticulocytes, and LDH of Hb-SS patients with the severe clinical phenotype are higher than those of two other clinical phenotypes. Significant correlations were observed between Hb and white blood cell in severe clinical phenotype (r3 = -0.37 *) between Hb and red blood cells in the three phenotypes (r1 = 0.69 * r2 * = 0.69, r3 = 0.83 *), and finally between Hb and reticulocytes in the asymptomatic clinical phenotype and severe clinical phenotype (r1 = -0.50 * r3 = 0.45 *). A significant increase in LDH was observed in patients with leg ulcer, cholelithiasis and aseptic necrosis of the femoral head. Conclusion The increase in serum LDH is accompanied by changes in hematological parameters. In our midst, serum LDH may be considered as an indicator of the severity of the disease. PMID:25946088

  7. Effect of dietary crude protein level and degradability on ruminal fermentation and nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, A N; Etter, R P; Ropp, J K; Grandeen, K L

    2004-11-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of two ruminally degradable protein (RDP) levels in diets containing similar ruminally undegradable protein (RUP) and metabolizable protein (MP) concentrations on ruminal fermentation, digestibility, and transfer of ruminal ammonia N into milk protein in dairy cows. Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows were allocated to two dietary treatments in a crossover design. The diets (adequate RDP [ARDP] and high RDP [HRDP]), had similar concentrations of RUP and MP, but differed in CP/RDP content. Ruminal ammonia was labeled with 15N and secretion of tracer in milk protein was determined for a period of 120 h. Ammonia concentration in the rumen tended to be greater (P = 0.06) with HRDP than with ARDP. Microbial N flow to the duodenum, ruminal digestibility of dietary nutrients, DMI, milk yield, fat content, and protein content and yield were not statistically different between diets. There was a tendency (P = 0.07) for increased urinary N excretion, and blood plasma and milk urea N concentrations were greater (P = 0.002 and P = 0.01, respectively) with HRDP compared with ARDP. Milk N efficiency was decreased (P = 0.01) by the HRDP diet. The cumulative secretion of ammonia 15N into milk protein, as a proportion of 15N dosed intraruminally, was greater (P = 0.003) with ARDP than with HRDP. The proportions of bacterial protein originating from ammonia N and milk protein originating from bacterial or ammonia N averaged 43, 61, and 26% and were not affected by diet. This experiment indicated that excess RDP in the diet of lactating dairy cows could not be efficiently utilized for microbial protein synthesis and was largely lost through urinary N excretion. At a similar MP supply, increased CP or RDP concentration of the diet would result in decreased efficiency of conversion of dietary N into milk protein and less efficient use of ruminal ammonia N for milk protein syntheses.

  8. Impact of improving dietary amino acid balance for lactating sows on efficiency of dietary amino acid utilization and transcript abundance of genes encoding lysine transporters in mammary tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, L; de Lange, C F M; Ernst, C W; Krogh, U; Trottier, N L

    2016-11-01

    Lactating multiparous Yorkshire sows ( = 64) were used in 2 experiments to test the hypothesis that reducing dietary CP intake and improving AA balance through crystalline AA (CAA) supplementation improves apparent dietary AA utilization efficiency for milk production and increases transcript abundance of genes encoding Lys transporter proteins in mammary tissue. In Exp. 1, 40 sows were assigned to 1 of 4 diets: 1) high CP (HCP; 16.0% CP, as-fed basis; analyzed concentration), 2) medium-high CP (MHCP; 15.7% CP), 3) medium-low CP (MLCP; 14.3% CP), and 4) low CP (LCP; 13.2% CP). The HCP diet was formulated using soybean meal and corn as the only Lys sources. The reduced-CP diets contained CAA to meet estimated requirements for essential AA that became progressively limiting with reduction in CP concentration, that is, Lys, Ile, Met + Cys, Thr, Trp, and Val. Dietary standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys concentration was 80% of the estimated requirement. In Exp. 2, 24 sows were assigned to the HCP or LCP diets. In Exp. 1, blood samples were postprandially collected 15 h on d 3, 7, 14, and 18 of lactation and utilization efficiency of dietary AA for milk production was calculated during early (d 3 to 7) and peak (d 14 to 18) lactation. Efficiency values were estimated from daily SID AA intakes and milk AA yield, with corrections for maternal AA requirement for maintenance and AA contribution from body protein losses. In Exp. 2, mammary tissue was biopsied on d 4 and 14 of lactation to determine the mRNA abundance of genes encoding Lys transporter proteins. In peak lactation, Lys, Thr, Trp, and Val utilization efficiency increased with decreasing dietary CP (linear for Trp and Val, sows fed the MHCP diet vs. sows fed the HCP diet for Lys and Thr, sows fed the LCP and HCP diets. Feeding lactating sows low-CP diets supplemented with CAA increases the efficiency of utilizing dietary Lys, Thr, Trp, and Val for milk protein production but is unrelated to abundance in m

  9. Dietary energy source at two feeding levels during lactation in primiparous sows. I. Effects on glucose, insulin and LH and on follicle development, weaning-to-estrus interval and ovulation rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Dieleman, S.J.; Soede, N.M.; Kemp, B.

    2000-01-01

    Our objective was to study the effects of dietary-induced insulin enhancement during and after lactation on the reproductive performance of primiparous sows. During a 21-d lactation period, 48 sows were allotted to a 2x2 factorial experiment. Treatments were feeding level (high or low; 44 MJ or 33 M

  10. Glucose production, oxidation and disposal correlate with plasma lactate levels in HIV-infected patients on HAART

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, S.B.; Andersen, Ove; Madsbad, Sten

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hyperlactatemia is prevalent in HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and may be associated with depletion of mitochondrial DNA. However, the correlation between fasting lactate and mitochondrial DNA may be weak or absent, implicating that other factors...

  11. Lactate in cystic fibrosis sputum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensel, Tobias; Stotz, Martin; Borneff-Lipp, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotic therapy is thought to improve lung function in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) by decreasing neutrophil-derived inflammation. We investigated the origin and clinical significance of lactate in the chronically inflamed CF lung. Methods Lactate was measured in sputa of 18 exacerbated ...

  12. Molecular characterization of the level of sialic acids N-acetylneuraminic acid, N-glycolylneuraminic acid, and ketodeoxynonulosonic acid in porcine milk during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, M; Wynn, P C; Wang, B

    2016-10-01

    Sialic acids (Sia) are key monosaccharide constituents of sialylated glycoproteins (Sia-GP), human sialylated milk oligosaccharide (Sia-MOS), and gangliosides. Human milk sialylated glycoconjugates (Sia-GC) are bioactive compounds known to act as prebiotics and promote neurodevelopment, immune function, and gut maturation in newborns. Only limited data are available on the Sia content of porcine milk. The objective of this study was to quantitatively determine the total level of Sia N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), and ketodeoxynonulosonic acid (KDN) in porcine milk and to compare these levels in gilt and sow milk during lactation. Milk from 8 gilts and 22 sows was collected at 3 stages of lactation (colostrum, transition, and mature milk). Standard and experimental samples were derivatized using 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylenedioxy-benzene and analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography using a fluorescence detector. The following new findings are reported: (1) Gilt and sow milk contained significant levels of total Sia, with the highest concentration in colostrum (1,238.5 mg/L), followed by transition milk (778.3 mg/L) and mature milk (347.2 mg/L); (2) during lactation, the majority of Sia was conjugated to Sia-GP (41-46%), followed by Sia-MOS (31-42%) and a smaller proportion in gangliosides (12-28%); (3) Neu5Ac was the major form of Sia (93-96%), followed by Neu5Gc (3-6%) and then KDN (1-2%), irrespective of milk fraction or stage of lactation; (4) the concentration of Sia in Sia-GP and Sia-MOS showed a significant decline during lactation, but the level of ganglioside Sia remained relatively constant; (5) mature gilt milk contained a significantly higher concentration of Sia-GP than sow milk. The high concentration of total Sia in porcine milk suggests that Sia-GC are important nutrients that contribute to the optimization of neurodevelopment, immune function, and growth and development in piglets. These findings

  13. Lactation in Islam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefnawi, F I

    1982-01-01

    Preservation and promotion of breastfeeding in Islamic countries could be increased by stressing the religious importance of this practice as prescribed in Islamic religious teachings. The child's right to be breastfed is affirmed by the Quaran, the source of Islamic law and morality. Quranic verse 2:233 recommends a 2 year period of lactation. According to Islam a nursing mother is entitled to receive compensation from the father for nursing the child. The father, though, has the option to engage a paid or unpaid wet-nurse for the child, in which case the mother looses her right to be paid for nursing even is she volunteered to breastfeed. The mother's right to nurse a child without compensation is prior to a father's right to engage a wet-nurse. In another Islamic source the moral importance of breastfeeding is stressed. The mother receives the reward of a good deed for every single drop she gives her child. Islamic precepts on lactation influenced Arabian medicine. Avicenna's view that children should be breastfed for 2 years was approvingly quoted by European physicians in the 17th century. Major Arabian medical texts contain chapters on lactation, on tests for quality of breast milk, and on diets and drugs for improving lactation. Research at Al-Azhar University is directed toward finding a contraceptive that will not inhabit lactation and will not affect the quality of breast milk.

  14. Elevated lactate during psychogenic hyperventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Avest, E.; Patist, F. M.; ter Maaten, J. C.; Nijsten, M. W. N.

    Study objective Elevated arterial lactate levels are closely related to morbidity and mortality in various patient categories. In the present retrospective study, the relation between arterial lactate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2)) and pH was systematically investigated in patients who

  15. Elevated lactate during psychogenic hyperventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Avest, E.; Patist, F. M.; ter Maaten, J. C.; Nijsten, M. W. N.

    2011-01-01

    Study objective Elevated arterial lactate levels are closely related to morbidity and mortality in various patient categories. In the present retrospective study, the relation between arterial lactate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2)) and pH was systematically investigated in patients who

  16. Leptin and ghrelin levels in colostrum, milk and blood plasma of sows and pig neonates during the first week of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woliński, Jarosław; Słupecka, Monika; Romanowicz, Katarzyna

    2014-02-01

    Radioimmunology was used to determine leptin and ghrelin levels in sow colostrum and milk in relation to those in sow and neonatal pig blood plasma and to the body weight of piglets during the first week of lactation. The highest concentration of leptin was found in colostrum on the second day of lactation (69.3 ± 6.3 ng/mL). Leptin concentrations in sow plasma were significantly lower than in colostrum/milk (2.19 ± 0.9 ng/mL, P = 0.7692) and were stable in the first 7 days of lactation. Total and active ghrelin concentrations in colostrum/milk were stable in the measured time points (6734 ± 261 pg/mL, P = 0.3397; 831 ± 242 pg/mL, P = 0.3988, respectively). Total ghrelin concentrations in sow plasma were lower than in colostrum/milk. These results indicate that pigs follow a unique species-specific pattern of leptin and ghrelin synthesis, release and existence, and that the mammary gland is an important source of leptin and ghrelin contained in colostrum/milk.

  17. Sodium selenite supplementation during pregnancy and lactation promotes anxiolysis and improves mnemonic performance in wistar rats' offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureano-Melo, Roberto; Império, Güínever Eustáquio do; da Silva-Almeida, Claudio; Kluck, George Eduardo Gabriel; Cruz Seara, Fernando de Azevedo; da Rocha, Fábio Fagundes; da Silveira, Anderson Luiz Bezerra; Reis, Luís Carlos; Ortiga-Carvalho, Tania Maria; da Silva Côrtes, Wellington

    2015-11-01

    Selenium is a micronutrient which is part of selenoprotein molecules and participates in a vast number of physiological roles and, among them,we have fetal and neonatal development. Therefore, the aimof this studywas to evaluate possible behavioral changes in offspring of female rats supplemented during pregnancy and lactation with sodium selenite. To address that, we treated two groups of female rats by saline or sodium selenite at a dose of 1mg/kg through oral route and performed neurochemical and behavioral tests. In the offspring, the thyroid profile and hippocampal neurochemistrywere evaluated. Behavioral testswere performed in pups both during childhood and adulthood. We found out that selenium (Se) supplementation increased serum levels of triiodothyronine (25%, p b 0.001) and thyroxine (18%, p b 0.05) and promoted a tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH 2) expression decrease (17%, p b 0.01) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression increase (202%, p b 0.01) in the hippocampus. The cholinesterase activity was decreased (28%, p b 0.01) in Se supplemented rats, suggesting a neurochemical modulation in the hippocampal activity. During childhood, the Sesupplemented offspring had a reduction in anxiety-like behavior both in elevated plus maze test and in light–dark box test. In adulthood, Se-treated pups had an increase in the locomotor activity (36%, p b 0.05) and in rearing episodes (77%, p b 0.001) in the open field test, while in the elevated plus maze test they also exhibited an increase in the time spent in the open arms (243%, p b 0.01). For the object recognition test, Se-treated offspring showed increase in the absolute (230.16%, p b 0.05) and relative index discrimination (234%, p b 0.05). These results demonstrate that maternal supplementation by sodium selenite promoted psychobiological changes both during childhood and adulthood. Therefore, the behavioral profile observed possibly can be explained by neurochemical changes induced by thyroid hormones during

  18. Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P.; Felippe, Leandro J. C.; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D.; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg−1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (−3.9% ± 1.6% and −4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate. PMID:25054553

  19. Long-term Administration of Alcohol in Rats: Effects on Glucagon and Insulin Levels in Sera During Pre-Pregnancy, Pregnancy and Lactation Periods

    OpenAIRE

    ZEYBEK, Birsen; TÜRKMEN, Gülhan

    2002-01-01

    The effects of long-term administration of ethyl alcohol on insulin and glucagon hormone levels during pregnancy and lactation periods of rats were investigated. Female wistar albinos, 200±20 g, were used in this study. The control group consisted of 15 rats, and the experimental group consist of 25 ethyl-alcohol-addicted rats. While 0.9% saline (with sucrose) was to the control group, a 5 g kg perday dose of 20% ethyl alcohol was given to the experimental group. Blood samples were taken fiv...

  20. Cerebral lactate production and blood flow in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Gideon, P; Sperling, B

    1992-01-01

    that follows reperfusion. The amount of lactate present in the acute phase reflects the severity of ischemia in the affected region. The lactate level was still above normal in the subacute phase with hyperemia, suggesting lactate production through aerobic glycolysis. Thus, the lactate level in the subacute...... phase probably does not reflect the degree of anaerobic glycolysis in hypoxic neuronal tissue....

  1. Effects of Pregnancy and Lactation on Iron Metabolism in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofen Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In female, inadequate iron supply is a highly prevalent problem that often leads to iron-deficiency anemia. This study aimed to understand the effects of pregnancy and lactation on iron metabolism. Rats with different days of gestation and lactation were used to determine the variations in iron stores and serum iron level and the changes in expression of iron metabolism-related proteins, including ferritin, ferroportin 1 (FPN1, ceruloplasmin (Cp, divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1, transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1, and the major iron-regulatory molecule—hepcidin. We found that iron stores decline dramatically at late-pregnancy period, and the low iron store status persists throughout the lactation period. The significantly increased FPN1 level in small intestine facilitates digestive iron absorption, which maintains the serum iron concentration at a near-normal level to meet the increase of iron requirements. Moreover, a significant decrease of hepcidin expression is observed during late-pregnancy and early-lactation stages, suggesting the important regulatory role that hepcidin plays in iron metabolism during pregnancy and lactation. These results are fundamental to the understanding of iron homeostasis during pregnancy and lactation and may provide experimental bases for future studies to identify key molecules expressed during these special periods that regulate the expression of hepcidin, to eventually improve the iron-deficiency status.

  2. THE EFFECT OF CAFFEINE CONSUMPTION ON THE NON-AEROBIC POWER, THE FATIGUE INDEX AND THE BLOOD LACTATE LEVELS IN THE MALE ATHLETE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjbar Rouhola

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to study the effect of caffeine consumption on the non-aerobic power, the fatigue index and the blood lactate levels in the male athlete students. Therefore, 16 individuals with the average weight (68/1 +_ 9/1kg, height (1/73+_7cm, and age (24+_2 years were selected based on the simple-randomized method from among volunteer participants, and they were divided as match pairs, based on pre-examined fatigue index, into the two groups of caffeine (n=8 and placebo (n=8. Subjects were asked to refrain from having any intensive physical activity 24 hours before the test starts and avoid eating or drinking any caffeine foods or drinks 48 hours before the test. The primary RAST test (pre-test was performed at least 4 hours after having a meal, and then the individuals blood lactate levels was measured after 6 minutes of the test. The secondary RAST test was done after a week exactly like the first session. The subjects continued caffeine consumption as usual and interrupt it 48 hours prior to the next test. In post-test, the subjects took 6mg caffeine or placebo in the form of gelatin capsules per one kilogram of their weight one hour prior to the test. The analysis of the result, with applying the statistical t-test method (p≤0.05 to the dependent and independent groups, showed that consumption of caffeine has a significant positive effect on average power; minimum power and fatigue index, while it does not have any significant effect on maximum power and the amount of blood lactate. It seems that caffeine consumption is effective in the recovery of fast short-term shuttle activities.

  3. The Effects of Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation and Cardiomyopathy Syndrome on Creatine Kinase and Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Naveed Yousaf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI and cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS are putative viral cardiac diseases of Atlantic salmon. This study examined the levels and correlated the serum enzymes creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH to the histopathology of clinical outbreaks of HSMI and chronic CMS in farmed Atlantic salmon. A total of 75 fish from 3 different HSMI outbreaks, 30 chronic CMS fish, and 68 fish from 3 nondiseased fish groups were used as the study population (N=173. Serum CK and LDH levels correlated significantly with the total inflammation and total necrosis scores for HSMI fish (P=0.001. However, no correlation was identified for enzyme levels and histopathology scores for chronic CMS fish. The significantly increased CK and LDH levels and their positive correlations to histopathology differentiate HSMI from CMS clinically suggesting the potential use of enzymes for screening for HSMI is promising.

  4. Targeting lactate metabolism for cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Joanne R; Cleveland, John L

    2013-09-01

    Lactate, once considered a waste product of glycolysis, has emerged as a critical regulator of cancer development, maintenance, and metastasis. Indeed, tumor lactate levels correlate with increased metastasis, tumor recurrence, and poor outcome. Lactate mediates cancer cell intrinsic effects on metabolism and has additional non-tumor cell autonomous effects that drive tumorigenesis. Tumor cells can metabolize lactate as an energy source and shuttle lactate to neighboring cancer cells, adjacent stroma, and vascular endothelial cells, which induces metabolic reprogramming. Lactate also plays roles in promoting tumor inflammation and in functioning as a signaling molecule that stimulates tumor angiogenesis. Here we review the mechanisms of lactate production and transport and highlight emerging evidence indicating that targeting lactate metabolism is a promising approach for cancer therapeutics.

  5. Lactate transport and signaling in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergersen, Linda Hildegard

    2015-01-01

    Lactate acts as a ‘buffer’ between glycolysis and oxidative metabolism. In addition to being exchanged as a fuel by the monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) between cells and tissues with different glycolytic and oxidative rates, lactate may be a ‘volume transmitter’ of brain signals. According to...... of the favorable effects on the brain resulting from physical exercise......., such as in physical exercise, there is net influx of lactate from blood to brain, where the lactate is used for energy production and myelin formation. Lactate binds to the lactate receptor GPR81 aka hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor (HCAR1) on brain cells and cerebral blood vessels, and regulates the levels of c......Lactate acts as a ‘buffer’ between glycolysis and oxidative metabolism. In addition to being exchanged as a fuel by the monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) between cells and tissues with different glycolytic and oxidative rates, lactate may be a ‘volume transmitter’ of brain signals. According...

  6. Lactate production under fully aerobic conditions: the lactate shuttle during rest and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, G A

    1986-12-01

    O2 insufficiency and other factors increase the rate of lactate production. Significant quantities of lactate are produced under postabsorptive as well as postprandial conditions in resting individuals. In humans during postabsorptive rest, 25-50% of the total carbohydrate combusted appears to pass through the lactate pool. During sustained submaximal (in terms of VO2max) exercise, the rates of lactate production (Ri) and oxidation (Rox) are greatly elevated as compared to rest. However, lactate production and oxidation increase relatively less than O2 consumption during moderate-intensity exercise. Because the lactate production index (RiI = Ri/VO2) decreases during submaximal, moderate-intensity exercise compared to rest, it is concluded that skeletal muscle and other sites of lactate production are effectively oxygenated. Alterations in the levels of circulating catecholamines can affect levels and turnover rates of glucose and lactate. In pure red dog gracilis muscle in situ and in the healthy and myocardium in vivo, contraction results in glycolysis and lactate production. This production of lactate occurs despite an apparent abundance of O2. Similarly, glucose catabolism in the human brain results in lactate production. The formation of lactate under fully aerobic conditions of rest and exercise represents an important mechanism by which different tissues share a carbon source (lactate) for oxidation and other processes such as gluconeogenesis. This mechanism has been termed the lactate shuttle.

  7. Microdialysate concentration changes do not provide sufficient information to evaluate metabolic effects of lactate supplementation in brain-injured patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dienel, G. A.; Rothman, D. L.; Nordström, Carl-Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral microdialysis is a widely used clinical tool for monitoring extracellular concentrations of selected metabolites after brain injury and to guide neurocritical care. Extracellular glucose levels and lactate/pyruvate ratios have high diagnostic value because they can detect hypoglycemia an....... In such cases, lactate will not be metabolizable and lactate flooding may be harmful. More rigorous approaches are required to evaluate metabolic and physiological effects of administration of hypertonic sodium lactate to brain-injured patients....... in extracellular glucose level is beneficial or that lactate is metabolized and improves neuroenergetics. The increase in glucose concentration may reflect inhibition of glycolysis, glycogenolysis, and pentose phosphate shunt pathway fluxes by lactate flooding in patients with mitochondrial dysfunction...

  8. Feeding glycerol-enriched yeast culture improves lactation performance, energy status, and hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme expression of dairy cows during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, G; Liu, J; Liu, Y; Chen, X; Liao, S F; Huang, D; Huang, K

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of feeding glycerol-enriched yeast culture (GY) on feed intake, lactation performance, blood metabolites, and expression of some key hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes in dairy cows during the transition period. Forty-four multiparous transition Holstein cows were blocked by parity, previous 305-d mature equivalent milk yield, and expected calving date and randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments: Control (no additive), 2 L/d of GY (75.8 g/L glycerol and 15.3 g/L yeast), 150 g/d of glycerol (G; 0.998 g/g glycerol), and 1 L/d of yeast culture (Y; 31.1 g/L yeast). All additives were top-dressed and hand mixed into the upper one-third of the total mixed ration in the morning from -14 to +28 d relative to calving. Results indicated that the DMI, NE intake, change of BCS, and milk yields were not affected by the treatments ( > 0.05). Supplementation of GY or Y increased milk fat percentages, milk protein percentages, and milk protein yields relative to the Control or G group ( 0.10). In conclusion, dietary GY or Y supplementation increased the milk fat and protein content of the cows in early lactation and GY or G supplementation improved the energy status as indicated by greater plasma glucose and lower plasma BHBA and NEFA concentrations and upregulated the hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes of dairy cows during the transition period. Feeding cows with a GY mixture in the peripartum period combined the effects of yeast on lactation performance and the effects of glycerol on energy status in dairy cows.

  9. Effect of dietary starch level and high rumen-undegradable protein on endocrine-metabolic status, milk yield, and milk composition in dairy cows during early and late lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccioli-Cappelli, F; Loor, J J; Seal, C J; Minuti, A; Trevisi, E

    2014-12-01

    Diet composition defines the amount and type of nutrients absorbed by dairy cows. Endocrine-metabolic interactions can influence these parameters, and so nutrient availability for the mammary gland can significantly vary and affect milk yield and its composition. Six dairy cows in early and then late lactation received, for 28 d in a changeover design, 2 diets designed to provide, within the same stage of lactation, similar amounts of rumen fermentable material but either high starch plus sugar (HS) content or low starch plus sugar content (LS). All diets had similar dietary crude protein and calculated supply of essential amino acids. Dry matter intake within each stage of lactation was similar between groups. Milk yield was similar between groups in early lactation, whereas a higher milk yield was observed in late lactation when feeding HS. At the metabolic level, the main difference observed between the diets in both stages of lactation was lower blood glucose in cows fed LS. The lower glucose availability during consumption of LS caused substantial modifications in the circulating and postprandial pattern of metabolic hormones. Feeding LS versus HS resulted in an increase in the ratio of bovine somatotropin to insulin. This increased mobilization of lipid reserves resulted in higher blood concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate, which contributed to the higher milk fat content in both stages of lactation in the LS group. This greater recourse to body fat stores was confirmed by the greater loss of body weight during early lactation and the slower recovery of body weight in late lactation in cows fed LS. The lower insulin to glucagon ratio observed in cows fed LS in early and late lactation likely caused an increase in hepatic uptake and catabolism of amino acids, as confirmed by the higher blood urea concentrations. Despite the higher catabolism of amino acids in LS in early lactation, similar milk protein output was observed for both

  10. Baseline Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels for Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Predictor of Poor Prognosis and Subsequent Liver Metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Guanqun; Tang Linglong; Mao Yanping; Chen Lei; Li Wenfei; Sun Ying [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Liu Lizhi; Li Li [Imaging Diagnosis and Interventional Center, Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Lin Aihua [Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Ma Jun, E-mail: drjunma@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic value of baseline serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Cases of NPC (n = 465) that involved treatment with IMRT with or without chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The mean ({+-}SD) and median baseline serum LDH levels for this cohort were 172.77 {+-} 2.28 and 164.00 IU/L, respectively. Levels of LDH were significantly elevated in patients with locoregionally advanced disease (p = 0.016). Elevated LDH levels were identified as a prognostic factor for rates of overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), with p values <0.001 in the univariate analysis and p < 0.001, p = 0.004, and p = 0.003, respectively, in the multivariate analysis. Correspondingly, the prognostic impact of patient LDH levels was found to be statistically significant for rates of OS, DFS, and DMFS (p = 0.028, 0.024, and 0.020, respectively). For patients who experienced subsequent liver failure after treatment, markedly higher pretreatment serum LDH levels were detected compared with patients experiencing distant metastasis events at other sites (p = 0.032). Conclusions: Elevated baseline LDH levels are associated with clinically advanced disease and are a poor prognosticator for OS, DFS, and DMFS for NPC patients. These results suggest that elevated serum levels of LDH should be considered when evaluating treatment options.

  11. Action Research: Improving Graduate-Level Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Nari

    2012-01-01

    I am a doctoral student enrolled in an educational research program. While completing an action research course, I conducted research to improve my academic writing and to develop skills for formulating arguments about educational issues. From this research I developed an appreciation for and an understanding of good writing habits and elements of…

  12. A maternal Western diet during gestation and lactation modifies offspring's microbiota activity, blood lipid levels, cognitive responses, and hippocampal neurogenesis in Yucatan pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Laillet, David; Besson, Marie; Guérin, Sylvie; Coquery, Nicolas; Randuineau, Gwénaëlle; Kanzari, Ameni; Quesnel, Hélène; Bonhomme, Nathalie; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Blat, Sophie; Le Huërou-Luron, Isabelle; Clouard, Caroline

    2017-02-06

    A suboptimal early nutritional environment (i.e., excess of energy, sugar, and fat intake) can increase susceptibility to diseases and neurocognitive disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate in nonobese Yucatan minipigs (Sus scrofa) the impact of maternal diet [standard (SD) vs. Western (WD) diet] during gestation and 25 d of lactation on milk composition, blood metabolism, and microbiota activity of sows (n = 17) and their piglets (n = 65), and on spatial cognition (n = 51), hippocampal plasticity (n = 17), and food preferences/motivation (n = 51) in the progeny. Milk dry matter and lipid content, as well as plasma total cholesterol and free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations (P < 0.05) were higher in WD than in SD sows. Microbiota activity decreased in both WD sows and 100-d-old piglets (P < 0.05 or P < 0.10, depending on short-chain FAs [SCFAs]). At weaning [postnatal day (PND) 25], WD piglets had increased blood triglyceride and FFA levels (P < 0.01). Both SD and WD piglets consumed more of a known SD than an unknown high-fat/-sucrose (HFS) diet (P < 0.0001), but were quicker to obtain HFS rewards compared with SD rewards (P < 0.01). WD piglets had higher working memory (P = 0.015) and reference memory (P < 0.001) scores, which may reflect better cognitive abilities in the task context and a higher motivation for the food rewards. WD piglets had a smaller hippocampal granular cell layer (P = 0.03) and decreased neurogenesis (P < 0.005), but increased cell proliferation (P < 0.001). A maternal WD during gestation and lactation, even in the absence of obesity, has significant consequences for piglets' blood lipid levels, microbiota activity, gut-brain axis, and neurocognitive abilities after weaning.-Val-Laillet, D., Besson, M., Guérin, S., Coquery, N., Randuineau, G., Kanzari, A., Quesnel, H., Bonhomme, N., Bolhuis, J. E., Kemp, B., Blat, S., Le Huërou-Luron, I., Clouard, C. A maternal Western diet during gestation and lactation modifies offspring

  13. Type of cottonseed and level of gossypol in diets of lactating dairy cows: plasma gossypol, health, and reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J E P; Villasenor, M; Robinson, P H; DePeters, E J; Holmberg, C A

    2003-03-01

    Objectives were to determine effects of altering gossypol intake by feeding whole linted Upland (WUP) or a 1:2 blend of WUP and cracked Pima (BUPCP) cottonseed on plasma gossypol (PG) concentrations, reproduction, and health of Holstein cows. Cows, 813, on three dairy farms were assigned to one of two diets starting at 13 +/- 11 d in milk for a 170-d experiment. Diets contained 717 and 951 mg of free gossypol/kg of dry matter from WUP and BUPCP, respectively. Concentrations of PG, as well as the proportion of total gossypol (TG) as the minus isomer were higher for cows fed BUPCP vs cows fed WUP. Conception rate at the first postpartum artificial insemination did not differ between treatments. However, cows consuming the higher gossypol diet had reduced subsequent conception rates and a lower pregnancy rate. Incidence of abortions increased in the higher gossypol diet, and cows that aborted or remained open had higher PG concentrations. Increasing PG concentrations resulted in reduced conception rates and extended days open. The probability of conception after the first artificial insemination declined at a decreasing rate as the plasma TG increased. Incidence of health disorders were unaffected by gossypol intake and PG concentrations. Similarly, gossypol intake and PG concentrations had no effect on culling or mortality. Six cows died in each diet, and none had postmortem signs compatible with gossypol toxicity. Consumption of a high gossypol diet for 170 d had no effect on health of lactating dairy cows, but it increased PG concentrations and impaired reproductive performance.

  14. In vivo regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase in Rhizopus oryzae to improve L-lactic acid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thitiprasert, Sitanan; Sooksai, Sarintip; Thongchul, Nuttha

    2011-08-01

    Rhizopus oryzae is becoming more important due to its ability to produce an optically pure L: -lactic acid. However, fermentation by Rhizopus usually suffers from low yield because of production of ethanol as a byproduct. Limiting ethanol production in living immobilized R. oryzae by inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was observed in shake flask fermentation. The effects of ADH inhibitors added into the medium on the regulation of ADH and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as the production of cell biomass, lactic acid, and ethanol were elucidated. 1,2-diazole and 2,2,2-trifluroethanol were found to be the effective inhibitors used in this study. The highest lactic acid yield of 0.47 g/g glucose was obtained when 0.01 mM 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol was present during the production phase of the pregrown R. oryzae. This represents about 38% increase in yield as compared with that from the simple glucose fermentation. Fungal metabolism was suppressed when iodoacetic acid, N-ethylmaleimide, 4,4'-dithiodipyridine, or 4-hydroxymercury benzoic acid were present. Dramatic increase in ADH and LDH activities but slight change in product yields might be explained by the inhibitors controlling enzyme activities at the pyruvate branch point. This showed that in living R. oryzae, the inhibitors regulated the flux through the related pathways.

  15. Clinical use of lactate monitoring in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bakker (Jan); M.W.N. Nijsten (Maarten); T.C. Jansen (Tim)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIncreased blood lactate levels (hyperlactataemia) are common in critically ill patients. Although frequently used to diagnose inadequate tissue oxygenation, other processes not related to tissue oxygenation may increase lactate levels. Especially in critically ill patients, increased gly

  16. Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Lactation in Half-lactating Yak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yu-cai; ZHONG Guang-hui; WANG Yong; PENG Xian-wen; MAO Yong-jiang; ZOU Si-xiang; CHEN Wei-hua; CHEN Jie

    2002-01-01

    Yaks of two lactating types, the half-lactating yak and the total lactating yak, were investigated in their milk compositions, milk coagulation properties, and contents of three kinds of hormones, glucose,and protein in plasma. The half-lactating Maiwa yak and Jiulong yak contained significantly higher contents of protein, fat, and activities of alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase in milk than that of the corresponding total-lactating yak breeds, with reduced milk yield and similar lactose level and relative percentages of main milk protein components. The half-lactatin yak resembled yaks in a late stage of lactation in their biochemical composition of milk; however, significant differences were also observed, which indicated that the former was in a special stage of lactation quite different from dairy cows. Milk of the total-lactating or halflactating yaks could be coagulated normally by adding chymosin, with a similar coagulation time. No significant difference was observed between prolactin and progesterone concentrations in plasma of the half-lactating yaks and total-lactating yaks; however, half-lactating yaks had significantly lower level of oestradiol-17 β in plasma than total-lactating yaks.

  17. Modification of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with nebivolol hydrochloride for improvement of oral bioavailability in treatment of hypertension: polyethylene glycol versus chitosan oligosaccharide lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üstündağ-Okur, Neslihan; Yurdasiper, Aysu; Gündoğdu, Evren; Gökçe, Evren Homan

    2016-02-01

    Nebivolol (NB)-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were prepared and modified with chitosan oligosaccharide lactate (COL) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) stearate for improvement of its oral bioavailability. Compritol, poloxamer and lecithin were used for the preparation of SLNs by homogenisation method. After in vitro characterisation effect of lipase, pepsin, or pancreatin on degradation and release rate were investigated. Cytotoxicity and permeation were studied on Caco-2 cells. As COL concentration increased in SLNs, size and zeta potential increased. PEG concentration was reversely proportional to particle size with no change in zeta potential. Encapsulation efficiencies (EEs) were determined as 84-98%. DSC confirmed solubilisation of NB in lipid matrix. A sustained release with no burst effect was determined. The presence of enzymes affected the release. SLNs did not reveal cytotoxicity and highest permeability was obtained with PEG modification. PEG-modified SLNs could be offered as a promising strategy for oral delivery of NB.

  18. The effect of high and low levels of supplementation on milk production, nitrogen utilization efficiency, and milk protein fractions in late-lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M; O'Donovan, M; Murphy, J P; Fleming, C; Kennedy, E; Lewis, E

    2015-08-01

    To fill the feed deficit in the autumn/late lactation period in a seasonal grazing system, supplementation is required. This study aimed to investigate the use of baled grass silage or concentrate as supplementation to grazing dairy cows in late lactation. Eighty-four grass-based spring-calving dairy cows, averaging 212d in milk, were allocated to 1 of 6 treatments [high grass allowance (HG), low grass allowance (LG), grass with a low concentrate allocation (GCL), grass with a low grass silage allocation (GSL), grass with a high concentrate allocation (GCH), and grass with a high grass silage allocation (GSH)] to measure the effects of using baled grass silage or concentrate as supplements to grazed grass. Effects on intake, milk yield, milk composition and N fractions, and N utilization efficiency were measured. Treatments HG and LG received 17 and 14kg of dry matter (DM) grass/cow per d, respectively. Treatments GCL and GSL were offered 14kg of DM grass/cow per d and 3kg of DM of supplementation/cow per d. Treatments GCH and GSH were offered 11kg of DM grass/cow per d and 6kg of DM of supplementation/cow per d. Milk yield was greatest in the GCH treatment and milk solids yield was greatest in both concentrate-supplemented treatments. The HG and LG treatments excreted a greater quantity of N as a proportion of N intake than the supplemented treatments. The HG treatment also excreted the greatest total quantity of N. This indicates an improvement in N utilization efficiency when supplementation is offered compared with grazing only. Offering 6kg of DM of either grass silage or concentrate as supplementation decreased milk true protein concentration compared with offering a grass-only diet. This suggests that increasing the proportion of supplementation relative to grass may negatively affect milk processability, which is associated with milk true protein concentration.

  19. Neuronal glucose but not lactate utilization is positively correlated with NMDA-induced neurotransmission and fluctuations in cytosolic Ca2+ levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Lasse K; Walls, Anne B; Schousboe, Arne;

    2009-01-01

    Although the brain utilizes glucose for energy production, individual brain cells may to some extent utilize substrates derived from glucose. Thus, it has been suggested that neurons consume extracellular lactate during synaptic activity. However, the precise role of lactate for fueling neuronal...

  20. Role of lactate in critically ill children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chugh Krishan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acidosis is a common finding in critically ill patients. It has been used as a prognostic marker of the outcome in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit patients. Lactic acid is produced as a product of anaerobic glycolysis and is reversibly converted to pyruvate in the presence of favorable metabolic environment. All the body tissues can produce and consume lactate with few having predominant function of production and others of consumption. Liver is a major organ for lactate consumption and it is the liver, which metabolizes the increased lactic acid produced in regional tissue beds. The lactate levels can be done on arterial, venous, or mixed venous blood and can be measured by various methods. Serial lactate concentrations and the difference in arterial and mixed venous lactate levels or between the arterial and regional blood lactate levels like jugular venous lactate levels have been shown to have better correlation with the outcome. High initial blood lactate levels and persistently high lactate levels have been correlated with poor outcome. There are various causes of lactic acid overproduction, which may produce either hyperlactatemia or lactic acidosis. High blood lactate levels are found in critically ill patients with shock of any etiology and sepsis due to various reasons, which include increased catecholamine induced glucose flux apart from the tissue hypoperfusion and hypoxia. Various other illnesses can cause an increase in blood lactate levels like acute lung/liver injury, severe asthma, poisoning, post cardiac surgery etc. Treating the underlying disease leading to lactic acidosis is the best measure to control lactic acidosis. Some therapeutic choices are available to neutralize the effect of lactic acid on cell function, but none has stood the test of time and are tried only in desperate situations.

  1. Effects of crude protein level in concentrate supplements on animal performance and nitrogen utilization of lactating dairy cows fed fresh-cut perennial grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, D N; Stergiadis, S; Gordon, A; Yan, T

    2016-10-01

    Nitrogen pollution of air and ground water from grazing cattle is of increasing concern. Although several studies have investigated mitigation strategies for nitrogen output from dairy cows fed conserved forages and concentrates, similar research on fresh-cut grass in addition to production parameters is limited. The current study, using 3dietary treatments and incorporating 2 genotypes, was designed to evaluate the effects of concentrate crude protein (CP) levels on animal production and nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) in lactating dairy cows. Twelve multiparous cows (6 Holstein and 6 Holstein × Swedish Red) were used in a changeover study with three 25-d periods and 3 diet treatments. Low, medium and high CP concentrate [14.1, 16.1, and 18.1%, respectively, dry matter (DM) basis] diets were fed at 32.8% DM intake combined with good-quality zero-grazed perennial ryegrass (18.2% CP, DM basis). Each period consisted of an adaptation phase (18d) housed as a single group, a 1-d adaptation phase in individual stalls, and a 6-d measurement phase with feed intake and feces, urine, and milk output recorded. We observed no significant interaction between cow genotype and concentrate CP level on any animal performance or NUE parameter. Total DM intake, milk yield and composition, and NUE were not affected by dietary treatment. However, increasing concentrate CP level increased (1) N intake by 42g/d and excretion in urine and manure by 38 and 40g/d, respectively, and (2) the ratio of urine N over manure N. Feeding high CP rather than low CP concentrate increased milk urea N (MUN) content by 3.6mg/dL and total MUN output by 1.08g/d. Crossbred cows had lower grass DM intake, total DM intake, total N intake, and energy-corrected milk yield. However, cow genotype had no significant effect on NUE or MUN parameters. Equations have been developed to predict urine N excretion using MUN output as a sole predictor or in combination with dietary CP level. The present study

  2. Preexercise energy drink consumption does not improve endurance cycling performance but increases lactate, monocyte, and interleukin-6 response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Melody D; Rola, Kelyn S; Christensen, Kenneth V; Ross, Jacob W; Mitchell, Joel B

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of an energy drink (ED) on cycling performance and immune-related variables. Eleven trained male cyclists (33.4 ± 8.9 years; 81 ± 7.6 kg; maximal VO2, 52 ± 3.4 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) consumed 500 ml of (a) ED (2.0 g taurine, 1.2 g glucuronolactone, 160 mg caffeine, 56 g carbohydrate [CHO], and B vitamins), (b) cola matched for caffeine and CHO (CC), or (c) flavored placebo (PL: sparking water and flavoring) 50 minutes before racing in a randomized, crossover design. Performance was measured as time to complete (TTC) a 25-mile simulated road race. Blood was collected at baseline, 30 minutes after drink consumption, during exercise at miles 5 (M5), 15 (M15), and immediately (POEX) and 30 minutes (30minPO) after exercise. TTC was not different (p > 0.05) among trials (ED, 68.6 ± 2.7; CC, 68.9 ± 3.8; PL, 69.6 ± 3.8 minutes). Consumption of CC and ED elicited a mild hypoglycemia elicited a mild hypoglycemia during cycling. POEX interleukin-6 (IL-6) was greatest after ED, whereas CC IL-6 was greater than PL (10.2 ± 1.6, 6.7 ± 0.6, and 4.8 ± 0.7 pg·ml(-1), respectively; p Cycling increased leukocyte number in all conditions with ED leukocyte number greater than that of PL at M15 (9.8 ± 0.6, 8.5 ± 0.3 × 10(6) cells·mL(-1)). Energy drink induced an earlier recruitment of monocytes to the blood stream than CC. Mean fat oxidation was greater in PL compared with CC (0.43 ± 0.06 and 0.28 ± 0.04 g·min(-1); p = 0.033) but did not differ between ED (0.32 ± 0.06) and PL. Lactate was higher in ED compared with CC and PL at M5 and M15 (p = 0.003), but there was no significant influence of either ED or CC on performance. Carbohydrate and caffeine consumption before endurance cycling significantly increased the IL-6 release and leukocytosis, and the additional ingredients in ED seem to have further augmented these responses.

  3. Maternal trans fat intake during pregnancy or lactation impairs memory and alters BDNF and TrkB levels in the hippocampus of adult offspring exposed to chronic mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pase, Camila Simonetti; Roversi, Karine; Roversi, Katiane; Vey, Luciana Taschetto; Dias, Verônica Tironi; Veit, Juliana Cristiana; Maurer, Luana Haselein; Duarte, Thiago; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Duarte, Marta; Bürger, Marilise Escobar

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the influence of maternal dietary fat intake during pregnancy or lactation on memory of adult offspring after chronic mild stress (CMS) exposure. Female Wistar rats were supplemented daily with soybean oil/fish oil (SO/FO) or hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF) by oral gavage (3.0g/kg body weight) during pregnancy or lactation. On post-natal day (PND) 60, half of the animals were exposed to CMS following behavioral assessments. While the adult offspring born under influence of SO/FO and HVF supplementations during pregnancy showed higher levels of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (FA) series DHA and ARA metabolites, respectively, in the hippocampus, adult offspring born from supplemented dams during lactation showed higher levels of their precursors: ALA and LA. However, only HVF supplementation allowed TFA incorporation of adult offspring, and levels were higher in lactation period. Adult offspring born from dams supplemented with trans fat in both pregnancy and lactation showed short and long-term memory impairments before and after CMS. Furthermore, our study also showed higher memory impairment in offspring born from HVF-supplemented dams during lactation in comparison to pregnancy. BDNF expression was increased by stress exposure in offspring from both SO/FO- and HVF-supplemented dams during pregnancy. In addition, offspring from HVF-supplemented dams showed decreased TrkB expression in both supplemented periods, regardless of stress exposure. In conclusion, these findings show for the first time that the type of dietary FA as well as the period of brain development is able to change FA incorporation in brain neural membranes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [The role of lactate besides the lactic acidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucculeri, S; Urso, C; Caimi, G

    2013-01-01

    Lactic acidosis (LA) is the most common form of metabolic acidosis defined by values of lactate greater than 5 mmol / l and by a pH lactate levels on admission could be predictors of mortality even in the absence of organ dysfunction or shock. The outcome is mainly dependent on the cardiovascular effects of acidosis. In subjects with cardiogenic shock, the increased lactate/pyruvate ratio, detectable at onset, is correladed with mortality. An early assessment of blood and tissue lactate levels could play a role in the therapeutic management as well as in outcome. LA could be a unfavorable prognostic factor in cancer. The lactate would act also as "signal molecule" and as a promoting factor in angiogenesis and tumor progression. In the presence of risk factors for LA the role of metformin may be overrated. Despite the doctrinal progress to understand the pathogenesis and pathophysiology, there is not univocal consensus on the therapeutic treatment of LA. The identification and the attempt to remove the cause of acidosis are main aims; treatment with sodium bicarbonate is a matter of debate as the data on the cardiovascular effects and mortality are unclear. The therapy with carbicarb, dichloroacetate or THAM has shown no specific advantages in terms of mortality. In experimental models of LA and shock the use of sodium-hydrogen exchanger-1 (NHE1) selective inhibitors reduces cell damage and inflammatory cytokines synthesis; it also improves cardiac performance and decreases mortality.

  5. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Levels in Non-Lactating Women with Post-Partum Thyroiditis: The Effect of L-Thyroxine Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, Robert; Kowalska, Beata; Okopien, Bogusław

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin D deficiency seems to be implicated in the onset and progression of some autoimmune disorders. No previous study has investigated vitamin D homeostasis in post-partum thyroiditis. We compared 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels between four groups of non-lactating women who gave birth within 12 months before the beginning of the study: hypothyroid women with post-partum thyroiditis (group A; n = 14), euthyroid females with post-partum thyroiditis (group B; n = 14), women with non-autoimmune hypothyroidism (group C; n = 16) and healthy euthyroid females without thyroid autoimmunity (group D; n = 15). In the second part of the study, groups A and C were treated for 6 months with L-thyroxine. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were lower, while PTH higher in patients with post-partum thyroiditis than in patients without thyroid autoimmunity. They were also lower (25-hydroxyvitamin D) or higher (PTH) in group A than in group B, as well as in group C in comparison with group D. L-thyroxine treatment increased 25-hydroxyvitamin D and reduced PTH levels only in hypothyroid women with post-partum thyroiditis. Baseline levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D correlated with thyroid antibody titres, thyroid function and circulating PTH levels, while the effect of L-thyroxine on serum levels of this vitamin correlated with the changes in thyroid antibody titres and PTH levels. The results of our study suggest the association of vitamin D status with post-partum thyroiditis and L-thyroxine treatment of this disorder.

  6. Blood lactate level responses and comparison with submaximal running and roller skiing in cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Ebru; Bilgin, Ulviye; Schurmann, Banu Can; Yarim, Imdat; Dölek, Burcu Ertas

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of 30-minute duration submaximal running and roller skiing exercises, which are among the most important aerobic exercise models in cross-country skiers, on lactic acid levels. The study group comprised 6 female and 4 male athletes (age: 16.87 +/- 1.87 years, body height: 168.35 +/- 5.66 cm, body weight: 56.83 +/- 7.1 kg) who competed in cross-country skiing at national and international level. All athletes participated in the study voluntarily. Measurements were performed three times as basal (1st measurement), immediately after exercise (2nd measurement) and 5 minutes after finishing exercise (3rd measurement).Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS (version 11.5). A significant increase (P skiing exercises, according to percentage values, but the difference in fatigue levels between exercise types was not statistically significant.

  7. The role of blood lactate clearance as a predictor of mortality in children undergoing surgery for tetralogy of Fallot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suruchi Ladha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The identification of biomarkers for predicting morbidity and mortality, particularly in pediatric population undergoing cardiac surgery will contribute toward improving the patient outcome. There is an increasing body of literature establishing the clinical utility of hyperlactatemia and lactate clearance as prognostic indicator in adult cardiac surgical patients. However, the relationship between lactate clearance and mortality risk in the pediatric population remains to be established. Objective: To assess the role of lactate clearance in determining the outcome in children undergoing corrective surgery for tetralogy of Fallot (TOF. Methods and Study Design: A prospective, observational study. Setting: A tertiary care center. Study Population: Two hundred children undergoing elective surgery for TOF. Study Method: Blood lactate levels were obtained as baseline before operation (T0, postoperatively at admission to the cardiac intensive care unit after surgery (T1, and then at every 6 h for the first 24 h of Intensive Care Unit (ICU stay (T6, T12, T18, and T24, respectively. The lactate clearance in the study is defined by the equation ([lactate initial - lactate delayed]/lactate initial ×100%. Lactate clearance was determined at T1-T6, T1-T12, T1-T18, and T1-T24 time interval, respectively. The primary outcome measured was mortality. Secondary outcomes measured were the duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of inotropic requirement, and duration of ICU stay. Results: Eleven out of the two hundred patients enrolled in the study died. Nonsurvivors had higher postoperative lactate concentration (P 10%, relative to patients with a lactate clearance 10% after 6 h have improved outcome compared with those with lower lactate clearance.

  8. Age, sex, and lactating status regulate ghrelin secretion and GOAT mRNA levels from isolated rat stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Massadi, O; Crujeiras, A B; González, R C; Pardo, M; Diéguez, C; Casanueva, F F; Seoane, L M

    2010-09-01

    Ghrelin is a stomach derivate peptide involved in energy homeostasis regulation, and ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is the enzyme responsible for ghrelin acylation. Puberty is a period characterized by profound changes in the metabolic requirements and notable variations of sexual hormone levels. On the other hand, the weaning process is a fundamental modification of the diet, which implicates several adaptations of the gastrointestinal tract physiology. Until now the direct secretion of ghrelin by the stomach in these conditions, without interferences from other organs, has never been studied. The main objective of this article was to investigate how the stomach modulates ghrelin production and secretion as well as GOAT expression on these periods of life. Gastric ghrelin secretion is regulated through postnatal life in an independent way of gastric expression and circulating levels of this hormone. The present work shows a strong regulation of gastric ghrelin secretion by estrogens. The weaning strongly regulates gastric ghrelin secretion. Animals subjected to delayed weaning present a lower body weight than the corresponding controls. For the first time, it is shown that a noticeable decrease in circulating levels of testosterone and estrogens is associated with delay of weaning. GOAT mRNA levels in the stomach are strongly regulated by age, breastfeeding, and testosterone. In conclusion, the stomach itself regulates ghrelin and GOAT production to adapt the organism to the metabolic requirements demanded through each stage of life.

  9. Effects of exercise in polluted air on the aerobic power, serum lactate level and cell blood count of active individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Kargarfard

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Exercise in high-polluted air resulted in a significant reduction in the performance at submaximal levels of physical exertion. Therefore, the acute exposure to polluted air may cause a significant reduction in the performance of active individuals. The clinical importance of these findings should be assessed in longitudinal studies.

  10. Postpartum levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α in plasma and milk phospholipid fractions as biomarker of oxidative stress in first-lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernunft, A; Viergutz, T; Plinski, C; Weitzel, J M

    2014-08-01

    F2-isoprostanes such as 8-iso-prostaglandin F2 (8-iso-PGF2α) are formed by free radical-catalyzed mechanisms from membrane phospholipids and from low density lipoproteins through peroxidation of arachidonic acid. Esterified 8-iso-PGF2α is cleaved by phospholipases, circulates in blood and is excreted as putatively harmful oxidatively modified lipid via the kidney into urine. In this study we demonstrate that 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations in plasma samples from heifers are higher (piso-PGF2α concentrations vary with ovarian activity and differ in response to luteolytic initiation as well as activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis between heifers and first-lactating cows. Sustainable concentrations of 8-iso-PGF2α (50-150 pg/ml) are detectable in the phospholipid fraction of milk, suggesting milk as an additional excretion route for 8-isoprostanes. Plasma levels largely paralleled levels in milk (piso-PGF2α concentrations in cyclic cows decreased (piso-PGF2α rather increased (piso-PGF2α were not correlated with milk yield (p>0.05). Our data indicate 8-iso-PGF2α may be a novel biomarker of oxidative stress in dairy cow, which is detectable in blood as well as in milk.

  11. Pretreatment Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase Level as an Independent Prognostic Factor of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in the Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuhong; Guo, Qiaojuan; Lu, Tianzhu; Lin, Shaojun; Zong, Jingfeng; Zhan, Shenghua; Xu, Luying; Pan, Jianji

    2017-01-25

    BACKGROUND The aims of this study were to analyze the prognostic value of baseline lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) among nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and to evaluate the potential application of LDH in monitoring treatment efficacy dynamically. MATERIAL AND METHODS From June 2005 to December 2010, 1188 patients with non-metastatic NPC who underwent IMRT with or without chemotherapy were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the predictive value of baseline LDH. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to analyze the difference between baseline and post-radiotherapy LDH, and to compare post-radiotherapy LDH with the LDH in cases of distant failure. RESULTS Patients with elevated LDH had significant inferior survival rates, in terms of overall survival (70.0% vs. 83.2%, p=0.010), disease-specific survival (71.1% vs. 85.7%, p=0.002), and distant metastasis-free survival (71.1% vs. 83.4%, p=0.009), but not correlated with locoregional relapse-free survival (p=0.275) or progression-free survival (p=0.104). Subgroup analysis demonstrated that this predictive effect was more significant with advanced stage. Sixty-five post-radiotherapy LDH levels were available from the 90 patients with high LDH at initial diagnosis, and these levels fell in 65 patients, with 62 cases (95.4%) falling within the normal range. Of the 208 patients who experienced distant metastasis, 87 had an available LDH level at that time. Among them, 69 cases (79.3%) had an increased level compared with the post-radiotherapy LDH level. CONCLUSIONS Pretreatment LDH is a simple, cost-effective biomarker that could predict survival rates and might be used in individualized treatment. It is also a potential biomarker that might reflect tumor burden and be used to monitor therapy efficacy.

  12. Lactate and force production in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael; Albertsen, Janni; Rentsch, Maria

    2005-01-01

    +-depressed rat soleus muscle. The pH regulation associated with lactate incubation accelerated the Na+-K+ pump. To study whether the protective effect of lactate/lactic acid is a general mechanism, we stimulated muscles to fatigue with and without pre-incubation. None of the incubation solutions improved force...

  13. Extreme lipoprotein(a) levels and improved cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Pia R; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2013-01-01

    The study tested whether extreme lipoprotein(a) levels and/or corresponding LPA risk genotypes improve myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk prediction beyond conventional risk factors.......The study tested whether extreme lipoprotein(a) levels and/or corresponding LPA risk genotypes improve myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk prediction beyond conventional risk factors....

  14. Lactate dehydrogenase test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003471.htm Lactate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a protein that helps produce energy ...

  15. Lactate clearance in cardiorespiratory emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Greco

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Early goal directed therapy has been found to improve prognosis in septic patients, if the therapeutic goal is achieved within the first six hours. The aim of our study is to demonstrate that in patients with acute cardiorespiratory failure, rapid (within 2 hours lactate clearance can help define patients’ prognosis. 67 consecutive patients, admitted to our 16-bed Emergency Medicine ward for acute cardiorespiratory failure (age 75,9 ± 9,8 (APACHE II score 19,0 ± 4,1, were included in the study. Blood lactate concentration was read at admission and after 2, 6 and 24 hours. We evaluated mortality at seven days and the use of orotracheal intubation (patients with negative outcome vs. discharge or transfer to a non-emergency ward with subsequent discharge (patients with negative outcome. Lactate concentration at admission was 4,6 ± 2,5 mmol/l; lactate clearance (% at 2 hours was 40,4 ± 32,1 in patients with a positive outcome and –8,3 ± 5,0 in patients with a negative outcome (p < 0,05. Lactate clearance at 2 hours < 25% is correlated to a negative outcome with an 84,2% sensitivity and a 79,2% specificity. The positive predictive value was 61,5% and the negative predictive value was 92,2%. Systematic lactate clearance monitoring can be used in cases of acute cardiorespiratory insufficiency to identify patients with a high risk of negative outcome. In our study, low clearance at two hours was associated with an increase in mortality and/or the need for orotracheal intubation. Conversely, a clearance at two hours of > 25% in most cases confirms the therapeutic strategy undertaken. Serial evaluation of blood lactate concentration may therefore be useful in guiding treatment strategies.

  16. [Effect of high-carbohydrate diet in the form of sugar beet on glucose and ketone body levels in the blood serum of highly pregnant and freshly lactating cows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatkowski, B; Voigt, J; Girschewski, H

    1977-12-01

    In an experiment using 24 high-yielding cows (3rd and 6th lactations), group II was fed sugar beet as carbohydrate source (2 kg DM per animal and day) for 4 weeks before and for 4 weeks after parturition, whilst group I was given the equivalent amount of dried spent beet pulp. Sugar beet feeding during the dry period caused the glucose level in the blood to rise significantly from 48 to 55 mg/100 ml. On the 21st day of lactation the glucose concentration in group II (27 mg) had declined more strongly than in group I (37 mg). Feeding large amounts of easily soluble carbohydrates during the dry period obviously inhibits gluconeogenesis during early lactation. The ketone body level of group II was found to rise to 14 mg/100 ml by the 21st day of lactation (group I--4 mg), a level indicative of ketosis. The ketogenous action (strong formation of butyric acid in the rumen) of sugar beet enhances this effect, too. The daily milk yield did not vary much coming to 26.8 and 27.8 kg in the control and in the experimental group, respectively. The results allow to conclude that feeding fresh sugar beet to high-yielding cows just before and shortly after parturition is not advisable.

  17. Effect of bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn) fruit juice on blood prolactin level and histological change of mammary gland in lactating mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ampa Luangpirom; Watchara Kourchampa; Pichet Somsapt

    2013-01-01

    Breastfeeding has nowadays been promoted. Meanwhile, lactation insufficiency is a significant problem. Thus, herbs for promoting milk are interesting. In Thai local wisdom, Momordica charantia Linn is claimed as a galactagogue. Experiments were performed in lactating mice with 6 litters each and metoclopramide (2 mg/100 g BW), a hyperprolactinemia inducing drug, was used as a reference drug. The drug and M. charantia fruit juice (400 and 600 mg/100 g BW) were orally administered d...

  18. Palmitic acid increased yields of milk and milk fat and nutrient digestibility across production level of lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S

    2013-01-01

    The effects of palmitic acid supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, and metabolic and production responses were evaluated in dairy cows with a wide range of milk production (34.5 to 66.2 kg/d) in a crossover design experiment with a covariate period. Thirty-two multiparous Holstein cows (151 ± 66 d in milk) were randomly assigned to treatment sequence within level of milk production. Treatments were diets supplemented (2% of diet DM) with palmitic acid (PA; 99% C16:0) or control (SH; soyhulls). Treatment periods were 21 d, with the final 4 d used for data and sample collection. Immediately before the first treatment period, cows were fed the control diet for 21 d and baseline values were obtained for all variables (covariate period). Milk production measured during the covariate period (preliminary milk yield) was used as covariate. In general, no interactions were detected between treatment and preliminary milk yield for the response variables measured. The PA treatment increased milk fat percentage (3.40 vs. 3.29%) and yields of milk (46.0 vs. 44.9 kg/d), milk fat (1.53 vs. 1.45 kg/d), and 3.5% fat-corrected milk (44.6 vs. 42.9 kg/d), compared with SH. Concentrations and yields of protein and lactose were not affected by treatment. The PA treatment did not affect dry matter (DM) intake or body weight, tended to decrease body condition score (2.93 vs. 2.99), and increased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk/DM intake; 1.60 vs. 1.54), compared with SH. The PA treatment increased total-tract digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (39.0 vs.35.7%) and organic matter (67.9 vs. 66.2%), but decreased fatty acid (FA) digestibility (61.2 vs. 71.3%). As total FA intake increased, total FA digestibility decreased (R(2) = 0.51) and total FA absorbed increased (quadratic R(2) = 0.82). Fatty acid yield response, calculated as the additional FA yield secreted in milk per unit of additional FA intake, was 11.7% for total FA and 16.5% for C16:0 plus cis-9 C16:1 FA

  19. Feeding a Diet Enriched in Docosahexaenoic Acid to Lactating Dams Improves the Tolerance Response to Egg Protein in Suckled Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Richard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a maternal diet supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA during the suckling period on the development of the immune system and oral tolerance (OT in offspring. Dams were randomized to consume one of two nutritionally adequate diets throughout the suckling period: control (N = 12, 0% DHA or DHA (N = 8, 0.9% DHA diet. At 11 days, pups from each dam were randomly assigned to a mucosal OT challenge: the placebo or the ovalbumin (OVA treatment. At three weeks, plasma immunoglobulins and splenocyte cytokine production ex vivo were measured. OVA-tolerized pups had a lower Th2 (IL-13 response to OVA despite the presence of more activated T cells and memory cells (CD27+, all p < 0.05. Feeding a high DHA diet improved the ability of splenocytes to respond to mitogens toward a skewed Th1 response and led to a higher IL-10 and a lower TGF-β production after stimulation with OVA (all p < 0.05. Untolerized DHA-fed pups had lower plasma concentrations of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (p for interaction < 0.05. Overall, feeding a high DHA maternal diet improves the tolerance response in untolerized suckled pups in a direction that is thought to be beneficial for the establishment of OT.

  20. Relationship between somatic cell count and milk yield in different stages of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagnestam-Nielsen, C; Emanuelson, U; Berglund, B; Strandberg, E

    2009-07-01

    The association between somatic cell count (SCC) and daily milk yield in different stages of lactation was investigated in cows free of clinical mastitis (CM). Data were recorded between 1989 and 2004 in a research herd, and consisted of weekly test-day (TD) records from 1,155 lactations of Swedish Holstein and Swedish Red cows. The main data set (data set A) containing 36,117 records excluded TD affected by CM. In this data set, the geometric mean SCC was 55,000 and 95,000 cells/mL in primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. A subset of data set A (data set B), containing 27,753 records excluding all TD sampled in lactations affected by CM, was created to investigate the effect of subclinical mastitis (SCM) in lactations free of CM. Daily milk yields were analyzed using a mixed linear model with lactation stage; linear, quadratic and cubic regressions of log(2)-transformed and centered SCC nested within lactation stage; weeks in lactation; TD season; parity; breed; pregnancy status; year-season of calving; calving, reproductive, metabolic and claw disorders; and housing system as fixed effects. A random regression was included to further improve the modeling of the lactation curve. Primiparous and multiparous cows were analyzed separately. The magnitude of daily milk loss associated with increased SCC depended on stage of lactation and parity, and was most extensive in late lactation irrespective of parity. In data set A, daily milk loss at an SCC of 500,000 cells/mL ranged from 0.7 to 2.0 kg (3 to 9%) in primiparous cows, depending on stage of lactation. In multiparous cows, corresponding loss was 1.1 to 3.7 kg (4 to 18%). Regression coefficients of primiparous cows estimated from data set B were consistent with those obtained from data set A, whereas data set B generated more negative regression coefficients of multiparous cows suggesting a higher milk loss associated with increased SCC in lactations in which the cow did not develop CM. The 305-d milk

  1. High-intensity interval training improves VO(2peak), maximal lactate accumulation, time trial and competition performance in 9-11-year-old swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Billy; Zinner, Christoph; Heilemann, Ilka; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Mester, Joachim

    2010-11-01

    Training volume in swimming is usually very high when compared to the relatively short competition time. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a 5-week HIIT versus high-volume training (HVT) in 9-11-year-old swimmers on competition performance, 100 and 2,000 m time (T(100 m) and T(2,000 m)), VO(2peak) and rate of maximal lactate accumulation (Lac(max)). In a 5-week crossover study, 26 competitive swimmers with a mean (SD) age of 11.5 ± 1.4 years performed a training period of HIIT and HVT. Competition (P effect size = 0.48) and T(2,000 m) (P = 0.04; effect size = 0.21) performance increased following HIIT. No changes were found in T(100 m) (P = 0.20). Lac(max) increased following HIIT (P effect size = 0.43) and decreased after HVT (P effect size = 0.51). VO(2peak) increased following both interventions (P effect sizes = 0.46-0.57). The increases in competition performance, T(2,000 m), Lac(max) and VO(2peak) following HIIT were achieved in significantly less training time (~2 h/week).

  2. Analysis of production responses to changing crude protein levels in lactating dairy cow diets when evaluated in continuous or change-over experimental designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanton, G I

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate by meta-analysis the effect of experimental design on the production response functions obtained when changing crude protein (CP) levels in lactating dairy cow diets. The final database of studies meeting the selection criteria contained 55 publications with 23 classified as using a continuous (80 diets) and 34 classified as using a change-over (173 diets) experimental design (2 publications reported results from trials using both designs). Mixed model, weighted analysis of covariance was conducted on production measures in response to CP including the continuous covariates year of publication and average days in milk (DIM) and the discrete classification covariate of experimental design. The model was evaluated for curvilinearity in the response to CP, variance heterogeneity, and coincidence in the response between experimental designs, with Pdesigns had a lower initial DIM, were on treatment longer, and produced a greater yield of milk and milk protein than cows in experiments using change-over designs. Production responses to increasing CP were increased dry matter intake (DMI), milk and component yield, and feed efficiency (milk Mcal/kg of DMI), and decreased milk N:intake N. Response in milk yield and feed efficiency to increased CP interacted with experimental design where continuous experiments had greater milk yield and feed efficiency response at higher levels of CP. Interaction between CP and design effects on yield of milk protein and fat or milk N:intake N did not approach significance. The database is limited by the lower number of continuous studies and the differences in average DIM between designs; nevertheless, it is concluded that DMI, milk protein yield, milk fat yield, and milk N:intake N responses to CP did not depend on experimental design. Response of milk yield and feed efficiency to CP interacted with experimental design; however, prospective research on the influence of experimental design is

  3. Glycolysis and the significance of lactate in traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri Linda Carpenter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In traumatic brain injury (TBI patients, elevation of the brain extracellular lactate concentration and the lactate/pyruvate ratio are well recognised, and are associated statistically with unfavourable clinical outcome. Brain extracellular lactate was conventionally regarded as a waste product of glucose, when glucose is metabolised via glycolysis (Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway to pyruvate, followed by conversion to lactate by the action of lactate dehydrogenase, and export of lactate into the extracellular fluid. In TBI, glycolytic lactate is ascribed to hypoxia or mitochondrial dysfunction, although the precise nature of the latter is incompletely understood. Seemingly in contrast to lactate’s association with unfavourable outcome is a growing body of evidence that lactate can be beneficial. The idea that the brain can utilise lactate by feeding into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle of neurons, first published two decades ago, has become known as the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis. Direct evidence of brain utilisation of lactate was first obtained 5 years ago in a cerebral microdialysis study in TBI patients, where administration of 13C-labelled lactate via the microdialysis catheter and simultaneous collection of the emerging microdialysates, with 13C NMR analysis, revealed 13C labelling in glutamine consistent with lactate utilisation via the TCA cycle. This suggests that where neurons are too damaged to utilise the lactate produced from glucose by astrocytes, i.e. uncoupling of neuronal and glial metabolism, high extracellular levels of lactate would accumulate, explaining association between high lactate and poor outcome. An intravenous exogenous lactate supplementation study in TBI patients showed evidence for a beneficial effect judged by surrogate endpoints. Here we review current knowledge about glycolysis and lactate in TBI, how it can be measured in patients, and whether it can be modulated to achieve better

  4. Lactate uptake into mouse cardiomyocytes is coupled to CO2-dependent acid/base regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Peetz, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The heart is reported to show a net consumption of lactate. This may contribute up to 15% to the total body lactate disposal. In this work, the consumption of lactate was shown for the first time on the single cell level with the new FRET-based lactate sensor Laconic. Research published until today, almost exclusively reports the monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) as the transporter responsible for myocardial lactate uptake. As this membrane transporter transports lactate togeth...

  5. Serum lactate levels in infants exposed peripartum to antiretroviral agents to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV: Agence Nationale de Recherches Sur le SIDA et les Hépatites Virales 1209 study, Abidjan, Ivory Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekouevi, Didier Koumavi; Touré, Ramata; Becquet, Renaud; Viho, Ida; Sakarovitch, Charlotte; Rouet, François; Towne-Gold, Besigin; Fassinou, Patricia; Leroy, Valériane; Blanche, Stéphane; Dabis, François

    2006-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial toxicity was described in infants exposed to long-term antiretroviral regimens (ARVs) containing nucleoside analogues for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). We measured the serum lactate levels in children born to HIV-1 infected (HIV+) African women receiving short-term ARV PMTCT regimens. Methods A prospective study was conducted in women-child pairs from the third trimester of pregnancy to three months of life. The exposed group was formed by children exposed in utero to nucleoside analogue ARVs, zidovudine (ZDV) or ZDV + lamivudine (3TC) from 32–36 weeks of amenorrhea until delivery. All these women received nevirapine single-dose (NVPsd) at the beginning of labor. The children received ZDV during the first 7 days of life and a NVPsd at day 3. The control group was formed by infants born to HIV+ women who had received NVPsd only and not exposed to nucleoside analogue ARVs. Serum lactate levels were measured at 4, 6 and 12 weeks of life by Cobas Integra 400™. Results A total of 836 blood samples from 338 infants were collected (262 exposed and 76 controls). Median lactacidemia was 1.8 mmol/l, Interquartile Range [1.2–2.7 mmol/l]). Overall serum lactate levels ≥2.5 mmol/l, defining hyperlactatemia were observed in 39 of the 292 infants who had at least two serum lactate measurements, 13.4%, 95% confidence Interval [9.6–17.8%]. The three-month period prevalence of hyperlactatemia did not differ between the exposed group (13.1%) and the control group (14.3%) (p=0.84). All serum lactate levels returned to normal values in all subsequent samples No case of symptomatic hyperlactatemia was detected during the study period. Conclusion Increased lactate levels were identified equally in infants whose mother received a short-term of nucleoside analogues or NVPsd for PMTCT. Although not rare, hyperlactatemia was not related to short-term exposure to nucleoside analogue ARVs PMID:16950945

  6. Long term intensive exercise training leads to a higher plasma malate/lactate dehydrogenase (M/L) ratio and increased level of lipid mobilization in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gebin; Lee, Peter; Mori, Nobuko; Yamamoto, Ichiro; Arai, Toshiro

    2012-06-01

    Continuous high intensity training may induce alterations to enzyme activities related to glucose and lipid metabolism in horses. In our study, five Thoroughbred race horses (3 male and 2 female, avg age=5 yrs old) were compared against five riding horses (1 male, 1 female, 3 gelding, avg age=13 yrs old) in terms of energy metabolism, by examining plasma malate (MDH) and lactate (LDH) dehydrogenase activities and M/L ratio. MDH is involved in NADH and ATP generation, whereas LDH can convert NADH back into NAD(+) for ATP generation. An increase in plasma M/L ratio can reflect heightened energy metabolism in the liver and skeletal muscle of horses adapted to continuous intensive exercise. Moreover, plasma lipid metabolism analytes (adiponectin, NEFA, total cholesterol (T-Cho), and triglycerides (TG)) can reflect changes to lipolysis rate, which can also indicate a change in energy metabolism. Overall, race horses demonstrated increased MDH and LDH activity in plasma (4x and 2x greater, respectively), in addition to a plasma M/L ratio twice as high as that of riding horses (2.0 vs 1.0). In addition, race horses also demonstrated significantly higher levels of plasma NEFA (50% greater), TG (2x greater), and T-Cho (20% greater) as compared to riding horses. Therefore, race horse muscles may have adapted to prolonged high intensity endurance exercise by gaining a higher oxidative capacity and an increased capacity for fat utilization as an energy source, resulting in heightened energy metabolism and increased rate of lipid mobilization.

  7. Effect of paddy straw plus nonforage fiber sources based complete rations with different levels of neutral detergent fiber on hemato-biochemical and mineral profile of lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biju Chacko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to assess the effect of feeding paddy straw plus nonforage fiber sources based complete rations with different levels of neutral detergent fiber (NDF on hemato-biochemical and mineral parameters of lactating dairy cows. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted for 6 months in 18 lactating dairy cows, divided into three groups of six each, by feeding them on paddy straw plus nonforage fiber sources based complete rations containing different levels of NDF, in two phases of 3 months (90 days each, being the early and mid lactation phases, respectively. Three isonitrogenous and isocaloric complete rations, T1, T2 and T3 with 25%, 30% and 35% NDF, respectively, were fed to the experimental animals. Blood samples were collected at the beginning and the end of each of the two phases to estimate the different hematological, plasma protein, and mineral parameters to know the overall health status of the animals and standard methods were followed to analyze the samples. Results: There was no significant difference (p>0.05 in various hematological parameters such as hemoglobin, glucose, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN in blood; plasma protein parameters such as total protein, albumin, globulin and albumin: globulin ratio and mineral parameters such as plasma calcium and phosphorus levels at the beginning and end of Phase I (1st day and 90th day and Phase II (91st day and 180th day as well as between the three dietary treatments, with all the values being in the normal range for lactating dairy cows. Even though nonsignificant (p>0.05, the BUN values of animals fed on ration T1, both at the beginning and end of Phase I, were higher than that of animals fed on rations T2 and T3 because the diet T1 with lowest NDF and the highest soluble carbohydrate content underwent rapid fermentation in the rumen, produced more energy, which was utilized by the rumen microbes to degrade the protein in the feed to ammonia, the excess

  8. QUALITY IMPROVEMENT MODEL AT THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS PREPARATION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusko Pavletic

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper expresses base for an operational quality improvement model at the manufacturing process preparation level. A numerous appropriate related quality assurance and improvement methods and tools are identified. Main manufacturing process principles are investigated in order to scrutinize one general model of manufacturing process and to define a manufacturing process preparation level. Development and introduction of the operational quality improvement model is based on a research conducted and results of methods and tools application possibilities in real manufacturing processes shipbuilding and automotive industry. Basic model structure is described and presented by appropriate general algorithm. Operational quality improvement model developed lays down main guidelines for practical and systematic application of quality improvements methods and tools.

  9. The impact of introducing universal umbilical cord blood gas analysis and lactate measurement at delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Christopher R H; Doherty, Dorota A; Newnham, John P; Pennell, Craig E

    2014-02-01

    There is growing support for umbilical cord blood gas analysis (UCBGA) to be conducted at delivery. A recent study in a tertiary level obstetric unit found that universal UCBGA was associated with improved perinatal outcomes, but there is less evidence of benefit in lower-risk environments. In such settings, lactate analysis may be a suitable alternative. This study evaluated the introduction of universal UCBGA into a secondary obstetric unit and universal umbilical cord lactate analysis program into primary and secondary units. After education, universal UCBGA or lactate analysis was introduced into one primary and two secondary level obstetric units. Univariate and adjusted analysis assessed changes in UCBGA values and Apgar scores over the study period. There were no significant changes in mean blood gas and lactate values at any centre following introduction of universal UCBGA or lactate analysis. However, there was at the primary level obstetric unit a significant reduction in the proportion of neonates with moderate to severe elevations in umbilical artery lactate values. There was a non-significant reduction in arterial pH values less than 7.10 at the secondary metropolitan centre. The data presented in this study suggest that the benefits of introducing UCBGA into a tertiary obstetric centre may be reproduced in a primary obstetric centre within 12 months of implementation. Larger studies are required in secondary units to assess infrequent adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes. © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. Early postweaning exercise improves central leptin sensitivity in offspring of rat dams fed high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Maternal high-fat (HF) diet has long-term consequences on the metabolic phenotype of the offspring. Here, we determined the effects of postweaning exercise in offspring of rat dams fed HF diet during gestation and lactation. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on chow or HF diet throughout gestation and lactation. All pups were weaned onto chow diet on postnatal day (PND) 21. At 4 wk of age, male pups were given free access to running wheels (RW) or remained sedentary (SED) for 3 wk,...

  11. [Drugs and lactation. Part 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alerany Pardo, C; Bassons Boncompte, M T; Font Pous, M

    1986-01-01

    This document lists categories of drugs and provides brief descriptions of the effects on lactation and nursing infants of specific drugs within categories. Because any drug may pass to some extent to the mother's milk, the effect on the infant must always be considered before a drug is given to the mother. This review provides information on the excretion of drugs through breast milk and identifies drugs that are contraindicated for nursing mothers. The medications considered include drugs for gastrointestinal pathology, drugs for the central nervous system, hormones and hormone substitution drugs, radioisotopes, vitamins and minerals, foods and additives, social toxics such as nicotine and caffeine, and environmental agents. Among hormones and hormone substitution drugs, combinations of estrogens, estrogens and progestins, or estrogens and androgens at high doses may suppress lactation. Low doses of oral contraceptives (OCs) have slight effects on the volume of milk but may suppress lactation in women in whom lactation is not established. OCs also alter the composition of milk, although the changes are within normal limits and their clinical significance is not clear. Cases have been described in which OCs have caused breast development in boys and proliferation of vaginal epithelium in girls, although the causal relationship has not been proven. Androgens are contraindicated because they may cause masculinization of girls or precocious development in boys. Doses of over 50 mcg/day of ethinyl estradiol diminish milk production and may produce feminization of boys. Mestranol at doses of under 100 mcg/day produces insignificant levels in milk.

  12. Regulation of bone mineral loss during lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brommage, R.; Deluca, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of varyng dietary calcium and phosphorous levels, vitamin D deficiency, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pregnancy on bone mineral loss during lactation in rats are studied. The experimental procedures and evaluations are described. The femur ash weight of lactating and nonlactating rats are calculated. The data reveals that a decrease in dietary calcium of 0.02 percent results in an increased loss of bone mineral, an increase in calcium to 1.4 percent does not lessen bone mineral loss, and bone mineral loss in vitamin D deficient rats is independent of calcium levels. It is observed that changes in dietary phosphorous level, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pragnancy do not reduce bone mineral loss during lactation. The analysis of various hormones to determine the mechanism that triggers bone mineral loss during lactation is presented.

  13. Lactic acid and lactates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This review aims to integrate the present state of knowledge on lactate metabolism in human and mammalian physiology as far as it could be subject to nutritional interventions. An integrated view on the nutritional, metabolic and physiological aspects of lactic acid and lactates might open a perspec

  14. Fatty acid composition and bacterial community changes in the rumen fluid of lactating sheep fed sunflower oil plus incremental levels of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Belenguer, A; Shingfield, K J; Hervás, G; Toivonen, V; Frutos, P

    2012-02-01

    Supplementation of ruminant diets with plant oils and marine lipids is an effective strategy for lowering saturated fatty acid (FA) content and increasing the concentration of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid and long-chain n-3 FA in ruminant milk. However, changes in populations of ruminal microorganisms associated with altered biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated FA are not well characterized. Twenty-five lactating Assaf ewes were allocated at random to 1 of 5 treatments composed of dehydrated alfalfa hay and concentrates containing no additional lipid (control), or supplemented with 25 g of sunflower oil and 0 (SO), 8 (SOMA(1)), 16 (SOMA(2)), or 24 (SOMA(3)) g of marine algae/kg of diet dry matter. On d 28 on diet, samples of rumen fluid were collected for lipid analysis and microbial DNA extraction. Appearance and identification of biohydrogenation intermediates was determined based on complementary gas chromatography and Ag+-HPLC analysis of FA methyl esters. Total bacteria and the Butyrivibrio group were studied in microbial DNA by terminal RFLP analysis, and real-time PCR was used to quantify the known Butyrivibrio bacteria that produce trans-11 18:1 or 18:0. Dietary supplements of sunflower oil alone or in combination with marine algae altered the FA profile of rumen fluid, which was associated with changes in populations of specific bacteria. Inclusion of marine algae in diets containing sunflower oil resulted in the accumulation of trans 18:1 and 10-O-18:0 and a marked decrease in 18:0 concentrations in rumen fluid. At the highest levels of supplementation (SOMA(2) and SOMA(3)), marine algae also promoted a shift in ruminal biohydrogenation pathways toward the formation of trans-10 18:1 at the expense of trans-11 18:1. Changes in the concentration of biohydrogenation intermediates were not accompanied by significant variations in the abundance of known cultivated ruminal bacteria capable of hydrogenating unsaturated FA. However, certain

  15. Impact of improving dietary amino acid balance for lactating sows on efficiency of dietary amino acid utilization and transcript abundance of genes encoding lysine transporters in mammary tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, L; de Lange, C F M; Ernst, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    ) Lys concentration was 80% of the estimated requirement. In Exp. 2, 24 sows were assigned to the HCP or LCP diets. In Exp. 1, blood samples were postprandially collected 15 h on d 3, 7, 14, and 18 of lactation and utilization efficiency of dietary AA for milk production was calculated during early (d 3...

  16. Incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal do not improve animal performance but increase milk iodine output in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal (ANOD) on milk production, milk composition including fatty acids and I, blood metabolites, and nutrient intake and digestibility in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve ...

  17. Exposure to a novel feedstuff by goat dams during pregnancy and lactation versus pregnancy alone does not further improve post weaning acceptance of this feedstuff by their kids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, Vu Hai; Schonewille, J Thomas; Dam, Tien Van; Everts, Henk; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous experiments demonstrated the existence of in utero learning in goats. However, in contrast to other animal species, in goats there is no information about the potential of flavor transmission from maternal feed to goat kids during lactation. The aim of the current study was to a

  18. Increasing zinc levels in phytase-supplemented diets improves the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marjina Akter

    2017-09-02

    Sep 2, 2017 ... phytase in chicken diets improves the availability of Zn (Thiel et al., 1993; ... the effect of different levels of Zn on phytase activity and impact on broiler ... The EE was determined indirectly by the Soxhlet method for fat extraction. ..... increased amount of energy deposited in tissues validates NEp as a more ...

  19. Lactate study using umbilical cord blood: agreement between Lactate Pro hand-held devices with blood gas analyser and evaluation of lactate stability over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tina Y; Reece, Mifanwy; Chua, Seng C

    2013-08-01

    Lactate measurements have become increasingly preferred over pH analysis in the evaluation of fetal acidaemia in labour. In a busy labour ward, often the umbilical cord may be sampled late and as a result yield unreliable lactate values. To investigate the agreement of hand-held device Lactate Pro with a reference method blood gas analyser and evaluate the stability of umbilical cord lactate values over time. Prospective study carried out at elective caesarean section. Sixteen umbilical cords were double clamped immediately after delivery with paired arterial and venous blood samples collected by an independent researcher, at varying time intervals, and processed by two Lactate Pro devices and a reference method blood gas analyser. A significant difference of -0.41 to 0.10 mmol/L was found when different groups of Lactate Pro devices were compared with blood gas analyser at lactate values up to 5.70 mmol/L, with average lactate value of 2.45 mmol/L. Over time, there is progressive rise in lactate samples obtained from the umbilical cord. Lactate Pro devices have a significant difference, but when used in clinical practice on cord blood after delivery, this is unlikely to be meaningful. In intrapartum fetal surveillance, a systematic overestimation might lead to unnecessary intervention. It is possible to retrospectively predict the likely level of lactate at birth in delayed cord samples. © 2013 The Authors ANZJOG © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  20. Managing antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy and lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabers, Anne; Tomson, Torbjörn

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses data on the pharmacokinetics of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in pregnancy and lactation, and the clinical consequences thereof, thus providing a basis for a rational management of AEDs during pregnancy and lactation. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have confirmed...... of AEDs in pregnancy and during lactation is important to enable optimal treatment. Gestation induced alterations in pharmacokinetics vary with the AED but also between patients and are difficult to predict. Therapeutic drug monitoring is, therefore, advisable during pregnancy and the use...... of the individual patient's optimal prepregnancy drug level is recommended as reference. Breastfeeding is in general safe but needs appropriate observation of the nursing infant....

  1. Longitudinal study of pesticide residue levels in human milk from Western Australia during 12 months of lactation: Exposure assessment for infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jian; Gridneva, Zoya; Gay, Melvin C. L.; Lai, Ching T.; Trengove, Robert D.; Hartmann, Peter E.; Geddes, Donna T.

    2016-12-01

    The presence of pesticides in human milk (HM) is of great concern due to the potential health effects for the breastfed infant. To determine the relationships between HM pesticides and infant growth and development, a longitudinal study was conducted. HM samples (n = 99) from 16 mothers were collected at 2, 5, 9 and 12 months of lactation. A validated QuEChERS method and Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) were used for the analysis of 88 pesticides in HM. Only p,p’-DDE, p,p’-DDT and β-HCH were detected with a mean concentration (±SD) of 52.25 ± 49.88 ng/g fat, 27.67 ± 20.96 ng/g fat and 48.00 ± 22.46 ng/g fat respectively. The concentrations of the detected pesticides decreased significantly throughout the first year of lactation. No significant relationships between HM p,p’-DDE and infant growth outcomes: weight, length, head circumference and percentage fat mass were detected. The actual daily intake (ADI) of total DDTs in this cohort was 14-1000 times lower than the threshold reference and significantly lower than the estimated daily intake (EDI). Further, the ADI decreased significantly throughout the first 12 months of lactation.

  2. Lactate dehydrogenase has no control on lactate production but has a strong negative control on formate production in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.W.; Pedersen, M.B.; Hammer, Karin;

    2001-01-01

    a homolactic pattern of fermentation. Only after lactate dehydrogenase activity was reduced ninefold compared to the wild-type was the growth rate significantly affected, and the ldh mutants started to produce mixed-acid products (formate, acetate, and ethanol in addition to lactate). Flux control coefficients...... were determined and it was found that lactate dehydrogenase exerted virtually no control on the glycolytic flux at the wild-type enzyme level and also not on the flux catalyzed by the enzyme itself, i.e. on the lactate production. As expected, the flux towards the mixed-acid products was strongly...... enhanced in the strain deleted for lactate dehydrogenase. What is more surprising is that the enzyme had a strong negative control (C- LDH(F1)J=-1.3) on the flux to formate at the wild-type level of lactate dehydrogenase. Furthermore, we showed that L. lactis has limited excess of capacity of lactate...

  3. Alfalfa baleage with increased concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates supplemented with a corn-based concentrate did not improve production and nitrogen utilization in early lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, A F; Tremblay, G F; Bertrand, A; Castonguay, Y; Bélanger, G; Michaud, R; Lafrenière, C; Martineau, R; Berthiaume, R

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding alfalfa baleage with different concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) supplemented with a common corn-based concentrate on performance, ruminal fermentation profile, N utilization, and omasal flow of nutrients in dairy cows during early lactation. Ten multiparous (8 ruminally cannulated) and 8 primiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments (high- or low-NSC diet) in a crossover design. The difference in NSC concentration between the 2 alfalfa baleages fed from d14 to 21 averaged 14 g of NSC/kg of dry matter (DM). Forages and concentrate were offered in separate meals with forages fed once and concentrate offered 3 times daily. Except for the molar proportion of valerate, which was lowest in cows fed the high-NSC diet, no other changes in ruminal fermentation were observed. Omasal flows of most nitrogenous fractions, including bacterial nonammonia N and AA, were not affected by treatments. Apparent ruminal digestibilities of neutral and acid detergent fiber and N were lowest, whereas that of total ethanol-soluble carbohydrates was highest when feeding the high-NSC diet. Postruminal digestibilities of DM, organic matter, fiber, and N were highest in cows fed the high-NSC diet, resulting in no difference in total-tract digestibilities. Total-tract digestibility of total ethanol-soluble carbohydrates was highest in cows fed the high-NSC diet, but that of starch did not differ across treatments. Although milk yield and total DM intake did not differ between treatments, yields of milk fat and 4% fat-corrected milk decreased significantly in cows fed the high-NSC diet. Milk concentration of urea N was lowest, and that of ruminal NH3-N highest, in cows fed the high-NSC diet. Plasma urea N concentration tended to be decreased in cows fed the high-NSC diet, but concentrations of AA were not affected by treatments, with the exception of Asp and Cys, both of which were lowest in

  4. Improving sea level simulation in Mediterranean regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adloff, Fanny; Jordà, Gabriel; Somot, Samuel; Sevault, Florence; Arsouze, Thomas; Meyssignac, Benoit; Li, Laurent; Planton, Serge

    2017-08-01

    For now, the question about future sea level change in the Mediterranean remains a challenge. Previous climate modelling attempts to estimate future sea level change in the Mediterranean did not meet a consensus. The low resolution of CMIP-type models prevents an accurate representation of important small scales processes acting over the Mediterranean region. For this reason among others, the use of high resolution regional ocean modelling has been recommended in literature to address the question of ongoing and future Mediterranean sea level change in response to climate change or greenhouse gases emissions. Also, it has been shown that east Atlantic sea level variability is the dominant driver of the Mediterranean variability at interannual and interdecadal scales. However, up to now, long-term regional simulations of the Mediterranean Sea do not integrate the full sea level information from the Atlantic, which is a substantial shortcoming when analysing Mediterranean sea level response. In the present study we analyse different approaches followed by state-of-the-art regional climate models to simulate Mediterranean sea level variability. Additionally we present a new simulation which incorporates improved information of Atlantic sea level forcing at the lateral boundary. We evaluate the skills of the different simulations in the frame of long-term hindcast simulations spanning from 1980 to 2012 analysing sea level variability from seasonal to multidecadal scales. Results from the new simulation show a substantial improvement in the modelled Mediterranean sea level signal. This confirms that Mediterranean mean sea level is strongly influenced by the Atlantic conditions, and thus suggests that the quality of the information in the lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) is crucial for the good modelling of Mediterranean sea level. We also found that the regional differences inside the basin, that are induced by circulation changes, are model-dependent and thus not

  5. Yoga practice improves executive function by attenuating stress levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothe, Neha P; Keswani, Rahul K; McAuley, Edward

    2016-12-01

    Prolonged activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal system is thought to have deleterious effects on brain function. Neuroendocrine studies suggest that brain exposure to higher cortisol concentrations contribute to cognitive deficits as we age. Mind-body techniques such as yoga have shown to improve stress levels by restoring the body's sympathetic-parasympathetic balance. The objective of this study was to determine whether yoga practice moderated the stress response resulting in improved executive function. Sedentary community dwelling older adults (N=118, Mean age=62.02) were randomized to an 8-week yoga intervention or a stretching control group. At baseline and following 8 weeks, all participants completed measures of executive function, self-reported stress and anxiety and provided saliva samples before and after cognitive testing to assess cortisol. Yoga participants showed improved accuracy on executive function measures and an attenuated cortisol response compared to their stretching counterparts who showed increased cortisol levels and poor cognitive performance at follow up. The change in cortisol levels as well as self-reported stress and anxiety levels predicted performance on the running span task, n-back working memory and task switching paradigm (β's=0.27-0.38, p's≤0.05 for yoga and β's=-0.37-0.47, p's≤0.01 for stretching control). Eight weeks of regular yoga practice resulted in improved working memory performance that was mediated by an attenuated response to stress as measured by self-report stress and objective salivary cortisol measurements. This trial offers evidence for non-traditional physical activity interventions such as yoga that may be helpful in restoring HPA balance in older adults, thereby preventing cognitive decline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, Katiéli Caroline; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; de Palma, André Soligo Vizeu; Martins, Mellory Martinson; Dos Reis, Bárbara Roqueto; Schmidt, Bárbara Laís Unglaube; Saran Netto, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce.

  7. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiéli Caroline Welter

    Full Text Available To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4 kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil, 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis. The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce.

  8. Maternal Dietary Supplementation with Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin in Gestating/Lactating Rats Preserves Maternal Bone and Improves Bone Microarchitecture in Their Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno-Vargas, Pilar; Manzano, Manuel; Diaz-Castro, Javier; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada; Rueda, Ricardo; López-Pedrosa, Jose María

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition during pregnancy and lactation could exert a key role not only on maternal bone, but also could influence the skeletal development of the offspring. This study was performed in rats to assess the relationship between maternal dietary intake of prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin and its role in bone turnover during gestation and lactation, as well as its effect on offspring peak bone mass/architecture during early adulthood. Rat dams were fed either with standard rodent diet (CC group), calcium-fortified diet (Ca group), or prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin supplemented diet (Pre group), during the second half of gestation and lactation. Bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), as well as micro-structure of dams and offspring at different stages were analysed. Dams in the Pre group had significantly higher trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and smaller specific bone surface (BS/BV) of the tibia in comparison with CC dams. The Pre group offspring during early adulthood had an increase of the lumbar vertebra BMD when compared with offspring of CC and Ca groups. The Pre group offspring also showed significant increase versus CC in cancellous and cortical structural parameters of the lumbar vertebra 4 such as Tb.Th, cortical BMD and decreased BS/BV. The results indicate that oligofructose-enriched inulin supplementation can be considered as a plausible nutritional option for protecting against maternal bone loss during gestation and lactation preventing bone fragility and for optimizing peak bone mass and architecture of the offspring in order to increase bone strength.

  9. Ammonium Lactate Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding. If you become pregnant while using ammonium lactate, call your doctor.plan to avoid unnecessary or prolonged exposure to natural or artificial sunlight to the affected skin area and to ...

  10. Improvement of level-1 PSA computer code package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Woon; Park, C. K.; Kim, K. Y.; Han, S. H.; Jung, W. D.; Chang, S. C.; Yang, J. E.; Sung, T. Y.; Kang, D. I.; Park, J. H.; Lee, Y. H.; Kim, S. H.; Hwang, M. J.; Choi, S. Y.

    1997-07-01

    This year the fifth (final) year of the phase-I of the Government-sponsored Mid- and Long-term Nuclear Power Technology Development Project. The scope of this subproject titled on `The improvement of level-1 PSA Computer Codes` is divided into two main activities : (1) improvement of level-1 PSA methodology, (2) development of applications methodology of PSA techniques to operations and maintenance of nuclear power plant. Level-1 PSA code KIRAP is converted to PC-Windows environment. For the improvement of efficiency in performing PSA, the fast cutset generation algorithm and an analytical technique for handling logical loop in fault tree modeling are developed. Using about 30 foreign generic data sources, generic component reliability database (GDB) are developed considering dependency among source data. A computer program which handles dependency among data sources are also developed based on three stage bayesian updating technique. Common cause failure (CCF) analysis methods are reviewed and CCF database are established. Impact vectors can be estimated from this CCF database. A computer code, called MPRIDP, which handles CCF database are also developed. A CCF analysis reflecting plant-specific defensive strategy against CCF event is also performed. A risk monitor computer program, called Risk Monster, are being developed for the application to the operation and maintenance of nuclear power plant. The PSA application technique is applied to review the feasibility study of on-line maintenance and to the prioritization of in-service test (IST) of motor-operated valves (MOV). Finally, the root cause analysis (RCA) and reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) technologies are adopted and applied to the improvement of reliability of emergency diesel generators (EDG) of nuclear power plant. To help RCA and RCM analyses, two software programs are developed, which are EPIS and RAM Pro. (author). 129 refs., 20 tabs., 60 figs.

  11. The Effect of Lactate, Albumin, C-reactive Protein, PaO2/FiO2 and Glucose Levels of Trauma Patients at the Time of Administration to Intensive Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Yılmaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Blood analyses are preferred in the observation of cases requiring intensive care unit (ICU following a trauma. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP, PaO2/FiO2 and glucose levels of trauma patients at time of admission with mortality. Material and Method: The patients who were admitted into ICU following a trauma between the years of 2010 and 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. 200 trauma cases were included in the study. Their demographic data, APACHE II scores, Glasgow Coma Scales (GCS, and arterial blood gas in the lactate and PaO2/FiO2 ratio, CRP, glucose and albumin levels in the first collected arterial blood gas, as well as, the presence of thoracic, cardiac, renal, abdominal and head trauma, length of ICU stay and mortality were recorded. Results: Of the patients included in the study 84% were male, with an average age of 38.3 and an average APACHE II score of 16.6. 64% suffered from head trauma and the average GCS was calculated to be 11.2. The patients were observed in the ICU for an average of 18.7 days and the rate of mortality was 33.5%. GCS, PaO2/FiO2, age and elevated lactate levels increased mortality as independent risk factors. Conclusion: It has been concluded that parameters like age and the first GCS, lactate, glucose, albumin and PaO2/FiO2 at time of acceptance into the ICU were found to be related with mortality.

  12. Channel-Mediated Lactate Release by K+-Stimulated Astrocytes

    KAUST Repository

    Sotelo-Hitschfeld, T.

    2015-03-11

    Excitatory synaptic transmission is accompanied by a local surge in interstitial lactate that occurs despite adequate oxygen availability, a puzzling phenomenon termed aerobic glycolysis. In addition to its role as an energy substrate, recent studies have shown that lactate modulates neuronal excitability acting through various targets, including NMDA receptors and G-protein-coupled receptors specific for lactate, but little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the increase in interstitial lactate. Using a panel of genetically encoded fluorescence nanosensors for energy metabolites, we show here that mouse astrocytes in culture, in cortical slices, and in vivo maintain a steady-state reservoir of lactate. The reservoir was released to the extracellular space immediately after exposure of astrocytes to a physiological rise in extracellular K+ or cell depolarization. Cell-attached patch-clamp analysis of cultured astrocytes revealed a 37 pS lactate-permeable ion channel activated by cell depolarization. The channel was modulated by lactate itself, resulting in a positive feedback loop for lactate release. A rapid fall in intracellular lactate levels was also observed in cortical astrocytes of anesthetized mice in response to local field stimulation. The existence of an astrocytic lactate reservoir and its quick mobilization via an ion channel in response to a neuronal cue provides fresh support to lactate roles in neuronal fueling and in gliotransmission.

  13. Lactate metabolism in chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Johanne B; Mortensen, Christian; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Background. In the healthy liver there is a splanchnic net-uptake of lactate caused by gluconeogenesis. It has previously been shown that patients with acute liver failure in contrast have a splanchnic release of lactate caused by a combination of accelerated glycolysis in the splanchnic region...... and a reduction in hepatic gluconeogenesis. Aims. The aims of the present study were to investigate lactate metabolism and kinetics in patients with chronic liver disease compared with a control group with normal liver function. Methods. A total of 142 patients with chronic liver disease and 14 healthy controls...... underwent a liver vein catheterization. Blood samples from the femoral artery and the hepatic and renal veins were simultaneously collected before and after stimulation with galactose. Results. The fasting lactate levels, both in the hepatic vein and in the femoral artery, were higher in the patients than...

  14. Lactate produced by glycogenolysis in astrocytes regulates memory processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori A Newman

    Full Text Available When administered either systemically or centrally, glucose is a potent enhancer of memory processes. Measures of glucose levels in extracellular fluid in the rat hippocampus during memory tests reveal that these levels are dynamic, decreasing in response to memory tasks and loads; exogenous glucose blocks these decreases and enhances memory. The present experiments test the hypothesis that glucose enhancement of memory is mediated by glycogen storage and then metabolism to lactate in astrocytes, which provide lactate to neurons as an energy substrate. Sensitive bioprobes were used to measure brain glucose and lactate levels in 1-sec samples. Extracellular glucose decreased and lactate increased while rats performed a spatial working memory task. Intrahippocampal infusions of lactate enhanced memory in this task. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of astrocytic glycogenolysis impaired memory and this impairment was reversed by administration of lactate or glucose, both of which can provide lactate to neurons in the absence of glycogenolysis. Pharmacological block of the monocarboxylate transporter responsible for lactate uptake into neurons also impaired memory and this impairment was not reversed by either glucose or lactate. These findings support the view that astrocytes regulate memory formation by controlling the provision of lactate to support neuronal functions.

  15. Lactate produced by glycogenolysis in astrocytes regulates memory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lori A; Korol, Donna L; Gold, Paul E

    2011-01-01

    When administered either systemically or centrally, glucose is a potent enhancer of memory processes. Measures of glucose levels in extracellular fluid in the rat hippocampus during memory tests reveal that these levels are dynamic, decreasing in response to memory tasks and loads; exogenous glucose blocks these decreases and enhances memory. The present experiments test the hypothesis that glucose enhancement of memory is mediated by glycogen storage and then metabolism to lactate in astrocytes, which provide lactate to neurons as an energy substrate. Sensitive bioprobes were used to measure brain glucose and lactate levels in 1-sec samples. Extracellular glucose decreased and lactate increased while rats performed a spatial working memory task. Intrahippocampal infusions of lactate enhanced memory in this task. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of astrocytic glycogenolysis impaired memory and this impairment was reversed by administration of lactate or glucose, both of which can provide lactate to neurons in the absence of glycogenolysis. Pharmacological block of the monocarboxylate transporter responsible for lactate uptake into neurons also impaired memory and this impairment was not reversed by either glucose or lactate. These findings support the view that astrocytes regulate memory formation by controlling the provision of lactate to support neuronal functions.

  16. Investigation of different levels of RDP in the rations of lactating cows and their effects on MUN, BUN and urinary N excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moharrery

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one multiparous Holstein cows in the late stages of their lactation period were used in complete randomizeddesign to investigate the effect of rumen degradable protein on milk urea nitrogen (MUN and some blood metabolites.Experimental periods were 6 weeks in length, with days 1 to 14 used for adjustment and weeks 3 to week 6 used forsampling (urine, blood, and milk. Three concentrations of a rumen-degradable protein (RDP supplement according toNational Research Council recommendations (9.3, 11.4, and 14% of dry matter intake were treatments. Dietary RDPcontent altered both total urinary N and urinary N concentration, leading to increased urinary output. Estimations formicrobial protein yield were compared with the measured excretion of purine derivative as yeast RNA equivalent, in urine.No significant effect of concentration of RDP supplement was detected on microbial N production. Plasma cholesterol concentrationdecreased linearity by increasing RDP concentration in diets (Pwell as triglyceride concentration in plasma, was not associated with dietary RDP concentration. To ensure a correct balancebetween energy and protein available in the rumen and consequently higher N efficiency for late lactation cows, aMUN content of 15.1mg/dl milk is the upper margin. Milk urea N is a simple and noninvasive measurement that can beused to monitor N efficiency in dairy cows.

  17. Composition of sow milk during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobasa, F; Werhahn, E; Butler, J E

    1987-05-01

    The composition of sow colostrum and milk was quantitated in 25 sows at 14 time points throughout lactation. All animals belonged to the same experimental herd of German Landrace, farrowed within 4 d, and were of various lactation numbers and various litter sizes. In the first 6 h of lactation colostrum total solids (TS) and protein contents were higher, while fat and lactose contents were lower than in mature milk. Decreased total protein and whey protein contents and concomitantly increased fat and lactose content, with nearly unchanged TS levels, indicate transition from colostrum to mature milk. The high protein content of colostrum was largely due to immunoglobulin (Ig). During the first 6 h, IgG accounts for nearly all the protein in colostrum but plays a decreasing role in sow milk as lactation proceeds. After 2 wk, IgA levels begin to increase and at the end of lactation, IgA constitutes 40% of the total whey protein. No influences of lactation number and litter size on milk composition could be ascertained in this study.

  18. Effects on plasma glucose and lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Injection of amylin or amylin agonists, including human and rat amylin, pramlintide, salmon calcitonin, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), increases the plasma levels of lactate and glucose in non-diabetic fasting rats and mice. This response can be useful in identifying and defining amylin agonists (amylinomimetic agents) (Cooper et al.) and has been investigated in several studies. Increases in plasma glucose and lactate are not present in all species. In humans, for example, increases in lactate are observed at high pramlintide doses but not at doses that would be used to therapeutically regulate plasma glucose. In species where it occurs, the increase in plasma lactate with amylin is comparable to that observed with exercise or adrenergic agents, and it is distinguishable from the very high levels observed during lactic acidosis (as may occur with biguanides). In contrast to lactic acidosis, the plasma lactate with amylin is derived from skeletal muscle rather than liver. Increases in plasma lactate and glucose in some species may initially appear inconsistent with a glucose-lowering effect of amylin agonists. But glycemic effects are due to actions in skeletal muscle and are present only in some species, whereas glucose-lowering actions are attributable to effects in gastrointestinal systems and are present in all species studied to date. And while glycemic effects are most pronounced in the fasted state, glucose-lowering effects are most pronounced in the postprandial state. Since they were discovered first, effects of higher doses of amylin on plasma glucose, especially in the fasted state, are described first and are related to concomitant changes in plasma lactate. These effects are prominent in rodents but are barely discernible in humans. Effects of lower doses of pramlintide to suppress plasma glucose profiles in the postprandial period are also observable in normal and diabetic rats, however, and are covered here as well. The relationship

  19. Improving quality at many levels. Profamilia's experience in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trias, M; Plata, M I

    1994-01-01

    Profamilia, the Colombian family planning association and the country's largest family planning provider, began diversifying its services in 1982 to offer prenatal care services as well as general medical consultations. The organization has since attempted to integrate quality assurance at all levels of operation. Specifically, Profamilia is aiming to provide care which is of sustainably high quality to satisfy present clients and attract new ones without overtaxing available organization resources, thereby prompting the eventual financial collapse of the programs and the failure to increase coverage especially among the middle and lower classes of the country. Drawing from the credo of modern corporate enterprise, "the client is always right," Profamilia listens and responds to clients' needs with the goal of making their satisfaction the ultimate objective. Moreover, organization staff receive regular training to motivate their receptiveness to client needs, while the pursuit of quality exists as a major goal at the managerial level. Profamilia regards quality maintenance and improvement as indispensable in program sustainability.

  20. Reduction of ammonia and lactate through the coupling of glutamine synthetase selection and downregulation of lactate dehydrogenase-A in CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Soo Min; Park, Jin Hyoung; Lim, Myung Sin; Kim, Jong Won; Lee, Gyun Min

    2017-02-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell cultivation for production of therapeutic proteins is accompanied by production of metabolic wastes, mostly ammonia and lactate. To reduce ammonia production, the glutamine synthetase (GS) system was used to develop therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb)-producing CHO cells (SM-0.025). Additionally, the lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) was downregulated with shRNA to reduce lactate production in SM-0.025. The resulting mAb-producing cell lines (#2, #46, and #52) produced less ammonia than the host cell line during the exponential phase due to GS protein overexpression. LDH-A downregulation in SM-0.025 not only reduced lactate production but also further reduced ammonia production. Among the three LDH-A-downregulated clones, clone #2 had the highest mAb production along with significantly reduced specific lactate and ammonia production rates compared to those in SM-0.025. Waste reduction increased the galactosylation level of N-glycosylation, which improved mAb quality. LDH-A downregulation was also successfully applied to the host cell lines (CHO K1 and GS knockout CHO-K1). However, LDH-A downregulated host cells could not survive the pool-selection process wherein glutamine was excluded and methionine sulfoximine was added to the media. Taken together, LDH-A downregulation in the mAb-producing cell line generated with the GS system successfully reduced both ammonia and lactate levels, improving mAb galactosylation. However, LDH-A downregulation could not be applied to host cell lines because it hampered the selection process of the GS system.

  1. Improving urban ecosystems resilience at a city level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, António J. D.; Ferrreira, Carla S. S.; Malta, Miguel; Soares, Daniel D. J.; Pardal, João; Vilhena, José

    2013-04-01

    The sustainability of urban communities is at risk in a global change context, where environmental problems and the constraints posed by a limited access to key raw materials, energy and sanitation will cause profound changes on the way we interact with the natural environment. Major changes are expected on processes magnitude and connectivity at various scales, with profound impacts on the environmental and well-being problems posed by the packing of high density of people in restricted areas, that have to be dealt with. The conventional approach is to find technological solutions that are often expensive and inefficient, especially in what concerns the use of energy and raw materials, limiting long term sustainability and urban ecosystems' resilience, and consequent impacts on the quality of life and health of urban populations. To improve city resilience in face of global change threats (climatic change, growing world population, land use change, lower energy availability, reduced mobility as a result of fossil fuels stringency and costs), we need to develop a nested approach binding together various greening actions and management of green infrastructures at various scales (i.e. household, neighbourhood, city and urban/wildland interface). This paper presents the conceptual strategy being developed at the Coimbra City (Centre of Portugal) to increase the resilience of urban ecosystems, using them to reduce natural risk occurrence (such as flash floods), the promotion of human health and increasing city resilience towards an improve food self sufficiency. We present a discussion and evaluation of the different solutions designed and implemented to improve the overall urban sustainability at different scales of intervention, from the household solutions to more structural solutions such as the recover of riparian forests or the preservation and improvement of green corridors. Of paramount importance to improve urban ecosystem resilience is the development of new

  2. The primary pathway for lactate oxidation in Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia ePieulle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to respire sulfate linked to lactate oxidation is a key metabolic signature of the Desulfovibrio genus. Lactate oxidation by these incomplete oxidizers generates reductants through lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR, with the latter catalyzing pyruvate conversion into acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA is the source of substrate-level phosphorylation though the production of ATP. Here, we show that these crucial steps are performed by enzymes encoded by a nonacistronic transcriptional unit named now as operon luo (for lactate utilization operon. Using a combination of genetic and biochemical techniques, we assigned a physiological role to the operon genes DVU3027-28 and DVU3032-33. The growth of mutant 26-28 was highly disrupted on D-lactate, whereas the growth of mutant 32-33 was slower on L-lactate, which could be related to a decrease in the activity of D-lactate or L-lactate oxidase in the corresponding mutants. The DVU3027-28 and DVU3032-33 genes thus encode functional D-LDH and L-LDH enzymes, respectively. Scanning of the genome for lactate utilization revealed several lactate permease and dehydrogenase homologs. However, transcriptional compensation was not observed in any of the mutants except for lactate permease. Although there is a high degree of redundancy for lactate oxidase, it is not functionally efficient in LDH mutants. This result could be related to the identification of several operon enzymes, including LDHs, in the PFOR activity bands, suggesting the occurrence of a lactate-oxidizing supermolecular structure that can optimize the performance of lactate utilization in Desulfovibrio species.

  3. Inhibition of endogenous lactate turnover with lactate infusion in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Searle, G.L.; Feingold, K.R.; Hsu, F.S.; Clark, O.H.; Gertz, E.W.; Stanley, W.C. (Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (USA))

    1989-11-01

    The extent to which lactate infusion may inhibit endogenous lactate production, though previously considered, has never been critically assessed. To examine this proposition, single injection tracer methodology (U-{sup 14}C Lactate) has been used for the estimation of lactate kinetics in 12 human subjects under basal conditions and with the infusion of sodium lactate. The basal rate of lactate turnover was measured on a day before the study with lactate infusion, and averaged 63.7 + 5.5 mg/kg/h. Six of these individuals received a stable lactate infusion at an approximate rate of 160 mg/kg/h, while the remaining six individuals were infused at the approximate rate of 100 mg/kg/h. It has been found that stable lactate infused at rates approximating 160 mg/kg/h consistently produced a complete inhibition of endogenous lactate production. Infusion of lactate at 100 mg/kg/h caused a lesser and more variable inhibition of endogenous lactate production (12% to 64%). In conclusion, lactate infusion significantly inhibits endogenous lactate production.

  4. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content

    OpenAIRE

    Katiéli Caroline Welter; Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues Martins; André Soligo Vizeu de Palma; Mellory Martinson Martins; Bárbara Roqueto Dos Reis; Bárbara Laís Unglaube Schmidt; Arlindo Saran Netto

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion o...

  5. METHOD IMPROVEMENT FOR DETERMINING THE TECHNICAL LEVEL OF CIVIL AIRCRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft are high-tech engineering products which are characterized by a wide range of properties including the two most important groups that respectively characterize the efficiency and technical level.Improving the aircraft efficiency is an essential factor for air transport development, but the efficiency can not be fully describe the technical system, especially in forecasting and new technology requirements development. Aircraft de- signer must evaluate the prospects of a technical solution, but it’s not always possible to calculate the efficiency accuratelyat the design stage. The operator should be able to choose the most technically-advanced aircraft available in the market inorder not to let it grow obsolete quickly. This determines the need for non-economic evaluation of technical systems that can be done by assessment of their technical level.The technical level is a general index that includes a set of technical perfection indicators. Technical perfection is reflected in terms of material and energy intensity, in terms of ergonomics, safety, etc. and is achieved as a result of origi- nal design solutions, the use of new high-strength low-density materials, the introduction of advanced technological pro-cesses, calculation methods, verification, testing, etc.There is a tight connection between the product properties and its weight, because weight is the material reflection of these properties. Therefore, improvement of the product properties usually leads to an intense increase of its weight. To deal with this phenomenon is only possible with widely using scientific and technical progress results. In accordance with this, the technical perfection can be interpreted as a major component of quality that is created without the weight increase. This approach requires investment in research and testing new technical solutions.The method was developed to determine the technical level of civil long-haul aircraft which has been modified to

  6. Impact of HVAC control improvements on supermarket humidity levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khattar, M.; Henderson, H.I. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents field-monitored data from two supermarkets where the impact of implementing minor HVAC control improvements was evaluated. The control improvements were intended to increase the dehumidification capacity of the HVAC system and lower space humidity levels. Direct digital control (DDC) was installed at each store to monitor system performance and implement the control improvements. At the first test store, a 33,400 ft{sup 2} (3,104 m{sup 2}) supermarket near Minneapolis, a conventional 50 ton (176 kW) split system conditioned the sales area. At the second store, a 50,000 ft{sup 2} (4,647 m{sup 2}{minus}) supermarket near Indianapolis, three rooftop units (RTUs) with a total capacity of 98 tons (344 kW) conditioned the store. The results from both supermarkets confirm the impact that supply airflow and part-load control of evaporator coil temperatures can have on dehumidification performance. Seemingly minor control adjustments can often have a big impact on the performance of supermarket HVAC systems. Even enhanced dehumidification technologies, such as heat pipe-assisted evaporator coils, can benefit from minor system tuning.

  7. Lactate promotes glutamine uptake and metabolism in oxidative cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escuredo, Jhudit; Dadhich, Rajesh K; Dhup, Suveera; Cacace, Andrea; Van Hée, Vincent F; De Saedeleer, Christophe J; Sboarina, Martina; Rodriguez, Fabien; Fontenille, Marie-Joséphine; Brisson, Lucie; Porporato, Paolo E; Sonveaux, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Oxygenated cancer cells have a high metabolic plasticity as they can use glucose, glutamine and lactate as main substrates to support their bioenergetic and biosynthetic activities. Metabolic optimization requires integration. While glycolysis and glutaminolysis can cooperate to support cellular proliferation, oxidative lactate metabolism opposes glycolysis in oxidative cancer cells engaged in a symbiotic relation with their hypoxic/glycolytic neighbors. However, little is known concerning the relationship between oxidative lactate metabolism and glutamine metabolism. Using SiHa and HeLa human cancer cells, this study reports that intracellular lactate signaling promotes glutamine uptake and metabolism in oxidative cancer cells. It depends on the uptake of extracellular lactate by monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1). Lactate first stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α), and HIF-2α then transactivates c-Myc in a pathway that mimics a response to hypoxia. Consequently, lactate-induced c-Myc activation triggers the expression of glutamine transporter ASCT2 and of glutaminase 1 (GLS1), resulting in improved glutamine uptake and catabolism. Elucidation of this metabolic dependence could be of therapeutic interest. First, inhibitors of lactate uptake targeting MCT1 are currently entering clinical trials. They have the potential to indirectly repress glutaminolysis. Second, in oxidative cancer cells, resistance to glutaminolysis inhibition could arise from compensation by oxidative lactate metabolism and increased lactate signaling.

  8. Lactate dehydrogenase has no control on lactate production but has a strong negative control on formate production in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.W.; Pedersen, M.B.; Hammer, Karin

    2001-01-01

    A series of mutant strains of Lactococcus lactis were constructed with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities ranging from below 1% to 133% of the wild-type activity level. The mutants with 59% to 133% of lactate dehydrogenase activity had growth rates similar to the wild-type and showed...... a homolactic pattern of fermentation. Only after lactate dehydrogenase activity was reduced ninefold compared to the wild-type was the growth rate significantly affected, and the ldh mutants started to produce mixed-acid products (formate, acetate, and ethanol in addition to lactate). Flux control coefficients...... were determined and it was found that lactate dehydrogenase exerted virtually no control on the glycolytic flux at the wild-type enzyme level and also not on the flux catalyzed by the enzyme itself, i.e. on the lactate production. As expected, the flux towards the mixed-acid products was strongly...

  9. Research on the improvement of nuclear safety -Improvement of level 1 PSA computer code package-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Kyoo; Kim, Tae Woon; Kim, Kil Yoo; Han, Sang Hoon; Jung, Won Dae; Jang, Seung Chul; Yang, Joon Un; Choi, Yung; Sung, Tae Yong; Son, Yung Suk; Park, Won Suk; Jung, Kwang Sub; Kang Dae Il; Park, Jin Heui; Hwang, Mi Jung; Hah, Jae Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    This year is the third year of the Government-sponsored mid- and long-term nuclear power technology development project. The scope of this sub project titled on `The improvement of level-1 PSA computer codes` is divided into three main activities : (1) Methodology development on the underdeveloped fields such as risk assessment technology for plant shutdown and low power situations, (2) Computer code package development for level-1 PSA, (3) Applications of new technologies to reactor safety assessment. At first, in this area of shutdown risk assessment technology development, plant outage experiences of domestic plants are reviewed and plant operating states (POS) are decided. A sample core damage frequency is estimated for over draining event in RCS low water inventory i.e. mid-loop operation. Human reliability analysis and thermal hydraulic support analysis are identified to be needed to reduce uncertainty. Two design improvement alternatives are evaluated using PSA technique for mid-loop operation situation: one is use of containment spray system as backup of shutdown cooling system and the other is installation of two independent level indication system. Procedure change is identified more preferable option to hardware modification in the core damage frequency point of view. Next, level-1 PSA code KIRAP is converted to PC-windows environment. For the improvement of efficiency in performing PSA, the fast cutest generation algorithm and an analytical technique for handling logical loop in fault tree modeling are developed. 48 figs, 15 tabs, 59 refs. (Author).

  10. Administration of Bioflavonoides Improves Plasma Levels of Adipocyte Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boncheva M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since time immemorial the fruits of aronia melanocarpa (rich of bioflavonoides have been known for their medicinal properties. Present-day research of the pharmacological effects of aronia melanocarpa juice and fruits intake indicates that their high contents of anthocyanins is closely related to the health enhancing properties of this plant. This is a key fact which can be used in the prevention of most commonly spread, socially significant diseases, reducing for instance the total risk of cardio-vascular diseases. The great molecular variety anthocyanins possess and the role they play in cell metabolism, are still being investigated. This gives grounds to study the effects of Aronia melanocarpa on human cells, tissues, and organs. The aim of this study is to trace the effect of 150-200 ml aronia melanokarpa juice daily oral intake on the adipocyte hormones leptin (Lp, resistine (Rs and adiponectin (Adn blood levels in 10 patients with high body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 and high waist circumference. We used ELISA methods for hormonal analyses. During the study-period of two months patients did not change anything in their lifestyle. In the study group, the levels of Rs, Lp and Adn changed significantly compared to their baseline levels (averages, ng/mL - 6.93 ± 0.137, 18.40 ±1.021 and 7.98 ± 0.077 vs. 5.06 ± 0.011, 15.23 ± 0.906 and 10.45 ± 0.103 at the end of the second month, respectively. Compared with the control group of 6 people, matched for BMI, not receiving aronia melanocarpa juice, these values were markedly different. Patients taking aronia melanokarpa juice report improvement in various conditions that have caused them discomfort before the research started: pain in the muscles and joints faded away and were replaced by a new feeling of strength, headache attacks disappeared, improvement in memory and sleep were reported, regular defecation, no signs of gastric discomfort, better vision, a quicker auditory reaction, motivation

  11. A New Slow-Release Non-Protein Nitrogen:Effects of Supplemental Level on Lactation Performance and Blood Biochemical Indices of Lactating Goats%一种新型缓释非蛋白氮添加水平对奶山羊泌乳性能及血液生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王会; 罗军; 张伟; 张天颖; 杨地坤

    2014-01-01

    本试验旨在探讨饲粮中添加不同水平的一种新型缓释非蛋白氮( srNPN)对奶山羊泌乳性能及血液生化指标的影响。选择2~3胎平均体重约为60 kg的健康西农萨能奶山羊泌乳羊48只,随机分为4组,每组12只。各组饲粮 srNPN 添加水平分别为0(对照组)、0.25%、0.50%、0.75%。预试期1周,正试期16周。结果表明:1)饲粮中添加不同水平的srNPN对奶山羊日均采食量无显著影响( P>0.05)。2)饲粮中添加srNPN可显著提高奶山羊日均产奶量(P0.05);各组乳中乳蛋白、乳糖及乳非脂固形物含量差异不显著( P>0.05)。4)饲粮中添加srNPN可显著降低血液尿素氮含量(P0.05)。由此得出,饲粮中添加srNPN能够提高奶山羊乳中乳脂含量,降低血液尿素氮含量,添加水平为0.50%时奶山羊日均产奶量最高。%This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different supplemental level of a new slow-release non-protein nitrogen ( srNPN ) on lactation performance and blood biochemical indices of dairy goats. Forty-eight healthy lactating Xinong Saanen dairy goats with 2 to 3 parities and about 60 kg of average body weight were randomly assigned to 4 groups with 12 goats in each group. Goats in the 4 groups were fed diets supplemented with srNPN at 0, 0. 25%, 0. 50% and 0. 75%, respectively. There was a pretrial period of 1 week followed by an experimental period of 16 weeks. The results showed as follows:1 ) dietary supple-mentation of srNPN at different levels did not affect average daily feed intake of lactating goats ( P>0 . 05 ) . 2 ) The supplementation of srNPN significantly increased average daily milk yield ( P 0. 05); besides, the contents of milk protein, lac-tose and milk solids-non-fat were not significantly affected by the supplementation of srNPN ( P>0 . 05 ) . 4 ) The supplementation of srNPN could significantly decrease blood urea nitrogen content ( P0. 05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation of sr

  12. Lactate metabolism during exercise in patients with mitochondrial myopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Tina Dysgaard; Ørngreen, Mette Cathrine; van Hall, Gerrit

    2013-01-01

    Patients with mitochondrial DNA mutations often have elevated plasma lactate at rest and during exercise, but it is unknown whether the high lactate levels are caused by a high production, an impaired oxidation or a combination. We studied lactate kinetics in 10 patients with mtDNA mutations and 10...... matched healthy control subjects at rest and during cycle exercise with a combination of femoral arterio-venous differences of lactate, and lactate tracer dilution methodology. During exercise, lactate concentration and production rates were several-fold higher in patients, but despite mitochondrial...... is not solely an indicator of impaired oxidative capacity, but an important fuel for oxidative metabolism, even in muscle with severely impaired mitochondrial function....

  13. Supplementation of medium with diammonium hydrogen phosphate enhanced the D-lactate dehydrogenase levels leading to increased D-lactic acid productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhvi, Mamata; Jadhav, Akanksha; Gokhale, Digambar

    2013-10-01

    The production of D-lactic acid by Lactobacillus lactis RM2-24 was investigated using modified media to increase the efficiency of the fermentation process. The results indicated that the addition of 5 g/l peptone and 1 g/l (NH4)2HPO4 enhanced D-lactic acid production by 32%, as compared to that obtained from non supplemented media, with a productivity of 3.0 g/l/h. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) expression profile in these different media was studied which resulted in appearance of additional LDH isoform produced by cells when they were grown in HSYE supplemented with (NH4)2HPO4. The additional LDH appears to be L-LDH contributing to production of L-lactic acid in the fermented broth. This is totally new information in the lactic acid fermentation and could be very useful to industries engaged in D-lactic acid production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Non-nutritional factors affecting lactation persistency in dairy ewes: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Cannas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk production is largely related to the shape of the lactation curve. Key elements of the lactation pattern are peak yield, which is the maximum daily yield reached during lactation, and lactation persistency, which is the medium rate of milk yield decrease after the lactation peak. The ideal lactation curve should have a reasonably high peak and a flat trend afterwards. A more persistent lactation is desirable because it is related to better animal health and reduction of feeding costs. Effective strategies to improve lactation persistency require a deep understanding of the main factors that affect this trait, including genetics, hormonal status and administration, udder morphology, seasonal changes, management, animal health (e.g. mastitis, stress and nutrition. This review covers the effects of non-nutritional factors on lactation persistency in dairy sheep.

  15. Improving wafer level CD uniformity for logic applications utilizing mask level metrology and process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Avi; Trautzsch, Thomas; Buttgereit, Ute; Graitzer, Erez; Hanuka, Ori

    2013-09-01

    Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) is one of the key parameters necessary to assure good performance and reliable functionality of any integrated circuit (IC). The extension of 193nm based lithography usage combined with design rule shrinkage makes process control, in particular the wafer level CDU control, an extremely important and challenging task in IC manufacturing. In this study the WLCD-CDC closed loop solution offered by Carl Zeiss SMS was examined. This solution aims to improve the wafer level intra-field CDU without the need to run wafer prints and extensive wafer CD metrology. It combines two stand-alone tools: The WLCD tool which measures CD based on aerial imaging technology while applying the exact scanner-used illumination conditions to the photomask and the CDC tool which utilizes an ultra-short femto-second laser to write intra-volume shading elements (Shade-In Elements™) inside the photomask bulk material. The CDC process changes the dose going through the photomask down to the wafer, hence the wafer level intra-field CDU improves. The objective of this study was to evaluate how CDC process is affecting the CD for different type of features and pattern density which are typical for logic and system on chip (SOC) devices. The main findings show that the linearity and proximity behavior is maintained by the CDC process and CDU and CDC Ratio (CDCR) show a linear behavior for the different feature types. Finally, it was demonstrated that the CDU errors of the targeted (critical) feature have been effectively eliminated. In addition, the CDU of all other features have been significantly improved as well.

  16. Supplementation with 200 mg/day docosahexaenoic acid from mid-pregnancy through lactation improves the docosahexaenoic acid status of mothers with a habitually low fish intake and of their infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Renate L; Haschke-Becher, Elisabeth; Klassen-Wigger, Petra; Bergmann, Karl E; Richter, Rolf; Dudenhausen, Joachim W; Grathwohl, Dominik; Haschke, Ferdinand

    2008-01-01

    The supply of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6omega-3), important for fetal/infant neurodevelopment, depends on the maternal fatty acid (FA) status, which may be marginal in central Europe. Therefore, we investigated the effect of a daily vitamin/mineral supplement with and without 200 mg DHA from mid-pregnancy through lactation on the DHA concentrations in maternal and infant red blood cell phospholipids (RBC%), and in breast milk FA (%). At 21 weeks' gestation, 144 women were enrolled into a randomised, double-blind clinical trial receiving daily: (1) a basic vitamin-mineral supplement (Vit/Min group), (2) Vit/Min plus 4.5 g fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS group), or (3) Vit/Min plus 4.5 g FOS plus 200 mg fish oil-derived DHA (DHA-FOS group). FAs were determined by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. While maternal RBC-DHA% at enrolment was not different, at 37 weeks gestation, and 3 months after delivery RBC-DHA% were significantly higher in the DHA-FOS group. The breast milk DHA% was twice as high in the DHA-FOS group (0.50%) than in the two others (0.25 %) (p pregnancy through lactation seems appropriate to improve the DHA status of mothers and infants. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Effects of konjac flour inclusion in gestation diets on the nutrient digestibility, lactation feed intake and reproductive performance of sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H Q; Zhou, Y F; Tan, C Q; Zheng, L F; Peng, J; Jiang, S W

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of konjac flour (KF) inclusion in gestation diets of sows on nutrients digestibility, lactation feed intake, reproductive performance of sows and preweaning performance of piglets. Two isoenergetic and isonitrogenous gestation diets were formulated: a control diet and a 2.1% KF-supplemented diet (KF diet). Both diets had the same NDF and insoluble fiber (ISF) levels, but the KF diet had higher soluble fiber (SF) level. The day after breeding, 96 multiparous sows were assigned to the two dietary treatments. Restrict-fed during gestation, in contrast, all sows were offered the same lactation diet ad libitum. Response criteria included sow BW, backfat depth, lactation feed intake, weaning-to-estrus interval, litter size and piglet's weight at parturition and day 21 of lactation. On day 60 of gestation, 20 sows were used to measure nutrient digestibility. Results showed that the digestibility of dry matter, gross energy, crude fiber and ADF were not affected by the dietary treatments. The inclusion of KF in gestation diets increased NDF digestibility (Pdiet group. In addition, dietary treatment during gestation did not affect litter size, BW and backfat gain during gestation, lactation weight, backfat loss or weaning-to-estrus interval of sows. However, sows fed the KF diet consumed more (Pdiet per day than sows in the control group. Accordingly, sows fed the KF diet showed greater average piglet weights on day 21 of lactation (P=0.09), and the litter weight of sows fed the KF diet on day 21 of lactation increased by 3.95 kg compared with sows fed the control diet (not significant). In conclusion, the inclusion of KF in gestation diets increased lactation feed intake of sows and tended to improve litter performance.

  18. [Bone loss in lactating women and post-pregnancy osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Go; Chaki, Osamu

    2011-09-01

    Measurement of the bone mineral density have shown that lactating women had 1 to 3% decrease in bone mineral density. Post pregnancy osteoporosis is rare condition that causes fragile fracture mostly in vertebrae. The bone loss in lactating women is caused by calcium loss, decrease in estrogen level, and increase in PTHrP (parathyroid hormone related protein) level. Some data have shown that extended lactation and amenorrhea had an association with the degree of bone loss. Mostly, the bone loss of the lactating women recovers to the baseline level, soon after the weaning, and there is no long term effect. Post pregnancy osteoporosis should be concerned, when we see a lactating woman with fragile fracture of the vertebrae.

  19. Effect of concentrate level and feeding management on chewing activities, saliva production, and ruminal pH of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, M; Beauchemin, K A; Christensen, D A

    2002-05-01

    Eight ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows were used in a double 4 x 4 Latin square to determine the effects of 1) proportion of barley silage [40, 50, and 60% of dry matter (DM)] in the diet, and 2) feeding a total mixed ration (TMR) compared with separate ingredients (SI) on chewing activities, saliva production, and ruminal pH. Although cows fed SI were offered a diet containing 50% silage, they actually consumed a diet containing 43% silage (DM basis). Dry matter intake and milk yield were similar for all diets (18.2 kg of DM/d and 27.2 kg/d, respectively). Cows fed the 40% silage TMR spent more time eating than cows fed SI (243 vs. 198 min/d), but rumination time was similar (546 min/d). Eating time was similar among the TMR diets, but rumination time increased from 498 to 516 and 584 min/d as silage in the TMR increased from 40 to 50, and then to 60%, respectively. The secretion of saliva per gram of feed was 4.43, 3.18, and 1.19 ml/g of DM with consumption of silage, TMR, and concentrate, respectively. Resting salivation rate was similar for all diets (101 ml/min). Regardless of the diet, cows secreted 239 +/- 17 L/d of saliva, and ruminal pH was below 5.8 for 10 h/d. Results indicated increased chewing time did not increase total daily saliva secretion because increased eating and ruminating saliva was associated with decreased resting saliva. Feeding SI increased the risk of acidosis, because cows ate a higher proportion of concentrate than intended.

  20. Bovine somatotropin increases embryonic development in superovulated cows and improves post-transfer pregnancy rates when given to lactating recipient cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, F; Badinga, L; Burnley, C; Thatcher, W W

    2002-03-01

    Previous studies indicated that the use of bovine somatotropin (bST) in concurrence with a timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol increased pregnancy rates. However, the mechanisms for such a bST effect on fertility were not clear. Objectives of this study were to determine the effects of bST on fertilization and early embryonic development after cows received a superovulation treatment, test whether embryos recovered from bST-treated cows were more likely to survive after transfer to recipients, and evaluate whether treatment of recipient cows with bST affects pregnancy rates. Lactating (n = 8) and nonlactating (n = 4) Holstein donor cows were superovulated, inseminated at detected estrus and assigned to a nontreated control group or to a treatment group receiving a single injection of bST (500 mg, sc) at insemination. Embryos were nonsurgically flushed 7 days after AI and frozen in ethylene glycol for direct transfer. Embryos derived from bST-treated (bST-embryos) or control (control-embryos) donors were transferred to lactating Holstein recipient cows that received either bST treatment 1 day after estrus (500 mg, sc; bST-recipients) or were untreated controls (control-recipients). Thus, there were four treatment groups: control-embryos/control-recipients (n = 43), bST-embryos/control-recipients (n = 41), control-embryos/bST-recipients (n = 37), and bST-embryos/bST-recipients (n = 60). Pregnancy was determined by palpation per rectum 33-43 days after embryo transfer. Unfertilized ova per flush was less for bST than for control (1.0 +/- 0.9 56.4%; P 0.4 +/- 0.7; P cows with bST increased pregnancy rates as compared to control-recipients that received a control-embryo. However, there was no additive effect when bST-recipients received a bST-embryo. Administration of bST at AI decreased the number of unfertilized ova, increased the percentage of transferable embryos, and stimulated embryonic development to the blastocyst stage. Moreover, bST affected both

  1. Determination of cadmium in human milk during lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte-Loebbert, F.J. (Univ., Muenster, Ger.); Bohn, G.

    1977-01-01

    During lactation,, Cd-levels in human milk were determined by means of flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The levels in colostrum were some 50 to 65% higher than in transitional and mature milk.

  2. Clinical significance of lactate in acute cardiac patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chiara; Lazzeri; Serafina; Valente; Marco; Chiostri; Gian; Franco; Gensini

    2015-01-01

    Lactate, as a metabolite of easy and quick assessment, has been studied over time in critically ill patients in order to evaluate its prognostic ability. The present review is focused on the prognostic role of lactate levels in acute cardiac patients(that is with acute coronary syndrome, cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, non including post cardiac surgery patients). In patients with STelevation myocardial infarction treated with mechanical revascularization, hyperlactatemia identified a subset of patients at higher risk for early death and in-hospital complications, being strictly related mainly to hemodynamic derangement. The prognostic impact of hyperlactatemia on mortality has been documented in patients with cardiogenic shock and in those with cardiac arrest even if there is no cut-off value of lactate to be associated with worse outcome or to guide resuscitation or hemodynamic management. Therapeutic hypothermia seems to affect per se lactate values which have been shown to progressively decrease during hypothermia. The mechanism(s) accounting for lactate levels during hypothemia seem to be multiple ranging from the metabolic effects of reduced temperatures to the hemodynamic effects of hypothermia(i.e., reduced need of vasopressor agents). Serial lactate measurements over time, or lactate clearance, have been reported to be clinically more reliable than lactate absolute value also in acute cardiac patients. Despite differences in study design, timing of lactate measurements and type of acute cardiac conditions(i.e., cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, refractory cardiac arrest), available evidence strongly suggests that higher lactate levels can be observed on admission in non-survivors and that higher lactate clearance is associated with better outcome.

  3. Lactation in insulin-dependent diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, S H

    1990-01-01

    The ability of insulin-dependent diabetic (IDDM) women to breast-feed has been documented, however, there is little information concerning milk composition or factors that influence successful breastfeeding. Placental lactogen and prolactin levels can be normalized during pregnancy with good metabolic control. These hormones affect the readiness of the mammary gland for lactation. Prolactin maintains mammary gland insulin receptors to ensure anabolism. Lactation in IDDM women may be influenced by hyper- or hypoglycemia as women balance their insulin needs. Milk from diabetic animals has decreased lactose, fat, protein and volume and these effects can be reversed with insulin administration. Mature breast milk of IDDM women has increased glucose and sodium and mammary gland lipid metabolism may be impaired. Milk lactose and citrate, markers of lactogenesis II, suggest delayed lactation occurs in diabetic women. Many factors may influence lactation success and breast milk composition of IDDM women. Some of these include: method of delivery, feeding frequency, fetal condition, gestational age, mastitis incidence, metabolic control and maternal dietary intake. Lactation management of the IDDM woman must address these factors.

  4. Lactate metabolism in acute uremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverve, Xavier; Mustafa, Iqbal; Novak, Ivan; Krouzecky, Ales; Rokyta, Richard; Matejovic, Martin; Ichai, Carole

    2005-01-01

    Lactate is a key metabolite that is produced by every cell and oxidized by most of them, provided that they do contain mitochondria. Its metabolism is connected to energetic homeostasis and the cellular redox state. It is well recognized as an indicator of severe outcome in severely ill patients, however, it is not a detrimental factor per se. Conversely, some recent data tend even to indicate a beneficial effect in several metabolic disorders. Although the liver has long been recognized as a key organ in lactate homeostasis, the kidney also plays a major role as a gluconeogenic organ significantly involved in the glucose-lactate cycle. In acute renal failure, sodium lactate is widely used as a buffer in replacement fluids because the anion (lactate - ) is metabolized and the cation (Na + ) remains, leading to decreased water dissociation and proton concentration. The metabolic disorders related to acute renal failure or associated with it, such as liver failure, may affect lactate metabolism, and therefore they are often regarded as limiting factors for the use of lactate-containing fluids in such patients. By investigating endogenous lactate production in severe septic patients with acute renal failure, we found that an acute exogenous load of lactate did not affect the basal endogenous lactate production and metabolism. This indicates that exogenous lactate is well metabolized even in patients suffering from acute renal failure and severe sepsis with a compromised hemodynamic status.

  5. Implementation of a Speech Improvement Program at the Kindergarten Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert A.

    Evaluated was a speech improvement program for kindergarten students in which speech improvement lessons were summarized for teachers, and the services of itinerant speech therapists were shared by classroom teachers. Teacher and therapist agreed upon specific speech lessons which were conducted on a weekly basis. Program development involved…

  6. Improvement of Level-1 PSA computer code package -A study for nuclear safety improvement-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Kyu; Kim, Tae Woon; Ha, Jae Joo; Han, Sang Hoon; Cho, Yeong Kyun; Jeong, Won Dae; Jang, Seung Cheol; Choi, Young; Seong, Tae Yong; Kang, Dae Il; Hwang, Mi Jeong; Choi, Seon Yeong; An, Kwang Il [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-01

    This year is the second year of the Government-sponsored Mid- and Long-Term Nuclear Power Technology Development Project. The scope of this subproject titled on `The Improvement of Level-1 PSA Computer Codes` is divided into three main activities : (1) Methodology development on the under-developed fields such as risk assessment technology for plant shutdown and external events, (2) Computer code package development for Level-1 PSA, (3) Applications of new technologies to reactor safety assessment. At first, in the area of PSA methodology development, foreign PSA reports on shutdown and external events have been reviewed and various PSA methodologies have been compared. Level-1 PSA code KIRAP and CCF analysis code COCOA are converted from KOS to Windows. Human reliability database has been also established in this year. In the area of new technology applications, fuzzy set theory and entropy theory are used to estimate component life and to develop a new measure of uncertainty importance. Finally, in the field of application study of PSA technique to reactor regulation, a strategic study to develop a dynamic risk management tool PEPSI and the determination of inspection and test priority of motor operated valves based on risk importance worths have been studied. (Author).

  7. Improvements of SMILES Level 2 products on ISAS/JAXA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuda, Chihiro; Suzuki, Makoto; Iwata, Yoshitaka; Manago, Naohiro; Takahashi, Chikako; Imai, Koji; Shiotani, Masato; Sano, Takuki; Takayanagi, Masahiro; Taniguchi, Hirotomo

    The Superconducting Submillimeter-wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES),which was jointly developed by JAXA and NICT, had been launched and aboard the Japanese Experiment Mod-ule (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS) in September, 2009. The SMILES carries 4 K-cooled Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor (SIS) mixers to demonstrate a sensitive instrument for sub-millimeter limb sounding. SMILES system noise temperature (Tsys) is less than 500K (random noise ¡ 1 K). Since ISS has a non-sun-synchronous orbit, SMILES can observe diurnal variations of ClO, BrO, HO2 and mesospheric O3 etc. Standard L2 products, which are defined as O3, HCl, ClO, HNO3, CH3CN, HOCl, HO2, BrO, O3-isotopes on stratospheres, began to be released to RA PIs on January, 2010. The L2 data is currently 4 85 km, with 3 km interval (geometrical altitude) in HDF ver.5 file format similar to EOS-HDF including time, location etc.However, release data (ver. 005-06-0024) is a test version which is retrieved by prelaunch algorithms (Rodgers 1976. SMILES mission plan 2002. Takahashi et al., 2010. Imai et al., 2010.), and has some known issues. The one of the main issue is less product data. SMILES observes 1630 scans per a day. However, release products include only 60 percents of observation data. There are two reasons for this. The first is that antenna main beam is interfered by the ISS solar paddles. The second is that star tracker cameras, which determine SMILES observation points, are interfered by the Sun. In latter case, if we estimate the points by other information, geophysical parameters are retrieved since observed spectrums are useful. In new release data, we use both STT and ISS information and 80 percents of the data are included to products. In this presentation, we will introduce improvements of operational level 2 processing for new release product version.

  8. Significance of cerebrospinal fluid lactate level in diagnosing neonatal bacterial meningitis%脑脊液乳酸水平对新生儿细菌性脑膜炎的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵翠; 张澜; 刘宁; 张鹏; 梅枚; 胡黎园; 周文浩; 曹云; 程国强

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨脑脊液乳酸水平在新生儿细菌性脑膜炎诊断中的价值。方法收集2014年1月至2015年3月复旦大学附属儿科医院新生儿科住院患儿脑脊液。采用血气分析仪检测脑脊液乳酸、葡萄糖水平。采用纸片法检测血糖水平及脑脊液葡萄糖水平。根据脑脊液培养、细胞数及临床表现将纳入患儿分为细菌性脑膜炎组(观察组)与非细菌性脑膜炎组(对照组),利用 Stata 12.0软件对数据进行统计学分析。结果共纳入93例患者,其中观察组16例,对照组77例。观察组脑脊液乳酸、脑脊液乳酸/脑脊液糖比值中位数分别为4.2 mmol/ L、2.32,高于对照组的1.3 mmol/ L、0.52,差异有统计学意(Z =-6.19、5.92,P 均﹤0.05);观察组脑脊液糖、脑脊液糖/血糖比值中位数分别为1.25 mmol/ L、0.44,较对照组(2.50 mmol/ L、0.81)明显低,差异有统计学意义(Z =4.97、4.43,P 均﹤0.05)。作为诊断细菌性脑膜炎指标时,脑脊液乳酸最佳界值2.2 mmol/ L,其阳性预测值(PPV)为72.7%、阴性预测值(NPV)为100.0%;脑脊液乳酸/脑脊液糖最佳界值1.24,PPV 为94.1%、NPV 为100.0%;脑脊液糖最佳界值2.0 mmol/ L,其 PPV 为65.0%、NPV 为96.9%;脑脊液糖/血糖比值最佳界值0.6,其 PPV 为60.0%、NPV 为96.9%。结论脑脊液乳酸可作为新生儿细菌性脑膜炎诊断指标之一。%Objective To study the significance of the cerebrospinal fluid(CSF)lactate level in diagnosing neonatal bacterial meningitis(BM). Methods The CSF samples were collected from neonates admitted to Neonatal Ward of Children's Hospital of Fudan University between January 2014 and March 2015. CSF lactate and glucose con-centrations were measured with blood - gas analyzer. CSF and serum glucose levels were measured with glucometer. The enrolled neonates were divided into 2 groups based on CSF culture,CSF white blood cells(WBCs)and clinical

  9. N-Acetylcysteine Supplementation Controls Total Antioxidant Capacity, Creatine Kinase, Lactate, and Tumor Necrotic Factor-Alpha against Oxidative Stress Induced by Graded Exercise in Sedentary Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donrawee Leelarungrayub

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-term (7 days N-acetylcysteine (NAC at 1,200 mg daily supplementation on muscle fatigue, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, lactate, creatine kinase (CK, and tumor necrotic factor-alpha (TNF-α. Twenty-nine sedentary men (13 controls; 16 in the supplement group from a randomized control were included. At before and after supplementation, fatigue index (FI was evaluated in the quadriceps muscle, and performed a graded exercise treadmill test to induce oxidative stress, and as a measure of VO2max. Blood samples were taken before exercise and 20 minutes after it at before and after supplementation, to determine TAC, CK, lactate, and TNF-α levels. Results showed that FI and VO2max increased significantly in the supplement group. After exercise decreased the levels of TAC and increased lactate, CK, and TNF-α of both groups at before supplementation. After supplementation, lactate, CK, and TNF-α levels significantly increased and TAC decreased after exercise in the control group. Whereas the TAC and lactate levels did not change significantly, but CK and TNF-α increased significantly in the supplement group. Therefore, this results showed that NAC improved the muscle fatigue, VO2max, maintained TAC, controlled lactate production, but had no influence on CK and TNF-α.

  10. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Oregano Essential Oil to Sows on Oxidative Stress Status, Lactation Feed Intake of Sows, and Piglet Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengquan Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-four multiparous large white sows were used to determine the effects of supplementing oregano essential oil (OEO to the gestation and lactation diets on oxidative stress status, lactation feed intake, and their piglet performance. Two groups were fed diets with (OEO; n=28 or without (Control; n=26 supplemental 15 mg/kg OEO during gestation and lactation. The serum levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS (P<0.05, 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG (P<0.05, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS (P<0.05 were higher during gestation (days 90 and 109 and lactation (days 1 and 3 than in early gestation (day 10. Compared with the control group, the OEO diet significantly reduced sows’ serum concentrations of 8-OHdG (P<0.05 and TBARS (P<0.01 on day 1 of lactation. The OEO diet increased the sows’ counts of faecal lactobacillus (P<0.001 while reducing Escherichia coli (P<0.001 and Enterococcus (P<0.001. In the third week of lactation the treatment tended to increase sow’s feed intake (P=0.07, which resulted in higher average daily gain (P<0.01 of piglets. Our results demonstrated that there is an increased systemic oxidative stress during late gestation and early lactation of sows. The OEO supplementation to sows’ diet improved performance of their piglets, which may be attributed to the reduced oxidative stress.

  11. Expression profiles of microRNAs from lactating and non-lactating bovine mammary glands and identification of miRNA related to lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been implicated in the regulation of milk protein synthesis and development of the mammary gland (MG. However, the specific functions of miRNAs in these regulations are not clear. Therefore, the elucidation of miRNA expression profiles in the MG is an important step towards understanding the mechanisms of lactogenesis. Results Two miRNA libraries were constructed from MG tissues taken from a lactating and a non-lactating Holstein dairy cow, respectively, and the short RNA sequences (18–30 nt in these libraries were sequenced by Solexa sequencing method. The libraries included 885 pre-miRNAs encoding for 921 miRNAs, of which 884 miRNAs were unique sequences and 544 (61.5% were expressed in both periods. A custom-designed microarray assay was then performed to compare miRNA expression patterns in the MG of lactating and non-lactating dairy cows. A total of 56 miRNAs in the lactating MG showed significant differences in expression compared to non-lactating MG (P Conclusion Our study provides a broad view of the bovine MG miRNA expression profile characteristics. Eight hundred and eighty-four miRNAs were identified in bovine MG. Differences in types and expression levels of miRNAs were observed between lactating and non-lactating bovine MG. Systematic predictions aided in the identification of lactation-related miRNAs, providing insight into the types of miRNAs and their possible mechanisms in regulating lactation.

  12. Improving climato-economic theorizing at the individual level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ronald

    2013-10-01

    Using representative data from 55 nations, I show that individual level wealth interacts with climate in predicting individual happiness but not postmaterialism values. I propose that more research is needed to identify (a) the specific mechanisms of how wealth buffers climatic demands at the individual level and (b) the neurocognitive and physiological reactions of individuals situated in different ecological niches.

  13. Multi-Level Steganography: Improving Hidden Communication in Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Fraczek, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents Multi-Level Steganography (MLS), which defines a new concept for hidden communication. In MLS, at least two steganographic methods are utilised simultaneously, in such a way that one method (called the upper-level) serves as a carrier for the second one (called the lower-level). Such a relationship between two (or more) information hiding solutions has several potential benefits. The most important is that the lower-level method steganographic bandwidth can be utilised to make the steganogram unreadable even after the detection of the upper-level method: e.g., it can carry a cryptographic key that deciphers the steganogram carried by the upper-level one. It can also be used to provide the steganogram with integrity. Another important benefit is that the lower-layer method may be used as a signalling channel in which to exchange information that affects the way that the upper-level method functions, thus possibly making the steganographic communication harder to detect. MLS is presented in t...

  14. An intervention to improve the timing of vancomycin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Stacy E F; Mijailovic, Aleksandar S; Wright, Aileen P M; Szumita, Paul M; Bates, David W; Tanasijevic, Milenko J

    2013-12-01

    Blood samples for vancomycin levels are often drawn too early, leading to potential misinterpretation of results. However, only a few studies describe interventions to reduce mistimed vancomycin levels. We implemented an information technology (IT)-based intervention that provided educational instructions to nurses and determined the percentage of levels drawn too early for 27 months before (n = 6,291) and 14 months after (n = 3,608) the intervention. In addition, we conducted nurse interviews (n = 40) and dataset analysis to assess the root causes of mistimed levels. The percentage of vancomycin timing errors decreased from 39% (2,438/6,291) to 32% (1,137/3,608), though in a time series analysis this decrease was not statistically significant (P = .64). Four common causes of mistimed levels were found: (1) unclear provider orders, (2) scheduling levels to be drawn with morning laboratory tests, (3) lack of communication between providers, and (4) failure to adjust the blood draw in relation to the previous dose. A real-time, IT-based intervention that links the timing of levels with medication administration might have a more substantial impact.

  15. Níveis de lisina em ração de lactação para fêmeas suínas primíparas Lysine levels in the diet of primiparous lactating sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza da Silveira Cota

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 40 porcas mestiças (Landrace x Large White de primeiro parto, com peso médio de 182,2 ±16,5 kg para avaliar diferentes níveis de lisina total (0,95; 1,03; 1,10; 1,18; e 1,25% na ração, mantendo-se a mesma relação de aminoácidos, durante a lactação (21 dias. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso com cinco tratamentos, oito repetições, sendo a porca considerada a unidade experimental. O consumo total de ração não variou entre os tratamentos, com as porcas consumindo, em média, 4,2 kg de ração por dia. O consumo de lisina e o peso das porcas à desmama aumentaram de forma linear, em razão do nível de lisina das rações. Embora a variação de peso das porcas não tenha sido significativa, as porcas que consumiram as rações com níveis de lisina iguais ou superiores a 1,18% apresentaram menores valores absolutos de perda de peso durante a lactação. O ganho de peso e o peso à desmama dos leitões e da leitegada, a espessura de toucinho e o número de dias para a retomada do estro das porcas após a desmama não foram influenciados pelos níveis de lisina da ração. Concluiu-se que o nível de 0,95%, correspondente a um consumo diário de 40 g de lisina total, atende às exigências de lisina de porcas primíparas em lactação.Forty crossbred sows (Landrace x Large White from the first parturition, with average weight of 182.2 ±16.5 kg, were used to evaluate the total lysine levels (0.95, 1.03, 1.10, 1.18, and 1.25% in the diet, maintaining the same amino acids relation, during lactation (21 days. A completely randomized blocks design, with five treatments, eight replicates, where the sow was considered the experimental unit, was used. Total feed intake did not change according to the treatments, where the sows were daily fed, in average, 4.2 kg. Lysine intake and sows weight at weaning linearly increased, according to the lysine levels in the diet. Although the sows weight variation was not

  16. Níveis de lisina digestível em dietas para fêmeas suínas primíparas em lactação = Digestible lysine levels in diets for primiparous lactating sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Oelke

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se a ingestão diária de diferentes quantidades de lisina digestível, pelas fêmeas suínas primíparas em lactação, influencia o desempenho produtivo, reprodutivo e o perfil sangüíneo dessas matrizes. Utilizaram-seinicialmente 50 porcas primíparas em lactação, distribuídas em 5 tratamentos (10 animais por tratamento, correspondendo a 0,88; 0,99; 1,04; 1,08 e 1,24% de lisina digestível na ração. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, sendo cada matrizconsiderada uma unidade experimental. Os resultados foram avaliados através de modelos estatísticos de análise de variância, utilizando-se a regressão linear ou quadrática conforme o melhor ajuste. As variáveis de desempenho das matrizes (perda de peso, perda de espessura de toucinho e intervalo desmama cio e concentração de uréia no soro das matrizes durante a lactação não foram influenciadas (p > 0,05 pelos níveis de lisina da ração. Já as concentrações de creatinina e proteínas totais no soro das matrizes, foram influenciadas (p The objective of the study was evaluate, how the daily intake of different digestible lysine levels influence the productive and reproductive performance of first lactating sows, and theblood profile of creatine, urea and total protein. Fifty first lactating sows were used and distributed in five treatments (10 animals per treatment, correspondent to 0.88; 0.99; 1.04;1.08 and 1.24% of digestible lysine in the ration. These animals were distributed in a randomized block design with every sow as an experimental unit (10 replicates. The results were evaluated through statistical variance models, using linear or quadratic regressioncorresponding to the best adjustment. The performance variables of the sows (weight loss, back fat thickness and weaning-to-estrus interval and the concentration of urea in the serum of the sows during the lactation weren’t influenced (p > 0.05 through the

  17. Post-mortem analysis of lactate concentration in diabetics and metformin poisonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keltanen, T; Nenonen, T; Ketola, R A; Ojanperä, I; Sajantila, A; Lindroos, K

    2015-11-01

    Lactate is produced in carbohydrate metabolism under anaerobic conditions. Lactic acidosis occurs when the production of lactate exceeds its removal. In post-mortem (PM) context, the lactic acidosis is difficult to interpret due to unknown pathophysiological factors prior to death and PM changes that may affect the lactate levels. We evaluated 1865 medico-legal autopsy cases where the quantitation of glucose, lactate, and ketone bodies was performed as a part of the cause of death (CoD) investigation. Lactate was shown to ascend in a logarithmic manner as the PM interval increased until a plateau was achieved approximately after 8-10 days PM, and the elevation was caused mainly by PM changes. The lactate level was higher than the mean in cases where the CoD was diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) or metformin poisoning. Although there was a correlation between metformin and lactate levels, our findings suggest the DM2 and its complications were the cause for elevated lactate levels rather than metformin, since the lactate levels were similar in DM2-associated deaths where no metformin was detected. Elevated lactate levels in PM samples rather referred to metabolic disturbances often caused by DM2. An assay to detect D-lactate in PM samples was described.

  18. Lactate in bitches with pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, R; Rodello, L; Abibe, R B; Lopes, M D

    2012-12-01

    Lactate is a compound produced by the anaerobic metabolism of glucose, and hyperlactataemia occurs when the rate of production of lactate exceeds the rate of elimination. This occurs in situations of hypoxia and tissue hypoperfusion. Lactate has been considered a useful prognostic indicator in critically ill patients. Pyometra is a disease of adult female dogs characterized by inflammation of the uterus with an accumulation of exudate, which occurs during the luteal phase. It is one of the most common diseases that occur in the genital tract of female dogs. A total of 31 dogs were diagnosed with pyometra. The diagnosis was confirmed at ultrasonography. Of the 31 dogs, 25 females had open cervix pyometra and six had closed cervix pyometra. Plasma lactate concentrations were determined by an enzymatic colorimetric method. The average concentration (±SD) of plasma lactate in all 31 bitches with pyometra was 3.55 ± 0.46 mm. Healthy dogs had plasma lactate concentrations between 0.3 and 2.5 mm (mean ± SD). Concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 2.9 mm when plasma lactate was measured with a portable device and 0.4-2.6 mm with the blood gas analyser. Even though plasma lactate values vary between several studies and equipment used to measure concentrations, our results for dogs with pyometra are higher indicating hyperlactataemia (Thorneloe et al. , Can Vet J 48, 283-288). Plasma lactate in dogs with closed cervix pyometra was mean ± SD and in dogs with open cervix pyometra, it was mean ± SD. The plasma lactate concentration in dogs with pyometra was higher than in healthy bitches, and there was no influence of patency of the cervix on the concentration of plasma lactate concentrations. Plasma lactate concentrations were similar for animals with open and closed pyometra (3.54 ± 0.52 to 3.64 ± 1.03 mm). © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Lactate in Bitches with Pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Volpato, R.; L. Rodello; Abibe, R. B. [UNESP; Lopes, Maria Denise [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    Lactate is a compound produced by the anaerobic metabolism of glucose, and hyperlactataemia occurs when the rate of production of lactate exceeds the rate of elimination. This occurs in situations of hypoxia and tissue hypoperfusion. Lactate has been considered a useful prognostic indicator in critically ill patients. Pyometra is a disease of adult female dogs characterized by inflammation of the uterus with an accumulation of exudate, which occurs during the luteal phase. It is one of the mo...

  20. Phenobarbital (PB)-induced changes in blood coagulationrelated parameters in pregnant rats, lactating rats and pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Masahiro; Shimizu, Satomi; Kidokoro, Yuri; Kamata, Takashi; Kitazawa, Takahiro; Kishi, Daisuke; Okazaki, Emi; Nishihata, Yoshito; Ohishi, Takumi

    2009-12-01

    Effects of repeated administration of phenobarbital (PB) on blood coagulation-related parameters were examined in non-pregnant, pregnant and lactating rats, and also in pups born to PB-treated lactating dams. PB was orally administered at a dose level of 80 mg/kg/day to pregnant (from gestation day (GD) 13), postpartum (from postpartum day (PPD) 7) and non-pregnant rats (from 13 weeks of age) for 7 days. Blood was collected on GD20 or PPD14 to perform blood coagulation examination. Concurrently, the blood coagulation parameters were examined in the pups. Increases in liver weight and/or hepatic cytochrome P450 content were observed in the PB-treated non-pregnant, pregnant and lactating rats. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) was prolonged and anti-thrombin III (ATIII) concentration was increased in the lactating rats, while there were no changes in prothrombin time (PT) or APTT in the non-pregnant and pregnant rats. Moreover, prolongation of PT and APTT and decreases in factors VII and IX activities were observed in their pups. Thus, prolongation of blood coagulation time was confirmed in both dams and their pups following PB-administration to lactating dams. Effects of vitamin K(2) (VK(2)) on PB-induced changes in blood coagulation-related parameters of both dams and their pups were examined by co-administration with PB and VK(2) to lactating dams. PT and APTT were comparable to the control and PB-induced prolongation of blood coagulation time was improved in the pups while APTT was prolonged in dams, suggesting that VK(2) was beneficial to pups but not to dams.

  1. Effect of ropivacaine in combined with sufentanil epidural analgesia after cesarean section on maternal lactation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Feng; Bao-Xia Chen; Xi Ren; Hong-Xia Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of application of ropivacaine in combined with sufentanil epidural analgesia after cesarean section on the lactation and neonates.Methods:The puerpera who were underwent cesarean section with different analgesia methods were observed. The included puerpera were performed with the cesarean section under combined spinal epidural anesthesia. A total of 30 puerpera who were given ropivacaine in combined with sufentanil epidural analgesia after operation were served as the observation group, while 30 cases who were intermittently given intramuscular injection of pethidine after operation were served as the control group. The postpartum analgesic effects in the two groups were observed. The radioimmunoassay was used to detect the plasma PRL level. The postpartum colostrum time, 24 h lactation number, and NBNA scores in the two groups were compared.Results:The postoperative VAS score in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05), while the plasma PRL level was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). The postoperative colostrum time in the observation group was significantly earlier than that in the control group (P<0.05), while the lactation number was significantly greater than that in the control group (P<0.05).Conclusions:Application of ropivacaine in combined with sufentanil epidural analgesia after cesarean section can effectively alleviate the postoperative pain, and improve the lactation, with no obvious adverse reactions on the neonates and reliable effects.

  2. 1981 EFFECT OF STAGE OF LACTATION ON THE PHYSICAL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBNELBACHYR

    positive factors, Morocco's dairy goat production has increased to 80% of self- ... consumers because of a very low specific consumption of about 100 grams .... goat milk is directly influenced by the stage of lactation; that is, levels of dry matters,.

  3. Lack of Influence of the Menstrual Cycle on Blood Lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Linda S.

    1986-01-01

    Nine healthy women were tested before, during, and after exercise during the follicular and luteal phases of their menstrual cycles to determine the effect of menstruation on blood lactate levels. Findings are discussed. (Author/MT)

  4. Improving EFL Learners' Reading Levels through Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermelstein, Aaron David

    2014-01-01

    Today there is an increasing amount of research promoting the effectiveness of extensive reading (ER) towards increasing learners' vocabulary, comprehension, reading speed, and motivation towards reading. However, little has been done to measure the effects of ER on learners' reading levels. This quantitative study examined the effects of ER on…

  5. Epidermal hydration levels in rosacea patients improve after minocycline therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ní Raghallaigh, S

    2013-12-06

    Patients with rosacea frequently report increased skin sensitivity, with features suggestive of an abnormal stratum corneum (SC) permeability barrier. Sebum, pH and hydration levels influence epidermal homeostasis. The correlation of the change in these parameters with clinically effective treatment has not been previously analysed.

  6. Effect of pregnancy and feeding level on cell turnover and expression of related genes in the mammary tissue of lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, J V; Sørensen, M T; Theil, P K;

    2008-01-01

    Milk yield is reduced by pregnancy, and the present experiment was conducted to study the biological basis for the negative effect of pregnancy on milk yield. A total of 16 dairy cows were fed at either a normal or a low feeding level (eight cows per treatment), and half of them were inseminated...

  7. Effect of replacing dietary lucerne silage with birdsfoot trefoil silage containing different levels of condensed tannin on production of lactating dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive degradation of crude protein (CP) in ensiled legumes impairs N utilization when these silages are fed to dairy cattle. Previously, we reported that feeding birdsfoot trefoil (BFT; Lotus corniculatus) with elevated levels of condensed tannin (CT) reduced silage nonprotein N and was associat...

  8. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 73.165 Section 73.165 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.165 Ferrous lactate. (a) Identity. The color additive ferrous lactate is the ferrous lactate defined in § 184.1311 of this chapter. (b) Specifications. Ferrous lactate...

  9. Expression of lactate dehydrogenase C correlates with poor prognosis in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yibo; Liang, Chao; Zhu, Jundong; Miao, Chenkui; Yu, Yajie; Xu, Aimin; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Pu; Li, Shuang; Bao, Meiling; Yang, Jie; Qin, Chao; Wang, Zengjun

    2017-03-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase C is an isoenzyme of lactate dehydrogenase and a member of the cancer-testis antigens family. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression and functional role of lactate dehydrogenase C and its basic mechanisms in renal cell carcinoma. First, a total of 133 cases of renal cell carcinoma samples were analysed in a tissue microarray, and Kaplan-Meier survival curve analyses were performed to investigate the correlation between lactate dehydrogenase C expression and renal cell carcinoma progression. Lactate dehydrogenase C protein levels and messenger RNA levels were significantly upregulated in renal cell carcinoma tissues, and the patients with positive lactate dehydrogenase C expression had a shorter progression-free survival, indicating the oncogenic role of lactate dehydrogenase C in renal cell carcinoma. In addition, further cytological experiments demonstrated that lactate dehydrogenase C could prompt renal cell carcinoma cells to produce lactate, and increase metastatic and invasive potential of renal cell carcinoma cells. Furthermore, lactate dehydrogenase C could induce the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression. In summary, these findings showed lactate dehydrogenase C was associated with poor prognosis in renal cell carcinoma and played a pivotal role in the migration and invasion of renal cell carcinoma cells. Lactate dehydrogenase C may act as a novel biomarker for renal cell carcinoma progression and a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma.

  10. Lactation Consultants' Perceived Barriers to Providing Professional Breastfeeding Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Erica H; Coulter, Martha; Jevitt, Cecilia M; Perrin, Kay M; Dabrow, Sharon; Klasko-Foster, Lynne B; Daley, Ellen M

    2017-08-01

    Addressing suboptimal breastfeeding initiation and duration rates is a priority in the United States. To address challenges to improving these rates, the voices of the providers who work with breastfeeding mothers should be heard. Research aim: The purpose of this study was to explore lactation consultants' perceived barriers to managing early breastfeeding problems. This qualitative study was conducted with a grounded theory methodological approach. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 International Board Certified Lactation Consultants across Florida. Lactation consultants were from a range of practice settings, including hospitals, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children clinics, private practice, and pediatric offices. Data were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed in Atlas.ti. A range of barriers was identified and grouped into the following categories/themes: indirect barriers (social norms, knowledge, attitudes); direct occupational barriers (institutional constraints, lack of coordination, poor service delivery); and direct individual barriers (social support, mother's self-efficacy). A model was developed illustrating the factors that influence the role enactment of lactation consultants in managing breastfeeding problems. Inadequate support for addressing early breastfeeding challenges is compounded by a lack of collaboration among various healthcare providers and the family. Findings provide insight into the professional management issues of early breastfeeding problems faced by lactation consultants. Team-based, interprofessional approaches to breastfeeding support for mothers and their families are needed; improving interdisciplinary collaboration could lead to better integration of lactation consultants who are educated and experienced in providing lactation support and management of breastfeeding problems.

  11. Environmental income improves household-level poverty assessments and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Charlery, Lindy Callen; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    and poverty dynamics. Poverty incidence and dynamics models including environmental income perform better than those without. Rural poverty studies based on welfare measures excluding environmental income may thus be inaccurate for environmental reliant communities.......Household-level poverty assessments and analyses of poverty dynamics in developing countries typically do not include environmental income. Using household (n = 427 in 2006, 2009 and 2012) total income panel data sets, with and without environmental income, from Nepal, we analysed the importance...... of environmental income in household-level poverty assessments (Foster-Greer-Thorbecke indices) and dynamics (movements in the Poverty Transition Matrix). Random effects logit and ordered logit models were applied to estimate variables covarying with poverty categories and compared for annual household incomes...

  12. Maternal protein restriction during gestation and lactation in the rat results in increased brain levels of kynurenine and kynurenic acid in their adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honório de Melo Martimiano, Paula; de Sa Braga Oliveira, André; Ferchaud-Roucher, Véronique; Croyal, Mikaël; Aguesse, Audrey; Grit, Isabelle; Ouguerram, Khadija; Lopes de Souza, Sandra; Kaeffer, Bertrand; Bolaños-Jiménez, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Early malnutrition is a risk factor for depression and schizophrenia. Since the offspring of malnourished dams exhibit increased brain levels of serotonin (5-HT), a tryptophan-derived neurotransmitter involved in the pathophysiology of these mental disorders, it is believed that the deleterious effects of early malnutrition on brain function are due in large part to altered serotoninergic neurotransmission resulting from impaired tryptophan (Trp) metabolism. However, tryptophan is also metabolized through the kynurenine (KYN) pathway yielding several neuroactive compounds including kynurenic (KA), quinolinic (QA) and xanthurenic (XA) acids. Nevertheless, the impact of perinatal malnutrition on brain kynurenine pathway metabolism has not been examined to date. Here, we used ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous quantification of tryptophan and a set of seven compounds spanning its metabolism through the serotonin and kynurenine pathways, in the brain of embryos and adult offspring of rat dams fed a protein-restricted (PR) diet. Protein-restricted embryos showed reduced brain levels of Trp, serotonin and KA, but not of KYN, XA, or QA. In contrast, PR adult rats exhibited enhanced levels of Trp in the brainstem and cortex along with increased concentrations of 5-HT, kynurenine and XA. The levels of XA and KA were also increased in the hippocampus of adult PR rats. These results show that early protein deficiency induces selective and long-lasting changes in brain kynurenine metabolism. Given the regulatory role of KYN pathway metabolites on brain development and function, these changes might contribute to the risk of developing psychiatric disorders induced by early malnutrition. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  13. In vivo voltammetric detection of rat brain lactate with carbon fiber microelectrodes coated with lactate oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shram, N F; Netchiporouk, L I; Martelet, C; Jaffrezic-Renault, N; Bonnet, C; Cespuglio, R

    1998-07-01

    To allow rat brain lactate measurement in vivo, a specific sensor based on a carbon fiber (phi = 30 microns) microelectrode coated with lactate oxidase was prepared. Combined with the differential normal pulse voltammetry measurement method, such a sensor, with a sensitivity of 9.15 +/- 0.91 mA.M-1.cm-2, provided a lactate linear response in concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 2.0 mM. The measurements performed appeared to be essentially insensitive to usual interference caused by the electroactive compounds present in the brain (ascorbic acid and peptides). In vivo detection performed in the cortex of the anesthetized rat led to the determination of a lactate concentration of 0.41 +/- 0.02 mM. Moreover, to validate the results obtained in vivo, an ex vivo determination of the lactate level was also performed in samples of brain tissue, plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid, using both voltammetry and a clinical analyzer with colorimetric-based detection. A good correlation was observed between the sets of data established by both methods.

  14. Safety assessment of lactate esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clary, J.J.; Feron, V.J.; Velthuijsen, J.A. van

    1998-01-01

    Lactate eaters have an oral LD50 greater than 2000 mg/kg and the inhalation LC50 is generally above 5000 mg/m3 and they may be potential eye and skin irritants, but not skin sensitizers. No evidence of teratogenicity or maternal toxicity was observed in an inhalation (2-ethylhexyl-L-lactate) or derm

  15. Extended lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D. Donald; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2008-01-01

    of total protein). Processing quality declined across the course of lactation in those groups that showed poor persistency but not in those that maintained a persistent lactation. Milk hygienic quality (somatic cell counts) showed parallel changes. Body condition score increased during the course...

  16. Feeding lactate for CHO cell culture processes: impact on culture metabolism and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jincai; Wong, Chun Loong; Vijayasankaran, Natarajan; Hudson, Terry; Amanullah, Ashraf

    2012-05-01

    Lactate has long been regarded as one of the key metabolites of mammalian cell cultures. High levels of lactate have clear negative impacts on cell culture processes, and therefore, a great amount of efforts have been made to reduce lactate accumulation and/or to induce lactate consumption in the later stage of cultures. However, there is virtually no report on the impact of lactate depletion after initial accumulation. In this work, we observed that glucose uptake rate dropped over 50% at the onset of lactate consumption, and that catabolism of alanine due to lactate depletion led to ammonium accumulation. We explored the impact of feeding lactate as well as pyruvate to the cultures. In particular, a strategy was employed where CO(2) was replaced by lactic acid for culture pH control, which enabled automatic lactate feeding. The results demonstrated that lactate or pyruvate can serve as an alternative or even preferred carbon source during certain stage of the culture in the presence of glucose, and that by feeding lactate or pyruvate, very low levels of ammonia can be achieved throughout the culture. In addition, low levels of pCO(2) were also maintained in these cultures. This was in strong contrast to the control cultures where lactate was depleted during the culture, and ammonia and pCO(2) build-up were significant. Culture growth and productivity were similar between the control and lactate-fed cultures, as well as various product quality attributes. To our knowledge, this work represents the first comprehensive study on lactate depletion and offers a simple yet effective strategy to overcome ammonia and pCO(2) accumulation that could arise in certain cultures due to early depletion of lactate.

  17. Gastrointestinal absorption of cadmium in mice during gestation and lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H. (Argonne National Lab., IL); Whelton, B.D.; Peterson, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    The effect on cadmium retention of continuous exposure to drinking water containing low levels of cadmium during pregnancy and lactation was studied in mice. Female mice were provided drinking water ad libitum containing /sup 109/CdCl/sub 2/ (0.03 ..mu..Ci /sup 109/Cd/ml, 0.11 ppb total cadmium) throughout either gestation, lactation, or a combined period of pregnancy and lactation. Nonpregnant control mice were exposed to the same cadmium solution for similar time periods. Dams in all three experimental groups retained two to three times cadmium (expressed as percentage of ingested dose) than did nonpregnant controls. The /sup 109/Cd contents of liver, kidney, mammary tissue, and duodenum increased strikingly in all three groups. Increases in kidney and mammary tissue were particularly apparent during lactation, with increases of fivefold for kidney and at least ninefold for mammary tissue, compared to levels in nonpregnant controls. Increases in /sup 109/Cd retention by the duodenum were fivefold during gestation and three- to fourfold during lactation. The kidneys of dams exposed during lactation retained 53% of the whole body /sup 109/Cd, while kidneys of nonpregnant controls retained only 27%. Results indicate that pregnant and lactating mice absorb and subsequently retain substantially more cadmium from their diets than do nonpregnant mice.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: lactate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions lactate dehydrogenase deficiency lactate dehydrogenase deficiency Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Lactate dehydrogenase deficiency is a condition that affects how the ...

  19. Extended lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D. Donald; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2008-01-01

    Twelve spring-calving and twelve winter-calving cows were managed for extended lactation cycles of 18-months duration, with the former group then completing a second extended lactation. Half of the cows were fed according to standard management practice for the herd; the other half received...... of the lactation, protein and fat percentages increasing and lactose percentage decreasing, irrespective of treatment. The quality of the milk for processing into cheese, fermented products, heat-treated products and cream liqueurs was assessed by calculation of casein number (casein protein as a proportion...... of total protein). Processing quality declined across the course of lactation in those groups that showed poor persistency but not in those that maintained a persistent lactation. Milk hygienic quality (somatic cell counts) showed parallel changes. Body condition score increased during the course...

  20. Effects of feeding dry glycerin to early postpartum Holstein dairy cows on lactational performance and metabolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y-H; Rico, D E; Martinez, C M; Cassidy, T W; Noirot, V; Ames, A; Varga, G A

    2007-12-01

    Effects of feeding a dry glycerin product (minimal 65% of food grade glycerol, dry powder) to 39 multiparous Holstein dairy cows (19 control and 20 glycerin-supplemented; lactation number = 2.2 +/- 1.3 SD) on feed intake, milk yield and composition, and blood metabolic profiles were investigated. Dry glycerin was fed at 250 g/d as a top dressing (corresponding to 162.5 g of glycerol/d) to the common lactating total mixed ration from parturition to 21 d postpartum. Individual milk was sampled from 2 consecutive milkings weekly and analyzed for components. Blood was sampled from the coccygeal vein at 4, 7, 14, and 21 (+/-0.92, pooled SD) d in milk and analyzed for urea nitrogen, glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, and beta-hydroxybutyrate. Urine was tested for the acetoacetate level weekly by using Ketostix. Average feed intake, milk yield and components, blood metabolites, and serum insulin concentrations were not affected by dry glycerin supplementation. Glycerin-supplemented cows experienced a more positive energy status (higher concentrations of plasma glucose, lower concentrations of plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate, and lower concentrations of urine ketones), which was observed during the second week of lactation, suggesting that energy availability may have been improved. This glucogenic effect of dry glycerin did not result in an increase in feed intake or milk yield during the first 3 wk of lactation, likely because of the relatively less negative energy status of cows transitioning into lactation. The tendency toward higher milk yield for glycerin-supplemented cows during wk 6 of lactation (52 vs. 46 kg/d) after the supplementation period (dry glycerin was terminated at wk 3 of lactation) suggested a potential benefit of dry glycerin on subsequent milk production, perhaps through changes in metabolism, which requires further investigation.

  1. An assessment of dioxin exposure across gestation and lactation using a PBPK model and new data from Seveso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, C; DeVito, M; Warner, M; Eskenazi, B; Mocarelli, P; Birnbaum, L S

    2016-01-01

    On July 10, 1976, an explosion at a chemical plant in Seveso, Italy, released up to 30kg of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-the most potent dioxin congener. Twenty years later, the Seveso Women's Health Study (SWHS) initiated a follow-up assessment of a cohort of female Seveso residents. Researchers collected serial blood, measured for TCDD levels, and recorded information about the women's medical history after the explosion. The study's aims were to: 1) modify the human PBPK model for TCDD (Emond et al. 2004; Emond et al. 2005; NCEA-USEPA, 2010) to include repetitive gestation and lactation; 2) simulate TCDD blood concentrations during different life stages including pregnancy and lactation, under different exposure scenarios; and 3) use this PBPK model to compare the influence of gestation and lactation on elimination of TCDD. After optimization of the model, it was assessed using data from the SWHS cohort. The 23 women in Subcohort A, were 4-39years old and in Subcohort B, the 18 women were 3-17years old when the explosion occurred. The model accurately predicted the blood concentrations during the 20years post-exposure, including periods of pregnancy and lactation. The model was also used to analyze the contribution of gestation and lactation to the mother's elimination of TCDD. The results suggest that gestation and lactation do not significantly impact TCDD blood elimination. Future efforts will focus on using additional data to evaluate the PBPK model and improving the mathematical descriptions of lactation and multiple gestations.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous lactate. 184.1311 Section 184.1311 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1311 Ferrous lactate. (a) Ferrous lactate (iron (II) lactate, C6H10FeO6... prepared by reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate, direct reaction of lactic acid...

  3. 饲粮粗蛋白质水平对泌乳水牛产奶量及氮代谢的影响%Dietary Crude Protein Level Affects Milk Yield and Nitrogen Metabolism of Lactating Water Buffalo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹彩霞; 韦升菊; 梁贤威; 覃广胜; 杨炳壮; 杨承剑

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary crude protein level on milk yield and nitrogen metabolism of lactating water buffalo. A 4 x 4 Latin square experiment design was used in the experiment. Sixteen healthy early lactation water buffalo with similar milk yield in the last lactation and 2 or 3 parities were divided into 4 groups to carry out animal experiment, and digestion and metabolism experiment. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups and fed diets containing varying levels of crude protein (16. 0% , 15. 2% , 14. 4% and 13. 6% ). There were 4 feeding trial periods, each period included 21 d with 7 d adaptation period, and whole experiment lasted for 84 d. According to Latin square experiment design, each group in each period was fed different levels of dietary crude protein. Two nitrogen digestion and metabolism trials were conducted on the last 4 days of the second and the fourth feeding trial period. The results showed that there were significant differences in total nitrogen intake, digestible nitrogen, milk nitrogen/total nitrogen intake and apparent nitrogen digestibility among some groups (P 0. 05). There were no significant differences in milk yield, milk protein percentage, milk fat percentage, milk non-solid percentage whole milk solids content and lactose percentage among each group (P > 0. 05). There were no significant differences in the contents of serum total protein and urea nitrogen (P > 0. 05). The relationship between nitrogen intake (x, g/d) and fat corrected milk (y, kg/d) was showed as follows; y = ?0. 001 6x2 +0. 955 6x ?129. 91. In conclusion, dietary crude protein level has no significant effect on performance and blood biochemical indices of lactating water buffalo, according to the curvilinear relationship between nitrogen intake and fat corrected milk, when the nitrogen intake is 298. 625 g/d, the max standard milk yield of water buffalo is 12.773 kg/d.%本试验旨在研究饲粮粗蛋白质水

  4. Improving farm-level physical and financial data availability at EU level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lampkin, N.; Boone, J.A.; Kramer, K.J.; Rippin, M.; Willer, H.; Wolfert, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarises the main findings and recommendations of the EISFOM (European Information System for Organic Markets) project with respect to organic farm level data. At the EU level, the Farm Structure Survey and EU Reg. 2092/91 provide the most detailed data on production structures (crop ar

  5. Effects of lactation upon circulating plasma metabolites in cafeteria-fed rats

    OpenAIRE

    Salvadó, J.; Segués Piqué, Teresa; Alemany, Marià; Arola i Ferrer, Lluís

    1986-01-01

    1. The effects of "cafeteria feeding" on primiparous Wistar rats during lactation have been studied by measuring circulating levels of glucose, amino acids, lactate, urea and ammonia as well as glycogen levels in liver and muscle. 2. No significant changes in glucose levels were observed despite alterations in blood glucose compartmentation. 3. Compared with controls, the dams given the cafeteria diet had higher liver glycogen stores which were more easily mobilized at the peak of lactation. ...

  6. Go with the flow - Biology and genetics of the lactation cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M. Strucken

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactation is a dynamic process, which evolved to meet dietary demands of growing offspring. At the same time, the mother’s metabolism changes to meet the high requirements of nutrient supply to the offspring. Through strong artificial selection, the strain of milk production on dairy cows is often associated with impaired health and fertility. This led to the incorporation of functional traits into breeding aims to counteract this negative association. Potentially, distributing the total quantity of milk per lactation cycle more equally over time could reduce the peak of physiological strain and improve health and fertility. During lactation many factors affect the production of milk: food intake; digestion, absorption, and transportation of nutrients; blood glucose levels; activity of cells in the mammary gland, liver, and adipose tissue; synthesis of proteins and fat in the secretory cells; and the metabolic and regulatory pathways that provide fatty acids, amino acids, and carbohydrates. Whilst the endocrine regulation and physiology of the dynamic process of milk production seems to be understood, the genetics that underlie these dynamics are still to be uncovered. Modeling of longitudinal traits and estimating the change in additive genetic variation over time has shown that the genetic contribution to the expression of a trait depends on the considered time-point. Such time-dependent studies could contribute to the discovery of missing heritability. Only very few studies have estimated exact gene and marker effects at different time-points during lactation. The most prominent gene affecting milk yield and milk fat, DGAT1, exhibits its main effects after peak production, whilst the casein genes have larger effects in early lactation. Understanding the physiological dynamics and elucidating the time-dependent genetic effects behind dynamically expressed traits will contribute to selection decisions to further improve productive and healthy

  7. Early lactate clearance is associated with biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation, apoptosis, organ dysfunction and mortality in severe sepsis and septic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suarez Arturo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactate clearance, a surrogate for the magnitude and duration of global tissue hypoxia, is used diagnostically, therapeutically and prognostically. This study examined the association of early lactate clearance with selected inflammatory, coagulation, apoptosis response biomarkers and organ dysfunction scores in severe sepsis and septic shock. Methods Measurements of serum arterial lactate, biomarkers (interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, high mobility group box-1, D-Dimer and caspase-3, and organ dysfunction scores (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment were obtained in conjunction with a prospective, randomized study examining early goal-directed therapy in severe sepsis and septic shock patients presenting to the emergency department (ED. Lactate clearance was defined as the percent change in lactate levels after six hours from a baseline measurement in the ED. Results Two-hundred and twenty patients, age 65.0 +/- 17.1 years, were examined, with an overall lactate clearance of 35.5 +/- 43.1% and in-hospital mortality rate of 35.0%. Patients were divided into four quartiles of lactate clearance, -24.3 +/- 42.3, 30.1 +/- 7.5, 53.4 +/- 6.6, and 75.1 +/- 7.1%, respectively (p p p Conclusions Early lactate clearance as a surrogate for the resolution of global tissue hypoxia is significantly associated with decreased levels of biomarkers, improvement in organ dysfunction and outcome in severe sepsis and septic shock.

  8. Stimulation of d- and l-lactate dehydrogenases transcriptional levels in presence of diammonium hydrogen phosphate resulting to enhanced lactic acid production by Lactobacillus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhvi, Mamata; Zendo, Takeshi; Iida, Hiroshi; Gokhale, Digambar; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2017-08-08

    The present study revealed the effect of nitrogen sources on lactic acid production and stimulation of d- and l-lactate dehydrogenases (LDH) of parent Lactobacillus lactis NCIM 2368 and its mutant RM2-24 generated after UV mutagenesis. Both the parent and mutant strains were evaluated for d-lactic acid production in control and modified media. The modified media did not show remarkable effect on lactic acid production in case of parent whereas mutant exhibited significant enhancement in d-lactic acid production along with the appearance of l-lactic acid in the broth. Both LDH activities and specific activities were found to be higher in mutant than the parent strain. These results suggested that the diammonium hydrogen phosphate in modified media triggered the expression of LDH genes leading to enhanced lactic acid production. This observation has been proved by studying the expression levels of d- and l-LDH genes of parent and mutant in control and modified media using quantitative RT-PCR technique. In case of mutant, the transcriptional levels of d-LDH and l-LDH increased ∼17 fold and ∼1.38 fold respectively in modified medium compared to the values obtained with control medium. In case of parent, no significant change in transcriptional levels of d- and l-LDH was found when the cells were grown in either control medium or modified medium. This study suggested that the mutant, RM2-24 has l-LDH gene which is expressed in presence of (NH4)2HPO4 resulting in l-lactic acid production. Co-production of l-lactic acid in d-lactic acid fermentation may be detrimental in the PLA production. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Improving farm-level physical and financial data availability at EU level

    OpenAIRE

    Lampkin, N.; Boone, J.A.; Kramer, K.J.; Rippin, M.; Willer, H.; Wolfert, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarises the main findings and recommendations of the EISFOM (European Information System for Organic Markets) project with respect to organic farm level data. At the EU level, the Farm Structure Survey and EU Reg. 2092/91 provide the most detailed data on production structures (crop areas and livestock numbers), and EU and national FADNs are becoming a useful source of financial data, but good quality data on output and prices of specific crop and livestock products are lacking....

  10. Evaluation and measurement for improvement in service-level quality improvement initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Nicholas C C; Wallace, Louise M; Ketley, Diane

    2011-11-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) in England, as with other health services worldwide, currently faces the need to reduce costs and to improve the quality of patient care. Evidence gathered through effective and appropriate measurement and evaluation, is essential to achieving this. Through interviews with service improvement managers and analysis of comments in a seminar of NHS staff involved in health service improvement, we found a lack of understanding regarding the definition and methodology of both measurement and evaluation, which decreases the likelihood that NHS staff will be competent to commission or provide these skills. In addition, we highlight the importance of managers assessing their organizations' 'readiness' to undergo change before embarking on a quality improvement (QI) initiative, to ensure that the initiative's impact can be adequately judged. We provide definitions of measurement for improvement and of evaluation, and propose a comparative framework from which to gauge an appropriate approach. Examples of two large-scale QI initiatives are also given, along with descriptions of some of their problems and solutions, to illustrate the use of the framework. We recommend that health service managers use the framework to determine the most appropriate approach to evaluation and measurement for improvement for their context, to ensure that their decisions are evidence based.

  11. Local Treatment with Lactate Prevents Intestinal Inflammation in the TNBS-Induced Colitis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraporda, Carolina; Romanin, David E.; Bengoa, Ana A.; Errea, Agustina J.; Cayet, Delphine; Foligné, Benoit; Sirard, Jean-Claude; Garrote, Graciela L.; Abraham, Analía G.; Rumbo, Martín

    2016-01-01

    Lactate has long been considered as a metabolic by-product of cells. Recently, this view has been changed by the observation that lactate can act as a signaling molecule and regulates critical functions of the immune system. We previously identified lactate as the component responsible for the modulation of innate immune epithelial response of fermented milk supernatants in vitro. We have also shown that lactate downregulates proinflammatory responses of macrophages and dendritic cells. So far, in vivo effects of lactate on intestinal inflammation have not been reported. We evaluated the effect of intrarectal administration of lactate in a murine model of colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). The increase in lactate concentration in colon promoted protective effects against TNBS-induced colitis preventing histopathological damage, as well as bacterial translocation and rise of IL-6 levels in serum. Using intestinal epithelial reporter cells, we found that flagellin treatment induced reporter gene expression, which was abrogated by lactate treatment as well as by glycolysis inhibitors. Furthermore, lactate treatment modulated glucose uptake, indicating that high levels of extracellular lactate can impair metabolic reprograming induced by proinflammatory activation. These results suggest that lactate could be a potential beneficial microbiota metabolite and may constitute an overlooked effector with modulatory properties. PMID:28082985

  12. Not only osmoprotectant: betaine increased lactate dehydrogenase activity and L-lactate production in lactobacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Huibin; Wu, Zaiqiang; Xian, Mo; Liu, Hui; Cheng, Tao; Cao, Yujin

    2013-11-01

    Lactobacilli are commonly used for industrial production of polymer-grade L-lactic acid. The present study tested the Tween 80 alternative betaine in L-lactate production by several industrial lactobacilli. In flask fermentation of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus lactis and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, the betaine addition (2g/l) had similar osmoprotectant effect with Tween 80 but had increased the lactate dehydrogenase activities and L-lactate production than Tween 80 control. In fed-batch fermentation of L. casei, betaine supplementation improved the L-lactic acid titer to 190 g/l, the yield to 95.5% (g L-lactic acid/g glucose), the productivity to 2.6g/lh, and the optical purity to 97.0%. The results demonstrated that supplementation of Tween 80 alternative - betaine in the fermentation medium is feasible for industrial l-lactic acid fermentation by lactobacilli, which will improve the lactate production but will not increase the process costs and modify any process conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lactate as a fuel for mitochondrial respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit

    2000-01-01

    and also in other tissues. Studies using lactate isotopes have shown that skeletal muscle extracts lactate from the circulation despite a substantial net lactate release, and that skeletal muscle has a large capacity for lactate oxidation; these processes being enhanced with exercise. Lactate dehydrogenase......Lactate production in skeletal muscle has now been studied for nearly two centuries and still its production and functional role at rest and during muscle contraction is a subject of debate. Historically, skeletal muscle was seen mainly as the site of lactate production during contraction...... and lactate production associated with a lack of muscle oxygenation and fatigue. Later, it was recognized that skeletal muscle not only plays an important role in lactate production but also in lactate clearance and this in turn has led to a renewed interest in the metabolic fate of lactate in skeletal muscle...

  14. The effects of prenatal exposure to a 'junk food' diet on offspring food preferences and fat deposition can be mitigated by improved nutrition during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugusheff, J R; Vithayathil, M; Ong, Z Y; Muhlhausler, B S

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to a maternal junk food (JF) diet in utero and during the suckling period has been demonstrated to increase the preference for palatable food and increase the susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in adult offspring. We aimed to determine whether the effects of prenatal exposure to JF could be ameliorated by cross-fostering offspring onto dams consuming a standard rodent chow during the suckling period. We report here that when all offspring were given free access to the JF diet for 7 weeks from 10 weeks of age, male offspring of control (C) or JF dams that were cross-fostered at birth onto JF dams (C-JF, JF-JF), exhibited higher fat (C-C: 12.3 ± 0.34 g/kg/day; C-JF: 14.7 ± 1.04 g/kg/day; JF-C: 11.5 ± 0.41 g/kg/day; JF-JF: 14.0 ± 0.44 g/kg/day; P food intake, had increased fat mass as percentage of body weight (C-C: 19.9 ± 1.33%; C-JF: 22.8 ± 1.57%; JF-C: 17.4 ± 1.03%; JF-JF: 22.0 ± 1.0%; P food preferences in females and susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in males can be prevented by improved nutrition during the suckling period.

  15. 添加不同水平烟酰胺对泌乳奶牛体外发酵的影响%EFFECT OF DIFFERENT NICOTINAMIDE SUPPLEMENT LEVELS ON FERMENTATION IN VITRO OF LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜妍; 林雪彦; 王云; 王中华

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effect of different nicotinamide (NAM) supplement levels on fermentation in vitro of lactating dairy cows, and tried to study its mechanism in affecting production performance. Three lactation Holstein cows fitted with permanent rumen cannula were used to provide rumen fluid in vitro, basal diet was used as fermentation substrate. It was designed as randomized experiment of single factor into five treatments with three replicates. The treat of control group (group A) was added the basal diet as fermentation substrate and the treats in other groups were added the basal diet supplemented with 3 ( group B) , 6(group C) , 9 (group D) and 12 mg/100 g (group E) NAM, respectively. The results showed that, 4 h later, pH was not changed significantly (P >0. 05), after 8 h, the group of control and adding 12 mg/100 g NAM were significantly decreased in unnormal levels (P 0.05). These results indicated that adding 6 mg/100 g NAM can maintain normal pH for rumen microbial growth, especially for the growth of rumen protozoa, and that may explain why adding NAM can increase the production performance, and the suggested optimal level for rumen fermentation in vitro was 6 mg/100 g.%采用体外发酵法,研究烟酰胺(NAM)添加水平对泌乳奶牛瘤胃体外发酵指标的影响,探讨NAM影响生产性能的机理.选取3头装有永久性瘤胃瘘管的泌乳荷尔斯坦奶牛作为体外培养的瘤胃液供体,采用单因素随机试验设计,共有5个处理,每种处理均设3个重复.其中,A组为对照组,仅以基础日粮为发酵底物,B、C、D和E组在基础日粮基础上分别添加3、6、9和12 mg/100 g NAM.结果表明,发酵4h内,pH值没有显著的变化(P>0.05),发酵8h后,对照组和添加12 mg/100 g NAM组显著下降到正常水平下(P<0.05).从原虫蛋白浓度来看,添加9和12 mg/100 g NAM组显著低于对照组,而添加3和6 mg/100 g NAM组数值上高于对照组,但是差异不显著(P>0

  16. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biologic...

  17. Níveis de lisina em rações para fêmeas suínas em lactação Lysine levels in diets for lactating sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Garcia Vilela Nunes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 65 porcas (Large White x Landrace com 217,36 ± 21,35 kg para avaliação de diferentes níveis de lisina total (0,950; 1,025; 1,100; 1,175 e 1,250% na ração para a fase de 21 dias de lactação. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e 13 repetições, sendo a porca considerada a unidade experimental. O consumo total de ração diário foi fixado entre os tratamentos. Os níveis de lisina da ração não influenciaram o peso das matrizes ao desmame, a perda de peso, a espessura de toucinho (ET das matrizes, a variação na ET, a perda de gordura corporal, o número de leitões desmamados por leitegada e o intervalo desmama-estro. No entanto, foi verificada redução linear na perda de proteína corporal, em kg e em porcentagem, e na produção de leite diária das matrizes suínas com o aumento do nível de lisina na ração. O ganho de peso da leitegada foi influenciado, reduzindo de forma linear com os tratamentos. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo evidenciaram que, ao consumir menores quantidades de lisina, as matrizes mobilizaram suas reservas corporais protéicas para manutenção do desempenho produtivo. Entretanto, a quantidade de proteína mobilizada por estes animais (2,2 kg, correspondente a 6,45% da proteína corporal não foi suficiente para influenciar os parâmetros produtivos e reprodutivos. O consumo diário de 45 g de lisina total, correspondente a 40 g de lisina digestível, atende às exigências para os desempenhos produtivo e reprodutivo de fêmeas suínas em lactação, enquanto o consumo estimado de 58,9 g de lisina total/dia, correspondente a 53,5 g/dia de lisina digestível, minimiza a perda de proteína corporal durante a lactação.Sixty-five crossbred sows (Landrace x Large White averaging 217.36 ± 21.35 kg were used to evaluate increasing dietary total lysine levels (0.950, 1.025, 1.100, 1.175, and 1.250% during 21 days of lactation. The experiment was

  18. Effect of aluminum on LTP and glutamate level in hippocampus of offsprings through exposure during pregnancy and lactation%孕哺期铝暴露对仔鼠海马LTP及Glu含量影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳翠红; 巫生文; 逯晓波; 刘秋芳; 唐秋实; 蔡原

    2011-01-01

    Objective lo study the effect of aluminum on long-term potential! LIP) and glutamate level in hippocampus in newborns through exposure during pregnancy and lactation and to explore the mechanism by which aluminum impairs central nervous system development. Methods Wistar pregnant rats were administrated with aluminium chloride at the doses of 0,0.2% ,and 0.4% for 6 weeks. Aluminum concentration in blood and brain was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer( AAS). Extracellular microelectrode recording was used to detect the effect of aluminum on LTP in hipp-ocampal CA1 area. Glutamate level was detected using immunohistochemical method. Results Blood aluminum and brain aluminum in 0.2% AlCl3-treated rats were 47.43 ± 14.38 mg/L, 13.86 ±6.60 mg/g and 55.56 ± 19.07 mg/L, 18.79 ±5.18 mg/g in 0.4% A1C13-treated rats, which all increased significantly compared with those in control rats (33. 89 ± 8. 74 mg/L and 7.61 ± 3.44 mg/g), (P < 0.05 for all). The induction and maintenance of LTP were suppressed in aluminum-exposed rats. The population spike (PS) enhancement rate decreased significantly compared with that of thecontrol (P <0.01). Aluminum exposure during pregnancy and lactation reduced glutamate level significantly in hippocampus (P < 0.05). Absorption and positive area ratio of glutamate of CA1 region in the control, 0.2% A1C13, and 0.4% A1C13 were 0.35 ±0.02,0. 33 ±0.02,0.29 ±0.03 and 5.06 ±1.36,4.70 ±0.56,1.71 ±0.23,respectively. Conclusion Aluminum exposure during pregnancy and lactation could inhibit the induction and maintenance of LTP in newborn rats and reduce the level of glutamate.%目的 研究孕哺期染铝对仔鼠长时程增强(LTP)和谷氨酸(Glu)含量影响,探讨铝对发育中中枢神经系统毒性作用及机制.方法 Wistar大鼠怀孕起染AlCl3至仔鼠哺乳期结束,共计6周,原子吸收石墨炉法测定血铝和脑铝含量;细胞外微电极技术测定LTP;免疫组化法测

  19. Contributions of the maternal uterine environment and piglet genotype on weaning survivability potential: II. Piglet growth, lactation performance, milk composition, and piglet blood profiles during lactation following reciprocal embryo transfers between Meishan and White crossbred gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, J R; Vallet, J L; Ford, J J; Freking, B A; Oliver, W T; Rempel, L A

    2015-04-01

    Crossbreeding studies between Meishan (MS) and Large White (LW) pigs have illustrated that increased piglet growth before weaning is attributed to the maternal genotype of LW dams. The objective of this study was to determine the contributions of the maternal uterine environment (MUE), piglet genotype (PigG), piglet age (PA), and their interactions on piglet growth, lactation performance, milk composition, and piglet blood profiles during lactation following reciprocal embryo transfers between MS and White crossbred (WC) gilts. Twenty-five successful pregnancies were generated by embryo transfer in 2 farrowing years representing all MUE × PigG combinations: MS × MS (n = 4 litters), MS × WC (n = 7 litters), WC × MS (n = 7 litters), and WC × WC (n = 7 litters). At d 1 and 10 and at weaning, piglets (n = 147, n = 96, and n = 94, respectively) were weighed and blood samples were collected and measured for hematocrit, hemoglobin, glucose, nitrogen, NEFA, albumin, lactate, and cortisol. In addition, sows were manually milked from a medial mammary gland to determine milk composition. All data were analyzed by ANOVA using MIXED model procedures with the fixed effects of MUE, PigG, PA, and their interactions. Piglet weight was greater (P piglets from WC dams compared to MS dams at d 10 and weaning but not at d 1. In addition, ADG were greater (P piglets from WC dams compared to MS dams throughout lactation. However, milk composition was greater (P piglets, irrespective of MUE, at d 1 of lactation and in MS piglets from MS dams at d 10 of lactation. Blood glucose was greater (P = 0.01) at d 1 in piglets from WC dams regardless of PigG but, at weaning, glucose was greater (P = 0.01) in WC piglets regardless of MUE. Serum NEFA levels were greater (P = 0.02) in piglets from MS dams throughout the lactation period. This study demonstrated that WC dams were superior to MS dams for piglet growth during lactation, in agreement with previous crossbreeding studies. However

  20. Suppression of puerperal lactation using jasmine flowers (Jasminum sambac).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastav, P; George, K; Balasubramaniam, N; Jasper, M P; Thomas, M; Kanagasabhapathy, A S

    1988-02-01

    The efficacy of jasmine flowers (Jasminum Sambac) applied to the breasts to suppress puerperal lactation was compared that of Bromocriptine. Effectiveness of both regimens was monitored by serum prolactin levels, clinical evaluation of the degree of breast engorgement and milk production and the analgesic intake. While both bromocriptine and jasmine flowers brought about a significant reduction in serum prolactin, the decrease was significantly greater with bromocriptine. However, clinical parameters such as breast engorgement, milk production and analgesic intake showed the 2 modes of therapy to be equally effective. The failure rates of the 2 regimens to suppress lactation were similar; however, rebound lactation occurred in a small proportion of women treated with bromocriptine. Jasmine flowers seem to be an effective and inexpensive method of suppressing puerperal lactation and can be used as an alternative in situations where cost and nonavailability restrict the use of bromocriptine.

  1. Antioxidant treatment attenuates lactate production in diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Nielsen, Per Mose; Stokholm Nørlinger, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    increased lactate dehydrogenase activity as a consequence of increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide substrate availability due to upregulation of the polyol pathway, i.e., pseudohypoxia. In this study, we investigated the role of oxidative stress in mediating these metabolic alterations using state......The early progression of diabetic nephropathy is notoriously difficult to detect and quantify before the occurrence of substantial histological damage. Recently, hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate has demonstrated increased lactate production in the kidney early after the onset of diabetes, implying......-IDEAL spiral sequence. Untreated diabetic rats showed increased renal lactate production compared with that shown by the controls. However, chronic TEMPOL treatment significantly attenuated diabetes-induced lactate production. No significant effects of diabetes or TEMPOL were observed on [13C]alanine levels...

  2. Chronic oral lactate supplementation does not affect lactate disappearance from blood after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouns, F; Fogelholm, M; Van Hall, Gerrit

    1995-01-01

    they drank an oral lactate or a maltodextrin (placebo) supplement twice a day. The lactate drink contained 10 g of lactate as calcium, sodium, and potassium salts. Blood lactate concentrations were studied before, during, and immediately after three exercise tests, both pre- and posttreatment. Peak lactate...... during the long (30- to 45-min) recovery periods amounted to / 10 mmol/L. Blood lactate changes were highly reproducible. However, a 3-week oral lactate supplementation did not result in differences in lactate disappearance. This study does not support the hypothesis that regular oral lactate intake...

  3. Lactating Adenoma of the Breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barco Nebreda, Israel; Vidal, M Carmen; Fraile, Manel; Canales, Lydia; González, Clarisa; Giménez, Nuria; García-Fernández, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Lactating adenoma is an uncommon breast palpable lesion occurring in pregnancy or lactation. Although it is a benign condition, it often requires core biopsy or even surgery to exclude malignancy. As with other solid lesions in pregnancy and lactation, lactating adenoma needs an accurate evaluation in order to ensure its benign nature. Work-up must include both imaging and histologic findings. Ultrasound evaluation remains the first step in assessing the features of the lesion. Some authors consider magnetic resonance imaging as a useful tool in cases of inconclusive evaluation after ultrasound and histologic exam in an attempt to avoid surgery. Most lactating adenomas resolve spontaneously, whereas others persist or even increase in size and must be removed. The authors present a case of a 35-year-old woman at 6 months postpartum with a lactating adenoma in her right breast. After surgical removal, breastfeeding was perfectly continued within the next 24 hours, which highlights the fact that breast surgery is most often compatible with breastfeeding. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Photobiomodulation Therapy Improves Performance and Accelerates Recovery of High-Level Rugby Players in Field Test: A Randomized, Crossover, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Henrique D; Vanin, Adriane A; Miranda, Eduardo F; Tomazoni, Shaiane S; Johnson, Douglas S; Albuquerque-Pontes, Gianna M; Aleixo, Ivo de O; Grandinetti, Vanessa Dos S; Casalechi, Heliodora L; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso C; Leal, Ernesto Cesar P

    2016-12-01

    Pinto, HD, Vanin, AA, Miranda, EF, Tomazoni, SS, Johnson, DS, Albuquerque-Pontes, GM, de Oliveira Aleixo Junior, I, Grandinetti, VdS, Casalechi, HL, de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho, P, and Pinto Leal Junior. Photobiomodulation therapy improves performance and accelerates recovery of high-level rugby players in field test: A randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3329-3338, 2016-Although growing evidence supports the use of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) for performance and recovery enhancement, there have only been laboratory-controlled studies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of PBMT in performance and recovery of high-level rugby players during an anaerobic field test. Twelve male high-level rugby athletes were recruited in this randomized, crossover, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. No interventions were performed before the Bangsbo sprint test (BST) at familiarization phase (week 1); at weeks 2 and 3, pre-exercise PBMT or placebo were randomly applied to each athlete. Photobiomodulation therapy irradiation was performed at 17 sites of each lower limb, employing a cluster with 12 diodes (4 laser diodes of 905 nm, 4 light emitting diodes [LEDs] of 875 nm, and 4 LEDs of 640 nm, 30 J per site, manufactured by Multi Radiance Medical). Average time of sprints, best time of sprints, and fatigue index were obtained from BST. Blood lactate levels were assessed at baseline, and at 3, 10, 30, and 60 minutes after BST. Athletes' perceived fatigue was also assessed through a questionnaire. Photobiomodulation therapy significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved the average time of sprints and fatigue index in BST. Photobiomodulation therapy significantly decreased percentage of change in blood lactate levels (p ≤ 0.05) and perceived fatigue (p ≤ 0.05). Pre-exercise PBMT with the combination of super-pulsed laser (low-level laser), red LEDs, and infrared LEDs can enhance performance

  5. An Improved 20-Year Arctic Ocean Altimetric Sea Level Data Record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per

    2015-01-01

    reprocessed ERS-1/2/Envisat satellite altimetry to develop an improved 20-year sea level dataset for the Arctic Ocean. We have developed both an along-track dataset and three-day gridded sea level anomaly (SLA) maps from September 1992 to April 2012. A major improvement in data coverage was gained...

  6. Inhibition of the oxygen sensor PHD2 in the liver improves survival in lactic acidosis by activating the Cori cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhara, Tomohiro; Hishiki, Takako; Kasahara, Masataka; Hayakawa, Noriyo; Oyaizu, Tomoko; Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi; Kubo, Akiko; Morisaki, Hiroshi; Kaelin, William G; Suematsu, Makoto; Minamishima, Yoji Andrew

    2015-09-15

    Loss of prolyl hydroxylase 2 (PHD2) activates the hypoxia-inducible factor-dependent hypoxic response, including anaerobic glycolysis, which causes large amounts of lactate to be released from cells into the circulation. We found that Phd2-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) produced more lactate than wild-type MEFs, as expected, whereas systemic inactivation of PHD2 in mice did not cause hyperlacticacidemia. This unexpected observation led us to hypothesize that the hypoxic response activated in the liver enhances the Cori cycle, a lactate-glucose carbon recycling system between muscle and liver, and thereby decreases circulating lactate. Consistent with this hypothesis, blood lactate levels measured after a treadmill or lactate tolerance test were significantly lower in Phd2-liver-specific knockout (Phd2-LKO) mice than in control mice. An in vivo (13)C-labeled lactate incorporation assay revealed that the livers of Phd2-LKO mice produce significantly more glucose derived from (13)C-labeled lactate than control mice, suggesting that blockade of PHD2 in the liver ameliorates lactic acidosis by activating gluconeogenesis from lactate. Phd2-LKO mice were resistant to lactic acidosis induced by injection of a lethal dose of lactate, displaying a significant elongation of survival. Moreover, oral administration of a PHD inhibitor improved survival in an endotoxin shock mice model. These data suggest that PHD2 is a potentially novel drug target for the treatment of lactic acidosis, which is a serious and often fatal complication observed in some critically ill patients.

  7. Effect of alcohol fermented feed on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk Fatty Acid profile and cholesterol content in holstein lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Z; Park, B K; Yan, C G; Choi, J G; Ahn, J S; Shin, J S

    2012-11-01

    A feeding experiment with 40 lactating Holstein cows and 4 dietary treatments was conducted to investigate supplementation with different levels of alcohol fermented feed to the TMR on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk fatty acid profile and cholesterol concentration of blood and milk. Forty Holstein lactating cows (106±24 d post-partum; mean±SD) were distributed into four groups and randomly assigned to one of four treatments with each containing 10 cows per treatment. The treatment supplemented with TMR (DM basis) as the control (CON), and CON mixed with alcohol-fermented feeds (AFF) at a level of 5%, 10% and 15% of the TMR as T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by supplementation of AFF. An increased 4% FCM in the milk occurred in cows fed T3 diet compared with CON, while T1 and T2 diets decreased 4% FCM in a dose dependent manner. Supplementation of AFF increased the concentration of albumin, total protein (TP), ammonia, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in serum compared with CON. In contrast, supplementation with AFF clearly decreased concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and total cholesterol (TC) compare with CON. AFF supplementation increased the proportion of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 compared to CON. A decrease in the concentration of saturated fatty acid (SFA) for T1, T2 and T3 resulted in an increased unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) to SFA ratio compared to CON. Concentration of cholesterol in milk fat was reduced in proportion to the supplemental level of AFF. Feeding a diet supplemented with a moderate level AFF to lactating cows could be a way to alter the feed efficiency and fatty acid profile of milk by increasing potentially human consumer healthy fatty acid without detrimental effects on feed intake and milk production. A substantially decreased cholesterol proportion in milk induced by supplementation AFF suggests that alcohol fermented feed may improve milk cholesterol levels

  8. Effect of Alcohol Fermented Feed on Lactating Performance, Blood Metabolites, Milk Fatty Acid Profile and Cholesterol Content in Holstein Lactating Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Z. Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A feeding experiment with 40 lactating Holstein cows and 4 dietary treatments was conducted to investigate supplementation with different levels of alcohol fermented feed to the TMR on lactating performance, blood metabolites, milk fatty acid profile and cholesterol concentration of blood and milk. Forty Holstein lactating cows (106±24 d post-partum; mean±SD were distributed into four groups and randomly assigned to one of four treatments with each containing 10 cows per treatment. The treatment supplemented with TMR (DM basis as the control (CON, and CON mixed with alcohol-fermented feeds (AFF at a level of 5%, 10% and 15% of the TMR as T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by supplementation of AFF. An increased 4% FCM in the milk occurred in cows fed T3 diet compared with CON, while T1 and T2 diets decreased 4% FCM in a dose dependent manner. Supplementation of AFF increased the concentration of albumin, total protein (TP, ammonia, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in serum compared with CON. In contrast, supplementation with AFF clearly decreased concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN and total cholesterol (TC compare with CON. AFF supplementation increased the proportion of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 compared to CON. A decrease in the concentration of saturated fatty acid (SFA for T1, T2 and T3 resulted in an increased unsaturated fatty acid (USFA to SFA ratio compared to CON. Concentration of cholesterol in milk fat was reduced in proportion to the supplemental level of AFF. Feeding a diet supplemented with a moderate level AFF to lactating cows could be a way to alter the feed efficiency and fatty acid profile of milk by increasing potentially human consumer healthy fatty acid without detrimental effects on feed intake and milk production. A substantially decreased cholesterol proportion in milk induced by supplementation AFF suggests that alcohol fermented feed may improve milk cholesterol

  9. Comportamento ingestivo de ovelhas em lactação alimentadas com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de fibra em detergente neutro Feeding behaviour of lactating ewes fed diets containing different neutral detergent fiber levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Haetinger Hübner

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do fornecimento de dietas com diferentes níveis de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN sobre o comportamento ingestivo de ovelhas em lactação. Foram utilizadas 18 ovelhas 5/8 Ile de France 3/8 Texel, confinadas 24 horas após o parto em baias individuais, sendo aleatoriamente distribuídas em três tratamentos: 34, 43 e 52% de FDN na dieta. As dietas, isoproteicas, foram compostas por silagem de milho (Zea mays L., milho triturado, farelo de soja (Glycine max L., calcário calcítico, fosfato bicálcico e sal comum, sendo fornecidas ad libitum, duas vezes ao dia, em horários pré-estabelecidos às 8h30min e 16h30min. O comportamento ingestivo dos animais foi determinado mediante apreciação visual. O aumento do nível de FDN na dieta influenciou significativamente os consumos de MS e FDN, a produção de leite e os tempos despendidos em ingestão, ruminação, ócio e mastigação total, que variaram de forma quadrática (PThe aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different neutral detergent fiber (NDF levels in the diet on ingestive behavior of lactating ewes. Eighteen 5/8 Ile de France 3/8 Texel ewes, housed in individual cage 24 hours postpartum, were used. Animals were assigned to one of three treatments: 34, 43 and 52% NDF in the diet, in dry matter (DM basis. The total mixed rations, composed by corn silage (Zea mays L., ground corn, soybean meal (Glycine max L., limestone, salt and dicalcium phosphate, were given twice a day, at 0830 AM and 0430 PM. Ingestive behavior was determined by visual appreciation. The increase of the NDF level in the diet significantly influenced (P<.05 DM and NDF intakes, milk yield, and the feeding, rumination, idleness resting and total chewing times, that varied quadratically (P<.05. The NDF feeding and rumination efficiency increased, whereas DM feeding and rumination efficiency linearly decreased (P<.05 as effect of the NDF increased, being necessary

  10. Accuracy of Handheld Point-of-Care Fingertip Lactate Measurement in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaieski, David G

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early recognition of elevated lactate levels in sepsis may hasten the detection of those patients eligible for aggressive resuscitation. Point-of-care (POC testing is now increasingly available for use in the emergency department (ED. We examined the accuracy and time-saving effect of a handheld POC device for the measurement of fingertip and whole blood lactate as compared with reference laboratory testing in critically ill ED patients.Methods: A convenience sample of adult ED patients receiving serum lactate testing was prospectively enrolled at an urban, tertiary care US hospital. Consenting patients underwent fingertip POC lactate measurement with a portable device and simultaneous whole blood sampling for analysis by both the POC device and standard laboratory analyzer (‘‘reference method’’. Lactate measurements were compared by intraclass correlation (ICC and Bland and Altman plots. Differences in time to test result were compared by paired t test.Results: Twenty-four patients, 19 (79% with sepsis and 21 (88% with lactate levels below 4 mmol/L, were included from April 2005 to May 2005. Fingertip POC and whole blood POC lactate measurements each correlated tightly with the reference method (ICC ¼ 0.90 and ICC ¼ 0.92, respectively. Mean time between obtaining fingertip lactate samples and whole blood reference lactate samples was 8 6 13 minutes. Mean time between obtaining POC and reference laboratory lactate results was 65 minutes (95% confidence interval, 30–103.Conclusion: Fingertip POC lactate measurement is an accurate method to determine lactate levels in infected ED patients with normal or modestly elevated lactate values and significantly decreases time to test results. These findings should be verified in a larger, more critically ill, ED population. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(1:58-62.

  11. Evaluation for School Improvement: A Multi-Level, Multi-Purpose Model. Project: Multi-Level Evaluation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Joan L.

    A model for a comprehensive, multi-purpose, multi-user evaluation system is presented to facilitate educational decision making and to support school improvement and renewal. The model is school district-based but oriented to meet state-, school-, and classroom-level needs as well. The model emphasizes the usefulness of common or compatible…

  12. Changes in mRNA expression of arcuate nucleus appetite-regulating peptides during lactation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Nakahara, Keiko; Maruyama, Keisuke; Okame, Rieko; Ensho, Takuya; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Murakami, Noboru

    2014-04-01

    The contribution of hypothalamic appetite-regulating peptides to further hyperphagia accompanying the course of lactation in rats was investigated by using PCR array and real-time PCR. Furthermore, changes in the mRNA expression for appetite-regulating peptides in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) were analyzed at all stages of pregnancy and lactation, and also after weaning. Food intake was significantly higher during pregnancy, lactation, and after weaning than during non-lactation periods. During lactation, ARC expression of mRNAs for agouti-related protein (AgRP) and peptide YY was increased, whereas that of mRNAs for proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cholecystokinin (CCK) was decreased, in comparison with non-lactation periods. The increase in AgRP mRNA expression during lactation was especially marked. The plasma level of leptin was significantly decreased during the course of lactation, whereas that of acyl-ghrelin was unchanged. In addition, food intake was negatively correlated with the plasma leptin level during lactation. This study has clarified synchronous changes in the expression of many appetite-regulating peptides in ARC of rats during lactation. Our results suggest that hyperphagia during lactation in rats is caused by decreases in POMC and CCK expression and increases in AgRP expression in ARC, the latter being most notable. Together with the decrease in the blood leptin level, such changes in mRNA expression may explain the further hyperphagia accompanying the course of lactation.

  13. The EULAR points to consider for use of antirheumatic drugs before pregnancy, and during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götestam Skorpen, Carina; Hoeltzenbein, Maria; Tincani, Angela; Fischer-Betz, Rebecca; Elefant, Elisabeth; Chambers, Christina; da Silva, Josè; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine; Cetin, Irene; Costedoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie; Dolhain, Radboud; Förger, Frauke; Khamashta, Munther; Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo; Zink, Angela; Vencovsky, Jiri; Cutolo, Maurizio; Caeyers, Nele; Zumbühl, Claudia; Østensen, Monika

    2016-05-01

    A European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) task force was established to define points to consider on use of antirheumatic drugs before pregnancy, and during pregnancy and lactation. Based on a systematic literature review and pregnancy exposure data from several registries, statements on the compatibility of antirheumatic drugs during pregnancy and lactation were developed. The level of agreement among experts in regard to statements and propositions of use in clinical practice was established by Delphi voting. The task force defined 4 overarching principles and 11 points to consider for use of antirheumatic drugs during pregnancy and lactation. Compatibility with pregnancy and lactation was found for antimalarials, sulfasalazine, azathioprine, ciclosporin, tacrolimus, colchicine, intravenous immunoglobulin and glucocorticoids. Methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil and cyclophosphamide require discontinuation before conception due to proven teratogenicity. Insufficient documentation in regard to fetal safety implies the discontinuation of leflunomide, tofacitinib as well as abatacept, rituximab, belimumab, tocilizumab, ustekinumab and anakinra before a planned pregnancy. Among biologics tumour necrosis factor inhibitors are best studied and appear reasonably safe with first and second trimester use. Restrictions in use apply for the few proven teratogenic drugs and the large proportion of medications for which insufficient safety data for the fetus/child are available. Effective drug treatment of active inflammatory rheumatic disease is possible with reasonable safety for the fetus/child during pregnancy and lactation. The dissemination of the data to health professionals and patients as well as their implementation into clinical practice may help to improve the management of pregnant and lactating patients with rheumatic disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Peripheral administration of lactate produces antidepressant-like effects

    KAUST Repository

    Carrard, A

    2016-10-18

    In addition to its role as metabolic substrate that can sustain neuronal function and viability, emerging evidence supports a role for l-lactate as an intercellular signaling molecule involved in synaptic plasticity. Clinical and basic research studies have shown that major depression and chronic stress are associated with alterations in structural and functional plasticity. These findings led us to investigate the role of l-lactate as a potential novel antidepressant. Here we show that peripheral administration of l-lactate produces antidepressant-like effects in different animal models of depression that respond to acute and chronic antidepressant treatment. The antidepressant-like effects of l-lactate are associated with increases in hippocampal lactate levels and with changes in the expression of target genes involved in serotonin receptor trafficking, astrocyte functions, neurogenesis, nitric oxide synthesis and cAMP signaling. Further elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects of l-lactate may help to identify novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of depression.

  15. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and lactate on glucose uptake in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Danielle Kaiser; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Kucharski, Luiz Carlos Rios

    2012-01-17

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) prevents brain aging, enhances the cerebral metabolism and interacts with energy substrates. The interaction between lactate and DHEA on glucose uptake and lactate oxidation by various nervous structures was investigated and results demonstrate that the 2-(14)C-deoxiglucose (2-(14)C-Dglucose) uptake was stimulated by 10mM lactate in the hypothalamus and olfactory bulb, inhibited in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum, and unaffected in the hippocampus. We also show that, in both the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus, (14)C-lactate oxidation was higher than (14)C-glucose oxidation (p≤0.001), demonstrating a relevant role for lactate as energy substrate. The interaction of lactate and 10(-8)M DHEA was tested and, although DHEA had no significant effect on uptake in the cerebellum, hippocampus, or hypothalamus, 10(-8)M DHEA increased the 2-(14)C-Dglucose uptake in the cerebral cortex in the presence of lactate (p≤0.001), and in the olfactory bulb in the absence of lactate (pDHEA had no significant effect on (14)C-lactate oxidation. We suggest that DHEA improves glucose uptake in specific conditions. Thus, DHEA may affect CNS metabolism and interact with lactate, which is the most important neuronal energy substrate, on glucose uptake. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. GLYCOLATE OXIDASE3, a Glycolate Oxidase Homolog of Yeast l-Lactate Cytochrome c Oxidoreductase, Supports l-Lactate Oxidation in Roots of Arabidopsis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engqvist, Martin K.M.; Schmitz, Jessica; Gertzmann, Anke; Florian, Alexandra; Jaspert, Nils; Arif, Muhammad; Balazadeh, Salma; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Maurino, Veronica G.

    2015-01-01

    In roots of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), l-lactate is generated by the reduction of pyruvate via l-lactate dehydrogenase, but this enzyme does not efficiently catalyze the reverse reaction. Here, we identify the Arabidopsis glycolate oxidase (GOX) paralogs GOX1, GOX2, and GOX3 as putative l-lactate-metabolizing enzymes based on their homology to CYB2, the l-lactate cytochrome c oxidoreductase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that GOX3 uses l-lactate with a similar efficiency to glycolate; in contrast, the photorespiratory isoforms GOX1 and GOX2, which share similar enzymatic properties, use glycolate with much higher efficiencies than l-lactate. The key factor making GOX3 more efficient with l-lactate than GOX1 and GOX2 is a 5- to 10-fold lower Km for the substrate. Consequently, only GOX3 can efficiently metabolize l-lactate at low intracellular concentrations. Isotope tracer experiments as well as substrate toxicity tests using GOX3 loss-of-function and overexpressor plants indicate that l-lactate is metabolized in vivo by GOX3. Moreover, GOX3 rescues the lethal growth phenotype of a yeast strain lacking CYB2, which cannot grow on l-lactate as a sole carbon source. GOX3 is predominantly present in roots and mature to aging leaves but is largely absent from young photosynthetic leaves, indicating that it plays a role predominantly in heterotrophic rather than autotrophic tissues, at least under standard growth conditions. In roots of plants grown under normoxic conditions, loss of function of GOX3 induces metabolic rearrangements that mirror wild-type responses under hypoxia. Thus, we identified GOX3 as the enzyme that metabolizes l-lactate to pyruvate in vivo and hypothesize that it may ensure the sustainment of low levels of l-lactate after its formation under normoxia. PMID:26246447

  17. Milk residues and performance of lactating dairy cows administered high doses of monensin

    OpenAIRE

    Bagg, Randal; Vessie, Gordon H.; Dick, C. Paul; Duffield, Todd; Wilson, Jeff B.; Aramini, Jeff J

    2005-01-01

    Milk residues and performance were evaluated in lactating cows that were fed up to 10 times the recommended dose of monensin. Following an acclimatization period of 14 d, during which cows were fed a standard lactating cow total mixed ration containing 24 ppm monensin, 18 lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped according to the level of feed intake and then randomly assigned within each group to 1 of 3 challenge rations delivering 72, 144, and 240 ppm monensin. Outcome measurements include...

  18. An attempt to define the sodium requirements of lactating dairy cows in a tropical environment

    OpenAIRE

    Thiangtum, W; Yawongsa, A.; Schonewille, J.T.; Rukkwamsuk, T; C. Yuangklang; M.W.A. Verstegen; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lactating dairy cattle in the tropics may require more sodium (Na) owing to the hot and humid climatic conditions. It is unknown whether the current recommendations on Na for lactating cows can be quantitatively used in tropical countries. This study attempted to define the Na requirement of lactating dairy cows under tropical conditions by measuring Na levels in saliva, milk and faeces. RESULTS: The concentrations of Na and potassium (K) in milk, faeces and serum were not affecte...

  19. Lactate Oxidation Coupled to Iron or Electrode Reduction by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA

    KAUST Repository

    Call, D. F.

    2011-10-14

    Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA completely oxidized lactate and reduced iron or an electrode, producing pyruvate and acetate intermediates. Compared to the current produced by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, G. sulfurreducens PCA produced 10-times-higher current levels in lactate-fed microbial electrolysis cells. The kinetic and comparative analyses reported here suggest a prominent role of G. sulfurreducens strains in metaland electrode-reducing communities supplied with lactate. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology.

  20. [Pregnancy and lactation in rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakawa, Yohko

    2016-06-01

    Previously, female RA patients wishing to become pregnant were treated with only glucocorticoid, NSAIDs and sulfasalazine. However, these limited therapy sometimes fail to sustain RA remission, though pregnancy in most cases is associated with improving RA activity. High RA activity and relative high dose of glucocorticoid also involved poor fertility. Recently, a variety of medications are available to treat patients with RA. This article reviewed the safety or not safety of these medications during prior to conception, pregnancy and post-partum period. Accumulating experience with TNF blockade provide the useful insights for the treatment of RA patients during pre-conception, pregnancy or lactation.

  1. Exposure to a novel feedstuff by goat dams during pregnancy and lactation versus pregnancy alone does not further improve post-weaning acceptance of this feedstuff by their kids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hai, P.V.; Schonewille, J.T.; Tien, D.V.; Everts, H.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND
    Previous experiments demonstrated the existence of in utero learning in goats. However, in contrast to other animal species, in goats there is no information about the potential of flavour transmission from maternal feed to goat kids during lactation. The aim of the current study was

  2. Diet-induced obesity accelerates blood lactate accumulation of rats in response to incremental exercise to maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiao-Nan Joyce; Liao, Yi-Hung; Lin, Shang-Ying; Yu, Jun-Xian; Li, Zhen-Jie; Lin, Yu-Chieh; Chang, Gwo-Jyh; Lin, Chung-Hao; Wong, Alice May-Kuen

    2017-08-30

    Blood lactate increases during incremental exercise at high-intensity workloads and limited exercise capacity is a characteristic of obese animals. This study examined whether blood lactate changes in response to incremental exercise is disrupted in obese animals. Muscular and hepatic proteins that are critical in lactate metabolism were also investigated. Rats were randomized to either standard chow (control) or high fat diet (HFD) groups. All animals underwent an incremental treadmill test after 14 weeks of diet intervention. Blood lactate levels were measured before and after the treadmill test. Activities of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis were examined in muscle tissues. Proteins in the liver and skeletal muscles that participate in the turnover of blood lactate were determined by Western blot. Running time in the incremental treadmill test decreased in the HFD group, and blood lactate accumulated faster in these animals than in the control group. Animals with HFD had a decreased level of hepatic monocarboxylate transporter 2, the protein responsible for blood lactate uptake in the liver. Skeletal muscles of animals with HFD showed greater glycolytic activity and decreased content of lactate dehydrogenase B, which converts lactate to pyruvate. Blood lactate accumulated faster during incremental exercise in obese animals and associated with their decreased exercise performance. Changes in the metabolic pattern of muscles and changes of liver and muscle proteins associated with lactate utilization likely contribute to the abnormal response of blood lactate to incremental exercise in obese animals. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.

  3. In vivo (1) H MR spectroscopic imaging of aggressive prostate cancer: can we detect lactate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobus, Thiele; Wright, Alan J; Van Asten, Jack J A; Heerschap, Arend; Scheenen, Tom W J

    2014-01-01

    A semi-LASER sequence was optimized for in vivo lactate detection in the prostate. The ethical committee waived the need for informed consent to measure 17 patients with high grade prostate cancer on a 3T system. A semi-LASER sequence was used with an echo time of 144 ms and optimized interpulse timing for a spectral citrate shape with high signal intensity. An LCModel basis set was developed for fitting choline, creatine, spermine, citrate, and lactate and was used to fit all spectra in tumor-containing voxels. For patients without detectable lactate, the minimal detectable lactate concentration was determined by adding in all spectra of tumor tissue a simulated lactate signal. The amplitude of the simulated lactate signal was iteratively decreased until its fit reached a Cramér Rao lower bound >20%, which was then set as the patient-specific detection limit. In none of the patients a convincing lactate signal was found. We estimated that on average the lactate levels in high grade prostate cancer are below 1.5 mM (range 0.9-3.5 mM), Interestingly, in one patient with extensive necrosis in the tumor biopsy samples (Gleason score 5+5), large lipid resonances were observed, which originated from the tumor. The minimal detectable lactate concentration of 1.5 mM in high grade prostate cancer indicates that if lactate is increased it remains at low concentrations. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. In Vivo Evidence for a Lactate Gradient from Astrocytes to Neurons

    KAUST Repository

    Mächler, Philipp

    2015-11-19

    Investigating lactate dynamics in brain tissue is challenging, partly because in vivo data at cellular resolution are not available. We monitored lactate in cortical astrocytes and neurons of mice using the genetically encoded FRET sensor Laconic in combination with two-photon microscopy. An intravenous lactate injection rapidly increased the Laconic signal in both astrocytes and neurons, demonstrating high lactate permeability across tissue. The signal increase was significantly smaller in astrocytes, pointing to higher basal lactate levels in these cells, confirmed by a one-point calibration protocol. Trans-acceleration of the monocarboxylate transporter with pyruvate was able to reduce intracellular lactate in astrocytes but not in neurons. Collectively, these data provide in vivo evidence for a lactate gradient from astrocytes to neurons. This gradient is a prerequisite for a carrier-mediated lactate flux from astrocytes to neurons and thus supports the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle model, in which astrocyte-derived lactate acts as an energy substrate for neurons. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

  5. Building s New Socialist Countryside, Improving Commission and Agent System of "Village-level Accounting"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Hong

    2006-01-01

    Rural finance is an issue concerned with rural people, improving rural financial management is important to close the relations of cadres and masses, maintain rural stability, and promote rural economic development. This article explained the main problems of village financial, the needs of introducing commission and agent system of"village-level accounting" for building a new socialist countryside, and the measures of improving commission and agent system of "village-level accounting".

  6. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Oregano Essential Oil to Sows on Oxidative Stress Status, Lactation Feed Intake of Sows, and Piglet Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chengquan; Sun, Haiqing; Ao, Jiangtao; Long, Guang; Jiang, Siwen; Peng, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Fifty-four multiparous large white sows were used to determine the effects of supplementing oregano essential oil (OEO) to the gestation and lactation diets on oxidative stress status, lactation feed intake, and their piglet performance. Two groups were fed diets with (OEO; n = 28) or without (Control; n = 26) supplemental 15 mg/kg OEO during gestation and lactation. The serum levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (P sows' serum concentrations of 8-OHdG (P sows' counts of faecal lactobacillus (P sow's feed intake (P = 0.07), which resulted in higher average daily gain (P sows. The OEO supplementation to sows' diet improved performance of their piglets, which may be attributed to the reduced oxidative stress. PMID:26539506

  7. Cotransport of H+, lactate, and H2O in porcine retinal pigment epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Steffen; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; la Cour, Morten

    2003-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of the eye transports water and lactate ions in the direction from retina to choroid. The water transport is important in maintenance of retinal adhesion and the transport of lactate ions serves to regulate the lactate levels and pH of the subretinal space....... This study investigates by means of a non-invasive technique the mechanism of coupling between transport of H(+), lactate ion, and water in the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1) located in the apical (retinal) membrane of a mammalian RPE. Primary cultures of porcine RPE cells were grown to confluence...... using the fluorescent dye BCECF. In lactate-free solutions, mannitol addition to the retinal bath caused intracellular acidification and cell shrinkage, given by a single osmotic water permeability of 1.2+/-0.1 x 10(-4)cmsec(-1) (osmoll(-1))(-1). In solutions containing 50 mmoll(-1) lactate, however...

  8. Skeletal muscle lactate overproduction during metformin intoxication: An animal study with reverse microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protti, Alessandro; Properzi, Paolo; Magnoni, Sandra; Santini, Alessandro; Langer, Thomas; Guenzani, Silvia; Ferrero, Stefano; Bassani, Giulia; Stocchetti, Nino; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2016-07-25

    Lactic acidosis during metformin intoxication is classically mainly attributed to diminished lactate clearance through liver gluconeogenesis. Here we studied 6 healthy, sedated and mechanically ventilated pigs to clarify whether high dose of metformin also increases skeletal muscle lactate production. Each animal had two microdialysis catheters inserted in gluteus muscles, one per side. One catheter was infused with saline (control) while the other one was infused with metformin diluted in saline (1M), both at a rate of 0.3μl/min. Dialysate lactate concentration and lactate-to-pyruvate ratio, a marker of the balance between anaerobic glycolysis and aerobic (mitochondrial) metabolism, were measured every 3h, for 12h. Continuous infusion of metformin caused a progressive rise in dialysate lactate level (p=0.007) and lactate-to-pyruvate ratio (poverproduction contributes to the development of metformin-induced lactic acidosis.

  9. Measurement of lactate in a prehospital setting is related to outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beest, Paul A.; Mulder, Peter Jan; Oetomo, Suparto Bambang; van den Broek, Bert; Kuiper, Michael A.; Spronk, Peter E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the relationship of lactate measured in a preclinical setting with outcome. Simultaneously, we evaluated the feasibility of implementing blood lactate measurement in a prehospital setting as part of a quality improvement project Methods Chart review of patients from whom serum

  10. Strategic test-day recording regimes to estimate lactation yield in tropical dairy animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGill, D.M.; Thomson, P.C.; Mulder, H.A.; Lievaart, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background In developing dairy sectors, genetic improvement programs have limited resources and recording of herds is minimal. This study evaluated different methods to estimate lactation yield and sampling schedules with fewer test-day records per lactation to determine recording regimes that (1) e

  11. Nutritionally directed compensatory growth enhances heifer development and lactation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, J A; Park, C S

    2001-07-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to examine the interactive influence of a compensatory nutrition regimen and lasalocid supplementation on dairy heifer growth performance and 2) to document the extent to which compensatory growth sustains lactation potential over the first two lactation cycles. Twelve Holstein heifers, weighing an average of 160 kg (about 6 mo of age) were randomly assigned to treatments arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Treatment variables were two dietary regimens (control and stair-step compensatory nutrition) and two levels of lasalocid (0 and 200 mg/d). The control heifers were fed a diet containing 12% crude protein (CP) and 2.35 Mcal of metabolizable energy (ME) per kilogram of dry matter. The stair-step compensatory nutrition heifers were subjected to a phased nutrition regimen and reared according to an alternating 3-2-4-3-4-2-mo schedule. The first stair-step (prepubertal phase) consisted of energy restriction [17% CP and 2.35 Mcal/kg of ME] for 3 mo followed by realimentation (12% CP and 3.05 Mcal/kg of ME) for 2 mo. The second step (puberty and breeding) consisted of energy restriction for 4 mo followed by realimentation for 3 mo. The third step (gestation period) was energy restriction for 4 mo concluding with realimentation for 2 mo. Dry matter intake of heifers during the restriction phase was limited to 70% of the control intake. Heifers were given ad libitum access to a high energy density diet during realimentation to allow compensatory development. Stair-step heifers supplemented with lasalocid had the highest efficiency of growth (body weight gain/dry matter intake), suggesting synergistic metabolism of lasalocid with compensatory growth action. Compensatory growth induced during the last trimester enhanced metabolic status by increasing circulating insulin and decreasing triglyceride levels. Heifers on the stair-step regimen had a significant increase in milk yield during the first (21%) and second (15%) lactation

  12. Writing for Learning to Improve Students' Comprehension at the College Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Fahad

    2015-01-01

    This literature review will illustrate how writing could improve students' comprehension. Writing is one of the most important skills that students need to master for college level work. Therefore, students should be prepared with these skills before moving to the college level because they are required to write numerous papers that tend to be…

  13. L-lactate metabolism can occur in normal and cancer prostate cells via the novel mitochondrial L-lactate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bari, Lidia; Chieppa, Gabriella; Marra, Ersilia; Passarella, Salvatore

    2010-12-01

    Both normal (PTN1A) and cancer (PC3) prostate cells produce high levels of L-lactate because of a low energy supply via the citric cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Since some mammalian mitochondria possess a mitochondrial L-lactate dehydrogenase (mLDH), we investigated whether prostate cells can take up L-lactate and metabolize it in the mitochondria. We report here that externally added L-lactate can enter both normal and cancer cells and mitochondria, as shown by both the oxygen consumption and by the increase in fluorescence of NAD(P)H which occur as a result of L-lactate addition. In both cell types L-lactate enters mitochondria in a carrier-mediated manner, as shown by the inhibition of swelling measurements due to the non-penetrant thiol reagent mersalyl. An L-lactate dehydrogenase exists in mitochondria of both cell types located in the inner compartment, as shown by kinetic investigation and by immunological analysis. The mLDHs proved to differ from the cytosolic enzymes (which themselves differ from one another) as functionally investigated with respect to kinetic features and pH profile. Normal and cancer cells were found to differ from one another with respect to mLDH protein level and activity, being the enzyme more highly expressed and of higher activity in PC3 cells. Moreover, the kinetic features and pH profiles of the PC3 mLDH also differ from those of the PNT1A enzyme, this suggesting the occurrence of separate isoenzymes.

  14. Azathioprine treatment during lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, L.A.; Dahlerup, J.F.; Nielsen, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thiopurines are widely used to maintain remission in inflammatory bowel disease. Treatment during pregnancy is generally recommended to improve the chance of a normal birth outcome, but advice concerning breastfeeding is conflicting. Aim To estimate the exposure of breastfed infants...... confirm that breastfeeding during treatment with azathioprine seems safe and should be recommended, considering the extensive beneficial effects Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11/15...

  15. Ivermectin pharmacokinetics in lactating sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerkvenik, V.; Grabnar, V.; Skubic, V.; Doganoc, D.Z.; Beek, W.M.J.; Keukens, H.J.; Kosorok, M.D.; Pogacnik, M.

    2002-01-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) concentrations in plasma and milk were studied in six Istrian Pramenka dairy sheep after a single subcutaneous dose of 0.2 mg/kg b.w. of IVM in the early lactation period to describe IVM disposition in milk and to evaluate the transfer of IVM residues via milk to suckling lambs. Lar

  16. Imaging Pregnant and Lactating Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirada, Nikki; Dreizin, David; Khati, Nadia J; Akin, Esma A; Zeman, Robert K

    2015-10-01

    As use of imaging in the evaluation of pregnant and lactating patients continues to increase, misperceptions of radiation and safety risks have proliferated, which has led to often unwarranted concerns among patients and clinicians. When radiologic examinations are appropriately used, the benefits derived from the information gained usually outweigh the risks. This review describes appropriateness and safety issues, estimated doses for imaging examinations that use iodizing radiation (ie, radiography, computed tomography, nuclear scintigraphy, and fluoroscopically guided interventional radiology), radiation risks to the mother and conceptus during various stages of pregnancy, and use of iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast agents and radiotracers in pregnant and lactating women. Maternal radiation risk must be weighed with the potential consequences of missing a life-threatening diagnosis such as pulmonary embolus. Fetal risks (ie, spontaneous abortion, teratogenesis, or carcinogenesis) vary with gestational age and imaging modality and should be considered in the context of the potential benefit of medically necessary diagnostic imaging. When feasible and medically indicated, modalities that do not use ionizing radiation (eg, magnetic resonance imaging) are preferred in pregnant and lactating patients. Radiologists should strive to minimize risks of radiation to the mother and fetus, counsel patients effectively, and promote a realistic understanding of risks related to imaging during pregnancy and lactation.

  17. Portable lactate analyzer for measuring lactate in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma ? method-comparison evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Increased plasma lactate levels can indicate the presence of metabolic disorders in HIV infected individuals. Objective: To determine whether a portable analyzer is valid for measuring cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma lactate levels in HIV infected individuals. Method: CSF and plasma were collected from 178 subjects. Samples tested by the Accutrend® portable analyzer were compared to those tested by a reference device (SYNCHRON LX® 20. Results: The portable analyzer had in plasma sensitivity of 0.95 and specificity 0.87. For CSF the specificity was 0.95; the sensitivity 0.33; the negative predictive value was 95% and the positive predictive value 33%. Conclusions: These findings support the validity of the portable analyzer in measuring lactate concentrations in CSF that fall within the normal range. The relatively poor positive predictive value indicates that a result above the reference range may represent a “false positive test”, and should be confirmed by the reference device before concluding abnormality.

  18. Neighborhood-Level Interventions to Improve Childhood Opportunity and Lift Children Out of Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandel, Megan; Faugno, Elena; Mingo, Angela; Cannon, Jessie; Byrd, Kymberly; Garcia, Dolores Acevedo; Collier, Sheena; McClure, Elizabeth; Jarrett, Renée Boynton

    2016-04-01

    Population health is associated with the socioeconomic characteristics of neighborhoods. There is considerable scientific and policy interest in community-level interventions to alleviate child poverty. Intergenerational poverty is associated with inequitable access to opportunities. Improving opportunity structures within neighborhoods may contribute to improved child health and development. Neighborhood-level efforts to alleviate poverty for all children require alignment of cross-sector efforts, community engagement, and multifactorial approaches that consider the role of people as well as place. We highlight several accessible tools and strategies that health practitioners can engage to improve regional and local systems that influence child opportunity. The Child Opportunity Index is a population-level surveillance tool to describe community-level resources and inequities in US metropolitan areas. The case studies reviewed outline strategies for creating higher opportunity neighborhoods for pediatricians interested in working across sectors to address the impact of neighborhood opportunity on child health and well-being.

  19. Protein quality and quantity and insulin control of mammary gland glucose utilization during lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masor, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were bred, and fed laboratory stock (STOCK), 13% casein plus methionine, 13% wheat gluten, or 5% casein plus methionine through gestation and 4 days of lactation. Diets were switched at parturition to determine the effects of dietary protein quality and quantity fed during gestation and/or lactation on insulin stimulation of mammary glucose utilization. On day 20 of gestation (20G) and day 4 of lactation (4L) the right inguinal-abdominal mammary glands were removed, and acini and tissue slices were incubated in Krebs buffer with or without insulin containing (U-/sup 14/C)-glucose and 5mM glucose for 1 hour at 37/degrees/C. Glucose incorporation into CO/sub 2/, lipid and lactose was determined. Glucose incorporation into CO/sub 2/ and lipid, but not lactose was stimulated by insulin in mammary slices. Diet effects on glucose utilization in acini were confirmed in slices for basal and insulin stimulated levels. Treatment affected the absolute increase of insulin stimulation. Regression analysis significantly correlated pup weight gain with total glucose utilization. Poor dietary protein quality and quantity fed during gestation impaired both overall response of mammary glucose utilization to insulin stimulation, and mammary development during pregnancy. Improving protein value at parturition did not overcome those deficits by 4L.

  20. Hypoxia and exercise provoke both lactate release and lactate oxidation by the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Rasmussen, Peter; Bohm, Aske M

    2012-01-01

    Lactate is shuttled between organs, as demonstrated in the Cori cycle. Although the brain releases lactate at rest, during physical exercise there is a cerebral uptake of lactate. Here, we evaluated the cerebral lactate uptake and release in hypoxia, during exercise and when the two interventions...

  1. Inhalation of Shin-I essential oil enhances lactate clearance in treadmill exercise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsuan-Ying Chen; Ming-Fu Wang; Jun-Ying Lin; Ying-Chieh Tsai; Fu-Chou Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of Shin-I essential oil inhalation on blood lactate changes in rats subjected to treadmill exercise.Methods: Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n=12) were randomly divided into the control or the Shin-I group. Rats were subjected to a treadmill exercise program (15 m/min for 30 min). After exercise, rats were exposed to 200 µL of water or Shin-I essential oil, respectively, using a nebulizer for 180 min during the recovery period. Blood samples were collected every 15 min. Blood glucose and lactate concentrations were determined in a CMA 600 analyzer.Results: The basal glucose and lactate levels were no significantly different between two groups. After exercise, glucose levels were slightly increased to about 110%-120% of the basal level in both groups. Lactate levels of both groups reached to 110%-140% of basal levels during exercise. In the recovery period, lactate levels further increased to 180% of the basal level and were maintained at a plateau in the control group. However, lactate levels gradually decreased to 60%-65% of the basal level in the Shin-I group. Lactate clearance was significantly enhanced after Shin-I essential oil inhalation.Conclusions: Our results provide evidence that Shin-I essential oil inhalation may accelerate recovery after exercise in rats.

  2. Lactate Transport and Receptor Actions in Retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, Miriam; Vosborg, Fia; Henriksen, Jens Ulrik Lütken;

    2016-01-01

    In retina, like in brain, lactate equilibrates across cell membranes via monocarboxylate transporters and in the extracellular space by diffusion, forming a basis for the action of lactate as a transmitter of metabolic signals. In the present paper, we argue that the lactate receptor GPR81, also ...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 582.5311 Section 582.5311 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5311 Ferrous lactate. (a) Product. Ferrous lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  4. Improved production of homo-D-lactic acid via xylose fermentation by introduction of xylose assimilation genes and redirection of the phosphoketolase pathway to the pentose phosphate pathway in L-Lactate dehydrogenase gene-deficient Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Kenji; Yoshida, Shogo; Yamada, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ogino, Chiaki; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2009-12-01

    The production of optically pure d-lactic acid via xylose fermentation was achieved by using a Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 strain whose l-lactate dehydrogenase gene was deficient and whose phosphoketolase genes were replaced with a heterologous transketolase gene. After 60 h of fermentation, 41.2 g/liter of d-lactic acid was produced from 50 g/liter of xylose.

  5. KNaY-zeolite catalyzed dehydration of methyl lactate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Feng Shi; Yao Chi Hu; Yang Wang; He Huang

    2007-01-01

    A promising catalyst, KNaY was prepared by an ion exchange method with aqueous potassium chloride solution. Compared with NaY, KNaY was an effective catalyst for the dehydration of methyl lactate to methyl acrylate. Under the optimized conditions,an improved yield of 37.9 mol% was achieved.

  6. Lactating cow response to lucerne silage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is unclear why bacterial silage inoculants improve milk production in lactating dairy cattle. However, recent in vitro results suggest that inoculated silage effects on milk production may be tied to greater production of rumen microorganisms. Our objective was to determine if alfalfa silage trea...

  7. Treatment of 62 Patients with Postpartum Lactation Disorder by Acupuncture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金亚蓓

    2006-01-01

    Sixty-two patients with postpartum lactation disorder were treated by needling Neiguan(PC 6), Zusanli(ST 36), Rugen(ST 18) and Jianzhen(SI 9), and moxibustion at Danzhong(CV 17). After 7 treatments, 30 puerperae were vigorous and could lactate 400 mL every day, 26 puerperae could lactate 250 mL every day, and need other milk to feed the children, and 6 puerperae had no improvement in lactation, and lactate a little as pressing the breasts.%针刺内关,足三里,乳根和肩贞穴,温灸膻中,治疗了62例产后缺乳患者.经7次治疗,30例产妇乳汁分泌每天400 mL以上,精神饱满;26例乳汁分泌每天250 mL左右,需补充牛奶喂养婴儿;6例乳汁分泌无明显改善,挤压双侧乳房极少量乳汁分泌.

  8. The origin of lactate in peritumoral edema as measured by proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Go, Kian; Krikke, AP; Kamman, RL; Heesters, Martinus; James, HE; Marshall, LF; Reulen, HJ; Baethmann, A; Marmarou, A; Ito, U; Hoff, JT; Kuroiwa, T; Czernicki, Z

    1997-01-01

    Using in vivo proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-1-MRS), which allows the measurement of metabolites of adequate tissue concentration, the origin of lactate in peritumoral edema has been assessed by comparison with lactate levels in the central and marginal areas of the tumor in 18 patients w

  9. Umbilical cord blood lactate: a valuable tool in the assessment of fetal metabolic acidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Anne Cathrine Roslev; Staer-Jensen, Jette; Jørgensen, Jan Stener

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was (1) to evaluate the relationship between umbilical cord arterial blood lactate and pH, standard base excess (SBE), and actual base excess (ABE) at delivery and (2) to suggest a cut-off level of umbilical cord arterial blood lactate in predicting fetal asphyxia using...

  10. The origin of lactate in peritumoral edema as measured by proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Go, Kian; Krikke, AP; Kamman, RL; Heesters, Martinus; James, HE; Marshall, LF; Reulen, HJ; Baethmann, A; Marmarou, A; Ito, U; Hoff, JT; Kuroiwa, T; Czernicki, Z

    1997-01-01

    Using in vivo proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-1-MRS), which allows the measurement of metabolites of adequate tissue concentration, the origin of lactate in peritumoral edema has been assessed by comparison with lactate levels in the central and marginal areas of the tumor in 18 patients

  11. Pregnancy rate evaluation in lactating and non-lactating Nelore cows subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination using injectable progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Tadeu Campos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI protocols utilize progesterone (P4 as a hormonal source to achieve synchronization of estrus in cattle. The use of an injectable P4 source to control estrus would be an interesting pharmacological strategy owing to the practicality of parenteral application. However, the effects of injectable P4 on estrus cycle control in cattle remain poorly studied. In particular, no existing studies have investigated the effect of injectable P4 on the fertility of cows subjected to FTAI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy rate of lactating and non-lactating Nelore cows subjected to FTAI with injectable P4. Of the 422 non-lactating cows in this study, 162 (38.3% became pregnant by 60 days post-FTAI. In the lactating group (n = 516, 166 (32.1% were pregnant by 60 days after treatment with injectable P4. The proportions of lactating and non-lactating cows becoming pregnant were compared using the chi-square test, adopting a significance level of P < 0.05. It was found that the pregnancy rate of the cows subjected to FTAI with injectable P4 was influenced by lactation status. Lactating cows had lower reproductive performance, possibly because of their higher nutritional requirements. However, the use of injectable P4 shows promising results and may prove to be a useful strategy in large-scale livestock production.

  12. Neuromuscular and Blood Lactate Response After a Motocross Training Session in Amateur Riders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Motocross is one of the most popular motorized off-road sports, characterized by riding on irregular natural terrain of hard earth and/or sand with various obstacles throughout the course. Objectives This study evaluated the influence of a motocross training session on neuromuscular response and blood lactate in amateur riders. Patients and Methods Nine motocross riders (22.7 ± 2.8 years participating in amateur competitions at the state level conducted a training session of 20 minutes duration at a motocross track (1.6 km with a 250-cc four-stroke motorcycle. Metabolic demand was measured with blood lactate concentrations before and immediately, 3, 5, 8, and 10 minutes after the training session. To measure neuromuscular response, riders completed handgrip strength and horizontal jump tests before and 10 minutes after the training session. Student’s t-test and analysis of variance one-way repeated measures were used to compare the changes before and after the motocross training session. Results Significant decreases in handgrip strength were observed for both hands (left: P = 0.010 and right: P = 0.004. However, no significant difference (P = 0.241 in horizontal jump ability was observed. Significant blood lactate values were observed immediately (P = 0.001, 3 (P = 0.001, 5 (P = 0.001, and 8 (P = 0.01 minutes after training when compared to the value before training. The peak blood lactate value was 6.5 ± 2.7 mM at 8 minutes after the training session. Conclusions Amateur motocross riders had significant anaerobic metabolism demands and had reduced handgrip strength following a training session. These data suggest an importance of physical training aimed at improving anaerobic and neuromuscular performance of the upper limbs in amateur motocross riders.

  13. Neuromuscular and Blood Lactate Response After a Motocross Training Session in Amateur Riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Vinicius Radenzev; Crisp, Alex Harley; Verlengia, Rozangela; Pellegrinotti, Idico Luiz

    2016-06-01

    Motocross is one of the most popular motorized off-road sports, characterized by riding on irregular natural terrain of hard earth and/or sand with various obstacles throughout the course. This study evaluated the influence of a motocross training session on neuromuscular response and blood lactate in amateur riders. Nine motocross riders (22.7 ± 2.8 years) participating in amateur competitions at the state level conducted a training session of 20 minutes duration at a motocross track (1.6 km) with a 250-cc four-stroke motorcycle. Metabolic demand was measured with blood lactate concentrations before and immediately, 3, 5, 8, and 10 minutes after the training session. To measure neuromuscular response, riders completed handgrip strength and horizontal jump tests before and 10 minutes after the training session. Student's t-test and analysis of variance one-way repeated measures were used to compare the changes before and after the motocross training session. Significant decreases in handgrip strength were observed for both hands (left: P = 0.010 and right: P = 0.004). However, no significant difference (P = 0.241) in horizontal jump ability was observed. Significant blood lactate values were observed immediately (P = 0.001), 3 (P = 0.001), 5 (P = 0.001), and 8 (P = 0.01) minutes after training when compared to the value before training. The peak blood lactate value was 6.5 ± 2.7 mM at 8 minutes after the training session. Amateur motocross riders had significant anaerobic metabolism demands and had reduced handgrip strength following a training session. These data suggest an importance of physical training aimed at improving anaerobic and neuromuscular performance of the upper limbs in amateur motocross riders.

  14. Luminaries-level structure improvement of LEDs for heat dissipation enhancement under natural convection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ke Wu; Le Wang; Yi-Bo Yu; Zhi-Yi Huang; Pei Liang

    2013-12-01

    Heat dissipation enhancement of LED luminaries is of great significance to the large-scale application of LED. Luminaries-level structure improvement by the method of boring through-hole is adopted to intensify heat dissipation. Furthermore, the natural convection heat transfer process of LED luminaries is simulated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model before and after the structural modification. As shown by computational results, boring through-hole is beneficial to develop bottomto-top natural convection, eliminate local circumfluence, and finally form better flow pattern. Analysis based on field synergy principle shows that boring through-hole across LED luminaries improves the synergy between flow field and temperature field, and effectively decreases the thermal resistance of luminaries-level heat dissipation structure. Under the same computational conditions, by luminaries-level structure improvement the highest temperature of heat sink is decreased by about 8° C and the average heat transfer coefficient is increased by 45.8%.

  15. Improvement of Control Infrastructure and High Level Application for KOMAC LINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Young-Gi; Kim, Jae-Ha; Ahn, Tae-Sung; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The Korea multi-purpose accelerator complex (KOMAC) has two beam extraction points at 20 and 100 MeV for proton beam utilization. There are about 70 control systems for controlling the KOMAC subsystems, such as the ion source, the radio frequency, the diagnostic devices, the magnet power supply, and the cooling system. The infrastructure which includes network system, local controllers, and control system environment was required to be changed to process increasing process variables without fail. Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) based high level control environment which includes alarm, data archiving was changed to support the improved infrastructure of KOMAC control system. In this paper, we will describe the improvement of infrastructures for the KOMAC control system and EPICS based high level application. We improved the control network environment and EPCIS based high level application for enhancement of the KOMAC control system.

  16. Milk Yield of Holstein Cows Induced into Lactation Twice Consecutively and Lactation Curve Models Fitted to Artiifcial Lactations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jesus Mellado; Edgar Sepulveda; Jose E Garcia; Alvaro Rodriguez; Maria A De Santiago; Francisco G Veliz; Miguel Mellado

    2014-01-01

    Nineteen multiparous barren Holstein cows were subjected to an induction of lactation protocol for 21 d administering estradiol cypionate (2 mg kg-1 of body weight (BW) d-1, on day 1 to 14), progesterone (0.10 mg kg-1 of BW, on day 1 to 7), lfumethasone (0.03 mg kg-1 of BW, on day 18 to 20) and recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST;500 mg per cow, on day 1, 6, 16 and 21). At the end of lactation and with a minimum of a 2-mon dry period, the same cows were again hormonally induced into lactation. Cows in both lactations were not artiifcially inseminated, they were milked 3 times daily and received rbST throughout lactation. Mean accumulated milk yield at 305 d in milk (DIM) did not differ between the ifrst and second induced lactations ((9 710 ±1 728) vs. (9 309±2 150) kg;mean±SD). Total milk yield ((12 707±3 406) vs. (12 306±4 218) kg;mean±SD) and lactation length ((405±100) vs. (410±91) d;mean±SD) were not different between the ifrst and second induced lactations. In a second study, 15 empirical models including exponential, power law, yield-density, sigmoidal and miscellaneous models were compared for their suitability by modeling 12-mon (n=334), 18-mon (n=164) and 29-mon (n=22) lactation cycles of Holsteins cows induced into lactation and treated with rbST throughout the lactation. Hoerl (Y=ab1/xxc), Wood (Y=axb exp(cx)) and Dhanoa (Y=ax(bc)exp(cx)) models were equally suitable to describe 12-mon lactations. An exponential model with ifve parameters (Y=exp(a+bx+cd2+e/x)) showed the best ift for milk yield for 18-mon lactations. The rational model (Y=a+bx/1+cx+dx2) was found to produce the closest ift for 29-mon lactations. It was concluded that, with the protocol used in the present study, multiparous cows respond favorably to a second cycle of induced lactation, with milk yield similar to that experienced during the ifrst cycle. Thus, dairy producers might be able to lengthen the productive life of infertile high producing cows with a renewal of

  17. Register Allocation Algorithm for High-Level Circuit Synthesis for Improved Testability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Benmao; WANG Hong; YANG Shiyuan; NIU Daoheng; JIN Yang

    2008-01-01

    Register allocation in high-level circuit synthesis is important not only for reducing area, delay, and power overheads, but also for improving the testability of the synthesized circuits. This paper presents an improved register allocation algorithm that improves the testability called weighted graph-based balanced register allocation for high-level circuit synthesis. The controllability and observability of the registers and the self-loop elimination are analyzed to form a weighted conflict graph, where the weight of the edge between two nodes denotes the tendency of the two variables to share the same register. Then the modified desatu-ration algorithm is used to dynamically modify the weights to obtain a final balanced register allocation which improves the testability of the synthesized circuits. Tests on some benchmarks show that the algorithm gives a higher fault coverage than other algorithms with less area overhead and even less time delay.

  18. Evaluation of metal impurities in foods preserved with sodium lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Kimberly Ferren; Carter, Gregory L

    2013-01-01

    The public is being bombarded by the media almost dailywith real and potential food health concerns leadingto a public sentiment that questions the vulnerability and quality of our food. Sodium lactate is a food-grade product that in recent years has been used in bioremediation to stimulate microbial growth and contaminant breakdown processes. In previous work, impurities including arsenic and chromium were discovered to be present in the sodium lactate concentrate. The study described in this article was performed to determine whether arsenic and chromium were at detectable levels, posing a potential concern in food products preserved with sodium lactate available to the general public. A pilot sampling of three sodium-lactate-preserved food products was obtained from a local market and used to determine the commercial laboratory's detection and reporting limits for arsenic and chromium for these food products. Once these limits were established, a random sampling and analyses of 17 food products was performed. Arsenic was not reported above the detection limits in either the pilot or subsequent study, but chromium was detected at concentrations up to 0.30 parts per million in a pilot test sample and lower concentrations in the subsequent study. This study suggests that the sodium lactate in the sampled products was diluted enough for the arsenic concentration to be below the laboratory detection limit. Chromium was detected and may be an unaccounted source of chromium in diets of vulnerable populations.

  19. Lactate, a Neglected Factor for Diabetes and Cancer Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yong; Dong, Yunzhou; Atefi, Mohammad; Liu, Yanjun; Elshimali, Yahya; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2016-01-01

    Increasing body of evidence suggests that there exists a connection between diabetes and cancer. Nevertheless, to date, the potential reasons for this association are still poorly understood and currently there is no clinical evidence available to direct the proper management of patients presenting with these two diseases concomitantly. Both cancer and diabetes have been associated with abnormal lactate metabolism and high level of lactate production is the key biological property of these diseases. Conversely, high lactate contribute to a higher insulin resistant status and a more malignant phenotype of cancer cells, promoting diabetes and cancer development and progression. In view of associations between diabetes and cancers, the role of high lactate production in diabetes and cancer interaction should not be neglected. Here, we review the available evidence of lactate's role in different biological characteristics of diabetes and cancer and interactive relationship between them. Understanding the molecular mechanisms behind metabolic remodeling of diabetes- and cancer-related signaling would endow novel preventive and therapeutic approaches for diabetes and cancer treatment.

  20. Conversion of L-lactate into n-caproate by a continuously fed reactor microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucek, Leo A; Nguyen, Mytien; Angenent, Largus T

    2016-04-15

    Conversion of lactate to n-caproate had been described for the type strain Megasphaera elsdenii in batch systems. Recently, investigators have also described production of n-caproate from endogenous or exogenous lactate with batch-fed reactor microbiome systems. However, no reports exist of lactate to n-caproate conversion within a continuously fed bioreactor. Since continuously fed systems are advantageous for biotechnology production platforms, our objective was to develop such a system. Here, we demonstrated continuous lactate to n-caproate conversion for more than 165 days. The volumetric n-caproate production rate (productivity) was improved when we decreased the operating pH from 5.5 to 5.0, and was again improved when we utilized in-line product recovery via pertraction (membrane-based liquid-liquid extraction). We observed a maximum n-caproate productivity of 6.9 g COD/L-d for a period of 17 days at an L-lactate loading rate of 9.1 g COD/L-d, representing the highest sustained lactate to n-caproate conversion rate ever reported. We had to manage two competing lactate conversion pathways: 1) the reverse β-oxidation pathway to n-caproate; and 2) the acrylate pathway to propionate. We found that maintaining a low residual lactate concentration in the bioreactor broth was necessary to direct lactate conversion towards n-caproate instead of propionate. These findings provide a foundation for the development of new resource recovery processes to produce higher-value liquid products (e.g., n-caproate) from carbon-rich wastewaters containing lactate or lactate precursors (e.g., carbohydrates).

  1. Unravelling evolutionary strategies of yeast for improving galactose utilization through integrated systems level analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Kuk-Ki; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Vemuri, Goutham N

    2011-01-01

    Identification of the underlying molecular mechanisms for a derived phenotype by adaptive evolution is difficult. Here, we performed a systems-level inquiry into the metabolic changes occurring in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a result of its adaptive evolution to increase its specific...... design in bioengineering of improved strains and, that through systems biology, it is possible to identify mutations in evolved strain that can serve as unforeseen metabolic engineering targets for improving microbial strains for production of biofuels and chemicals....

  2. Composition of breast milk of lactating adolescents in function of time of lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallyne Bolognini Pereira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the composition of breast milk of lactating adolescents in function of lactation time. Methods: We followed 51 lactating adolescents, between the 6th and 14th weeks postpartum (WPP. The determination of fat, protein and lactose in milk were conducted, respectively, by the methods of Lucas, Lowry and Perry & Doan. Micronutrients were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Data was presented by the mean and standard error. ANOVA with repeated measures was used and Tukey as post test. It was accepted a significance level of 5%. Results: There was a significant reduction (P<0.05 in protein content during the postpartum weeks studied (6th: 16.6 ± 1.1; 10th: 13.7 ± 1.0; 14th WPP: 12.3 ± 1.1 g/day. The lactose (6th: 60.2 ± 1.9; 10th: 60.4 ± 2.6; 14th WPP: 65.1 ± 4.0 g/day and fat (6th: 41.6 ± 3.3; 10th: 36.2 ± 3.4; 14th WPP: 31.5 ± 9.0 g/day concentration remained unaffected. The zinc concentration in the breast milk was lower than that is commonly found in literature (mean 1.16 mg/day. The copper, iron, calcium and phosphorus concentration was sufficient to meet the needs of the infants between 0 and 6 months old. Conclusion: The lactation period did not influence the concentration of micronutrients, lactose and lipids, but there is a reduction on protein of the breast milk. In spite of the reducing concentration of protein, it is sufficient to meet the needs of infants from 0 to 6 months old.

  3. Squalamine lactate for exudative age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Brian; Desai, Avinash; Garcia, Charles A; Thomas, Edgar; Gast, Michael J

    2006-09-01

    Squalamine lactate inhibits angiogenesis by a long-lived, intracellular mechanism of action. The drug is taken up into activated endothelial cells through caveolae, small invaginations in the cellular membrane. Subsequently, the drug binds to and "chaperones" calmodulin to an intracellular membrane compartment and blocks angiogenesis at several levels. A series of basic investigations, preclinical studies, and human clinical trials have begun to establish the proof of concept, efficacy, and safety parameters for use of squalamine lactate as a therapeutic agent for exudative age-related macular degeneration and several types of malignancies.

  4. An improved Genetic Algorithm of Bi-level Coding for Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents an improved genetic algorithm(GA for the flexible job shop scheduling problem (FJSP. The coding is divided into working sequence level and machine level and two effective crossover operators and mutation operators are designed for the generation and reduce the disruptive effects of genetic operators. The algorithm is tested on instances of 10 working sequences and 10 machines. Computational results show that the proposed GA was successfully and efficiently applied to the FJSP. The results were compared with other approaches, such as traditional GA and GA with neural network. Compared to traditional genetic algorithm, the proposed approach yields significant improvement in solution quality.

  5. Antioxidant treatment attenuates lactate production in diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Nielsen, Per Mose; Stokholm Nørlinger, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The early progression of diabetic nephropathy is notoriously difficult to detect and quantify before the occurrence of substantial histological damage. Recently, hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate has demonstrated increased lactate production in the kidney early after the onset of diabetes, implying......-of-the-art hyperpolarized magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Ten-week-old female Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: healthy controls, untreated diabetic (streptozotocin treatment to induce insulinopenic diabetes), and diabetic, receiving chronic antioxidant treatment with TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2......-IDEAL spiral sequence. Untreated diabetic rats showed increased renal lactate production compared with that shown by the controls. However, chronic TEMPOL treatment significantly attenuated diabetes-induced lactate production. No significant effects of diabetes or TEMPOL were observed on [13C]alanine levels...

  6. Do FSH/LH ratio and gonadal hormone levels predict clinical improvement in postmenopausal schizophrenia women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Alexandre; Bernardo, Miquel; Penadés, Rafael; Arias, Bárbara; Ruiz Cortés, Victoria; Seeman, Mary V; Catalán, Rosa

    2017-07-12

    Menopause is a process characterized by a decline in estrogen levels and is therefore a period of biological vulnerability for psychotic relapse in women with schizophrenia. Our goal was to correlate not only gonadal hormone levels but also follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels with improvement in specific clinical symptoms. Thirty-seven acutely ill postmenopausal schizophrenia women with a newly initiated, clinically determined change in antipsychotic medication participated in a 12-week prospective observational outcome study. Scales used were the PANSS scale for psychotic symptoms, the PSP for functioning, and CGI for global clinical impression. Circulating FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone serum levels were determined by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Partial correlational analyses were performed along with a Bonferroni significance correction (p schizophrenia symptom domains, we recommend further investigation of pituitary, adrenal, and gonadal hormone ratios as potential markers of clinical improvement in this population.

  7. Short communication: Early-lactation, but not mid-lactation, bovine lactoferrin preparation increases epithelial barrier integrity of Caco-2 cell layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rachel C; Bassett, Shalome A; Haggarty, Neill W; Gopal, Pramod K; Armstrong, Kelly M; Roy, Nicole C

    2017-02-01

    Bovine lactoferrin is an important milk protein with many health-promoting properties, including improving intestinal barrier integrity. Dysfunction of this barrier, commonly referred to as "leaky gut," has been linked to inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. With some processing techniques, lactoferrin isolated from milk collected at the start of the milking season (early lactation) may have lower purity than that isolated from milk collected during the rest of the milking season (mid-lactation) and could result in differences in bioactivity based on the stage of lactation. We compared reversed-phase HPLC chromatographs of early-lactation and mid-lactation preparations and found that both had large chromatograph peaks at the time predicted for lactoferrin. The notable difference between the 2 chromatographs was a much larger peak in the early-lactation lactoferrin sample that was determined to be angiogenin. Angiogenin was first identified due to its ability to induce new blood vessel formation, but is now known to be involved in numerous physiological processes. Then, we compared the effects of early-lactation and mid-lactation lactoferrin preparations in 2 bioassays: trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), a measure of intestinal barrier integrity, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytokine secretion, a measure of immune-stimulatory properties. We found that early-lactation lactoferrin increased TEER across Caco-2 cell layers compared with control from 10 to 48 h, mid-lactation lactoferrin did not alter TEER. We also found that early-lactation lactoferrin reduced the amount of IL-8 produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (compared with those treated with control medium) to a greater extent than mid-lactation lactoferrin. A pro-inflammatory chemokine, IL-8 is also known to decrease barrier function. These results suggest that the decrease in IL-8 production in the presence of early-lactation lactoferrin may be the mechanism by which it increases

  8. Correlation of the association of serum lactate, random blood sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-21

    Sep 21, 2015 ... return to normal levels of both lactate and blood glucose may be better predictors of mortality and .... score at admission was 7.455 (standard deviation = 0.83, 44). It .... for risk stratification[11] but does not reflect the adequacy.

  9. Antisecretory therapy with no improvement in functional level in Ménière's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvardsen, Charlotte J; Klokker, Mads

    2016-01-01

    -HNS) functional scale, and the frequency of attacks was registered. Results Thirty-two patients completed the study. No carryover effect was found. In both functional level and frequency of attacks no significant effect of SPC was found. Seventeen patients showed improvement in functional level when treated......, and 22 when treated with placebo. Three patients reported more frequent attacks when treated with SPC, and three when treated with placebo. A non-parametric comparison and a parametric analysis supported the findings....

  10. Drugs in pregnancy and lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Ashfaque K. Shaikh; Madhuri D. Kulkarni

    2013-01-01

    Drug use during pregnancy and lactation is an almost inevitable event. Some of the drugs may have adverse effects on the baby on exposure. It is therefore necessary for the physician to be aware of the changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics during pregnancy. Knowledge about the known teratogens and drugs safe to be used during pregnancy is essential on the part of the prescribing physician. There are many factors affecting drug passage into the milk and thus affecting the child in s...

  11. Effect of season on milk temperature, milk growth hormone, prolactin, and somatic cell counts of lactating cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igono, M. O.; Johnson, H. D.; Steevens, B. J.; Hainen, W. A.; Shanklin, M. D.

    1988-09-01

    Monthly fluctuations in milk temperature, somatic cell counts, milk growth hormone and prolactin of lactating cows were measured in milk samples over a 1 year period. The seasonal patterns in milk temperature, somatic cell count and milk prolactin concentration showed a positive trend with increasing environmental temperatures. Milk growth hormone concentration increased with lactation level and declined significantly during summer heat. Milk temperature and the measured hormonal levels may serve as indicators of the impact of the climatic environment on lactating cattle.

  12. Lactate as substrate for mitochondrial respiration in alveolar epithelial type II cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottes, Robyn G; Newton, Danforth A; Spyropoulos, Demetri D; Baatz, John E

    2015-05-01

    Because of the many energy-demanding functions they perform and their physical location in the lung, alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cells have a rapid cellular metabolism and the potential to influence substrate availability and bioenergetics both locally in the lung and throughout the body. A thorough understanding of ATII cell metabolic function in the healthy lung is necessary for determining how metabolic changes may contribute to pulmonary disease pathogenesis; however, lung metabolism is poorly understood at the cellular level. Here, we examine lactate utilization by primary ATII cells and the ATII model cell line, MLE-15, and link lactate consumption directly to mitochondrial ATP generation. ATII cells cultured in lactate undergo mitochondrial respiration at near-maximal levels, two times the rates of those grown in glucose, and oxygen consumption under these conditions is directly linked to mitochondrial ATP generation. When both lactate and glucose are available as metabolic substrate, the presence of lactate alters glucose metabolism in ATII to favor reduced glycolytic function in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that lactate is used in addition to glucose when both substrates are available. Lactate use by ATII mitochondria is dependent on monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)-mediated import, and ATII cells express MCT1, the isoform that mediates lactate import by cells in other lactate-consuming tissues. The balance of lactate production and consumption may play an important role in the maintenance of healthy lung homeostasis, whereas disruption of lactate consumption by factors that impair mitochondrial metabolism, such as hypoxia, may contribute to lactic acid build-up in disease. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Numerical study of tree-level improved lattice gradient flows in pure Yang-Mills theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Norihiko; Sasaki, Shoichi

    2017-03-01

    We study several types of tree-level improvement in the Yang-Mills gradient flow method in order to reduce the lattice discretization errors in line with Fodor et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 09 (2014) 018., 10.1007/JHEP09(2014)018]. The tree-level O (a2) improvement can be achieved in a simple manner, where an appropriate weighted average is computed between the plaquette and clover-leaf definitions of the action density ⟨E (t )⟩ measured at every flow time t . We further develop the idea of achieving the tree-level O (a4) improvement within a usage of actions consisting of the 1 ×1 plaquette and 1 ×2 planar loop for both the flow and gauge actions. For testing our proposal, we present numerical results for ⟨E (t )⟩ obtained on gauge configurations generated with the Wilson and Iwasaki gauge actions at three lattice spacings (a ≈0.1 ,0.07 , and 0.05 fm). Our results show that tree-level improved flows significantly eliminate the discretization corrections on t2⟨E (t )⟩ in the relatively small-t regime for up to t ≳a2 . To demonstrate the feasibility of our tree-level improvement proposal, we also study the scaling behavior of the dimensionless combinations of the ΛMS ¯ parameter and the new reference scale tX, which is defined through tX2⟨E (tX)⟩=X for the smaller X , e.g., X =0.15 . It is found that √{t0.15 }ΛMS ¯ shows a nearly perfect scaling behavior as a function of a2 regardless of the types of gauge action and flow, after tree-level improvement is achieved up to O (a4) . Further detailed study of the scaling behavior exposes the presence of the remnant O (g2 na2) corrections, which are beyond the tree level. Although our proposal is not enough to eliminate all O (a2) effects, we show that the O (g2 na2) corrections can be well under control even by the simplest tree-level O (a2) improved flow.

  14. Effect of higher dietary digestible lysine level during lactation on production performances of sow and piglet%提高哺乳母猪日粮可消化赖氨酸水平对母猪和仔猪生产性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张谊

    2013-01-01

    随机选取20头约克夏哺乳母猪,按胎次配对随机分成2个处理,每个处理10个重复,分别饲喂可消化赖氨酸水平为0.95%(A组)和1.05%(B组)的2种日粮,考察不同氨基酸水平的哺乳母猪日粮对母猪和仔猪生产性能的影响。试验结果表明:①与A组相比,B组母猪的生产性能没有明显提高;②与A组相比,B组仔猪的初生重、断奶重和日增重分别提高了5.40%(P<0.05)、16.57%(P<0.05)和19.76%(P<0.05)。因此,哺乳母猪日粮中赖氨酸水平的适当提高能显著提高仔猪的生产性能。%A single factor design was conducted to explore the effects of the level of lysine at 2 doses on sow and piglet performances. 20 sows from Yorkshire breed were randomly divided in-to 2 treatments. The level of digestible lysine was set to 0.95% (group A) and 1.05% (group B) respectively. Results showed that the higher dietary digestible lysine level (group B) do not have significant effect on the performance of sow, but it increased significantly the birth weight, weaned weight and ADG (P<0.05) of piglet with an increase of 5.40%, 16.57% and 19.76% re-spectively. In conclusion, the increased digestible lysine (1.05%) in lactation diets could im-prove the performance of piglet significantly.

  15. Blood dynamics of mercury and selenium in northern elephant seals during the lactation period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habran, Sarah, E-mail: S.Habran@ulg.ac.be [Laboratory for Oceanology - MARE Center B6c, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Debier, Cathy, E-mail: cathy.debier@uclouvain.be [Unite de Biochimie de la Nutrition, Institut des Sciences de la vie, Universite catholique de Louvain, Place Croix du Sud 2/8, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Crocker, Daniel E., E-mail: crocker@sonoma.edu [Department of Biology, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA 94928 (United States); Houser, Dorian S., E-mail: biomimetica@cox.net [BIOMIMETICA, Santee, CA 92071 (United States); Das, Krishna, E-mail: Krishna.Das@ulg.ac.be [Laboratory for Oceanology - MARE Center B6c, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2011-10-15

    The effects of reproduction and maternal investment (i.e., milk transfer) on trace element levels remain poorly understood in marine mammals. We examined the blood dynamics of mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) during lactation in the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a top predator from the North Pacific Ocean. Total Hg and Se levels were measured in whole blood and milk of 10 mother-pup pairs on days 5 and 22 of lactation. Both Hg and Se were transferred to offspring through the milk. Results suggested that the maternal transfer of Se was prominent during lactation, whereas the Hg transfer was larger during gestation. The lactation period affected Hg and Se levels in the blood of elephant seal mothers and pups. Physiological processes and their relationship to body condition should be considered carefully when interpreting trace element levels in the framework of biomonitoring. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > The lactation period affects Hg and Se blood levels in elephant seal mothers and pups. > The Hg maternal transfer to offspring is larger during gestation. > The Se maternal transfer to offspring is prominent during lactation via the milk. - Blood levels of total Hg and Se are modified during the 4-week lactating period in northern elephant seals.

  16. Effects of flunixin on cardiorespiratory, plasma lactate and stride length responses to intense treadmill exercise in Standardbred trotters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallings, P; Persson, S G B; Essén-Gustavsson, B

    2010-11-01

    Since nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as flunixin, on account of their anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, are used in both racing and equestrian sport horses, the question has been raised as to whether these drugs affect the physiological responses to exercise and thus performance potential. The aims of this investigation were to study the effects of flunixin on cardiorespiratory, metabolic and locomotor parameters in horses during intense treadmill exercise. Six Standardbred trotters underwent an incremental treadmill exercise test to fatigue, without drug and then after administration of flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg bwt i.m.). Heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake and stride length were measured and venous blood samples drawn repeatedly during the test. Heart rates were found to be significantly higher at submaximal speeds, while the velocity causing a HR of 200 beats/min was significantly decreased after treatment with flunixin. Maximal HR and plasma lactate concentration 5 min after exercise were unchanged after medication. Flunixin caused higher plasma lactate concentrations at all speeds and the lactate threshold was decreased, compared with baseline values. Oxygen uptake levelled off at the highest velocities and did not change after flunixin treatment. Stride length was increased after treatment, although not at the highest velocities. The increased HR and lactate responses to exercise after flunixin treatment indicate that it does influence physiological responses, but does not improve the performance potential of clinically healthy horses. However, the lengthened stride during submaximal exercise after medication could imply undetected subclinical lameness, masked in some of the horses, i.e. they have performed with a longer stride at the cost of a higher heart rate and an increased lactate concentration. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  17. Changes in PACAP immunoreactivity in human milk and presence of PAC1 receptor in mammary gland during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csanaky, Katalin; Banki, Eszter; Szabadfi, Krisztina; Reglodi, Dora; Tarcai, Ibolya; Czegledi, Levente; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Ertl, Tibor; Gyarmati, Judit; Szanto, Zalan; Zapf, Istvan; Sipos, Erika; Shioda, Seiji; Tamas, Andrea

    2012-11-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide with widespread occurrence in the nervous system and peripheral organs, including the mammary gland. Previously, we have shown that PACAP38 is present in the human milk at higher levels than in respective blood samples. However, it is not known how PACAP levels and the expression of PAC1 receptor change during lactation. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate PACAP38-like immunoreactivity (PACAP38-LI) in human colostrums and transitional and mature milk during lactation and to compare the expression of PAC1 receptors in lactating and non-lactating mammary glands. We found that PACAP38-LI was significantly higher in human colostrum samples than in the transitional and mature milk. PACAP38-LI did not show any significant changes within the first 10-month period of lactation, but a significant increase was observed thereafter, up to the examined 17th month. Weak expression of PAC1 receptors was detected in non-lactating sheep and human mammary glands, but a significant increase was observed in the lactating sheep samples. In summary, the present study is the first to show changes of PACAP levels in human milk during lactation. The presence of PACAP in the milk suggests a potential role in the development of newborn, while the increased expressions of PAC1 receptors on lactating breast may indicate a PACAP38/PAC1 interaction in the mammary gland during lactation.

  18. Is There a Relationship between Improving Human Relation Skills and Levels of Academic Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jolene; Byrne, Susan; Kiedaisch, Jan; Thiele, Nancy; Weber, Gwyn

    This Action Research Project implemented a program for improving human relation skills intended to raise the academic performance level of students. The target population consists of kindergarten, seventh grade (regular/at-risk), and high school (regular/behavior disordered) students. Analysis of both research literature and problem evidence…

  19. Numerical study of tree-level improved lattice gradient flows in pure Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kamata, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    We study several types of tree-level improvement in the Yang-Mills gradient flow method in order to reduce the lattice discretization errors in line with a reference [Fodor et al., arXiv:1406.0827]. The tree-level $\\mathcal{O}(a^2)$ improvement can be achieved in a simple manner, where an appropriate weighted average is computed between two definitions of the action density $\\langle E(t)\\rangle$ measured at every flow time $t$. We further develop the idea of achieving the tree-level $\\mathcal{O}(a^4)$ improvement. For testing our proposal, we present numerical results of $\\langle E(t)\\rangle$ obtained on gauge configurations generated with the Wilson and Iwasaki gauge actions at three lattice spacings ($a\\approx 0.1, 0.07$ and 0.05 fm). Our results show that tree-level improved flows significantly eliminate the discretization corrections in the relatively small-$t$ regime. To demonstrate the feasibility of our proposal, we also study the scaling behavior of the dimensionless combinations of the $\\Lambda_{\\ove...

  20. Pedagogical Technology of Improving the Students' Viability Levels in the Process of Mastering Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, Nadezhda; Ershova, Svetlana; Konovalenko, Tatiana; Kutsova, Elvira; Yurina, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The article points out that the process of mastering foreign language stimulates students' personal, professional and cultural growth, improving linguistic, communicative competences and viability levels. A proposed pedagogical technology of modeling different communicative situations has a serious synergetic potential for students' self organized…

  1. Does peer learning or higher levels of e-learning improve learning abilities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Bjarne Skjødt; Jensen, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The fast development of e-learning and social forums demands us to update our understanding of e-learning and peer learning. We aimed to investigate if higher, pre-defined levels of e-learning or social interaction in web forums improved students' learning ability....

  2. The Effectiveness of an Additional Stretching Exercise Program in Improving Flexibility Level among Preschool Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wee Akina Sia Seng; Rengasamy, Shabeshan A/L; Raju, Subramaniam A/L

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of a two minutes' additional stretching exercise program in a 30 minutes games teaching lesson in improving the flexibility level of 6 year old preschool boys (M = 5.92, SD = 0.27) in a preschool in Malaysia. Fifty (50) preschool boys were selected for the study based on the intact sampling…

  3. Relationship between plasma )-lactate and intestinal damage after severe injuries in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Qing Sun; Xiao-Bing Fu; Rong-Zhang; Yi Lü; Qun Deng; Xiao-Guo Jiang; Zhi-Yong Sheng

    2001-01-01

    AIM To explore the kinetic changes in plasma D (-)lactate and lipopolysaccharide ( LPS ) levels, and investigate whether D (-)-lactate could be used as a marker of intestinal injury in rats following gut ischemia/reperfusion, burn, and acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP). METHODS Three models were developed in rats:gut ischemia/reperfusion obtained by one hour of superior severe burn injury created by 30% of total body surface induced by continuous inverse infusion of sodium taurocholate and trypsin into main pancreatic duct.Plasma levels of D( - )-lactate in systemic circulation and LPS in portal circulation were measured by enzymaticspectrophotometric method and limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test kit, respectively. Tissue samples of intestine were taken for histological analysis. RESULTS One hour gut ischemia followed by reperfusion injuries resulted in a significant elevation in plasma D( - )lactate and LPS levels, and there was a significant correlation between the plasma D( - )-lactate and LPS (r =0.719, P<0.05). The plasma concentrations of D(-)lactate and LPS increased significantly at 6 h postburn,and there was also a remarkable correlation between them (r = 0.877, P < 0.01). D ( - )-lactate and LPS levels elevated significantly at 2 h after ANP, with a similar significant correlation between the two levels (r-0.798,P < 0.01 ). The desquamation of intestine villi and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lamina propria were observed in all groups. CONCLUSION The changes of plasma D( - )-lactate levels in systemic blood paralleled with LPS levels in the portal vein blood. The measurement of plasma D (-)-lactate level may be a useful marker to assess the intestinal injury and to monitor an increase of intestinal permeability and endotoxemia following severe injuries in early stage.

  4. Drivers of routine immunization coverage improvement in Africa: findings from district-level case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFond, Anne; Kanagat, Natasha; Steinglass, Robert; Fields, Rebecca; Sequeira, Jenny; Mookherji, Sangeeta

    2015-04-01

    There is limited understanding of why routine immunization (RI) coverage improves in some settings in Africa and not in others. Using a grounded theory approach, we conducted in-depth case studies to understand pathways to coverage improvement by comparing immunization programme experience in 12 districts in three countries (Ethiopia, Cameroon and Ghana). Drawing on positive deviance or assets model techniques we compared the experience of districts where diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP3)/pentavalent3 (Penta3) coverage improved with districts where DTP3/Penta3 coverage remained unchanged (or steady) over the same period, focusing on basic readiness to deliver immunization services and drivers of coverage improvement. The results informed a model for immunization coverage improvement that emphasizes the dynamics of immunization systems at district level. In all districts, whether improving or steady, we found that a set of basic RI system resources were in place from 2006 to 2010 and did not observe major differences in infrastructure. We found that the differences in coverage trends were due to factors other than basic RI system capacity or service readiness. We identified six common drivers of RI coverage performance improvement-four direct drivers and two enabling drivers-that were present in well-performing districts and weaker or absent in steady coverage districts, and map the pathways from driver to improved supply, demand and coverage. Findings emphasize the critical role of implementation strategies and the need for locally skilled managers that are capable of tailoring strategies to specific settings and community needs. The case studies are unique in their focus on the positive drivers of change and the identification of pathways to coverage improvement, an approach that should be considered in future studies and routine assessments of district-level immunization system performance.

  5. Accumulation of technological capabilities and operational performance improvement: evidence from a firm-level case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelio Fonseca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on a single case study based on first-hand and long-term evidence gathered through extensive fieldwork, this article examines the process of technological capability accumulation and its implications for operational performance improvement in a chemical firm in Brazil (1980-2007. The evidence indicates that the efforts on technological capability accumulation, especially for innovative activities, permitted the case-study firm to improve its operational performance, notably in terms of technical and, to some extent, in terms of commercial indicators. This study contributes to advancing our understanding of relationship between the firm-level accumulation of technological capabilities and operational performance improvement. The study draws managers’ attention to the importance of managing and measuring a multiplicity of technological capabilities within firms and to the relevance of firm-level engineering-based innovative activities, normally neglected by policy makers.

  6. Improving Balance Function Using Low Levels of Electrical Stimulation of the Balance Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob; Reschke, Millard; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Crewmembers returning from long-duration space flight face significant challenges due to the microgravity-induced inappropriate adaptations in balance/ sensorimotor function. The Neuroscience Laboratory at JSC is developing a method based on stochastic resonance to enhance the brain s ability to detect signals from the balance organs of the inner ear and use them for rapid improvement in balance skill, especially when combined with balance training exercises. This method involves a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable providing imperceptible electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the human body. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon whereby the response of a nonlinear system to a weak periodic input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. This phenomenon of SR is based on the concept of maximizing the flow of information through a system by a non-zero level of noise. Application of imperceptible SR noise coupled with sensory input in humans has been shown to improve motor, cardiovascular, visual, hearing, and balance functions. SR increases contrast sensitivity and luminance detection; lowers the absolute threshold for tone detection in normal hearing individuals; improves homeostatic function in the human blood pressure regulatory system; improves noise-enhanced muscle spindle function; and improves detection of weak tactile stimuli using mechanical or electrical stimulation. SR noise has been shown to improve postural control when applied as mechanical noise to the soles of the feet, or when applied as electrical noise at the knee and to the back muscles.

  7. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in pregnant and lactating rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Masahiro; Shimizu, Satomi; Urasoko, Yoshinaka; Umeshita, Kazuhiko; Kamata, Takashi; Kitazawa, Takahiro; Nakamura, Daichi; Nishihata, Yoshito; Ohishi, Takumi; Edamoto, Hiroshi

    2009-04-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is well known to induce hepatotoxicity after being metabolized to trichloromethyl free radical ((.)CCl3) by CYP2E1. In the present study, the hepatotoxicity induced by a single oral dose (2,000 mg/kg) of CCl4 was compared between pregnant (gestation days (GD) 13 and 19) or postpartum (postpartum days (PPD) 1, 13 and 27) and non-pregnant rats. Hepatotoxicity in CCl4-treated pregnant rats evaluated by blood chemistry (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities) and histopathological finding (area of damaged hepatocytes) was minimal on GD19, being weaker than that in non-pregnant rats. CYP2E1 expression in non-treated pregnant rats decreased as pregnancy progressed and reached minimum level on GD19. Thus, the degree of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity roughly corresponded to CYP2E1 levels during pregnancy. After delivery, hepatotoxicity in CCl4-treated lactating rats was maximal on PPD13, being stronger than that in non-pregnant rats, and then it decreased slightly on PPD27. The CYP2E1 level in the non-treated lactating rats tended to increase but remained at lower levels until PPD13 compared with that in non-pregnant rats. Thus, the degree of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity did not correspond to CYP2E1 levels during lactation. This suggests that during lactation, there may be certain factors other than CYP2E1 expression responsible for the degree of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity.

  8. Lactate Formation in Primary and Metastatic Colon Cancer Cells at Hypoxia and Normoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graboń, Wojciech; Otto-Ślusarczyk, Dagmara; Chrzanowska, Alicja; Mielczarek-Puta, Magdalena; Joniec-Maciejak, Ilona; Słabik, Krzysztof; Barańczyk-Kuźma, Anna

    2016-10-01

    High glucose consumption and lactate synthesis in aerobic glycolysis are a hallmark of cancer cells. They can form lactate also in glutaminolysis, but it is not clear how oxygen availability affects this process. We studied lactate synthesis at various oxygen levels in human primary (SW480) and metastatic (SW620) colon cancer cells cultured with L-Ser and/or L-Asp. Glucose and lactate levels were determined colorimetrically, amino acids by HPLC, expression of AST1-mRNA and AST2-mRNA by RT-PCR. In both lines glucose consumption and lactate synthesis were higher at 10% than at 1% oxygen, and lactate/glucose ratio was increased above 2.0 by L-Asp. AST1-mRNA expression was independent on oxygen and cell line, but AST2-mRNA was lower at hypoxia in SW480. We conclude that, in both cell lines at 1% hypoxia, lactate is formed mainly from glucose but at 10% normoxia also from L-Asp. At 10% normoxia, lactate synthesis is more pronounced in primary than metastatic colon cancer cells. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Improved Genetic Algorithm with Two-Level Approximation for Truss Optimization by Using Discrete Shape Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-yan Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an Improved Genetic Algorithm with Two-Level Approximation (IGATA to minimize truss weight by simultaneously optimizing size, shape, and topology variables. On the basis of a previously presented truss sizing/topology optimization method based on two-level approximation and genetic algorithm (GA, a new method for adding shape variables is presented, in which the nodal positions are corresponding to a set of coordinate lists. A uniform optimization model including size/shape/topology variables is established. First, a first-level approximate problem is constructed to transform the original implicit problem to an explicit problem. To solve this explicit problem which involves size/shape/topology variables, GA is used to optimize individuals which include discrete topology variables and shape variables. When calculating the fitness value of each member in the current generation, a second-level approximation method is used to optimize the continuous size variables. With the introduction of shape variables, the original optimization algorithm was improved in individual coding strategy as well as GA execution techniques. Meanwhile, the update strategy of the first-level approximation problem was also improved. The results of numerical examples show that the proposed method is effective in dealing with the three kinds of design variables simultaneously, and the required computational cost for structural analysis is quite small.

  10. The effect of lactation length on greenhouse gas emissions from the national dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, E; Coffey, M P; Pollott, G E

    2012-11-01

    Many governments have signed up to greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) reduction programmes under their national climate change obligations. Recently, it has been suggested that the use of extended lactations in dairy herds could result in reduced GHGE. Dairy GHGE were modelled on a national basis and the model was used to compare emissions from lactations of three different lengths (305, 370 and 440 days), and a current 'base' scenario on the basis of maintaining current milk production levels. In addition to comparing GHGE from the average 'National Herd' under these scenarios, results were used to investigate how accounting for lactations of different lengths might alter the estimation of emissions calculated from the National Inventory methodology currently recommended by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Data for the three lactation length scenarios were derived from nationally recorded dairy performance information and used in the GHGE model. Long lactations required fewer milking cows and replacements to maintain current milk yield levels than short ones, but GHGEs were found to rise from 1214 t of CO2 equivalent (CE)/farm per year for lactations of 305 days to 1371 t CE/farm per year for 440-day lactations. This apparent anomaly can be explained by the less efficient milk production (kg milk produced per kg cow weight) found in later lactation, a more pronounced effect in longer lactations. The sensitivity of the model to changes in replacement rate, persistency and level of milk yield was investigated. Changes in the replacement rate from 25% to 20% and in persistency by −10% to +20% resulted in very small changes in GHGE. Differences in GHGE due to the level of milk yield were much more dramatic with animals in the top 10% for yield, producing about 25% less GHGE/year than the average animal. National Inventory results were investigated using a more realistic spread of lactation lengths than recommended for such calculations using emissions

  11. Evaporative cooling for lactating sows under high ambient temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Kiefer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the evaporative cooling of the air at farrowing on the performance of lactating sows under high environmental temperature conditions in the Central West region of Brazil. One hundred and forty-four lactating sows - 46 of first and second farrowing (experiment I and 98 from the third to eighth farrowing (experiment II - were used. Sows were distributed in experimental design of randomized blocks consisting of two rooms (with air cooling and control, with the sow as the experimental unit. The average duration of lactation was 21 days. Sows were fed ad libitum with the same lactation diet. In experiment I, the air cooling increased the daily feed intake, reduced the total and percent weight loss, increased the weight of the piglets and litters at weaning and improved the daily milk production of sows. However, the air cooling did not affect the weight of the sows or the number of piglets at weaning. In experiment II the air cooling increased the daily feed intake of the sows, reduced the total and percent weight loss, increased the weight and the weight gain of the piglets and litters and improved the daily milk production of the sows. Air cooling enables the increase of the daily feed intake and, therefore, of nutrients by the sows, with consequent reduction of mobilization of body reserves and the increase in the milk production and in the weight of piglets and litters at weaning, regardless the farrowing order of the sow.

  12. Changes of plasma glutathione S-transferase, D-lactate and creatine kinase levels in Wistar rats with acute intestinal ischemia%Wistar大鼠急性小肠缺血时血浆谷胱甘肽S转移酶、D-乳酸盐及肌酸激酶水平变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志伟; 王小艳; 厉建田; 袁琛; 李伟华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of plasma glutathione S-transferase, D-lactate and creatine kinase levels to the diagnosis of acute intestinal ischemia in Wistar rats. Methods Seventy Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups: the sham operation group and six mesentery ischemia groups in 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 1. 5 hours, 2 hours and 3 hours, 10 rats each. The levels of plasma glutathione S-transf erase, D-lactate and creatine kinase were determined in each group in 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 1. 5 hours, 2 hours and 3 hours after isolating superior mesenteric artery and blocking blood flow, and were analyzed their relationship with intestinal injury scores. Results The intestinal injury scores increased with the prolong of ischemia time(P<0. 01). Plasma glutathione S-transferase level was higher in 15 minutes than that in the sham operation group (P<0. 05) and was the highest in 1. 5 hours. Plasma D-lactate level was higher in 1 hour than that in the sham operation group(P<0. 05). Plasma creatine kinase level was higher in 1. 5 hours than that in sham operation group, showed a dramatically increase in 2 hours and kept this tendency from then on. The levels of plasma glutathione S-transferase, D-lactate and creatine kinase were positively correlated with the intestinal injury scores(P<0. 05). Conclusion Plasma glutathione S-transferase and D-lactate may be useful markers of early diagnosis of intestinal ischemia. Increased plasma creatine kinase level indicates an unfavorable prognosis.%目的:探讨血浆谷胱甘肽S转移酶(glutathione S-transferase,GST)、D-乳酸盐(D-lactate,DLA)、肌酸激酶(creatine kinase,CK)在急性小肠缺血性疾病中的诊断价值。方法:70只Wistar大鼠随机分为假手术组以及肠系膜缺血15 min,30 min,1 h,1.5 h,2 h和3 h组,每组10只。分别于游离肠系膜上动脉后即刻以及阻断血流15 min,30 min,1 h,1.5 h,2 h和3 h检测血浆中GST,DLA及CK水

  13. Neurometabolic coupling between neural activity, glucose, and lactate in activated visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baowang; Freeman, Ralph D

    2015-11-01

    Neural activity is closely coupled with energy metabolism but details of the association remain to be identified. One basic area involves the relationships between neural activity and the main supportive substrates of glucose and lactate. This is of fundamental significance for the interpretation of non-invasive neural imaging. Here, we use microelectrodes with high spatial and temporal resolution to determine simultaneous co-localized changes in glucose, lactate, and neural activity during visual activation of the cerebral cortex in the cat. Tissue glucose and lactate concentration levels are measured with electrochemical microelectrodes while neural spiking activity and local field potentials are sampled by a microelectrode. These measurements are performed simultaneously while neurons are activated by visual stimuli of different contrast levels, orientations, and sizes. We find immediate decreases in tissue glucose concentration and simultaneous increases in lactate during neural activation. Both glucose and lactate signals return to their baseline levels instantly as neurons cease firing. No sustained changes or initial dips in glucose or lactate signals are elicited by visual stimulation. However, co-localized measurements of cerebral blood flow and neural activity demonstrate a clear delay in the cerebral blood flow signal such that it does not correlate temporally with the neural response. These results provide direct real-time evidence regarding the coupling between co-localized energy metabolism and neural activity during physiological stimulation. They are also relevant to a current question regarding the role of lactate in energy metabolism in the brain during neural activation. Dynamic changes in energy metabolites can be measured directly with high spatial and temporal resolution by use of enzyme-based microelectrodes. Here, to examine neuro-metabolic coupling during brain activation, we use combined microelectrodes to simultaneously measure

  14. Managing Migraine During Pregnancy and Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Rebecca Erwin; Turner, Dana P; Lee, Michelle; Bishop, Laura; Strauss, Lauren

    2016-04-01

    While over half of women with migraine report improvement during pregnancy, having a history of migraine may increase the chance of negative health outcomes. The state of pregnancy increases the risk of several dangerous secondary headache disorders, especially those associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and providers need to know the red flags to diagnose and treat emergently. Non-pharmacological migraine treatments can be instituted in advance of pregnancy as many are considered the safest options during pregnancy, but understanding the safety of medications and dietary supplements ensures appropriate care for the refractory migraine patient. New controversy exists over the safety of several historically routine and safe migraine treatment options in pregnancy, such as magnesium, acetaminophen, ondansetron, and butalbital. While it is not clear if breastfeeding decreases the postpartum recurrence of migraine, understanding safe treatment options during lactation can allow women to continue breastfeeding while achieving migraine relief.

  15. [Pregnancy and lactation-associated osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlen, M; Lazarescu, A D; Hinz, C; Boncu, B; Schmidt, N; Pfeifer, M; Schwarz-Eywill, M; Pollähne, W; Minne, H W

    2017-01-13

    Pregnancy and lactation-associated osteoporosis (PLO) is a rare form of osteoporosis, which occurs in the last trimester or postpartum. So far 100 cases have been published. The leading symptoms are severe low back pain or less frequently hip pain. Many patients develop postpartum depression due to inability to care for the baby and vertebral fractures. The therapeutic decision has to be made individually but teriparatid and bisphosphonates seem to be the best option. We report the clinical course (16 years) of a 37-year-old patient with PLO, who suffered 6 vertebral fractures. There were severe physical limitations and mental problems caused by the disease. The patient was treated by multimodal therapy including physiotherapy and psychotherapy and bisphosphonates were given. The time between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis was 5 months. No further fractures occurred in the following 16 years. The physical and mental condition significantly improved.

  16. Improve the business expanding, improve service levels%完善业扩报装,提升服务水平

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宇航

    2012-01-01

      分析了电力市场的未来前景,指出要想做好、做强电力市场,完善业扩报装的相关制度和程序,提升电力企业服务意识和水平至关重要。为此,提出了3个建议:对内组织培训,提高服务技能;对外发放监督卡,提升服务质量;在管理上要做到“三强化”。%  The analysis of the prospects for the future of the electricity market, pointed out that in order to do a good job, and stronger power mar-kets, improve the systems and procedures of the business expanding, enhance the electricity enterprise service awareness and the level is crucial. To this end, the proposed three recommendations:the internal organization of training, improve service skills;the external payment oversight card to enhance the quality of service;management to achieve“strengthen”.

  17. Lactate oxidation in human skeletal muscle mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert A; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Nordsborg, Nikolai B

    2013-01-01

    Lactate is an important intermediate metabolite in human bioenergetics and is oxidized in many different tissues including the heart, brain, kidney, adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle. The mechanism(s) explaining the metabolism of lactate in these tissues, however, remains unclear. Here, we...... analyze the ability of skeletal muscle to respire lactate by using an in situ mitochondrial preparation that leaves the native tubular reticulum and subcellular interactions of the organelle unaltered. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis muscle in 16 human subjects. Samples were...... of exogenous LDH failed to increase lactate-stimulated respiration (P = 1.0). The results further demonstrate that human skeletal muscle mitochondria cannot directly oxidize lactate within the mitochondrial matrix. Alternately, these data support previous claims that lactate is converted to pyruvate within...

  18. Lactate fuels the human brain during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quistorff, Bjørn; Secher, Niels H; Van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2008-01-01

    The human brain releases a small amount of lactate at rest, and even an increase in arterial blood lactate during anesthesia does not provoke a net cerebral lactate uptake. However, during cerebral activation associated with exercise involving a marked increase in plasma lactate, the brain takes up...... suggests that lactate may partially replace glucose as a substrate for oxidation. Thus, the notion of the human brain as an obligatory glucose consumer is not without exceptions....... blockade but not with beta(1)-adrenergic blockade alone. Also, CMR decreases in response to epinephrine, suggesting that a beta(2)-adrenergic receptor mechanism enhances glucose and perhaps lactate transport across the blood-brain barrier. The pattern of CMR decrease under various forms of brain activation...

  19. Nutritional and lactational effects on follicular development in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, H

    2009-01-01

    In sows, follicular development is inhibited during lactation, and weaning the piglets allows recruitment and selection of follicles that will undergo preovulatory maturation and ovulate. Lactation inhibits GnRH secretion, and in turn LH secretion, through neuroendocrine stimuli induced by suckling. Pituitary response to GnRH and the sensitivity of the hypothalamo-pituitary unit to oestradiol positive feedback are also reduced. The impact of lactation on the reproductive axis is further complicated by the physiological and metabolic adaptations that are developed for milk production and that depend on nutrient intake, nutrient needs and body reserves. A strongly catabolic state during lactation amplifies the inhibition of LH secretion, thereby inducing a delay of oestrus and ovulation after weaning. Nevertheless, post-weaning ovulation is less delayed nowadays than in the 1970's or 80's. Nutritional deficiency has also deleterious effects on embryo survival, which are likely related to alterations in follicular growth and maturation. The physiological mechanisms by which information on the metabolic changes is transmitted to the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis are not fully understood in the sow. Glucose, insulin and leptin are the most likely signals informing the hypothalamus of the metabolic state, yet their roles have not been definitely established. At the ovarian level, folliculogenesis is likely to be altered by the reduction in insulin and IGF-I concentrations induced by nutritional deficiency. More knowledge is needed at the intrafollicular level to better understand nutritional effects on follicular development, and also on occyte quality and embryo development.

  20. Attentive processes, blood lactate and CrossFit(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perciavalle, Valentina; Marchetta, Nunzio Salvatore; Giustiniani, Salvatore; Borbone, Carlo; Perciavalle, Vincenzo; Petralia, Maria Cristina; Buscemi, Andrea; Coco, Marinella

    2016-11-01

    To analyze the influences of blood lactate produced during a specific session of CrossFit® on intensity and selectivity of attention. The first was evaluated by measuring the reaction time and the second by analyzing divided attention with a dual task. Fifteen male professionals of CrossFit® volunteered in the study. The training session was the Workout Of the Day (WOD) called 15.5, marked as: 27-21-15-9 repetitions (without recovery) in term of calories measured by using a rowing ergometer (e.g. 27 rowed calories) and in term of barbell full squats (raising a weight of 43 kg for men and of 29.5 kg for women). Blood lactate, blood glucose, reaction time, execution time of a dual task, number of errors and number of omissions were measured at rest, at the conclusion of the session and 15 minutes after its end. The levels of the blood lactate before the start of the session were considerably higher than those which normally occur at rest (CrossFit®, with high levels of blood lactate even at rest, should consequently have attentional performances somewhat limited.

  1. Umbilical cord blood lactate: a valuable tool in the assessment of fetal metabolic acidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, A.C.; Staer-Jensen, J.; Jorgensen, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was (1) to evaluate the relationship between umbilical cord arterial blood lactate and pH, standard base excess (SBE), and actual base excess (ABE) at delivery and (2) to suggest a cut-off level of umbilical cord arterial blood lactate in predicting fetal...... asphyxia using ROC-curves, where an ABE value less than -12 was used as "gold standard" for significant intrapartum asphyxia. STUDY DESIGN: This is a descriptive study of umbilical cord arterial blood samples from 2554 singleton deliveries. The deliveries took place at the Department of Obstetrics...... and Gynaecology, Hvidovre University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark where umbilical cord blood sampling and blood gas analysis is part of the routine assessment of all newborns. RESULTS: We found significant correlations between lactate and pH (r=-0.73), lactate and SBE (r=-0.76), and lactate and ABE (r=-0...

  2. Evolution of D-lactate dehydrogenase activity from glycerol dehydrogenase and its utility for D-lactate production from lignocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingzhao; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

    2011-11-22

    Lactic acid, an attractive, renewable chemical for production of biobased plastics (polylactic acid, PLA), is currently commercially produced from food-based sources of sugar. Pure optical isomers of lactate needed for PLA are typically produced by microbial fermentation of sugars at temperatures below 40 °C. Bacillus coagulans produces L(+)-lactate as a primary fermentation product and grows optimally at 50 °C and pH 5, conditions that are optimal for activity of commercial fungal cellulases. This strain was engineered to produce D(-)-lactate by deleting the native ldh (L-lactate dehydrogenase) and alsS (acetolactate synthase) genes to impede anaerobic growth, followed by growth-based selection to isolate suppressor mutants that restored growth. One of these, strain QZ19, produced about 90 g L(-1) of optically pure D(-)-lactic acid from glucose in lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) activity was identified as a mutated form of glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH; D121N and F245S) that was produced at high levels as a result of a third mutation (insertion sequence). Although the native GlyDH had no detectable activity with pyruvate, the mutated GlyDH had a D-LDH specific activity of 0.8 μmoles min(-1) (mg protein)(-1). By using QZ19 for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to D-lactate (50 °C and pH 5.0), the cellulase usage could be reduced to 1/3 that required for equivalent fermentations by mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. Together, the native B. coagulans and the QZ19 derivative can be used to produce either L(+) or D(-) optical isomers of lactic acid (respectively) at high titers and yields from nonfood carbohydrates.

  3. Efficient reduction of the formation of by-products and improvement of production yield of 2,3-butanediol by a combined deletion of alcohol dehydrogenase, acetate kinase-phosphotransacetylase, and lactate dehydrogenase genes in metabolically engineered Klebsiella oxytoca in mineral salts medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantama, Kaemwich; Polyiam, Pattharasedthi; Khunnonkwao, Panwana; Chan, Sitha; Sangproo, Maytawadee; Khor, Kirin; Jantama, Sirima Suvarnakuta; Kanchanatawee, Sunthorn

    2015-07-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca KMS005 (∆adhE∆ackA-pta∆ldhA) was metabolically engineered to improve 2,3-butanediol (BDO) yield. Elimination of alcohol dehydrogenase E (adhE), acetate kinase A-phosphotransacetylase (ackA-pta), and lactate dehydrogenase A (ldhA) enzymes allowed BDO production as a primary pathway for NADH re-oxidation, and significantly reduced by-products. KMS005 was screened for the efficient glucose utilization by metabolic evolution. KMS005-73T improved BDO production at a concentration of 23.5±0.5 g/L with yield of 0.46±0.02 g/g in mineral salts medium containing 50 g/L glucose in a shake flask. KMS005-73T also exhibited BDO yields of about 0.40-0.42 g/g from sugarcane molasses, cassava starch, and maltodextrin. During fed-batch fermentation, KMS005-73T produced BDO at a concentration, yield, and overall and specific productivities of 117.4±4.5 g/L, 0.49±0.02 g/g, 1.20±0.05 g/Lh, and 27.2±1.1 g/gCDW, respectively. No acetoin, lactate, and formate were detected, and only trace amounts of acetate and ethanol were formed. The strain also produced the least by-products and the highest BDO yield among other Klebsiella strains previously developed.

  4. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  5. Lactate promotes plasticity gene expression by potentiating NMDA signaling in neurons

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Jiangyan

    2014-07-28

    L-lactate is a product of aerobic glycolysis that can be used by neurons as an energy substrate. Here we report that in neurons L-lactate stimulates the expression of synaptic plasticity-related genes such as Arc, c-Fos, and Zif268 through a mechanism involving NMDA receptor activity and its downstream signaling cascade Erk1/2. L-lactate potentiates NMDA receptor-mediated currents and the ensuing increase in intracellular calcium. In parallel to this, L-lactate increases intracellular levels of NADH, thereby modulating the redox state of neurons. NADH mimics all of the effects of L-lactate on NMDA signaling, pointing to NADH increase as a primary mediator of L-lactate effects. The induction of plasticity genes is observed both in mouse primary neurons in culture and in vivo in the mouse sensory-motor cortex. These results provide insights for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the critical role of astrocyte-derived L-lactate in long-term memory and long-term potentiation in vivo. This set of data reveals a previously unidentified action of L-lactate as a signaling molecule for neuronal plasticity.

  6. Modular Approach for Continuous Cell-Level Balancing to Improve Performance of Large Battery Packs: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muneed ur Rehman, M.; Evzelman, M.; Hathaway, K.; Zane, R.; Plett, G. L.; Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Maksimovic, D.

    2014-10-01

    Energy storage systems require battery cell balancing circuits to avoid divergence of cell state of charge (SOC). A modular approach based on distributed continuous cell-level control is presented that extends the balancing function to higher level pack performance objectives such as improving power capability and increasing pack lifetime. This is achieved by adding DC-DC converters in parallel with cells and using state estimation and control to autonomously bias individual cell SOC and SOC range, forcing healthier cells to be cycled deeper than weaker cells. The result is a pack with improved degradation characteristics and extended lifetime. The modular architecture and control concepts are developed and hardware results are demonstrated for a 91.2-Wh battery pack consisting of four series Li-ion battery cells and four dual active bridge (DAB) bypass DC-DC converters.

  7. Lactate-An Integrative Mirror of Cancer Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walenta, Stefan; Voelxen, Nadine F; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang

    The technique of induced metabolic bioluminescence imaging (imBI) has been developed to obtain a "snapshot" of the momentary metabolic status of biological tissues. Using cryosections of snap-frozen tissue specimens, imBI combines highly specific and sensitive in situ detection of metabolites with a spatial resolution on a microscopic level and with metabolic imaging in relation to tissue histology. Here, we present the application of imBI in human colorectal cancer. Comparing the metabolic information of one biopsy with that of 2 or 3 biopsies per individual cancer, the classification into high versus low lactate tumors, reflecting different glycolytic activities, based on a single biopsy was in agreement with the result from multiple biopsies in 83 % of all cases. We further demonstrate that the metabolic status of tumor tissue can be preserved at least over 10 years by storage in liquid nitrogen, but not by storage at -80 °C. This means that tissue banking with long-term preservation of the metabolic status is possible at -180 °C, which may be relevant for studies on long-term survival of cancer patients. As with other tumor entities, tissue lactate concentration was shown to be correlated with tumor development and progression in colorectal cancer. At first-time diagnosis, lactate values were low in rectal normal tissue and adenomas, were significantly elevated to intermediate levels in non-metastatic adenocarcinomas, and were very high in carcinomas with distant metastasis. There was an inverse behavior of tissue glucose concentration under corresponding conditions. The expression level of monocarboxylate transporter-4 (MCT4) was positively correlated with the tumor lactate concentration and may thus contribute to high lactate tumors being associated with a high degree of malignancy.

  8. Plasma cortisol responses to stress in lactating and nonlactating female rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario; Hoffman, Christy L; Fulks, Richelle; Gerald, Melissa S

    2008-01-01

    Lactating female rats without their pups exhibit lower HPA responsiveness to stress than nonlactating females. However, responsiveness to stress is similar when lactating females are tested with their pups and the stressor involves a potential threat to the offspring. This study constitutes the first comparison of stress responsiveness in lactating and nonlactating female nonhuman primates. Subjects were 53 multiparous female free-ranging rhesus macaques. Approximately half of the females were lactating and half were nonpregnant/nonlactating. Blood samples were obtained after capture and after overnight housing in an individual cage. Lactating females were tested with their infants. Lactating females had significantly higher plasma cortisol levels than nonlactating females on both days. Having or not having an infant was also a better predictor of plasma cortisol levels among all females than their age, dominance rank, group of origin, time of day at which the sample was obtained, and time elapsed since beginning of the sampling procedure or since anesthesia. Plasma cortisol levels of lactating females were not significantly correlated with post-partum stage or with the cortisol levels of their infants. Capture, handling, and individual housing in a cage are powerful psychological stressors for free-ranging primates. We suggest that the higher plasma cortisol levels exhibited by lactating females reflect greater responsiveness to stress associated with perception of risks to infants. Hyporesponsiveness to stress may not be a general characteristic of lactation in all mammalian species, but a short-term effect of infant suckling that is most apparent with stressors unrelated to the offspring.

  9. METHODS FOR IMPROVING THE LEVEL OF MANAGEMENT INOVAȚIONAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMANESCU MARCEL LAURENȚIU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of this material requires the formulation of appropriate methods to improve innovation management in companies and defining the main policies to be applied by policy makers in order to improve the condition of novelty, innovation Romanian companies. Firms learn is the most important structural element participating in the accumulation of capital for scientific and technological progress, the development of social policies, and the development of innovations that strengthen national competitiveness in the international market. In conclusion, when strengthen relations on the national and international strategy is elaborated and innovation management at company level. Innovation management firms based on the premise that mission to be identified subsequently as might improve it based on innovative ideas or innovations.

  10. Effects of different doses in continuous veno-venous hemofiltration on plasma lactate in critically ill patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yongjun; Ouyang Bin; Chen Juan; Chen Minying; Ma Jie; Wu Jianfeng; Huang Shunwei

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown that continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) could clean lactate and treat the hyper-lactatemia.On the contrary,some other studies found that filter lactate clearance only accounted for a very small part of total lactate clearance and the hemofilter's contribution to the overall lactate clearance was negligible.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of various doses of continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CWH) on plasma lactate elimination in critically ill patients.Methods Patients were divided into three groups according to their incipient plasma lactate concentration.Group A:lactate≤2 mmol/L,group B:lactate 2-5 mmol/L,group C:lactate ≥5 mmol/L.Three different doses (20 ml.kg-1.h-1,35ml·kg-1·h-1 and 45 ml.kg1.h-1) of CWH were applied to critically ill patients who experiencing CWH.The concentrations of plasma lactate in pre-(A),post-dialyzer (V) sites and ultrafiltrate were measured after each dosage of CWH was carried out for 30 minutes.Rate of lactate clearance by the filter (RLC) and filter lactate clearance (FLC) and Lactate-Sieving Coefficient (LSC) were calculated under different circumstances,including different doses of CWH and different incipient lactate levels.Results Fifteen patients were enrolled and 104 blood samples were drawn and lactate concentrations were measured in this study.RLC was found increased ((9.36±9.73) mmol/h,(13.92±12.56) mmol/h and (16.52±12.71) mmol/h,P <0.05respectively) with the dose of CWH increased.RLC was also increased ((3.46±1.46),(10.38±5.50) and (24.53±14.69) mmol/h,P <0.05 respectively) with the incipient lactate increased.FLC was increased ((1.95±0.63),(2.95±0.74) and (3.45±0.54) L/h,P <0.05 respectively) with the dose of CVVH increased.There was no significant difference of LSC in different doses of CWH and different incipient lactate levels.Conclusions Plasma lactate can be eliminated by CWH and different doses of CWH affect the rate of

  11. Improving the AODV Protocol to Satisfy the Required Level of Reliability for Home Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jafari Pozveh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For decades, the structure of existing power grids has not changed. It is an old structure that depends heavily on fossil fuel as an energy source, and in the future, this is likely to be critical in the field of energy. To solve these problems and to make optimal use of energy resources, a new concept is proposed, called Smart Grid. Smart Grid is an electric power distribution automation system, which can provide a two-way flow of electricity and information between power plants and consumers. The Smart Grid communications infrastructure consists of different network components, such as Home Area Network (HAN, Neighborhood Area Network (NAN and Wide Area Network (WAN. Achieving the required level of reliability in the transmission of information to all sections, including the HAN, is one of the main objectives in the design and implementation of Smart Grid. This study offers a routing protocol by considering the parameters and constraints of HAN, which, by improving AODV routing protocol, achieves the level of required reliability for data transmission in this network. These improvements include: making table-driven AODV routing protocol, extending the routing protocol to compute multiple paths in a route discovery, simplification and providing the effect of HAN parameters. The results of the NS2 simulation indicate that applying this improved routing protocol in the HAN, satisfies the required level of reliability of the network, which is over 98%.

  12. Improvement of Global and Regional Mean Sea Level Trends Derived from all Altimetry Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablain, Michael; Benveniste, Jérôme; Faugere, Yannice; Larnicol, Gilles; Cazenave, Anny; Johannessen, Johnny A.; Stammer, Detlef; Timms, Gary

    2012-07-01

    The global mean sea level (GMSL) has been calculated on a continual basis since January 1993 using data from satellite altimetry missions. The global mean sea level (MSL) deduced from TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 and Jason-2 is increasing with a global trend of 3.2 mm from 1993 to 2010 applying the post glacial rebound (MSL Aviso website http://www.jason.oceanobs.com/msl). Besides, the regional sea level trends bring out an inhomogeneous repartition of the ocean elevation with local MSL slopes ranging from +/- 8 mm/year. A study published in 2009 [Ablain et al., 2009] has shown that the global MSL trend uncertainty was estimated at +/-0.6 mm/year with a confidence interval of 90%. The main sources of errors at global and regional scales are due to the orbit calculation and the wet troposphere correction. But others sea-level components have also a significant impact on the long-term stability of MSL as for instance the stability of instrumental parameters and the atmospheric corrections. Thanks to recent studies performed in Sea Level Essential Climate Variable Project in the frame of the Climate Change Initiative, an ESA Programme, in addition to activities performed within the SALP/CNES, strong improvements have been provided for the estimation of the global and regional MSL trends. In this paper, we propose to describe them; they concern the orbit calculation thanks to new gravity fields, the atmospheric corrections thanks to ERA-interim reanalyses, the wet troposphere corrections thanks to the stability improvement, and also empirical corrections allowing us to link regional time series together better. These improvements are described at global and regional scale for all the altimetry missions.

  13. Improving Balance Function Using Low Levels of Electrical Stimulation of the Balance Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob; Reschke, Millard; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Crewmembers returning from long-duration space flight face significant challenges due to the microgravity-induced inappropriate adaptations in balance/sensorimotor function. The Neuroscience Laboratory at JSC is developing a method based on stochastic resonance to enhance the brain's ability to detect signals from the balance organs of the inner ear and use them for rapid improvement in balance skill, especially when combined with balance training exercises. This method involves a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable and provides imperceptible electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the human body. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon whereby the response of a nonlinear system to a weak periodic input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. This phenomenon of SR is based on the concept of maximizing the flow of information through a system by a non-zero level of noise. Application of imperceptible SR noise coupled with sensory input in humans has been shown to improve motor, cardiovascular, visual, hearing, and balance functions. SR increases contrast sensitivity and luminance detection; lowers the absolute threshold for tone detection in normal hearing individuals; improves homeostatic function in the human blood pressure regulatory system; improves noise-enhanced muscle spindle function; and improves detection of weak tactile stimuli using mechanical or electrical stimulation. SR noise has been shown to improve postural control when applied as mechanical noise to the soles of the feet, or when applied as electrical noise at the knee and to the back muscles. SR using imperceptible stochastic electrical stimulation of the vestibular system (stochastic vestibular stimulation, SVS) applied to normal subjects has shown to improve the degree of association between the weak input periodic signals introduced via venous blood pressure receptors and the heart-rate responses. Also, application of SVS over 24

  14. Using higher-level inquiry to improve spatial ability in an introductory geology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Lacey A.

    Visuo-spatial skills, the ability to visually take in information and create a mental image are crucial for success in fields involving science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) as well as fine arts. Unfortunately, due to a lack of curriculum focused on developing spatial skills, students enrolled in introductory college-level science courses tend to have difficulty with spatially-related activities. One of the best ways to engage students in science activities is through a learning and teaching strategy called inquiry. There are lower levels of inquiry wherein learning and problem-solving are guided by instructions and higher levels of inquiry wherein students have a greater degree of autonomy in learning and creating their own problem-solving strategy. A study involving 112 participants was conducted during the fall semester in 2014 at Bowling Green State University (BGSU) in an 1040 Introductory Geology Lab to determine if a new, high-level, inquiry-based lab would increase participants' spatial skills more than the traditional, low-level inquiry lab. The study also evaluated whether a higher level of inquiry differentially affected low versus high spatial ability participants. Participants were evaluated using a spatial ability assessment, and pre- and post-tests. The results of this study show that for 3-D to 2-D visualization, the higher-level inquiry lab increased participants' spatial ability more than the lower-level inquiry lab. For spatial rotational skills, all participants' spatial ability scores improved, regardless of the level of inquiry to which they were exposed. Low and high spatial ability participants were not differentially affected. This study demonstrates that a lab designed with a higher level of inquiry can increase students' spatial ability more than a lab with a low level of inquiry. A lab with a higher level of inquiry helped all participants, regardless of their initial spatial ability level. These findings show that curriculum

  15. METABOLISM OF PREGNANT-LACTATING RATS IS ADAPTED TO PREGNANCY RATHER THAN TO LACTATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIJKSTRA, S; MOES, H; KOITER, TR

    1992-01-01

    In pregnant-lactating rats implantation was induced on day 4 of lactation so that, as an exception, lactation coincided with the period of high fetal growth. The already present suckling litters of these animals lagged behind in growth, but the "second" litters were at birth normal in size and weigh

  16. Breastfeeding practices and lactation mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxman, B; Schwartz, K; Looman, S J

    1994-03-01

    Clinical impression suggests that lactation mastitis is associated with inexperienced nursers, improper nursing techniques, stress and fatigue. A pilot study was conducted to describe the frequency of self-reported breastfeeding practices during the first week post partum among 100 breastfeeding women delivering at a freestanding birthing center or participating in an early discharge program. Nine cases of lactation mastitis were identified from the survey population and an additional 8 from the target population for the survey. Seventeen controls matched by delivery date were identified from survey participants. The frequency of self-reported breastfeeding practices, the presence of fatigue and stress during the week prior to the mastitis date in the case was compared among cases and controls. In the first week post partum, most women fed their babies every 2-3 hr for approx. 20 min a feeding. The cradle or Madonna position was the most frequently used nursing position. Nine percent reported supplementing feedings with formula. Women with mastitis were more likely than controls to report a history of mastitis with a previous child. In the week prior to the mastitis date of the case, women with mastitis were more likely than controls to report breast or nipple pain and cracks or breast fissures. They were less likely to report being able to take a daytime nap. Future studies should focus on the relative importance of and interrelationships among these factors.

  17. Ramadan fasting, pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Khoshniat Nikoo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fasting and malnutrition during pregnancy is associated with deleterious consequences such as hypoglycemia, ketonemia, impaired fetal IQ, low birth weight and even abortion. Comparison of pregnancy length and year duration shows that about 75% of pregnancies coincided with Ramadan. Also, fasting during Ramadan is not equivalent to hunger and malnutrition, however, knowledge of the effects of Ramadan fasting on pregnancy outcome is important. In this review, the results of all studies related to the possible effects of Ramadan fasting in pregnancy and lactation have been collected. Material and Methods: Keywords such as "Ramadan", "Ramadan Fasting", "Islamic Fasting", "Fasting in Ramadan "and Fasting with words Pregnancy, Birth Weight, Lactation, Preterm, Milk Composition, Breast Milk were searched in PubMed Database, SID (Scientific Information Database, and some regional journals and 40 related articles (descriptive cross - sectional, cohort, clinical trial and review articles from 1968 to 2010 were studied. Results: Based on available information, if the maternal nutrition during Ramadan is good, the normal process of pregnancy will be maintained and Ramadan fasting would not have deleterious effects on fetal physical and mental growth. Conclusion: Considering nutritional tips, nursing mothers could also fast during Ramadan.

  18. Improvement of HDL- and LDL-cholesterol levels in diabetic subjects by feeding bread containing chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausar, S F; Morcillo, M; León, A E; Ribotta, P D; Masih, R; Vilaro Mainero, M; Amigone, J L; Rubin, G; Lescano, C; Castagna, L F; Beltramo, D M; Diaz, G; Bianco, I D

    2003-01-01

    In this work we evaluated the efficacy and safety of a bread formulation containing chitosan in dyslipidemic type 2 diabetic subjects. For this purpose a total of 18 patients were allowed to incorporate to their habitual diets 120 g/day of bread containing 2% (wt/wt) chitosan (chitosan group, n= 9) or standard bread (control group, n= 9). Before the study and after 12 weeks on the modified diet, the following parameters were evaluated: body weight, plasma cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglyceride, and hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)). Compared with the control group, the patients receiving chitosan-containing bread decreased their mean levels of LDL-cholesterol and significantly increased their mean levels of HDL-cholesterol at the end of the study. There were no significant differences in the body weight, serum triglyceride, and HbA(1c). These results suggest that chitosan incorporated into bread formulations could improve the lipoprotein balance similar to typical biliary salts trappers, increasing the HDL- and lowering the LDL-cholesterol, without changing the triglyceride levels. These results warrant further studies over a longer period of time to evaluate if a persistent improvement in levels of lipoproteins can be attained with this strategy.

  19. Does Targeted Education of Emergency Physicians Improve Their Comfort Level in Treating Psychiatric Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda J Walker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We determined if targeted education of emergency physicians (EPsregarding the treatment of mental illness will improve their comfort level in treatingpsychiatric patients boarding in the emergency department (ED awaiting admission.Methods: We performed a pilot study examining whether an educational interventionwould change an EP’s comfort level in treating psychiatric boarder patients (PBPs. Weidentified a set of psychiatric emergencies that typically require admission or treatmentbeyond the scope of practice of emergency medicine. Diagnoses included majordepression, schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar affective disorder, generalanxiety disorder, suicidal ideation, and criminal behavior. We designed equivalentsurveys to be used before and after an educational intervention. Each survey consistedof 10 scenarios of typical psychiatric patients. EPs were asked to rate their comfort levelsin treating the described patients on a visual analogue scale. We calculated summaryscores for the non intervention survey group (NINT and intervention survey group (INTand compared them using Student’s t-test.Results: Seventy-nine percent (33/42 of eligible participants completed the preinterventionsurvey (21 attendings, 12 residents and comprised the NINT group. Fiftyfivepercent (23/42 completed the post-intervention survey (16 attendings, 7 residentscomprising the INT group. A comparison of summary scores between ‘NINT’ and ‘INT’groups showed a highly significant improvement in comfort levels with treating thepatients described in the scenarios (P = 0.003. Improvements were noted on separateanalysis for faculty (P = 0.039 and for residents (P = 0.012. Results of a sensitivityanalysis excluding one highly significant scenario showed decreased, but still importantdifferences between the NINT and INT groups for all participants and for residents, butnot for faculty (all: P = 0.05; faculty: P = 0.25; residents: P = 0

  20. Composition of milk obtained from unmassaged versus massaged breasts of lactating mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Mervat I; Kawashima, Takaaki; Nakamura, Sadako; Kobayashi, Michiko; Oku, Tsuneyuki

    2004-05-01

    The Oketani method is a program of breast massage and clinical counseling developed by the midwife Satomi Oketani. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the method on the quality of breast milk by determining the chemical composition of the milk before and after massage. Milk samples were obtained immediately before and after massage from healthy, exclusively breast-feeding Japanese mothers at two different periods of lactation one 3 months after parturition. Lipids, whey protein, casein, lactose, ash, and total solids in milk were measured in milk samples. The gross energy content of milk was estimated. Breast massage significantly increased lipids in the late lactating period but not in the early lactating period. In the early lactating period casein was increased by breast massage but was not significantly affected in the late lactating period. Breast massage caused a significant increase in total solids from the first day to 11 months post partum. The gross energy in the late lactating period was significantly increased by breast massage but not in the early lactating period. Lactose was not significantly changed by breast massage. Breast massage improves the quality of human milk by significantly increasing total solids, lipids, and casein concentration and gross energy. The milk of mothers treated by Oketani breast massage may improve the growth and development of infants.

  1. Diammonium phosphate stimulates transcription of L-lactate dehydrogenase leading to increased L-lactate production in the thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lifan; Li, Yanfeng; Wang, Limin; Wang, Yanping; Yu, Bo

    2016-08-01

    Exploration of cost-effective fermentation substrates for efficient lactate production is an important economic objective. Although some organic nitrogen sources are also cheaper, inorganic nitrogen salts for lactate fermentation have additional advantages in facilitating downstream procedures and significantly improving the commercial competitiveness of lactate production. In this study, we first established an application of diammonium phosphate to replace yeast extract with a reduced 90 % nitrogen cost for a thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans strain. In vivo enzymatic and transcriptional analyses demonstrated that diammonium phosphate stimulates the gene expression of L-lactate dehydrogenase, thus providing higher specific enzyme activity in vivo and increasing L-lactic acid production. This new information provides a foundation for establishing a cost-effective process for polymer-grade L-lactic acid production in an industrial setting.

  2. Improvement of global and regional mean sea level derived from satellite altimetry multi missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablain, M.; Faugere, Y.; Larnicol, G.; Picot, N.; Cazenave, A.; Benveniste, J.

    2012-04-01

    With the satellite altimetry missions, the global mean sea level (GMSL) has been calculated on a continual basis since January 1993. 'Verification' phases, during which the satellites follow each other in close succession (Topex/Poseidon--Jason-1, then Jason-1--Jason-2), help to link up these different missions by precisely determining any bias between them. Envisat, ERS-1 and ERS-2 are also used, after being adjusted on these reference missions, in order to compute Mean Sea Level at high latitudes (higher than 66°N and S), and also to improve spatial resolution by combining all these missions together. The global mean sea level (MSL) deduced from TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 and Jason-2 provide a global rate of 3.2 mm from 1993 to 2010 applying the post glacial rebound (MSL aviso website http://www.jason.oceanobs.com/msl). Besides, the regional sea level trends bring out an inhomogeneous repartition of the ocean elevation with local MSL slopes ranging from + 8 mm/yr to - 8 mm/year. A study published in 2009 [Ablain et al., 2009] has shown that the global MSL trend unceratainty was estimated at +/-0.6 mm/year with a confidence interval of 90%. The main sources of errors at global and regional scales are due to the orbit calculation and the wet troposphere correction. But others sea-level components have also a significant impact on the long-term stability of MSL as for instance the stability of instrumental parameters and the atmospheric corrections. Thanks to recent studies performed in the frame of the SALP project (supported by CNES) and Sea-level Climate Change Initiative project (supported by ESA), strong improvements have been provided for the estimation of the global and regional MSL trends. In this paper, we propose to describe them; they concern the orbit calculation thanks to new gravity fields, the atmospheric corrections thanks to ERA-interim reanalyses, the wet troposphere corrections thanks to the stability improvement, and also empirical corrections

  3. Outcomes of prolotherapy in chondromalacia patella patients: improvements in pain level and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Ross A; Sprague, Ingrid Schaefer

    2014-01-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the effectiveness of prolotherapy in resolving pain, stiffness, and crepitus, and improving physical activity in consecutive chondromalacia patients from February 2008 to September 2009. Sixty-nine knees that received prolotherapy in 61 patients (33 female and 36 male) who were 18-82 years old (average, 47.2 years) were enrolled. Patients received 24 prolotherapy injections (15% dextrose, 0.1% procaine, and 10% sarapin) with a total of 40 cc in the anterior knee. At least 6 weeks after their last prolotherapy session, patients provided self-evaluation of knee pain upon rest, activities of daily living (ADL) and exercise, range of motion (ROM), stiffness, and crepitus. Symptom severity, sustained improvement of symptoms, number of pain pills needed, and patient satisfaction before treatment and improvement after treatment were recorded. Following prolotherapy, patients experienced statistically significant decreases in pain at rest, during ADL, and exercise. Stiffness and crepitus decreased after prolotherapy, and ROM increased. Patients reported improved walking ability and exercise ability after prolotherapy. For daily pain level, ROM, daily stiffness, crepitus, and walking and exercise ability, sustained improvement of over 75% was reported by 85% of patients. Fewer patients required pain medication. No side effects of prolotherapy were noted. The average length of time from last prolotherapy session was 14.7 months (range, 6 months to 8 years). Only 3 of 16 knees were still recommended for surgery after prolotherapy. Prolotherapy ameliorates chondromalacia patella symptoms and improves physical ability. Patients experience long-term improvement without requiring pain medications. Prolotherapy should be considered a first-line, conservative therapy for chondromalacia patella.

  4. Effects of dietary star anise (Illicium verum Hook f) supplementation during gestation and lactation on the performance of lactating multiparous sows and nursing piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gong Ying; Yang, ChongWu; Yang, Zaibin; Yang, Weiren; Jiang, Shuzhen; Zhang, Guiguo; Guo, Yixuan; Wei, Maolian

    2015-04-01

    Thirty-two sows were allocated to four treatments to evaluate the effect of dietary star anise (SA) supplementation during gestation and lactation on the lactational performance of sows. At 85 days of gestation, sows were randomly allotted to one of two diets supplemented with 0.5% SA or basal diet. After farrowing, sows were further allotted to one of two lactation diets supplemented with 0.5% SA or basal diet. On a weekly basis, body weight (BW) of sows and piglets was measured. Blood and milk samples were obtained from the sows and piglets. Number of days from weaning to estrus, milk yield and feed intake were also recorded. Weight gain of piglets from sows fed the SA-supplemented diet during lactation was greater between days 7 and 14, days 14 and 21 and the overall experimental period compared with control groups. Supplementation of SA during lactation improved weaning weight of piglets, milk yield and average daily feed intake (ADFI) of sows. The SA diet increased concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in ordinary milk and prolactin (PRL) in serum of sows. In conclusion, this study has indicated the beneficial effects of dietary SA addition in improving the lactation performance of sows. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Effect of enhanced whole-milk feeding in calves on subsequent first-lactation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiezebrink, D J; Edwards, A M; Wright, T C; Cant, J P; Osborne, V R

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of enhanced whole-milk (WM) feeding systems in calves from birth to 8wk of age on subsequent first-lactation performance. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design consisting of 2 treatment groups. At birth, 152 Holstein heifer calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: (i) 4L of WM/d or (ii) 8L of WM/d. The calves were bucket fed 2 or 4L of WM twice daily at 0700 and 1600h. Each calf was housed individually in temperature-controlled nurseries and had ad libitum access to water and textured calf starter daily. Calves consumed greater volumes of textured calf starter when fed 4 versus 8L of WM/d. Water intakes mirrored starter intakes, leading to greater water consumption at weaning. Calves reared on 8L of WM/d were heavier at d 56 than calves reared on 4L of WM/d. The average daily gain of the calves offered 8L of WM/d from d 0 to 56 was greater than that of calves offered 4L of WM/d. Structural measurements were significantly greater for calves that consumed 8L of WM/d. The differences observed in withers height and live BW due to WM feeding level were not apparent by 3 and 12mo of age, respectively. Rumen pH was higher in calves that consumed 8L of WM/d than in calves that consumed 4L of WM/d. Whole-milk feeding level did not affect age at first calving or milk-production parameters. These results suggest that enhanced WM feeding improved growth performance until 3mo of age. However, first-lactation results indicated no lactation-performance benefits of increased nutrition and growth performance during the milk-fed period in dairy calves.

  6. Peripheral blood and milk leukocytes subsets of lactating Sarda ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Bonelli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Leukocytes subpopulations in blood and milk of lactating Sarda ewes were investigated. Animals characterized by a SSC level <500×103cells/mL and a negative bacteriological examination were sampled in early, mid and late lactation. Milk differential cell count evidenced that macrophage represented the main population (42.8%±3.5 followed by lymphocytes (40.2%±3.4 and neutrophils (8,6%±2.1. Flow cytometry analysis showed that lymphocytes subsets in milk were quite different from blood. High CD8+ and low CD4+ lymphocytes percentages determined a CD4/CD8 ratio inversion in milk compared to blood (0.3%±0.03 vs 1.8%±0.08. CD8+ decreased while, conversely, CD4+ increased in late lactation. γδ T cells were more represented in milk (12.6%±1.3 than in blood (6.8%±0.3 and their proportions appeared similar throughout lactation in both compartments. IL-2 receptor was mainly expressed in milk on T cytotoxic lymphocytes. Data obtained in uninfected mammary glands could allow an early discrimination between physiological and pathological changes occurring in ewe milk. Further phenotypical and functional studies on milk leukocytes subsets might help to understand defense mechanisms of the ovine mammary gland against IMI.

  7. The Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level: Recent Improvements in Data Access and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, A. P.; Bradshaw, E.; Gordon, K.; Holgate, S. J.; Jevrejeva, S.; Rickards, L. J.; Tamisiea, M.; Woodworth, P. L.

    2010-05-01

    The Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) is the internationally recognised global sea level databank for long term sea level change information from tide gauges. Established in 1933, the PSMSL continues to be responsible for the collection, publication, analysis and interpretation of sea level data. The PSMSL was formerly a member of the Federation of Astronomical and Geophysical Data Analysis (FAGS), and is currently being incorporated into the new World Data System (WDS) of the International Council for Science (ICSU). In addition, the PSMSL has close links with the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission's (IOC's) Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS). Currently the PSMSL databank holds over 58,000 station years of data from over 2,000 stations and in the region of 200 authorities worldwide. Data undergo careful quality control, including ensuring year to year continuity, before addition to the databank. Where possible, data is reduced to a common datum for time series analysis. In 2007 the PSMSL combined its monthly mean sea level activities with the higher frequency data collection from GLOSS station sites conducted by the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC). The PSMSL also attempts to stimulate the development of tide gauge networks at national, regional and global level. It provides training and technical advice to national sea level authorities, mainly through its work with GLOSS. It has also been closely involved in the installation and continued operation of twelve gauges in Africa and the Western Indian Ocean as part of the ODINAFRICA and Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System programmes. The PSMSL data storage systems have recently been redesigned in order to increase data integrity and take advantage of recent developments in database technology. A suite of graphical user interfaces have been developed to facilitate maintenance and quality control of the database by PSMSL staff. In addition, a new interactive data portal has been

  8. Improving the Predictability of Severe Water Levels along the Coasts of Marginal Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridder, N. N.; de Vries, H.; van den Brink, H.; De Vries, H.

    2016-12-01

    Extreme water levels can lead to catastrophic consequences with severe societal and economic repercussions. Particularly vulnerable are countries that are largely situated below sea level. To support and optimize forecast models, as well as future adaptation efforts, this study assesses the modeled contribution of storm surges and astronomical tides to total water levels under different air-sea momentum transfer parameterizations in a numerical surge model (WAQUA/DCSMv5) of the North Sea. It particularly focuses on the implications for the representation of extreme and rapidly recurring severe water levels over the past decades based on the example of the Netherlands. For this, WAQUA/DCSMv5, which is currently used to forecast coastal water levels in the Netherlands, is forced with ERA Interim reanalysis data. Model results are obtained from two different methodologies to parameterize air-sea momentum transfer. The first calculates the governing wind stress forcing using a drag coefficient derived from the conventional approach of wind speed dependent Charnock constants. The other uses instantaneous wind stress from the parameterization of the quasi-linear theory applied within the ECMWF wave model which is expected to deliver a more realistic forcing. The performance of both methods is tested by validating the model output with observations, paying particular attention to their ability to reproduce rapidly succeeding high water levels and extreme events. In a second step, the common features of and connections between these events are analyzed. The results of this study will allow recommendations for the improvement of water level forecasts within marginal seas and support decisions by policy makers. Furthermore, they will strengthen the general understanding of severe and extreme water levels as a whole and help to extend the currently limited knowledge about clustering events.

  9. Diabetes Support Groups Improve Patient’s Compliance and Control Blood Glucose Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamrotul Izzah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Providing information is not enough to improve diabetic patient’s compliance and achieve goals of therapy. Patient’s good awareness as well as emotional and social supports from family and community may play an important role to improve their compliance and clinical outcomes. Therefore, diabetes support groups were developed and each support group consisted of two pharmacists, two nurses, diabetic patients and their family members. A total of 70 type 2 diabetic patient’s were enrolled and randomized into support group 1 and support group 2. Patients in the group 1 received information leaflets only, while patient in the group 2 received pharmacist counselling and information leaflets at each meeting. Patient’s awareness of diabetes and compliance with medications were assessed by a short questionnaire at baseline and final follow-up. Blood glucose and cholesterol levels were also evaluated in both groups. At the end of study, the overall patient’s awareness and compliance improved by 61.5%. The random and fasting blood glucose levels decreased over than 30% in the group 2 and around 14% in the group 1. This study reveals that collaboration between health care professionals and community in the diabetes support group might help diabetic patients to increase their knowledge and compliance with the diabetes therapy as well as glycaemic control.

  10. Bigger is better: Improved nature conservation and economic returns from landscape-level mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Christina M.; Miteva, Daniela A.; Baumgarten, Leandro; Hawthorne, Peter L.; Sochi, Kei; Polasky, Stephen; Oakleaf, James R.; Uhlhorn, Elizabeth M.; Kiesecker, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Impact mitigation is a primary mechanism on which countries rely to reduce environmental externalities and balance development with conservation. Mitigation policies are transitioning from traditional project-by-project planning to landscape-level planning. Although this larger-scale approach is expected to provide greater conservation benefits at the lowest cost, empirical justification is still scarce. Using commercial sugarcane expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado as a case study, we apply economic and biophysical steady-state models to quantify the benefits of the Brazilian Forest Code (FC) under landscape- and property-level planning. We find that FC compliance imposes small costs to business but can generate significant long-term benefits to nature: supporting 32 (±37) additional species (largely habitat specialists), storing 593,000 to 2,280,000 additional tons of carbon worth $69 million to $265 million ($ pertains to U.S. dollars), and marginally improving surface water quality. Relative to property-level compliance, we find that landscape-level compliance reduces total business costs by $19 million to $35 million per 6-year sugarcane growing cycle while often supporting more species and storing more carbon. Our results demonstrate that landscape-level mitigation provides cost-effective conservation and can be used to promote sustainable development. PMID:27419225

  11. Modeling sea level changes and geodetic variations by glacial isostasy: the improved SELEN code

    CERN Document Server

    Spada, Giorgio; Galassi, Gaia; Colleoni, Florence

    2012-01-01

    We describe the basic features of SELEN, an open source Fortran 90 program for the numerical solution of the so-called "Sea Level Equation" for a spherical, layered, non-rotating Earth with Maxwell viscoelastic rheology. The Sea Level Equation was introduced in the 70s to model the sea level variations in response to the melting of late-Pleistocene ice-sheets, but it can be also employed for predictions of geodetic quantities such as vertical and horizontal surface displacements and gravity variations on a global and a regional scale. SELEN (acronym of SEa Level EquatioN solver) is particularly oriented to scientists at their first approach to the glacial isostatic adjustment problem and, according to our experience, it can be successfully used in teaching. The current release (2.9) considerably improves the previous versions of the code in terms of computational efficiency, portability and versatility. In this paper we describe the essentials of the theory behind the Sea Level Equation, the purposes of SELEN...

  12. [Lactate acidosis: a rare or common disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubát, K

    1995-05-01

    The authors present a survey of 50 documented cases of metabolic lactic acidosis (MLAC) recorded in the course of 5 years. To this study cases of severe hyperlactataemia (determined minimum lactate level of concentration 4 mmol/l) have been included. The sample consists of patients hospitalized at the Department of Internal Medicine Litomĕrice (hinterland of about 110,000 inhabitants). Liver involvement in 5 cases, cardiogenous shock in 6 cases, sepsis in 2 cases were the cause of lactic acidosis. The administration of biguanids (Adebit, Silubin R, Diformin) seems to be the probable cause in 21 cases, other cases were triggered by rarer causes. Dehydratation (16), vomiting (9), diarrhoea (11) dominate often in the clinical picture. The patients were admitted to the hospital often unconscious, with diagnose of vasculo-cerebral incidence, transitory ischaemic incidence... Quit rarely the typical Kussmaul's respiratory (only 9 cases) was recorded. Hyperlactatemia was usually associated with decrease of blood pH (theta = 7.12, pH less than 7.35 was recorded in 49 cases, pH less than 6.8 in 5 cases) and with decrease of BE value (= Ccoase, theta = -15.3 mmol/l). When the hypochloremia and/or hypocapnia was simultaneously more severe, only in these cases the value of pH was within physiological limits or even increased (10). The conclusions show that MLAC is not a rare disorder, however, its occurrence is depended rather on the clinician's capacity to diagnose this disorder and to indicate lactate examination. Usual signs of acidosis (Kussmaul's respiratory, decrease of pH, decrease of BE) can be missing in many cases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. The antimicrobial activity of sodium lactate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtsma, P.C.

    1996-01-01


    In this thesis, the action spectrum and mechanism of microbial growth inhibition by sodium lactate were examined, with special emphasis on its use in meat products.

    The concentrations (mM) of lactate needed to prevent growth of various spoilage organisms and pathogens in a broth

  14. The quality of lactation studies including antipsychotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummels, Hazel; Bertholee, Daphne; van der Meer, Douwe; Smit, Jan Pieter; Wilffert, Bob; ter Horst, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the quality of lactation studies that investigated antipsychotics in breast milk according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and International Lactation Consultant Association (ILCA) draft guidelines. We used the draft FDA and ILCA guidelines to review t

  15. The antimicrobial activity of sodium lactate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtsma, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    In this thesis, the action spectrum and mechanism of microbial growth inhibition by sodium lactate were examined, with special emphasis on its use in meat products.The concentrations (mM) of lactate needed to prevent growth of various spoilage organisms and pathogens in a broth were determined and c

  16. Lactate uptake against a concentration gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Carl-Henrik; Nielsen, Troels Halfeld; Nielsen, Hans Boye

    2014-01-01

    ]) concludes that lactate may be transported across the blood brain barrier into the brain against a concentration gradient. Unfortunately the authors have misinterpreted the concept of analytical imprecision and their conclusion is based on analytical artifact. As the topic of lactate transport into the brain...

  17. Improved A1C Levels in Type 1 Diabetes with Smartphone App Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Edmond A; Holland, Joanna; Stroulia, Eleni; Bazelli, Blerina; Babwik, Stephanie A; Li, Haipeng; Senior, Peter; Greiner, Russ

    2017-02-01

    Smartphones are a potentially useful tool in diabetes care. We have developed an application (app) linked to a website, Intelligent Diabetes Management (IDM), which serves as both an insulin bolus calculator and an electronic diabetes diary. We have prospectively studied whether patients using this app improved control of their glucose levels. Patients with type 1 diabetes were recruited. There was a 4-week observation period, midway during which we offered to review the participants' records. The app was then downloaded and participants' diabetes regimens entered on the synchronized IDM website. At 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of the active phase, their records were reviewed online, and feedback was provided electronically. The primary endpoint was change in levels of glycated hemoglobin (A1C). Of the 31 patients recruited, 18 completed the study. These 18 made 572±98 entries per person on the IDM system over the course of the study (≈5.1/day). Their ages were 40.0±13.9 years, the durations of their diabetes were 27.3±14.9 years and 44% used insulin pumps. The median A1C level fell from 8.1% (7.5 to 9.0, IQ range) to 7.8% (6.9 to 8.3; psmartphone app enables online review of glucose records, requires less time for clinical staff and is associated with improved glucose control. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Rapid MR spectroscopic imaging of lactate using compressed sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidya Shankar, Rohini; Agarwal, Shubhangi; Geethanath, Sairam; Kodibagkar, Vikram D.

    2015-03-01

    Imaging lactate metabolism in vivo may improve cancer targeting and therapeutics due to its key role in the development, maintenance, and metastasis of cancer. The long acquisition times associated with magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), which is a useful technique for assessing metabolic concentrations, are a deterrent to its routine clinical use. The objective of this study was to combine spectral editing and prospective compressed sensing (CS) acquisitions to enable precise and high-speed imaging of the lactate resonance. A MRSI pulse sequence with two key modifications was developed: (1) spectral editing components for selective detection of lactate, and (2) a variable density sampling mask for pseudo-random under-sampling of the k-space `on the fly'. The developed sequence was tested on phantoms and in vivo in rodent models of cancer. Datasets corresponding to the 1X (fully-sampled), 2X, 3X, 4X, 5X, and 10X accelerations were acquired. The under-sampled datasets were reconstructed using a custom-built algorithm in MatlabTM, and the fidelity of the CS reconstructions was assessed in terms of the peak amplitudes, SNR, and total acquisition time. The accelerated reconstructions demonstrate a reduction in the scan time by up to 90% in vitro and up to 80% in vivo, with negligible loss of information when compared with the fully-sampled dataset. The proposed unique combination of spectral editing and CS facilitated rapid mapping of the spatial distribution of lactate at high temporal resolution. This technique could potentially be translated to the clinic for the routine assessment of lactate changes in solid tumors.

  19. EFFECT OF ALFALFA SILAGE STORAGE STRUCTURE AND ROASTING CORN ON PRODUCTION AND RUMINAL METABOLISM OF LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine if feeding roasted corn as principal concentrate source, would improve production and nutrient utilization when supplemented to lactating cows fed one of 3 different alfalfa silages (AS). Forty-two lactating Holstein cows (6 fitted with ruminal cannulas) ...

  20. Metabolic side-effects of injectable depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate, 150 mg three-monthly, in undernourished lactating women

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Results of a study on the metabolic side-effects of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) in undernourished lactating women, compared with non-lactating women, in three centres in India and Thailand are reported. Analysis of the data on anthropometric and biochemical parameters at the time of recruitment indicated that the lactating women were lighter and had lower plasma glucose and triglyceride levels and a higher alkaline phosphatase activity. Serum cholesterol levels tended to be higher during the first six months of lactation. Use of DMPA over a period of one year was not associated with any alteration in glucose tolerance and in the serum triglyceride, total protein and albumin levels. The observed fall in the cholesterol level and alkaline phosphatase activity in DMPA users might be attributed to waning lactation. PMID:3490928

  1. Tunnel FET with non-uniform gate capacitance for improved device and circuit level performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, C.; De Michielis, L.; Dağtekin, N.; Lattanzio, L.; Bouvet, D.; Ionescu, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    We report the significant improvement obtained by a non-uniform gate capacitance made by appropriate combination of high-k and low-k regions over the tunneling and the channel regions of a heterostucture TFET (called HKLKTFET). In addition to significantly enhanced ION and subthreshold swing, we find that this structure offers great improvements for the dynamic switching energy (66% saving) and propagation delay (˜3× fast operation) compared to a heterostructure TFET (HeTFET) due to the reduction of the Miller effect. We compare and benchmark the proposed device against a 65 nm low stand-by power (LSTP) CMOS technology, and we show that at a supply voltage of VDD = 0.4 V, TFETs can have smaller propagation delays compared to CMOS operating in the subthreshold region. Higher cut-off frequency (˜3×) and bandwidth for analog applications is observed in circuit-level simulations.

  2. Effect of maternal Chlorella supplementation on carotenoid concentration in breast milk at early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Junya; Noda, Kiyoshi; Uchikawa, Takuya; Maruyama, Isao; Shimomura, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Michiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Breast milk carotenoids provide neonates with a source of vitamin A and potentially, oxidative stress protection and other health benefits. Chlorella, which has high levels of carotenoids such as lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene, is an effective dietary source of carotenoids for humans. In this study, the effect of maternal supplementation with Chlorella on carotenoid levels in breast milk at early lactation was investigated. Ten healthy, pregnant women received 6 g of Chlorella daily from gestational week 16-20 until the day of delivery (Chlorella group); ten others did not (control group). Among the carotenoids detected in breast milk, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations in the Chlorella group were 2.6-fold (p = 0.001), 2.7-fold (p = 0.001) and 1.7-fold (p = 0.049) higher, respectively, than those in the control group. Our study shows that Chlorella intake during pregnancy is effective in improving the carotenoid status of breast milk at early lactation.

  3. An Improved Channel Estimation Algorithm Based on Estimating Level Crossing Rate for the CDMA Receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAZhangyong; YANYongqing; ZHAOChunming; YOUXiaohu

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, an improved channel esti-mation algorithm based on tracking the level crossing rate (LCR) for fading rate is proposed in the CDMA systems with the continuous pilot channel. By using a simple LCRestimator, the Doppler-shift can be calculated approxi-mately, thus the observation length of the channel estima-tion can be adjusted dynamically. The procedure is pre-sented which includes the iterative algorithm for the time varying channel. Moreover, computer simulation results show that the algorithm achieves good tradeoff between the noise compression capability and the channel tracking performance.

  4. Ultrasonic distance sensor improvement using a two-level neural network

    OpenAIRE

    Parvis, Marco; Carullo, Alessio; Ferraris, Franco

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the performance improvement that a neural network can provide to a contactless distance sensor based on the measurement of the time of flight (TOF) of an ultrasonic (US) pulse. The sensor, which embeds a correction system for the temperature effect, achieves a distance uncertainty (rms) of less than 0.5 mm over 0.5 m by using a two-level neural network to process the US echo and determine the TOF in the presence of environmental acoustic noise. The network embeds a "guard...

  5. Improving environmental performance through unit-level organizational citizenship behaviors for the environment: A capability perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Elisa; Spitzeck, Heiko

    2016-11-01

    Organizational citizenship behaviors for the environment (OCBEs) are increasingly advocated as a means of complementing formal practices in improving environmental performance. Adopting a capability perspective, we propose that a firm's employee involvement capability translates into environmental performance through the manifestation of unit-level OCBEs, and that this relationship is amplified by a shared vision capability. In a cross-country and multi-industry sample of 170 firms, we find support for our hypotheses, shedding light on contextual determinants of OCBEs, and on how firms may engender a positive relationship between top-down environmental initiatives and bottom-up behaviors.

  6. Diagnostic performance of initial serum lactate for predicting bacteremia in female patients with acute pyelonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong Young; Jo, Sion; Lee, Jae Baek; Jin, Young Ho; Jeong, Taeoh; Yoon, Jaechol; Park, Boyoung

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the diagnostic value of lactate for predicting bacteremia in female patients with acute pyelonephritis (APN). We conducted a retrospective study of female patients with APN who visited the study hospital emergency department. The demographics, comorbidities, physiologies, and laboratory variables including white blood cell count and segmented neutrophil count, C-reactive protein, and initial serum lactate levels were collected and analyzed to identify associations with the presence of bacteremia. During the study period, a total of 314 patients were enrolled. One hundred twenty-three patients (39.2%) had bacteremia. Escherichia coli was the most frequent pathogen. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the lactate level was independently associated with the presence of bacteremia (odds ratio, 1.39 [95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.78]). The C-statistic of the lactate level was 0.67 (95% CI, 0.60-0.73). At a cutoff value of 1.4mmol/L, the lactate level predicted bacteremia with a sensitivity (53.7%), specificity (72.3%), positive predictive value (55.5%), negative predictive value (70.8%), positive likelihood ratio (1.93), and negative likelihood ratio (0.64). The initial serum lactate level showed poor discriminative performance for predicting bacteremia in female patients with APN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving adolescent health policy: incorporating a framework for assessing state-level policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindis, Claire D; Moore, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Many US policies that affect health are made at the state, not the federal, level. Identifying state-level policies and data to analyze how different policies affect outcomes may help policy makers ascertain the usefulness of their public policies and funding decisions in improving the health of adolescent populations. A framework for describing and assessing the role of federal and state policies on adolescent health and well-being is proposed; an example of how the framework might be applied to the issue of teen childbearing is included. Such a framework can also help inform analyses of whether and how state and federal policies contribute to the variation across states in meeting adolescent health needs. A database on state policies, contextual variables, and health outcomes data can further enable researchers and policy makers to examine how these factors are associated with behaviors they aim to impact.

  8. Extending Interactive Web Services for Improving Presentation Level Integration in Web Portals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Yu Song; Jun Wei; Shu-Chao Wan; Tao Huang

    2006-01-01

    Presentation level integration now becomes an important and fast growing trend in enterprise computing.Portal-based composite applications use portlet and interactive web service, which usually offers several portlets, as their basic constituents. Hence, portlet description and discovery are the key issues that have to be considered for the development of portal-based composite applications. This paper proposes a novel concept POI (Presentation Oriented Interface) to describe the presentation features of a portlet, so that interactive web services may be extended to facilitate the selection and interoperation of portlets. Portlet discovery can be effectively achieved based on the calculation of POI similarity that considers both type and structure similarity. Experiments show that the proposed approach can improve the satisfaction of portlet discovery, and also facilitate the portlet interoperation, thereby achieving better application integration at presentation level.

  9. [Effect of biguanids on the lactate metabolism. Studies in diabetics under submaximal ergometric exercise (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilger, E; Schmid, P; Goebel, R

    1979-06-01

    24 diabetics without any complications were subjected to an exercise test before and after biguanid therapy. The schedule of the physical strain was a modification of the Kaltenbach diagram. Changes of lactate, pyruvate, pH-standard bicarbonate and base excess values were analysed. Additionally to antidiabetical therapy each of the 8 patients was given either metformin or buformin or phenformin now. Each one of the biguanid derivates induced a rise of the lactate level before and after the exercise test. Phenformin showed the greatest influence on the lactate metabolism, metformin the smallest. Reasons causing the lactogene effect and the quantitative differences of the biguanides are discussed.

  10. In vitro effect of some anthelmintics on lactate dehydrogenase activity of Cotylophoron cotylophorum (Digenea: paramphistomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerakumari, L; Munuswamy, N

    2000-07-24

    Effects of praziquantel (PZQ), levamisole (LEV), mebendazole (MBZ), fenbendazole (FBZ) and albendazole (ABZ) on the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity of Cotylophoron cotylophorum were studied in vitro. Maximum levels of inhibition of LDH catalysing both oxidation and reduction reactions were observed in PZQ- and LEV-treated worms. Similarly, benzimidazoles - MBZ, FBZ and ABZ - have also significantly inhibited the activity of LDH catalysing the oxidation of lactate; whereas the activity of LDH catalysing the reduction of pyruvate was accelerated. This affects the mitochondrial energy generating process which ultimately proves fatal to the parasite. Therefore, the mode of action of benzimidazoles is primarily on the activation of LDH catalysing the conversion of pyruvate to lactate.

  11. Prolactin circadian rhythm persists throughout lactation in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J M; Reichlin, S

    1990-01-01

    To determine whether the prolactin (PRL) circadian rhythm, with its characteristic nocturnal rise, persists during the hyperprolactinemia of lactation, PRL levels were analyzed in blood samples collected hourly for 24 h from 20 mothers, 4-46 months postpartum. The circadian rhythm of PRL persisted throughout lactation as manifested by: (1) significantly higher mean nighttime than daytime PRL levels in the whole sample, despite higher daytime nursing durations; (2) the distribution of zenith levels which most frequently occur between 23.00 and 07.00 h, when nursing duration is lowest, and which are almost absent between 07.00 and 23.00 h, when nursing duration is highest, and of nadir levels, which have an opposite pattern; (3) spontaneous PRL surges that are more frequent, longer, and of higher magnitude at night than during the day, and (4) the larger magnitude of suckling-induced PRL release from late afternoon through the night compared to the morning in some women. Our data suggest that the mechanisms responsible for the circadian rhythm in PRL secretion are relatively independent of the mechanisms of suckling-induced release. We propose that the nocturnal rise in PRL during lactation functions to ensure a robust milk supply during an extensive nonsuckling interval.

  12. Concentrações de nitrogênio na dieta, no sangue e no leite de vacas lactantes no período pós-parto Effects of different dietary crude protein levels on plasma and milk urea nitrogen on post calving lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de Sousa Lucci

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 24 vacas leiteiras em um delineamento em blocos casualizados com o objetivo de comparar três tratamentos compostos por dietas isoenergéticas, distintas quanto aos teores de proteína bruta (PB: P100 = 100%, P130 = 133% e P166 = 166% das exigências descritas pelo NRC (1989. Os acréscimos de PB foram obtidos como equivalentes protéicos mediante adição de uréia pecuária. Semanalmente, coletaram-se amostras dos alimentos, do leite e do sangue dos animais, desde os 30 dias anteriores até os 60 posteriores ao parto. As produções de leite e o peso das vacas foram registrados semanalmente. As concentrações de nitrogênio uréico foram determinadas nas amostras de leite (NUL e de plasma (NUP. As produções médias de leite, por vaca e por dia, foram iguais a 12,4; 13,3; e 13,4 kg nos tratamentos P100, P133 e P166, respectivamente, aumentando de forma linear com o emprego de maiores quantidades de equivalente protéico nas rações. As concentrações de NUP e NUL, em mg/dL, aumentaram linearmente com o incremento de equivalente protéico nas dietas, segundo as equações Y= 16,83 + 0,202 X e Y= 13,73 + 0,219 X, respectivamente. A correlação entre valores de NUP e NUL foi significativa, indicando que tanto os valores de NUP quanto os de NUL podem servir como indicadores das quantidades dietéticas de proteína degradável no rúmen, em vacas lactantes, e que valores mais elevados de equivalente em PB resultam em maiores produções de leite.Twenty-four lactating dairy cows were assigned to a completely randomized block design to compare the effects of isoenergetic diets but different crude protein (CP levels: P100- 100%, P133- 133% or P166- 166% of the NRC (1989 requirements on the concentrations of urea nitrogen in plasma (PUN and milk (MUN. Increasing levels of CP were obtained by adding urea to the diet. Feeds, milk, and blood were all collected weekly from 30 days before to 60 days after parturition. Milk yield and

  13. Statins' effect on plasma levels of Coenzyme Q10 and improvement in myopathy with supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Nate; Beckstrand, Renea L; Luthy, Karlen E

    2014-02-01

    Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, or statins, are medications at the forefront of the battle against cardiovascular disease. Despite their effectiveness, patient compliance with statins has lagged because of medication cost and adverse effects, namely myopathy. Myopathy is the most common side effect of statin use. The purpose of this review is to report plasma levels of CoQ10 in patients taking statins and then to determine the benefit of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation on statin-related myopathy as evidenced by symptomatic improvement and increase in serum levels of CoQ10. CINAHL, Medline, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, and Cochrane Library. Evidence from this review suggests that studies showed a significant relationship between statin intake and decreased serum levels of CoQ10. A few studies showed a benefit in symptoms of myalgia or improvement of serum levels of CoQ10 with supplementation. One study showed no benefit of CoQ10 supplementation when taken with statins. There were no risks of supplementation reported in any of the studies. CoQ10 supplementation might benefit those patients suffering from statin-induced myopathy as evidenced by the results of these studies. Supplementation of CoQ10 at a dose of between 30 and 200 mg daily has shown to have beneficial effects on statin myopathy with no noted side effects. Further research is necessary. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  14. Fricke gel dosimeter with improved sensitivity for low-dose-level measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiente, Mauro; Molina, Wladimir; Silva, Lila Carrizales; Figueroa, Rodolfo; Malano, Francisco; Pérez, Pedro; Santibañez, Mauricio; Vedelago, José

    2016-07-01

    Fricke solution has a wide range of applications as radiation detector and dosimetry. It is particularly appreciated in terms of relevant comparative advantages, like tissue-equivalence when prepared in aqueous media like gel matrix, continuous mapping capability, independence of dose rate and incident direction, as well as linear dose response. This work presents the development and characterization of an improved Fricke gel system, based on modified chemical compositions, making possible its application in clinical radiology due to its improved sensitivity. Properties of standard Fricke gel dosimeter for high-dose levels are used as a starting point, and suitable chemical modifications are introduced and carefully investigated in order to attain high resolution for low-dose ranges, like those corresponding to radiology interventions. The developed Fricke gel radiation dosimeter system achieves the expected typical dose-dependency, showing linear response in the dose range from 20 up to 4000 mGy. Systematic investigations including several chemical compositions are carried out in order to obtain an adequate dosimeter response for low-dose levels. A suitable composition from among those studied is selected as a good candidate for low-dose-level radiation dosimetry consisting of a modified Fricke solution fixed to a gel matrix containing benzoic acid along with sulfuric acid, ferrous sulfate, Xylenol orange, and tridistilled water. Dosimeter samples are prepared in standard vials for in-phantom irradiation and further characterization by spectrophotometry measuring visible light transmission and absorbance before and after irradiation. Samples are irradiated using typical X-ray tubes for radiology and calibrated Farmer-type ionization chamber is used as reference to measure dose rates inside phantoms at vial locations. Once sensitive material composition is optimized, dose-response curves show significant improvement regarding overall sensitivity for low dose levels

  15. Tumor-derived lactate and myeloid-derived suppressor cells: Linking metabolism to cancer immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Zaheed; Seth, Pankaj; Sukhatme, Vikas P

    2013-11-01

    Many malignant cells produce increased amounts of lactate, which promotes the development of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). MDSCs, lactate, and a low pH in the tumor microenvironment inhibit the function of natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes, hence allowing for disease progression. Ketogenic diets can deplete tumor-bearing animals from MDSCs and regulatory T cells, thereby improving their immunological profile.

  16. Regulation of Glucose Transport in Quiescent, Lactating, and Neoplastic Mammary Epithelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    to facilitate lactation and increase the prevalence and duration of breastfeeding . This will improve the health and neurodevelopment of the nation’s...simplest possible, but artificial , system. Studies in more physiologically relevant model systems are under way. Future work will focus on...the next 5 It and was fully restored 15 h after I. Work Group on Breastfeeding , American Academy of Pediatrics 1997 Brcastfeeding lactation was resumed

  17. Maternal exposure to low levels of corticosterone during lactation protects adult rat progeny against TNBS-induced colitis: A study on GR-mediated anti-inflammatory effect and prokineticin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinni, Manuela; Zuena, Anna Rita; Marconi, Veronica; Petrella, Carla; Fusco, Ilaria; Giuli, Chiara; Canu, Nadia; Severini, Cinzia; Broccardo, Maria; Theodorou, Vassilia; Lattanzi, Roberta; Casolini, Paola

    2017-01-01

    The early phase of life represents a critical period for the development of an organism. Interestingly, early life experiences are able to influence the development of the gastrointestinal tract and the reactivity to colonic inflammatory stress. We recently demonstrated that adult male rats exposed to low doses of corticosterone during lactation (CORT-nursed rats) are protected against experimental colitis induced by the intracolonic infusion of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). Based on these interesting results, we wanted to better investigate which cellular actors could be involved in the protection of CORT-nursed rats from TNBS-induced experimental colitis. Therefore, in the present work, we focused our attention on different factors implicated in GR-mediated anti-inflammatory effect. To address this issue, colonic tissues, collected from control and CORT-nursed healthy animals and from control and CORT-nursed colitic rats, were processed and the following inflammatory factors were evaluated: the expression of (i) glucocorticoid receptors (GR), (ii) glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ), (iii) phospho-p65NF-κB, (iv) the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α, (v) the prokineticins PK2 and PK2L and (vi) their receptors PKR1 and PKR2. We found that adult CORT-nursed rats, in comparison to controls, showed increased expression of colonic GR and reduced expression of pro-inflammatory molecules (IL-1β, TNF-α, PK2 and PK2L) in response to inflammatory colitis. The observed changes were associated with an increase in GILZ colonic expression and with a reduction in phospo-p65NF-κB colonic expression.

  18. Status of ammonia, glutamate, lactate and pyruvate during Plasmodium yoelii infection and pyrimethamine treatment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, A; Tripathi, L M; Pandey, V C

    1997-09-01

    Ammonia, lactate, glutamate and pyruvate levels in blood, liver, brain, spleen and kidney were determined during Plasmodium yoelii infection and pyrimethamine treatment in mice. Ammonia and lactate levels showed significant increase with rise in parasitaemia except in spleen where decrease in the lactate levels was observed. The glutamate level displayed a marked decrease in blood, liver and splenic tissues, whereas, significant increase in glutamate level in kidney was observed, although its level in cerebral tissue remained unaltered. The pyruvate level in blood and liver showed a noticeable decrease but brain, spleen and kidney registered an elevation of the same due to the parasitic infection. Pyrimethamine (oral) treatment (10 mg/kg body weight) to infected mice (5-10%) for four days brought back the altered levels of the above cellular constituents in different tissues to normal, a week after cessation of drug treatment.

  19. Design of Liquid Level Measurement System Using Multi Sensor Data Fusion for Improved Characteristics and Fault Detection

    OpenAIRE

    SANTHOSH K V Shashank Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Online validation of multi sensor data fusion based liquid level measurement technique using capacitance level sensor and ultrasonic level sensor is implemented in this work. The objectives of the proposed work is to calibrate level measurement system by fusing the outputs of fuzzy sets of Capacitive Level Sensor (CLS) and Ultrasonic Level Sensor (ULS) such that (i) sensitivity and linearity should be improved as compared to ULS, (ii) reduction of nonlinear characteristics like offset and sat...

  20. Effect of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes on performance and blood profile in early and mid-lactation Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Peters

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The supplementation of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE to dairy cows diets could be a strategy to improve fiber degradation in the rumen which is especially important for the early lactating cows characterized by a high milk energy output and an insufficient energy intake. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a fibrolytic enzyme product (Roxazyme G2 Liquid, 3.8 and 3.9 mL/kg total mixed ration [TMR] DM supplemented to a TMR on production performance and blood parameters of dairy cows during early (trial 1 and mid-lactation (trail 2. In addition, rumination activity was measured in trial 2. The nutrient digestibility of the experimental TMR was obtained by using wethers. In the digestibility trial, EFE was supplemented at a rate of 4.4 mL/kg Roxazyme G2 Liquid TMR-DM. The TMR contained 60% forage and 40% concentrate (DM basis. Twenty eight 50 ± 16 days in milk (DIM and twenty six 136 ± 26 DIM Holstein cows were used in two 8-wk completely randomized trails, stratified by parity and milk yield level. One milliliter of the enzyme product contained primarily cellulase and xylanase activities (8,000 units endo-1,4-ß glucanase, 18,000 units endo-1,3(4-ß glucanase and 26,000 units 1,4-ß xylanase. No differences in digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF and ADF were observed (P > 0.05 between the control and the EFE supplemented TMR. Addition of EFE to the TMR fed to early (trial 1 and mid-lactation cows (trial 2 did not affect daily dry matter intake (DMI, milk yield, 4% fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk (ECM, concentration of milk fat, protein, fat-protein-quotients, somatic cell score, energy balance, and gross feed efficiency of early and mid-lactation cows (P > 0.05. Mid-lactation cows (trial 2 fed with TMR enzyme showed a tendency of a slightly higher ECM yield (P = 0.09. The tested blood parameters were not affected by treatment in trials 1 and 2 (P > 0.05. Exogenous fibrolytic enzymes supplementation did not alter

  1. Design and Analysis of Multi Level D-STATCOM to Improve the Power Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh. Badavath,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the electrical power quality issue has been the main concern of the power companies. Power quality is defined as the index which both the delivery and consumption of electric power affect on the performance of electrical apparatus. From a customer point of view, a power quality problem can be defined as any problem is manifested on voltage, current, or frequency deviation that results in power failure. The power electronics progressive, especially in flexible alternating-current transmission system (FACTS and custom power devices, affects power quality improvement. This paper presents an investigation of seven-Level Cascaded H - bridge (CHB Inverter as Distribution Static Compensator (DSTATCOM in Power System (PS for compensation of reactive power and harmonics. The advantages of CHB inverter are low harmonic distortion, reduced number of switches and suppression of switching losses. The DSTATCOM helps to improve the power factor and eliminate the Total Harmonics Distortion (THD drawn from a Non-Liner Diode Rectifier Load (NLDRL. The D-Q reference frame theory is used to generate the reference compensating currents for DSTATCOM while Proportional and Integral (PI control is used for capacitor dc voltage regulation. A CHB Inverter is considered for shunt compensation of a 11 Kv distribution system. Finally a level shifted PWM (LSPWM and phase shifted PWM (PSPWM techniques are adopted to investigate the performance of CHB Inverter. The results are obtained through Matlab/Simulink software package.

  2. Multi-level learning: improving the prediction of protein, domain and residue interactions by allowing information flow between levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDermott Drew

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins interact through specific binding interfaces that contain many residues in domains. Protein interactions thus occur on three different levels of a concept hierarchy: whole-proteins, domains, and residues. Each level offers a distinct and complementary set of features for computationally predicting interactions, including functional genomic features of whole proteins, evolutionary features of domain families and physical-chemical features of individual residues. The predictions at each level could benefit from using the features at all three levels. However, it is not trivial as the features are provided at different granularity. Results To link up the predictions at the three levels, we propose a multi-level machine-learning framework that allows for explicit information flow between the levels. We demonstrate, using representative yeast interaction networks, that our algorithm is able to utilize complementary feature sets to make more accurate predictions at the three levels than when the three problems are approached independently. To facilitate application of our multi-level learning framework, we discuss three key aspects of multi-level learning and the corresponding design choices that we have made in the implementation of a concrete learning algorithm. 1 Architecture of information flow: we show the greater flexibility of bidirectional flow over independent levels and unidirectional flow; 2 Coupling mechanism of the different levels: We show how this can be accomplished via augmenting the training sets at each level, and discuss the prevention of error propagation between different levels by means of soft coupling; 3 Sparseness of data: We show that the multi-level framework compounds data sparsity issues, and discuss how this can be dealt with by building local models in information-rich parts of the data. Our proof-of-concept learning algorithm demonstrates the advantage of combining levels, and opens up

  3. Improving patient-level costing in the English and the German 'DRG' system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Matthias

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop ways to improve patient-level cost apportioning (PLCA) in the English and German inpatient 'DRG' cost accounting systems, to support regulators in improving costing schemes, and to give clinicians and hospital management sophisticated tools to measure and link their management. The paper analyzes and evaluates the PLCA step in the cost accounting schemes of both countries according to the impact on the key aspects of DRG introduction: transparency and efficiency. The goal is to generate a best available PLCA standard with enhanced accuracy and managerial relevance, the main requirements of cost accounting. A best available PLCA standard in 'DRG' cost accounting uses: (1) the cost-matrix from the German system; (2) a third axis in this matrix, representing service-lines or clinical pathways; (3) a scoring system for key cost drivers with the long-term objective of time-driven activity-based costing and (4) a point of delivery separation. Both systems have elements that the other system can learn from. By combining their strengths, regulators are supported in enhancing PLCA systems, improving the accuracy of national reimbursement and the managerial relevance of inpatient cost accounting systems, in order to reduce costs in health care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effectiveness of pharmacy interventions in improving availability of essential medicines at the primary healthcare level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, Michael; Duke, Trevor

    2011-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of pharmaceutical systems interventions in improving the availability of essential medicines at the primary care level. Literature search for examples of pharmaceutical systems interventions in low and middle income countries that evaluated the impact of specific interventions on medicines' availability. Qualitative and quantitative studies were included. Seventeen studies were included, on privatisation of drug distribution, user-fees, revolving drug funds (RDFs), supervisory visitation programmes, staff training initiatives, community-directed interventions (CDIs) and disease-specific drug programmes. We found no studies on non-monetary staff incentives or the use of national pharmacy standards. Generally, the quantity and quality of evidence was low; evidence was strongest for supervisory visitation programmes and CDIs. Several interventions have the potential for improving medicines' availability without requiring large-scale international cooperation or global policy change. The absence of evidence in this field does not prove lack of effect. There is a need for more systematic studies of multi-faceted pharmaceutical interventions to improve drug availability in the context of difficult health systems, such as structured supervision of remote health facilities, CDIs, staff training, integration of disease-specific programmes, implementation of national pharmacy standards, non-monetary staff incentives and measures to ensure cost is not a barrier to access. A standardised approach to measuring the availability of essential medicines is needed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. An improved ion chromatographic method for determination of trace levels of perchlorate in environmental water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An improved ion chromatographic (IC)method was developed to determine trace levels of perchlorate in environmental water samples.Perchlorate was separated in the hydroxide selective column IonPac AS 16 using NaOH as an eluent with an organic modifier.To eliminate the coelution of perchlorate and 4-chlorobenzene sulfonate (4-CBS),an organic solvent as modifier was added to the eluent.Of four organic solvents studied,acetonitrile proved to be the most efficient based on the retention time of perchlorate and 4-CBS.To improve the method sensitivity,a concentrator column (AGI9) was used to concentrate perchlorate online.With the adoption of a preconcentration step,the sensitivity of our method was improved and the method detection limit (MDL) was reduced to 0.1 μg/L.The linear range was from 0.2 μg/L to 200/.μg/L with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.9989 and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of peak area for eleven successive injections of 0.5 μg/L perehlorate was 4.2%.The method had been applied to the determination of perchlorate in some real environmental water samples and recovery was between 93% and 113%.

  6. Low Level Laser Therapy Versus Pharmacotherapy in Improving Myofascial Pain Disorder Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalighi, Hamid Reza; Mortazavi, Hamed; Mojahedi, Seyed Masoud; Azari-Marhabi, Saranaz; Moradi Abbasabadi, Faranak

    2016-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) lead to masticatory muscle pain, jaw movement disability and limitation in mouth opening. Pain is the chief complaint in 90% of the TMD patients which leads to disability and severe socioeconomic costs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of low level laser therapy (LLLT) compared to pharmacotherapy with NSAIDs (naproxen) in myofascial pain disorder syndrome (MPDS). In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 40 MPDS patients were divided into two groups. One group received naproxen 500 mg bid for 3 weeks as treatment modality and also had placebo laser sessions. The other group received active laser (diode 810 nm CW) as treatment and placebo drug. Pain intensity was measured by visual analogue scale (VAS) and maximum painless mouth opening was also measured as a functional index every session and at 2 months follow up. Data was collected and analyzed with SPSS software. Independent t test was used to analyze the data. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Low level laser caused significant reduction in pain intensity (P < 0.05) and a significant increase in mouth opening. In naproxen group neither pain intensity nor maximum mouth opening had significant improvement. Pain relief, in subjective VAS was observed in third session in LLLT group, but did not occur in naproxen group. Maximum mouth opening increased significantly in laser group compared to the naproxen group from the eighth session. Treatment with LLLT caused a significant improvement in mouth opening and pain intensity in patients with MPDS. Similar improvement was not observed in naproxen group.

  7. Measuring Student Improvement in Lower- and Upper-Level University Climate Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S. E.; Taylor, S. V.; Schoonmaker, J. E.; Lane, E.; Francois, R. H.; Austin, P.

    2011-12-01

    What do university students know about climate? What do they learn in a climate course? On the second-to-last day of a course about global climate change, only 48% of our upper-level science students correctly answered a multiple-choice question about the greenhouse effect. The good news: improvement. Only 16% had answered correctly on the first day of class. The bad news: the learning opportunities we've provided appear to have missed more than half the class on a fundamental climate concept. To evaluate the effectiveness of instruction on student learning about climate, we have developed a prototype assessment tool, designed to be deployed as a low-stakes pre-post test. The items included were validated through student interviews to ensure that students interpret the wording and answer choices in the way we intend. This type of validated assessment, administered both at the beginning and end of term, with matched individuals, provides insight regarding the baseline knowledge with which our students enter a course, and the impact of that course on their learning. We administered test items to students in (1) an upper-level climate course for science majors and (2) a lower-level climate course open to all students. Some items were given to both groups, others to only one of the groups. Both courses use evidence-based pedagogy with active student engagement (clickers, small group activities, regular pre-class preparation). Our results with upper-level students show strong gains in student thinking (>70% of students who missed a question on the pre-test answered correctly on the post-test) about stock-and-flow (box model) problems, annual cycles in the Keeling curve, ice-albedo feedbacks, and isotopic fractionation. On different questions, lower-level students showed strong gains regarding albedo and blackbody emission spectra. Both groups show similar baseline knowledge and lower-than-expected gains on greenhouse effect fundamentals, and zero gain regarding the

  8. Enhanced inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in Frankfurter sausage by the addition of potassium lactate and sodium diacetate mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stekelenburg, F.K.

    2003-01-01

    Frankfurter-type sausages were prepared with potassium lactate, sodium diacetate and various levels of a mixture of potassium lactate and sodium diacetate. The development of Lactobacillus sake and Listeria monocytogenes and the sensory quality were compared with a reference product without any of t

  9. Enhanced inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in Frankfurter sausage by the addition of potassium lactate and sodium diacetate mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stekelenburg, F.K.

    2003-01-01

    Frankfurter-type sausages were prepared with potassium lactate, sodium diacetate and various levels of a mixture of potassium lactate and sodium diacetate. The development of Lactobacillus sake and Listeria monocytogenes and the sensory quality were compared with a reference product without any of

  10. Similar carbohydrate but enhanced lactate utilization during exercise after 9 wk of acclimatization to 5,620 m

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Calbet, J A L; Sondergaard, H;

    2002-01-01

    We hypothesized that reliance on lactate as a means of energy distribution is higher after a prolonged period of acclimatization (9 wk) than it is at sea level due to a higher lactate Ra and disposal from active skeletal muscle. To evaluate this hypothesis, six Danish lowlanders (25 +/- 2 yr) wer...

  11. Efficacy of interventions to improve physical activity levels in individuals with stroke: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Larissa Tavares; Martins, Júlia Caetano; Nadeau, Sylvie; Britto, Raquel Rodrigues; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F; Faria, Christina D C M

    2017-01-05

    Stroke is a leading health problem worldwide and an important cause of disability. Stroke survivors show low levels of physical activity, and increases in physical activity levels may improve function and health status. Therefore, the aims are to identify which interventions that have been employed to increase physical activity levels with stroke survivors, to verify their efficacy and to identify the gaps in the literature. A systematic review of randomised controlled trials that investigated the efficacy of interventions aiming at increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors will be conducted. Electronic searches will be performed in the MEDLINE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Excerpta Medica (EMBASE), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO) databases. Hand searches of the reference lists of the included studies or relevant reviews will also be employed. Two independent reviewers will screen all the retrieved titles, abstracts and full texts. A third reviewer will be referred to solve any disagreements. The quality of the included studies will be assessed by the PEDro Rating Scale. This systematic review will also include a qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses will be performed, if the studies are sufficiently homogeneous. This review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The quality of the evidence regarding physical activity will be assessed, according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). This systematic review will provide information on which interventions are effective for increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors. This evidence may be important for clinical decision-making and will allow the identification of gaps in the literature that may be useful for the definition of future research goals and the planning of new trials. CRD

  12. Efficacy of interventions to improve physical activity levels in individuals with stroke: a systematic review protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Larissa Tavares; Martins, Júlia Caetano; Nadeau, Sylvie; Britto, Raquel Rodrigues; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F; Faria, Christina D C M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Stroke is a leading health problem worldwide and an important cause of disability. Stroke survivors show low levels of physical activity, and increases in physical activity levels may improve function and health status. Therefore, the aims are to identify which interventions that have been employed to increase physical activity levels with stroke survivors, to verify their efficacy and to identify the gaps in the literature. Methods and analysis A systematic review of randomised controlled trials that investigated the efficacy of interventions aiming at increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors will be conducted. Electronic searches will be performed in the MEDLINE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Excerpta Medica (EMBASE), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO) databases. Hand searches of the reference lists of the included studies or relevant reviews will also be employed. Two independent reviewers will screen all the retrieved titles, abstracts and full texts. A third reviewer will be referred to solve any disagreements. The quality of the included studies will be assessed by the PEDro Rating Scale. This systematic review will also include a qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses will be performed, if the studies are sufficiently homogeneous. This review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The quality of the evidence regarding physical activity will be assessed, according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Discussion This systematic review will provide information on which interventions are effective for increasing physical activity levels of stroke survivors. This evidence may be important for clinical decision-making and will allow the identification of gaps in the literature that may be useful for the definition of future research

  13. Recent Improvements to CALIOP Level 3 Aerosol Profile Product for Global 3-D Aerosol Extinction Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, J. L.; Getzewich, B. J.; Winker, D. M.; Vaughan, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    With nine years of retrievals, the CALIOP level 3 aerosol profile product provides an unprecedented synopsis of aerosol extinction in three dimensions and the potential to quantify changes in aerosol distributions over time. The CALIOP level 3 aerosol profile product, initially released as a beta product in 2011, reports monthly averages of quality-screened aerosol extinction profiles on a uniform latitude/longitude grid for different cloud-cover scenarios, called "sky conditions". This presentation demonstrates improvements to the second version of the product which will be released in September 2015. The largest improvements are the new sky condition definitions which parse the atmosphere into "cloud-free" views accessible to passive remote sensors, "all-sky" views accessible to active remote sensors and "cloudy-sky" views for opaque and transparent clouds which were previously inaccessible to passive remote sensors. Taken together, the new sky conditions comprehensively summarize CALIOP aerosol extinction profiles for a broad range of scientific queries. In addition to dust-only extinction profiles, the new version will include polluted-dust and smoke-only extinction averages. A new method is adopted for averaging dust-only extinction profiles to reduce high biases which exist in the beta version of the level 3 aerosol profile product. This presentation justifies the new averaging methodology and demonstrates vertical profiles of dust and smoke extinction over Africa during the biomass burning season. Another crucial advancement demonstrated in this presentation is a new approach for computing monthly mean aerosol optical depth which removes low biases reported in the beta version - a scenario unique to lidar datasets.

  14. Cerebrospinal fluid lactate: a differential biomarker for bacterial and viral meningitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Mudasir; Wani, Wasim Ahmad; Malik, Muzaffar Ahmad; Mir, Mohd Rafiq; Ashraf, Younis; Kawoosa, Khalid; Ali, Syed Wajid

    2017-08-30

    To assess the performance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate as a biomarker to differentiate bacterial meningitis from viral meningitis in children, and to define an optimal CSF lactate concentration that can be called significant for the differentiation. Children with clinical findings compatible with meningitis were studied. CSF lactate and other conventional CSF parameters were recorded. At a cut-off value of 3mmol/L, CSF lactate had a sensitivity of 0.90, specificity of 1.0, positive predictive value of 1.0, and negative predictive value of 0.963, with an accuracy of 0.972. The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 23.6 and 0.1, respectively. When comparing between bacterial and viral meningitis, the area under the curve for CSF lactate was 0.979. The authors concluded that CSF lactate has high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating bacterial from viral meningitis. While at a cut-off value of 3mmol/L, CSF lactate has high diagnostic accuracy for bacterial meningitis, mean levels in viral meningitis remain essentially below 2mmol/L. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Lactate administration reproduces specific brain and liver exercise-related changes.