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Sample records for laceration possibly exacerbated

  1. Saltwater nectotizing fasciitis following coral reef laceration possibly exacerbated by a long-haul flight: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, Ann-Maria

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Necrotising fasciits is a rapidly progressive disease characterised by extensive necrosis of the fascia, skin, and subcutaneous tissue, with relative sparing of the underlying muscle. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 24-year old Irish male student who sustained a laceration to his right shin from contact with a coral reef while swimming in the Phuket region, off the west coast of Thailand. The following day, he returned to Ireland and presented with an aggressive and destructive variant of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal necrotising fasciitis originating at the site of the coral reef injury, and exacerbated by the long-haul flight. He was successfully treated with aggressive surgical debridement, vacuum-assisted dressings, split skin grafting and broad spectrum antibiotics. CONCLUSION: Necrotising fasciitis can progress rapidly to systemic toxicity and even death without expedient diagnosis and aggressive treatment. Long-haul flights induce significant fluid accumulation in the lower extremity. These physiological fluid shifts may have contributed to the severity of our patient\\'s necrotizing condition following his flight from Thailand.

  2. [Pontomedullary lacerations and concomitant injuries: a review of possible underlying mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, Vladimir; Nikolić, Slobodan

    2013-01-01

    Anatomically, brainstem is constituted of medulla oblongata, pons and mesencephalon. Traumatic lesions of brainstem most commonly occur on pontomedullary junction. There are several possible mechanisms of pontomedullary lacerations. The first mechanism includes impact to the chin, with or without a skull base fracture, and most often leads to this fatal injury, due to impact force transmission through the jawbone and temporomandibular joint. The second mechanism includes lateral and posterior head impacts with subsequent hinge fractures, where occurrence of pontomedullary lacerations in these cases may depend on the energy of impact, as well as on the exact position of the fracture line, but less so on the head's movement. The third mechanism includes frontoposterior hyperextension of the head, due to frontal impact, concomitant with fractures or dislocations of upper spine. In the fourth mechanism, there is an absence of direct impact to the head, due to the indirect force of action after feet or buttocks-first impact. Most of these cases are accompanied by ring fractures as well. In situations such as these, the impact force is transmitted up the spinal column and upper vertebrae, and telescopically intruded into the skull, causing brainstem laceration. The jawbone and other facial bones can act as shock absorbers, and their fracture could diminish the energy transfer towards the skull and protect the brain and brainstem from injury. In all the cases with pontomedullary laceration posterior neck dissection should be performed during the autopsy, since upper spine injuries are often associated with this type of injury.

  3. Pontomedullary lacerations and concomitant injuries: A review of possible underlying mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomically, brainstem is constituted of medulla oblongata, pons and mesencephalon. Traumatic lesions of brainstem most commonly occur on pontomedullary junction. There are several possible mechanisms of pontomedullary lacerations. The first mechanism includes impact to the chin, with or without a skull base fracture, and most often leads to this fatal injury, due to impact force transmission through the jawbone and temporomandibular joint. The second mechanism includes lateral and posterior head impacts with subsequent hinge fractures, where occurrence of pontomedullary lacerations in these cases may depend on the energy of impact, as well as on the exact position of the fracture line, but less so on the head’s movement. The third mechanism includes frontoposterior hyperextension of the head, due to frontal impact, concomitant with fractures or dislocations of upper spine. In the fourth mechanism, there is an absence of direct impact to the head, due to the indirect force of action after feet or buttocks­first impact. Most of these cases are accompanied by ring fractures as well. In situations such as these, the impact force is transmitted up the spinal column and upper vertebrae, and telescopically intruded into the skull, causing brainstem laceration. The jawbone and other facial bones can act as shock absorbers, and their fracture could diminish the energy transfer towards the skull and protect the brain and brainstem from injury. In all the cases with pontomedullary laceration posterior neck dissection should be performed during the autopsy, since upper spine injuries are often associated with this type of injury. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 45005

  4. Corneal Laceration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye ... Causes Corneal Laceration? Corneal Laceration Diagnosis Corneal Laceration Treatment What Is Corneal Laceration? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ...

  5. Corneal Laceration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive ... Corneal Laceration Sections What Is Corneal Laceration? Corneal Laceration Symptoms What Causes ...

  6. Corneal Laceration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Corneal Laceration ... Laceration Treatment What Is Corneal Laceration? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es una laceración de la córnea? Written ...

  7. Corneal Laceration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by something sharp flying into the eye. It can also be caused by something striking the eye ... If the corneal laceration is deep enough it can cause a full thickness laceration. This is when ...

  8. Cerebral Contusions and Lacerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contusions and Lacerations Concussion Diffuse Axonal Injury Intracranial Hematomas Skull Fracture Sports-Related Concussion Cerebral contusions are ... Contusions and Lacerations Concussion Diffuse Axonal Injury Intracranial Hematomas Skull Fracture Sports-Related Concussion NOTE: This is ...

  9. Tissue adhesives for simple traumatic lacerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, Joel W

    2008-01-01

    Farion K, Osmond MH, Hartling L, et al. Tissue adhesives for traumatic lacerations in children and adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001(4);CD003326. What is the clinical evidence base for tissue adhesives in the management of simple traumatic lacerations? Studies were identified by searches of the following databases: Cochrane Wounds Group Specialized Trials Register (September 2003), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (CDROM 2003, issue 3), MEDLINE (1966 to September 2003, week 1), EMBASE (1988 to 2003, week 36), Web of Science Science Citation Index (1975 to September 13, 2003) and various clinical trials registers (September 2003). Investigators and product manufacturers were contacted to identify additional eligible studies. The search terms included wounds and injuries, laceration, face injury, nose injury, tissue adhesives, and acrylates. Each study fulfilled the following criteria: (1) The study was a randomized controlled trial that compared tissue adhesives with standard wound closure (SWC) (sutures, staples, adhesive strips) or tissue adhesive with tissue adhesive. (2) The wounds were acute, linear lacerations less than 12 hours old, resulting from blunt or sharp trauma. (3) The wound length, width, and depth allowed for approximation of the edges with minimal tension after deep sutures were placed, if required. Studies were included with no language or publication status restriction, with participants of any age recruited in an emergency department, outpatient clinic, walk-in clinic, or other primary care setting. Studies were excluded if the wounds were stellate lacerations, puncture wounds, mammalian bites, infected, heavily contaminated or devitalized, crossing joints or mucocutaneous junctions, in hair-bearing areas, or in patients with keloid formation or chronic illness. The characteristics of the study and participants, interventions, outcome measures, and findings were extracted by one author and verified by a second

  10. Skate blade neck lacerations: a survey and case follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Michael J; Link, Andrew A; Smith, Aynsley M; Krause, David A; Sorenson, Matthew C; Larson, Dirk R

    2009-11-01

    To learn about neck lacerations caused by skate blades in hockey. A retrospective Web-based survey and follow-up of registered USA Hockey players. Three hundred twenty-eight thousand eight hundred twenty-one of 457 038 registered USA Hockey players with a current e-mail address were contacted and invited to participate in the survey. Of 26 589 players (5.8% of all USA registered players) who responded to the survey, 247 were excluded due to incomplete data. Of 26 342 surveys analyzed, 23 199 respondents were men (88%), 3015 women (11.4%), and 128 (0.5%) did not designate gender. An original survey instrument was developed, formatted, and linked to a Mayo Clinic Web site. Neck lacerations from a skate blade, including mechanism, severity, treatment required, and the type of neck protector worn. Of the 26 342 respondents, 11 935 (45.4%) currently wear neck protection and 485 (1.8%) have sustained a neck laceration. When the laceration occurred, 132 of the players (27%) were wearing neck protection. Interviews with 33 injured players established that lacerations were superficial: 20 (61%) required bandaging only, 11 were sutured, and 2 were glued. Based on this survey, the currently available neck laceration protectors do not eliminate the risk of a neck laceration from a skate blade.

  11. Endovascular Management of Intractable Postpartum Hemorrhage Caused by Vaginal Laceration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koganemaru, Masamichi, E-mail: mkoganemaru@med.kurume-u.ac.jp; Nonoshita, Masaaki, E-mail: z2rs-1973@yahoo.co.jp; Iwamoto, Ryoji, E-mail: iwamoto-ryouji@kurume-u.ac.jp; Kuhara, Asako, E-mail: kuhara-asako@med.kurume-u.ac.jp; Nabeta, Masakazu, E-mail: nabeta-masakazu@med.kurume-u.ac.jp; Kusumoto, Masashi, E-mail: kusumoto-masashi@med.kurume-u.ac.jp; Kugiyama, Tomoko, E-mail: kugiyama-tomoko@med.kurume-u.ac.jp [Kurume University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Kozuma, Yutaka, E-mail: kouduma-yutaka@kurume-u.ac.jp [Kurume University School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Japan); Nagata, Shuji, E-mail: sn4735@med.kurume-u.ac.jp; Abe, Toshi, E-mail: toshiabe@med.kurume-u.ac.jp [Kurume University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    PurposeWe evaluated the management of transcatheter arterial embolization for postpartum hemorrhage caused by vaginal laceration.Materials and MethodsWe reviewed seven cases of patients (mean age 30.9 years; range 27–35) with intractable hemorrhages and pelvic hematomas caused by vaginal lacerations, who underwent superselective transcatheter arterial embolization from January 2008 to July 2014. Postpartum hemorrhage was evaluated by angiographic vascular mapping to determine the vaginal artery’s architecture, technical and clinical success rates, and complications.ResultsThe vaginal artery was confirmed as the source of bleeding in all cases. The artery was found to originate from the uterine artery in three cases, the uterine and obturator arteries in two, or the internal pudendal artery in two. After vaginal artery embolization, persistent contrast extravasation from the inferior mesenteric artery as an anastomotic branch was noted in one patient. Nontarget vessels (the inferior vesical artery and nonbleeding vaginal arterial branches) were embolized in one patient. Effective control of hemostasis and no post-procedural complications were confirmed for all cases.ConclusionPostpartum hemorrhages caused by vaginal lacerations involve the vaginal artery arising from the anterior trunk of the internal iliac artery with various branching patterns. Superselective vaginal artery embolization is clinically acceptable for the successful treatment of vaginal laceration hemorrhages, with no complications. After vaginal artery embolization, it is suggested to check for the presence of other possible bleeding vessels by pelvic aortography with a catheter tip at the L3 vertebral level, and to perform a follow-up assessment.

  12. Endovascular Management of Intractable Postpartum Hemorrhage Caused by Vaginal Laceration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koganemaru, Masamichi; Nonoshita, Masaaki; Iwamoto, Ryoji; Kuhara, Asako; Nabeta, Masakazu; Kusumoto, Masashi; Kugiyama, Tomoko; Kozuma, Yutaka; Nagata, Shuji; Abe, Toshi

    2016-01-01

    PurposeWe evaluated the management of transcatheter arterial embolization for postpartum hemorrhage caused by vaginal laceration.Materials and MethodsWe reviewed seven cases of patients (mean age 30.9 years; range 27–35) with intractable hemorrhages and pelvic hematomas caused by vaginal lacerations, who underwent superselective transcatheter arterial embolization from January 2008 to July 2014. Postpartum hemorrhage was evaluated by angiographic vascular mapping to determine the vaginal artery’s architecture, technical and clinical success rates, and complications.ResultsThe vaginal artery was confirmed as the source of bleeding in all cases. The artery was found to originate from the uterine artery in three cases, the uterine and obturator arteries in two, or the internal pudendal artery in two. After vaginal artery embolization, persistent contrast extravasation from the inferior mesenteric artery as an anastomotic branch was noted in one patient. Nontarget vessels (the inferior vesical artery and nonbleeding vaginal arterial branches) were embolized in one patient. Effective control of hemostasis and no post-procedural complications were confirmed for all cases.ConclusionPostpartum hemorrhages caused by vaginal lacerations involve the vaginal artery arising from the anterior trunk of the internal iliac artery with various branching patterns. Superselective vaginal artery embolization is clinically acceptable for the successful treatment of vaginal laceration hemorrhages, with no complications. After vaginal artery embolization, it is suggested to check for the presence of other possible bleeding vessels by pelvic aortography with a catheter tip at the L3 vertebral level, and to perform a follow-up assessment.

  13. Detecting Foreign Bodies in a Head Laceration

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler, Thomas R.; Crellin, Steven J.; Greenberg, Marna Rayl

    2015-01-01

    Open wounds represent a potential area of medicolegal risk if foreign bodies are not identified prior to wound closure. The importance of imaging of lacerations was underscored by a recent case where a 20-year-old male collided with a friend's mouth on a trampoline sustaining a simple, superficial scalp laceration. The wound was evaluated in typical fashion including irrigation and local exploration and was prepared for closure. The friend was then evaluated and noted to have multiple extensi...

  14. Outcome after Repair of Concurrent Upper and Lower Canalicular Lacerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Rasmus; Wiencke, Anne K; Toft, Peter B

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the functional and cosmetic results after primary surgical repair of bicanalicular lacerations. METHODS: We identified patients diagnosed with bicanalicular lacerations at the Eye Clinic of Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen from 2000 through 2009. Patient charts were reviewed and...

  15. Medical image of the week: hematopneumatoceles from pulmonary lacerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaddha U

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 17-year-old man was brought to the emergency room after a fall from a 50-foot bridge. He was hypoxemic on presentation, requiring endotracheal intubation. Chest computed tomography (CT revealed bilateral airspace opacities consistent with pulmonary contusions, and multiple air-fluid levels diagnostic of pulmonary lacerations (Figures 1-3. Pulmonary lacerations are rare complications of blunt chest trauma (1. They can be contained within the lung parenchyma or may extend through the visceral pleura causing a pneumothorax. Due to its elastic recoil, the surrounding lung tissue pulls back from the laceration resulting in a round or oval cavity that may fill with air (pneumatocele, blood (hematocele or both (hematopneumatocele. Lacerations are often obscured on chest x-ray as they are usually surrounded by contusion, requiring a CT for detection (2. They are classified into four types according to the mechanism of injury: Type 1 (compression rupture injury, most common type, usually centrally located, Type …

  16. A clinical application of laser direction in anastomosis for inferior canalicular laceration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Tao; ZHAO Ke-xiao; ZHANG Ling-yun

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To study the therapeutic efficiency and effecacy of laser-directing approach on searching for the nasal broken end of lacerated lacrimal canaliculus in anastomosis for canalicular laceration.Methods: Forty-nine patients ( 49 eyes ) suffering from traumatic inferior canalicular laceration were divided into control group and laser-directing group. The distance between the lacrimal punctum and the nasal broken end of lacerated lacrimal canaliculus was more than 6 mm. During the course of management of eyelid trauma, the patients were treated by canalicular anastomosis operation with traditional method and laser-directing method in searching for the nasal broken end of lacerated lacrimal canaliculus respectively. The silicone tube of 1 mm diameter was intubated in the lacrimal passage as a stent for 4 to 6months.Results: In the laser-directing group, the mean time in searching for the nasal broken end of lacerated lacrimal canaliculus was (5.75 ± 1.49) minutes and the mean time of operation was (49.21±3.37) minutes; both were significantly shorter than that of the control group(P <0.01). The cure rate of the laser-directing group was96.55 %, higher than that of the control group but without statistical significance (P > 0.05).Conclusions: The laser-directing method is much quicker and more convenient to searching for the nasal broken end of the lacerated lacrimal canaliculus than the traditional approach, and patients suffer less pain and damaging in canalicular anastomosis operation.

  17. Clinical evaluation of a PHMB-impregnated biocellulose dressing on paediatric lacerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzinga, G.; van Doorn, J.; Wiersema, A. M.; Klicks, R. J.; Andriessen, A.; Alblas, J. G.; Spits, H.; Post, A.; van Gent, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical benefits, primarily tolerability and reduction in pain levels, associated with the use of a PHMB-impregnated biosynthetic cellulose dressing (Suprasorb X + PHMB) on paediatric heel lacerations. Method: These lacerations were caused when children, who were being

  18. Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Zone II Partial Flexor Tendon Lacerations of the Fingers: A Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmers, Nikolas H; Gordon, Joshua A; Buterbaugh, Kristen L; Bozentka, David J; Steinberg, David R; Khoury, Viviane

    2018-04-01

    Accurate assessment of zone II partial flexor tendon lacerations in the finger is clinically important. Surgical repair is recommended for lacerations of greater than 50% to 60%. Our goal was to evaluate ultrasonographic test characteristics and accuracy in identifying partial flexor tendon lacerations in a cadaveric model. From fresh-frozen above-elbow human cadaveric specimens, 32 flexor digitorum profundus tendons were randomly selected to remain intact or receive low- or high-grade lacerations involving 10% to 40% and 60% to 90% of the radioulnar width within Verdan Zone II, respectively. Static and dynamic ultrasonography using a linear array 14-MHz transducer was performed by a blinded musculoskeletal radiologist. Sensitivities, specificities, and other standard test performance metrics were calculated. Actual and measured percentages of tendon laceration were compared by the paired t test. After randomization, 24 tendons were lacerated (12 low- and 12 high-grade), whereas 8 remained intact. The sensitivity and specificity in detecting the presence versus absence of a partial laceration were 0.54 and 0.75, respectively, with positive and negative likelihood ratio values of 2.17 and 0.61. For low-grade lacerations, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.25 and 0.85, compared to 0.83 and 0.85 for high-grade lacerations. Ultrasonography underestimated the percentage of tendon involvement by a mean of 18.1% for the study population as a whole (95% confidence interval, 9.0% to 27.2%; P partial flexor digitorum profundus lacerations in a cadaveric model. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  19. Video-Assisted Minithoracotomy for Pulmonary Laceration with a Massive Hemothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Ota

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe intrathoracic hemorrhage from pulmonary parenchyma is the most serious complication of pulmonary laceration after blunt trauma requiring immediate surgical hemostasis through open thoracotomy. The safety and efficacy of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS techniques for this life-threatening condition have not been fully evaluated yet. We report a case of pulmonary laceration with a massive hemothorax after blunt trauma successfully treated using a combination of muscle-sparing minithoracotomy with VATS techniques (video-assisted minithoracotomy. A 22-year-old man was transferred to our department after a falling accident. A diagnosis of right-sided pneumothorax was made on physical examination and urgent chest decompression was performed with a tube thoracostomy. Chest computed tomographic scan revealed pulmonary laceration with hematoma in the right lung. The pulmonary hematoma extending along segmental pulmonary artery in the helium of the middle lobe ruptured suddenly into the thoracic cavity, resulting in hemorrhagic shock on the fourth day after admission. Emergency right middle lobectomy was performed through video-assisted minithoracotomy. We used two cotton dissectors as a chopstick for achieving compression hemostasis during surgery. The patient recovered satisfactorily. Video-assisted minithoracotomy can be an alternative approach for the treatment of pulmonary lacerations with a massive hemothorax in hemodynamically unstable patients.

  20. Accuracy of High-Resolution Ultrasonography in the Detection of Extensor Tendon Lacerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Bobby; Taljanovic, Mihra S; Melville, David M; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Sheppard, Joseph E

    2016-02-01

    Lacerations to the extensor mechanism are usually diagnosed clinically. Ultrasound (US) has been a growing diagnostic tool for tendon injuries since the 1990s. To date, there has been no publication establishing the accuracy and reliability of US in the evaluation of extensor mechanism lacerations in the hand. The purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of US to detect extensor tendon injuries in the hand. Sixteen fingers and 4 thumbs in 4 fresh-frozen and thawed cadaveric hands were used. Sixty-eight 0.5-cm transverse skin lacerations were created. Twenty-seven extensor tendons were sharply transected. The remaining skin lacerations were used as sham dissection controls. One US technologist and one fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologist performed real-time dynamic US studies in and out of water bath. A second fellowship trained musculoskeletal radiologist subsequently reviewed the static US images. Dynamic and static US interpretation accuracy was assessed using dissection as "truth." All 27 extensor tendon lacerations and controls were identified correctly with dynamic imaging as either injury models that had a transected extensor tendon or sham controls with intact extensor tendons (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 100%, positive predictive value = 1.0; all significantly greater than chance). Static imaging had a sensitivity of 85%, specificity of 89%, and accuracy of 88% (all significantly greater than chance). The results of the dynamic real time versus static US imaging were clearly different but did not reach statistical significance. Diagnostic US is a very accurate noninvasive study that can identify extensor mechanism injuries. Clinically suspected cases of acute extensor tendon injury scanned by high-frequency US can aid and/or confirm the diagnosis, with dynamic imaging providing added value compared to static. Ultrasonography, to aid in the diagnosis of extensor mechanism lacerations, can be successfully used in a reliable and

  1. [Possibility of exacerbation of allergy by lunar regolith].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Masanori; Kambara, Tatsunori; Kuroda, Etsushi; Miki, Takeo; Honma, Yoshiyuki; Aoki, Shigeru; Morimoto, Yasuo

    2012-09-01

    Japan, U.S.A. and other foreign space agencies have plans for the construction of a lunar base and long-term stay of astronauts on the moon. The surface of the moon is covered by a thick layer of soil that includes fine particles called "lunar regolith", which is formed by meteorite impact and space weathering. Risk assessment of particulate matter on the moon is important for astronauts working in microgravity on the moon. However, there are few investigations about the biological influences of lunar regolith. Especially, there is no investigation about allergic activity to lunar regolith. The main chemical components of lunar regolith are SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, FeO, etc. Of particular interest, approximately 50% of lunar regolith consists of SiO2. There is a report that the astronauts felt hay fever-like symptoms from the inhalation of the lunar regolith. Yellow sand, whose chemical components are similar to lunar regolith, enhances allergenic reactions, suggesting the possibility that lunar regolith has an adjuvant-like activity. Although intraperitoneal administration of lunar regolith with ovalbumin to mouse did not show enhancement of allergenic reactions, further evaluation of lunar regolith's potential to exacerbate the effects of allergies is essential for development of the moon.

  2. Detecting Foreign Bodies in a Head Laceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Fowler

    2015-01-01

    are not identified prior to wound closure. The importance of imaging of lacerations was underscored by a recent case where a 20-year-old male collided with a friend’s mouth on a trampoline sustaining a simple, superficial scalp laceration. The wound was evaluated in typical fashion including irrigation and local exploration and was prepared for closure. The friend was then evaluated and noted to have multiple extensive dental fractures. An increased index of suspicion generated further evaluation of the first patient’s wound. Plain radiography obtained of the first patient’s skull was noted to have bony foreign bodies consistent with teeth, which were then removed after further exploration. Superficial wounds are common and complications arising from retained foreign bodies are a potential source of substantial morbidity and consequently medical litigation. This case serves as a reminder to be vigilant and maintain a high index of suspicion regarding the potential for foreign body.

  3. Detecting Foreign Bodies in a Head Laceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Thomas R.; Crellin, Steven J.; Greenberg, Marna Rayl

    2015-01-01

    Open wounds represent a potential area of medicolegal risk if foreign bodies are not identified prior to wound closure. The importance of imaging of lacerations was underscored by a recent case where a 20-year-old male collided with a friend's mouth on a trampoline sustaining a simple, superficial scalp laceration. The wound was evaluated in typical fashion including irrigation and local exploration and was prepared for closure. The friend was then evaluated and noted to have multiple extensive dental fractures. An increased index of suspicion generated further evaluation of the first patient's wound. Plain radiography obtained of the first patient's skull was noted to have bony foreign bodies consistent with teeth, which were then removed after further exploration. Superficial wounds are common and complications arising from retained foreign bodies are a potential source of substantial morbidity and consequently medical litigation. This case serves as a reminder to be vigilant and maintain a high index of suspicion regarding the potential for foreign body. PMID:25802770

  4. Detecting foreign bodies in a head laceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Thomas R; Crellin, Steven J; Greenberg, Marna Rayl

    2015-01-01

    Open wounds represent a potential area of medicolegal risk if foreign bodies are not identified prior to wound closure. The importance of imaging of lacerations was underscored by a recent case where a 20-year-old male collided with a friend's mouth on a trampoline sustaining a simple, superficial scalp laceration. The wound was evaluated in typical fashion including irrigation and local exploration and was prepared for closure. The friend was then evaluated and noted to have multiple extensive dental fractures. An increased index of suspicion generated further evaluation of the first patient's wound. Plain radiography obtained of the first patient's skull was noted to have bony foreign bodies consistent with teeth, which were then removed after further exploration. Superficial wounds are common and complications arising from retained foreign bodies are a potential source of substantial morbidity and consequently medical litigation. This case serves as a reminder to be vigilant and maintain a high index of suspicion regarding the potential for foreign body.

  5. Vaginal Lacerations from Consensual Intercourse in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frioux, Sarah M.; Blinman, Thane; Christian, Cindy W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: (1) To describe lacerations of the vaginal fornices, an injury known to be associated with consensual sexual intercourse, including known complications and treatment course, (2) to contrast these injuries with injuries sustained during sexual assault, and (3) to discuss the assessment of adolescent patients for sexual injuries. Methods:…

  6. Endoscopic management of intraoperative small bowel laceration during natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery: a blinded porcine study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyock, Christopher J; Forsmark, Chris E; Wagh, Mihir S

    2011-01-01

    Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has recently gained great enthusiasm, but there is concern regarding the ability to endoscopically manage complications purely via natural orifices. To assess the feasibility of endoscopically managing enteral perforation during NOTES using currently available endoscopic accessories. Twelve pigs underwent transgastric or transcolonic endoscopic exploration. Full-thickness enterotomies were intentionally created to mimic accidental small bowel lacerations during NOTES. These lacerations were then closed with endoclips. In the blinded arm of the study, small bowel repair was performed by a second blinded endoscopist. Adequate closure of the laceration was confirmed with a leak test. Primary access sites were closed with endoclips or T-anchors. At necropsy, the peritoneal cavity was inspected for abscesses, bleeding, or damage to surrounding structures. The enterotomy site was examined for adequacy of closure, adhesions, or evidence of infection. Fifteen small bowel lacerations were performed in 12 animals. Successful closure was achieved in all 10 cases in the nonblinded arm. Survival animals had an uncomplicated postoperative course and all enterotomy sites were well healed without evidence of necrosis, adhesions, abscess, or bleeding at necropsy. Leak test was negative in all animals. In the blinded arm, both small intestinal lacerations could not be identified by the blinded endoscopist. Necropsy revealed open small bowel lacerations. Small intestinal injuries are difficult to localize with currently available flexible endoscopes and accessories. Endoscopic clips, however, may be adequate for closure of small bowel lacerations if the site of injury is known.

  7. Observation of double loop insertion of silicone rubber tube anastomosis method combined with "Z" flap repair in the treatment of lacrimal ductule laceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Hou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the clinical curative effect of double loop insertion of silicone rubber tube combined with "Z" flap repair in the treatment of laceration of eyelid with canaliculus laceration. METHODS: The paper reviewed 45 cases of laceration of eyelid with laceration canaliculus, caused by trauma, which were treated in my hospital from January 2014 to January 2016. In the process of anastomosis of lacrimal duct and suture of eyelid laceration, either the method of single spinal anesthesia tube placement on skin contraposition suture or the method of dual annular silicone tube placement combined with the word "Z" flap repair was used. We compared the two methods and studied the possible complications like eyelid varus and valgus, lacrimal point valgus, eyelid scar, anastomotic dehiscence again. RESULTS: Out of the 22 cases in which the patients chose the single spinal anesthesia tube implantation on skin suture, 21 cases succeeded and patients received lacrimal duct patency results after extubation; and 1 case anastomosis failed. Complications: 20 cases had different degree of complications and the impact on their appearances were significant. Out of the 23 cases in which the patients chose double passage annular silicone tube joint prosthesis implantation Z flap, 23 received extubation results lacrimal patency or almost patency, the anastomosis of patients was successful. Complications: in two cases, patients had mild eyelid entropion and pomatum varus. Both eyelid deformity and severe wound tear did not occur in all cases again. Scar was not obvious. The success rate of anastomosis between the two groups was not significantly different(P=0.4889. To compare the rate of complications, there were significant differences(χ2=30.42, PCONCLUSION: The application of dual ring implantation silicon tube combined with the word "Z" flap repair in the treatment of lacrimal canaliculi laceration of eyelid laceration ensured the success rate of

  8. Racial/ethnic variations in perineal length and association with perineal lacerations: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaton-Massey, Amanda; Wong, Luchin; Sparks, Teresa N; Handler, Stephanie J; Meyer, Michelle R; Granados, Jesus M; Stasenko, Marina; Sit, Anita; Caughey, Aaron B

    2015-02-01

    To examine the association between race/ethnicity, perineal length and the risk of perineal laceration. This is a prospective cohort study of a diverse group of women with singleton gestations in the third trimester of pregnancy. Perineal length was measured and mean values calculated for several racial/ethnic groups. Chi-squared analyses were used to examine rates of severe perineal laceration (third or fourth degree laceration) by race/ethnicity among women considered to have a short perineal length. Further, subgroup analyses were performed comparing nulliparas to multiparas. Among 344 study participants, there was no statistically significant difference in mean perineal length by race/ethnicity (White 4.0 ± 1.1 cm, African-American 3.7 ± 1.0 cm, Latina 4.1 ± 1.1 cm, Asian 3.8 ± 1.0 cm, and other/unknown 4.0 ± 0.9 cm). Considering parity, more multiparous Asian and African-American women had a short perineal length (20.7 and 23.5%, respectively, p = 0.05). Finally, the rate of severe perineal lacerations in our cohort was 2.6% overall, but was 8.2% among Asian women (p = 0.04). We did not find a relationship between short perineal length and risk of severe perineal laceration with vaginal delivery, or a difference in mean perineal length by maternal race/ethnicity. However, we did find that women of different racial/ethnic groups have varying rates of severe perineal laceration, with Asian women comprising the highest proportion.

  9. Traumatic parenchymal laceration in a horseshoe kidney.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stunell, H

    2011-03-01

    An 18-year-old man was transferred to the authors\\' institution after a motor vehicle collision in which he was a restrained front seat passenger. The referring hospital performed contrast-enhanced computed tomography which revealed a previously undiagnosed horseshoe kidney with a laceration of the right lower pole moiety. On transfer, he was pale and mildly tachycardic but normotensive.

  10. Severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration after operative vaginal delivery: successful treatment with transcatheter arterial embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fargeaudou, Yann; Soyer, Philippe; Sirol, Marc; Dref, Olivier le; Boudiaf, Mourad; Dahan, Henri; Rymer, Roland [Hopital Lariboisiere-APHP-GHU Nord et Universite Diderot-Paris 7, Department of Abdominal and Interventional Imaging, Paris (France); Morel, Olivier [Hopital Lariboisiere-APHP-GHU Nord et Universite Diderot-Paris 7, Department of Obstetrics, Paris (France)

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to report our experience in the management of severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration following operative vaginal delivery with forceps using pelvic transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). Ten women (mean age, 31.9 years) with severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration after operative delivery with forceps were treated with TAE. TAE was indicated because of intractable bleeding that could not be controlled with uterotonic drugs, blood transfusion, attempted suturing and packing in all patients. Postdelivery perineal examination showed cervical or vaginal tears in all women and associated paravaginal hematoma in four. Angiography revealed extravasation of contrast material in six patients. TAE performed with gelatin sponge allowed to control the bleeding in all patients. Cervical and vaginal suturing was made possible and successfully achieved in the six women who had failed suturing attempts before TAE. Paravaginal hematoma was successfully evacuated in four patients in whom it was present after TAE. No complications related to TAE were noted. We conclude that in women with severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration after operative delivery with forceps, TAE is effective and safe for stopping the bleeding and helps genital tract suturing and evacuation of hematoma. (orig.)

  11. Severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration after operative vaginal delivery: successful treatment with transcatheter arterial embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fargeaudou, Yann; Soyer, Philippe; Sirol, Marc; Dref, Olivier le; Boudiaf, Mourad; Dahan, Henri; Rymer, Roland; Morel, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report our experience in the management of severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration following operative vaginal delivery with forceps using pelvic transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). Ten women (mean age, 31.9 years) with severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration after operative delivery with forceps were treated with TAE. TAE was indicated because of intractable bleeding that could not be controlled with uterotonic drugs, blood transfusion, attempted suturing and packing in all patients. Postdelivery perineal examination showed cervical or vaginal tears in all women and associated paravaginal hematoma in four. Angiography revealed extravasation of contrast material in six patients. TAE performed with gelatin sponge allowed to control the bleeding in all patients. Cervical and vaginal suturing was made possible and successfully achieved in the six women who had failed suturing attempts before TAE. Paravaginal hematoma was successfully evacuated in four patients in whom it was present after TAE. No complications related to TAE were noted. We conclude that in women with severe primary postpartum hemorrhage due to genital tract laceration after operative delivery with forceps, TAE is effective and safe for stopping the bleeding and helps genital tract suturing and evacuation of hematoma. (orig.)

  12. Vaginal laceration following a jet-ski accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, H K; Andersen, H F; Johnson, M P

    1991-11-01

    A 17-year-old woman riding as a passenger on a jet-ski fell behind the jet nozzle while jumping waves. A vaginal laceration with intra-abdominal extension occurred as a result of the accident. Hypogastric artery ligation controlled the hemorrhage and avoided more extensive surgery. The case represents an unusual injury from this type of watercraft and illustrates important points in the management of genital tract trauma.

  13. Myasthenia gravis exacerbation and diarrhea associated with erythromycin treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sora Yasri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An important problem in management of the case with myasthenia gravis (MG is the control of exacerbation. There are several possible causes of exacerbation of MG including the use of drug. Here, the authors report a case of MG exacerbation and diarrhea associated with erythromycin treatment.

  14. Embolization Therapy for Traumatic Splenic Lacerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Niloy; Matsumoto, Alan H., E-mail: ahm4d@virginia.edu; Arslan, Bulent; Turba, Ulku C.; Sabri, Saher; Angle, John F. [University of Virginia Health System, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the clinical success, complications, and transfusion requirements based on the location of and agents used for splenic artery embolization in patients with splenic trauma. Methods: A retrospective study was performed of patients with splenic trauma who underwent angiography and embolization from September 2000 to January 2010 at a level I trauma center. Electronic medical records were reviewed for demographics, imaging data, technical aspects of the procedure, and clinical outcomes. Results: Fifty patients were identified (34 men and 16 women), with an average age of 48 (range, 16-80) years. Extravasation was seen on initial angiography in 27 (54%) and was absent in 23 (46%). All 27 patients with extravasation were embolized, and 18 of 23 (78.2%) without extravasation were embolized empirically. Primary clinical success was similar (>75%) across all embolization locations, embolic agents, and grades of laceration treated. Of 45 patients treated, 9 patients (20%) were embolized in the main splenic artery, 34 (75.6%) in the splenic hilum, and 2 (4.4%) were embolized in both locations. Partial splenic infarctions developed in 47.3% treated in the splenic hilum compared with 12.5% treated in the main splenic artery. There were four (8.9%) mortalities: two occurred in patients with multiple critical injuries and two from nonbleeding etiologies. Conclusions: Embolization of traumatic splenic artery injuries is safe and effective, regardless of the location of treatment. Embolization in splenic hilar branches may have a higher incidence of infarction. The grade of laceration and agents used for embolotherapy did not impact the outcomes.

  15. Embolization Therapy for Traumatic Splenic Lacerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, Niloy; Matsumoto, Alan H.; Arslan, Bulent; Turba, Ulku C.; Sabri, Saher; Angle, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the clinical success, complications, and transfusion requirements based on the location of and agents used for splenic artery embolization in patients with splenic trauma. Methods: A retrospective study was performed of patients with splenic trauma who underwent angiography and embolization from September 2000 to January 2010 at a level I trauma center. Electronic medical records were reviewed for demographics, imaging data, technical aspects of the procedure, and clinical outcomes. Results: Fifty patients were identified (34 men and 16 women), with an average age of 48 (range, 16–80) years. Extravasation was seen on initial angiography in 27 (54%) and was absent in 23 (46%). All 27 patients with extravasation were embolized, and 18 of 23 (78.2%) without extravasation were embolized empirically. Primary clinical success was similar (>75%) across all embolization locations, embolic agents, and grades of laceration treated. Of 45 patients treated, 9 patients (20%) were embolized in the main splenic artery, 34 (75.6%) in the splenic hilum, and 2 (4.4%) were embolized in both locations. Partial splenic infarctions developed in 47.3% treated in the splenic hilum compared with 12.5% treated in the main splenic artery. There were four (8.9%) mortalities: two occurred in patients with multiple critical injuries and two from nonbleeding etiologies. Conclusions: Embolization of traumatic splenic artery injuries is safe and effective, regardless of the location of treatment. Embolization in splenic hilar branches may have a higher incidence of infarction. The grade of laceration and agents used for embolotherapy did not impact the outcomes.

  16. Parotid duct laceration repair in two horses : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Olivier

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Repair of parotid duct lacerations in 2 horses is described using intraluminal silastic tubing as a stent. The duct was lacerated traumatically at the facial vessel notch (incisura vasorum facialium in the 1st horse, and iatrogenically after removal of an intraluminal sialolith after development of infection within the duct in the 2nd horse. In both cases, a silastic tube was passed retrograde into the duct via the salivary papilla, past the wound until the end lay rostroventral to the parotid salivary gland. The severed salivary ducts and the wounds were sutured. The external portion of the silastic tube was sutured to the skin and the tube left in place. Recovery in the 1st case was uneventful. In the 2nd case a salivary duct/cutaneous fistula formed at a wound distant from the sutured wound, which healed spontaneously. This technique differs from a similar described technique in that the stent tube exits the oral cavity and is attached to the outer skin surface.

  17. Simultaneous blunt traumatic laceration of inferior vena cava and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 30-year-old man who had been involved in a road traffic acci- dent underwent a computed tomography (CT) ... right renal artery also showed abrupt cut-off just distal to its ori- gin. The patient was managed conservatively as ... laceration of the IVC and the right renal artery is a catastrophic situation and can present a tough ...

  18. Novel air-injection technique to locate the medial cut end of lacerated canaliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingqian; Li, Yonghao; Long, Chongde; Wang, Zhonghao; Liang, Xuanwei; Ge, Jian; Wang, Zhichong

    2013-12-01

    Locating the medial cut end of the severed canaliculus is the most difficult aspect of canalicular repair, especially in patients with more medial laceration, severe oedema, persistent errhysis and a narrow canaliculus. Irrigation is a widely used technique to identify the cut end; however, we found that air injected through the intact canaliculus with a straight needle failed to reflux when the common canaliculus or lacrimal sac was not blocked. We describe a simple, safe and efficient air-injection technique to identify the medial cut edge of a lacerated canaliculus. In this method, we initially submersed the medial canthus under normal saline, then injected filtered air through the intact canaliculus using a side port stainless steel probe with a closed round tip. The tip was designed to block the common canaliculus to form a relatively closed system. The efficiency of this novel air-injection technique was equivalent to the traditional technique but does not require the cooperation of the patient to blow air. Using this technique, the medial cut end was successfully identified by locating the air-bubble exit within minutes in 19 cases of mono-canalicular laceration without any complication.

  19. Life threatening vaginal haemorrhage from coital laceration in a post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case report: A 55-year-old woman who presented as an emergency with haemorrhagic shock following vaginal bleeding from consensual coitus is presented. She was resuscitated with intravenous fluids and blood transfusions. The vaginal laceration of about 5 cm on the right side of the posterior fornix was sutured ...

  20. Spontaneous seromuscular laceration of the sigmoid colon: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Courtney; Fransman, Ryan B.; Jessie, Timothy A.; Gurfinchel, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Injury to bowel can result in high morbidity and death. Bowel injuries typically occur after external trauma to the abdomen. Bowel injury in the absence of external trauma is rare. Here, we report a 36?year?old male presenting with a sigmoid colon laceration likely due to long?standing constipation.

  1. Characterisation of exacerbation risk and exacerbator phenotypes in the POET-COPD trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeh, Kai M; Glaab, Thomas; Stowasser, Susanne; Schmidt, Hendrik; Fabbri, Leonardo M; Rabe, Klaus F; Vogelmeier, Claus F

    2013-10-29

    Data examining the characteristics of patients with frequent exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and associated hospitalisations and mortality are scarce. Post-hoc analysis of the Prevention Of Exacerbations with Tiotropium in COPD (POET-COPD) trial, targeting exacerbations as the primary endpoint. Patients were classified as non-, infrequent, and frequent exacerbators (0, 1, or ≥ 2 exacerbations during study treatment), irrespective of study treatment. A multivariate Cox regression model assessed the effect of covariates on time to first exacerbation. In total, 7376 patients were included in the analysis: 63.5% non-exacerbators, 22.9% infrequent, 13.6% frequent exacerbators. Factors significantly associated with exacerbation risk were age, sex, body mass index, COPD duration and severity, smoking history, baseline inhaled corticosteroid use, and preceding antibiotic or systemic corticosteroid courses. Frequent exacerbators had greater severity and duration of COPD, received more pulmonary medication, and ≥ 2 systemic corticosteroid or antibiotic courses in the preceding year, and were more likely to be female and ex-smokers. The small proportion of frequent exacerbators (13.6%) accounted for 56.6% of exacerbation-related hospitalisations, which, overall, were associated with a three-fold increase in mortality. The frequent exacerbator phenotype was closely associated with exacerbation-related hospitalisations, and exacerbation-related hospitalisations were associated with poorer survival. NCT00563381; Study identifier: BI 205.389.

  2. Cut-laceration injuries and related career groups in New Jersey career, vocational, and technical education courses and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendell, Derek G; Mizan, Samina S; Marshall, Elizabeth G; Kelly, Sarah W; Therkorn, Jennifer H; Campbell, Jennifer K; Miller, Ashley E

    2012-09-01

    Investigations of young workers, including limited surveys in supervised school settings, suggested their elevated injury risk. This study identified factors contributing to cuts-lacerations among adolescents in New Jersey secondary school career, technical, and vocational education programs. Of 1,772 injuries reported between December 1, 1998, and September 1, 2010, 777 (44%) were cuts-lacerations; analyses focused on 224 reports (n = 182 post-exclusions) submitted after fall 2005 in three career groups-Food, Hospitality & Tourism (FH&T) (n = 71), Manufacturing & Construction (M&C) (n = 84), and Automotive & Transportation (A&T) (n = 27). Most students were "struck by" tools or hard surfaces (n = 93, 51%); 63 cuts were from knives in FH&T. In M&C, most cuts-lacerations were caused by hand-held tools (n = 18) and being "struck against/by" or "caught between hard surfaces" (n = 19). Males reported more cuts-lacerations (n = 145), most commonly among 11th graders (n = 54) and ages 16 to 17 years (n = 79). Fingers (n = 117) were most often injured, usually by cutting tools (n = 83). Training, supervision, and appropriate equipment, and further assessments of "struck by" and "pinch point" hazards, are needed. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Severe tongue laceration with massive hemorrhage in a 35-year-old ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs G.T. presented as an unbooked grandmultipara, in eclamptic fits and severe tongue laceration complicated by intrauterine foetal death, anaemia, acute renal failure and cerebrovascular injury. A female fresh stillbirth was delivered following induction of labor at 28 weeks gestation. Tongue was observed to be ...

  4. The epidemiology and mortality of pretibial lacerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, K C; Gilleard, O; Weir, A; Cubison, T C S

    2015-05-01

    Pretibial lacerations are common injuries which have an underestimated mortality associated with their occurrence, and an under-appreciated morbidity associated with their treatment - they account for 5.2 out of every 1000 Emergency Department attendances in the United Kingdom, and occur mostly in the elderly. They are also increasingly being referred to plastic surgery units - the authors' department saw an increase from 58 referrals in twelve months in 2005/2006 to 113 referrals in six months in 2011. The Queen Victoria Hospital, East Grinstead, follows an evidence based and multi-disciplinary practice for the treatment of these injuries. The authors present the outcomes of patients referred to the hospital from the community and treated according to these guidelines, and compares the outcomes and mortality to a period prior to the introduction of this practise. The average time for skin grafted wounds to heal is found to be 59.8 days and for the donors it is 50.3 days, compared with an average time to healing of 123 days for those managed conservatively. The one month and one year mortality associated with these injuries is highlighted, as is the reduction in these figures following the adherence to the current treatment regime - prior to its introduction the 31 day mortality was 15%, and this was reduced to 4.3% by achievable changes in practice and treatment. Finally, the relevant extant research literature regarding pretibial lacerations is reviewed. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Liver laceration related to cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Beydilli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is recognized as a medical procedure performed to maintain vital functions of a person whose cardiac and respiratory functions have stopped. Chest compression is the most essential component of CPR and it is performed on the lower half of the sternum. During CPR, many complications may occur because of chest compressions, especially chest injuries including sternum and rib fractures. Rarely tracheal injury, rupture of the stomach, or liver or spleen injury may also occur as complications.In this study, we present two cases of liver injury caused by resuscitation. With this article, we want to emphasize the importance of making correct chest compressions. Keywords: Resuscitation complications, Emergency service, Liver laceration, Autopsy

  6. The Usefulness of Leukosan SkinLink for Simple Facial Laceration Repair in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjoo Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRepair of facial laceration in the emergency department can pose a number of difficulties. Children can be uncooperative, but adults can also be if they have sustained head trauma or are intoxicated. Leukosan SkinLink consists of topical adhesive and adhesive tape that can be applied easily to long or tense wounds. In this study, the authors compared conventional suturing with Leukosan SkinLink for facial laceration patients in the emergency department.MethodsThe prospective study was carried out from March 2013 to September 2013 with linear facial laceration patients visiting the emergency department. Exclusion criteria were open fractures, joint injuries, skin defects, hairy skin, and mucosa. The author used Leukosan SkinLink for skin closure in the experimental group and used conventional suturing in the control group. The scar evaluation using the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS along with satisfaction scores, procedure times, and complications were compared.ResultsA total of 77 patients (30 in the control group and 47 in the experimental group participated and underwent follow-up for 6 months postoperatively. The scar assessment using the POSAS and the satisfaction score in both groups were similar. The average procedure time in the experimental group was shorter. In the control group, there were four cases of wound dehiscence, two of infection, and one of skin necrosis, whereas four cases of wound dehiscence and one allergic reaction occurred in the experimental group.ConclusionsWith a simple application technique, Leukosan SkinLink is a new effective method for facial laceration repair especially useful for children and uncooperative adults.

  7. An unusual salvage technique for posterior tracheal membranous laceration associated with transhiatal esophagectomy: A transcervical–transsternal approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ziaeddin Rasihashemi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Various surgical approaches may be employed for esophageal resection. Major airway injuries due to transhiatal esophagectomy include vertical tears in the membranous trachea. Tracheal injury is an uncommon but potentially fatal complication. This article describes the technique to repair the posterior membranous tracheal tear, extended just over the carina through a transcervical–transsternal approach, thereby avoiding a second thoracotomy. Six patients with posterior membranous tracheal injury underwent this procedure. The laceration ranged from 3 cm to 5 cm in length. Four patients had received neoadjuvant chemoradiation. The management of tracheal laceration added approximately 60 minutes to the total operation time. There was no mortality related to tracheal injury. Patients were followed up for 6 months after surgery, and both posterior tracheal wall and transverse tracheotomy remained intact without stenosis. The transcervical–transsternal approach decreases the need of thoracotomy and its complications in patients with tracheal laceration in any stage, even in cases of an extended tear down to the carina.

  8. Horizontal traumatic laceration of the pancreas head: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanashima, Atsushi; Imamura, Naoya; Tsuchimochi, Yuki; Hamada, Takeomi; Yano, Kouichi; Hiyoshi, Masahide; Fujii, Yoshiro; Kawano, Fumiaki; MitsuruTamura

    2017-01-01

    This case report is intended to inform acute care surgeons about treating rare horizontal laceration of the pancreas head caused by blunt trauma. A 57-year-old woman who sustained blunt abdominal trauma during a car crash was transported to the emergency center of our hospital with unstable vital signs due to hemorrhagic shock. Computed tomography showed transection of the pancreas head and massive intra-abdominal hemorrhage. She was referred for emergency surgery because of a transient response. Laparotomy at five hours after the accident initially revealed consistent massive bleeding from branches of the superior mesenteric artery and vein, which we resolved by suturing the vessels without damaging the main trunks. A horizontal laceration and complete transection of the pancreatic head were then confirmed but the main pancreatic duct remained intact. The lower part of the pancreatic head including the uncus with the attached part of the duodenum was resected, and the pancreatic stump remaining after transection was fixed by suturing. The jejunal limb was attached to the remnant duodenum by side-to-side functional anastomosis. Although gastric emptying was delayed for one month after surgery, the postoperative course was good and the patient recovered at three months thereafter. The embryonic border of pancreas head accompanied with pancreatic divisum was considered for this laceration without disruption of the main pancreatic duct. Blunt pancreatic trauma usually causes vertical transection and thus, horizontal transection is considered rare. The embryological anatomical border between the ventral and dorsal pancreas due to pancreatic divisum was supposed to be transected and therefore the main pancreatic duct was not damaged. Hemorrhagic shock and rare pancreatic head trauma were treated by appropriate intraoperative management. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. 1H-MR spectroscopy of dog's brain contusion and laceration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuejian; Yu Hui; Shen Guiquan; Wei Yuqing; Li Dongfang; Shi Qianhua; Xiang Zhihua; Zhang Tijiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) findings and value on dog's brain contusion and laceration. Methods: Models of focal brain contusion and laceration in 10 dogs were established through hitting on the right frontal-parietal lobe with a freely drop of 200g weight at 1.3 m height. Serial examinations (1 h, 24 h, 72 h, 5 day, 8 day and 14 day after trauma) were performed with conventional MRI and 1 H-MRS. NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr and NAA/Cho rates were analyzed with GE system 1.5 T scanner and relative software. After examination, all dogs were executed to death. Pathological study was performed at local brain contusion. Results: 1 h and 24 h-post trauma, NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, NAA/Cho were significantly reduced (NAA/Cr 0.843±0.214, 0.862±0.204, contralateral ones 1.069±0.284, 1.048±0.232, t=-7.227, -6.718, Cho/Cr 1.181±0.224, 1.243±0.134, contralateral 1.415±0.305, 1.455±0.159, t=-4.332, -4.489, NAA/Cho 0.701±0.147, 0.536±0.136, contralateral 0.832±0.245, 0.613±0.165, t=-2.652, -2.665. P 0.05), Cho/Cr was significantly increased (1.457±0.168, 1.572±0.374, contralateral 1.334±0.174, 1.366±0.352, t=7.312, 3.201. P<0.05). Inflammatory and glial hyperplasia was more significant, granuloma were seen. Lipid and Lac peak were not seen at all stages. Conclusion: MRS could be a methods to monitor neuron injury and repair, and dynamically to detect the metabolic changes of brain contusion and laceration, reflecting injury severity and provide theory data for early treatment and predicting long-term outcome after trauma. (authors)

  10. Pontomedullary lacerations in falls from a height--a retrospective autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivković, Vladimir; Nikolić, Slobodan; Babić, Dragan; Djonić, Danijela; Atanasijević, Tatjana; Djurić, Marija

    2012-05-01

    Brainstem pontomedullary laceration (PML) in falls from a height appears as isolated cases and usually in feet-first impacts with a ring fracture. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of PML in falls from a height, as well as the frequency of concomitant head and neck injuries. Out of 261 cases, PML was present in 40. An impact to the chin, as well as a feet- or buttocks-first impact, most often led to PML owing to transmission of the impact force. Also, a lateral, frontal, or posterior head impact, with subsequent hinge fracture, as well as the frontoposterior hyperextension of the head associated with an upper spine fracture, could be possible mechanisms of PML in falls from a height. The jawbone and other facial bones act as shock absorbers, and their fracture diminishes energy transfer toward the skull and protects the brain and brainstem from injury. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. One-stitch anastomosis through the skin with bicanalicular intubation:a modified approach for repair of bicanalicular laceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Tao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of one-stitch anastomosis through the skin with bicanalicular silicone tube intubation in repairing of bicanalicular laceration.METHODS:The clinical data of 15 consecutive patients with both superior and inferior canalicular laceration in one eye who underwent surgical repair using one-stitch anastomosis through the skin and bicanalicular stent were retrospective studied. All the operations were performed under surgical microscope, 5-0 silk sutures were used and were with bicanalicular silicone tube (diameter was 8mm intubation, for one lacerated canaliculi one-stitch anastomosis through the skin. The stents were left in place for 3 months postoperatively and then removed. The follow-up period was 3 - 36 months (average 14 months.RESULTS:In 15 patients, 13 patients were cured entirely, 1 patient was meliorated, 1 patient with no effects. All patients had got good recovery of eyelid laceration with no traumatic deformity in eyelid and canthus. Complication was seen in one case, for not followed the doctor’s guidance to come back to hospital to had the suture removed on the 7th day after operation, when he came at the 15th day, the inferior canalicular wall and eyelid skin were corroded by the suture caused 2mm wound, and the inside silicone tube was exposed, a promptly repair with 10-0 nylon suture was done, the wound healed in a week. There were no early tube protrusions and punctal slits in the patients.CONCLUSION:One-stitch anastomosis through the skin with bicanalicular silicone tube intubation is a good method in repair of bicanalicular laceration in one eye, the cut ends can be anastomosed directly, and with excellent cosmetic results, it is acceptable for the patients. For there is no suture remained in the wound permanently, so there is no suture-related granuloma which may cause obstruction or stenosis of canaliculi. It is simple, economical, effective and safe.

  12. Low-intensity noninvasive ventilation: Lower pressure, more exacerbations of chronic respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Kadowaki

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Attention should be paid to CRF patients who are initially administered LI-NPPV; they should be carefully observed because they can develop more exacerbations of CRF than patients undergoing C-NPPV. If possible, higher initial PS should be administered to prevent CRF exacerbations.

  13. Exacerbation of alopecia areata: A possible complication of sodium tetradecyl sulphate foam sclerotherapy treatment for varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Mark S; Smith, Victoria C

    2017-01-01

    A 40-year-old woman with a history of alopecia areata related to stress or hormonal changes was treated for bilateral primary symptomatic varicose veins (CEAP clinical score C2S) of pelvic origin, using a staged procedure. Her first procedure entailed pelvic vein embolisation of three pelvic veins using 14 coils and including foam sclerotherapy of the tributaries, using 3% sodium tetradecyl sulphate. Following this procedure, she had an exacerbation of alopecia areata with some moderate shedding of hair. Subsequently, she underwent endovenous laser ablation under local anaesthetic without incident. Seven months after the pelvic vein embolisation, she underwent foam sclerotherapy of leg and labial varicose veins using sodium tetradecyl sulphate. Two days following this procedure, she had a severe exacerbation of alopecia areata with gross shedding of hair. These two episodes of exacerbation of alopecia areata appear to be associated with sodium tetradecyl sulphate foam sclerotherapy of veins.

  14. Exacerbation of alopecia areata: A possible complication of sodium tetradecyl sulphate foam sclerotherapy treatment for varicose veins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S Whiteley

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old woman with a history of alopecia areata related to stress or hormonal changes was treated for bilateral primary symptomatic varicose veins (CEAP clinical score C2S of pelvic origin, using a staged procedure. Her first procedure entailed pelvic vein embolisation of three pelvic veins using 14 coils and including foam sclerotherapy of the tributaries, using 3% sodium tetradecyl sulphate. Following this procedure, she had an exacerbation of alopecia areata with some moderate shedding of hair. Subsequently, she underwent endovenous laser ablation under local anaesthetic without incident. Seven months after the pelvic vein embolisation, she underwent foam sclerotherapy of leg and labial varicose veins using sodium tetradecyl sulphate. Two days following this procedure, she had a severe exacerbation of alopecia areata with gross shedding of hair. These two episodes of exacerbation of alopecia areata appear to be associated with sodium tetradecyl sulphate foam sclerotherapy of veins.

  15. Horizontal traumatic laceration of the pancreas head: A rare case report

    OpenAIRE

    Nanashima, Atsushi; Imamura, Naoya; Tsuchimochi, Yuki; Hamada, Takeomi; Yano, Kouichi; Hiyoshi, Masahide; Fujii, Yoshiro; Kawano, Fumiaki; MitsuruTamura,

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This case report is intended to inform acute care surgeons about treating rare horizontal laceration of the pancreas head caused by blunt trauma. Case presentation: A 57-year-old woman who sustained blunt abdominal trauma during a car crash was transported to the emergency center of our hospital with unstable vital signs due to hemorrhagic shock. Computed tomography showed transection of the pancreas head and massive intra-abdominal hemorrhage. She was referred for emergency ...

  16. Exacerbations of asthma - A descriptive study of 425 severe exacerbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tattersfield, AE; Postma, DS; Barnes, PJ; Svensson, K; Bauer, CA; O'Byrne, PM; Lofdahl, CG; Pauwels, RA; Ullman, A

    The identification, prevention, and prompt treatment of exacerbations are major objectives of asthma management. We looked at change in PEF, symptoms, and use of rescue p-agonists during the 425 severe exacerbations that occurred during a 12-mo parallel group study (FACET) in which low and high

  17. Impact of exacerbations on COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anzueto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD determine disease-associated morbidity, mortality, resource burden and healthcare costs. Acute exacerbation care requirements range from unscheduled primary care visits to emergency room, inpatient or intensive care, generating significant costs in COPD. Even after an exacerbation resolves, respiratory, physical, social and emotional impairment may persist for prolonged time. Frequent exacerbations, mainly in patients with severe COPD, accelerate disease progression and mortality. Thus, patients with frequent exacerbations have a more rapid decline in lung function, worse quality of life and decreased exercise performance. Management of COPD directed to reduce incidence and severity of exacerbations improves long-term health status and conserves health care resources and costs.

  18. Acute exacerbation of COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Fanny W; Chan, Ka Pang; Hui, David S; Goddard, John R; Shaw, Janet G; Reid, David W; Yang, Ian A

    2016-10-01

    The literature of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is fast expanding. This review focuses on several aspects of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) including epidemiology, diagnosis and management. COPD poses a major health and economic burden in the Asia-Pacific region, as it does worldwide. Triggering factors of AECOPD include infectious (bacteria and viruses) and environmental (air pollution and meteorological effect) factors. Disruption in the dynamic balance between the 'pathogens' (viral and bacterial) and the normal bacterial communities that constitute the lung microbiome likely contributes to the risk of exacerbations. The diagnostic approach to AECOPD varies based on the clinical setting and severity of the exacerbation. After history and examination, a number of investigations may be useful, including oximetry, sputum culture, chest X-ray and blood tests for inflammatory markers. Arterial blood gases should be considered in severe exacerbations, to characterize respiratory failure. Depending on the severity, the acute management of AECOPD involves use of bronchodilators, steroids, antibiotics, oxygen and noninvasive ventilation. Hospitalization may be required, for severe exacerbations. Nonpharmacological interventions including disease-specific self-management, pulmonary rehabilitation, early medical follow-up, home visits by respiratory health workers, integrated programmes and telehealth-assisted hospital at home have been studied during hospitalization and shortly after discharge in patients who have had a recent AECOPD. Pharmacological approaches to reducing risk of future exacerbations include long-acting bronchodilators, inhaled steroids, mucolytics, vaccinations and long-term macrolides. Further studies are needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of these interventions in preventing COPD exacerbations. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  19. Effect of laceration and trimming of a tendon on the coefficient of friction along the A2 pulley: an in vitro study on turkey tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajipour, L; Gulihar, A; Dias, J

    2010-08-01

    We carried out lacerations of 50%, followed by trimming, in ten turkey flexor tendons in vitro and measured the coefficient of friction at the tendon-pulley interface with loads of 200 g and 400 g and in 10 degrees , 30 degrees, 50 degrees and 70 degrees of flexion. Laceration increased the coefficient of friction from 0.12 for the intact tendon to 0.3 at both the test loads. Trimming the laceration reduced the coefficient of friction to 0.2. An exponential increase in the gliding resistance was found at 50 degrees and 70 degrees of flexion (p = 0.02 and p = 0.003, respectively) following trimming compared to that of the intact tendon. We concluded that trimming partially lacerated flexor tendons will reduce the gliding resistance at the tendon-pulley interface, but will lead to fragmentation and triggering of the tendon at higher degrees of flexion and loading. We recommend that higher degrees of flexion be avoided during early post-operative rehabilitation following trimming of a flexor tendon.

  20. Comparison of efficacy of polypropylene with chromic catgut suture in stitching paediatric facial lacerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Ahmed, R.; Aziz, O.B.A.; Aamir, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare 5/0 polypropylene suture with 5/0 chromic catgut in small clean pediatric facial laceration repair in terms of cosmetic outcome. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial.Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from 26th May 2012 to 25th Nov 2012.Patients and Methods: A total of 300 patients of both gender under 12 years of age, with small clean facial lacerations were selected and divided in two equal groups using random number tables. All the patients underwent suturing in minor operating theater of trauma centre CMH Rawalpindi as day care cases, under local anesthesia and aseptic measures. In group 1, polypropylene 5/0 suture was used where as in group 2 chromic catgut 5/0 was used for suturing. Aseptic dressing was applied. All patients were reviewed on 5th day (for stitch removal in polypropylene group) and 3 months post-operatively to establish cosmetic outcome which was determined by scar visual analog score both by parents of the child and consultant surgeon. Results: The mean VAS (visual analog score) as observed by Consultant surgeon was 79.14 and 78.63 for polypropylene and chromic catgut groups respectively. The mean VAS observed by the parents of the child for respective groups was 76.67 and 76.03. The significance value was 0.961 for parental VAS and 0.988 for surgeons VAS depicting insignificant difference in both suture groups.Conclusion: There is no long-term difference in cosmetic outcomes of both the sutures in the repair of facial lacerations in the pediatric population. No difference in complication rate of wound was observed. In addition, the parents of the children in absorbable suture group expressed satisfaction over prevention of psychological trauma of stitch removal. (author)

  1. Exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Z; Hansen, A V; Ulrik, C S

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is common among pregnant women, and the incidence of asthma exacerbations during pregnancy is high. This literature review provides an overview of the impact of exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy on pregnancy-related complications. The majority of published retrospective studies reveal...... that asthma exacerbations during pregnancy increase the risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, placental abruption and placenta praevia. Furthermore, these women also have higher risk for breech presentation, haemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, caesarean delivery, maternal admission to the intensive care...... to these outcomes. In conclusion, asthma exacerbations during pregnancy are associated with complications of pregnancy, labour and delivery. Prevention of exacerbations is essential to reduce the risk of complications and poor outcome....

  2. Sealing of Corneal Lacerations Using Photo-Activated Rose Bengal Dye and Amniotic Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-10

    there were no 213 statistical differences in any of the categories except epithelial hyperplasia . On day 3 there was 214 more epithelial hyperplasia ...histopathological analysis of the three surgical arms was the 273 epithelial hyperplasia noted on day 3. The authors hypothesize that this reflects the... epithelial ingrowth, infection, and potential loss of the eye. Complex lacerations can be difficult 23 to treat, and repair with sutures alone is often

  3. The reliability and validity of patient-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Arjun; Sethi, Sanjay

    2014-03-01

    Despite the increasing awareness of their pathogenesis and clinical consequences, research on and clinical management of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive lung disease (AECOPDs) have been hindered by the lack of a consistent and reliable definition. Symptom-based definitions of exacerbations are sensitive to events and account for unreported exacerbations. Event (healthcare utilization)-based definitions are somewhat more definitive but miss unreported events. Objective quantification of symptoms in AECOPD is now possible with the development of the Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Tool (EXACT-PRO), a patient-reported outcome (PRO) measure. Several studies have revealed that unreported AECOPDs are more frequent than reported events and are associated with long-term adverse consequences. New antibiotic development for AECOPD has been hampered by the lack of validated measures for resolution of exacerbations. As a result of these observations, a unique collaborative effort between academia, industry and regulatory agencies resulted in the development of the EXACT-PRO. It consists of 14 questions that generate a score between 0 and 100, and it has been shown to have excellent reliability and validity. In the absence of a reliable biomarker, the definition and measurement of exacerbations has been subjective and imprecise. PRO measures such as EXACT can provide much needed objectivity in assessing symptom-defined exacerbations, which may translate into a uniform outcome measure in clinical trials. With further development and validation, it may have a role in clinical practice in the earlier detection of exacerbations, stratification of an exacerbation severity and the assessment of clinical response to treatment.

  4. Prevention of COPD exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Lange, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Exacerbations have significant impact on the morbidity and mortality of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Most guidelines emphasise prevention of exacerbations by treatment with long-acting bronchodilators and/or anti-inflammatory drugs. Whereas most of this treatment is eviden...

  5. The role of repairing lung lacerations during video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery evacuations for retained haemothorax caused by blunt chest trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yi-Pin; Kuo, Liang-Chi; Soo, Kwan-Ming; Tarng, Yih-Wen; Chiang, Hsin-I; Huang, Fong-Dee; Lin, Hsing-Lin

    2014-07-01

    Retained haemothorax and pneumothorax are the most common complications after blunt chest traumas. Lung lacerations derived from fractures of the ribs are usually found in these patients. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is usually used as a routine procedure in the treatment of retained pleural collections. The objective of this study was to find out if there is any advantage in adding the procedure for repairing lacerated lungs during VATS. Patients who were brought to our hospital with blunt chest trauma were enrolled into this prospective cohort study from January 2004 to December 2011. All enrolled patients had rib fractures with type III lung lacerations diagnosed by CT scans. They sustained retained pleural collections and surgical drainage was indicated. On one group, only evacuation procedure by VATS was performed. On the other group, not only evacuations but also repair of lung injuries were performed. Patients with penetrating injury or blunt injury with massive bleeding, that required emergency thoracotomy, were excluded from the study, in addition to those with cardiovascular or oesophageal injuries. During the study period, 88 patients who underwent thoracoscopy were enrolled. Among them, 43 patients undergoing the simple thoracoscopic evacuation method were stratified into Group 1. The remaining 45 patients who underwent thoracoscopic evacuation combined with resection of lung lacerations were stratified into Group 2. The rates of post-traumatic infection were higher in Group 1. The durations of chest-tube drainage and ventilator usage were shorter in Group 2, as were the lengths of patient intensive care unit stay and hospital stay. When compared with simple thoracoscopic evacuation methods, repair and resection of the injured lungs combined may result in better clinical outcomes in patients who sustained blunt chest injuries. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio

  6. High salt intake does not exacerbate murine autoimmune thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolypetri, P; Randell, E; Van Vliet, B N; Carayanniotis, G

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that high salt (HS) intake exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and have raised the possibility that a HS diet may comprise a risk factor for autoimmune diseases in general. In this report, we have examined whether a HS diet regimen could exacerbate murine autoimmune thyroiditis, including spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis (SAT) in non-obese diabetic (NOD.H2h4) mice, experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) in C57BL/6J mice challenged with thyroglobulin (Tg) and EAT in CBA/J mice challenged with the Tg peptide (2549–2560). The physiological impact of HS intake was confirmed by enhanced water consumption and suppressed aldosterone levels in all strains. However, the HS treatment failed to significantly affect the incidence and severity of SAT or EAT or Tg-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G levels, relative to control mice maintained on a normal salt diet. In three experimental models, these data demonstrate that HS intake does not exacerbate autoimmune thyroiditis, indicating that a HS diet is not a risk factor for all autoimmune diseases. PMID:24528002

  7. Flexor tendon lacerations in zone V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanich, R J; Putnam, M D; Peimer, C A; Sherwin, F S

    1992-03-01

    Twenty-three patients with zone V flexor tendon lacerations rehabilitated by the Kleinert protocol were studied at an average of 46 months after trauma. Hand function was subjectively normal in only eight. Of fourteen patients who were employed at the time of injury, eight returned to their original occupations. Eight others were working at other jobs, and we considered six more capable of employment. Only one had a poor functional result that precluded occupational use of the hand. Pinch/grip strengths recovered to 85%/79% of the uninvolved side. Independent flexor digitorum superficialis/flexor digitorum profundus action was present in only seven patients. Sixteen regained full digital flexion. Extension loss averaged 25% at the wrist and 10% in each digit. As assessed by static two-point discrimination, sensibility was poor after associated median and ulnar nerve transections; this did not preclude good objective functional results. Complications included two tendon ruptures, proximal interphalangeal hyperextension in the presence of an unrepaired flexor digitorum superficialis, and limited motion in two patients after poor compliance in therapy. Tenolysis was needed in 4 of the 23. We now use a modified Duran technique for noncompliant patients and in those who are unable to extend their PIP joints because of weak intrinsic muscles.

  8. Pontomedullary lacerations in unhelmeted motorcyclists and bicyclists: a retrospective autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, Vladimir; Nikolić, Slobodan; Strajina, Veljko; Babić, Dragan; Djonić, Danijela; Djurić, Marija

    2012-12-01

    Pontomedullary lacerations (PMLs) have often been reported in car occupants and pedestrians, are less frequently described in motorcyclists, and are very rarely described in bicyclists. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of brainstem PMLs among fatally injured motorcyclists and bicyclists as well as the frequency of concomitant cranial, facial, and cervical spine injuries in such cases. A possible underlying mechanism of PML in fatally injured motorcyclists and bicyclists might thus be established. Of 443 cases of fatally injured motorcyclists and bicyclists, a sample of 381 cases of fatally injured motorcyclists and bicyclists with head injury of Abbreviated Injury Scale score of 3 or greater was formed and further analyzed. This group was composed of 345 men and 36 women. The average age was 48.8 ± 20.8 years (range, 15-99 years). In the analyzed sample group, there were 158 motorcyclists and 223 bicyclists. Partial PMLs were present in 44 cases (12%) within the sample of 381 head injuries, which breaks down to 40 men and 4 women. In our study, the impact area on the head and the specific skull base fracture type were good predictors of either PML occurrence or absence (B = -2.036, Wald = 161.312, P shock absorbers, and their fracture could diminish energy transfer toward the skull and protect the brain and brainstem from injury.

  9. Infarction and Laceration of Liver Parenchyma Caused by Wedged CO2 Venography Before TIPS Insertion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theuerkauf, Ingo; Strunk, Holger; Brensing, Karl August; Schild, Hans Heinz; Pfeifer, Ulrich

    2001-01-01

    We describe the fatal outcome of an elective TIPS procedure performed in a 43-year-old man with alcoholic cirrhosis. Wedged hepatic venography with CO 2 was the reason for infarction and laceration of liver parenchyma resulting in a subcapsular hematoma and subsequent intra-abdominal bleeding. This is the first report of this complication after the use of CO 2 in a cirrhotic patient

  10. Optimizing antibiotic selection in treating COPD exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attiya Siddiqi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Attiya Siddiqi, Sanjay SethiDivision of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Western New York Health Care System and University of Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, USAAbstract: Our understanding of the etiology, pathogenesis and consequences of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has increased substantially in the last decade. Several new lines of evidence demonstrate that bacterial isolation from sputum during acute exacerbation in many instances reflects a cause-effect relationship. Placebo-controlled antibiotic trials in exacerbations of COPD demonstrate significant clinical benefits of antibiotic treatment in moderate and severe episodes. However, in the multitude of antibiotic comparison trials, the choice of antibiotics does not appear to affect the clinical outcome, which can be explained by several methodological limitations of these trials. Recently, comparison trials with nontraditional end-points have shown differences among antibiotics in the treatment of exacerbations of COPD. Observational studies that have examined clinical outcome of exacerbations have repeatedly demonstrated certain clinical characteristics to be associated with treatment failure or early relapse. Optimal antibiotic selection for exacerbations has therefore incorporated quantifying the risk for a poor outcome of the exacerbation and choosing antibiotics differently for low risk and high risk patients, reserving the broader spectrum drugs for the high risk patients. Though improved outcomes in exacerbations with antibiotic choice based on such risk stratification has not yet been demonstrated in prospective controlled trials, this approach takes into account concerns of disease heterogeneity, antibiotic resistance and judicious antibiotic use in exacerbations.Keywords: COPD, exacerbation, bronchitis, antibiotics

  11. [Predictive factors associated with severity of asthma exacerbations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiş, Sibel; Kaplan, Eylem Sercan; Ozge, Cengiz; Bayindir, Suzan

    2008-01-01

    Several factors have been accused for asthma exacerbations, however, very few studies have evaluated whether different factors predict severity of asthma exacerbation. We aimed to determine the predictive factors for severity of asthma exacerbation. Retrospective analysis of data on 93 patients visited our emergency-department because of asthma exacerbation was reviewed. Hospitalization in intensive care unit and/or intubation because of asthma was accepted as the criteria for severe exacerbation. Logistic regression analysis estimated the strength of association of each variable, potentially related to severe asthmatic exacerbation, with severe/very severe as compared to mild/moderate asthmatic exacerbation. Independent variables included in the analysis were age, sex, smoking history, inhaler steroid using, compliance with medication, chronic asthma severity, presence of additional atopic diseases, prick test positivity, provocative factors, number of short-acting beta(2)-agonist using, number of visits to emergency department for asthma over one year period, previous severe exacerbation, pulmonary functions, and blood eosinophil count. 20 were severe/very severe and 73 mild/moderate asthmatic exacerbation. Frequent using of short-acting beta(2)-agonist (OR= 1.5, 95% CI= 1.08-5.3, p= 0.003), noncompliance with medication (OR= 3.6, 95% CI= 1.3-9.9, p= 0.013), previous severe asthmatic exacerbation (OR= 3.8, 95% CI= 1.48-10.01, p= 0.005) and recent admission to hospital (OR= 2.9, 95% CI= 1.07-8.09, p= 0.037) were found to be predictive factors for severe asthmatic exacerbation. Different predictive factors, in particular frequent using of short-acting beta(2)-agonist and noncompliance with medication may be associated with severe asthma exacerbations compared to milder exacerbations. This suggests different mechanisms are responsible for severity of asthma exacerbation.

  12. Pulmonary emboli cardiac arrest with CPR complication: Liver laceration and massive abdominal bleed, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lundqvist

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Pulmonary emboli with subsequent right ventricular failure may cause backwards stasis, and parenchymal organ e.g. liver enlargement. The risk for laceration injuries and internal bleed must be acknowledged when applying external forces as in case of cardiac arrest and need for resuscitation. Frequent and vigilant control of positioning of manual as well as mechanical compressions is of importance.

  13. Asthma Exacerbations and Unconventional Natural Gas Development in the Marcellus Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Sara G.; Ogburn, Elizabeth L.; McCormack, Meredith; Casey, Joan A.; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Mercer, Dione G.; Schwartz, Brian S.

    2017-01-01

    the 12 UNGD-outcome associations had increasing odds ratios across quartiles. Our findings were robust to increasing levels of covariate control and in sensitivity analyses that included evaluation of some possible sources of unmeasured confounding. Conclusions and Relevance Residential UNGD activity metrics were statistically associated with increased odds of mild, moderate, and severe asthma exacerbations. Whether these associations are causal awaits further investigation, including more detailed exposure assessment. PMID:27428612

  14. Asthma Exacerbation in Children: A Practical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Shien Fu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is the most common chronic lower respiratory tract disease in childhood throughout the world. Despite advances in asthma management, acute exacerbations continue to be a major problem in patients and they result in a considerable burden on direct/indirect health care providers. A severe exacerbation occurring within 1 year is an independent risk factor. Respiratory tract viruses have emerged as the most frequent triggers of exacerbations in children. It is becoming increasingly clear that interactions may exist between viruses and other triggers, increasing the likelihood of an exacerbation. In this study, we provide an overview of current knowledge about asthma exacerbations, including its definition, impact on health care providers, and associated factors. Prevention management in intermittent asthma as well as intermittent wheeze in pre-school children and those with persistent asthma are discussed. Our review findings support the importance of controlling persistent asthma, as indicated in current guidelines. In addition, we found that early episodic intervention appeared to be crucial in preventing severe attacks and future exacerbations. Besides the use of medication, timely education after an exacerbation along with a comprehensive plan in follow up is also vitally important.

  15. Infarction and Laceration of Liver Parenchyma Caused by Wedged CO{sub 2} Venography Before TIPS Insertion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theuerkauf, Ingo [Department of Pathology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, D-53127 Bonn (Germany); Strunk, Holger [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, D-53127 Bonn (Germany); Brensing, Karl August [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, D-53127 Bonn (Germany); Schild, Hans Heinz [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, D-53127 Bonn (Germany); Pfeifer, Ulrich [Department of Pathology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, D-53127 Bonn (Germany)

    2001-01-15

    We describe the fatal outcome of an elective TIPS procedure performed in a 43-year-old man with alcoholic cirrhosis. Wedged hepatic venography with CO{sub 2} was the reason for infarction and laceration of liver parenchyma resulting in a subcapsular hematoma and subsequent intra-abdominal bleeding. This is the first report of this complication after the use of CO{sub 2} in a cirrhotic patient.

  16. Prevention of exacerbations of COPD with pharmacotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Miravitlles

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Exacerbations are a frequent event in the evolution of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients. Individuals with COPD have a mean of 1–3 episodes per year, some of which lead to hospital admission and may even be a cause of death. The importance of COPD exacerbations has become increasingly apparent due to the impact these episodes have on the natural history of disease. It is now known that frequent exacerbations can adversely affect health-related quality of life and short- and long-term pulmonary function. Optimising treatment for stable COPD will help to reduce exacerbations. Long-acting bronchodilators, alone or combined with inhaled corticosteroids, have demonstrated efficacy in reducing the rate of exacerbations in patients with COPD. Other innovative approaches are being investigated, such as the long-term use of macrolides or the use of antibiotics in an effort to suppress bronchial colonisation and consequent exacerbations. Other drugs, such as mucolytics and immunomodulators, have recently provided positive results. Non-pharmacological interventions such as rehabilitation, self-management plans and the maintenance of high levels of physical activity in daily life are also useful strategies to prevent exacerbations in patients with COPD and should be implemented in regular clinical practice.

  17. Virus-induced exacerbations in asthma and COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke eKurai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by chronic airway inflammation and/or airflow limitation due to pulmonary emphysema. Chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema, and bronchial asthma may all be associated with airflow limitation; therefore, exacerbation of asthma may be associated with the pathophysiology of COPD. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that the exacerbation of asthma, namely virus-induced asthma, may be associated with a wide variety of respiratory viruses.COPD and asthma have different underlying pathophysiological processes and thus require individual therapies. Exacerbation of both COPD and asthma, which are basically defined and diagnosed by clinical symptoms, is associated with a rapid decline in lung function and increased mortality. Similar pathogens, including human rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus and coronavirus, are also frequently detected during exacerbation of asthma and/or COPD. Immune response to respiratory viral infections, which may be related to the severity of exacerbation in each disease, varies in patients with both COPD and asthma. In this regard, it is crucial to recognize and understand both the similarities and differences of clinical features in patients with COPD and/or asthma associated with respiratory viral infections, especially in the exacerbative stage.In relation to definition, epidemiology, and pathophysiology, this review aims to summarize current knowledge concerning exacerbation of both COPD and asthma by focusing on the clinical significance of associated respiratory virus infections.

  18. Corneal laceration caused by river crab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinuthinee N

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Naidu Vinuthinee,1,2 Anuar Azreen-Redzal,1 Jaafar Juanarita,1 Embong Zunaina2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Alor Setar, 2Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia Abstract: A 5-year-old boy presented with right eye pain associated with tearing and photophobia of 1-day duration. He gave a history of playing with a river crab when suddenly the crab clamped his fingers. He attempted to fling the crab off, but the crab flew and hit his right eye. Ocular examination revealed a right eye corneal ulcer with clumps of fibrin located beneath the corneal ulcer and 1.6 mm level of hypopyon. At presentation, the Seidel test was negative, with a deep anterior chamber. Culture from the corneal scrapping specimen grew Citrobacter diversus and Proteus vulgaris, and the boy was treated with topical gentamicin and ceftazidime eyedrops. Fibrin clumps beneath the corneal ulcer subsequently dislodged, and revealed a full-thickness corneal laceration wound with a positive Seidel test and shallow anterior chamber. The patient underwent emergency corneal toileting and suturing. Postoperatively, he was treated with oral ciprofloxacin 250 mg 12-hourly for 1 week, topical gentamicin, ceftazidime, and dexamethasone eyedrops for 4 weeks. Right eye vision improved to 6/9 and 6/6 with pinhole at the 2-week follow-up following corneal suture removal. Keywords: corneal ulcer, pediatric trauma, ocular injury

  19. Day-to-day measurement of patient-reported outcomes in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocks, Jan Willem H; van den Berg, Jan Willem K; Kerstjens, Huib AM; Uil, Steven M; Vonk, Judith M; de Jong, Ynze P; Tsiligianni, Ioanna G; van der Molen, Thys

    2013-01-01

    Background Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are a major burden to patients and to society. Little is known about the possible role of day-to-day patient-reported outcomes during an exacerbation. This study aims to describe the day-to-day course of patient-reported health status during exacerbations of COPD and to assess its value in predicting clinical outcomes. Methods Data from two randomized controlled COPD exacerbation trials (n = 210 and n = 45 patients) were used to describe both the feasibility of daily collection of and the day-to-day course of patient-reported outcomes during outpatient treatment or admission to hospital. In addition to clinical parameters, the BORG dyspnea score, the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ), and the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire were used in Cox regression models to predict treatment failure, time to next exacerbation, and mortality in the hospital study. Results All patient-reported outcomes showed a distinct pattern of improvement. In the multivariate models, absence of improvement in CCQ symptom score and impaired lung function were independent predictors of treatment failure. Health status and gender predicted time to next exacerbation. Five-year mortality was predicted by age, forced expiratory flow in one second % predicted, smoking status, and CCQ score. In outpatient management of exacerbations, health status was found to be less impaired than in hospitalized patients, while the rate and pattern of recovery was remarkably similar. Conclusion Daily health status measurements were found to predict treatment failure, which could help decision-making for patients hospitalized due to an exacerbation of COPD. PMID:23766644

  20. Influence of psychological factors on acute exacerbation of tension-type headache: Investigation by ecological momentary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hiroe; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Ando, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we investigated whether psychological factors were associated with subsequent acute exacerbation of tension-type headache (TTH) in a prospective and ecologically valid manner with computerized ecological momentary assessment. Eighteen women and five men with TTH wore watch-type computers that acted as an electronic diary for 1week. The subjects recorded momentary headache intensity, psychological stress, anxiety, and depressive mood with a visual analog scale of 0-100 approximately every 6h as well as when waking up, when going to bed, and at acute headache exacerbations. Multilevel logistic regression analysis with acute headache exacerbation occurrence as the outcome was conducted. Person-mean centering was applied to psychological factors to disaggregate between- and within-individual association. Momentary psychological stress was associated with subsequent increase in headache exacerbation within 3h [Odds Ratio (95% CI)=1.32 (1.07, 1.64) for 10-point increments] while the individual mean of psychological stress was not. These results support the possibility that psychological stress could trigger acute exacerbations of TTH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [The effect of fenspiride on the number of exacerbations and the time of first exacerbation in patients with chronic bronchitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirozyński, Michał; Skucha, Wojciech; Słomiński, Marek; Chyczewska, Elzbieta; Malinowski, Janusz; Nowak, Dariusz; Bartmińiski, Wojciech; Pachocki, Robert

    2005-08-01

    The aim of the work was evaluation of efficacy of fenspiride b.i.d. on the number of exacerbations and the time to the first exacerbation in patients with chronic bronchitis. Randomized, multicentre study controlled versus placebo was carried out in 12 centers in Poland. All patients, 89 females and 68 males aged between 20 and 74, were treated with fenspiride at the dose of 160 mg/day for a period of 6 months. The following symptoms were recorded every month in order to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy: sputum quality and quantity, cough intensity, dyspnea and bronchospasm. Based on these symptoms diagnosis of exacerbation was performed according to American Thoracic Society criteria. Quality and quantity of sputum and cough significantly improved in the fenspiride group (comparing to the placebo group p= 0.027 and p = 0.049 adequately for sputum and cough). A significant difference between groups was observed in the number of exacerbation episodes and their duration. In the fenspiride group there were 0.53 episodes of exacerbation compared with 1.12 episodes in the placebo group (p = 0.038). Mean duration of exacerbation was 3.3 days in the fenspiride group and 7.3 days in the placebo treated patients (p = 0.034). Time to the first exacerbation differed between groups, but this difference was not statistically significant. Number of side effects observed did not differ between groups. Fenspiride treatment was assessed as relatively effective in terms of influence on exacerbations, and well tolerated during six month therapy.

  2. Chronic Hepatitis B with Spontaneous Severe Acute Exacerbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lun Tsai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a major global health problem with an estimated 400 million HBV carriers worldwide. In the natural history of chronic hepatitis B (CHB, spontaneous acute exacerbation (AE is not uncommon, with a cumulative incidence of 10%–30% every year. While exacerbations can be mild, some patients may develop hepatic decompensation and even die. The underlying pathogenesis is possibly related to the activation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated immune response against HBV. An upsurge of serum HBV DNA usually precedes the rise of alanine aminotransferase (ALT and bilirubin. Whether antiviral treatment can benefit CHB with severe AE remains controversial, but early nucleos(tide analogues treatment seemed to be associated with an improved outcome. There has been no randomized study that compared the effects of different nucleos(tide analogues (NA in the setting of CHB with severe AE. However, potent NAs with good resistance profiles are recommended. In this review, we summarized current knowledge regarding the natural history, pathogenetic mechanisms, and therapeutic options of CHB with severe AE.

  3. T cells exacerbate Lyme borreliosis in TLR2-deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie E. Lasky

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Infection of humans with the spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, causes Lyme borreliosis and can lead to clinical manifestations such as, arthritis, carditis and neurological conditions. Experimental infection of mice recapitulates many of these symptoms and serves as a model system for the investigation of disease pathogenesis and immunity. Innate immunity is known to drive the development of Lyme arthritis and carditis, but the mechanisms driving this response remain unclear. Innate immune cells recognize B. burgdorferi surface lipoproteins primarily via Toll-like receptor (TLR2; however, previous work has demonstrated TLR2-/- mice had exacerbated disease and increased bacterial burden. We demonstrate increased CD4 and CD8 T cell infiltrates in B. burgdorferi-infected joints and hearts of C3H TLR2-/- mice. In vivo depletion of either CD4 or CD8 T cells reduced Borrelia-induced joint swelling and lowered tissue spirochete burden, while depletion of CD8 T cells alone reduced disease severity scores. Exacerbation of Lyme arthritis correlated with increased production of CXCL9 by synoviocytes and this was reduced with CD8 T cell depletion. These results demonstrate T cells can exacerbate Lyme disease pathogenesis and prolong disease resolution possibly through dysregulation of inflammatory responses and inhibition of bacterial clearance.

  4. Severe exacerbations and decline in lung function in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Byrne, Paul M; Pedersen, Søren; Lamm, Carl Johan

    2009-01-01

    RATIONALE: To evaluate the association between asthma exacerbations and the decline in lung function, as well as the potential effects of an inhaled corticosteroid, budesonide, on exacerbation-related decline in patients with asthma. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether severe asthma exacerbations...... with low-dose inhaled budesonide prevents severe asthma-related events (exacerbations requiring hospitalization or emergency treatment) and decline in lung function. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: There were 315 patients who experienced at least one severe asthma exacerbation, of which 305 were analyzable...... of reduction afforded by budesonide, in patients who experienced at least one severe asthma-related event compared with those who did not, was statistically significant (P = 0.042). CONCLUSIONS: Severe asthma exacerbations are associated with a more rapid decline in lung function. Treatment with low doses...

  5. Exacerbation of alopecia areata: A possible complication of sodium tetradecyl sulphate foam sclerotherapy treatment for varicose veins

    OpenAIRE

    Whiteley, Mark S; Smith, Victoria C

    2017-01-01

    A 40-year-old woman with a history of alopecia areata related to stress or hormonal changes was treated for bilateral primary symptomatic varicose veins (CEAP clinical score C2S) of pelvic origin, using a staged procedure. Her first procedure entailed pelvic vein embolisation of three pelvic veins using 14 coils and including foam sclerotherapy of the tributaries, using 3% sodium tetradecyl sulphate. Following this procedure, she had an exacerbation of alopecia areata with some moderate shedd...

  6. Radiological evaluation of abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, K. S.; Cho, Y. H.; Kim, O.

    1982-01-01

    Simple abdomen film has played an important role in decision of emergency operations in patients with the abdominal trauma. Nowadays, it still acts as a primary and inevitable processes in emergency condition. At the Department of Radiology, Hanil Hospital, 70 patients, who were laparotomied due to penetrating or nonpernetraing abdominal trauma, were observed and analyzed with simple abdomen film after comparison with the operative findings. The results are as follows: 1. Most frequent age distribution was 10 to 39 years and marked 70%. Male was in 90% incidence. 2. Penetrating injury largely involved the small bowel and abdominal wall. Non-penetrating injury usually involved the spleen, small bowel, liver, kidney, pancreas, duodenum. 3. Single organ injury occurred in higher incidence at the small bowel and abdominal wall. Multiple organ injury occurred in higher incidence at the spleen, liver, kidney and pancreas. 4. Organ distribution was 26% in spleen, 22% in small bowel, 14% in liver, 11% in abdominal wall. 7% in pancreas, 7% in kidney. 5% in duodenum, 4% in GB and CBD, 2% in diaphragm, 2% in colon, and 1% in stomach. 5. The specific roentgen findings and their frequency which useful in differential diagnosis at abdominal trauma, were as follows: a) flank fluid; Detectable possibility was 71% in liver laceration, 69% in spleen laceration and 57% in pancreas laceration. b) ipsilateral psoas shadow obliteration; Detectable possibility was 57% in liver laceration, 57% in kidney laceration and 46% in spleen laceration. c) free air; Detactable possibility was 60% in duodenal perforation, and 36% in peroration of upper part of small bowel. d) Reflex ileus; Detectable possibility was 64% in small bowel, 50% in liver laceration and 35% in spleen laceration. e) rib fracture; Detactable possibility was 36% in liver laceration and 23% in spleen laceration. f) pleural effusion; Detectable possibility was 29% in liver laceration and 27% in spleen laceration

  7. Prevention of Acute Exacerbations of COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbeau, Jean; Diekemper, Rebecca L.; Ouellette, Daniel R.; Goodridge, Donna; Hernandez, Paul; Curren, Kristen; Balter, Meyer S.; Bhutani, Mohit; Camp, Pat G.; Celli, Bartolome R.; Dechman, Gail; Dransfield, Mark T.; Fiel, Stanley B.; Foreman, Marilyn G.; Hanania, Nicola A.; Ireland, Belinda K.; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Marciniuk, Darcy D.; Mularski, Richard A.; Ornelas, Joseph; Stickland, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: COPD is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States as well as throughout the rest of the world. An exacerbation of COPD (periodic escalations of symptoms of cough, dyspnea, and sputum production) is a major contributor to worsening lung function, impairment in quality of life, need for urgent care or hospitalization, and cost of care in COPD. Research conducted over the past decade has contributed much to our current understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of COPD. Additionally, an evolving literature has accumulated about the prevention of acute exacerbations. METHODS: In recognition of the importance of preventing exacerbations in patients with COPD, the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) and Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) joint evidence-based guideline (AECOPD Guideline) was developed to provide a practical, clinically useful document to describe the current state of knowledge regarding the prevention of acute exacerbations according to major categories of prevention therapies. Three key clinical questions developed using the PICO (population, intervention, comparator, and outcome) format addressed the prevention of acute exacerbations of COPD: nonpharmacologic therapies, inhaled therapies, and oral therapies. We used recognized document evaluation tools to assess and choose the most appropriate studies and to extract meaningful data and grade the level of evidence to support the recommendations in each PICO question in a balanced and unbiased fashion. RESULTS: The AECOPD Guideline is unique not only for its topic, the prevention of acute exacerbations of COPD, but also for the first-in-kind partnership between two of the largest thoracic societies in North America. The CHEST Guidelines Oversight Committee in partnership with the CTS COPD Clinical Assembly launched this project with the objective that a systematic review and critical evaluation of the published literature by clinical experts and researchers in

  8. Lacerations to Zones VIII and IX: It Is Not Just a Tendon Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charla R. Fischer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensor tendon injuries are widely believed to be straightforward problems that are relatively simple to manage. However, these injuries can be complex and demand a thorough understanding of anatomy to achieve the best functional outcomes. When lacerations occur in the forearm as in Zones VIII and IX injury, the repair of the extensor tendon and muscle, and posterior interosseous nerve (PIN is often challenging. A review of the literature shows little guidance and attention for these injuries. We present four patients with injuries to Zones VIII and IX as well as a review of surgical technique, postoperative rehabilitation, and pearls that may be of benefit to those managing these injuries.

  9. Antibiotics usefulness and choice in BPCO acute exacerbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Tartaglino

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the debate on the role of bacterial infections and antibiotic treatment in AE-COPD remains open, there is evidence that the persistence of bacteria after acute exacerbation (residual bacterial colony influences the frequency and severity of subsequent acute exacerbation and that antibiotic treatment that induces faster and more complete eradication produces better clinical outcomes. New aspects must now be considered, given that COPD is a chronic illness subject to acute exacerbations of varying frequencies and that acute exacerbations correspond to functional respiratory deterioration. One of the parameters that is currently acquiring clinical relevance is the interval free of infection (IFI, the period that elapses between one acute exacerbation and the next, caused by bacterial infection. Another guiding concept in the choice of antibiotic treatment is that not all patients benefit in the same way; those requiring more aggressive treatment are most likely to be those with FEV1 < 50%, frequent exacerbations (> 3/year treated with antibiotics, relevant co-morbidity, under chronic steroid treatment, etc., for these patients it is recommended to administer antibiotics active on the three most common pathogens (in particular H. influenzae, considering the resistance acquired in recent years, and on Pseudomomias aeruginosa.

  10. Peritonitis secondary to traumatic duodenal laceration in the presence of a large pancreatic pseudocyst: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seenath Marlon M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A pancreatic pseudocyst is a common sequela of severe acute pancreatitis. Commonly, it presents with abdominal pain and a mass in the epigastrium several weeks after the acute episode and can be managed conservatively, endoscopically or surgically. We report a patient with a pancreatic pseudocyst awaiting endoscopic therapy who developed a life-threatening complication following a rather innocuous trauma to the abdomen. Case presentation A 23-year-old Asian male student presented as an emergency with an acute abdomen a week after a minor trauma to his upper abdomen. The injury occurred when he was innocently punched in the abdomen by a friend. He experienced only moderate discomfort briefly at the time. His past medical history included coeliac disease and an admission four months previously with severe acute pancreatitis. He was hospitalized for 15 days; his pancreatitis was thought to be due to alcohol binge drinking on weekends. Ultrasound scanning showed no evidence of gallstone disease. Five days after the trauma, he became anorexic, lethargic and feverish and started vomiting bilious content. Seven days post-trauma, he presented to our emergency department with severe abdominal pain. An emergency laparotomy was performed where a transverse linear duodenal laceration was found at the junction of the first and second part of his duodenum, with generalized peritonitis. His stomach and duodenum were stretched over a large pancreatic pseudocyst posterior to his stomach. It was postulated that an incomplete duodenal injury (possibly a serosal tear occurred following the initial minor trauma, which was followed by local tissue necrosis at the injury site resulting in a delayed presentation of generalized peritonitis. Conclusion This is the first reported case of a traumatic duodenal laceration following minor blunt trauma in the presence of a large pancreatic pseudocyst. Minor blunt abdominal trauma in a normal healthy adult

  11. Endovascular treatment with a stent-graft for internal carotid artery laceration during trans sphenoidal surgery: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Eun Hwa; Ko, Ji Ho; Lee, Tae Hong; Rho, Myung Ho

    2008-01-01

    An internal carotid artery (ICA) tear during or after trans-sphenoidal surgery (TSS) is rare but may cause potentially lethal complications. A 23-year-old female patient visited our hospital for treatment of a Rathke's cleft cyst. The patient had massive hemorrhage during surgery and angiography performed after surgery showed laceration of the cavernous ICA. We successfully controlled the hemorrhage with emergency placement of an endovascular stent-graft

  12. Exacerbation heterogeneity in COPD: subgroup analyses from the FLAME study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogelmeier CF

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Claus F Vogelmeier,1 Kenneth R Chapman,2 Marc Miravitlles,3 Nicolas Roche,4 Jørgen Vestbo,5 Chau Thach,6 Donald Banerji,6 Robert Fogel,6 Francesco Patalano,7 Petter Olsson,8 Konstantinos Kostikas,7 Jadwiga A Wedzicha9 1Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL, Department of Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University Medical Center Giessen and Marburg, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Marburg, Germany; 2Asthma and Airway Centre, University Health Network and University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Pneumology Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES, Barcelona, Spain; 4Service de Pneumologie AP-HP, Cochin Hospital, University Paris Descartes (EA2511, Paris, France; 5Institute of Infection, Immunity and Respiratory Medicine, The University of Manchester and Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK; 6Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 7Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland; 8Novartis Sverige AB, Täby, Sweden; 9National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK Background: The FLAME study compared once-daily indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY 110/50 µg with twice-daily salmeterol/fluticasone (SFC 50/500 µg in symptomatic patients with moderate to very severe COPD and a history of exacerbations in the previous year. Methods: This prespecified and post hoc subgroup analysis evaluated treatment efficacy on 1 moderate/severe exacerbations according to prior exacerbation history and treatment, and 2 types of exacerbations according to health care resource utilization (HCRU during 1-year follow-up. Results: IND/GLY reduced the rate of moderate/severe exacerbations versus SFC in patients with a history of 1 exacerbation (rate ratio [RR]: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.75–0.93, ≥2 exacerbations (RR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.70–1.03 and ≥2 exacerbations or ≥1 hospitalization in the previous year (RR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.74

  13. Characterisation and prevention of exacerbations in frequently exacerbating patienst with COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Uzun (Sevim)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease which is characterised by airway inflammation and progressive airflow limitation with poor reversibility. Periods of acute deterioration lie in the natural course of the disease and are called exacerbations.

  14. Dynamic assessment of acute blunt cerebral contusions and lacerations with CT perfusion: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Tao; Quan Guanmin; Liu Huaijun; Gao Guodong; Lei Jianming

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the dynamic changes of blood perfusion in traumatic cerebral contusion and laceration of experimental model. Methods: Impact-acceleration head traumatic cerebral contusion and laceration models of 40 rabbits were established. CTP was made for all animals at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after head injury. The original images were transferred to workstation for postprocessing. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) of central area, peripheral area of contusion and laceration, and their mirror areas were measured on the section in which lesions were in their maximal area. The CTP parameters among different areas were compared with paired samples t test. The evolvement of CBF, CBV and MTT of cerebral contusion and laceration areas were recorded as well. Then, the histological abnormalities of central and peripheral areas were observed separately by referring to corresponding CTP maps. Results: Experimental models were successfully made in 35 rabbits. Abnormal signal intensity was detected on their T 2 WI and DWI images, which was consistent with brain contusion. For CTP parameters: (1) The CBF of central area of the lesions decreased markedly after trauma and reached its nadir at 12 h. Then the CBF of central area rose slowly from 24 h. The value of CBF of the central area at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 72 h were (27.58±18.70), (20.64±6.50), (23.38± 7.53), (22.14±10.25), (25.08±11.01), (43.08±18.33) and (54.79± 14.63) ml·min -1 ·100 g -1 respectively. Whereas the CBF value of the corresponding mirror areas were (62.28±25.46), (60.67±16.19), (67.00±21.34), (74.46±20.11), (66.73±11.68), (81.63± 10.99) and 86.16±10.57) ml·min -1 ·100 g -1 respectively. There was significant difference of CBF between the central and the mirror areas (t=4.41, 5.57, 5.47, 6.02, 6.44, 4.81, 10.60 respectively, P 0.05). (2) The CBV of central area of the lesions also decreased obviously after trauma and reached its

  15. Determinants of low risk of asthma exacerbation during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Z; Nilas, L; Ulrik, C S

    2018-01-01

    of Asthma during Pregnancy (MAP) programme at Hvidovre Hospital since 2007. Assessment of asthma control, adjustment of treatment, spirometry and measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) were performed, and baseline characteristics and exacerbation history were collected at enrolment. Determinants of low......: Clinically stable asthma at enrolment, together with no history of previous exacerbations and no prescribed controller medication, is a determinant of low risk of an asthma exacerbation during pregnancy, which may guide clinicians in individualizing surveillance of asthma during pregnancy.......BACKGROUND: Assessment of asthma control every 4-6 weeks during pregnancy is recommended to reduce risk of exacerbation, and by that improve outcome. OBJECTIVE: To identify determinants of pregnancies with low risk of asthma exacerbation. METHODS: All pregnant women enrolled into the Management...

  16. Detection of rhinovirus-associated asthma exacerbations using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    between common viral respiratory infections and asthma exacerbations. Respiratory viruses have ... positive Rhinovirus RT-PCR test and 4 (50%) of the HRV positive patients were of the ... reaction volume was 50 µl, and the reaction mixture contained 0.9 ..... significance in asthma exacerbation and airway remodeling.

  17. Kleptomania and Potential Exacerbating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Kleptomania is an impulse control disorder that can cause significant impairment and serious consequences. Often, the condition is kept secret by the patient, and usually help is sought only when confronted by the legal consequences of the impulsive behaviors. Historically, kleptomania has been viewed from a psychodynamic perspective, and the mainstay of treatment has been psychotherapy. Recently, attempts to explain kleptomania within a neuropsychiatric paradigm have highlighted the possible links between mood disorders, addictive behaviors, and brain injury with kleptomania. These associations with kleptomania can be extrapolated to pharmacological strategies that can potentially help in treating kleptomania. A case of kleptomania, which was potentially exacerbated by multiple factors, will be reviewed. Treatment modalities used in this case, including the use of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale as a surrogate marker to gauge response to treatment, will be discussed. PMID:22132369

  18. Incidence and risk factors for exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Z

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Zarqa Ali, Charlotte Suppli UlrikDepartment of Pulmonary Medicine, Hvidovre Hospital and University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkBackground: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases among pregnant women. Acute exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy have an unfavorable impact on pregnancy outcome. This review provides an overview of current knowledge of incidence, mechanisms, and risk factors for acute exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy.Methods: A narrative literature review was carried out using the PubMed database.Results: During pregnancy, up to 6% of women with asthma are hospitalized for an acute exacerbation. The maternal immune system is characterized by a very high T-helper-2:T-helper-1 cytokine ratio during pregnancy and thereby provides an environment essential for fetal survival but one that may aggravate asthma. Cells of the innate immune system such as monocytes and neutrophils are also increased during pregnancy, and this too can exacerbate maternal asthma. Severe or difficult-to-control asthma appears to be the major risk factor for exacerbations during pregnancy, but studies also suggest that nonadherence with controller medication and viral infections are important triggers of exacerbations during pregnancy. So far, inconsistent findings have been reported regarding the effect of fetal sex on exacerbations during pregnancy. Other risk factors for exacerbation during pregnancy include obesity, ethnicity, and reflux, whereas atopy does not appear to be a risk factor.Discussion: The incidence of asthma exacerbations during pregnancy is disturbingly high. Severe asthma – better described as difficult-to-control asthma – nonadherence with controller therapy, viral infections, obesity, and ethnicity are likely to be important risk factors for exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy, whereas inconsistent findings have been reported with regard to the importance of sex of the fetus.Keywords: acute exacerbations

  19. Fibrinogen and alpha(1)-antitrypsin in COPD exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylvan Ingebrigtsen, Truls; Marott, J. L.; Rode, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background We tested the hypotheses that fibrinogen and alpha(1)-antitrypsin are observationally and genetically associated with exacerbations in COPD. Methods We studied 13 591 individuals with COPD from the Copenhagen General Population Study (2003-2013), of whom 6857 were genotyped for FGB -455...... and exacerbations in instrumental variable analyses. Results Elevated fibrinogen and alpha(1)-antitrypsin levels were associated with increased risk of exacerbations in COPD, HR=1.14 (1.07 to 1.22, p...

  20. Acute kidney injury in stable COPD and at exacerbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barakat MF

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available MF Barakat,1 HI McDonald,1 TJ Collier,1 L Smeeth,1 D Nitsch,1 JK Quint1,2 1Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 2Department of Respiratory Epidemiology, Occupational Medicine and Public Health, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK Background: While acute kidney injury (AKI alone is associated with increased mortality, the incidence of hospital admission with AKI among stable and exacerbating COPD patients and the effect of concurrent AKI at COPD exacerbation on mortality is not known.Methods: A total of 189,561 individuals with COPD were identified from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Using Poisson and logistic regressions, we explored which factors predicted admission for AKI (identified in Hospital Episode Statistics in this COPD cohort and concomitant AKI at a hospitalization for COPD exacerbation. Using survival analysis, we investigated the effect of concurrent AKI at exacerbation on mortality (n=36,107 and identified confounding factors.Results: The incidence of AKI in the total COPD cohort was 128/100,000 person-years. The prevalence of concomitant AKI at exacerbation was 1.9%, and the mortality rate in patients with AKI at exacerbation was 521/1,000 person-years. Male sex, older age, and lower glomerular filtration rate predicted higher risk of AKI or death. There was a 1.80 fold (95% confidence interval: 1.61, 2.03 increase in adjusted mortality within the first 6 months post COPD exacerbation in patients suffering from AKI and COPD exacerbation compared to those who were AKI free.Conclusion: In comparison to previous studies on general populations and hospitalizations, the incidence and prevalence of AKI is relatively high in COPD patients. Coexisting AKI at exacerbation is prognostic of poor outcome. Keywords: acute renal failure, mortality, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, prognosis

  1. COPD exacerbations by disease severity in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merinopoulou E

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Evie Merinopoulou,1 Mireia Raluy-Callado,1 Sreeram Ramagopalan,1 Sharon MacLachlan,1 Javaria Mona Khalid2 1Real-World Evidence, Evidera, 2Takeda Development Centre Europe Ltd, London, UK Objectives: Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are associated with accelerated disease progression and are important drivers of health care resource utilization. The study aimed to quantify the rates of COPD exacerbations in England and assess health care resource utilization by severity categories according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD 2013.Methods: Data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to Hospital Episode Statistics were used to identify patients with a COPD diagnosis aged ≥40 years. Those with complete spirometric, modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale information, and exacerbation history 12 months prior to January 1, 2011 (index date were classified into GOLD severity groups. Study outcomes over follow-up (up to December 31, 2013 were exacerbation rates and resource utilization (general practitioner visits, hospital admissions.Results: From the 44,201 patients in the study cohort, 83.5% were classified into severity levels GOLD A: 33.8%, GOLD B: 21.0%, GOLD C: 18.1%, and GOLD D: 27.0%. Mean age at diagnosis was 66 years and 52.0% were male. Annual exacerbation rates per person-year increased with severity, from 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81–0.85 for GOLD A to 2.51 (95% CI: 2.47–2.55 for GOLD D. General practitioner visit rates per person-year also increased with severity, from 4.82 (95% CI: 4.74–4.93 for GOLD A to 7.44 (95% CI: 7.31–7.61 for GOLD D. COPD-related hospitalization rates per person-year increased from less symptoms (GOLD A: 0.28, GOLD C: 0.39 to more symptoms (GOLD B: 0.52, GOLD D: 0.84.Conclusion: Patients in the most severe category (GOLD D experienced nearly three times the number of exacerbations and COPD

  2. Blood Eosinophils and Exacerbations in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Krogh, Signe; Nielsen, Sune F; Lange, Peter

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Whether high blood eosinophils are associated with COPD exacerbations among individuals with COPD in the general population is largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that high blood eosinophils predict COPD exacerbations. METHODS: Among 81,668 individuals from the Copenhagen...... General Population Study, we examined 7,225 with COPD based on spirometry. We recorded blood eosinophils at baseline and future COPD exacerbations longitudinally, defined as moderate (short-course treatment of systemic corticosteroids) or severe (hospitalization). We also assessed exacerbation risk...... in a subgroup of 203 COPD individuals with clinical COPD, defined as participants with ≥ 10 pack-years, FEV1

  3. How Do Dual Long-acting Bronchodilators Prevent Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beeh, Kai M; Burgel, Pierre-Regis; Franssen, Frits M E

    2017-01-01

    that combinations of long-acting β2-adrenergic agonists (LABAs) and long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) provide greater reductions in exacerbation frequency than either their monocomponents or LABA/inhaled corticosteroids (LABA/ICS) combinations in patients at low and high risk for these events....... In this review, small groups of experts critically evaluated mechanisms potentially responsible for the increased benefit of LABA/LAMA combinations over single LABDs or LABA/ICS in decreasing exacerbation. These included effects on lung hyperinflation and mechanical stress, inflammation, excessive mucus...... production with impaired mucociliary clearance, and symptom severity. The data assembled and analyzed by each group were reviewed by all authors and combined into this manuscript. Available clinical results support the possibility that effects of LABA/LAMA combinations on hyperinflation, mucociliary...

  4. Pontomedullary lacerations and concomitant head and neck injuries: their underlying mechanism. A prospective autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, Vladimir; Nikolić, Slobodan; Strajina, Veljko; Babić, Dragan; Djonić, Danijela; Djurić, Marija

    2012-09-01

    It is a well-documented fact that pontomedullary lacerations (PML) occur as a result of severe craniocervical injury, but their underlying mechanism has yet to be fully clarified. The aim of this prospective study has been to give greater insight into the underlying mechanism of PML through determining the site of blunt head-impact, as well as the presence of concomitant head and neck injuries in cases of brainstem PML. A total of 56 cases with partial PML have been analysed for this study. The case group was composed of 40 men and 16 women, averaging in age 44.2 ± 19.2 years and consisting of 7 motorcyclists, 4 bicyclists, 18 car occupants, 16 pedestrians, and 10 victims of falls from a height, as well as 1 victim of a fall from standing height. The presented study has shown that there are several possible mechanisms of PML. Impact to the chin, with or without a skull base fracture, most often leads to this fatal injury, due to the impact force transmission either through the jawbone or vertebral column; most likely in combination with a fronto-posterior hyperextension of the head. Additionally, lateral head-impacts with subsequent hinge fractures and PML may also be a possible mechanism. The jawbone and other facial bones are able to act as shock absorbers, and their fracture may diminish the energy transfer towards the skull and protect the brain and brainstem from injury. The upper cervical spine can act as damper and energy absorber as well, and may prevent any occurrence of fracture to the base of the skull.

  5. Flexible semiparametric joint modeling: an application to estimate individual lung function decline and risk of pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic surveillance of lung function is key to clinical care of individuals with cystic fibrosis, but lung function decline is nonlinear and often impacted by acute respiratory events known as pulmonary exacerbations. Statistical models are needed to simultaneously estimate lung function decline while providing risk estimates for the onset of pulmonary exacerbations, in order to identify relevant predictors of declining lung function and understand how these associations could be used to predict the onset of pulmonary exacerbations. Methods Using longitudinal lung function (FEV1 measurements and time-to-event data on pulmonary exacerbations from individuals in the United States Cystic Fibrosis Registry, we implemented a flexible semiparametric joint model consisting of a mixed-effects submodel with regression splines to fit repeated FEV1 measurements and a time-to-event submodel for possibly censored data on pulmonary exacerbations. We contrasted this approach with methods currently used in epidemiological studies and highlight clinical implications. Results The semiparametric joint model had the best fit of all models examined based on deviance information criterion. Higher starting FEV1 implied more rapid lung function decline in both separate and joint models; however, individualized risk estimates for pulmonary exacerbation differed depending upon model type. Based on shared parameter estimates from the joint model, which accounts for the nonlinear FEV1 trajectory, patients with more positive rates of change were less likely to experience a pulmonary exacerbation (HR per one standard deviation increase in FEV1 rate of change = 0.566, 95% CI 0.516–0.619, and having higher absolute FEV1 also corresponded to lower risk of having a pulmonary exacerbation (HR per one standard deviation increase in FEV1 = 0.856, 95% CI 0.781–0.937. At the population level, both submodels indicated significant effects of birth

  6. Asthma exacerbations during the first trimester of pregnancy and congenital malformations: revisiting the association in a large representative cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Lucie; Kettani, Fatima-Zohra; Forget, Amélie; Beauchesne, Marie-France; Lemière, Catherine

    2015-07-01

    We previously reported an increased prevalence of any congenital malformation among women experiencing moderate-to-severe asthma exacerbations during the first trimester of pregnancy, based on a study in which 90.1% of the cohort of women were social welfare recipients. This study re-examined the association between asthma exacerbations and congenital malformations in a new large representative cohort of asthmatic pregnant women. A cohort of 36 587 pregnancies in asthmatic women was reconstructed from Québec Province administrative databases (1998-2009). Occurrences of asthma exacerbations during the first trimester of pregnancy were assessed and categorised into severe, moderate and no such exacerbations. For comparison, we also considered moderate and severe asthma exacerbations combined. Congenital malformations were identified using diagnoses recorded in the hospitalisation database. Generalised estimation equations were used to estimate adjusted ORs of congenital malformations. The prevalence of any congenital malformation was 19.1%, 11.7% and 12.0% among women with severe, moderate and no such exacerbations during the first trimester, respectively. The adjusted OR for all malformations was 1.64 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.64) when women with severe exacerbations were compared with those in the reference group, while no association was seen for moderate exacerbations. Also, no association was observed between cases of moderate and severe asthma exacerbations combined and any congenital malformation. Only severe asthma exacerbations were found to significantly increase the risk of congenital malformations in this representative study. Previous studies possibly overestimated the risk because they were based mainly on women at a lower socioeconomic status. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Long-term Prognosis in COPD Exacerbation: Role of Biomarkers, Clinical Variables and Exacerbation Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grolimund, Eva; Kutz, Alexander; Marlowe, Robert J; Vögeli, Alaadin; Alan, Murat; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Thomann, Robert; Falconnier, Claudine; Hoess, Claus; Henzen, Christoph; Zimmerli, Werner; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2015-06-01

    Long-term outcome prediction in COPD is challenging. We conducted a prospective 5-7-year follow-up study in patients with COPD to determine the association of exacerbation type, discharge levels of inflammatory biomarkers including procalctionin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell count (WBC) and plasma proadrenomedullin (ProADM), alone or combined with demographic/clinical characteristics, with long-term all-cause mortality in the COPD setting. The analyzed cohort comprised 469 patients with index hospitalization for pneumonic (n = 252) or non-pneumonic (n = 217) COPD exacerbation. Five-to-seven-year vital status was ascertained via structured phone interviews with patients or their household members/primary care physicians. We investigated predictive accuracy using univariate and multivariate Cox regression models and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). After a median [25th-75th percentile] 6.1 [5.6-6.5] years, mortality was 55% (95%CI 50%-59%). Discharge ProADM concentration was strongly associated with 5-7-year non-survival: adjusted hazard ratio (HR)/10-fold increase (95%CI) 10.4 (6.2-17.7). Weaker associations were found for PCT and no significant associations were found for CRP or WBC. Combining ProADM with demographic/clinical variables including age, smoking status, BMI, New York Heart Association dyspnea class, exacerbation type, and comorbidities significantly improved long-term predictive accuracy over that of the demographic/clinical model alone: AUC (95%CI) 0.745 (0.701-0.789) versus 0.727 (0.681-0.772), (p) = .043. In patients hospitalized for COPD exacerbation, discharge ProADM levels appeared to accurately predict 5-7-year all-cause mortality and to improve long-term prognostic accuracy of multidimensional demographic/clinical mortality risk assessment.

  8. Susceptibility to exacerbation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurst, John R; Vestbo, Jørgen; Anzueto, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although we know that exacerbations are key events in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), our understanding of their frequency, determinants, and effects is incomplete. In a large observational cohort, we tested the hypothesis that there is a frequent-exacerbation phenotype...... of follow-up were 0.85 per person for patients with stage 2 COPD (with stage defined in accordance with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] stages), 1.34 for patients with stage 3, and 2.00 for patients with stage 4. Overall, 22% of patients with stage 2 disease, 33% with stage 3...... of COPD that is independent of disease severity. METHODS: We analyzed the frequency and associations of exacerbation in 2138 patients enrolled in the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE) study. Exacerbations were defined as events that led a care provider...

  9. Acute exacerbations and pulmonary hypertension in advanced idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Judge, Eoin P

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for and outcomes of acute exacerbations in patients with advanced idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and to examine the relationship between disease severity and neovascularisation in explanted IPF lung tissue. 55 IPF patients assessed for lung transplantation were divided into acute (n=27) and non-acute exacerbation (n=28) groups. Haemodynamic data was collected at baseline, at the time of acute exacerbation and at lung transplantation. Histological analysis and CD31 immunostaining to quantify microvessel density (MVD) was performed on the explanted lung tissue of 13 transplanted patients. Acute exacerbations were associated with increased mortality (p=0.0015). Pulmonary hypertension (PH) at baseline and acute exacerbations were associated with poor survival (p<0.01). PH at baseline was associated with a significant risk of acute exacerbations (HR 2.217, p=0.041). Neovascularisation (MVD) was significantly increased in areas of cellular fibrosis and significantly decreased in areas of honeycombing. There was a significant inverse correlation between mean pulmonary artery pressure and MVD in areas of honeycombing. Acute exacerbations were associated with significantly increased mortality in patients with advanced IPF. PH was associated with the subsequent development of an acute exacerbation and with poor survival. Neovascularisation was significantly decreased in areas of honeycombing, and was significantly inversely correlated with mean pulmonary arterial pressure in areas of honeycombing.

  10. Triangulating case-finding tools for patient safety surveillance: a cross-sectional case study of puncture/laceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jennifer A; Gerwin, Daniel; Morlock, Laura; Miller, Marlene R

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the need for triangulating case-finding tools in patient safety surveillance. This study applied four case-finding tools to error-associated patient safety events to identify and characterise the spectrum of events captured by these tools, using puncture or laceration as an example for in-depth analysis. Retrospective hospital discharge data were collected for calendar year 2005 (n=48,418) from a large, urban medical centre in the USA. The study design was cross-sectional and used data linkage to identify the cases captured by each of four case-finding tools. Three case-finding tools (International Classification of Diseases external (E) and nature (N) of injury codes, Patient Safety Indicators (PSI)) were applied to the administrative discharge data to identify potential patient safety events. The fourth tool was Patient Safety Net, a web-based voluntary patient safety event reporting system. The degree of mutual exclusion among detection methods was substantial. For example, when linking puncture or laceration on unique identifiers, out of 447 potential events, 118 were identical between PSI and E-codes, 152 were identical between N-codes and E-codes and 188 were identical between PSI and N-codes. Only 100 events that were identified by PSI, E-codes and N-codes were identical. Triangulation of multiple tools through data linkage captures potential patient safety events most comprehensively. Existing detection tools target patient safety domains differently, and consequently capture different occurrences, necessitating the integration of data from a combination of tools to fully estimate the total burden.

  11. Predicting Acute Exacerbations in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samp, Jennifer C; Joo, Min J; Schumock, Glen T; Calip, Gregory S; Pickard, A Simon; Lee, Todd A

    2018-03-01

    With increasing health care costs that have outpaced those of other industries, payers of health care are moving from a fee-for-service payment model to one in which reimbursement is tied to outcomes. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease where this payment model has been implemented by some payers, and COPD exacerbations are a quality metric that is used. Under an outcomes-based payment model, it is important for health systems to be able to identify patients at risk for poor outcomes so that they can target interventions to improve outcomes. To develop and evaluate predictive models that could be used to identify patients at high risk for COPD exacerbations. This study was retrospective and observational and included COPD patients treated with a bronchodilator-based combination therapy. We used health insurance claims data to obtain demographics, enrollment information, comorbidities, medication use, and health care resource utilization for each patient over a 6-month baseline period. Exacerbations were examined over a 6-month outcome period and included inpatient (primary discharge diagnosis for COPD), outpatient, and emergency department (outpatient/emergency department visits with a COPD diagnosis plus an acute prescription for an antibiotic or corticosteroid within 5 days) exacerbations. The cohort was split into training (75%) and validation (25%) sets. Within the training cohort, stepwise logistic regression models were created to evaluate risk of exacerbations based on factors measured during the baseline period. Models were evaluated using sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. The base model included all confounding or effect modifier covariates. Several other models were explored using different sets of observations and variables to determine the best predictive model. There were 478,772 patients included in the analytic sample, of which 40.5% had exacerbations during the outcome period. Patients with

  12. Quintupling Inhaled Glucocorticoids to Prevent Childhood Asthma Exacerbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Daniel J; Bacharier, Leonard B; Mauger, David T; Boehmer, Susan; Beigelman, Avraham; Chmiel, James F; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Gaffin, Jonathan M; Morgan, Wayne J; Peters, Stephen P; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Sheehan, William J; Cabana, Michael D; Holguin, Fernando; Martinez, Fernando D; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Baxi, Sachin N; Benson, Mindy; Blake, Kathryn; Covar, Ronina; Gentile, Deborah A; Israel, Elliot; Krishnan, Jerry A; Kumar, Harsha V; Lang, Jason E; Lazarus, Stephen C; Lima, John J; Long, Dayna; Ly, Ngoc; Marbin, Jyothi; Moy, James N; Myers, Ross E; Olin, J Tod; Raissy, Hengameh H; Robison, Rachel G; Ross, Kristie; Sorkness, Christine A; Lemanske, Robert F

    2018-03-08

    Asthma exacerbations occur frequently despite the regular use of asthma-controller therapies, such as inhaled glucocorticoids. Clinicians commonly increase the doses of inhaled glucocorticoids at early signs of loss of asthma control. However, data on the safety and efficacy of this strategy in children are limited. We studied 254 children, 5 to 11 years of age, who had mild-to-moderate persistent asthma and had had at least one asthma exacerbation treated with systemic glucocorticoids in the previous year. Children were treated for 48 weeks with maintenance low-dose inhaled glucocorticoids (fluticasone propionate at a dose of 44 μg per inhalation, two inhalations twice daily) and were randomly assigned to either continue the same dose (low-dose group) or use a quintupled dose (high-dose group; fluticasone at a dose of 220 μg per inhalation, two inhalations twice daily) for 7 days at the early signs of loss of asthma control ("yellow zone"). Treatment was provided in a double-blind fashion. The primary outcome was the rate of severe asthma exacerbations treated with systemic glucocorticoids. The rate of severe asthma exacerbations treated with systemic glucocorticoids did not differ significantly between groups (0.48 exacerbations per year in the high-dose group and 0.37 exacerbations per year in the low-dose group; relative rate, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.8 to 2.1; P=0.30). The time to the first exacerbation, the rate of treatment failure, symptom scores, and albuterol use during yellow-zone episodes did not differ significantly between groups. The total glucocorticoid exposure was 16% higher in the high-dose group than in the low-dose group. The difference in linear growth between the high-dose group and the low-dose group was -0.23 cm per year (P=0.06). In children with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma treated with daily inhaled glucocorticoids, quintupling the dose at the early signs of loss of asthma control did not reduce the rate of severe asthma

  13. Day-to-day measurement of patient-reported outcomes in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocks JWH

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Jan Willem H Kocks,1,2 Jan Willem K van den Berg,3 Huib AM Kerstjens,2,4 Steven M Uil,3 Judith M Vonk,2,5 Ynze P de Jong,3 Ioanna G Tsiligianni,1,2 Thys van der Molen1,2 1Department of General Practice, 2Groningen Research Institute for Asthma and COPD, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, 3Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Isala Klinieken, Zwolle, 4Department of Pulmonary Diseases and Tuberculosis, 5Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands Background: Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are a major burden to patients and to society. Little is known about the possible role of day-to-day patient-reported outcomes during an exacerbation. This study aims to describe the day-to-day course of patient-reported health status during exacerbations of COPD and to assess its value in predicting clinical outcomes. Methods: Data from two randomized controlled COPD exacerbation trials (n = 210 and n = 45 patients were used to describe both the feasibility of daily collection of and the day-to-day course of patient-reported outcomes during outpatient treatment or admission to hospital. In addition to clinical parameters, the BORG dyspnea score, the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ, and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire were used in Cox regression models to predict treatment failure, time to next exacerbation, and mortality in the hospital study. Results: All patient-reported outcomes showed a distinct pattern of improvement. In the multivariate models, absence of improvement in CCQ symptom score and impaired lung function were independent predictors of treatment failure. Health status and gender predicted time to next exacerbation. Five-year mortality was predicted by age, forced expiratory flow in one second % predicted, smoking status, and CCQ score. In outpatient management of exacerbations, health status was found

  14. Quadrupling Inhaled Glucocorticoid Dose to Abort Asthma Exacerbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, Tricia; Mortimer, Kevin; Wilson, Andrew; Walker, Samantha; Brightling, Christopher; Skeggs, Andrew; Pavord, Ian; Price, David; Duley, Lelia; Thomas, Mike; Bradshaw, Lucy; Higgins, Bernard; Haydock, Rebecca; Mitchell, Eleanor; Devereux, Graham; Harrison, Timothy

    2018-03-08

    Asthma exacerbations are frightening for patients and are occasionally fatal. We tested the concept that a plan for patients to manage their asthma (self-management plan), which included a temporary quadrupling of the dose of inhaled glucocorticoids when asthma control started to deteriorate, would reduce the incidence of severe asthma exacerbations among adults and adolescents with asthma. We conducted a pragmatic, unblinded, randomized trial involving adults and adolescents with asthma who were receiving inhaled glucocorticoids, with or without add-on therapy, and who had had at least one exacerbation in the previous 12 months. We compared a self-management plan that included an increase in the dose of inhaled glucocorticoids by a factor of 4 (quadrupling group) with the same plan without such an increase (non-quadrupling group), over a period of 12 months. The primary outcome was the time to a first severe asthma exacerbation, defined as treatment with systemic glucocorticoids or an unscheduled health care consultation for asthma. A total of 1922 participants underwent randomization, of whom 1871 were included in the primary analysis. The number of participants who had a severe asthma exacerbation in the year after randomization was 420 (45%) in the quadrupling group as compared with 484 (52%) in the non-quadrupling group, with an adjusted hazard ratio for the time to a first severe exacerbation of 0.81 (95% confidence interval, 0.71 to 0.92; P=0.002). The rate of adverse effects, which were related primarily to local effects of inhaled glucocorticoids, was higher in the quadrupling group than in the non-quadrupling group. In this trial involving adults and adolescents with asthma, a personalized self-management plan that included a temporary quadrupling of the dose of inhaled glucocorticoids when asthma control started to deteriorate resulted in fewer severe asthma exacerbations than a plan in which the dose was not increased. (Funded by the Health Technology

  15. Incidence and outcomes of patients hospitalized with COPD exacerbation with and without pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søgaard M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mette Søgaard,1 Morten Madsen,1 Anders Løkke,2 Ole Hilberg,2 Henrik Toft Sørensen,1 Reimar W Thomsen1 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C, Denmark Background: Pneumonia may be a major contributor to hospitalizations for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbation and influence their outcomes.Methods: We examined hospitalization rates, health resource utilization, 30-day mortality, and risk of subsequent hospitalizations for COPD exacerbations with and without pneumonia in Denmark during 2006–2012.Results: We identified 179,759 hospitalizations for COPD exacerbations, including 52,520 first-time hospitalizations (29.2%. Pneumonia was frequent in first-time exacerbations (36.1%, but declined in successive exacerbations to 25.6% by the seventh or greater exacerbation. Pneumonic COPD exacerbations increased 20% from 0.92 per 1,000 population in 2006 to 1.10 per 1,000 population in 2012. Nonpneumonic exacerbations decreased by 6% from 1.74 per 1,000 population to 1.63 per 1,000 population during the same period. A number of markers of health resource utilization were more prevalent in pneumonic exacerbations than in nonpneumonic exacerbations: length of stay (median 7 vs 4 days, intensive care unit admission (7.7% vs 12.5%, and several acute procedures. Thirty-day mortality was 12.1% in first-time pneumonic COPD exacerbations versus 8.3% in first-time nonpneumonic cases (adjusted HR [aHR] 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17–1.24. Pneumonia also predicted increased mortality associated with a second exacerbation (aHR 1.14, 95% CI 1.11–1.18, and up to a seventh or greater exacerbation (aHR 1.10, 95% CI 1.07–1.13. In contrast, the aHR of a subsequent exacerbation was 8%–13% lower for patients with pneumonic exacerbations.Conclusions: Pneumonia is frequent among patients hospitalized for COPD exacerbations and is associated with increased health care

  16. Nebulized corticosteroids in the management of acute exacerbation of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaude G

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute exacerbations in chronic onstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are common and systemic steroids play an important role in the management of these cases along with the bronchodilators. Nebulized budesonide is being used in the acute attacks of bronchial asthma either in children or in adults. But the role of nebulized steroids in acute exacerbation of COPD is not much studied in the literature. In this clinical review we have evaluated the role of nebulized corticosteroids in the management of acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD. Through Medline, Pubmed and Embase we analyzed the various studies that has been done to study the role of nebulized corticosteroids in the management of acute exacerbation of COPD. The key words used for the search criteria were: acute exacerbation, COPD, nebulized corticosteroids, budesonide, fluticasone. Only eight studies were found which had evaluated the role of nebulized corticosteroids in acute exacerbations of COPD. All these studies had used nebulized budesonide in AECOPD in different dosages, and had been compared with both either parental or oral steroids, and standard bronchodilator therapy. All the studies had found the clinical efficacy of nebulized budesonide to be of similar extent to that of either parental or oral steroids in AECOPD. Side effects profile of nebulized budesonide was minimal and acceptable as compared to systemic steroids. Nebulized budesonide may be an alternative to parental/oral prednisolone in the treatment of acute exacerbations of COPD but further studies should be done to evaluate its long-term impact on clinical outcomes after an initial episode of COPD exacerbation.

  17. Effect of beta-blockers on exacerbation rate and lung function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Sean; Marron, Robert; Voelker, Helen; Albert, Richard; Connett, John; Bailey, William; Casaburi, Richard; Cooper, J Allen; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Dransfield, Mark; Han, MeiLan K; Make, Barry; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Martinez, Fernando; Lazarus, Stephen; Niewoehner, Dennis; Scanlon, Paul D; Sciurba, Frank; Scharf, Steven; Reed, Robert M; Washko, George; Woodruff, Prescott; McEvoy, Charlene; Aaron, Shawn; Sin, Don; Criner, Gerard J

    2017-06-19

    Beta-blockers are commonly prescribed for patients with cardiovascular disease. Providers have been wary of treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with beta-blockers due to concern for bronchospasm, but retrospective studies have shown that cardio-selective beta-blockers are safe in COPD and possibly beneficial. However, these benefits may reflect symptom improvements due to the cardiac effects of the medication. The purpose of this study is to evaluate associations between beta-blocker use and both exacerbation rates and longitudinal measures of lung function in two well-characterized COPD cohorts. We retrospectively analyzed 1219 participants with over 180 days of follow up from the STATCOPE trial, which excluded most cardiac comorbidities, and from the placebo arm of the MACRO trial. Primary endpoints were exacerbation rates per person-year and change in spirometry over time in association with beta blocker use. Overall 13.9% (170/1219) of participants reported taking beta-blockers at enrollment. We found no statistically significant differences in exacerbation rates with respect to beta-blocker use regardless of the prevalence of cardiac comorbidities. In the MACRO cohort, patients taking beta-blockers had an exacerbation rate of 1.72/person-year versus a rate of 1.71/person-year in patients not taking beta-blockers. In the STATCOPE cohort, patients taking beta-blockers had an exacerbation rate of 1.14/person-year. Patients without beta-blockers had an exacerbation rate of 1.34/person-year. We found no detrimental effect of beta blockers with respect to change in lung function over time. We found no evidence that beta-blocker use was unsafe or associated with worse pulmonary outcomes in study participants with moderate to severe COPD.

  18. Stability of the frequent COPD exacerbator in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reilev, Mette; Lykkegaard, Jesper; Halling, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Exacerbation frequency is central in treatment strategies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, whether chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients from the general population with frequent exacerbations continue to have frequent exacerbations over an extended period of time is c...... considerably over time. This could hold implications for COPD treatment and challenge assumptions made about disease progression....... is currently unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the stability of the frequent exacerbator in a population-based setting. To this end, we conducted a nationwide register-based descriptive study with a 10-year follow-up period of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with at least one...... obstructive pulmonary disease treatment guidelines and their practical application. CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASE: VARIATIONS IN DISEASE PROGRESSION: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who suffer from frequent exacerbations do not necessarily persist with such severity over time...

  19. Relationship between airway colonization, inflammation and exacerbation frequency in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumkaya, Munir; Atis, Sibel; Ozge, Cengiz; Delialioglu, Nuran; Polat, Gurbuz; Kanik, Arzu

    2007-04-01

    To evaluate bacterial colonization and the airway inflammatory response, and its relationship to the frequency of exacerbation in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Quantitative bacteriologic cultures, neutrophil elastase, myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin (IL)-8 were measured in bronchoalveoler lavage (BAL) in 39 patients with stable COPD [19 with frequent exacerbation (> or = 3/year), and 20 with infrequent] and in 18 healthy controls (10 smokers and 8 non-smokers). BAL revealed the microorganisms with potential pathogenicity above the established threshold (> or = 10(3)cfu/ml) in 68.4% of patients with frequent exacerbation, 55% of infrequent exacerbation, 40% of smokers and 12.5% of non-smokers controls (P=0.05). BAL MPO, IL-8 and TNF-alpha levels were found to be significantly higher in COPD as compared to controls (P=0.001). However, only IL-8 level was significantly higher in COPD patients with frequent exacerbation as compared to infrequent (P=0.001). Airway bacterial load correlated with levels of airway inflammation markers in COPD (P<0.05). The bacterial load and airway inflammation contributes to each other in stable COPD. However, there is a link only between interleukine (IL)-8 and frequent exacerbations. Clearly, the relationship between bacterial colonization, airway inflammation and frequent exacerbations is of major importance in understanding of the COPD pathogenesis.

  20. Pulmonary artery enlargement and cystic fibrosis pulmonary exacerbations: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, J. Michael; Farris, Roopan F.; Gosdin, Taylor A.; Dransfield, Mark T.; Wood, Michelle E.; Bell, Scott C.; Rowe, Steven M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Acute pulmonary exacerbations are associated with progressive lung function decline and increased mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF). The role of pulmonary vascular disease in pulmonary exacerbations is unknown. We investigated the association between pulmonary artery enlargement (PA:A>1), a marker of pulmonary vascular disease, and exacerbations. Methods We analyzed clinical, computed tomography (CT), and prospective exacerbation data in a derivation cohort of 74 adult CF patients, measuring the PA:A at the level of the PA bifurcation. We then replicated our findings in a validation cohort of 190 adult CF patients. Patients were separated into groups based on the presence or absence of a PA:A>1 and were followed for 1-year in the derivation cohort and 2-years in the validation cohort. The primary endpoint was developing ≥1 acute pulmonary exacerbation during follow-up. Linear and logistic regression models were used to determine associations between clinical factors, the PA:A ratio, and pulmonary exacerbations. We used Cox regression to determine time to first exacerbation in the validation cohort. Findings We found that PA:A>1 was present in n=37/74 (50%) of the derivation and n=89/190 (47%) of the validation cohort. In the derivation cohort, n=50/74 (68%) had ≥1 exacerbation at 1 year and n=133/190 (70%) in the validation cohort had ≥1 exacerbation after 2 years. PA:A>1 was associated with younger age in both cohorts and with elevated sweat chloride (100.5±10.9 versus 90.4±19.9mmol/L, difference between groups 10.1mmol/L [95%CI 2.5–17.7], P=0.017) in the derivation group. PA:A>1 was associated with exacerbations in the derivation (OR 3.49, 95%CI 1.18–10.3, P=0.023) and validation (OR 2.41, 95%CI 1.06–5.52, P=0.037) cohorts when adjusted for confounders. Time to first exacerbation was shorter in PA:A>1 versus PA:Apulmonary exacerbation risk in two well-characterized cohorts. PA:A may be a predictive marker in CF. PMID:27298019

  1. Patterns and characterization of COPD exacerbations using real-time data collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejiofor SI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stanley I Ejiofor,1,2 Jan Stolk,3 Pablo Fernandez,4 Robert A Stockley1,2 1Centre for Translational Inflammation Research, University of Birmingham, 2ADAPT Project, University Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham, UK; 3Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, the Netherlands; 4Independent consultant, Penn, UK Introduction: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease often experience exacerbations. These events are important as they are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Recently, it has been increasingly recognized that patients may experience symptoms suggestive of an exacerbation but do not seek treatment, which are referred to as unreported or untreated exacerbations. Symptom diaries used in clinical trials have the benefit of identifying both treated and untreated exacerbation events. Methods: The Kamada study was a multicenter, double-blind randomized controlled trial of inhaled augmentation therapy in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD. A retrospective review of daily electronic symptom diary cards was undertaken from the two leading centers to identify symptomatic episodes consistent with a definition of an exacerbation. The aims were to explore the relationship between exacerbation events and classical “Anthonisen” symptoms and to characterize treated and untreated episodes. Results: Forty-six AATD patients with airflow obstruction and history of exacerbations were included in the analysis. Two hundred thirty-three exacerbation episodes were identified: 103 untreated and 130 treated. Untreated episodes were significantly shorter (median 6 days; interquartile range [IQR] 3–10 days than the treated episodes (median 10 days; IQR 5–18.25 days: P<0.001. Using logistic regression analysis, Anthonisen type and length of dyspnea were significant predictors of the treatment of an exacerbation event. Conclusion: Real-time electronic diary cards provide valuable information about the characterization of exacerbations

  2. Factors influencing exacerbation-related self-management in patients with COPD: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpershoek, Yjg; Vervoort, Scjm; Nijssen, Lit; Trappenburg, Jca; Schuurmans, M J

    2016-01-01

    In patients with COPD, self-management skills are important to reduce the impact of exacerbations. However, both detection and adequate response to exacerbations appear to be difficult for some patients. Little is known about the underlying process of exacerbation-related self-management. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify and explain the underlying process of exacerbation-related self-management behavior. A qualitative study using semi-structured in-depth interviews was performed according to the grounded theory approach, following a cyclic process in which data collection and data analysis alternated. Fifteen patients (male n=8; age range 59-88 years) with mild to very severe COPD were recruited from primary and secondary care settings in the Netherlands, in 2015. Several patterns in exacerbation-related self-management behavior were identified, and a conceptual model describing factors influencing exacerbation-related self-management was developed. Acceptance, knowledge, experiences with exacerbations, perceived severity of symptoms and social support were important factors influencing exacerbation-related self-management. Specific factors influencing recognition of exacerbations were heterogeneity of exacerbations and habituation to symptoms. Feelings of fear, perceived influence on exacerbation course, patient beliefs, ambivalence toward treatment, trust in health care providers and self-empowerment were identified as specific factors influencing self-management actions. This study provided insight into factors influencing exacerbation-related self-management behavior in COPD patients. The conceptual model can be used as a framework for health care professionals providing self-management support. In the development of future self-management interventions, factors influencing the process of exacerbation-related self-management should be taken into account.

  3. Exacerbation of lupus erythematodes visceralis as a result of UV irradiation - a hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diezel, W; Meffert, H; Guenther, W; Huse, K; Soennichsen, N [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Bereich Medizin (Charite)

    1979-09-01

    In the culture medium of human fibroblasts a proteolytic activity is evident after UV irradiation (290 - 320 nm). The effect of this proteolytic activity on human serum results in an electrophoretic mobility towards the anode of the C3 component of complement, which thus proves to be activated. In discussing recent and former results, a hypothesis on the exacerbation of lupus erythematodes visceralis is presented: UV irradiation causes peroxydation of lipids resulting in the release of proteolytic enzymes from lysosomal membranes and activation of the complemental system. Thus the reactivity of the immune system is increased and the disease becomes exacerbated. Further the following hypothetic aspects are discussed: porphyrins cause enhanced peroxydation of lipids, increased synthesis rate of porphyrins by drugs, decrease of lipid peroxydation by antioxidants, e.g. vitamin E, in relation to possible therapeutic effects.

  4. Exacerbation of lupus erythematodes visceralis as a result of UV irradiation - a hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diezel, W.; Meffert, H.; Guenther, W.; Huse, K.; Soennichsen, N.

    1979-01-01

    In the culture medium of human fibroblasts a proteolytic activity is evident after UV irradiation (290 - 320 nm). The effect of this proteolytic activity on human serum results in an electrophoretic mobility towards the anode of the C3 component of complement, which thus proves to be activated. In discussing recent and former results, a hypothesis on the exacerbation of lupus erythematodes visceralis is presented: UV irradiation causes peroxydation of lipids resulting in the release of proteolytic enzymes from lysosomal membranes and activation of the complemental system. Thus the reactivity of the immune system is increased and the disease becomes exacerbated. Further the following hypothetic aspects are discussed: porphyrins cause enhanced peroxydation of lipids, increased synthesis rate of porphyrins by drugs, decrease of lipid peroxydation by antioxidants, e.g. vitamin E, in relation to possible therapeutic effects

  5. Predicting an asthma exacerbation in children 2 to 5 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swern, A.S.; Tozzi, C.A.; Knorr, B.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma exacerbations in young children are prevalent. Identification of symptoms or other factors that are precursors of asthma exacerbations would be useful for early treatment and prevention. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether diary symptoms and beta2-agonist use before an exacerbation...... could predict an asthma exacerbation in children 2 to 5 years of age. METHODS: Post hoc analyses were conducted on data collected in a study of 689 patients 2 to 5 years of age with asthma symptoms, randomly assigned to montelukast, 4 mg, or placebo daily for 12 weeks. During the study, 196 patients had...... of an exacerbation. These methods predicted 149 (66.8%) of the exacerbations with a very low false-positive rate of 14.2%. CONCLUSIONS: No individual symptom was predictive of an imminent asthma exacerbation, but a combination of increased daytime cough, daytime wheeze, and nighttime beta2-agonist use 1 day before...

  6. Dark chocolate exacerbates acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongraviopap, Saivaree; Asawanonda, Pravit

    2016-05-01

    The effects of chocolate on acne exacerbations have recently been reevaluated. For so many years, it was thought that it had no role in worsening acne. To investigate whether 99% dark chocolate, when consumed in regular daily amounts, would cause acne to worsen in acne-prone male subjects, twenty-five acne prone male subjects were asked to consume 25 g of 99% dark chocolate daily for 4 weeks. Assessments which included Leeds revised acne scores as well as lesion counts took place weekly. Food frequency questionnaire was used, and daily activities were recorded. Statistically significant changes of acne scores and numbers of comedones and inflammatory papules were detected as early as 2 weeks into the study. At 4 weeks, the changes remained statistically significant compared to baseline. Dark chocolate when consumed in normal amounts for 4 weeks can exacerbate acne in male subjects with acne-prone skin. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  7. Inflammatory biomarkers and exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette; Ingebrigtsen, Truls Sylvan; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2013-01-01

    Exacerbations of respiratory symptoms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have profound and long-lasting adverse effects on patients.......Exacerbations of respiratory symptoms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have profound and long-lasting adverse effects on patients....

  8. Factors associated with change in exacerbation frequency in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donaldson, Gavin C; Müllerova, Hanna; Locantore, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can be categorized as having frequent (FE) or infrequent (IE) exacerbations depending on whether they respectively experience two or more, or one or zero exacerbations per year. Although most patients do not change category from year to y...

  9. Medically treated exacerbations in COPD by GOLD 1-4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylvan Ingebrigtsen, Truls; Marott, Jacob L; Lange, Peter

    2015-01-01

    AIM: We hypothesized that medically treated exacerbations in COPD defined as treatments with oral corticosteroids alone or in combination with antibiotics by register linkage with a nationwide prescription registry is a valid, robust and low-biased measure of exacerbations. METHODS: A total of 13...

  10. The Burden of Illness Related to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations in Québec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tam Dang-Tan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD prevalence in Canada has risen over time. COPD-related exacerbations contribute to the increased health care utilization (HCU in this population. This study investigated the impact of exacerbations on COPD-related HCU. Methods. This retrospective observational cohort study used patient data from the Québec provincial health insurance databases. Eligible patients with a new HCU claim with a diagnostic billing for COPD during 2001–2010 were followed until March 31, 2011. Exacerbation rates and time to first exacerbation were assessed. Unadjusted analyses and multivariable models compared the rate of HCU by exacerbation classification (any [moderate/severe], moderate, or severe. Results. The exacerbation event rate in patients with an exacerbation was 34.3 events/100 patient-years (22.7 for moderate exacerbations and 11.6 for severe exacerbations. Median time to first exacerbation of any classification was 37 months. In unadjusted analyses, COPD-related HCU significantly increased with exacerbation severity. In the multivariable, HCU rates were significantly higher after exacerbation versus before exacerbation (p<0.01 for patients with an exacerbation or moderate exacerbations. For severe exacerbations, general practitioner, respiratory specialist, emergency room, and hospital visits were significantly higher after exacerbation versus before exacerbation (p<0.001. Conclusions. Exacerbations were associated with increased HCU, which was more pronounced for patients with severe exacerbations. Interventions to reduce the risk of exacerbations in patients with COPD may reduce disease burden.

  11. COPD exacerbation: anthropometric characteristics of patients and the frequency of hospital admissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gashynova K.Y.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Exceptional importance of exacerbations for COPD course prognosing was reflected in the GOLD, 2011, where the number of exacerbations during the past year has been recognized as one of the main criteria of the future risks for patients. The aim of study was to determine the anthropometric indicators that increase the risk of re-hospitalization due to acute exacerbation of COPD. A retrospective analysis of medical records of inpatients who were hospitalized with COPD exacerbation to therapeutic department of CI "Dnipropetrovs’k sixth municipal clinical hospital" of Dnipropetrovsk regional council" during three years was done. It was established that neither sex, nor height, nor weight affect the rate of hospitalization due to COPD exacerbations. Older age is not a factor that increases the risk of hospitalization due to COPD exacerbation (despite the fact that the majority of hospitalized patients were elderly patients, 37% of them were persons of potentially working age. Severe exacerbation of COPD may occur in any patients with, even one year, experience of the disease. Among anthropometric indices, the most important predictor of re-hospitalization due to exacerbation of COPD is BMI<18.5, so its calculation is advisable in long-term observation of patients.

  12. Rationale and design of a randomized trial of home electronic symptom and lung function monitoring to detect cystic fibrosis pulmonary exacerbations: the early intervention in cystic fibrosis exacerbation (eICE) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechtzin, N; West, N; Allgood, S; Wilhelm, E; Khan, U; Mayer-Hamblett, N; Aitken, M L; Ramsey, B W; Boyle, M P; Mogayzel, P J; Goss, C H

    2013-11-01

    Acute pulmonary exacerbations are central events in the lives of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). Pulmonary exacerbations lead to impaired lung function, worse quality of life, and shorter survival. We hypothesized that aggressive early treatment of acute pulmonary exacerbation may improve clinical outcomes. Describe the rationale of an ongoing trial designed to determine the efficacy of home monitoring of both lung function measurements and symptoms for early detection and subsequent early treatment of acute CF pulmonary exacerbations. A randomized, non-blinded, multi-center trial in 320 individuals with CF aged 14 years and older. The study compares usual care to a twice a week assessment of home spirometry and CF respiratory symptoms using an electronic device with data transmission to the research personnel to identify and trigger early treatment of CF pulmonary exacerbation. Participants will be enrolled in the study for 12 months. The primary endpoint is change in FEV1 (L) from baseline to 12 months determined by a linear mixed effects model incorporating all quarterly FEV1 measurements. Secondary endpoints include time to first acute protocol-defined pulmonary exacerbation, number of acute pulmonary exacerbations, number of hospitalization days for acute pulmonary exacerbation, time from the end of acute pulmonary exacerbation to onset of subsequent pulmonary exacerbation, change in health related quality of life, change in treatment burden, change in CF respiratory symptoms, and adherence to the study protocol. This study is a first step in establishing alternative approaches to the care of CF pulmonary exacerbations. We hypothesize that early treatment of pulmonary exacerbations has the potential to slow lung function decline, reduce respiratory symptoms and improve the quality of life for individuals with CF. © 2013.

  13. Glucose tolerance during pulmonary exacerbations in children with cystic fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Widger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF are relatively insulinopenic and are at risk of diabetes, especially during times of stress. There is a paucity of data in the literature describing glucose tolerance during CF pulmonary exacerbations. We hypothesised that glucose tolerance would be worse during pulmonary exacerbations in children with CF than during clinical stability. METHODS: Patients with CF, 10 years or older, admitted with a pulmonary exacerbation underwent an OGTT within 48 hours of admission. A repeat OGTT was performed 4 to 6 weeks post discharge when the patients were well. RESULTS: Nine patients completed the study. Four patients were found to have normal glucose tolerance, 3 with impaired and 2 with CF related diabetes during the exacerbation. Mean change in 2-hour glucose was 1.1 mmol (SD = 0.77. At the follow up OGTT, 8 of 9 (89% remained within their respective glucose tolerance status groupings. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study show that there is little difference in glucose tolerance during CF exacerbations compared to clinical stability in the majority of patients.

  14. Antibody deficiency in patients with frequent exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, Brian N; Comellas, Alejandro P; Ballas, Zuhair K; Newell, John D; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Azar, Antoine E

    2017-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is the third leading cause of death in the US, and is associated with periodic exacerbations, which account for the largest proportion of health care utilization, and lead to significant morbidity, mortality, and worsening lung function. A subset of patients with COPD have frequent exacerbations, occurring 2 or more times per year. Despite many interventions to reduce COPD exacerbations, there is a significant lack of knowledge in regards to their mechanisms and predisposing factors. We describe here an important observation that defines antibody deficiency as a potential risk factor for frequent COPD exacerbations. We report a case series of patients who have frequent COPD exacerbations, and who were found to have an underlying primary antibody deficiency syndrome. We also report on the outcome of COPD exacerbations following treatment in a subset with of these patients with antibody deficiency. We identified patients with COPD who had 2 or more moderate to severe exacerbations per year; immune evaluation including serum immunoglobulin levels and pneumococcal IgG titers was performed. Patients diagnosed with an antibody deficiency syndrome were treated with either immunoglobulin replacement therapy or prophylactic antibiotics, and their COPD exacerbations were monitored over time. A total of 42 patients were identified who had 2 or more moderate to severe COPD exacerbations per year. Twenty-nine patients had an underlying antibody deficiency syndrome: common variable immunodeficiency (8), specific antibody deficiency (20), and selective IgA deficiency (1). Twenty-two patients had a follow-up for at least 1 year after treatment of their antibody deficiency, which resulted in a significant reduction of COPD exacerbations, courses of oral corticosteroid use and cumulative annual dose of oral corticosteroid use, rescue antibiotic use, and hospitalizations for COPD exacerbations. This case series identifies antibody deficiency as a

  15. Inflammatory Responses, Spirometry, and Quality of Life in Subjects With Bronchiectasis Exacerbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wei-Jie; Gao, Yong-Hua; Xu, Gang; Lin, Zhi-Ya; Tang, Yan; Li, Hui-Min; Lin, Zhi-Min; Jiang, Mei; Zheng, Jin-Ping; Chen, Rong-Chang; Zhong, Nan-Shan

    2015-08-01

    Bronchiectasis exacerbations are critical events characterized by worsened symptoms and signs (ie, cough frequency, sputum volume, malaise). Our goal was to examine variations in airway and systemic inflammation, spirometry, and quality of life during steady state, bronchiectasis exacerbations, and convalescence (1 week following a 2-week antibiotic treatment) to determine whether potentially pathogenic microorganisms, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were associated with poorer conditions during bronchiectasis exacerbations. Peripheral blood and sputum were sampled to detect inflammatory mediators and bacterial densities. Spirometry and quality of life (St George Respiratory Questionnaire [SGRQ]) were assessed during the 3 stages. Forty-eight subjects with bronchiectasis (43.2 ± 14.2 y of age) were analyzed. No notable differences in species and density of potentially pathogenic microorganisms were found during bronchiectasis exacerbations. Except for CXCL8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), serum inflammation was heightened during bronchiectasis exacerbations and recovered during convalescence. Even though sputum TNF-α was markedly higher during bronchiectasis exacerbations and remained heightened during convalescence, the variations in miscellaneous sputum markers were unremarkable. Bronchiectasis exacerbations were associated with notably higher SGRQ symptom and total scores, which recovered during convalescence. FVC, FEV1, and maximum mid-expiratory flow worsened during bronchiectasis exacerbations (median change from baseline of -2.2%, -0.8%, and -1.3%) and recovered during convalescence (median change from baseline of 0.6%, 0.7%, and -0.7%). Compared with no bacterial isolation, potentially pathogenic microorganism or P. aeruginosa isolation at baseline did not result in poorer clinical condition during bronchiectasis exacerbations. Bronchiectasis exacerbations are characterized by heightened inflammatory responses and poorer quality of life and

  16. Grepafloxacin in Patients with Acute Bacterial Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis - a Question of Speed in Bacterial Killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome J Schentag

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize the population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral grepafloxacin in patients with acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (ABECB, with particular attention to the speed of bacterial killing. This was possible because the study design incorporated daily cultures of the patients’ sputum.

  17. Impact and prevention of severe exacerbations of COPD: a review of the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, David MG; Miravitlles, Marc; Metzdorf, Norbert; Celli, Bartolomé

    2017-01-01

    Severe exacerbations of COPD, ie, those leading to hospitalization, have profound clinical implications for patients and significant economic consequences for society. The prevalence and burden of severe COPD exacerbations remain high, despite recognition of the importance of exacerbation prevention and the availability of new treatment options. Severe COPD exacerbations are associated with high mortality, have negative impact on quality of life, are linked to cardiovascular complications, and are a significant burden on the health-care system. This review identified risk factors that contribute to the development of severe exacerbations, treatment options (bronchodilators, antibiotics, corticosteroids [CSs], oxygen therapy, and ventilator support) to manage severe exacerbations, and strategies to prevent readmission to hospital. Risk factors that are amenable to change have been highlighted. A number of bronchodilators have demonstrated successful reduction in risk of severe exacerbations, including long-acting muscarinic antagonist or long-acting β2-agonist mono- or combination therapies, in addition to vaccination, mucolytic and antibiotic therapy, and nonpharmacological interventions, such as pulmonary rehabilitation. Recognition of the importance of severe exacerbations is an essential step in improving outcomes for patients with COPD. Evidence-based approaches to prevent and manage severe exacerbations should be implemented as part of targeted strategies for disease management. PMID:29062228

  18. Corneal Laceration

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a slit lamp? Oct 05, 2015 Can I use a warm compress on a red painful eye with sclerosis? Aug 31, 2015 Is it possible that wearing two contact ... Newsletter Get ophthalmologist-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy ...

  19. Statin use and exacerbations in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Truls S; Marott, Jacob L; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We tested the hypothesis that statin use in individuals with COPD is associated with a reduced risk of exacerbations. METHODS: We identified 5794 individuals with COPD and a measurement of C reactive protein (CRP) in the Copenhagen General Population Study (2003-2008). During 3 years...... of follow-up we recorded exacerbations with hospital admissions or oral corticosteroid treatment. In a nested case-control design, matching on age, gender, smoking, COPD severity and comorbidity, we estimated the association between statin use and exacerbations. In addition, we examined the association...... between statin use and high CRP (>3 mg/L), and the association between high CRP and exacerbations during follow-up. RESULTS: Statin use was associated with reduced odds of exacerbations in crude analysis, OR=0.68 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.91, p=0.01), as well as in multivariable conditional logistic regression...

  20. Antibiotics usefulness and choice in BPCO acute exacerbation

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Tartaglino

    2005-01-01

    Although the debate on the role of bacterial infections and antibiotic treatment in AE-COPD remains open, there is evidence that the persistence of bacteria after acute exacerbation (residual bacterial colony) influences the frequency and severity of subsequent acute exacerbation and that antibiotic treatment that induces faster and more complete eradication produces better clinical outcomes. New aspects must now be considered, given that COPD is a chronic illness subject to acute exacerbatio...

  1. Bringing stability to the COPD patient: clinical and pharmacological considerations for frequent exacerbators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Swati

    2017-01-01

    Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are critical events associated with accelerated loss of lung function, increased morbidity, and excess mortality. AECOPD are heterogeneous in nature and this may directly impact clinical decision making, specifically in patients with frequent exacerbations. A “frequent exacerbator” is a sub-phenotype of COPD that is defined as an individual who experiences ≥2 moderate to severe exacerbations per year. This distinct subgroup has higher mortality and account for more than half of COPD-related hospitalizations annually. Thus, it is imperative to identify individuals at risk for frequent exacerbations and choose optimal strategies to minimize risk for these events. New paradigms for utilizing combination inhalers and the introduction of novel oral compounds provide expanded treatment options to reduce the risk and frequency of exacerbations. The goals of managing frequent exacerbators or patients at risk for AECOPD are: 1) maximizing bronchodilation, 2) reducing inflammation, and 3) targeting specific molecular pathways implicated in COPD and AECOPD pathogenesis. Novel inhaler therapies include combination long acting muscarinic agents (LAMA) plus long acting beta agonists (LABA) show promising results compared to monotherapy or LABA inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) combination in reducing exacerbation risk among individuals at risk for exacerbations and among frequent exacerbators. Likewise, oral medications including macrolides and phosphodiesterase (PDE4) inhibitors reduce the risk for AECOPD in select groups of individuals at high risk for exacerbation. Future direction in COPD management is based on identification of various subtypes or “endotypes” and targeting therapies based on their pathophysiology. This review aims to describe the impact of AECOPD, challenges posed by frequent exacerbators, and explores the rationale for different pharmacologic approaches to preventing AECOPD in these

  2. A score to predict short-term risk of COPD exacerbations (SCOPEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Make BJ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Barry J Make,1 Göran Eriksson,2 Peter M Calverley,3 Christine R Jenkins,4 Dirkje S Postma,5 Stefan Peterson,6 Ollie Östlund,7 Antonio Anzueto8 1Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, National Jewish Health, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Denver, CO, USA; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden; 3Pulmonary and Rehabilitation Research Group, University Hospital Aintree, Liverpool, UK; 4George Institute for Global Health, The University of Sydney and Concord Clinical School, Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5Department of Pulmonology, University of Groningen and GRIAC Research Institute, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands; 6StatMind AB, Lund, Sweden; 7Department of Medical Sciences and Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 8Department of Pulmonary/Critical Care, University of Texas Health Sciences Center and South Texas Veterans Healthcare System, San Antonio, TX, USA Background: There is no clinically useful score to predict chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbations. We aimed to derive this by analyzing data from three existing COPD clinical trials of budesonide/formoterol, formoterol, or placebo in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD and a history of exacerbations in the previous year. Methods: Predictive variables were selected using Cox regression for time to first severe COPD exacerbation. We determined absolute risk estimates for an exacerbation by identifying variables in a binomial model, adjusting for observation time, study, and treatment. The model was further reduced to clinically useful variables and the final regression coefficients scaled to obtain risk scores of 0–100 to predict an exacerbation within 6 months. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves and the corresponding C-index were used to investigate the discriminatory

  3. Treatment of exacerbations as a predictor of subsequent outcomes in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calverley PMA

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Peter MA Calverley,1 Antonio R Anzueto,2 Daniel Dusser,3 Achim Mueller,4 Norbert Metzdorf,5 Robert A Wise6 1Clinical Science Centre, Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK; 2Pulmonary/Critical Care, University of Texas and South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio, TX, USA; 3Department of Pneumology, Hôpital Cochin, AP-HP, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France; 4Biostatistics and Data Sciences Europe, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Biberach an der Riss, Germany; 5Respiratory Medicine, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Ingelheim am Rhein, Germany; 6Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Rationale: Exacerbations of COPD are managed differently, but whether treatment of one exacerbation predicts the likelihood of subsequent events is unknown. Objective: We examined whether the treatment given for exacerbations predicted subsequent outcomes. Methods: This was a post-hoc analysis of 17,135 patients with COPD from TIOtropium Safety and Performance In Respimat® (TIOSPIR®. Patients treated with tiotropium with one or more moderate to severe exacerbations on study were analyzed using descriptive statistics, logistic and Cox regression analysis, and Kaplan–Meier plots. Results: Of 8,061 patients with moderate to severe exacerbation(s, demographics were similar across patients with exacerbations treated with antibiotics and/or steroids or hospitalization. Exacerbations treated with systemic corticosteroids alone or in combination with antibiotics had the highest risk of subsequent exacerbation (HR: 1.21, P=0.0004 and HR: 1.33, P<0.0001, respectively, and a greater risk of having a hospitalized (severe exacerbation (HR: 1.59 and 1.63, P<0.0001, respectively or death (HR: 1.50, P=0.0059 and HR: 1.47, P=0.0002, respectively compared with exacerbations treated

  4. Increased neutrophil expression of pattern recognition receptors during COPD exacerbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwels, Simon D.; Van Geffen, Wouter H.; Jonker, Marnix R.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Nawijn, Martijn C.; Heijink, Irene H.

    Previously, we observed increased serum levels of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) during COPD exacerbations. Here, gene expression of DAMP receptors was measured in peripheral blood neutrophils of COPD patients during stable disease and severe acute exacerbation. The expression of

  5. The profile of psychiatric symptoms exacerbated by methamphetamine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKetin, Rebecca; Dawe, Sharon; Burns, Richard A; Hides, Leanne; Kavanagh, David J; Teesson, Maree; McD Young, Ross; Voce, Alexandra; Saunders, John B

    2016-04-01

    Methamphetamine use can produce symptoms almost indistinguishable from schizophrenia. Distinguishing between the two conditions has been hampered by the lack of a validated symptom profile for methamphetamine-induced psychiatric symptoms. We use data from a longitudinal cohort study to examine the profile of psychiatric symptoms that are acutely exacerbated by methamphetamine use. 164 methamphetamine users, who did not meet DSM-IV criteria for a lifetime primary psychotic disorder, were followed monthly for one year to assess the relationship between days of methamphetamine use and symptom severity on the 24-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms with methamphetamine use was quantified using random coefficient models. The dimensions of symptom exacerbation were examined using principal axis factoring and a latent profile analysis. Symptoms exacerbated by methamphetamine loaded on three factors: positive psychotic symptoms (suspiciousness, unusual thought content, hallucinations, bizarre behavior); affective symptoms (depression, suicidality, guilt, hostility, somatic concern, self-neglect); and psychomotor symptoms (tension, excitement, distractibility, motor hyperactivity). Methamphetamine use did not significantly increase negative symptoms. Vulnerability to positive psychotic and affective symptom exacerbation was shared by 28% of participants, and this vulnerability aligned with a past year DSM-IV diagnosis of substance-induced psychosis (38% vs. 22%, χ(2)(df1)=3.66, p=0.056). Methamphetamine use produced a symptom profile comprised of positive psychotic and affective symptoms, which aligned with a diagnosis of substance-induced psychosis, with no evidence of a negative syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Accelerated extracellular matrix turnover during exacerbations of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Jannie M B; Knox, Alan J; Lange, Peter

    2015-01-01

    progression. Extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover reflects activity in tissues and consequently assessment of ECM turnover may serve as biomarkers of disease activity. We hypothesized that the turnover of lung ECM proteins were altered during exacerbations of COPD. METHODS: 69 patients with COPD hospitalised...... of circulating fragments of structural proteins, which may serve as markers of disease activity. This suggests that patients with COPD have accelerated ECM turnover during exacerbations which may be related to disease progression....

  7. Clinical Characteristics of Exacerbation-Prone Adult Asthmatics Identified by Cluster Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Ae; Shin, Seung Woo; Park, Jong Sook; Uh, Soo Taek; Chang, Hun Soo; Bae, Da Jeong; Cho, You Sook; Park, Hae Sim; Yoon, Ho Joo; Choi, Byoung Whui; Kim, Yong Hoon; Park, Choon Sik

    2017-11-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by various types of airway inflammation and obstruction. Therefore, it is classified into several subphenotypes, such as early-onset atopic, obese non-eosinophilic, benign, and eosinophilic asthma, using cluster analysis. A number of asthmatics frequently experience exacerbation over a long-term follow-up period, but the exacerbation-prone subphenotype has rarely been evaluated by cluster analysis. This prompted us to identify clusters reflecting asthma exacerbation. A uniform cluster analysis method was applied to 259 adult asthmatics who were regularly followed-up for over 1 year using 12 variables, selected on the basis of their contribution to asthma phenotypes. After clustering, clinical profiles and exacerbation rates during follow-up were compared among the clusters. Four subphenotypes were identified: cluster 1 was comprised of patients with early-onset atopic asthma with preserved lung function, cluster 2 late-onset non-atopic asthma with impaired lung function, cluster 3 early-onset atopic asthma with severely impaired lung function, and cluster 4 late-onset non-atopic asthma with well-preserved lung function. The patients in clusters 2 and 3 were identified as exacerbation-prone asthmatics, showing a higher risk of asthma exacerbation. Two different phenotypes of exacerbation-prone asthma were identified among Korean asthmatics using cluster analysis; both were characterized by impaired lung function, but the age at asthma onset and atopic status were different between the two. Copyright © 2017 The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology · The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease

  8. [The Chinese experts' consensus on the evaluation and management of asthma exacerbation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Asthma exacerbations can do a lot of harm to the patients and consume large amounts of medical resources. This consensus is based on the domestic and foreign guidelines and literatures to standardize the evaluation and management of asthma exacerbations in China. Asthma exacerbations are characterized by a progressive increase in symptoms of shortness of breath, cough, wheezing or chest tightness and progressive decrease in lung function, and usually require modification of treatment. Recognizing risk factors and triggering factors of asthma exacerbations is helpful for the prevention and long-term management. Evaluation of asthma exacerbations is based on symptoms, lung function, and arterial blood gas. Management is stratified according to the severity of disease. Different regimens to treat asthma exacerbations are discussed in this consensus. Glucocorticoids should be used properly. Overuse of antibiotics should be avoided. Management of life-threatening asthma is discussed separately. Special attention should be paid in some special respects, such as asthma during peri-operation period, gestation period, and childhood. Diagnosis and management of complications are also of great significance and are discussed in details.

  9. A simple framework for assessing technical skills in a resident observed structured clinical examination (OSCE): vaginal laceration repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Abigail Ford; Lerner, Veronica; Zabar, Sondra R; Szyld, Demian

    2013-01-01

    Educators of trainees in procedure-based specialties need focused assessment tools that are valid, objective, and assess technical skills in a realistic context. A framework for hybrid assessment using standardized patient scenarios and bench skills testing might facilitate evaluation of competency. Seven PGY-1 obstetrics and gynecology residents participated in a hybrid assessment that used observed structured clinical examination (OSCE) by a standardized patient who had sustained a vaginal laceration during vaginal delivery. The residents elicited a history and counseled the patient, and then completed a laceration repair on a pelvic model. The residents were rated on their performance in the scenario, which included issues of cultural competency, rapport-building, patient counseling. The technical skills were videotaped and rated using a modified global assessment form by 2 faculty members on a 3-point scale from "not done" to "partly done" to "well-done." Residents also completed a subjective assessment of the station. Mean technical performance of the residents on the technical skills was 55% "well-done," with a range of 20%-90%. The assessment identified 3 residents as below the mean, and 1 resident with areas of deficiency. Subjective assessment by the residents was that juggling the technical, cognitive, and affective components of the examination was challenging. Technical skills can be included in a case-based assessment using scenarios that address a range of cognitive and affective skills required of physicians. Results may help training programs assess individuals' abilities as well as identify program needs for curricular improvement. This framework might be useful in setting standards for competency and identifying poor performers. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Home-Based Telehealth Hospitalization for Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anna Svarre; Laursen, Lars C; Rydahl-Hansen, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Telehealth interventions for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have focused primarily on stable outpatients. Telehealth designed to handle the acute exacerbation that normally requires hospitalization could also be of interest. The aim of this study...... was to compare the effect of home-based telehealth hospitalization with conventional hospitalization for exacerbation in severe COPD. Materials and Methods: A two-center, noninferiority, randomized, controlled effectiveness trial was conducted between June 2010 and December 2011. Patients with severe COPD...... admitted because of exacerbation were randomized 1:1 either to home-based telehealth hospitalization or to continue standard treatment and care at the hospital. The primary outcome was treatment failure defined as re-admission due to exacerbation in COPD within 30 days after initial discharge...

  11. Postpartum airway responsiveness and exacerbation of asthma during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Zarqa; Nilas, Lisbeth; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2017-01-01

    , diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, bronchial responsiveness to inhaled mannitol, and inflammatory characteristics in induced sputum. Obtained data were analyzed in relation to exacerbation status during pregnancy. The PD15 is defined as the cumulative administered dose causing a 15% decline in forced......BACKGROUND: Airway responsiveness and inflammation are associated with the clinical manifestations of asthma and the response to pharmacological therapy. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if airway responsiveness and inflammatory characteristics are related to asthma exacerbations during pregnancy....... MATERIALS AND METHODS: In women with asthma who were prescribed controller medication and monitored closely during pregnancy, the risk of exacerbations was analyzed in relation to postpartum measures of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), skin prick test reactivity, static and dynamic lung volumes...

  12. Inflammatory bowel disease exacerbation associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitroulia, Evangelia; Pitiriga, Vassiliki C; Piperaki, Evangelia-Theophano; Spanakis, Nicholas E; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2013-03-01

    Epstein-Barr virus infection is associated with inflammatory bowel disease, but its role as a pathogenetic or exacerbating factor remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Epstein-Barr virus infection and inflammatory bowel disease, particularly in regard to exacerbation of disease activity. This was a nonrandomized crosssectional study in subgroups of patients with inflammatory bowel disease compared with a control group with noninflammatory disease. Participants were patients treated for ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease and individuals undergoing evaluation for noninflammatory disease recruited from 2 urban adult gastrointestinal referral centers in Greece. Diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease was based on standard clinical and endoscopic criteria. Demographic and clinical characteristics of all participants were recorded. Whole blood samples and fresh tissue samples from biopsy of intestinal sites were obtained from each participant. The presence of Epstein-Barr virus was determined by amplifying the LMP1 gene of the virus in blood and intestinal tissue samples. The study comprised 94 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (63 with ulcerative colitis and 31 with Crohn's disease) and 45 controls with noninflammatory disease. Of the 94 patients, 67 (71.3%) had disease exacerbation and 27 (28.7%) were in remission. The prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus genome was significantly higher in patients than in controls for intestinal tissue (44 patients, 46.8% vs 6 controls, 13.3%; p = 0.001), but not for whole blood (24 patients, 25.5% vs 9 controls, 20%; p = 0.3). The viral genome was found significantly more frequently in intestinal samples from patients with disease exacerbation compared with patients in remission (38 patients with exacerbation, 56.7% vs 6 patients in remission, 22.2%; p = 0.001), but no significant difference was found for whole blood (18 patients with exacerbation, 26.8% vs 6 patients in remission, 22

  13. Preventing and managing exacerbations in COPD – critical appraisal of the role of tiotropium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald P Tashkin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Donald P TashkinDepartment of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA,Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: The course of COPD is punctuated by acute exacerbations that are associated with an increase in the morbidity and mortality related to this chronic disease and may contribute to its rate of progression. Therefore, preventing and treating exacerbations are major goals of COPD management. The role of tiotropium in the prevention of exacerbations has been investigated in several placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials varying in duration from 3 months to 4 years in patients with moderate to very severe COPD. In all of these trials, tiotropium has uniformly reduced the proportion of patients experiencing at least one exacerbation and delayed the time to the first exacerbation compared with placebo. In the longer trials (≥6 months’ duration tiotropium has also reduced the exposure-adjusted incidence rate of exacerbations. In trials of at least 1 year in duration, tiotropium either significantly reduced the risk of hospitalization for an exacerbation and/or the proportion of patients with an exacerbation-related hospitalization. In a meta-analysis that included 15 trials of tiotropium vs either placebo (n = 13 and/or a longacting beta-agonist (LABA; n = 4, tiotropium significantly reduced the odds of experiencing an exacerbation compared to placebo as well as a LABA. The potential additive benefits of tiotropium to those of a LABA and/or inhaled corticosteroid in reducing exacerbations require further investigation. The mechanism whereby tiotropium reduces exacerbations is not due to an anti-inflammatory effect but more likely relates to its property of causing a sustained increase in airway patency and reduction in hyperinflation, thereby counteracting the tendency for respiratory insults to worsen airflow obstruction and hyperinflation. For the management of acute exacerbations, an

  14. Impact and prevention of severe exacerbations of COPD: a review of the evidence

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    Halpin DMG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available David MG Halpin,1 Marc Miravitlles,2 Norbert Metzdorf,3 Bartolomé Celli4 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, Exeter, UK; 2Pneumology Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES, Barcelona, Spain; 3Respiratory Medicine, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmBH & Co KG, Ingelheim am Rhein, Germany; 4Pulmonary Division, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Severe exacerbations of COPD, ie, those leading to hospitalization, have profound clinical implications for patients and significant economic consequences for society. The prevalence and burden of severe COPD exacerbations remain high, despite recognition of the importance of exacerbation prevention and the availability of new treatment options. Severe COPD exacerbations are associated with high mortality, have negative impact on quality of life, are linked to cardiovascular complications, and are a significant burden on the health-care system. This review identified risk factors that contribute to the development of severe exacerbations, treatment options (bronchodilators, antibiotics, corticosteroids [CSs], oxygen therapy, and ventilator support to manage severe exacerbations, and strategies to prevent readmission to hospital. Risk factors that are amenable to change have been highlighted. A number of bronchodilators have demonstrated successful reduction in risk of severe exacerbations, including long-acting muscarinic antagonist or long-acting β2-agonist mono- or combination therapies, in addition to vaccination, mucolytic and antibiotic therapy, and nonpharmacological interventions, such as pulmonary rehabilitation. Recognition of the importance of severe exacerbations is an essential step in improving outcomes for patients with COPD. Evidence-based approaches to prevent and manage severe exacerbations should be implemented as part of targeted strategies for disease management. Keywords

  15. Caffeine consumption and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Retrospective study

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    P.O. Lopes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The modulation of adenosine receptors has been proposed as new therapeutic target for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but studies in humans were negative. Caffeine is widely consumed and acts by non-selective modulation of these receptors, allowing for a non-interventional evaluation of the purinergic effects on COPD. We evaluated the effects of chronic caffeine consumption on the risk for COPD exacerbations. Methods: Retrospective study including patients with COPD. The total number of exacerbations during a three-year period and the mean daily caffeine consumption in the last twenty years were evaluated. A univariate and multiple regression analysis were performed for evaluation of the significant predictors of exacerbations. Results: A total of 90 patients were included. Most were males (82.2% and had a mean forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1 of 57.0 ± 17.1% predicted. The mean daily caffeine consumption was 149.7 ± 140.9 mg. There was no correlation between the mean caffeine consumption and exacerbations (p > 0.05. Discussion: Our results suggest that caffeine has no significant effect on the frequency of COPD exacerbations. These conclusions are limited by the sample size and the retrospective nature of the study. Keywords: COPD, Caffeine, Disease exacerbation, Purines, Pharmacology, Coffee, Respiratory Tract Diseases

  16. COPD exacerbations in general practice: variability in oral prednisolone courses

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    de Vries Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of oral corticosteroids as treatment of COPD exacerbations in primary care is well established and evidence-based. However, the most appropriate dosage regimen has not been determined and remains controversial. Corticosteroid therapy is associated with a number of undesirable side effects, including hyperglycaemias, so differences in prescribing might be relevant. This study examines the differences between GPs in dosage and duration of prednisolone treatment in patients with a COPD exacerbation. It also investigates the number of general practitioners (GPs who adjust their treatment according to the presence of diabetic co-morbidity. Methods Cross-sectional study among 219 GPs and 25 GPs in training, located in the Northern part of the Netherlands. Results The response rate was 69%. Nearly every GP prescribed a continuous dose of prednisolone 30 mg per day. Among GPs there were substantial differences in treatment duration. GPs prescribed courses of five, seven, ten, or fourteen days. A course of seven days was most common. The duration of treatment depended on exacerbation and disease severity. A course of five days was especially prescribed in case of a less severe exacerbation. In a more severe exacerbation duration of seven to fourteen days was more common. Hardly any GP adjusted treatment to the presence of diabetic co-morbidity. Conclusion Under normal conditions GPs prescribe prednisolone quite uniformly, within the range of the current Dutch guidelines. There is insufficient guidance regarding how to adjust corticosteroid treatment to exacerbation severity, disease severity and the presence of diabetic co-morbidity. Under these circumstances, there is a substantial variation in treatment duration.

  17. Job strain and the risk of severe asthma exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, K; Madsen, I E H; Nyberg, S T

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients and healthcare professionals believe that work-related psychosocial stress, such as job strain, can make asthma worse, but this is not corroborated by empirical evidence. We investigated the associations between job strain and the incidence of severe asthma exacerbations...... in working-age European men and women. METHODS: We analysed individual-level data, collected between 1985 and 2010, from 102 175 working-age men and women in 11 prospective European studies. Job strain (a combination of high demands and low control at work) was self-reported at baseline. Incident severe...... asthma exacerbations were ascertained from national hospitalization and death registries. Associations between job strain and asthma exacerbations were modelled using Cox regression and the study-specific findings combined using random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 10 years...

  18. Mannose-binding lectin deficiency and acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Woodruff PG

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Richard K Albert,1 John Connett,2 Jeffrey L Curtis,3,4 Fernando J Martinez,3 MeiLan K Han,3 Stephen C Lazarus,5 Prescott G Woodruff51Medicine Service, Denver Health and Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, 2Division of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 3Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 4Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, VA Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI, 5Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, and Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: Mannose-binding lectin is a collectin involved in host defense against infection. Whether mannose-binding lectin deficiency is associated with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is debated.Methods: Participants in a study designed to determine if azithromycin taken daily for one year decreased acute exacerbations had serum mannose-binding lectin concentrations measured at the time of enrollment.Results: Samples were obtained from 1037 subjects (91% in the trial. The prevalence of mannose-binding lectin deficiency ranged from 0.5% to 52.2%, depending on how deficiency was defined. No differences in the prevalence of deficiency were observed with respect to any demographic variable assessed, and no differences were observed in time to first exacerbation, rate of exacerbations, or percentage of subjects requiring hospitalization for exacerbations in those with deficiency versus those without, regardless of how deficiency was defined.Conclusion: In a large sample of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease selected for having an increased risk of experiencing an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, only 1.9% had mannose-binding lectin concentrations below the normal range and we found no association between mannose-binding lectin

  19. Statistical analysis of exacerbation rates in COPD: TRISTAN and ISOLDE revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keene, O N; Calverley, P M A; Jones, P W

    2008-01-01

    different analysis methods, we have reanalysed data from two large studies which, among other objectives, investigated the effectiveness of inhaled corticosteroids in reducing COPD exacerbation rates. Using the negative binomial model to reanalyse data from the TRISTAN and ISOLDE studies, the overall...... estimates of exacerbation rates on each treatment arm are higher and the confidence intervals for comparisons between treatments are wider, but the overall conclusions of TRISTAN and ISOLDE regarding reduction of exacerbations remain unchanged. The negative binomial approach appears to provide a better fit...

  20. Exacerbations of COPD and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Mamoru Sakae

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between gastroesophageal reflux (GER and COPD exacerbations. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of various electronic databases for articles published up through December of 2012. Studies considered eligible for inclusion were those dealing with COPD, COPD exacerbations, and GER; comparing at least two groups (COPD vs. controls or GER vs. controls; and describing relative risks (RRs and prevalence ratios-or ORs and their respective 95% CIs (or presenting enough data to allow further calculations for the association between GER and COPD-as well as exacerbation rates. Using a standardized form, we extracted data related to the study design; criteria for GER diagnosis; age, gender, and number of participants; randomization method; severity scores; methods of evaluating GER symptoms; criteria for defining exacerbations; exacerbation rates (hospitalizations, ER visits, unscheduled clinic visits, prednisone use, and antibiotic use; GER symptoms in COPD group vs. controls; mean number of COPD exacerbations (with symptoms vs. without symptoms; annual frequency of exacerbations; GER treatment; and severity of airflow obstruction. RESULTS: Overall, GER was clearly identified as a risk factor for COPD exacerbations (RR = 7.57; 95% CI: 3.84-14.94, with an increased mean number of exacerbations per year (mean difference: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.22-1.36. The prevalence of GER was significantly higher in patients with COPD than in those without (RR = 13.06; 95% CI: 3.64-46.87; p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: GER is a risk factor for COPD exacerbations. The role of GER in COPD management should be studied in greater detail.

  1. Frequency of exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an analysis of the SPIROMICS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, MeiLan K; Quibrera, Pedro M; Carretta, Elizabeth E; Barr, R Graham; Bleecker, Eugene R; Bowler, Russell P; Cooper, Christopher B; Comellas, Alejandro; Couper, David J; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Criner, Gerard; Dransfield, Mark T; Hansel, Nadia N; Hoffman, Eric A; Kanner, Richard E; Krishnan, Jerry A; Martinez, Carlos H; Pirozzi, Cheryl B; O'Neal, Wanda K; Rennard, Stephen; Tashkin, Donald P; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Woodruff, Prescott; Paine, Robert; Martinez, Fernando J

    2017-08-01

    Present treatment strategies to stratify exacerbation risk in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) rely on a history of two or more events in the previous year. We aimed to understand year to year variability in exacerbations and factors associated with consistent exacerbations over time. In this longitudinal, prospective analysis of exacerbations in the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS) cohort, we analysed patients aged 40-80 years with COPD for whom 3 years of prospective data were available, identified through various means including care at academic and non-academic medical centres, word of mouth, and existing patient registries. Participants were enrolled in the study between Nov 12, 2010, and July 31, 2015. We classified patients according to yearly exacerbation frequency: no exacerbations in any year; one exacerbation in every year during 3 years of follow-up; and those with inconsistent exacerbations (individuals who had both years with exacerbations and years without during the 3 years of follow-up). Participants were characterised by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) spirometric category (1-4) on the basis of post-bronchodilator FEV 1 . Stepwise logistic regression was used to compare factors associated with one or more acute exacerbations of COPD every year for 3 years versus no exacerbations in the same timeframe. Additionally, a stepwise zero-inflated negative binomial model was used to assess predictors of exacerbation count during follow-up in all patients with available data. Baseline symptom burden was assessed with the COPD assessment test. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01969344. 2981 patients were enrolled during the study. 1843 patients had COPD, of which 1105 patients had 3 years of complete, prospective follow-up data. 538 (49%) of 1105 patients had at least one acute exacerbation during the 3 years of follow-up, whereas

  2. Possible Triggering Effect of Influenza Vaccination on Psoriasis

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    Ali Tahsin Gunes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic, recurrent, immune-mediated inflammatory disease and it can be provoked or exacerbated by a variety of different environmental factors, particularly infections and drugs. In addition, a possible association between vaccination and the new onset and/or exacerbation of psoriasis has been reported by a number of different authors. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of influenza vaccination on patients with psoriasis. Here, we report the findings from 43 patients suffering from psoriasis (clinical phenotypes as mixed guttate/plaque lesions, palmoplantar or scalp psoriasis whose diseases had been triggered after influenza vaccination applied in the 2009-2010 season. The short time intervals between vaccination and psoriasis flares in our patients and the lack of other possible triggers suggest that influenza vaccinations may have provocative effects on psoriasis. However, further large and controlled studies need to be carried out to confirm this relationship.

  3. Shall We Focus on the Eosinophil to Guide Treatment with Systemic Corticosteroids during Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)? CON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Pedro J; López-Campos, José Luis

    2018-06-08

    The employment of systemic corticosteroids in the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been shown to improve airway limitation, decrease treatment failure and risk of relapse, and may improve symptoms in addition to decreasing the length of hospital stay. Nowadays, all clinical guidelines recommend systemic corticosteroids to treat moderate or severe COPD exacerbations. However, their use is associated with potential side effects, mainly hyperglycemia. In the era of precision medicine, the possibility of employing blood eosinophil count has emerged as a potential way of optimizing therapy. Issues regarding the intra-individual variability of blood eosinophil count determination, a lack of clear data regarding the real prevalence of eosinophilic acute exacerbations, the fact that previously published studies have demonstrated the benefit of systemic corticosteroids irrespective of eosinophil levels, and especially the fact that there is only one well-designed study justifying this approach have led us to think that we are not ready to use eosinophil count to guide treatment with systemic corticosteroids during acute exacerbations of COPD.

  4. A search for covert precipitating clinical parameters in frequent exacerbators of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Ankit Bhatia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute exacerbations are a significant source of morbidity and mortality associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Some patients suffer an inordinate number of exacerbations while others remain relatively protected. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potentially modifiable precipitating parameters of frequent severe exacerbations requiring hospital admission in COPD. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients admitted with acute exacerbation of COPD for a period of one year in a tertiary care hospital were evaluated prospectively. Data regarding the number of exacerbations in the previous year, current comorbidities, medications, and clinical and functional status of COPD patients were evaluated. Results: We included 98 COPD patients (81.63% men admitted consecutively with exacerbations in our department. The mean number of severe exacerbations was (2.42 per patient/per year, and 65% of the patients had frequent severe exacerbations. Multivariate analysis indicated that serum uric acid, serum total IgE, depression and anxiety, gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms, air pollution, poor adherence to inhaled therapy, and irregular outpatient followup visits were independent predictors of frequent severe exacerbations. Conclusion: COPD patients with frequent exacerbations should be carefully assessed for modifiable confounding risk factors regardless of poor lung function to decrease exacerbation frequency and related poor prognosis. Raised serum total IgE levels may point towards atopy as an additional comorbidity in COPD while uric acid can have a clinically useful role in risk stratification in a primary care setting.

  5. Lung Middle Lobe Laceration Needing Lobectomy as Complication of Nuss Bar Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Brice; Lacroix, Valérie; Pirotte, Thierry; Docquier, Pierre-Louis

    2018-01-01

    Minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of pectus excavatum as described by Nuss has been used from 1987. The bar initially introduced blindly is now introduced under thoracoscopic control to increase safety of the procedure. It is usually removed two to three years after its insertion in a one-day procedure. Complications of the bar removal are rare but potentially serious. We report the case of a serious complication which occurred immediately after the Nuss bar removal. A 15-year-old boy underwent a Nuss procedure for a severe pectus excavatum without relevant complication. The bar has been removed two years after its insertion in a minimally invasive procedure. Unfortunately, he developed in the immediate postoperative period a hemopneumothorax due to a right middle lobe laceration which required a middle lobectomy by thoracotomy for hemostasis. Lesions of intrathoracic organs are a rare but potentially serious complication of the removal of the Nuss bar. We now propose to perform this procedure under thoracoscopic control to avoid it. In our experience, adhesions between the bar and the pleura are always present, and those with potential risk for bleeding or inducing intrathoracic organ lesions are suppressed prior to the bar removal.

  6. Reduced COPD Exacerbation Risk Correlates With Improved FEV1: A Meta-Regression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zider, Alexander D; Wang, Xiaoyan; Buhr, Russell G; Sirichana, Worawan; Barjaktarevic, Igor Z; Cooper, Christopher B

    2017-09-01

    The mechanism by which various classes of medication reduce COPD exacerbation risk remains unknown. We hypothesized a correlation between reduced exacerbation risk and improvement in airway patency as measured according to FEV 1 . By systematic review, COPD trials were identified that reported therapeutic changes in predose FEV 1 (dFEV 1 ) and occurrence of moderate to severe exacerbations. Using meta-regression analysis, a model was generated with dFEV 1 as the moderator variable and the absolute difference in exacerbation rate (RD), ratio of exacerbation rates (RRs), or hazard ratio (HR) as dependent variables. The analysis of RD and RR included 119,227 patients, and the HR analysis included 73,475 patients. For every 100-mL change in predose FEV 1 , the HR decreased by 21% (95% CI, 17-26; P < .001; R 2  = 0.85) and the absolute exacerbation rate decreased by 0.06 per patient per year (95% CI, 0.02-0.11; P = .009; R 2  = 0.05), which corresponded to an RR of 0.86 (95% CI, 0.81-0.91; P < .001; R 2  = 0.20). The relationship with exacerbation risk remained statistically significant across multiple subgroup analyses. A significant correlation between increased FEV 1 and lower COPD exacerbation risk suggests that airway patency is an important mechanism responsible for this effect. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Serum eosinophil cationic protein levels can be useful for predicting acute exacerbation of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Kamimura

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a case in which five consecutive exacerbations of asthma were monitored by following serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP levels. The serum ECP level correlated well with each exacerbation and tended to increase even before the exacerbations of asthma became apparent. This case shows that serum levels of ECP can be useful markers of disease activity and may also be predictive markers for acute exacerbation.

  8. Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: when are antibiotics indicated? A systematic review

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    Steurer Johann

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For decades, there is an unresolved debate about adequate prescription of antibiotics for patients suffering from exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The aim of this systematic review was to analyse randomised controlled trials investigating the clinical benefit of antibiotics for COPD exacerbations. Methods We conducted a systematic review of randomised, placebo-controlled trials assessing the effects of antibiotics on clinically relevant outcomes in patients with an exacerbation. We searched bibliographic databases, scrutinized reference lists and conference proceedings and asked the pharmaceutical industry for unpublished data. We used fixed-effects models to pool results. The primary outcome was treatment failure of COPD exacerbation treatment. Results We included 13 trials (1557 patients of moderate to good quality. For the effects of antibiotics on treatment failure there was much heterogeneity across all trials (I2 = 82%. Meta-regression revealed severity of exacerbation as significant explanation for this heterogeneity (p = 0.016: Antibiotics did not reduce treatment failures in outpatients with mild to moderate exacerbations (pooled odds ratio 1.09, 95% CI 0.75–1.59, I2 = 18%. Inpatients with severe exacerbations had a substantial benefit on treatment failure rates (pooled odds ratio of 0.25, 95% CI 0.16–0.39, I2 = 0%; number-needed to treat of 4, 95% CI 3–5 and on mortality (pooled odds ratio of 0.20, 95% CI 0.06–0.62, I2 = 0%; number-needed to treat of 14, 95% CI 12–30. Conclusion Antibiotics effectively reduce treatment failure and mortality rates in COPD patients with severe exacerbations. For patients with mild to moderate exacerbations, antibiotics may not be generally indicated and further research is needed to guide antibiotic prescription in these patients.

  9. Gastro-esophageal reflux disease and exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebrigtsen, Truls S; Marott, Jacob L; Vestbo, Jørgen; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Hallas, Jesper; Lange, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that gastro-esophageal reflux disease is a risk factor for exacerbations in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Among 9622 participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, we identified 1259 individuals with COPD and information on gastro-esophageal reflux disease and the regular use of acid inhibitory treatment. These individuals were followed for 5 years with regard to medically treated COPD exacerbations, which we defined as a short course treatment with oral corticosteroids alone or in combination with antibiotics. We applied a multivariable Cox regression analysis with adjustment for well-established risk factors associated with COPD exacerbations or gastro-esophageal reflux disease, including COPD severity, and symptoms. Individuals with COPD and gastro-esophageal reflux disease had more chronic bronchitis (31 vs 21%, P = 0.004), more breathlessness (39 vs 22%, P gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Among individuals with COPD and gastro-esophageal reflux disease, those who did not use acid inhibitory treatment regularly had an increased risk of COPD exacerbations during follow-up, hazards ratio (HR): HR = 2.7 (1.3-5.4, P = 0.006). Individuals with gastro-esophageal reflux disease, using acid inhibitory treatment regularly did not have an increased risk of exacerbations, HR = 1.2 (0.6-2.7, P = 0.63). Gastro-esophageal reflux disease was associated with an increased risk of medically treated exacerbations of COPD, but only in those individuals who did not use acid inhibitory treatment regularly. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  10. Predictors of frequent exacerbations in (ex)smoking and never smoking adults with severe asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Guus A.; de Groot, Jantina C.; Amelink, Marijke; de Nijs, Selma B.; ten Brinke, Anneke; Weersink, Els J.; Bel, Elisabeth H.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent eosinophilic airway inflammation is an important driver for asthma exacerbations in non-smokers with asthma. Whether eosinophilic inflammation is also a predictor of asthma exacerbations in (ex)smokers is not known. The aim was to investigate factors associated with frequent exacerbations

  11. Long-term future risk of severe exacerbations: Distinct 5-year trajectories of problematic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yii, A C A; Tan, J H Y; Lapperre, T S; Chan, A K W; Low, S Y; Ong, T H; Tan, K L; Chotirmall, S H; Sterk, P J; Koh, M S

    2017-09-01

    Assessing future risk of exacerbations is an important component of asthma management. Existing studies have investigated short- but not long-term risk. Problematic asthma patients with unfavorable long-term disease trajectory and persistently frequent severe exacerbations need to be identified early to guide treatment. To identify distinct trajectories of severe exacerbation rates among "problematic asthma" patients and develop a risk score to predict the most unfavorable trajectory. Severe exacerbation rates over five years for 177 "problematic asthma" patients presenting to a specialist asthma clinic were tracked. Distinct trajectories of severe exacerbation rates were identified using group-based trajectory modeling. Baseline predictors of trajectory were identified and used to develop a clinical risk score for predicting the most unfavorable trajectory. Three distinct trajectories were found: 58.5% had rare intermittent severe exacerbations ("infrequent"), 32.0% had frequent severe exacerbations at baseline but improved subsequently ("nonpersistently frequent"), and 9.5% exhibited persistently frequent severe exacerbations, with the highest incidence of near-fatal asthma ("persistently frequent"). A clinical risk score composed of ≥2 severe exacerbations in the past year (+2 points), history of near-fatal asthma (+1 point), body mass index ≥25kg/m 2 (+1 point), obstructive sleep apnea (+1 point), gastroesophageal reflux (+1 point), and depression (+1 point) was predictive of the "persistently frequent" trajectory (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.84, sensitivity 72.2%, specificity 81.1% using cutoff ≥3 points). The trajectories and clinical risk score had excellent performance in an independent validation cohort. Patients with problematic asthma follow distinct illness trajectories over a period of five years. We have derived and validated a clinical risk score that accurately identifies patients who will have persistently

  12. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations Are Influenced by Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigatao, Amilcar M; Herbella, Fernando A M; Del Grande, Leonardo M; Nascimento, Oliver A; Jardim, Jose R; Patti, Marco G

    2018-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is associated with different pulmonary diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Whether GERD is contributory to COPD severity remains unclear. This study aims to evaluate the contribution of GERD to the clinical manifestation of COPD based on ventilatory parameters and yearly clinical exacerbations. We studied 48 patients (56% females, age 66 years) with COPD. All patients underwent high-resolution manometry and esophageal pH monitoring. The patients were separated into two groups according to the presence of GERD. GERD was present in 21 (44%) patients. GERD + and GERD - groups did not differ in regard to gender, age, and body mass index. Pulmonary parameters were not different in the absence or presence of GERD. The number of yearly exacerbations was higher in patients GERD+. The severity of GERD (as measured by DeMeester score) correlated with the number of exacerbations. Our results show the following: 1) GERD does not influence pulmonary parameters and 2) GERD is associated with a higher number of annual clinical exacerbations. We believe GERD must be objectively tested in patients with COPD because the prevalence of GERD in these patients is underestimated when only symptoms are considered. GERD treatment might decrease the frequency of episodes of exacerbation.

  13. Clinical characteristics of eosinophilic asthma exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Asger; Laing, Ingrid A; Backer, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    blood cell counts and a screening for common respiratory viruses and bacteria. An eosinophilic exacerbation (EE) was defined as having sputum eosinophils ≥ 3% and a non-eosinophilic exacerbation as NEE). RESULTS: A total of 47 patients were enrolled; 37 (79%) had successful sputum induction...... at baseline, of whom 43% had sputum eosinophils ≥3% (EE). Patients with EE had a significantly lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 ) % predicted (70.8%, P = 0.03) than patients with NEE (83.6%). Furthermore, EE patients were more likely to require supplemental oxygen during admission (63% vs 14%, P...... = 0.002). The prevalence of respiratory viruses was the same in EE and NEE patients (44% vs 52%, P = 0.60), as was bacterial infection (6% vs 14%, P = 0.44). Fractional expiratory nitric oxide (FeNO) correlated with sputum %-eosinophils (ρ = 0.57, P

  14. Withdrawal of inhaled glucocorticoids and exacerbations of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Helgo; Disse, Bernd; Rodriguez-Roisin, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    fluticasone propionate (500 μg twice daily) during a 6-week run-in period. Patients were then randomly assigned to continued triple therapy or withdrawal of fluticasone in three steps over a 12-week period. The primary end point was the time to the first moderate or severe COPD exacerbation. Spirometric......-acting bronchodilators has not been fully explored. METHODS: In this 12-month, double-blind, parallel-group study, 2485 patients with a history of exacerbation of COPD received triple therapy consisting of tiotropium (at a dose of 18 μg once daily), salmeterol (50 μg twice daily), and the inhaled glucocorticoid...

  15. Exacerbation of pneumomediastinum after air travel in a patient with dermatomyositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qiuyue; Zhang, Lu; Tian, Xinlun; Shi, Juhong

    2011-07-01

    Although the presence of pneumothorax is generally considered an absolute contraindication to air travel, reports on pneumomediastinum after air travel are extremely rare. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, exacerbation of existing pneumomediastinum after commercial air travel has never been reported. We report on a case of a patient (the first case that we are aware of) who suffered exacerbation of pneumomediastinum after commercial air travel. This patient, with confirmed pneumomediastinum before air travel, flew to our city for medical care without being warned about exacerbation by the local hospital or airlines. Obvious exacerbation of pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema was noticed after the travel. Subsequently, a diagnosis of amyopathic dermatomyositis with interstitial lung disease and pneumomediastinum was made. The patient died despite treatment with corticosteroid, cyclophosphamide and intravenous immunoglobulin. This report discusses this rare condition and offers suggestions regarding air travel for patients with presence of pneumomediastinum at the time of flight.

  16. Serum CCL-18 level is a risk factor for COPD exacerbations requiring hospitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilektasli, Asli Gorek; Demirdogen Cetinoglu, Ezgi; Uzaslan, Esra; Budak, Ferah; Coskun, Funda; Ursavas, Ahmet; Ercan, Ilker; Ege, Ercument

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18 (CCL-18) has been shown to be elevated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. This study primarily aimed to evaluate whether the serum CCL-18 level differentiates the frequent exacerbator COPD phenotype from infrequent exacerbators. The secondary aim was to investigate whether serum CCL-18 level is a risk factor for exacerbations requiring hospitalization. Materials and methods Clinically stable COPD patients and participants with smoking history but normal spirometry (NSp) were recruited for the study. Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale, COPD Assessment Test, spirometry, and 6-min walking test were performed. Serum CCL-18 levels were measured with a commercial ELISA Kit. Results Sixty COPD patients and 20 NSp patients were recruited. Serum CCL-18 levels were higher in COPD patients than those in NSp patients (169 vs 94 ng/mL, PCOPD (168 vs 196 ng/mL) subgroups did not achieve statistical significance (P=0.09). Serum CCL-18 levels were significantly higher in COPD patients who had experienced at least one exacerbation during the previous 12 months. Overall, ROC analysis revealed that a serum CCL-18 level of 181.71 ng/mL could differentiate COPD patients with hospitalized exacerbations from those who were not hospitalized with a 88% sensitivity and 88.2% specificity (area under curve: 0.92). Serum CCL-18 level had a strong correlation with the frequency of exacerbations requiring hospitalization (r=0.68, PCOPD, as it is associated with frequency of exacerbations, particularly with severe COPD exacerbations requiring hospitalization, as well as with functional parameters and symptom scores. PMID:28115842

  17. Antibiotics for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollenweider, Daniela J; Jarrett, Harish; Steurer-Stey, Claudia A; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Puhan, Milo A

    2012-12-12

    Many patients with an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are treated with antibiotics. However, the value of antibiotics remains uncertain as systematic reviews and clinical trials have shown conflicting results. To assess the effects of antibiotics in the management of acute COPD exacerbations on treatment failure as observed between seven days and one month after treatment initiation (primary outcome) and on other patient-important outcomes (mortality, adverse events, length of hospital stay). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and other electronically available databases up to September 2012. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in people with acute COPD exacerbations comparing antibiotic therapy and placebo with a follow-up of at least seven days. Two review authors independently screened references and extracted data from trial reports. We kept the three groups of outpatients, inpatients and patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) separate for benefit outcomes and mortality because we considered them to be clinically too different to be summarised in one group. We considered outpatients to have a mild to moderate exacerbation, inpatients to have a severe exacerbation and ICU patients to have a very severe exacerbation. Where outcomes or study details were not reported we requested missing data from the authors of the primary studies. We calculated pooled risk ratios (RR) for treatment failure, Peto odds ratios (OR) for rare events (mortality and adverse events) and weighted mean differences (MD) for continuous outcomes using fixed-effect models. We used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence. Sixteen trials with 2068 participants were included. In outpatients (mild to moderate exacerbations), there was evidence of low quality that antibiotics did statistically significantly reduce the risk for treatment failure between seven days and one month after treatment

  18. Preventing Severe Asthma Exacerbations in Children. A Randomized Trial of Mite-Impermeable Bedcovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Clare S; Foden, Philip; Sumner, Helen; Shepley, Elizabeth; Custovic, Adnan; Simpson, Angela

    2017-07-15

    Allergen exposure in sensitized individuals with asthma interacts with viruses to increase the risk of asthma exacerbation. To evaluate the use of house dust mite-impermeable bedding and its impact on severe asthma exacerbations in children. We randomized mite-sensitized children with asthma (ages 3-17 yr) after an emergency hospital attendance with an asthma exacerbation to receive mite-impermeable (active group) or control (placebo group) bed encasings. Over a 12-month intervention period, the occurrence of severe asthma exacerbations was investigated. Of 434 children with asthma who consented, 286 (mean age, 7.7 yr; male sex, 65.8%) were mite sensitized, and 284 were randomized (146 to the active group and 138 to the placebo group). At 12 months, significantly fewer children in the active group than in the placebo group had attended the hospital with an exacerbation (36 [29.3%] of 123 vs. 49 [41.5%] of 118; P = 0.047). In the multivariable analysis, the risk of emergency hospital attendance was 45% lower in the active group (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36-0.85; P = 0.006) than in the placebo group. The annual rate of emergency hospital attendance with exacerbations was 27% lower in the active group than in the placebo group, but this did not reach significance (estimated marginal mean [95% CI], active, 0.38 [0.26-0.56] vs. placebo, 0.52 [0.35-0.76]; P = 0.18). No difference between the groups in the risk of prednisolone use for exacerbation was found (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.58-1.17; P = 0.28). Mite-impermeable encasings are effective in reducing the number of mite-sensitized children with asthma attending the hospital with asthma exacerbations but not the number requiring oral prednisolone. This simple measure may reduce the health care burden of asthma exacerbations in children. Clinical trial registered with www.isrctn.com (ISRCTN 69543196).

  19. Clinical assessment, staging, and epidemiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Patients presenting with an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are initially assessed to ensure that a proper diagnosis has been made and that relevant differential diagnoses are excluded. Although guidelines provide indicators for use, very little systematic research has...... been done in initial assessment of COPD exacerbations. Next, the assessment should aim at stratifying patients for risk of poor outcome. For this, predictors of poor prognosis as well as knowledge of favorable treatments can be used. However, no formal and validated staging system exists today. Given...... the frequency and impact of COPD exacerbations, there seems to be a need for systematic research in this area....

  20. Pulmonary rehabilitation and severe exacerbations of COPD: solution or white elephant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D-C. Man

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hospitalisations for severe exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are associated with significant physical and psychological consequences including an increase in symptom severity, severe reductions in physical activity, a deleterious effect on skeletal muscle, impaired exercise tolerance/ability to self-care, decline in quality of life, and increased anxiety and depression. As these consequences are potentially amenable to exercise training, there is a clear rationale for pulmonary rehabilitation in the peri/post-exacerbation setting. Although a 2011 Cochrane review was overwhelmingly positive, subsequent trials have shown less benefit and real-life observational studies have revealed poor acceptability. Qualitative studies have demonstrated that the patient experience is a determining factor while the presence of comorbidities may influence referral, adherence and response to pulmonary rehabilitation. Systematic reviews of less supervised interventions, such as self-management, have shown limited benefits in the post-exacerbation setting. The recent update of the Cochrane review of peri-exacerbation pulmonary rehabilitation showed that benefits were associated with the “comprehensive” nature of the intervention (the number of sessions received, the intensity of exercise training and education delivered, and the degree of supervision but implementation is demanding. The challenge is to develop interventions that are deliverable and acceptable around the time of an acute exacerbation but also deliver the desired clinical impact.

  1. Tiotropium and Salmeterol in COPD Patients at Risk of Exacerbations: A Post Hoc Analysis from POET-COPD(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelmeier, Claus F; Asijee, Guus M; Kupas, Katrin; Beeh, Kai M

    2015-06-01

    Among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the frequency and severity of past exacerbations potentiates future events. The impact of current therapies on exacerbation frequency and severity in patients with different exacerbation risks is not well known. A post hoc analysis of patients at low (≤1 exacerbation [oral steroids/antibiotics requirement] and no COPD-related hospitalization in the year preceding trial entry) or high (≥2 exacerbations [oral steroids/antibiotics requirement] or ≥1 COPD-related hospitalization[s] in the year preceding trial entry) exacerbation risk, from the Prevention of Exacerbations with Tiotropium in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (POET-COPD(®)) database. Compared with salmeterol, tiotropium significantly increased time to first COPD exacerbation (hazard ratio 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76-0.92; p = 0.0002) and reduced the number of COPD exacerbations (rate ratio 0.90; 95% CI 0.81-0.99; p = 0.0383) in patients at high exacerbation risk. With treatment, the risk of remaining in the high-risk exacerbator subgroup was statistically lower with tiotropium versus salmeterol (risk ratio [RR] 0.89; 95% CI 0.80-1.00; p = 0.0478). For low-risk patients, time to first COPD exacerbation and number of COPD exacerbations were numerically lower with tiotropium versus salmeterol. With treatment, the risk of transitioning from a low to a high exacerbation risk was lower with tiotropium versus salmeterol (RR 0.87; 95% CI 0.71-1.07; p = 0.1968). This analysis confirms the higher efficacy of tiotropium versus salmeterol in prolonging time to first COPD exacerbation and reducing number of exacerbations in patients both at low and high exacerbation risk. Boehringer Ingelheim and Pfizer. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00563381.

  2. Inverse relationship between nonadherence to original GOLD treatment guidelines and exacerbations of COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hussein D; Brehm, Anthony; Goldsteen, Karen; Edelman, Norman H

    2017-01-01

    Prescriber disagreement is among the reasons for poor adherence to COPD treatment guidelines; it is yet not clear whether this leads to adverse outcomes. We tested whether undertreatment according to the original Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines led to increased exacerbations. Records of 878 patients with spirometrically confirmed COPD who were followed from 2005 to 2010 at one Veterans Administration (VA) Medical Center were analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed to assess differences in exacerbation rates between severity groups. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between noncompliance with guidelines and exacerbation rates. About 19% were appropriately treated by guidelines; 14% overtreated, 44% under-treated, and in 23% treatment did not follow any guideline. Logistic regression revealed a strong inverse relationship between undertreatment and exacerbation rate when severity of obstruction was held constant. Exacerbations per year by GOLD stage were significantly different from each other: mild 0.15, moderate 0.27, severe 0.38, very severe 0.72, and substantially fewer than previously reported. The guidelines were largely not followed. Undertreatment predominated but, contrary to expectations, was associated with fewer exacerbations. Thus, clinicians were likely advancing therapy primarily based upon exacerbation rates as was subsequently recommended in revised GOLD and other more recent guidelines. In retrospect, a substantial lack of prescriber adherence to treatment guidelines may have been a signal that they required re-evaluation. This is likely to be a general principle regarding therapeutic guidelines. The identification of fewer exacerbations in this cohort than has been generally reported probably reflects the comprehensive nature of the VA system, which is more likely to identify relatively asymptomatic (ie, nonexacerbating) COPD patients. Accordingly, these rates may

  3. Early investigational antibiotics for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falagas, Matthew E; Georgiou, Maria

    2017-03-01

    Acute exacerbations in patients with chronic bronchitis are a leading cause of hospitalizations and death. Bacteria contribute significantly to such exacerbations. The aim of this review was to explore the potential role of investigational antibiotics in the treatment of these episodes. Areas covered: The available literature in PubMed database, in websites related to investigational drugs and in websites of the producing companies has been searched. The in vitro activity against pathogens involved in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and the pharmacokinetic profile of antibiotics currently under development were taken into consideration for inclusion in the review. Expert opinion: Several novel antimicrobial agents have completed preclinical and Phase I studies and were well-tolerated. Further investigation is mandatory in order to evaluate their future in treatment of chronic bronchitis exacerbations and discover potential advantages compared to already approved antimicrobials.

  4. Plasma sCD14 as a biomarker to predict pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley S Quon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One in four cystic fibrosis (CF patients diagnosed with a pulmonary exacerbation will not recover their baseline lung function despite standard treatment. This highlights the importance of preventing such events. Clinical decision-making can be improved through a simple blood test that predicts individuals at elevated short-term risk of an exacerbation. METHODS: We obtained plasma samples from 30 stable CF patients from the St. Paul's Hospital Adult CF Clinic (Vancouver, Canada. For 15 patients, an additional plasma sample was obtained during an exacerbation. Soluble CD14 (sCD14 and C-reactive protein (CRP were quantified using ELISA kits. Myeloperoxidase (MPO, interleukin(IL-6, IL-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF were quantified using Luminex™ immunoassays. Stable state biomarker levels were examined in their ability to predict individuals that would experience a pulmonary exacerbation requiring intravenous (IV antibiotics within 4 months. Paired stable and exacerbation plasma biomarker levels were also compared. RESULTS: sCD14 levels were significantly higher in patients that experienced a pulmonary exacerbation requiring IV antibiotics within 4 months (p = 0.001. sCD14 cut-off value of 1450 ng/mL was associated with an area under the curve of 0.91 (95% CI 0.83-0.99 for predicting an exacerbation within 4 months of a stable visit, with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 82%. Plasma sCD14 levels were significantly higher during exacerbations than during periods of clinical stability (p = 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma sCD14 is a promising biomarker for identifying CF patients who will exacerbate within 4 months of a stable visit but requires further study in larger, independent cohorts.

  5. Proximity to Industrial Food Animal Production and Asthma Exacerbations in Pennsylvania, 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Sara G; Casey, Joan A; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Schwartz, Brian S

    2017-03-31

    The research on industrial food animal production (IFAP) and asthma exacerbations in the United States has relied on small sample sizes and/or self-reported outcomes. We assessed associations of proximity to large-scale and densely stocked swine and dairy/veal IFAP with three types of asthma exacerbations: hospitalizations, emergency encounters, and oral corticosteroid (OCS) medication orders from Geisinger Clinic in Pennsylvania. We used a diagnosis code ( International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification code 493.x) and medication orders from electronic health records to identify these exacerbations among asthma patients ( n = 35,269) from 2005-2012. We compared residential proximity to swine or dairy/veal IFAP (dichotomized as <3 miles (4.8 km) or ≥3 miles) among asthma patients with and without exacerbations and estimated odds ratios using multilevel logistic regression. In adjusted models, proximity to IFAP was associated (odds ratio (95% confidence interval)) with OCS orders (1.11 (1.04-1.19)) and hospitalizations (1.29 (1.15-1.46)), but not emergency encounters (1.12 (0.91-1.37)). This study contributes to growing evidence that IFAP may impact health, in this case clinically-documented asthma exacerbations. No prior study has evaluated the association of IFAP and clinically-documented asthma exacerbations in the United States.

  6. Subtypes of Patients Experiencing Exacerbations of COPD and Associations with Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arostegui, Inmaculada; Esteban, Cristobal; García-Gutierrez, Susana; Bare, Marisa; Fernández-de-Larrea, Nerea; Briones, Eduardo; Quintana, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex and heterogeneous condition characterized by occasional exacerbations. Identifying clinical subtypes among patients experiencing COPD exacerbations (ECOPD) could help better understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in exacerbations, establish different strategies of treatment, and improve the process of care and patient prognosis. The objective of this study was to identify subtypes of ECOPD patients attending emergency departments using clinical variables and to validate the results using several outcomes. We evaluated data collected as part of the IRYSS-COPD prospective cohort study conducted in 16 hospitals in Spain. Variables collected from ECOPD patients attending one of the emergency departments included arterial blood gases, presence of comorbidities, previous COPD treatment, baseline severity of COPD, and previous hospitalizations for ECOPD. Patient subtypes were identified by combining results from multiple correspondence analysis and cluster analysis. Results were validated using key outcomes of ECOPD evolution. Four ECOPD subtypes were identified based on the severity of the current exacerbation and general health status (largely a function of comorbidities): subtype A (n = 934), neither high comorbidity nor severe exacerbation; subtype B (n = 682), moderate comorbidities; subtype C (n = 562), severe comorbidities related to mortality; and subtype D (n = 309), very severe process of exacerbation, significantly related to mortality and admission to an intensive care unit. Subtype D experienced the highest rate of mortality, admission to an intensive care unit and need for noninvasive mechanical ventilation, followed by subtype C. Subtypes A and B were primarily related to other serious complications. Hospitalization rate was more than 50% for all the subtypes, although significantly higher for subtypes C and D than for subtypes A and B. These results could help identify

  7. Predictive factors for moderate or severe exacerbations in asthma patients receiving outpatient care

    OpenAIRE

    Guti?rrez, Francisco Javier ?lvarez; Galv?n, Marta Ferrer; Gallardo, Juan Francisco Medina; Mancera, Marta Barrera; Romero, Beatriz Romero; Falc?n, Auxiliadora Romero

    2017-01-01

    Background Asthma exacerbations are important events that affect disease control, but predictive factors for severe or moderate exacerbations are not known. The objective was to study the predictive factors for moderate (ME) and severe (SE) exacerbations in asthma patients receiving outpatient care. Methods Patients aged?>?12?years with asthma were included in the study and followed-up at 4-monthly intervals over a 12-month period. Clinical (severity, level of control, asthma control test [AC...

  8. Analysis of Surgical Success in Preventing Recurrent Acute Exacerbations in Chronic Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealon, William H.; Matin, Sina

    2001-01-01

    Objective To determine whether surgical intervention prevents recurrent acute exacerbations in chronic pancreatitis (CP). Summary Background Data The primary goal of surgical intervention in the treatment of CP has been relief of chronic unrelenting abdominal pain. A subset of patients with CP have intermittent acute exacerbations, often with increasing frequency and often unrelated to ongoing ethanol abuse. Little data exist regarding the effectiveness of surgery to prevent acute attacks. Methods From 1985 to 1999, all patients identified with a diagnosis of CP were recruited to participate in an ongoing program of serial clinic visits and functional and clinical evaluations. Patients were offered surgery using standard criteria. Data were gathered regarding ethanol abuse, pain, narcotic use, and recurrent acute exacerbations requiring hospital admission before and after surgery. Patients were broadly categorized as having severe unrelenting pain alone (group 1), severe pain with intermittent acute exacerbations (group 2), and intermittent acute exacerbations only (group 3). Results Two hundred fifty-nine patients were recruited. One hundred eighty-five patients underwent 199 surgical procedures (124 modified Puestow procedure [LPJ], 29 distal pancreatectomies [DP], and 46 pancreatic head resections [PHR; 14 performed after failure of LPJ]). There were no deaths. The complication rate was 4% for LPJ, 15% for DP, and 27% for PHR. Ethanol abuse was causative in 238 patients (92%). Mean follow-up was 81 months. There were 104 patients in group 1 (86 who underwent surgery), 71 patients in group 2 (64 who underwent surgery), and 84 in group 3 (49 who underwent surgery). No patient without surgery had spontaneous resolution of symptoms. Postoperative pain relief (freedom from narcotic analgesics) was achieved in 153 of 185 patients (83%) overall: 106 of 124 (86%) for LPJ, 19 of 29 (67%) for DP, and 42 of 46 (91%) for PHR. The mean rate of acute exacerbations was 6.3

  9. Prediction and course of symptoms and lung function around an exacerbation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Berge Maarten

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frequent exacerbations induce a high burden to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD. We investigated the course of exacerbations in the published COSMIC study that investigated the effects of 1-year withdrawal of fluticasone after a 3-month run-in treatment period with salmeterol/fluticasone in patients with COPD. Methods In 373 patients, we evaluated diary cards for symptoms, Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF, and salbutamol use and assessed their course during exacerbations. Results There were 492 exacerbations in 224 patients. The level of symptoms of cough, sputum, dyspnea and nocturnal awakening steadily increased from 2 weeks prior to exacerbation, with a sharp rise during the last week. Symptoms of cough, sputum, and dyspnea reverted to baseline values at different rates (after 4, 4, and 7 weeks respectively, whereas symptoms of nocturnal awakening were still increased after eight weeks. The course of symptoms was similar around a first and second exacerbation. Increases in symptoms and salbutamol use and decreases in PEF were associated with a higher risk to develop an exacerbation, but with moderate predictive values, the areas under the receiver operating curves ranging from 0.63 to 0.70. Conclusions Exacerbations of COPD are associated with increased symptoms that persist for weeks and the course is very similar between a first and second exacerbation. COPD exacerbations are preceded by increased symptoms and salbutamol use and lower PEF, yet predictive values are too low to warrant daily use in clinical practice.

  10. Impact of care pathways for in-hospital management of COPD exacerbation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodewijckx, C; Sermeus, W; Panella, M; Deneckere, S; Leigheb, F; Decramer, M; Vanhaecht, K

    2011-11-01

    In-hospital management of COPD exacerbation is suboptimal, and outcomes are poor. Care pathways are a possible strategy for optimizing care processes and outcomes. The aim of the literature review was to explore characteristics of existing care pathways for in-hospital management of COPD exacerbations and to address their impact on performance of care processes, clinical outcomes, and team functioning. A literature search was conducted for articles published between 1990 and 2010 in the electronic databases of Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library. Main inclusion criteria were (I) patients hospitalized for a COPD exacerbation; (II) implementation and evaluation of a care pathway; (III) report of original research, including experimental and quasi experimental designs, variance analysis, and interviews of professionals and patients about their perception on pathway effectiveness. Four studies with a quasi experimental design were included. Three studies used a pre-post test design; the fourth study was a non randomized controlled trial comparing an experimental group where patients were treated according to a care pathway with a control group where usual care was provided. The four studied care pathways were multidisciplinary structured care plans, outlining time-specific clinical interventions and responsibilities by discipline. Statistic analyses were rarely performed, and the trials used very divergent indicators to evaluate the impact of the care pathways. The studies described positive effects on blood sampling, daily weight measurement, arterial blood gas measurement, referral to rehabilitation, feelings of anxiety, length of stay, readmission, and in-hospital mortality. Research on COPD care pathways is very limited. The studies described few positive effects of the care pathways on diagnostic processes and on clinical outcomes. Though due to limited statistical analysis and weak design of the studies, the internal validity of results is limited

  11. Oxygen therapy in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringbaek, T.; Lange, P.; Mogensen, T.

    2008-01-01

    Acute exacerbation of COPD is a major cause of hospitalisation in Denmark. Most of the patients require supplemental oxygen in the acute phase and some patients continue oxygen therapy at home after discharge. In this paper we discuss the physiological mechanisms of respiratory failure seen...... in acute exacerbations of COPD. The principles for oxygen therapy in the acute phase are described and recommendations for oxygen therapy are suggested Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5/5...

  12. Altered gene expression in blood and sputum in COPD frequent exacerbators in the ECLIPSE cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Singh

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD who are defined as frequent exacerbators suffer with 2 or more exacerbations every year. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this phenotype are poorly understood. We investigated gene expression profile patterns associated with frequent exacerbations in sputum and blood cells in a well-characterised cohort. Samples from subjects from the ECLIPSE COPD cohort were used; sputum and blood samples from 138 subjects were used for microarray gene expression analysis, while blood samples from 438 subjects were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR testing. Using microarray, 150 genes were differentially expressed in blood (>±1.5 fold change, p≤0.01 between frequent compared to non-exacerbators. In sputum cells, only 6 genes were differentially expressed. The differentially regulated genes in blood included downregulation of those involved in lymphocyte signalling and upregulation of pro-apoptotic signalling genes. Multivariate analysis of the microarray data followed by confirmatory PCR analysis identified 3 genes that predicted frequent exacerbations; B3GNT, LAF4 and ARHGEF10. The sensitivity and specificity of these 3 genes to predict the frequent exacerbator phenotype was 88% and 33% respectively. There are alterations in systemic immune function associated with frequent exacerbations; down-regulation of lymphocyte function and a shift towards pro-apoptosis mechanisms are apparent in patients with frequent exacerbations.

  13. Particularities of COPD exacerbations in different phenotypes of the disease in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendah, Ines; Ayed, Khadija; Kwas, Hamida; Khattab, Amel; Ghédira, Habib

    2016-03-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is defined by a limitation of airflow. This disease is characterized by exacerbations that threaten the patient's life and worsens his prognosis. Moreover, COPD patients are different according to many parameters that define different phenotypes. Characteristics of exacerbations may depend on these phenotypes according to few recent studies. To determine the characteristics and the prognosis of the exacerbations in each phenotype of COPD patients phenotype in Tunisia. Retrospective study including 153 male patients hospitalized for COPD exacerbation from January 2009 to June 2012. Patients were classified into 4 phenotypes according to Burgel's classification. Patients were divided into four phenotypes: phenotype (PH)1: (n=68), PH2: (n=33), PH3: (n=25) and PH4: (n=27). Mean age for PH1, 2, 3 and 4 was: 61, 74, 56 and 72 years. The number of exacerbations per year was higher in PH1. Dyspnea was more important in PH1 and 4. Hypercapnia on admission was higher in PH4. Non invasive ventilation and transfer to resuscitation unit were more frequently mandatory in PH3 and 4.   Death occurred 2% of PH1 and 5% of PH4. Hospitalization duration was more important in PH4. COPD patients are heterogenous and belong to different phenotypes. The characteristics of the exacerbations and their prognosis widely differ according to these different groups. In Tunisia, it seems that patients who had moderate respiratory functional tests impairment are the lowest responders to treatment with a higher frequency of resuscitation unit transfer.

  14. The frequency of asthma exacerbations and healthcare utilization in patients with asthma from the UK and USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suruki, Robert Y; Daugherty, Jonas B; Boudiaf, Nada; Albers, Frank C

    2017-04-27

    Asthma exacerbations are frequent in patients with severe disease. This report describes results from two retrospective cohort studies describing exacerbation frequency and risk, emergency department (ED)/hospital re-admissions, and asthma-related costs by asthma severity in the US and UK. Patients with asthma in the US-based Clinformatics™ DataMart Multiplan IMPACT (2010-2011; WEUSKOP7048) and the UK-based Clinical Practice Research Datalink (2009-2011; WEUSKOP7092) databases were categorized by disease severity (Global Initiative for Asthma [GINA]; Step and exacerbation history) during the 12 months pre-asthma medical code (index date). Outcomes included: frequency of exacerbations (asthma-related ED visit, hospitalization, or oral corticosteroid use with an asthma medical code recorded within ±2 weeks) 12 months post-index, asthma-related ED visits/hospitalization, and asthma-related costs 30 days post-index. Risk of a subsequent exacerbation was determined by proportional hazard model. Of the 222,817 and 211,807 patients with asthma included from the US and UK databases, respectively, 12.5 and 8.4% experienced ≥1 exacerbation during the follow-up period. Exacerbation frequency increased with disease severity. Among the 5,167 and 2,904 patients with an asthma-related ED visit/hospitalization in the US and UK databases, respectively, 9.2 and 4.7% had asthma-related re-admissions within 30 days. Asthma-related re-admission rates and costs increased with disease severity, approximately doubling between GINA Step 1 and 5 and in patients with ≥2 versus <2 exacerbations in the previous year. Risk of a subsequent exacerbation increased 32-35% for an exacerbation requiring ED visit/hospitalization versus oral corticosteroids. Increased disease severity was associated with higher exacerbation frequency, ED/hospitalization re-admission, costs and risk of subsequent exacerbation, indicating that these patients require high-intensity post-exacerbation management.

  15. Definitions of Exacerbations Does It Really Matter in Clinical Trials on COPD?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, Tanja W.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; van der Valk, Paul D. L. P. M.; Wouters, Emiel F. M.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Zielhuis, Gerhard A.; van der Palen, Job

    Many definitions of COPD exacerbations are reported. The choice for a definition determines the number of exacerbations observed. However, the effect of different definitions on the effect sizes of randomized controlled trials is unclear. This article provides an overview of the large variation of

  16. Definitions of exacerbations: does it really matter in clinical trials on COPD?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing-Tijdhof, T.W.; Kerstjens, H.A.; Monninkhof, E.M.; Valk, P.D.L.P.M. van der; Wouters, E.F.; Postma, D.S.; Zielhuis, G.A.; Palen, J.A.M. van der

    2009-01-01

    Many definitions of COPD exacerbations are reported. The choice for a definition determines the number of exacerbations observed. However, the effect of different definitions on the effect sizes of randomized controlled trials is unclear. This article provides an overview of the large variation of

  17. Impacts of coexisting bronchial asthma on severe exacerbations in mild-to-moderate COPD: results from a national database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee H

    2016-04-01

    prevalence of severe exacerbations and impact of asthma on severe exacerbations, especially in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD.Methods: Patients with mild-to-moderate COPD (≥40 years were extracted from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (2007–2012 and were linked to the national health insurance reimbursement database to obtain medical service utilization records.Results: Of the 2,397 patients with mild-to-moderate COPD, 111 (4.6% had severe exacerbations over the 6 years (0.012/person-year. Severe exacerbations were more frequent in the COPD patients with concomitant self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma compared with only COPD patients (P<0.001. A multiple logistic regression presented that asthma was an independent risk factor of severe exacerbations in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD regardless of adjustment for all possible confounding factors (adjusted odds ratio, 1.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.002–2.77, P=0.049. In addition, age, female, poor lung function, use of inhalers, and low EuroQoL five dimensions questionnaire index values were independently associated with severe exacerbation in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD.Conclusion: In this population-based study, the prevalence of severe exacerbations in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD was relatively low, compared with previous clinical interventional studies. Coexisting asthma significantly impacted the frequency of severe exacerbations in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD, suggesting application of an exacerbation preventive strategy in these patients. Keywords: bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute exacerbation

  18. Defining moderate asthma exacerbations in clinical trials based on ATS/ERS joint statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virchow, J Christian; Backer, Vibeke; de Blay, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    from baseline on at least 2 consecutive mornings/evenings or ≥20% decrease in FEV1 from baseline and/or d) visit to the emergency room/trial site for asthma treatment not requiring systemic corticosteroids. CONCLUSION: A clinically and patient-relevant, operational definition of moderate exacerbations......BACKGROUND: Exacerbations are a key outcome in clinical research, providing patient-relevant information about symptomatic control, health state and disease progression. Generally considered as an episode of (sub)acute deterioration of respiratory symptoms, a precise, clinically useful definition...... is needed for use in clinical trials. AIM AND METHODS: Focussing on moderate exacerbations, this opinion piece reviews landmark trials and current guidelines to provide a practical definition of a moderate exacerbation. Specifically, we adapt the ATS/ERS consensus statement of terminology Reddel et al...

  19. Case-fatality of COPD exacerbations: a meta-analysis and statistical modeling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, M; Hoogenveen, R T; Rutten-van Mölken, M P

    2010-01-01

    's survival curve was divided into a critical and a stable period. Mortality during the stable period was then estimated by extrapolating the survival curve during the stable period back to the time of exacerbation onset. Case-fatality was defined as the excess mortality that results from an exacerbation...

  20. Effect of budesonide/formoterol pressurized metered-dose inhaler on exacerbations versus formoterol in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: The 6-month, randomized RISE (Revealing the Impact of Symbicort in reducing Exacerbations in COPD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gary T; Tashkin, Donald P; Skärby, Tor; Jorup, Carin; Sandin, Kristina; Greenwood, Michael; Pemberton, Kristine; Trudo, Frank

    2017-11-01

    Prevention of exacerbations is a primary goal for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) therapy. This randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group, multicenter study evaluated the effect of budesonide/formoterol pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) versus formoterol dry powder inhaler (DPI) on reducing COPD exacerbations. 1219 patients aged ≥40 years with moderate-to-very-severe COPD (per lung function) and a history of ≥1 COPD exacerbation received budesonide/formoterol pMDI 320/9 μg twice daily (BID) during a 4-week run-in. Patients were then randomized 1:1 to receive budesonide/formoterol pMDI 320/9 μg BID (n = 606) or formoterol DPI 9 μg BID (n = 613) for 26 weeks. Exacerbations were identified using predefined criteria for symptom worsening and treatment with systemic corticosteroids and/or antibiotics and/or hospitalization. The primary endpoint was annual rate of exacerbations. Budesonide/formoterol pMDI resulted in a 24% reduction in annual rate of exacerbations (0.85 vs 1.12; rate ratio: 0.76 [95% CI: 0.62, 0.92]; P = 0.006), and a significant risk reduction for time to first exacerbation (hazard ratio: 0.78 [95% CI: 0.64, 0.96]; P = 0.016) versus formoterol DPI. The most commonly reported adverse events (AEs; ≥3%) in budesonide/formoterol and formoterol groups were COPD (4.5% vs 8.6%) and nasopharyngitis (5.0% vs 5.2%). Pneumonia AEs were reported in 0.5% and 1.0% of budesonide/formoterol-treated and formoterol-treated patients, respectively. Budesonide/formoterol pMDI is an effective treatment option for reducing exacerbation rates in COPD patients with moderate-to-very-severe airflow limitation and history of exacerbations. No increase in pneumonia was observed with budesonide/formoterol; safety data were consistent with its established profile. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. MARGINAL IODINE DEFICIENCY EXACERBATES PERCHLORATE THYROID TOXICITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The environmental contaminant perchlorate disrupts thyroid homeostasis via inhibition of iodine uptake into the thyroid. This work tested whether iodine deficiency exacerbates the effects of perchlorate. Female 27 day-old LE rats were fed a custom iodine deficient diet with 0, 50...

  2. Use of the Asthma Control Questionnaire to predict future risk of asthma exacerbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Eli O; Busse, William W; Wenzel, Sally E; Belozeroff, Vasily; Weng, Haoling H; Feng, JingYuan; Chon, Yun; Chiou, Chiun-Fang; Globe, Denise; Lin, Shao-Lee

    2011-01-01

    Direct correlation of assessments of a validated composite measure such as the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) and risk of exacerbation has not been previously demonstrated in a randomized controlled trial. To evaluate the ability of the ACQ score over time to predict risk of a future asthma exacerbation. This analysis included data from a 12-week placebo-controlled trial (N = 292) of AMG 317, an IL-4 receptor α antagonist, in patients with moderate to severe atopic asthma. At baseline, patients had an ACQ score ≥1.5. Exacerbations were defined as requirement for systemic corticosteroids. A Cox proportional hazards model was used, with ACQ score as the time-dependent covariate. The analysis was repeated for individual components of the ACQ. Each 1-point increase in ACQ was associated with a 50% increased risk of exacerbation (hazard ratio, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.03-2.20) for the following 2-week period. Evaluation of individual ACQ components also demonstrated a similar trend, though each to a lesser degree than the full composite ACQ. Although based on a retrospective analysis, with small number of exacerbations, these findings support the utility of the composite ACQ score measurement to predict risk of future exacerbation in clinical trials and clinical practice. The composite ACQ score measurement was found to be a better predictor of future risk than individual ACQ components. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Gastro-esophageal reflux disease and exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Truls S; Marott, Jacob L; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that gastro-esophageal reflux disease is a risk factor for exacerbations in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Among 9622 participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, we identified 1259 individuals with COPD...... applied a multivariable Cox regression analysis with adjustment for well-established risk factors associated with COPD exacerbations or gastro-esophageal reflux disease, including COPD severity, and symptoms. RESULTS: Individuals with COPD and gastro-esophageal reflux disease had more chronic bronchitis...... and information on gastro-esophageal reflux disease and the regular use of acid inhibitory treatment. These individuals were followed for 5 years with regard to medically treated COPD exacerbations, which we defined as a short course treatment with oral corticosteroids alone or in combination with antibiotics. We...

  4. Haemophilus influenzae from Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbation Induce More Inflammation than Colonizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Cecilia L.; Manzel, Lori J.; Lehman, Erin E.; Humlicek, Alicia L.; Shi, Lei; Starner, Timothy D.; Denning, Gerene M.; Murphy, Timothy F.; Sethi, Sanjay; Look, Dwight C.

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: Airway infection with Haemophilus influenzae causes airway inflammation, and isolation of new strains of this bacteria is associated with increased risk of exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Objective: To determine whether strains of H. influenzae associated with exacerbations cause more inflammation than strains that colonize the airways of patients with COPD. Methods: Exacerbation strains of H. influenzae were isolated from patients during exacerbation of clinical symptoms with subsequent development of a homologous serum antibody response and were compared with colonization strains that were not associated with symptom worsening or an antibody response. Bacterial strains were compared using an in vivo mouse model of airway infection and in vitro cell culture model of bacterial adherence and defense gene and signaling pathway activation in primary human airway epithelial cells. Results: H. influenzae associated with exacerbations caused more airway neutrophil recruitment compared with colonization strains in the mouse model of airway bacterial infection. Furthermore, exacerbation strains adhered to epithelial cells in significantly higher numbers and induced more interleukin-8 release after interaction with airway epithelial cells. This effect was likely mediated by increased activation of the nuclear factor-κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Conclusions: The results indicate that H. influenzae strains isolated from patients during COPD exacerbations often induce more airway inflammation and likely have differences in virulence compared with colonizing strains. These findings support the concept that bacteria infecting the airway during COPD exacerbations mediate increased airway inflammation and contribute to decreased airway function. PMID:15805181

  5. Two injection digital block versus single subcutaneous palmar injection block for finger lacerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okur, O M; Şener, A; Kavakli, H Ş; Çelik, G K; Doğan, N Ö; Içme, F; Günaydin, G P

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to compare two digital nerve block techniques in patients due to traumatic digital lacerations. This was a randomized-controlled study designed prospectively in the emergency department of a university-based training and research hospital. Randomization was achieved by sealed envelopes. Half of the patients were randomised to traditional (two-injection) digital nerve block technique while single-injection digital nerve block technique was applied to the other half. Score of pain due to anesthetic infiltration and suturing, onset time of total anesthesia, need for an additional rescue injection were the parameters evaluated with both groups. Epinephrin added lidocaine hydrochloride preparation was used for the anesthetic application. Visual analog scale was used for the evaluation of pain scores. Outcomes were compared by using Mann-Whitney U test and Student t-test. Fifty emergency department patients ≥18 years requiring digital nerve block were enrolled in the study. Mean age of the patients was 33 (min-max: 19-86) and 39 (78 %) were male. No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of our main parameters; anesthesia pain score, suturing pain score, onset time of total anesthesia and rescue injection need. Single injection volar digital nerve block technique is a suitable alternative for digital anesthesias in emergency departments.

  6. Sputum microbiome temporal variability and dysbiosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: an analysis of the COPDMAP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhang; Singh, Richa; Miller, Bruce E; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Van Horn, Stephanie; Tomsho, Lynn; Mackay, Alexander; Allinson, James P; Webb, Adam J; Brookes, Anthony J; George, Leena M; Barker, Bethan; Kolsum, Umme; Donnelly, Louise E; Belchamber, Kylie; Barnes, Peter J; Singh, Dave; Brightling, Christopher E; Donaldson, Gavin C; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Brown, James R

    2018-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that lung microbiome dysbiosis, the disease associated disruption of the lung microbial community, might play a key role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. However, characterising temporal variability of the microbiome from large longitudinal COPD cohorts is needed to better understand this phenomenon. We performed a 16S ribosomal RNA survey of microbiome on 716 sputum samples collected longitudinally at baseline and exacerbations from 281 subjects with COPD at three UK clinical centres as part of the COPDMAP consortium. The microbiome composition was similar among centres and between stable and exacerbations except for a small significant decrease of Veillonella at exacerbations. The abundance of Moraxella was negatively associated with bacterial alpha diversity. Microbiomes were distinct between exacerbations associated with bacteria versus eosinophilic airway inflammation. Dysbiosis at exacerbations, measured as significant within subject deviation of microbial composition relative to baseline, was present in 41% of exacerbations. Dysbiosis was associated with increased exacerbation severity indicated by a greater fall in forced expiratory volume in one second, forced vital capacity and a greater increase in CAT score, particularly in exacerbations with concurrent eosinophilic inflammation. There was a significant difference of temporal variability of microbial alpha and beta diversity among centres. The variation of beta diversity significantly decreased in those subjects with frequent historical exacerbations. Microbial dysbiosis is a feature of some exacerbations and its presence, especially in concert with eosinophilic inflammation, is associated with more severe exacerbations indicated by a greater fall in lung function. Results, NCT01620645. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless

  7. The role of human rhinovirus (HRV) species on asthma exacerbation severity in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Katrina A; Prendergast, Luke A; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Tang, Mimi; O'Sullivan, Molly; Tran, Thomas; Druce, Julian; Bardin, Philip; Abramson, Michael J; Erbas, Bircan

    2017-10-11

    It is recognized that human rhinovirus (HRV) infection is an important factor in asthma exacerbations requiring hospitalization in children. However, previous studies have disagreed on the differential impact of various HRV species. We sought to assess the impact of HRV species on the severity of asthma exacerbations in children and adolescents. We also examined whether the effect of HRV species on severity was modified by age and gender. Virus strain was determined for 113 children with HRV detectable at the time of admission for asthma exacerbation. Patient characteristics were collected on admission and exacerbation severity was scored using several validated scales. HRV species by itself was not associated with moderate/severe vs. mild exacerbations. Boys with HRV-C infections were more likely (OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 1.2-13.4) to have a moderate/severe exacerbation than girls with HRV-C (p = 0.04 for interaction term). Higher odds were observed in younger boys (3 years old: OR: 9.1, 95% CI: 1.8-47.1 vs 5 years old: OR: 3.3, 95% CI: 0.9-11.8 vs 7 years old: OR: 1.2, 95% CI: 0.2-6.6). In contrast, children with HRV-C infection and sensitized to pollen during the pollen season were less likely to have moderate/severe exacerbations (p = 0.01 for the interaction term). Acute asthma exacerbations are more likely to be moderate/severe in boys under 5 years of age who had HRV-C infection on admission. The opposite was found in children with sensitization to pollen during pollen season.

  8. Can resistive breathing injure the lung? Implications for COPD exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilakopoulos T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Theodoros Vassilakopoulos, Dimitrios Toumpanakis Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece Abstract: In obstructive lung diseases, airway inflammation leads to bronchospasm and thus resistive breathing, especially during exacerbations. This commentary discusses experimental evidence that resistive breathing per se (the mechanical stimulus in the absence of underlying airway inflammation leads to lung injury and inflammation (mechanotransduction. The potential implications of resistive breathing-induced mechanotrasduction in COPD exacerbations are presented along with the available clinical evidence. Keywords: resistive breathing, COPD, mechanotransduction, bronchoconstriction, inflammation

  9. Pulmonary Exacerbation Score in Cystlc Fibrosis Patients: Reliability and Validity Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by recurrent pulmonary exacerbations (PEs), but consensus on diagnostic criteria for PE is lacking. The use of a consistent definition of PE as an outcome measure in CF clinical trials would allow meaningful comparison across centers. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of a simplified version of the Seattle Pulmonary Exacerbation Score (SPEX). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational ...

  10. Inverse relationship between nonadherence to original GOLD treatment guidelines and exacerbations of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foda HD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hussein D Foda,1,2 Anthony Brehm,1,2 Karen Goldsteen,3 Norman H Edelman2,4 1Division of Pulmonary Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Northport, 2Division of Pulmonary Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY, 3MPH Program, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, 4Department of Preventative Medicine and Program in Public Health, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY, USA Background: Prescriber disagreement is among the reasons for poor adherence to COPD treatment guidelines; it is yet not clear whether this leads to adverse outcomes. We tested whether undertreatment according to the original Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD guidelines led to increased exacerbations.Methods: Records of 878 patients with spirometrically confirmed COPD who were followed from 2005 to 2010 at one Veterans Administration (VA Medical Center were analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed to assess differences in exacerbation rates between severity groups. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between noncompliance with guidelines and exacerbation rates.Findings: About 19% were appropriately treated by guidelines; 14% overtreated, 44% undertreated, and in 23% treatment did not follow any guideline. Logistic regression revealed a strong inverse relationship between undertreatment and exacerbation rate when severity of obstruction was held constant. Exacerbations per year by GOLD stage were significantly different from each other: mild 0.15, moderate 0.27, severe 0.38, very severe 0.72, and substantially fewer than previously reported.Interpretation: The guidelines were largely not followed. Undertreatment predominated but, contrary to expectations, was associated with fewer exacerbations. Thus, clinicians were likely

  11. Efficacy of a self-management plan in exacerbations for patients with advanced COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Nieto JM

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Juan Miguel Sánchez-Nieto,1,2 Rubén Andújar-Espinosa,3 Roberto Bernabeu-Mora,1,2 Chunshao Hu,1 Beatriz Gálvez-Martínez,1 Andrés Carrillo-Alcaraz,1 Carlos Federico Álvarez-Miranda,3 Olga Meca-Birlanga,1 Eva Abad-Corpa4 1Division of Pneumology, Hospital Morales Meseguer, 2University of Murcia, 3Division of Pneumology, Hospital Arrixaca, Murcia, 4Department of Professional Development Unit, Murcia, Spain Background: Self-management interventions improve different outcome variables in various chronic diseases. Their role in COPD has not been clearly established. We assessed the efficacy of an intervention called the self-management program on the need for hospital care due to disease exacerbation in patients with advanced COPD.Methods: Multicenter, randomized study in two hospitals with follow-up of 1 year. All the patients had severe or very severe COPD, and had gone to either an accident and emergency (A&E department or had been admitted to a hospital at least once in the previous year due to exacerbation of COPD. The intervention consisted of a group education session on the main characteristics of the disease, an individual training session on inhalation techniques, at the start and during the 3rd month, and a written action plan containing instructions for physical activity and treatment for stable phases and exacerbations. We determined the combined number of COPD-related hospitalizations and emergency visits per patient per year. Secondary endpoints were number of patients with visits to A&E and the number of patients hospitalized because of exacerbations, use of antibiotics and corticosteroids, length of hospital stay, and all-cause mortality.Results: After 1 year, the rate of COPD exacerbations with visits to A&E or hospitalization had decreased from 1.37 to 0.89 (P=0.04 and the number of exacerbations dropped from 52 to 42 in the group of patients who received the intervention. The numbers of patients hospitalized, at 19 (40

  12. Antibiotics for bronchiectasis exacerbations in children: rationale and study protocol for a randomised placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Anne B

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite bronchiectasis being increasingly recognised as an important cause of chronic respiratory morbidity in both indigenous and non-indigenous settings globally, high quality evidence to inform management is scarce. It is assumed that antibiotics are efficacious for all bronchiectasis exacerbations, but not all practitioners agree. Inadequately treated exacerbations may risk lung function deterioration. Our study tests the hypothesis that both oral azithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid are superior to placebo at improving resolution rates of respiratory exacerbations by day 14 in children with bronchiectasis unrelated to cystic fibrosis. Methods We are conducting a bronchiectasis exacerbation study (BEST, which is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial, in five centres (Brisbane, Perth, Darwin, Melbourne, Auckland. In the component of BEST presented here, 189 children fulfilling inclusion criteria are randomised (allocation-concealed to receive amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (22.5 mg/kg twice daily with placebo-azithromycin; azithromycin (5 mg/kg daily with placebo-amoxicillin-clavulanic acid; or placebo-azithromycin with placebo-amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for 14 days. Clinical data and a paediatric cough-specific quality of life score are obtained at baseline, at the start and resolution of exacerbations, and at day 14. In most children, blood and deep nasal swabs are also collected at the same time points. The primary outcome is the proportion of children whose exacerbations have resolved at day 14. The main secondary outcome is the paediatric cough-specific quality of life score. Other outcomes are time to next exacerbation; requirement for hospitalisation; duration of exacerbation; and spirometry data. Descriptive viral and bacteriological data from nasal samples and blood markers will also be reported. Discussion Effective, evidence-based management

  13. COPD exacerbations associated with the modified Medical Research Council scale and COPD assessment test among Humana Medicare members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale MK

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Margaret K Pasquale,1 Yihua Xu,1 Christine L Baker,2 Kelly H Zou,3 John G Teeter,4 Andrew M Renda,5 Cralen C Davis,1 Theodore C Lee,6 Joel Bobula2 1Comprehensive Health Insights, Inc., Humana Inc., Louisville, KY, 2Outcomes and Evidence, Global Health & Value, Pfizer Inc., 3Statistical Center for Outcomes, Real-World and Aggregate Data, Global Innovative Pharma Business, Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, 4Global Medical Development, Global Innovative Pharma Business, Pfizer Inc., Groton, CT, 5Retail Strategy & Execution, Humana Inc., Louisville, KY, 6Global Medical Affairs, Global Innovative Pharma Business, Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USA Background: The Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines recommend assessment of COPD severity, which includes symptomatology using the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC or COPD assessment test (CAT score in addition to the degree of airflow obstruction and exacerbation history. While there is great interest in incorporating symptomatology, little is known about how patient reported symptoms are associated with future exacerbations and exacerbation-related costs.Methods: The mMRC and CAT were mailed to a randomly selected sample of 4,000 Medicare members aged >40 years, diagnosed with COPD (≥2 encounters with International Classification of Dis­eases-9th Edition Clinical Modification: 491.xx, 492.xx, 496.xx, ≥30 days apart. The exacerbations and exacerbation-related costs were collected from claims data during 365-day post-survey after exclusion of members lost to follow-up or with cancer, organ transplant, or pregnancy. A logistic regression model estimated the predictive value of exacerbation history and symptomatology on exacerbations during follow-up, and a generalized linear model with log link and gamma distribution estimated the predictive value of exacerbation history and symptomatology on exacerbation-related costs.Results: Among a total of 1,159 members who returned the

  14. Predicting high risk of exacerbations in bronchiectasis: the E-FACED score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez-Garcia MA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Martinez-Garcia MA,1,2 Athanazio RA,3 Girón R,4 Máiz-Carro L,5 de la Rosa D,6 Olveira C,7 de Gracia J,2,8 Vendrell M,9 Prados-Sánchez C,10 Gramblicka G,11 Corso Pereira M,12 Lundgren FL,13 Fernandes De Figueiredo M,14 Arancibia F,15 Rached SZ3 1Pulmonary Service, Polytechnic and University La Fe Hospital, Valencia, Spain; 2CIBERes, CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias. Madrid. Spain; 3Pulmonary Division, Heart Institute (Incor, Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo; 4Pneumology Service, Hospital La Princesa, 5Pneumology Service, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, 6Pneumology Unit, Hospital Plató, Barcelona, 7Pneumology, Málaga Regional University Hospital, Instituto de Biomedicina de Málaga (IBIMA, Málaga University, Spain; 8Pneumology Service, Hospital Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, 9Bronchiectasis Group IDIBGI, Dr. Trueta University Hospital. UdG. Ciberes CB06/06/0030, 10Unidad de Fibrosis Quística y Bronquiectasias. Hospital Universitario La Paz. Madrid. Spain; 11Pneumology Service, Hospital del Tórax Dr A Cetrángolo, Buenos Aires, Argentina; 12Pneumology Service, Universidade Estadual de Campinas UNICAMP, Sao Paulo, 13Pneumology Service, Hospital Octávio de Freitas, Recife, 14Pneumology Service, Hospital de Messejana, Fortaleza, Brazil; 15Pneumology Service, Instituto Nacional del Tórax, Santiago de Chile, Chile Background: Although the FACED score has demonstrated a great prognostic capacity in bronchiectasis, it does not include the number or severity of exacerbations as a separate variable, which is important in the natural history of these patients.Objective: Construction and external validation of a new index, the E-FACED, to evaluate the predictive capacity of exacerbations and mortality.Methods: The new score was constructed on the basis of the complete cohort for the construction of the original FACED score, while the external validation was undertaken with six cohorts from three

  15. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Brent C.; Constant, Stephanie L.; Patierno, Steven R.; Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Ceryak, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  16. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Brent C. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Constant, Stephanie L. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Patierno, Steven R. [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); GW Cancer Institute, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Jurjus, Rosalyn A. [Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Biology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Ceryak, Susan M., E-mail: phmsmc@gwumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  17. A trial of beclomethasone/formoterol in COPD using EXACT-PRO to measure exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Dave; Kampschulte, Jorg; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A

    2013-01-01

    -primary outcome, and the Exacerbations of Chronic Pulmonary Disease Tool (EXACT) means of collecting patient-reported outcome data are also being used to enhance the detection of exacerbation events. EXACT data are being collected using a novel application of a digital platform technology. FORWARD is therefore...

  18. Effects of puberty on cystic fibrosis related pulmonary exacerbations in women versus men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Shelby; Rosenbluth, Daniel; Raghavan, Deepa; Zheng, Jie; Jain, Raksha

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic data from studies of airway diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis indicate a gender disparity where women have worse outcomes. The explanation for this is largely unknown. We hypothesize that female sex hormones play a role in this gender disparity, predisposing women to more exacerbations and decreased lung function post-puberty. In Cystic Fibrosis, to determine if puberty marks a point of increasing exacerbations and decreasing lung function in women relative to men. Using the United States Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry, we used linear regression to compare lung function and rate of pulmonary exacerbations in men versus women before and after puberty. Of 5,137 subjects who met inclusion criteria, 2,689 were male and 2,448 were female. Average age of puberty was found to be 13.2 ± 2.2 years in men and 11.2 ± 2.0 years of age in women. Percent predicted FEV1 pre- and post-puberty were no different between males versus females (P = 0.44 pre-puberty and P = 0.16 post-puberty). In contrast, women had a significantly higher rate of pulmonary exacerbations post-puberty than men (1.17 ± 1.35 exacerbations per year in women versus 0.95 ± 1.27 in men; P puberty, the rate of pulmonary exacerbations increased in adolescent women relative to men with cystic fibrosis, supporting a role for sex hormones in the disease process. Further understanding of the mechanisms that modulate sex hormone receptors in airway disease may serve as future targets for therapy. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Pulmonary exacerbation in adults with bronchiectasis: a consensus definition for clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Adam T; Haworth, Charles S; Aliberti, Stefano; Barker, Alan; Blasi, Francesco; Boersma, Wim; Chalmers, James D; De Soyza, Anthony; Dimakou, Katerina; Elborn, J Stuart; Feldman, Charles; Flume, Patrick; Goeminne, Pieter C; Loebinger, Michael R; Menendez, Rosario; Morgan, Lucy; Murris, Marlene; Polverino, Eva; Quittner, Alexandra; Ringshausen, Felix C; Tino, Gregory; Torres, Antoni; Vendrell, Montserrat; Welte, Tobias; Wilson, Rob; Wong, Conroy; O'Donnell, Anne; Aksamit, Timothy

    2017-06-01

    There is a need for a clear definition of exacerbations used in clinical trials in patients with bronchiectasis. An expert conference was convened to develop a consensus definition of an exacerbation for use in clinical research.A systematic review of exacerbation definitions used in clinical trials from January 2000 until December 2015 and involving adults with bronchiectasis was conducted. A Delphi process followed by a round-table meeting involving bronchiectasis experts was organised to reach a consensus definition. These experts came from Europe (representing the European Multicentre Bronchiectasis Research Collaboration), North America (representing the US Bronchiectasis Research Registry/COPD Foundation), Australasia and South Africa.The definition was unanimously approved by the working group as: a person with bronchiectasis with a deterioration in three or more of the following key symptoms for at least 48 h: cough; sputum volume and/or consistency; sputum purulence; breathlessness and/or exercise tolerance; fatigue and/or malaise; haemoptysis AND a clinician determines that a change in bronchiectasis treatment is required.The working group proposes the use of this consensus-based definition for bronchiectasis exacerbation in future clinical research involving adults with bronchiectasis. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  20. Determining the diagnostic value of endogenous carbon monoxide in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease exacerbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogan, N. O.; Corbacioglu, S. K.; Bildik, F.; Kilicaslan, I.; Hakoglu, O.; Gunaydin, G. P.; Cevik, Y.; Ulker, V.; Gokcen, E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether endogenous carbon monoxide levels in exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients were higher compared to healthy individuals and to investigate alteration of carbon monoxide levels across the three different severity stages of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria related to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease exacerbations. Methods: The prospective study was conducted from January to March 2011 at two medical institutions in Ankara, Turkey, and comprised patients of acute Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease exacerbations. The severity of the exacerbations was based on the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. Patients with active tobacco smoking, suspicious carbon monoxide poisoning and uncertain diagnosis were excluded. healthy control subjects who did not have any comorbid diseases and smoking habitus were also enrolled to compare the differences between carboxyhaemoglobin levels A two-tailed Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction was done following a Kruskal-Wallis test for statistical purposes. Results: There were 90 patients and 81 controls in the study. Carboxyhaemoglobin levels were higher in the patients than the controls (p<0.001). As for the three severity stages, Group 1 had a median carboxyhaemoglobin of 1.6 (0.95-2.00). The corresponding levels in Group 2 (1.8 (1.38-2.20)) and Group 3 (1.9 (1.5-3.0)) were higher than the controls (p<0.001 and p<0.005 respectively). No statistically significant difference between Group 1 and the controls (1.30 (1.10-1.55)) was observed (p<0.434). Conclusion: Carboxyhaemoglobin levels were significantly higher in exacerbations compared with the normal population. Also, in more serious exacerbations, carboxyhaemoglobin levels were significantly increased compared with healthy individuals and mild exacerbations. (author)

  1. Can a school-based hand hygiene program reduce asthma exacerbations among elementary school children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, Joe K.; Zhang, Bin; McClure, Leslie A.; Bailey, William C.; Harrington, Kathy F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Viral upper respiratory infections have been implicated as a major cause of asthma exacerbations among school age children. Regular hand washing is the most effective method to prevent the spread of viral respiratory infections but, effective hand washing practices are difficult to establish in schools. Objectives This randomized controlled trial evaluated whether a standardized regimen of hand washing plus alcohol-based hand sanitizer could reduce asthma exacerbations more than schools’ usual hand hygiene practices. Methods This was a two year, community-based, randomized controlled crossover trial. Schools were randomized to usual care then intervention (Sequence 1) or intervention then usual care (Sequence 2). Intervention schools were provided with alcohol-based hand sanitizer, hand soap, and hand hygiene education. The primary outcome was the proportion of students experiencing an asthma exacerbation each month. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the difference in the marginal rate of exacerbations between sequences while controlling for individual demographic factors and the correlation within each student and between students within each school. Results 527 students with asthma were enrolled among 31 schools. The hand hygiene intervention did not reduce the number of asthma exacerbations as compared to the schools’ usual hand hygiene practices (p=0.132). There was a strong temporal trend as both sequences experienced fewer exacerbations during Year 2 as compared to Year 1 (phand hygiene behaviors and resources in usual care schools. Therefore, these results should be viewed cautiously. PMID:23069487

  2. Exacerbations of COPD: quantifying the patient's perspective using discrete choice modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughney, J; Partridge, M R; Vogelmeier, C; Larsson, T; Kessler, R; Ståhl, E; Brice, R; Löfdahl, C-G

    2005-10-01

    Patient-centred care is the current vogue in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but it is only recently that robust techniques have become available to determine patients' values and preferences. In this international cross-sectional study, patients' concerns and expectations regarding COPD exacerbations were explored using discrete choice modelling. A fractional factorial design was used to develop scenarios comprising a combination of levels for nine different attributes. In face-to-face interviews, patients were presented with paired scenarios and asked to choose the least preferable. Multinomial logit (with hierarchical Bayes) methods were used to estimate utilities. A total of 125 patients (82 males; mean age 66 yrs; 4.6 mean exacerbations.yr-1) were recruited. The attributes of exacerbations considered most important were impact on everyday life (20%), need for medical care (16%), number of future attacks (12%) and breathlessness (11%). The next most important attributes were speed of recovery, productive cough and social impact (all 9%), followed by sleep disturbance and impact on mood (both 7%). Importantly, analysis of utility shifts showed that patients most feared being hospitalised, housebound or bedridden. These issues were more important than symptom improvement. Strategies for the clinical management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease should clearly address patients' concerns and focus on preventing and treating exacerbations to avoid these feared outcomes.

  3. Comparison of COPD Assessment Test and Clinical COPD Questionnaire to predict the risk of exacerbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo YS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Yong Suk Jo,1 Ho Il Yoon,2 Deog Kyeom Kim,3 Chul-Gyu Yoo,1 Chang-Hoon Lee1 1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Gyeonggi, 3Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background and objective: Guidelines recommend the use of simple but comprehensive tools such as COPD Assessment Test (CAT and Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ to assess health status in COPD patients. We aimed to compare the ability of CAT and CCQ to predict exacerbation in COPD patients. Methods: We organized a multicenter prospective cohort study that included COPD patients. The relationships between CAT, CCQ, and other clinical measurements were analyzed by correlation analysis, and the impact of CAT and CCQ scores on exacerbation was analyzed by logistic regression analyses and receiver operating characteristic curve. Results: Among 121 COPD patients, CAT and CCQ score correlated with other symptom measures, lung function and exercise capacity as well. Compared with patients who did not experience exacerbation, those who experienced exacerbation (n=45; 38.2% exhibited more severe airflow limitation, were more likely to have a history of exacerbation in the year prior to enrollment, and demonstrated higher CAT scores. CCQ scores were not significantly associated with exacerbations. A CAT score of ≥15 was an independent risk factor for exacerbation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.40; 95% CI, 1.03–6.50; P=0.04. Furthermore, CAT scores of ≥15 demonstrated an increased predictive ability for exacerbation compared with currently accepted guidelines for the use of CAT (≥10 and CCQ (≥1 in the assessment of COPD

  4. Viruses and bacteria in acute asthma exacerbations - A GA(2) LEN-DARE* systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulos, N G; Christodoulou, I; Rohde, G

    2011-01-01

    and sensitive methodologies. This systematic review summarizes current knowledge and developments in infection epidemiology of acute asthma in children and adults, describing the known impact for each individual agent and highlighting knowledge gaps. Among infectious agents, human rhinoviruses are the most...... and bacteria in acute asthma exacerbations - A GA(2) LEN-DARE systematic review. Allergy 2010; DOI: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2010.02505.x. ABSTRACT: A major part of the burden of asthma is caused by acute exacerbations. Exacerbations have been strongly and consistently associated with respiratory infections...

  5. The association of lung function and St. George's respiratory questionnaire with exacerbations in COPD: a systematic literature review and regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Amber L; Marvel, Jessica; Fahrbach, Kyle; Cadarette, Sarah M; Wilcox, Teresa K; Donohue, James F

    2016-04-16

    This study investigated the relationship between changes in lung function (as measured by forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1]) and the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and economically significant outcomes of exacerbations and health resource utilization, with an aim to provide insight into whether the effects of COPD treatment on lung function and health status relate to a reduced risk for exacerbations. A systematic literature review was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify randomized controlled trials of adult COPD patients published in English since 2002 in order to relate mean change in FEV1 and SGRQ total score to exacerbations and hospitalizations. These predictor/outcome pairs were analyzed using sample-size weighted regression analyses, which estimated a regression slope relating the two treatment effects, as well as a confidence interval and a test of statistical significance. Sixty-seven trials were included in the analysis. Significant relationships were seen between: FEV1 and any exacerbation (time to first exacerbation or patients with at least one exacerbation, p = 0.001); between FEV1 and moderate-to-severe exacerbations (time to first exacerbation, patients with at least one exacerbation, or annualized rate, p = 0.045); between SGRQ score and any exacerbation (time to first exacerbation or patients with at least one exacerbation, p = 0.0002) and between SGRQ score and moderate-to-severe exacerbations (time to first exacerbation or patients with at least one exacerbation, p = 0.0279; annualized rate, p = 0.0024). Relationships between FEV1 or SGRQ score and annualized exacerbation rate for any exacerbation or hospitalized exacerbations were not significant. The regression analysis demonstrated a significant association between improvements in FEV1 and SGRQ score and lower risk for COPD exacerbations. Even in cases of non-significant relationships

  6. Psychological Factors and Pain Exacerbation in Knee Osteoarthritis : A Web Based Case-Crossover Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erfani, Tahereh; Keefe, Francis; Bennell, Kim; Chen, J; Makovey, J; Metcalf, B; Williams, A.D.; Zhang, Y; Hunter, David

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The pain experienced by osteoarthritis (OA) patients is neither constant nor unchanging and patients experience episodes of pain exacerbations. Using an innovative web based case-crossover design, we evaluated whether psychological factors are risk factors for pain exacerbations in

  7. Age-Specific Characteristics of Inpatients with Severe Asthma Exacerbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Sekiya

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The characteristics of inpatients with severe asthma vary depending on age. We need to establish countermeasures for asthma exacerbation according to the characteristics of patients depending on age.

  8. Do frequent moderate exacerbations contribute to progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients who are ex-smokers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreyse J

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Jorge Dreyse,1 Orlando Díaz,1 Paula Repetto,2 Arturo Morales,1 Fernando Saldías,1 Carmen Lisboa11Department of Pulmonary Diseases, School of Medicine, 2School of Psychology, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, ChileBackground: In addition to smoking, acute exacerbations are considered to be a contributing factor to progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, these findings come from studies including active smokers, while results in ex-smokers are scarce and contradictory. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if frequent acute moderate exacerbations are associated with an accelerated decline in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 and impairment of functional and clinical outcomes in ex-smoking COPD patients.Methods: A cohort of 100 ex-smoking patients recruited for a 2-year follow-up study was evaluated at inclusion and at 6-monthly scheduled visits while in a stable condition. Evaluation included anthropometry, spirometry, inspiratory capacity, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation, severity of dyspnea, a 6-minute walking test, BODE (Body mass index, airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea, Exercise performance index, and quality of life (St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire and Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire. Severity of exacerbation was graded as moderate or severe according to health care utilization. Patients were classified as infrequent exacerbators if they had no or one acute exacerbation/year and frequent exacerbators if they had two or more acute exacerbations/year. Random effects modeling, within hierarchical linear modeling, was used for analysis.Results: During follow-up, 419 (96% moderate acute exacerbations were registered. At baseline, frequent exacerbators had more severe disease than infrequent exacerbators according to their FEV1 and BODE index, and also showed greater impairment in inspiratory capacity, forced vital capacity, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation

  9. Characteristics associated with clinical severity and inflammatory phenotype of naturally occurring virus-induced exacerbations of asthma in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Asger; Laing, Ingrid A; Poulsen, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In experimental studies viral infections have been shown to induce type 2 inflammation in asthmatics, but whether this is a feature of naturally occurring virus-induced asthma exacerbations is unknown. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) released from the airway epithelium in response...... occurring virus-induced exacerbations of asthma and whether TSLP is associated with this type 2 inflammation. METHODS: Patients presenting to hospital with acute asthma were examined during the exacerbation, and after 4 weeks recovery. The assessments included spirometry, FeNO and induced sputum...... in patients during virus-induced asthma exacerbations, to the same degree as non-viral exacerbations, and correlate negatively with FEV1. However, in virus-positive patients, high TSLP expression during exacerbation was associated with low sputum eosinophils, suggesting that the effect of TSLP in vivo...

  10. Management and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: a state of the art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedzicha Jadwiga A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are important events in the natural history of this prevalent and devastating condition. This review provides a concise, state of the art summary on prevention and management of exacerbations. Considerable new data underpins evidence in support of many preventative interventions, pharmacological and non-pharmacological, that are now available. Challenges remain in developing new approaches, and delivering those that already exist to the right patient at the right time. Management of an exacerbation remains stepwise according to clinical severity, but there is now additional focus on addressing comorbidities and taking the opportunity at acute events to optimise preventative strategies for the future. Ultimately, exacerbations are heterogeneous events in a heterogeneous disease, and an individualised approach is paramount.

  11. Procalcitonin to guide antibiotic administration in COPD exacerbations: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Mathioudakis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Challenges in the differentiation of the aetiology of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD have led to significant overuse of antibiotics. Serum procalcitonin, released in response to bacterial infections, but not viral infections, could possibly identify AECOPD requiring antibiotics. In this meta-analysis we assessed the clinical effectiveness of procalcitonin-based protocols to initiate or discontinue antibiotics in patients presenting with AECOPD. Based on a prospectively registered protocol, we reviewed the literature and selected randomised or quasi-randomised trials comparing procalcitonin-based protocols to initiate or discontinue antibiotics versus standard care in AECOPD. We followed Cochrane and GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation guidance to assess risk of bias, quality of evidence and to perform meta-analyses. We included eight trials evaluating 1062 patients with AECOPD. Procalcitonin-based protocols decreased antibiotic prescription (relative risk (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.43–0.73 and total antibiotic exposure (mean difference (MD −3.83, 95% CI (−4.32–−3.35, without affecting clinical outcomes such as rate of treatment failure (RR 0.81, 0.62–1.06, length of hospitalisation (MD −0.76, −1.95–0.43, exacerbation recurrence rate (RR 0.96, 0.69–1.35 or mortality (RR 0.99, 0.58–1.69. However, the quality of the available evidence is low to moderate, because of methodological limitations and small overall study population. Procalcitonin-based protocols appear to be clinically effective; however, confirmatory trials with rigorous methodology are required.

  12. Static and dynamic hyperinflation during severe acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Geffen WH

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Wouter H van Geffen,1,2 Huib AM Kerstjens2 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Medical Centre Leeuwarden, Leeuwarden, the Netherlands; 2Department of Pulmonary Diseases, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands Background: Static hyperinflation is known to be increased during moderate acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (AECOPD, but few data exist in patients with severe exacerbations of COPD. The role of dynamic hyperinflation during exacerbations is unclear. Methods: In a prospective, observational cohort study, we recruited patients admitted to hospital for AECOPD. The following measurements were performed upon admission and again after resolution (stable state at least 42 days later: inspiratory capacity (IC, body plethysmography, dynamic hyperinflation by metronome-paced IC measurement, health-related quality of life and dyspnea. Results: Forty COPD patients were included of whom 28 attended follow-up. The IC was low at admission (2.05±0.11 L and increased again during resolution by 15.6%±23.1% or 0.28±0.08 L (mean ± standard error of the mean, p<0.01. Testing of metronome-paced changes in IC was feasible, and it decreased by 0.74±0.06 L at admission, similarly to at stable state. Clinical COPD Questionnaire score was 3.7±0.2 at admission and improved by 1.7±0.2 points (p<0.01, and the Borg dyspnea score improved by 2.2±0.5 points from 4.4±0.4 at admission (p<0.01. Conclusion: Static hyperinflation is increased during severe AECOPD requiring hospitalization compared with stable state. We could measure metronome-paced dynamic hyperinflation during severe AECOPD but found no increase. Keywords: COPD, exacerbations of COPD, static hyperinflation, dynamic hyperinflation, severe acute exacerbations of COPD, COPD exacerbation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  13. Fine particulate pollution and asthma exacerbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouazza, Naïm; Foissac, Frantz; Urien, Saik; Guedj, Romain; Carbajal, Ricardo; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Chappuy, Hélène

    2017-12-19

    As the results from epidemiological studies about the impact of outdoor air pollution on asthma in children are heterogeneous, our objective was to investigate the association between asthma exacerbation in children and exposure to air pollutants. A database of 1 264 585 paediatric visits during the 2010-2015 period to the emergency rooms from 20 emergency departments (EDs) of 'Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP)', the largest hospital group in Europe, was used. A total of 47 107 visits were classified as asthma exacerbations. Concentration of air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide, ozone, fine particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10  µm (PM 10 ) and 2.5 µm (PM 2.5 )), as well as meteorological data, evolution of respiratory syncytial virus infection and pollen exposition, were collected on an hourly or daily basis for the same period using institutional databases. To assess the association between air pollution and asthma, mixed-effects quasi-Poisson regression modelling was performed. The only compound independently associated with ED visits for asthma was PM 2.5 (Ppollutants. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Risk factors for acute exacerbations of COPD in a primary care population: a retrospective observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllerová, Hana; Shukla, Amit; Hawkins, Adam; Quint, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate risk factors associated with exacerbation frequency in primary care. Information on exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has mainly been generated by secondary care-based clinical cohorts. Design Retrospective observational cohort study. Setting Electronic medical records database (England and Wales). Participants 58 589 patients with COPD aged ≥40 years with COPD diagnosis recorded between 1 April 2009 and 30 September 2012, and with at least 365 days of follow-up before and after the COPD diagnosis, were identified in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Mean age: 69 years; 47% female; mean forced expiratory volume in 1s 60% predicted. Outcome measures Data on moderate or severe exacerbation episodes defined by diagnosis and/or medication codes 12 months following cohort entry were retrieved, together with demographic and clinical characteristics. Associations between patient characteristics and odds of having none versus one, none versus frequent (≥2) and one versus frequent exacerbations over 12 months follow-up were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models. Results During follow-up, 23% of patients had evidence of frequent moderate-to-severe COPD exacerbations (24% one; 53% none). Independent predictors of increased odds of having exacerbations during the follow-up, either frequent episodes or one episode, included prior exacerbations, increasing dyspnoea score, increasing grade of airflow limitation, females and prior or current history of several comorbidities (eg, asthma, depression, anxiety, heart failure and cancer). Conclusions Primary care-managed patients with COPD at the highest risk of exacerbations can be identified by exploring medical history for the presence of prior exacerbations, greater COPD disease severity and co-occurrence of other medical conditions. PMID:25524545

  15. Classification of Exacerbation Frequency in the COPDGene Cohort Using Deep Learning with Deep Belief Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jun; Dutta, Joyita; Guo, Ning; Hu, Chenhui; Zhou, Dan; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Li, Quanzheng

    2016-12-21

    This study aims to develop an automatic classifier based on deep learning for exacerbation frequency in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A threelayer deep belief network (DBN) with two hidden layers and one visible layer was employed to develop classification models and the models' robustness to exacerbation was analyzed. Subjects from the COPDGene cohort were labeled with exacerbation frequency, defined as the number of exacerbation events per year. 10,300 subjects with 361 features each were included in the analysis. After feature selection and parameter optimization, the proposed classification method achieved an accuracy of 91.99%, using a 10-fold cross validation experiment. The analysis of DBN weights showed that there was a good visual spatial relationship between the underlying critical features of different layers. Our findings show that the most sensitive features obtained from the DBN weights are consistent with the consensus showed by clinical rules and standards for COPD diagnostics. We thus demonstrate that DBN is a competitive tool for exacerbation risk assessment for patients suffering from COPD.

  16. Does granulocyte colony-stimulating factor exacerbate radiation-induced acute lung injury in rats?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Gouji; Awaya, Hitomi; Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2000-01-01

    Radiation pneumonitis (RP) frequently occurs as a complication of thoracic irradiation. However, the mechanism of RP is not well known. Activated neutrophils are a possible pathogenesis of RP. Neutrophil activation induced by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) may exacerbate RP. We studied the effects of recombinant human G-CSF on acute lung injury induced by thoracic irradiation using rats. Animals were divided into three groups: sham irradiation with saline control, irradiation alone, and irradiation with G-CSF. Actual irradiation was given as a single fraction of 16 Gy delivered to the right hemithorax. G-CSF at a dose of 12 μg/body was administered subcutaneously once a day from 14 to 18 days after actual irradiation. Lung injury was evaluated 21 days after irradiation by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid findings and the lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio. Neutrophil and lymphocyte counts in BAL fluid and the W/D ratio were significantly increased in the irradiation alone and the irradiation with G-CSF groups compared with those of the sham irradiation+saline control group. However, there was no significant difference observed between the irradiation alone and irradiation with G-CSF groups. In conclusion, this study suggests that postradiation administration of G-CSF does not exacerbate acute lung injury induced by thoracic irradiation in rats. (author)

  17. Does granulocyte colony-stimulating factor exacerbate radiation-induced acute lung injury in rats?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Gouji; Awaya, Hitomi; Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Matsunaga, Naofumi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-08-01

    Radiation pneumonitis (RP) frequently occurs as a complication of thoracic irradiation. However, the mechanism of RP is not well known. Activated neutrophils are a possible pathogenesis of RP. Neutrophil activation induced by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) may exacerbate RP. We studied the effects of recombinant human G-CSF on acute lung injury induced by thoracic irradiation using rats. Animals were divided into three groups: sham irradiation with saline control, irradiation alone, and irradiation with G-CSF. Actual irradiation was given as a single fraction of 16 Gy delivered to the right hemithorax. G-CSF at a dose of 12 {mu}g/body was administered subcutaneously once a day from 14 to 18 days after actual irradiation. Lung injury was evaluated 21 days after irradiation by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid findings and the lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio. Neutrophil and lymphocyte counts in BAL fluid and the W/D ratio were significantly increased in the irradiation alone and the irradiation with G-CSF groups compared with those of the sham irradiation+saline control group. However, there was no significant difference observed between the irradiation alone and irradiation with G-CSF groups. In conclusion, this study suggests that postradiation administration of G-CSF does not exacerbate acute lung injury induced by thoracic irradiation in rats. (author)

  18. Metabolomics of pulmonary exacerbations reveals the personalized nature of cystic fibrosis disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Quinn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cystic fibrosis (CF is a genetic disease that results in chronic infections of the lungs. CF patients experience intermittent pulmonary exacerbations (CFPE that are associated with poor clinical outcomes. CFPE involves an increase in disease symptoms requiring more aggressive therapy. Methods. Longitudinal sputum samples were collected from 11 patients (n = 44 samples to assess the effect of exacerbations on the sputum metabolome using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The data was analyzed with MS/MS molecular networking and multivariate statistics. Results. The individual patient source had a larger influence on the metabolome of sputum than the clinical state (exacerbation, treatment, post-treatment, or stable. Of the 4,369 metabolites detected, 12% were unique to CFPE samples; however, the only known metabolites significantly elevated at exacerbation across the dataset were platelet activating factor (PAF and a related monacylglycerophosphocholine lipid. Due to the personalized nature of the sputum metabolome, a single patient was followed for 4.2 years (capturing four separate exacerbation events as a case study for the detection of personalized biomarkers with metabolomics. PAF and related lipids were significantly elevated during CFPEs of this patient and ceramide was elevated during CFPE treatment. Correlating the abundance of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons to metabolomics data from the same samples during a CFPE demonstrated that antibiotics were positively correlated to Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas, while ceramides and other lipids were correlated with Streptococcus, Rothia, and anaerobes. Conclusions. This study identified PAF and other inflammatory lipids as potential biomarkers of CFPE, but overall, the metabolome of CF sputum was patient specific, supporting a personalized approach to molecular detection of CFPE onset.

  19. Changes in ventilation–perfusion during and after an COPD exacerbation: an assessment using fluid dynamic modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajian B

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bita Hajian,1 Jan De Backer,2 Wim Vos,2 Wouter H van Geffen,3 Paul De Winter,1 Omar Usmani,4 Tony Cahn,5 Huib AM Kerstjens,3 Massimo Pistolesi,6 Wilfried De Backer1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital Antwerp, Edegem, Belgium; 2FLUIDDA nv, Kontich, Belgium; 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 4Department of Pulmonology, Brompton Hospital, London, UK; 5GSK, London, UK; 6Department of Pulmonary Diseases, University of Firenze, Florence, Italy Introduction: Severe exacerbations associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD that require hospitalization significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality. Definitions for exacerbations are very broad, and it is unclear whether there is one predominant underlying mechanism that leads to them. Functional respiratory imaging (FRI with modeling provides detailed information about airway resistance, hyperinflation, and ventilation–perfusion (V/Q mismatch during and following an acute exacerbation. Materials and methods: Forty-two patients with COPD participating in a multicenter study were assessed by FRI, pulmonary function tests, and self-reported outcome measures during an acute exacerbation and following resolution. Arterial blood gasses and lung function parameters were measured. Results: A significant correlation was found between alveolar–arterial gradient and image-based V/Q (iV/Q, suggesting that iV/Q represents V/Q mismatch during an exacerbation (p<0.05. Conclusion: Recovery of an exacerbation is due to decreased (mainly distal airway resistance (p<0.05. Improvement in patient-reported outcomes were also associated with decreased distal airway resistance (p<0.05, but not with forced expiratory volume. FRI is, therefore, a sensitive tool to describe changes in airway caliber, ventilation, and perfusion during and after exacerbation. On the basis of the fact that FRI increased distal airway

  20. Rapid vs Maintenance Vitamin D Supplementation in Deficient Children With Asthma to Prevent Exacerbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alansari, Khalid; Davidson, Bruce L; Yousef, Khalid Ibrahim; Mohamed, Abdel Nasser H; Alattar, Imad

    2017-09-01

    Whether vitamin D reduces clinically important exacerbations of childhood asthma remains uncertain. We compared rapid to maintenance vitamin D repletion analyzed by baseline vitamin D level. Children presenting to the ED with moderate-to-severe asthma exacerbations and vitamin D levels ≤ 25 ng/mL underwent masked randomization, and then open dosing to either IM+oral (the latter daily) therapy or daily oral-only therapy, and were followed for 12 months. The primary outcome was patient-initiated unplanned visits for asthma exacerbations, examined two ways: cumulative proportions with an exacerbation, and average exacerbation frequency. As this was a nutrient study, we analyzed treatment groups by quartile of baseline vitamin D level, collecting repeat levels and clinical observations at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after enrollment. One hundred and sixteen patients in the IM+oral cohort vs 115 in the oral-only cohort had similar mean (SD) baseline levels: 15.1 (5.4) vs 15.8 (5.2) ng/mL (range, 3-25 ng/mL). There was no difference in the primary outcome over the entire 12-month observation period. However, rapid IM+oral supplementation significantly reduced unplanned visits for asthma exacerbations for children with baseline levels of 3 to 11 ng/mL during the initial 3 months: the relative exacerbation rate for the IM+oral cohort compared with the oral-only cohort at 3 months was 0.48 (95% CI, 0.28-0.89; P = .008); average exacerbation frequency per child analysis, relative rate 0.36 (95% CI, 0.13-0.87; P = .017). Otherwise, there were no significant differences between groups. Rapid compared to maintenance vitamin D supplementation for children with the lowest levels resulted in short- but not long-term reduction in asthma exacerbations. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Preseasonal treatment with either omalizumab or an inhaled corticosteroid boost to prevent fall asthma exacerbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teach, Stephen J; Gill, Michelle A; Togias, Alkis; Sorkness, Christine A; Arbes, Samuel J; Calatroni, Agustin; Wildfire, Jeremy J; Gergen, Peter J; Cohen, Robyn T; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Kercsmar, Carolyn M; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K; Gruchalla, Rebecca S; Liu, Andrew H; Zoratti, Edward M; Kattan, Meyer; Grindle, Kristine A; Gern, James E; Busse, William W; Szefler, Stanley J

    2015-12-01

    Short-term targeted treatment can potentially prevent fall asthma exacerbations while limiting therapy exposure. We sought to compare (1) omalizumab with placebo and (2) omalizumab with an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) boost with regard to fall exacerbation rates when initiated 4 to 6 weeks before return to school. A 3-arm, randomized, double-blind, double placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial was conducted among inner-city asthmatic children aged 6 to 17 years with 1 or more recent exacerbations (clincaltrials.gov #NCT01430403). Guidelines-based therapy was continued over a 4- to 9-month run-in phase and a 4-month intervention phase. In a subset the effects of omalizumab on IFN-α responses to rhinovirus in PBMCs were examined. Before the falls of 2012 and 2013, 727 children were enrolled, 513 were randomized, and 478 were analyzed. The fall exacerbation rate was significantly lower in the omalizumab versus placebo arms (11.3% vs 21.0%; odds ratio [OR], 0.48; 95% CI, 0.25-0.92), but there was no significant difference between omalizumab and ICS boost (8.4% vs 11.1%; OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.33-1.64). In a prespecified subgroup analysis, among participants with an exacerbation during the run-in phase, omalizumab was significantly more efficacious than both placebo (6.4% vs 36.3%; OR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.02-0.64) and ICS boost (2.0% vs 27.8%; OR, 0.05; 95% CI, 0.002-0.98). Omalizumab improved IFN-α responses to rhinovirus, and within the omalizumab group, greater IFN-α increases were associated with fewer exacerbations (OR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.01-0.88). Adverse events were rare and similar among arms. Adding omalizumab before return to school to ongoing guidelines-based care among inner-city youth reduces fall asthma exacerbations, particularly among those with a recent exacerbation. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All rights reserved.

  2. Monitoring of Physiological Parameters to Predict Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Al Rajeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The value of monitoring physiological parameters to predict chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbations is controversial. A few studies have suggested benefit from domiciliary monitoring of vital signs, and/or lung function but there is no existing systematic review. Objectives: To conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of monitoring physiological parameters to predict COPD exacerbation. Methods: An electronic systematic search compliant with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines was conducted. The search was updated to April 6, 2016. Five databases were examined: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, or MEDLARS Online (Medline, Excerpta Medica dataBASE (Embase, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL and the Cochrane clinical trials database. Results: Sixteen articles met the pre-specified inclusion criteria. Fifteen of these articules reported positive results in predicting COPD exacerbation via monitoring of physiological parameters. Nine studies showed a reduction in peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2% prior to exacerbation onset. Three studies for peak flow, and two studies for respiratory rate reported a significant variation prior to or at exacerbation onset. A particular challenge is accounting for baseline heterogeneity in parameters between patients. Conclusion: There is currently insufficient information on how physiological parameters vary prior to exacerbation to support routine domiciliary monitoring for the prediction of exacerbations in COPD. However, the method remains promising.

  3. Effects of seasonal smog on asthma and COPD exacerbations requiring emergency visits in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothirat, Chaicharn; Tosukhowong, Apiwat; Chaiwong, Warawut; Liwsrisakun, Chalerm; Inchai, Juthamas

    2016-12-01

    Seasonal smog produces particulate matters that are less than 10 microns in diameter (PM₁₀), which are known to have several impacts on the respiratory system. This study was to determine the association of an increased PM10 level due to seasonal smog in Chiang Mai and emergency visits for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted between the months of January and March from 2006 until 2009. The association of an increased PM₁₀ level and the daily number of asthma and COPD exacerbations were analyzed using a generalized linear model; a Poisson regression model was fit to the number of daily emergency visits using predictor variables: lags of PM10, day of the week, and time. There were a total of 917 emergency visits for acute exacerbations of asthma and COPD, with a median of 2 visits per day (range 0-10). The median PM₁₀ level during the same interval was 64.5 microgram per cubic meter (μg/m3) (16-304). For every 10 μg/m3 rise in PM10 concentration, there was a lag time of 6 days for asthma exacerbations [Adjusted relative risk (RR)=1.020; 95% confident interval (CI), 1.001-1.040; (p=0.014)], 7 days for COPD exacerbations [RR=1.030; 95%CI, 1.010-1.050 (p=0.024)] and 7 days for all exacerbations [RR=1.030 95%CI, 1.010-1.040 (p<0.001)]. This study confirms the effect of increasing PM₁₀ concentrations from seasonal smog on asthma and COPD exacerbations. However, there was an approximately 1 week lag time between the elevated PM₁₀ levels and time to emergency visits due to disease exacerbation.

  4. Does gastroesophageal reflux increase chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliaz, Sinem; Iliaz, Raim; Onur, Seda Tural; Arici, Serpil; Akyuz, Umit; Karaca, Cetin; Demir, Kadir; Besisik, Fatih; Kaymakoglu, Sabahattin; Akyuz, Filiz

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) has been investigated less than asthma-GER. We aimed to evaluate the presence of GER in patients with COPD and its impact on exacerbations. We included 24 patients with stable mild-moderate stage COPD and 19 volunteers as the control group. We conducted a gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptom questionnaire, gastroscopy, manometry, and an ambulatory 24-h pH-impedance study. According to the GERD questionnaire, only 5 (20.8%) patients with COPD had typical GER symptoms. According to the 24-h pH-impedance study, the mean DeMeester score (DMS) was 38.1 ± 34.6 in the COPD group and 13.3 ± 16.8 in the control group (p = 0.01). The acid reflux (DMS > 14.7) rate was higher in patients with COPD than in controls (73.9% vs 26.3%, p = 0.01). The symptom association probability positivity rate was 17.4% (n = 4) in the COPD group, which was similar to the controls (p = 0.11). The mean proximal extension rate of reflux (Z 17 cm) was 26.4 ± 12.9% in the COPD group. The proximal extent of reflux was positively correlated with the number of COPD exacerbations per year (p = 0.03, r = 0.448). In the motility results, only 2 (20%) patients in the control group had a minor motility disorder. Seventeen (70.8%) patients in the COPD group had a minor motility disorder, and 4 (16.7%) had major motility disorders (p gastroesophageal reflux was frequent in patients with COPD, but only a quarter had typical reflux symptoms. The proximal extent of reflux may trigger frequent exacerbations of COPD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Susceptibility to exacerbation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurst, John R; Vestbo, Jørgen; Anzueto, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    be predicted on the basis of the patient's recall of previous treated events. In addition to its association with more severe disease and prior exacerbations, the phenotype was independently associated with a history of gastroesophageal reflux or heartburn, poorer quality of life, and elevated white-cell count...

  6. The premenstrual period and exacerbations in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorgdrager, A; De Keyser, J

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether an association exists between the premenstrual period and exacerbations of multiple sclerosis (MS). The subjects were 56 premenopausal patients with relapsing MS and a regular menstrual cycle. Data over the previous 2 years were gathered from a structured

  7. Hospital-at-Home Programs for Patients With Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, BR

    2012-01-01

    assessed in the ED, patients are admitted to the hospital where they receive the initial phase of their treatment. These patients are discharged into a hospital-at-home program before the exacerbation has resolved. In both cases, once the exacerbation has resolved, the patient is discharged from the hospital-at-home program and no longer receives visits in his/her home. In the models that exist to date, hospital-at-home programs differ from other home care programs because they deal with higher acuity patients who require higher acuity care, and because hospitals retain the medical and legal responsibility for patients. Furthermore, patients requiring home care services may require such services for long periods of time or indefinitely, whereas patients in hospital-at-home programs require and receive the services for a short period of time only. Hospital-at-home care is not appropriate for all patients with acute exacerbations of COPD. Ineligible patients include: those with mild exacerbations that can be managed without admission to hospital; those who require admission to hospital; and those who cannot be safely treated in a hospital-at-home program either for medical reasons and/or because of a lack of, or poor, social support at home. The proposed possible benefits of hospital-at-home for treatment of exacerbations of COPD include: decreased utilization of health care resources by avoiding hospital admission and/or reducing length of stay in hospital; decreased costs; increased health-related quality of life for patients and caregivers when treated at home; and reduced risk of hospital-acquired infections in this susceptible patient population. Ontario Context No hospital-at-home programs for the treatment of acute exacerbations of COPD were identified in Ontario. Patients requiring acute care for their exacerbations are treated in hospitals. Research Question What is the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and safety of hospital-at-home care compared with inpatient

  8. Splenectomy exacerbates atrial inflammatory fibrosis and vulnerability to atrial fibrillation induced by pressure overload in rats: Possible role of spleen-derived interleukin-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hidekazu; Takahashi, Naohiko; Gotoh, Koro; Fukui, Akira; Saito, Shotaro; Aoki, Kohei; Kume, Osamu; Shinohara, Tetsuji; Teshima, Yasushi; Saikawa, Tetsunori

    2016-01-01

    The spleen is important for cardiac remodeling induced by myocardial infarction. However, the role of the spleen in inflammatory atrial fibrosis induced by pressure overload is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether splenectomy (SPX) attenuates or exacerbates pressure overload-induced atrial inflammatory fibrosis and vulnerability to atrial fibrillation (AF) in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks old) were divided into Sham+Sham, Sham+SPX, abdominal aortic constriction (AAC)+Sham, and AAC+SPX groups, and were evaluated for inflammation, fibrosis, and AF on days 2, 4, 14, and 28. On day 4, an AAC-induced rise in interleukin-10 (IL-10) level was observed in the spleen, serum, and left atrium (LA), with SPX showing inhibitory effects in the latter 2 instances. In addition, AAC-induced M2 macrophage recruitment into the LA was decreased by SPX, as determined by immunofluorescence labeling (P <.05). On day 28, AAC-induced heterogeneous interstitial fibrosis of the LA was enhanced by SPX (P <.05). Electrophysiologic recordings revealed that the duration of AF and prolongation of interatrial conduction time induced by AAC were increased by SPX (P < .01 and P <.05, respectively). Furthermore, in the AAC+SPX group, the number of macrophages infiltrating into the LA on day 2 was marginal, but increased on day 28 relative to the AAC+Sham group. IL-10 administration attenuated the AAC-induced atrial remodeling that was aggravated by SPX. The study results suggest that SPX exacerbates AAC-induced inflammatory atrial fibrosis and increases vulnerability to AF after 4 weeks, likely because of depletion of spleen-derived IL-10. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Serum Reactive Oxygen Metabolite Levels Predict Severe Exacerbations of Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Keitaro; Watanabe, Masato; Sada, Mitsuru; Inui, Toshiya; Nakamura, Masuo; Honda, Kojiro; Wada, Hiroo; Mikami, Yu; Matsuzaki, Hirotaka; Horie, Masafumi; Noguchi, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Koyama, Hikari; Kogane, Toshiyuki; Kohyama, Tadashi; Takizawa, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Bronchial asthma (BA) is a chronic airway disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling, which are intimately linked to chronic airway inflammation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide are generated by inflammatory cells that are involved in the pathogenesis of BA. However, the role of ROS in the management of BA patients is not yet clear. We attempted to determine the role of ROS as a biomarker in the clinical setting of BA. Subjects and Methods We enrolled patients with BA from 2013 through 2015 and studied the degrees of asthma control, anti-asthma treatment, pulmonary function test results, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), serum reactive oxygen metabolite (ROM) levels, and serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Results We recruited 110 patients with BA. Serum ROM levels correlated with white blood cell (WBC) count (rs = 0.273, p = 0.004), neutrophil count (rs = 0.235, p = 0.014), CRP (rs = 0.403, p < 0.001), and IL-6 (rs = 0.339, p < 0.001). Serum ROM levels and IL-8 and CRP levels negatively correlated with %FEV1 (rs = -0.240, p = 0.012, rs = -0.362, p < 0.001, rs = -0.197, p = 0.039, respectively). Serum ROM levels were significantly higher in patients who experienced severe exacerbation within 3 months than in patients who did not (339 [302–381] vs. 376 [352–414] CARR U, p < 0.025). Receiver-operating characteristics analysis showed that ROM levels correlated significantly with the occurrence of severe exacerbation (area under the curve: 0.699, 95% CI: 0.597–0.801, p = 0.025). Conclusions Serum levels of ROM were significantly associated with the degrees of airway obstruction, WBC counts, neutrophil counts, IL-6, and severe exacerbations. This biomarker may be useful in predicting severe exacerbations of BA. PMID:27776186

  10. COPD management costs according to the frequency of COPD exacerbations in UK primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punekar, Yogesh Suresh; Shukla, Amit; Müllerova, Hana

    2014-01-01

    The economic burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations is significant, but the impact of other sources on the overall cost of COPD management is largely unknown. We aimed to estimate overall costs for patients experiencing none, one, or two or more exacerbations per year in the UK. A retrospective cohort of prevalent COPD patients was identified in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink UK database. Patients with information recorded for at least 12 months before and after cohort entry date were included (first prevalent COPD diagnosis confirmed by spirometry on/after April 1, 2009). Patients were categorized as having none, one, or two or more moderate-to-severe COPD exacerbations in the 12 months after cohort entry and further classified by the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) category of airflow obstruction and the Medical Research Council dyspnea scale. Study outcomes included counts of general practitioner interactions, moderate-severe COPD exacerbations, and non-COPD hospitalizations. Estimated resource use costs were calculated using National Health Service reference costs for 2010-2011. The cohort comprised 58,589 patients (mean age 69.5 years, mean dyspnea grade 2.5, females 46.6%, current smokers 33.1%). The average total annual per patient cost of COPD management, excluding medications, was £2,108 for all patients and £1,523, £2,405, and £3,396 for patients experiencing no, one, or two or more moderate-to-severe exacerbations, respectively. General practitioner interactions contributed most to these annual costs, accounting for £1,062 (69.7%), £1,313 (54.6%), and £1,592 (46.9%) in patients with no, one, or two or more moderate-to-severe exacerbations, respectively. Disease management strategies focused on reducing costs in primary care may help reduce total COPD costs significantly.

  11. Study design considerations in a large COPD trial comparing effects of tiotropium with salmeterol on exacerbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K-M. Beeh (Kai-Michael); B. Hederer (Bettina); T. Glaab (Thomas); A. Müller (Achim); M.P.M.H. Rutten-van Mölken (Maureen); S. Kesten (Steven); C. Vogelmeier (Claus)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Currently available long-acting inhaled bronchodilators (tiotropium, salmeterol, formoterol) have demonstrated beneficial effects on exacerbations in placebo-controlled trials. However, there have been no direct comparisons of these drugs with exacerbations as the primary

  12. The association between previous and future severe exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Updating the literature using robust statistical methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadatsafavi, Mohsen; Xie, Hui; Etminan, Mahyar; Johnson, Kate; FitzGerald, J Mark

    2018-01-01

    There is minimal evidence on the extent to which the occurrence of a severe acute exacerbation of COPD that results in hospitalization affects the subsequent disease course. Previous studies on this topic did not generate causally-interpretable estimates. Our aim was to use corrected methodology to update previously reported estimates of the associations between previous and future exacerbations in these patients. Using administrative health data in British Columbia, Canada (1997-2012), we constructed a cohort of patients with at least one severe exacerbation, defined as an episode of inpatient care with the main diagnosis of COPD based on international classification of diseases (ICD) codes. We applied a random-effects 'joint frailty' survival model that is particularly developed for the analysis of recurrent events in the presence of competing risk of death and heterogeneity among individuals in their rate of events. Previous severe exacerbations entered the model as dummy-coded time-dependent covariates, and the model was adjusted for several observable patient and disease characteristics. 35,994 individuals (mean age at baseline 73.7, 49.8% female, average follow-up 3.21 years) contributed 34,271 severe exacerbations during follow-up. The first event was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.75 (95%CI 1.69-1.82) for the risk of future severe exacerbations. This risk decreased to HR = 1.36 (95%CI 1.30-1.42) for the second event and to 1.18 (95%CI 1.12-1.25) for the third event. The first two severe exacerbations that occurred during follow-up were also significantly associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality. There was substantial heterogeneity in the individual-specific rate of severe exacerbations. Even after adjusting for observable characteristics, individuals in the 97.5th percentile of exacerbation rate had 5.6 times higher rate of severe exacerbations than those in the 2.5th percentile. Using robust statistical methodology that controlled

  13. Changes in ventilation-perfusion during and after an COPD exacerbation : an assessment using fluid dynamic modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajian, Bita; De Backer, Jan; Vos, Wim; van Geffen, Wouter H; De Winter, Paul; Usmani, Omar; Cahn, Tony; Kerstjens, Huib Am; Pistolesi, Massimo; De Backer, Wilfried

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Severe exacerbations associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that require hospitalization significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality. Definitions for exacerbations are very broad, and it is unclear whether there is one predominant underlying mechanism that

  14. [Early exercise training after exacerbation in patients with chronic respiratory failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Molleyres, Sandrine; Dousse, Nicolas; Contal, Olivier; Janssens, Jean-Paul

    2011-11-23

    Patients who suffered from an exacerbation of a chronic respiratory disorder are often very limited in terms of their exercise capacity because of severe dyspnea and amyotrophy of peripheral muscles. Early implementation of pulmonary rehabilitation may help these patients to avoid the complications of a prolonged bedridden period, and increase more rapidly their mobility. Early rehabilitation has become more frequent, but requires special skills from the care givers (chest therapists). Techniques which enhance muscular performance and motility of patients who are recovering from an exacerbation such as electromoystimulation or mobilisation under non-invasive ventilation, give encouraging results; their impact on length of hospital stay requires further studies.

  15. Parameters recorded by software of non-invasive ventilators predict COPD exacerbation: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Jean-Christian; Pelletier, Julie; Taleux, Nellie; Briault, Amandine; Arnol, Nathalie; Pison, Christophe; Tamisier, Renaud; Timsit, Jean-François; Pepin, Jean-Louis

    2015-03-01

    To assess whether daily variations in three parameters recorded by non-invasive ventilation (NIV) software (respiratory rate (RR), percentage of respiratory cycles triggered by the patient (%Trigg) and NIV daily use) predict the risk of exacerbation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treated by home NIV. Patients completed the EXACT-Pro questionnaire daily to detect exacerbations. The 25th and 75th percentiles of each 24 h NIV parameter were calculated and updated daily. For a given day, when the value of any parameter was >75th or 75th, 'low value' <25th). Stratified conditional logistic regressions estimated the risk of exacerbation when ≥2 days (for RR and %Trigg) or ≥3 days (for NIV use) out of five had an 'abnormal value'. Sixty-four patients were included. Twenty-one exacerbations were detected and medically confirmed. The risk of exacerbation was increased when RR (OR 5.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 22.4) and %Trigg (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.1 to 14.5) were considered as 'high value' on ≥2 days out of five. This proof-of-concept study shows that daily variations in RR and %Trigg are predictors of an exacerbation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. [Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: 2. Short-term prognostic scores for acute exacerbations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, Alain F

    2014-01-22

    The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD is a slowly progressive disease whose course is frequently the subject of acute episodes, of variable severity, although, in general, reversible, called acute exacerbations. In the past five years (between 2008 and 2013), seven prognostic scores have been published to try to assess the short-term risk of these acute exacerbations. Their components and characteristics are analysed and commented upon. An Internet program with a detailed compilation of the main features of these scores (www.medhyg.ch/scoredoc) supplements this review.

  17. Diagnosis and management of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Van; Slack, Donald; McCurdy, Michael T; Shah, Nirav G; Gupta, Nachi; Nusbaum, Jeffrey

    2017-10-20

    Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a clinical diagnosis that is based on changes in dyspnea, cough, and/or sputum production in a COPD patient; however, patients presenting with an acute exacerbation may be undiagnosed or have a variety of comorbid conditions that can complicate diagnosis. This issue presents strategies and algorithms for the early use of evidence-based interventions, including appropriate use of antibiotics, bronchodilators, and corticosteroids, along with noninvasive ventilation with capnography, to minimize morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Emergency Medicine Practice.].

  18. Risk factors for asthma exacerbation in patients presenting to an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Lack of corticosteroid use and upper respiratory tract infections are ... Key words: Asthma, asthma exacerbations, risk factors, corticosteroids ..... recall bias may be a limitation. ... obstructive picture on spirometry were included as.

  19. Frequency of self-reported COPD exacerbation and airflow obstruction in five Latin American cities: the Proyecto Latinoamericano de Investigacion en Obstruccion Pulmonar (PLATINO) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes de Oca, Maria; Tálamo, Carlos; Halbert, Ronald J; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Lopez, Maria Victorina; Muiño, Adriana; Jardim, José Roberto B; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Pertuzé, Julio; Moreno, Dolores; Menezes, Ana Maria B

    2009-07-01

    Recurrent exacerbations are common in COPD patients. Limited information exists regarding exacerbation frequency in COPD patients from epidemiologic studies. We examined the frequency of self-reported exacerbations and the factors influencing exacerbation frequency among COPD patients in a population-based study conducted in Latin America. We used a post-bronchodilator FEV(1)/FVC ratio of < 0.70 to define COPD. Exacerbation was self-reported and defined by symptoms (deterioration of breathing symptoms that affected usual daily activities or caused missed work). Spirometry was performed in 5,314 subjects. There were 759 subjects with airflow limitation; of these, 18.2% reported ever having had an exacerbation, 7.9% reported having an exacerbation, and 6.2% reported having an exacerbation requiring at least a doctor visit within the past year. The proportion of individuals with an exacerbation significantly increased by Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages, from 4.2% in stage 1 to 28.9% in stages 3 and 4. The self-reported exacerbation rate was 0.58 exacerbations per year. The rate of exacerbations requiring at least a doctor visit and length of stay in hospital due to exacerbations also increased as COPD severity progressed. The factors associated with having an exacerbation in the past year were dyspnea, prior asthma diagnosis, receiving any respiratory therapy, and disease severity of GOLD stages 3 and 4. The proportion of individuals with airflow limitation and self-reported exacerbation increases as the disease severity progresses. Dyspnea, prior asthma diagnosis, receiving any respiratory therapy, and more severe obstruction were significantly associated with having an exacerbation in the past year.

  20. Premenstrual Exacerbation of Life-Threatening Asthma: Effect of Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone Analogue Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alun L Edwards

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Variability in the severity of asthma during various phases of the menstrual cycle has been frequently suspected. However, the hormonal changes that might affect mediators of bronchospasm have yet to be elucidated. The case of a 41-year-old woman suffering from longstanding asthma with life-threatening exacerbations is reported. The patient was treated with buserelin, a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH analogue, which created a temporary chemical menopause and thus permitted diagnosis of a premenstrual exacerbation of asthma and offered insight into potential therapy. GnRH analogues may therefore be of value in assessing women with severe asthma suspected to vary with the menstrual cycle. The addition of estrogens and progestins at the same time as treatment with GnRH analogue may be of value in determining the role of these hormones in the pathogenesis of menstrually related exacerbations of asthma.

  1. Value of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, and neopterin in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Lacoma

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Alicia Lacoma1,4, Cristina Prat1,4, Felipe Andreo2,4, Luis Lores3, Juan Ruiz-Manzano2,4, Vicente Ausina1,4, Jose Domínguez1,41Servei de Microbiologia, 2Servei de Pneumologia, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Fundació Institut d'Investigació en Ciències de la Salut Germans Trias i Pujol, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Badalona, Spain; 3Servei de Pneumologia, Hospital de Sant Boi, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Spain; 4CIBER Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, SpainObjective: The identification of biological markers in order to assess different aspects of COPD is an area of growing interest. The objective of this study was to investigate whether levels of procalcitonin (PCT, C-reactive protein (CRP, and neopterin in COPD patients could be useful in identifying the etiological origin of the exacerbation and assessing its prognosis.Methods: We included 318 consecutive COPD patients: 46 in a stable phase, 217 undergoing an exacerbation, and 55 with pneumonia. A serum sample was collected from each patient at the time of being included in the study. A second sample was also collected 1 month later from 23 patients in the exacerbation group. We compared the characteristics, biomarker levels, microbiological findings, and prognosis in each patient group. PCT and CRP were measured using an immunofluorescence assay. Neopterin levels were measured using a competitive immunoassay.Results: PCT and CRP showed significant differences among the three patient groups, being higher in patients with pneumonia, followed by patients with exacerbation (P < 0.0001. For the 23 patients with paired samples, PCT and CRP levels decreased 1 month after the exacerbation episode, while neopterin increased. Neopterin showed significantly lower levels in exacerbations with isolation of pathogenic bacteria, but no differences were found for PCT and CRP. No significant differences were found when comparing biomarker levels

  2. Associations between gastro-oesophageal reflux, its management and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Victoria S; Müllerová, Hana; Vestbo, Jørgen; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Patel, Anant; Hurst, John R

    2015-09-01

    To determine factors, overall and by sex, associated with self-reported gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, and to evaluate relationships between GORD, its modification by acid suppression medications (Proton Pump Inhibitors [PPI]/histamine-2 receptor antagonists [H2RA]) and exacerbations of COPD and mortality. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with GORD; Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for GORD and risk of exacerbation and death. Among 2135 COPD patients from the ECLIPSE cohort, 547 patients self-reported GORD, with female preponderance; 237 were taking PPI/H2RA. Risk factors for GORD did not differ by sex. When compared to patients who did not report GORD or use of PPI/H2RA, patients with GORD and taking PPI/H2RA had a significantly increased risk of exacerbation (HR = 1.58, 95%CI = 1.35-1.86); risk was also increased for patients reporting GORD only or PPI/H2RA use only (HR = 1.21 [1.04-1.40] and 1.33 [1.08-1.65], respectively). Similar findings were observed for risk of hospitalised exacerbation. GORD was not associated with mortality. GORD in COPD patients is highly prevalent, and risk factors did not differ by sex. Use of PPI/H2RA and self-reported GORD were associated with increased risk of moderate-to-severe and hospitalised exacerbations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis triggered by Aspergillus empyema

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    Atsushi Suzuki

    Full Text Available Acute exacerbation (AE is a severe and life-threatening complication of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. In 2016, the definition and diagnostic criteria for AE-IPF were updated by an international working group. The new definition includes any acute, clinically significant respiratory deterioration (both idiopathic and triggered events characterized by evidence of new widespread alveolar abnormality in patients with IPF. There are no currently proven beneficial management strategies for idiopathic and triggered AE-IPF. This is the first report describing AE-IPF triggered by Aspergillus empyema, which was improved by a combination of corticosteroid, systemic antifungal therapy, local antifungal therapy, and additional pharmacological therapies. Future research may reveal optimal strategies for both idiopathic and triggered AE-IPF. Keywords: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, Acute exacerbation, AE-IPF, Triggered AE, Aspergillus infection

  4. Innate lymphoid cells contribute to allergic airway disease exacerbation by obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaere, Laetitia; Ait-Yahia, Saliha; Molendi-Coste, Olivier; Vorng, Han; Quemener, Sandrine; LeVu, Pauline; Fleury, Sebastien; Bouchaert, Emmanuel; Fan, Ying; Duez, Catherine; de Nadai, Patricia; Staels, Bart; Dombrowicz, David; Tsicopoulos, Anne

    2016-11-01

    Epidemiologic and clinical observations identify obesity as an important risk factor for asthma exacerbation, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) have been implicated, respectively, in asthma and adipose tissue homeostasis and in obesity-associated airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). We sought to determine the potential involvement of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in allergic airway disease exacerbation caused by high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Obesity was induced by means of HFD feeding, and allergic airway inflammation was subsequently induced by means of intranasal administration of house dust mite (HDM) extract. AHR, lung and visceral adipose tissue inflammation, humoral response, cytokines, and innate and adaptive lymphoid populations were analyzed in the presence or absence of ILCs. HFD feeding exacerbated allergic airway disease features, including humoral response, airway and tissue eosinophilia, AHR, and T H 2 and T H 17 pulmonary profiles. Notably, nonsensitized obese mice already exhibited increased lung ILC counts and tissue eosinophil infiltration compared with values in lean mice in the absence of AHR. The numbers of total and cytokine-expressing lung ILC2s and ILC3s further increased in HDM-challenged obese mice compared with those in HDM-challenged lean mice, and this was accompanied by high IL-33 and IL-1β levels and decreased ILC markers in visceral adipose tissue. Furthermore, depletion of ILCs with an anti-CD90 antibody, followed by T-cell reconstitution, led to a profound decrease in allergic airway inflammatory features in obese mice, including T H 2 and T H 17 infiltration. These results indicate that HFD-induced obesity might exacerbate allergic airway inflammation through mechanisms involving ILC2s and ILC3s. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Genome Wide Association Study to predict severe asthma exacerbations in children using random forests classifiers

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    Litonjua Augusto A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personalized health-care promises tailored health-care solutions to individual patients based on their genetic background and/or environmental exposure history. To date, disease prediction has been based on a few environmental factors and/or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, while complex diseases are usually affected by many genetic and environmental factors with each factor contributing a small portion to the outcome. We hypothesized that the use of random forests classifiers to select SNPs would result in an improved predictive model of asthma exacerbations. We tested this hypothesis in a population of childhood asthmatics. Methods In this study, using emergency room visits or hospitalizations as the definition of a severe asthma exacerbation, we first identified a list of top Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS SNPs ranked by Random Forests (RF importance score for the CAMP (Childhood Asthma Management Program population of 127 exacerbation cases and 290 non-exacerbation controls. We predict severe asthma exacerbations using the top 10 to 320 SNPs together with age, sex, pre-bronchodilator FEV1 percentage predicted, and treatment group. Results Testing in an independent set of the CAMP population shows that severe asthma exacerbations can be predicted with an Area Under the Curve (AUC = 0.66 with 160-320 SNPs in comparison to an AUC score of 0.57 with 10 SNPs. Using the clinical traits alone yielded AUC score of 0.54, suggesting the phenotype is affected by genetic as well as environmental factors. Conclusions Our study shows that a random forests algorithm can effectively extract and use the information contained in a small number of samples. Random forests, and other machine learning tools, can be used with GWAS studies to integrate large numbers of predictors simultaneously.

  6. A patient with stress-related onset and exacerbations of Graves disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, Roberto; Lapa, Daniela; Vita, Giuseppe; Trimarchi, Francesco; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    An 18-year-old, nonsmoking woman presented to her general practitioner with a 1-week history of weakness, fatigue, palpitations, nervousness, tremors, insomnia, heat intolerance, and sudden enlargement of a thyroid goiter that had been detected 2 years earlier. The patient's symptoms had started shortly after she experienced emotional stress. Diagnostic work-up disclosed an avid radioactive iodine uptake by the goiter. On ultrasound examination, the thyroid gland was enlarged with a diffusely hypoechogenic structure and intense vascularization. Thyroid scintigraphy with (131)I; ultrasonography of the thyroid gland; and measurements of serum free T(3), free T(4), TSH levels and thyroid autoantibodies, including autoantibodies against thyroglobulin (TgAb), thyroperoxidase (TPOAb) and TSH receptor (TRAb). Graves disease, with stress-related onset and subsequent stress-related exacerbations. The patient was treated with methimazole to normalize levels of thyroid hormone and thyroid autoantibodies, and with bromazepam to help her cope with stress. The daily dose of methimazole was kept low during pregnancy. Over the 4 year period when the patient was taking methimazole, exacerbations of hyperthyroidism occurred twice: during her first pregnancy and 9 months after her first delivery. On all three occasions, symptoms were preceded by stressful life events. Further exacerbations were avoided by starting bromazepam treatment soon after the patient experienced stressful events.

  7. The effect of COPD severity and study duration on exacerbation outcome in randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson G

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Göran Eriksson,1 Peter M Calverley,2 Christine R Jenkins,3,4 Antonio R Anzueto,5 Barry J Make,6 Magnus Lindberg,7 Malin Fagerås,7 Dirkje S Postma8 1Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden; 2Pulmonary and Rehabilitation Research Group, University Hospital Aintree, Liverpool, UK; 3Concord Clinical School, University of Sydney, 4The George Institute for Global Health, Sydney, Australia; 5Department of Pulmonary Medicine and Critical Care, University of Texas Health Sciences Center and South Texas Veterans’ Health Care System, San Antonio, Texas, 6Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, National Jewish Health, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado, USA; 7AstraZeneca R&D, Mölndal, Sweden; 8Department of Pulmonary Medicine and Tuberculosis, University Medical Center Groningen, GRIAC Research Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands Background: When discontinuation in COPD randomized controlled trials (RCTs is unevenly distributed between treatments (differential dropout, the capacity to demonstrate treatment effects may be reduced. We investigated the impact of the time of differential dropout on exacerbation outcomes in RCTs, in relation to study duration and COPD severity.Methods: A post hoc analysis of 2,345 patients from three RCTs of 6- and 12-month duration was performed to compare budesonide/formoterol and formoterol in moderate, severe, and very severe COPD. Outcomes were exacerbation rate, time-to-first exacerbation, or discontinuation; patients were stratified by disease severity. Outcomes were studied by censoring data monthly from 1 to 12 months.Results: In patients treated with budesonide/formoterol, annualized exacerbation rates (AERs were comparable for each study duration (rate ratio [RR] =0.6. With formoterol, the AER decreased with study duration (RR =1.20 at 1 month to RR =0.86 at 12 months. There was a treatment-related difference in

  8. The effect of positive expiratory pressure (PEP) therapy on symptoms, quality of life and incidence of re-exacerbation in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a multicentre, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadnik, Christian R; McDonald, Christine F; Miller, Belinda R; Hill, Catherine J; Tarrant, Ben; Steward, Ranjana; Chao, Caroline; Stodden, Nicole; Oliveira, Cristino C; Gagliardi, Nadia; Holland, Anne E

    2014-02-01

    Positive expiratory pressure (PEP) is a technique used to enhance sputum clearance during acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). The impact of PEP therapy during acute exacerbations on clinically important outcomes is not clear. This study sought to determine the effect of PEP therapy on symptoms, quality of life and future exacerbations in patients with AECOPD. 90 inpatients (58 men; mean age 68.6 years, FEV(1) 40.8% predicted) with AECOPD and sputum expectoration were randomised to receive usual care (including physical exercise)±PEP therapy. The Breathlessness, Cough and Sputum Scale (BCSS), St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and BODE index (Body mass index, airflow Obstruction, Dyspnoea, Exercise tolerance) were measured at discharge, 8 weeks and 6 months following discharge, and analysed via linear mixed models. Exacerbations and hospitalisations were recorded using home diaries. There were no significant between-group differences over time for BCSS score [mean (SE) at discharge 5.2 (0.4) vs 5.0 (0.4) for PEP and control group, respectively; p=0.978] or SGRQ total score [41.6 (2.6) vs 40.8 (2.8) at 8 weeks, p=0.872]. Dyspnoea improved more rapidly in the PEP group over the first 8 weeks (p=0.006), however these benefits were not observed at 6 months. Exacerbations (p=0.986) and hospitalisations (p=0.359) did not differ between groups. We found no evidence that PEP therapy during AECOPD improves important short-term or long-term outcomes. There does not appear to be a routine role for PEP therapy in the management of such individuals.

  9. Clinical and pulmonary functions profiling of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease experiencing frequent acute exacerbations

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    Prem Parkash Gupta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study aimed at clinical and pulmonary functions profiling of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD to anticipate future exacerbations. Methods: The study included 80 COPD patients; 40 patients had ≥2 acute exacerbations during preceding 1 year (frequent exacerbation [FECOPD] group and 40 patients had <2 acute exacerbations during preceding 1 year (infrequent exacerbation [I-FECOPD] group. Clinical profile, sputum microbiology, blood gas analysis, spirometric indices, and diffusion capacity (transfer test variables were assessed. Groups' comparison was performed using an independent t-test for numeric scale parameters and Chi-square test for nominal parameters. Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients were derived for numeric scale parameters and numeric nominal parameters, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: FECOPD group contained younger patients than in I-FECOPD group although the difference was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference between two groups regarding smoking pack-years and duration of illness. FECOPD group had significantly more expectoration score and Modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scores. Cough score and wheeze score did not differ significantly between two groups. More patients in FECOPD group (12/40 vs. 4/40 had lower airway bacterial colonization. Arterial blood gas parameters were more deranged in FECOPD group. Spirometric indices (forced expiratory volume during 1st s as well as transfer test (both diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and transfer coefficient of the lung values were significantly reduced in FECOPD group. Conclusions: The patients in FECOPD group had clinical, spirometric, and transfer test profiling suggestive of a severe COPD phenotype, the recognition will help in predicting future exacerbations and a better management.

  10. Caplacizumab reduces the frequency of major thromboembolic events, exacerbations and death in patients with acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyvandi, F; Scully, M; Kremer Hovinga, J A; Knöbl, P; Cataland, S; De Beuf, K; Callewaert, F; De Winter, H; Zeldin, R K

    2017-07-01

    Essentials Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (aTTP) is linked with significant morbidity/mortality. Caplacizumab's effect on major thromboembolic (TE) events, exacerbations and death was studied. Fewer caplacizumab-treated patients had a major TE event, an exacerbation, or died versus placebo. Caplacizumab has the potential to reduce the acute morbidity and mortality associated with aTTP. Background Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (aTTP) is a life-threatening autoimmune thrombotic microangiopathy. In spite of treatment with plasma exchange and immunosuppression, patients remain at risk for thrombotic complications, exacerbations, and death. In the phase II TITAN study, treatment with caplacizumab, an anti-von Willebrand factor Nanobody ® was shown to reduce the time to confirmed platelet count normalization and exacerbations during treatment. Objective The clinical benefit of caplacizumab was further investigated in a post hoc analysis of the incidence of major thromboembolic events and exacerbations during the study drug treatment period and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura-related death during the study. Methods The Standardized Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) Query (SMQ) for 'embolic and thrombotic events' was run to investigate the occurrence of major thromboembolic events and exacerbations in the safety population of the TITAN study, which consisted of 72 patients, of whom 35 received caplacizumab and 37 received placebo. Results Four events (one pulmonary embolism and three aTTP exacerbations) were reported in four patients in the caplacizumab group, and 20 such events were reported in 14 patients in the placebo group (two acute myocardial infarctions, one ischemic stroke, one hemorrhagic stroke, one pulmonary embolism, one deep vein thrombosis, one venous thrombosis, and 13 aTTP exacerbations). Two of the placebo-treated patients died from aTTP during the study. Conclusion In total, 11.4% of caplacizumab

  11. Detecting COPD exacerbations early using daily telemonitoring of symptoms and k-means clustering: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Morillo, Daniel; Fernandez-Granero, Miguel Angel; Jiménez, Antonio León

    2015-05-01

    COPD places an enormous burden on the healthcare systems and causes diminished health-related quality of life. The highest proportion of human and economic cost is associated with admissions for acute exacerbation of respiratory symptoms (AECOPD). Since prompt detection and treatment of exacerbations may improve outcomes, early detection of AECOPD is a critical issue. This pilot study was aimed to determine whether a mobile health system could enable early detection of AECOPD on a day-to-day basis. A novel electronic questionnaire for the early detection of COPD exacerbations was evaluated during a 6-months field trial in a group of 16 patients. Pattern recognition techniques were applied. A k-means clustering algorithm was trained and validated, and its accuracy in detecting AECOPD was assessed. Sensitivity and specificity were 74.6 and 89.7 %, respectively, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.84. 31 out of 33 AECOPD were early identified with an average of 4.5 ± 2.1 days prior to the onset of the exacerbation that was considered the day of medical attendance. Based on the findings of this preliminary pilot study, the proposed electronic questionnaire and the applied methodology could help to early detect COPD exacerbations on a day-to-day basis and therefore could provide support to patients and physicians.

  12. Difference in serum magnesium level among patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and exacerbated COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanowara, R.; Keliat, E. N.; Abidin, A.

    2018-03-01

    Stable COPD is marked with various degrees of inflammation throughout large and small airways also in the alveoli which cause mucus hypersecretion, narrowing of the airway, and alveoli damage. Exacerbation is an episode of elevated inflammation. The relation between inflammation response and magnesium has been observed with the increase of proinflammation cytokines in magnesium deficiency. A cross-sectional study of 34 patients who came to RSUP H. Adam Malik (17 stable COPD patients and 17 acute exacerbated COPD patients) was conducted to examine serum magnesium level and spirometry in stable condition. Mean serum magnesium level for stable COPD patients group was 2.09 ± 0.11 mEq/L. It was higher than in the exacerbated COPD patients group 1.69 ± 0.27 mEq/L. Mann–Whitney statistical analysis showed a significant difference in magnesium level between stable COPD and exacerbated COPD groups (p<0.05).

  13. Prevalence and pattern of asthma exacerbation in children seen at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-15

    Jan 15, 2016 ... asthma. Aim: To determine the prevalence and pattern of acute exacerbation of asthma in ... cost to health care systems and seriously diminish the quality of life of .... also from USA, 2% of all outpatient visits and 2.3% of.

  14. Predictors of quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with different frequency of exacerbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, K.

    2007-01-01

    The health related quality of life (HRQL) is influenced by exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and physiological factors can alter heath status. The aims of this study were to evaluate the consequences of exacerbation on HRQL and to examine the predictive factors associated with HRQL. One hundred and eighty eight patients were recruited from respiratory clinics of two hospitals. We used St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) to assess health status. Hand dynamometer was used to measure muscle strength and vitalograph spirometer to measure lung function. Body mass index (BMI) was also calculated. Dyspnoea status was measured with baseline dyspnoea index (BDI) and Medical Research Council (MRC) grades. The SGRQ total and component scores were significantly worse in the group that had frequent exacerbation. Age and hand grip strength were the most significant predictors of HRQL scores in stable and unstable group. BDI is significant only for stable and MRC for unstable patients. The present study illustrates that COPD patients with high exacerbations have lower health status than stable COPD patients. (author)

  15. [Prevalence and risk factors of respiratory viral infection in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X B; Ma, X; Gao, Y; Wen, L F; Li, J; Wang, Z Z; Liu, S

    2017-04-12

    Objective: To study the prevalence of respiratory viral infection in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) exacerbations and to find the factors associated with susceptibility to viral infections. Methods: Eighty patients with exacerbations of COPD and 50 stable COPD patients were recruited. Nasopharyngeal swabs were tested for a range of 18 different respiratory viruses using PCR. Results: Among the COPD exacerbations, viral infection was detected in 18 episodes (22.5%) . The most common virus was rhinovirus (33.3%), followed by coronavirus(27.8%), parainfluenza(22.2%), metapneumovirus(11.1%) and influenza virus B(5.6%). The prevalence of viral infection was 8% in the stable COPD patients. In multivariate regression analysis fever was found to be significantly associated with viral infections in COPD exacerbations (Odds ratio 4.99, 95% CI 1.51-16.48, P =0.008). Conclusion: Viral respiratory pathogens were more often detected in respiratory specimens from hospitalized patients with AECOPD than those with stable COPD. Rhinovirus was the most common infecting agent identified. The symptom of fever was associated with viral detection.

  16. IL-22 Defect During Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection Triggers Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Pichavant

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is linked to episodes of exacerbations caused by bacterial infections due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Our objective was to identify during COPD, factors of susceptibility to bacterial infections among cytokine network and their role in COPD exacerbations. S. pneumoniae was used to sub-lethally challenge mice chronically exposed to air or cigarette smoke (CS and to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from non-smokers, smokers and COPD patients. The immune response and the cytokine production were evaluated. Delayed clearance of the bacteria and stronger lung inflammation observed in infected CS-exposed mice were associated with an altered production of IL-17 and IL-22 by innate immune cells. This defect was related to a reduced production of IL-1β and IL-23 by antigen presenting cells. Importantly, supplementation with recombinant IL-22 restored bacterial clearance in CS-exposed mice and limited lung alteration. In contrast with non-smokers, blood NK and NKT cells from COPD patients failed to increase IL-17 and IL-22 levels in response to S. pneumoniae, in association with a defect in IL-1β and IL-23 secretion. This study identified IL-17 and IL-22 as susceptibility factors in COPD exacerbation. Therefore targeting such cytokines could represent a potent strategy to control COPD exacerbation.

  17. Sodium transport through the cerebral sodium-glucose transporter exacerbates neuron damage during cerebral ischaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yui; Harada, Shinichi; Wada, Tetsuyuki; Yoshida, Shigeru; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2016-07-01

    We recently demonstrated that the cerebral sodium-glucose transporter (SGLT) is involved in postischaemic hyperglycaemia-induced exacerbation of cerebral ischaemia. However, the associated SGLT-mediated mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, we examined the involvement of cerebral SGLT-induced excessive sodium ion influx in the development of cerebral ischaemic neuronal damage. [Na+]i was estimated according to sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate fluorescence. In the in vitro study, primary cortical neurons were prepared from fetuses of ddY mice. Primary cortical neurons were cultured for 5 days before each treatment with reagents, and these survival rates were assessed using biochemical assays. In in vivo study, a mouse model of focal ischaemia was generated using middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). In these experiments, treatment with high concentrations of glucose induced increment in [Na+]i, and this phenomenon was suppressed by the SGLT-specific inhibitor phlorizin. SGLT-specific sodium ion influx was induced using a-methyl-D-glucopyranoside (a-MG) treatments, which led to significant concentration-dependent declines in neuronal survival rates and exacerbated hydrogen peroxide-induced neuronal cell death. Moreover, phlorizin ameliorated these effects. Finally, intracerebroventricular administration of a-MG exacerbated the development of neuronal damage induced by MCAO, and these effects were ameliorated by the administration of phlorizin. Hence, excessive influx of sodium ions into neuronal cells through cerebral SGLT may exacerbate the development of cerebral ischaemic neuronal damage. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Clinical significance of the infection-free interval in the management of acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodosh, Sanford

    2005-06-01

    Rational and appropriate antibiotic use for patients with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB) is a major concern, as approximately half of these patients do not have a bacterial infection. Typically, the result of antimicrobial therapy for patients with acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (ABECB) is not eradication of the pathogen but resolution of the acute symptoms. However, the length of time before the next bacterial exacerbation can be another important variable, as the frequency of exacerbations will affect the overall health of the patient and the rate of lung deterioration over time. Clinical trials comparing antimicrobial therapies commonly measure resolution of symptoms in AECB patients as the primary end point, regardless of whether the exacerbation is documented as bacterial in nature. Ideally, the scientific approach to assessing the efficacy of antibiotic therapy for ABECB should include a measurement of acute bacterial eradication rates in patients with documented bronchial bacterial infection followed by measurement of the infection-free interval (IFI), ie, the time to the next ABECB. The use of these variables can provide a standard for comparing various antimicrobial therapies. As we learn more about how antibiotics can affect the IFI, treatment decisions should be adapted to ensure optimal management of ABECB for the long-term.

  19. Hourly differences in air pollution on the risk of asthma exacerbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jayeun; Kim, Ho; Kweon, Jung

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the association between hourly differences in air pollution and asthma exacerbation in Korea using asthma-related emergency department data and verified seasonality and demographic modifiers with an hourly temporal resolution. We applied time-stratified case-crossover adjusted for weather and influenza; the lag was stratified as 1–6, 7–12, 13–18, 19–24, 25–48, and49–72 h. Odds ratios (95% confidence interval) per interquartile range increase were 1.05 (1.00–1.11) after 1–6 h for PM 10–2.5 and 1.10 (1.04–1.16) after 19–24 h for O 3 . Effect size was 1.14 (1.06–1.22) at a 1–6 h lag in spring for PM 10–2.5 , and 1.25 (1.03–1.51) at a 25–48 h lag in winter for O 3 . O 3 effects were age- and low socio-economic status-modified at a 7–12 h lag [1.25 (1.04–1.51)]. Increased PM 10–2.5 and O 3 increased the risk of asthma exacerbation; the effect of PM 10–2.5 was most immediate. - Highlights: • We examined hourly differences in air pollution levels and asthma exacerbation risk. • Increased PM 10–2.5 and O 3 levels increased the risk of asthma exacerbation. • The effect of PM 10–2.5 was more immediate than other pollutants. • The effect of O 3 was modified by age and socio-economic status. • O 3 has a longer lag effect, particularly in winter. - Hourly increments of PM 10–2.5 and O 3 induced an increased risk of asthma-related emergency room visits, and the effect of PM 10–2.5 was most immediate

  20. Longitudinal change in quality of life following hospitalisation for acute exacerbations of COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, John; Gibson, G John; Bourke, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    Background Current guidelines for management of patients hospitalised with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) recommend that clinical decisions, including escalation to assisted ventilation, be informed by an estimate of the patients’ likely postdischarge quality of life. There is little evidence to inform predictions of outcome in terms of quality of life, psychological well-being and functional status. Undue nihilism might lead to denial of potentially life-saving therapy, while undue optimism might prolong suffering when alternative palliation would be more appropriate. This study aimed to detail longitudinal changes in quality of life following hospitalisation for acute exacerbations of COPD. Methods We prospectively recruited two cohorts (exacerbations requiring assisted ventilation during admission and exacerbations not ventilated). Admission clinical data, and mortality and readmission details were collected. Quality of life, psychological well-being and functional status were formally assessed over the subsequent 12 months. Time-adjusted mean change in quality of life was examined. Results 183 patients (82 ventilated; 101 not ventilated) were recruited. On average, overall quality of life improved by a clinically important amount in those not ventilated and did not decline in ventilated patients. Both groups showed clinically important improvements in respiratory symptoms and an individual's sense of control over their condition, despite the tendency for functional status to decline. Conclusions On average, postdischarge quality of life improved in non-ventilated and did not decline in ventilated patients. Certain quality of life domains (ie, symptoms and mastery) improved significantly. Better understanding of longitudinal change in postdischarge quality of life should help to inform decision-making. PMID:25628892

  1. The interplay between neuroendocrine activity and psychological stress-induced exacerbation of allergic asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomitsu Miyasaka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress is recognized as a key factor in the exacerbation of allergic asthma, whereby brain responses to stress act as immunomodulators for asthma. In particular, stress-induced enhanced type 2 T-helper (Th2-type lung inflammation is strongly associated with asthma pathogenesis. Psychological stress leads to eosinophilic airway inflammation through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal pathway and autonomic nervous system. This is followed by the secretion of stress hormones into the blood, including glucocorticoids, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, which enhance Th2 and type 17 T-helper (Th17-type asthma profiles in humans and rodents. Recent evidence has shown that a defect of the μ-opioid receptor in the brain along with a defect of the peripheral glucocorticoid receptor signaling completely disrupted stress-induced airway inflammation in mice. This suggests that the stress response facilitates events in the central nervous and endocrine systems, thus exacerbating asthma. In this review, we outline the recent findings on the interplay between stress and neuroendocrine activities followed by stress-induced enhanced Th2 and Th17 immune responses and attenuated regulatory T (Treg cell responses that are closely linked with asthma exacerbation. We will place a special focus on our own data that has emphasized the continuity from central sensing of psychological stress to enhanced eosinophilic airway inflammation. The mechanism that modulates psychological stress-induced exacerbation of allergic asthma through neuroendocrine activities is thought to involve a series of consecutive pathological events from the brain to the lung, which implies there to be a “neuropsychiatry phenotype” in asthma.

  2. Longitudinal change of COPD assessment test (CAT) in a telehealthcare cohort is associated with exacerbation risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassouli, Frank; Baty, Florent; Stolz, Daiana; Albrich, Werner Christian; Tamm, Michael; Widmer, Sandra; Brutsche, Martin Hugo

    2017-01-01

    There are only scarce data regarding the evolution of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test (CAT) over time. Our aim was to investigate the evolution of the CAT in a telehealthcare (THC) cohort and to evaluate its potential to predict exacerbations. The CAT was measured weekly over up to 1 year in 40 COPD patients undergoing a THC intervention. The evolution of the CAT was analyzed using linear regression. The association between this evolution and the occurrence of exacerbations was evaluated using the Andersen-Gill formulation of the Cox proportional hazards model for the analysis of recurrent time-to-event data with time-varying predictors. The median CAT at inclusion was 17 (interquartile range 13-22) points. During the study, 25% of patients had a significant negative slope (median -7 points per year [ppy]), 38% were stable (median +0 ppy) and 38% had a significant positive slope (median +6 ppy). The median slope of the CAT in the overall cohort was +1 (interquartile range -3 to +6) ppy. A significant positive association was found between the change in CAT scores and the risk of exacerbations (hazard ratio =1.08, 95% CI: 1.03-1.13; p evolution of the CAT over time and the risk of exacerbations. In about one-fifth of patients, there was a significant learning effect in filling out the CAT, before reliable results could be obtained. The evolution of the CAT could help to assess the risk for future exacerbations.

  3. Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein cannot differentiate bacterial or viral infection in COPD exacerbation requiring emergency department visits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang CH

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chih-Hao Chang,1 Kuo-Chien Tsao,2,3 Han-Chung Hu,1,4 Chung-Chi Huang,1,4 Kuo-Chin Kao,1,4 Ning-Hung Chen,1,4 Cheng-Ta Yang,1,4 Ying-Huang Tsai,4,5 Meng-Jer Hsieh4,51Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Linkou Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang-Gung Medical Foundation, Chang-Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, Linkou Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang-Gung Medical Foundation; 3Department of Medical Biotechnology and Laboratory Science, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Department of Respiratory Therapy, Chang-Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 5Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Chiayi Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang-Gung Medical Foundation, Puzi City, TaiwanBackground: Viral and bacterial infections are the most common causes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbations. Whether serum inflammatory markers can differentiate bacterial from virus infection in patients with COPD exacerbation requiring emergency department (ED visits remains controversial.Methods: Viral culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were used to identify the viruses in the oropharynx of patients with COPD exacerbations. The bacteria were identified by the semiquantitative culture of the expectorated sputum. The peripheral blood white blood cell (WBC counts, serum C-reactive protein (CRP, procalcitonin (PCT, and clinical symptoms were compared among patients with different types of infections.Results: Viruses were isolated from 16 (22.2% of the 72 patients enrolled. The most commonly identified viruses were parainfluenza type 3, influenza A, and rhinovirus. A total of 30 (41.7% patients had positive bacterial cultures, with the most commonly found bacteria being Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae. Five patients (6.9% had both positive sputum cultures and virus identification. The WBC, CRP, and PCT levels of the bacteria-positive and bacteria

  4. Asthma exacerbations: risk factors for hospital readmissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Barcala, F-J; Calvo-Alvarez, U; Garcia-Sanz, M-T; Garcia-Couceiro, N; Martin-Lancharro, P; Pose, A; Carreira, J-M; Moure-Gonzalez, J-D; Valdes-Cuadrado, L; Muñoz, X

    2018-02-01

    The aim of our study is to analyse hospital readmissions due to asthma, as well as the factors associated with their increase. We carried out a retrospective study including all admissions of patients over 18 years old due to exacerbation of asthma occurring in our hospital between the years 2000 and 2010. The data were gathered by two members of the research team, by reviewing the clinical records. The first hospital admission of each patient was included for this study. An early readmission (ER) was defined as that which occurred in the following 15 days after hospital discharge and late readmission (LR) to that occurring from 16 days after discharge. This study included 2166 hospital admissions and 1316 patients, with a mean age of 62.6 years. Of the 1316 patients analysed, 36 (2.7%) had one ER and 313 (23.8%) one LR. The only factor independently associated with a higher probability of an ER was poor lung function. A higher probability of LR was associated with a greater severity of the asthma (OR: 17.8, for severe asthma versus intermittent asthma), to have had any hospital admission in the previous year (OR: 3.5) and the use of a combination of ICS-LABA as maintenance treatment. About 25% of the patients in our area admitted to hospital due to asthma exacerbation had repeat episodes of hospitalisation.

  5. Influence of β(2)-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms on asthma exacerbation in children with severe asthma regularly receiving salmeterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giubergia, Verónica; Gravina, Luis; Castaños, Claudio; Chertkoff, Lilien

    2013-03-01

    New evidence suggests that different β(2)-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) polymorphisms may influence asthma control in patients receiving long-acting β(2)agonists (LABAs) as regular therapy. To determine the influence of β2AR polymorphisms on asthma exacerbations in children with severe asthma from Argentina receiving inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and LABAs regularly. Ninety-seven children with severe asthma were genotyped for polymorphisms of β2AR at codons 16 and 27. The number of severe exacerbations, the time of first asthma exacerbation, and the number of hospitalizations during 12 months were assessed. Changes on pulmonary function from the beginning to the end of the study were also evaluated. The number of overall asthma exacerbations and the proportion of children with these events were similar among β2AR genotypes at position 16 (Arg/Arg, Arg/Gly, and Gly/Gly) and at position 27 (Gln/Gln, Gln/Glu, and Glu/Glu). The time to first asthma exacerbation was similar among individuals carrying different β2AR polymorphisms. No β2AR genotype association was found in relation to the number of hospitalizations. Longitudinal analysis of forced expiratory volume in 1 second from baseline to the end of the study also showed no differences among β2AR genotypes at position 16 or 27. No association was observed among the 3 most common haplotypes (Arg/Arg-Gln/Gln, Gly/Gly-Gln/Gln, and Gly/Gly-Glu/Glu) and the number of participants with asthmatic crisis or with the overall number of exacerbations. β2AR polymorphisms were not associated with an increased risk of having asthma exacerbations or lung function decline in a population of Argentinian children with severe asthma receiving ICS and LABAs regularly. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. How Clinical Diagnosis Might Exacerbate the Stigma of Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2007-01-01

    Stigma can greatly exacerbate the experience of mental illness. Diagnostic classification frequently used by clinical social workers may intensify this stigma by enhancing the public's sense of "groupness" and "differentness" when perceiving people with mental illness. The homogeneity assumed by stereotypes may lead mental health professionals and…

  7. Comparative efficacy of inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting beta agonist combinations in preventing COPD exacerbations: a Bayesian network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Yuji; Lone, Nazir A

    2014-01-01

    A combination therapy with inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and a long-acting beta agonist (LABA) is recommended in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients experiencing frequent exacerbations. Currently, there are five ICS/LABA combination products available on the market. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the efficacy of various ICS/LABA combinations with a network meta-analysis. Several databases and manufacturer's websites were searched for relevant clinical trials. Randomized control trials, at least 12 weeks duration, comparing an ICS/LABA combination with active control or placebo were included. Moderate and severe exacerbations were chosen as the outcome assessment criteria. The primary analyses were conducted with a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method. Most of the ICS/LABA combinations reduced moderate-to-severe exacerbations as compared with placebo and LABA, but none of them reduced severe exacerbations. However, many studies excluded patients receiving long-term oxygen therapy. Moderate-dose ICS was as effective as high-dose ICS in reducing exacerbations when combined with LABA. ICS/LABA combinations had a class effect with regard to the prevention of COPD exacerbations. Moderate-dose ICS/LABA combination therapy would be sufficient for COPD patients when indicated. The efficacy of ICS/LABA combination therapy appeared modest and had no impact in reducing severe exacerbations. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of ICS/LABA combination therapy in severely affected COPD patients requiring long-term oxygen therapy.

  8. Risk factors for asthma exacerbation in patients presenting to an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Asthma exacerbations are caused by a variety of risk factors. Reducing exposure to these risk factors improves the control of asthma and reduces medication needs. Knowledge of the particular risk factors is essential in formulating controlling and treatment protocols. This study set out to determine the risk ...

  9. Antibiotic-resistant obligate anaerobes during exacerbations of cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worlitzsch, D; Rintelen, C; Böhm, K; Wollschläger, B; Merkel, N; Borneff-Lipp, M; Döring, G

    2009-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are thought to cause the majority of lung infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, other bacterial pathogens may contribute to the pathophysiology of lung disease. Here, obligate anaerobes were identified in a cross-sectional study, and cell numbers and antibiotic susceptibilities of facultative and obligate anaerobes from 114 sputum samples from nine children and 36 adults with CF were determined. Furthermore, in 12 CF patients, we investigated whether conventional intravenous antibiotic therapy, administered during acute exacerbations, would affect the numbers of obligate anaerobes. Fifteen genera of obligate anaerobes were identified in 91% of the CF patients. Cell numbers (mean: 2.2 x 10(7) +/- standard deviation 6.9 x 10(7) CFU/mL of sputum sample) were comparable to those of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Staphylococcus saccharolyticus and Peptostreptococcus prevotii were most prevalent. Infection with P. aeruginosa did not increase the likelihood that obligate anaerobes are present in sputum specimens. Single obligate anaerobic species persisted for up to 11 months in sputum plugs in vivo. Patients with and without obligate anaerobes in sputum specimens did not differ in lung function. Intravenous therapy directed against P. aeruginosa during acute exacerbations increased lung function, but did not reduce the numbers of obligate anaerobes. Obligate anaerobic species differed widely in their patterns of resistance against meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, clindamycin, metronidazole and ceftazidime. In 58% of patients with acute exacerbations, obligate anaerobes were detected that were resistant to the antibiotics used for treatment. Antibiotic therapy, optimized to target anaerobes in addition to P. aeruginosa, may improve the management of CF lung disease.

  10. Possibilities of CT examinations by chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ftacnikova, B.

    1994-01-01

    Chest trauma represents the most frequent associated injury in multiply injured patients. The success of treatment depends also on prompt and effective diagnosis and extent of the injuries, on quality interdisciplinary approach. Author presents contributions of computed tomography (CT) in the management of 77 critically injured patients. Attention is focused on the efficacy of CT examination routinely employed in the setting of thoracic trauma and its relationship to following rationalization of treatment. CT scans of thorax is modality of choice for evaluating patients with occult pneumothorax, chest wall deformity of rib fractures, early diagnosis of lung contusion and laceration. (author). 13 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs

  11. High fractional exhaled nitric oxide and sputum eosinophils are associated with an increased risk of future virus-induced exacerbations: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, A; Laing, I A; Backer, V; Sverrild, A; Khoo, S-K; Chidlow, G; Sikazwe, C; Smith, D W; Le Souëf, P; Porsbjerg, C

    2017-08-01

    The major trigger of asthma exacerbations is infection with a respiratory virus, most commonly rhinovirus. Type 2 inflammation is known to be associated with an increased risk of exacerbations in general. Whether type 2 inflammation at baseline increases the risk of future virus-induced exacerbations is unknown. To assess whether type 2 inflammation is associated with an increased risk of virus-induced exacerbations of asthma. Stable asthmatics had spirometry, skin prick test, measurement of FeNO and sputum induced for differential cell counts. Patients were followed up for 18 months, during which they were assessed at the research unit when they had symptoms of an exacerbation. Nasal swabs collected at these assessments underwent viral detection by PCR. A total of 81 asthma patients were recruited, of which 22 (27%) experienced an exacerbation during the follow-up period. Of these, 15 (68%) had a respiratory virus detected at exacerbation. Sputum eosinophils >1% at baseline increased the risk of having a subsequent virus-induced exacerbation (HR 7.6 95% CI: 1.6-35.2, P=.010) as did having FeNO >25 ppb (HR 3.4 95% CI: 1.1-10.4, P=.033). Established type 2 inflammation during stable disease is a risk factor for virus-induced exacerbations in a real-life setting. Measures of type 2 inflammation, such as sputum eosinophils and FeNO, could be included in the risk assessment of patients with asthma in future studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Regional, age and respiratory-secretion-specific prevalence of respiratory viruses associated with asthma exacerbation: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xue-Yan; Xu, Yan-Jun; Guan, Wei-Jie; Lin, Li-Feng

    2018-04-01

    Despite increased understanding of how viral infection is involved in asthma exacerbations, it is less clear which viruses are involved and to what extent they contribute to asthma exacerbations. Here, we sought to determine the prevalence of different respiratory viruses during asthma exacerbations. Systematic computerized searches of the literature up to June 2017 without language limitation were performed. The primary focus was on the prevalence of respiratory viruses, including AdV (adenovirus), BoV (bocavirus), CoV (coronavirus), CMV (cytomegalovirus), EnV (enterovirus), HSV (herpes simplex virus), IfV (influenza virus), MpV (metapneumovirus), PiV (parainfluenzavirus), RV (rhinovirus) and RSV (respiratory syncytial virus) during asthma exacerbations. We also examined the prevalence of viral infection stratified by age, geographic region, type of respiratory secretion, and detection method. Sixty articles were included in the final analysis. During asthma exacerbations, the mean prevalence of AdV, BoV, CoV, CMV, EnV, HSV, IfV, MpV, PiV, RV and RSV was 3.8%, 6.9%, 8.4%, 7.2%, 10.1%, 12.3%, 10.0%, 5.3%, 5.6%, 42.1% and 13.6%, respectively. EnV, MPV, RV and RSV were more prevalent in children, whereas AdV, BoV, CoV, IfV and PiV were more frequently present in adults. RV was the major virus detected globally, except in Africa. RV could be detected in both the upper and lower airway. Polymerase chain reaction was the most sensitive method for detecting viral infection. Our findings indicate the need to develop prophylactic polyvalent or polyvirus (including RV, EnV, IfV and RSV) vaccines that produce herd immunity and reduce the healthcare burden associated with virus-induced asthma exacerbations.

  13. Role of Vitamin D in reducing number of acute exacerbations in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Dur Muhammad; Ullah, Aziz; Randhawa, Fawad Ahmad; Iqtadar, Somia; Butt, Nasir Farooq; Waheed, Khadija

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic incompletely reversible poor airflow and air trapping and usually this debilitating disorder limits the outside activities of the patients depriving them of sunlight which is a rich source of Vitamin D. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation in reducing number of acute exacerbation in COPD patients. This randomized control trial was conducted at East Medical Ward Mayo Hospital Lahore from January to December 2015 as exacerbations of COPD are season dependent. Diagnosis was confirmed by performing Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs). Basic demographical information was obtained and baseline PFTs of the patient was done. Only Group A patients was treated with oral vitamin D intake of 2000 IU daily for 6 months. Vitamin D level was measured at 0, 2, 4, and 6 months and exacerbation of COPD, FEV1 and FVC was measured weekly. Both the groups were given standard treatment for exacerbation of COPD. Spirometry was repeated at each visit. Blood samples were collected every 2 months for vitamin D. Supplementation was stopped if vitamin D level exceeded 100ng/ml. The mean age of the patients was 46.28±8.83 years, the male to female ratio was 1.8:1. The mean 25(OH) level at baseline was 24.08±2.58 and at 6th month was 29.60±8.74. The mean FVC at baseline was 77.83±5.49 and at 6th month was 91.34±5.52. The exacerbation at baseline was present in all 120(100%) patients and at 6th month was reduced to 4(3.3%). Vitamin D supplementation has significant effect in reducing number of acute exacerbation in COPD patients when it is given for prolonged period.

  14. Innate immune activation by inhaled lipopolysaccharide, independent of oxidative stress, exacerbates silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Brass

    Full Text Available Acute exacerbations of pulmonary fibrosis are characterized by rapid decrements in lung function. Environmental factors that may contribute to acute exacerbations remain poorly understood. We have previously demonstrated that exposure to inhaled lipopolysaccharide (LPS induces expression of genes associated with fibrosis. To address whether exposure to LPS could exacerbate fibrosis, we exposed male C57BL/6 mice to crystalline silica, or vehicle, followed 28 days later by LPS or saline inhalation. We observed that mice receiving both silica and LPS had significantly more total inflammatory cells, more whole lung lavage MCP-1, MIP-2, KC and IL-1β, more evidence of oxidative stress and more total lung hydroxyproline than mice receiving either LPS alone, or silica alone. Blocking oxidative stress with N-acetylcysteine attenuated whole lung inflammation but had no effect on total lung hydroxyproline. These observations suggest that exposure to innate immune stimuli, such as LPS in the environment, may exacerbate stable pulmonary fibrosis via mechanisms that are independent of inflammation and oxidative stress.

  15. Longitudinal change of COPD assessment test (CAT in a telehealthcare cohort is associated with exacerbation risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rassouli F

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Frank Rassouli,1 Florent Baty,1 Daiana Stolz,2 Werner Christian Albrich,3 Michael Tamm,2 Sandra Widmer,1 Martin Hugo Brutsche1 1Department of Pulmonary and Sleep Medicine, Cantonal Hospital St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 2Department of Pulmonary and Sleep Medicine, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, Cantonal Hospital St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland Background: There are only scarce data regarding the evolution of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD assessment test (CAT over time. Our aim was to investigate the evolution of the CAT in a telehealthcare (THC cohort and to evaluate its potential to predict exacerbations.Patients and methods: The CAT was measured weekly over up to 1 year in 40 COPD patients undergoing a THC intervention. The evolution of the CAT was analyzed using linear regression. The association between this evolution and the occurrence of exacerbations was evaluated using the Andersen–Gill formulation of the Cox proportional hazards model for the analysis of recurrent time-to-event data with time-varying predictors.Results: The median CAT at inclusion was 17 (interquartile range 13–22 points. During the study, 25% of patients had a significant negative slope (median –7 points per year [ppy], 38% were stable (median +0 ppy and 38% had a significant positive slope (median +6 ppy. The median slope of the CAT in the overall cohort was +1 (interquartile range –3 to +6 ppy. A significant positive association was found between the change in CAT scores and the risk of exacerbations (hazard ratio =1.08, 95% CI: 1.03–1.13; p<0.001. There was an 8% increase of the risk of exacerbation per unit increase in CAT. We detected a significant learning effect in filling out the CAT in 18.4% of patients with a median learning phase of five filled questionnaires.Conclusion: Sixty-three percent of the COPD patients monitored by THC experienced a stable

  16. Study of plasma orexin-A level in COPD patients during acute exacerbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy M. Omar

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Patients with COPD during acute exacerbation had higher values of plasma orexin-A when compared with normal subjects and plasma orexin-A correlated positively with BMI and BFP in these patients.

  17. The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease assessment test improves the predictive value of previous exacerbations for poor outcomes in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miravitlles, Marc; García-Sidro, Patricia; Fernández-Nistal, Alonso; Buendía, María Jesús; Espinosa de Los Monteros, María José; Esquinas, Cristina; Molina, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations have a negative impact on the quality of life of patients and the evolution of the disease. We have investigated the prognostic value of several health-related quality of life questionnaires to predict the appearance of a composite event (new ambulatory or emergency exacerbation, hospitalization, or death) over a 1-year follow-up. This was a multicenter, prospective, observational study. Patients completed four questionnaires after recovering from an exacerbation (COPD Assessment Test [CAT], a Clinical COPD Questionnaire [CCQ], COPD Severity Score [COPDSS], and Airways Questionnaire [AQ20]). Patients were followed-up until the appearance of the composite event or for 1 year, whichever came first. A total of 497 patients were included in the study. The majority of them were men (89.7%), with a mean age of 68.7 (SD 9.2) years, and a forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 47.1% (SD 17.5%). A total of 303 (61%) patients experienced a composite event. Patients with an event had worse mean scores of all questionnaires at baseline compared to patients without event: CAT=12.5 vs 11.3 (P=0.028); CCQ=2.2 vs 1.9 (P=0.013); COPDSS=12.3 vs 10.9 (P=0.001); AQ20=8.3 vs 7.5 (P=0.048). In the multivariate analysis, only previous history of exacerbations and CAT score ≥13.5 were significant risk factors for the composite event. A CAT score ≥13.5 increased the predictive value of previous exacerbations with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.864 (95% CI: 0.829-0.899; P=0.001). The predictive value of previous exacerbations significantly increased only in one of the four trialled questionnaires, namely in the CAT questionnaire. However, previous history of exacerbations was the strongest predictor of the composite event.

  18. Bevacizumab Exacerbates Paclitaxel-Induced Neuropathy: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumu Matsuoka

    Full Text Available Bevacizumab (BEV, a humanized anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF monoclonal antibody, enhances the antitumor effectiveness of paclitaxel (PTX-based chemotherapy in many metastatic cancers. A recent study in mice showed that VEGF receptor inhibitors can interfere with the neuroprotective effects of endogenous VEGF, potentially triggering the exacerbation of PTX-induced neuropathy. In clinical trials, exacerbation of neuropathy in patients who received PTX combined with BEV (PTX+BEV has generally been explained by increased exposure to PTX owing to the extended duration of chemotherapy. We investigated whether the concurrent use of BEV is associated with the exacerbation of PTX-induced neuropathy.Female patients with breast cancer who had received weekly PTX or PTX+BEV from September 2011 through May 2016 were studied retrospectively. PTX-induced neuropathy was evaluated at the same time points (at the 6th and 12th courses of chemotherapy in both cohorts. A multivariate Cox proportional-hazards model was used to assess the independent effect of BEV on the time to the onset of neuropathy.A total of 107 patients (median age, 55 years; range, 32-83 were studied. Sixty-one patients received PTX as adjuvant chemotherapy, 23 received PTX for metastatic disease, and 23 received PTX+BEV for metastatic disease. Peripheral sensory neuropathy was worse in patients who received PTX+BEV than in those who received PTX alone: at the 6th course, Grade 0/1/2/3 = 4/13/4/0 vs. 25/42/6/0 (P = 0.095; at the 12th course, 2/3/11/3 vs. 7/30/23/2 (P = 0.016. At the 12th course, the incidence of Grade 2 or higher neuropathy was significantly higher in patients treated with PTX+BEV than in those treated with PTX alone (74% vs. 40%; P = 0.017. In multivariate analysis, BEV was significantly associated with an increased risk of neuropathy (HR 2.32, 95% CI 1.21-4.44, P = 0.012.The concurrent use of BEV could worsen PTX-induced neuropathy in patients with breast

  19. Nonresponse to 18-month Lamivudine Monotherapy in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients with Dual Genotype B and C Infection and Acute Exacerbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jen Sheu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular epidemiologic studies have indicated the possible existence of mixed infection of different hepatitis B virus (HBV genotypes in chronic hepatitis B (CH-B carriers, but the effect of dual HBV genotype B and C infection on the efficacy of lamivudine therapy remains unclear. We report four CH-B patients with dual HBV genotype B and C infection and acute exacerbation who received lamivudine monotherapy for about 18 months. None of them had achieved a sustained response at the end of the 18-month trial of treatment.

  20. Evaluation of novel scoring system named 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale for allergic conjunctivitis disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Jun; Inada, Noriko; Sawa, Mitsuru

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the practical usefulness of a scoring system using the 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale for allergic conjunctivitis disease (ACD). Subjects were 103 patients with ACD including 40 patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), 20 patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC), and 43 patients with allergic conjunctivitis (AC). The 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale consists of the following 3 graded groups of clinical observations: the 100-point-grade group (100 points for each observation) includes active giant papillae, gelatinous infiltrates of the limbus, exfoliative epithelial keratopathy, shield ulcer and papillary proliferation at lower palpebral conjunctiva; the 10-point-grade group (10 points for each observation) includes blepharitis, papillary proliferation with velvety appearance, Horner-Trantas spots, edema of bulbal conjunctiva, and superficial punctate keratopathy; and the 1-point-grade group (1 point for each observation) includes papillae at upper palpebral conjunctiva, follicular lesion at lower palpebral conjunctiva, hyperemia of palpebral conjunctiva, hyperemia of bulbal conjunctiva, and lacrimal effusion. The total points in each grade group were determined as the severity score of the 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale. The median severity scores of the 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale in VKC, AKC and AC were 243 (range: 12-444), 32.5 (11-344), and 13 (2-33), respectively. The severity score of each ACD disease type was significantly different (P Kruskal-Wallis test). The severity of each type of ACD was classified as severe, moderate, or mild according to the severity score. The 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale is a useful clinical tool for grading the severity of each type of ACD.

  1. Noninvasive ventilation for acute exacerbations of asthma: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Elyce; Jain, Paras; Bernoth, Maree

    2017-11-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease characterised by reversible airway obstruction caused by bronchospasm, mucous and oedema. People with asthma commonly experience acute exacerbations of their disease requiring hospitalisation and subsequent utilisation of economic and healthcare resources. Noninvasive ventilation has been suggested as a treatment for acute exacerbations of asthma due to its ability to provide airway stenting, optimal oxygen delivery and decreased work of breathing. This paper is a systematic review of the available published research focused on the use of noninvasive ventilation for the treatment of acute exacerbations of asthma to determine if this treatment provides better outcomes for patients compared to standard medical therapy. Database searches were conducted using EBSCOhost, MEDLINE and PubMed. Search terms used were combinations of 'noninvasive ventilation', 'BiPAP', 'CPAP', 'wheez*' and 'asthma'. Articles were included if they were research papers focused on adult patients with asthma and a treatment of noninvasive ventilation, and were published in full text in English. Included articles were reviewed using the National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia) evidence hierarchy and quality appraisal tools. There were 492 articles identified from the database searches. After application of inclusion/exclusion criteria 13 articles were included in the systematic review. Studies varied significantly in design, endpoints and outcomes. There was a trend in better outcomes for patients with acute asthma who were treated with noninvasive ventilation compared to standard medical therapy, however, the variability of the studies meant that no conclusive recommendations could be made. More research is required before noninvasive ventilation can be conclusively recommended for the treatment of acute exacerbations of asthma. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute exacerbation of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia complicated by lung cancer, caused by treatment for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Kiyoshi; Okano, Tetsuya; Yoshimura, Akinobu

    1999-01-01

    In 64 patients with lung cancer complicated by idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), we retrospectively studied the outcome of the treatment for lung cancer and clinical features of acute exacerbation of IIP after treatment for lung cancer. The incidence of acute exacerbation of IIP was 8.7% (2 of 23 patients) after anticancer chemotherapy, 14.3% (2 of 14 patients) after operation, and 25% (2 of 8 patients) after radiation therapy. Serum C-reactive protein level was significantly higher in the patients who developed acute exacerbation of IIP than in those who did not (CRP=5.12±2.27, 2.26±2.29, respectively). On the contrary, there were no differences in the levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase, white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, PaO 2 , and %VC between the two groups. Pathologic presentations of surgically resected lungs did not show significant differences in the activity of IIP between the two groups. Five of 6 patients who developed acute exacerbation of IIP died within 3 months after the treatment for lung cancer. We conclude that we should evaluate the activity of IIP more precisely using new markers for activity of IIP and on that basis select patients to be treated for lung cancer. (author)

  3. Evaluation of abdominal trauma by computed tomography and ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Do Yun; Kim, Sang Jin; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-06-15

    Out of 75 patients who were admitted to our hospital because of abdominal trauma and were undergone the procedures such as ultrasonography and/or CT scan within 24 hours of abdominal trauma due to suspected abdominal organ injury. We analyzed the results of 38 patients who were confirmed of diagnosis by operation, follow-up CT scan or ultrasonography. We analyzed the results of 38 patients who were confirmed of diagnosis by operation, follow-up CT scan or ultrasonography. 1. In the abdominal organ injury, solid organ injury consists of 8 cases of spleen laceration, 1 of splenic subcapsular hematoma, 7 of hepatic laceration, 7 of pancreas laceration, 3 of renal laceration, and 3 of subcapsular hematoma of kidney. 2. In addition, there were 7 bowel and/or mesenteric laceration, 2 diaphragmatic hernia, and 1 urethral rupture. 3. 2 cases of retroperitoneal hematoma and 1 case in which hemo peritoneum occurred without abdominal organ injury were confirmed by follow-up CT or ultrasonography. 4. In all of the 4 patients with multiple organ injury, pancreatic laceration was associated. 5. In abdominal trauma patients, ultrasonography or CT can be used to survey rapidly the entire abdomen for possible associated injury, and be of great help to clinicians in identifying the patients who need immediate surgery or in minimizing the incidence of unnecessary emergency abdominal exploration.

  4. Evaluation of abdominal trauma by computed tomography and ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Do Yun; Kim, Sang Jin; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik

    1986-01-01

    Out of 75 patients who were admitted to our hospital because of abdominal trauma and were undergone the procedures such as ultrasonography and/or CT scan within 24 hours of abdominal trauma due to suspected abdominal organ injury. We analyzed the results of 38 patients who were confirmed of diagnosis by operation, follow-up CT scan or ultrasonography. We analyzed the results of 38 patients who were confirmed of diagnosis by operation, follow-up CT scan or ultrasonography. 1. In the abdominal organ injury, solid organ injury consists of 8 cases of spleen laceration, 1 of splenic subcapsular hematoma, 7 of hepatic laceration, 7 of pancreas laceration, 3 of renal laceration, and 3 of subcapsular hematoma of kidney. 2. In addition, there were 7 bowel and/or mesenteric laceration, 2 diaphragmatic hernia, and 1 urethral rupture. 3. 2 cases of retroperitoneal hematoma and 1 case in which hemo peritoneum occurred without abdominal organ injury were confirmed by follow-up CT or ultrasonography. 4. In all of the 4 patients with multiple organ injury, pancreatic laceration was associated. 5. In abdominal trauma patients, ultrasonography or CT can be used to survey rapidly the entire abdomen for possible associated injury, and be of great help to clinicians in identifying the patients who need immediate surgery or in minimizing the incidence of unnecessary emergency abdominal exploration.

  5. Risk of death and readmission of hospital-admitted COPD exacerbations: European COPD Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Sylvia; Lopez-Campos, Jose Luis; Pozo-Rodriguez, Francisco; Castro-Acosta, Ady; Studnicka, Michael; Kaiser, Bernhard; Roberts, C Michael

    2016-01-01

    Studies report high in-hospital and post-discharge mortality of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations varying depending upon patient characteristics, hospital resources and treatment standards. This study aimed to investigate the patient, resource and organisational factors associated with in-hospital and 90-day post-discharge mortality and readmission of COPD exacerbations within the European COPD Audit. The audit collected data of COPD exacerbation admissions from 13 European countries.On admission, only 49.7% of COPD patients had spirometry results available and only 81.6% had blood gases taken. Using logistic regression analysis, the risk associated with in-hospital and post-discharge mortality was higher age, presence of acidotic respiratory failure, subsequent need for ventilatory support and presence of comorbidity. In addition, the 90-day risk of COPD readmission was associated with previous admissions. Only the number of respiratory specialists per 1000 beds, a variable related to hospital resources, decreased the risk of post-discharge mortality.The European COPD Audit identifies risk factors associated with in-hospital and post-discharge mortality and COPD readmission. Addressing the deficiencies in acute COPD care such as making spirometry available and measuring blood gases and providing noninvasive ventilation more regularly would provide opportunities to improve COPD outcomes. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  6. Self reported stressful life events and exacerbations in multiple sclerosis: prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Buljevac (Dragan); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); W. Reedeker; A.C.J.W. Janssens (Cécile); F.G.A. van der Meché (Frans); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter); R.Q. Hintzen (Rogier)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To study the relation between self reported stressful life events not related to multiple sclerosis and the occurrence of exacerbations in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. DESIGN: Longitudinal, prospective cohort study. SETTING: Outpatient clinic of

  7. Spirometry Findings Following Treatment with Oral and Inhalant Corticosteroids in Mild to Moderate Asthma Exacerbation in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemat Bilan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  Asthma exacerbation is common in children. Treatment with oral corticosteroids (OCS and inhaled corticosteroids are suggested for asthma exacerbation. It is shown that inhaled corticosteroids has similar outcome in reducing asthma symptoms compared to OCS. But few studies have evaluated the pulmonary function changes in these two treatments. In this study, we evaluated the changes in pulmonary function tests in children with mild-to-moderate asthma exacerbation receiving oral prednisolone and inhaled Budesonide. Methods and Materials: Forty-four children with mild-to-moderate asthma exacerbation were randomly assigned to receive oral prednisolone (2 mg/kg or Budesonide spray (2 puffs every 12 hours, each puff contains 200 microgram Budesonide using a spacer for one week. The first dose of the treatment was given in the emergency department. Children were followed for seven days and spirometry findings before and after treatment were evaluated. Results: There was no significant difference between pulmonary function tests before and after treatment between groups. Children receiving oral prednisolone had significantly more improvement in PEF (p=0.01. There was significant improvement in all respiratory parameters after treatment in both groups (p

  8. The Christmas Season as a Risk Factor for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil W Johnston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemics of hospitalization for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD occur annually during the Christmas holidays, and COPD exacerbations commonly coincide with respiratory viral infections.

  9. Variables Associated With Tic Exacerbation in Children With Chronic Tic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himle, Michael B; Capriotti, Matthew R; Hayes, Loran P; Ramanujam, Krishnapriya; Scahill, Lawrence; Sukhodolsky, Denis G; Wilhelm, Sabine; Deckersbach, Thilo; Peterson, Alan L; Specht, Matt W; Walkup, John T; Chang, Susanna; Piacentini, John

    2014-03-01

    Research has shown that motor and vocal tics fluctuate in frequency, intensity, and form in response to environmental and contextual cues. Behavioral models have proposed that some of the variation in tics may reflect context-dependent interactive learning processes such that once tics are performed, they are influenced by environmental contingencies. The current study describes the results of a function-based assessment of tics (FBAT) from a recently completed study comparing Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT) with supportive psychotherapy. The current study describes the frequency with which antecedent and consequence variables were reported to exacerbate tics and the relationships between these functional variables and sample baseline characteristics, comorbidities, and measures of tic severity. Results showed that tic-exacerbating antecedents and consequences were nearly ubiquitous in a sample of children with chronic tic disorder. In addition, functional variables were related to baseline measures of comorbid internalizing symptoms and specific measures of tic severity. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. The clinical and economic impact of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cohort of hospitalized patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Blasi

    Full Text Available Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is a common disease with significant health and economic consequences. This study assesses the burden of COPD in the general population, and the influence of exacerbations (E-COPD on disease progression and costs.This is a secondary data analysis of healthcare administrative databases of the region of Lombardy, in northern Italy. The study included ≥ 40 year-old patients hospitalized for a severe E-COPD (index event during 2006. Patients were classified in relation to the number and type of E-COPD experienced in a three-year pre-index period. Subjects were followed up until December 31st, 2009, collecting data on healthcare resource use and vital status.15857 patients were enrolled -9911 males, mean age: 76 years (SD 10. Over a mean follow-up time of 2.4 years (1.36, 81% of patients had at least one E-COPD with an annual rate of 3.2 exacerbations per person-year and an all-cause mortality of 47%. A history of exacerbation influenced the occurrence of new E-COPD and mortality after discharge for an E-COPD. On average, the healthcare system spent 6725€ per year per person (95%CI 6590-6863. Occurrence and type of exacerbations drove the direct healthcare cost. Less than one quarter of patients presented claims for pulmonary function tests.COPD imposes a substantial burden on healthcare systems, mainly attributable to the type and occurrence of E-COPD, or in other words, to the exacerbator phenotypes. A more tailored approach to the management of COPD patients is required.

  11. Exacerbation of bronchiectasis by Pseudomonas monteilii: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditi; Shariff, Malini; Beri, Kiran

    2017-07-24

    Pseudomonas spp are important opportunistic and nosocomial pathogens. One such species is Pseudomonas monteilii (P. monteilii). It has been described as an environmental contaminant and potential pathogen. We identified this organism as the causative agent of an exacerbation of bronchiectasis and an environmental contaminant in our hospital on two separate occasions. P. monteilii was the cause of an exacerbation of bronchiectasis in a 30-year-old HIV negative male. Patient presented with cough with sputum production and exertional dyspnea. The isolate was recovered from a sputum sample in significant counts and definitively identified by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation- Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). He was treated with piperacillin-tazobactam and recovered clinically and microbiologically. Another two isolates of the organism were contaminants from the hospital environment. The three isolates were susceptible to all tested antibiotics. Typing by Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) found no clonal relationship between them. Less common species of Pseudomonas need to be identified accurately. This organism is identified by commonly used phenotypic systems as P. putida which may have contributed to a lower reported prevalence. P. monteilii is a known environmental contaminant and must also be considered as a potential pathogen, particularly in patients with chronic lung disease.

  12. [A case of severe asthma exacerbation complicated with cerebral edema and diffuse multiple cerebral micro-bleeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkura, Noriyuki; Fujimura, Masaki; Sakai, Asao; Fujita, Kentaro; Katayama, Nobuyuki

    2009-08-01

    A 36-year-old woman was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit for the treatment of severe asthma exacerbation. Her condition of asthma improved with systemic glucocorticosteroids, inhaled beta2-agonist, intravenous theophylline and inhaled anesthesia (isoflurane) under mechanical ventilation. Her consciousness was disturbed even after terminating isoflurane. Brain CT and MRI scan showed cerebral edema and diffuse multiple cerebral micro-bleeds. Glyceol, a hyperosmotic diuretic solution consisting of 10% glycerol and 5% fructose in saline, was administered to decrease cerebral edema. Her consciousness disturbance gradually recovered. Cerebral edema and hemorrhage improved. On the 69th hospital day, she was discharged from hospital without sequelae. This case is a rare one in which severe asthma exacerbation was complicated with cerebral edema and diffuse multiple cerebral hemorrhage. Inhaled anesthesia for asthma exacerbation should be used carefully to avoid delay of diagnosis of central nervous system complications.

  13. Determination of exacerbation predictors in patients with COPD in physical therapy - a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego M. Marino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD typically presents the characteristic clinical condition of exacerbation, with more intense symptoms associated with greater functional loss and consequently lower chances of patient survival. Objectives: This study sought to determine the predictors of exacerbation, alone or in combination, in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD who received physical therapeutic treatment over 6 months. Method: This was an observational, longitudinal and prospective study in which 63 COPD patients residing within the municipality of São Carlos, SP, Brazil were evaluated. These patients had COPD stages II and III and were entered into a physical therapy program, consisting of 3 periods of assessment over 6 months. We evaluated the occurrence of acute exacerbation as well as the patients' body mass index (BMI, fat-free mass (FFM, fat-free mass index, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, dyspnea, distance walked (DW in the 6-minute walk test (6MWT and handgrip strength. Results: When applying Cox settings with each covariate separately, the results revealed 5% significance only for the DW in the 6MWT, which demonstrated an interaction between BMI and FFM. Comparison of the 3 periods of assessment across the covariates measured showed a significant difference only for the DW between evaluations in the 3rd and 6th months. Conclusion: Upon analyzing the predictors of risk over 6 months of follow-up in patients with COPD, we found that the DW in the 6MWT was associated with the risk of exacerbation, although this risk also depended on the covariates BMI and FFM.

  14. UNC5B receptor deletion exacerbates tissue injury in response to AKI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Punithavathi; Jayakumar, Calpurnia; Navankasattusas, Sutip; Li, Dean Y; Kim, Il-man; Ramesh, Ganesan

    2014-02-01

    Netrin-1 regulates cell survival and apoptosis by activation of its receptors, including UNC5B. However, the in vivo role of UNC5B in cell survival during cellular stress and tissue injury is unknown. We investigated the role of UNC5B in cell survival in response to stress using mice heterozygously expressing the UNC5B gene (UNC5B(-/flox)) and mice with targeted homozygous deletion of UNC5B in kidney epithelial cells (UNC5B(-/flox/GGT-cre)). Mice were subjected to two different models of organ injury: ischemia reperfusion injury of the kidney and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Both mouse models of UNC5B depletion had normal organ function and histology under basal conditions. After AKI, however, UNC5B(-/flox/GGT-cre) mice exhibited significantly worse renal function and damage, increased tubular apoptosis, enhanced p53 activation, and exacerbated inflammation compared with UNC5B(-/flox) and wild-type mice. shRNA-mediated suppression of UNC5B expression in cultured tubular epithelial cells exacerbated cisplatin-induced cell death in a p53-dependent manner and blunted Akt phosphorylation. Inhibition of PI3 kinase similarly exacerbated cisplatin-induced apoptosis; in contrast, overexpression of UNC5B reduced cisplatin-induced apoptosis in these cells. Taken together, these results show that the netrin-1 receptor UNC5B plays a critical role in cell survival and kidney injury through Akt-mediated inactivation of p53 in response to stress.

  15. Biomechanical Strain Exacerbates Inflammation on a Progeria-on-a-Chip Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribas, J.; Zhang, Y.S.; Pitrez, P.R.; Leijten, Jeroen Christianus Hermanus; Miscuglio, M.; Rouwkema, Jeroen; Dokmeci, M.R.; Nissan, X.; Ferreira, L.; Khademhosseini, A.

    2017-01-01

    A progeria-on-a-chip model is engineered to recapitulate the biomechanical dynamics of vascular disease and aging. The model shows an exacerbated injury response to strain and is rescued by pharmacological treatments. The progeria-on-a-chip is expected to drive the discovery of new drugs and to

  16. The feasibility of a home-based sedentary behaviour intervention for hospitalised chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients: Sitting and ExacerbAtions Trial (COPD-SEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Orme

    2015-10-01

    COPD-SEAT will be one of the first trials aimed at reducing sedentary behaviour at home in patients hospitalised for an acute exacerbation of COPD. This trial will provide valuable insight into the feasibility of implementing an at-home technology-based feedback intervention for reducing sedentary behaviour into patients existing care. Findings will inform a future large-scale trial acting as an adjuvant to pulmonary rehabilitation.

  17. Effects of Omalizumab on Rhinovirus Infections, Illnesses, and Exacerbations of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Ann; Busse, William W; Calatroni, Agustin; Togias, Alkis G; Grindle, Kristine G; Bochkov, Yury A; Gruchalla, Rebecca S; Kattan, Meyer; Kercsmar, Carolyn M; Khurana Hershey, G; Kim, Haejin; Lebeau, Petra; Liu, Andrew H; Szefler, Stanley J; Teach, Stephen J; West, Joseph B; Wildfire, Jeremy; Pongracic, Jaqueline A; Gern, James E

    2017-10-15

    Allergic inflammation has been linked to increased susceptibility to viral illnesses, but it is unclear whether this association is causal. To test whether omalizumab treatment to reduce IgE would shorten the frequency and duration of rhinovirus (RV) illnesses in children with allergic asthma. In the PROSE (Preventative Omalizumab or Step-up Therapy for Severe Fall Exacerbations) study, we examined children with allergic asthma (aged 6-17 yr; n = 478) from low-income census tracts in eight U.S. cities, and we analyzed virology for the groups randomized to treatment with guidelines-based asthma care (n = 89) or add-on omalizumab (n = 259). Weekly nasal mucus samples were analyzed for RVs, and respiratory symptoms and asthma exacerbations were recorded over a 90-day period during the fall seasons of 2012 or 2013. Adjusted illness rates (illnesses per sample) by treatment arm were calculated using Poisson regression. RVs were detected in 97 (57%) of 171 exacerbation samples and 2,150 (36%) of 5,959 nonexacerbation samples (OR, 2.32; P Omalizumab decreased the duration of RV infection (11.2 d vs. 12.4 d; P = 0.03) and reduced peak RV shedding by 0.4 log units (95% confidence interval, -0.77 to -0.02; P = 0.04). Finally, omalizumab decreased the frequency of RV illnesses (risk ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.84). In children with allergic asthma, treatment with omalizumab decreased the duration of RV infections, viral shedding, and the risk of RV illnesses. These findings provide direct evidence that blocking IgE decreases susceptibility to RV infections and illness. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01430403).

  18. Patient and physician evaluation of the severity of acute asthma exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atta J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the ability of patients not experienced in the use of peak expiratory flow meters to assess the severity of their asthma exacerbations and compared it to the assessment of experienced clinicians. We also evaluated which data of physical examination and medical history are used by physicians to subjectively evaluate the severity of asthma attacks. Fifty-seven adult patients (15 men and 42 women, with a mean (± SD age of 37.3 ± 14.5 years and 24.0 ± 17.9 years of asthma symptoms with asthma exacerbations were evaluated in a University Hospital Emergency Department. Patients and physicians independently evaluated the severity of the asthma attack using a linear scale. Patient score, physician score and forced expiratory volume at the first second (FEV1 were correlated with history and physical examination variables, and were also considered as dependent variables in multiple linear regression models. FEV1 correlated significantly with the physician score (rho = 0.42, P = 0.001, but not with patient score (rho = 0.03; P = 0.77. Use of neck accessory muscles, expiratory time and wheezing intensity were the explanatory variables in the FEV1 regression model and were also present in the physician score model. We conclude that physicians evaluate asthma exacerbation severity better than patients and that physician's scoring of asthma severity correlated significantly with objective measures of airway obstruction (FEV1. Some variables (the use of neck accessory muscles, expiratory time and wheezing intensity persisted as explanatory variables in physician score and FEV1 regression models, and should be emphasized in medical schools and emergency settings.

  19. Patient and physician evaluation of the severity of acute asthma exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Atta

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the ability of patients not experienced in the use of peak expiratory flow meters to assess the severity of their asthma exacerbations and compared it to the assessment of experienced clinicians. We also evaluated which data of physical examination and medical history are used by physicians to subjectively evaluate the severity of asthma attacks. Fifty-seven adult patients (15 men and 42 women, with a mean (± SD age of 37.3 ± 14.5 years and 24.0 ± 17.9 years of asthma symptoms with asthma exacerbations were evaluated in a University Hospital Emergency Department. Patients and physicians independently evaluated the severity of the asthma attack using a linear scale. Patient score, physician score and forced expiratory volume at the first second (FEV1 were correlated with history and physical examination variables, and were also considered as dependent variables in multiple linear regression models. FEV1 correlated significantly with the physician score (rho = 0.42, P = 0.001, but not with patient score (rho = 0.03; P = 0.77. Use of neck accessory muscles, expiratory time and wheezing intensity were the explanatory variables in the FEV1 regression model and were also present in the physician score model. We conclude that physicians evaluate asthma exacerbation severity better than patients and that physician's scoring of asthma severity correlated significantly with objective measures of airway obstruction (FEV1. Some variables (the use of neck accessory muscles, expiratory time and wheezing intensity persisted as explanatory variables in physician score and FEV1 regression models, and should be emphasized in medical schools and emergency settings.

  20. Th17 profile in COPD exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponce-Gallegos MA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Marco Antonio Ponce-Gallegos,1–3 Alejandra Ramírez-Venegas,4 Ramcés Falfán-Valencia1 1HLA Laboratory, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias Ismael Cosío Villegas, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Medicine Academic Unit, Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit. Tepic, Nayarit, Mexico; 3Interinstitutional Program for Strengthening Research and the Postgraduate in the Pacific (Dolphin, Tepic, Nayarit, México; 4Tobacco Smoking and COPD Research Department, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias Ismael Cosío Villegas, Mexico City, Mexico Abstract: COPD is characterized by an ongoing inflammatory process of the airways that leads to obstruction or limitation of airflow. It is mainly associated with exposure to cigarette smoke. In addition, it is considered, at present, a serious public health problem, ranking fourth in mortality worldwide. Many cells participate in the pathophysiology of COPD, the most important are neutrophils, macrophages and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Neutrophil migration to the inflammation area could be mediated largely by cytokines related to CD4+ Th17 lymphocytes, because it has been shown that IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22 act as inducers for CXCL8, CXCL1, CXCL5, G-CSF, and GM-CSF secretion by epithelial cells of the airways. The aims of these molecules are differentiation, proliferation and recruitment of neutrophils. Furthermore, it is believed that CD4+ lymphocytes Th17 may be involved in protection against pathogens for which Th1 and Th2 are not prepared to fight. In COPD exacerbations, there is an increased cellularity in the lung region and respiratory tract. Therefore, the increase in the number of neutrophils and macrophages in the airways and the increase in proinflammatory cytokines are directly related to the severity of exacerbations and that is the importance of the functions of Th17 profile in this entity. Keywords: IL-17A, bacteria, virus, IL-17F, IL-22, tobacco smoking

  1. High fractional exhaled nitric oxide and sputum eosinophils are associated with an increased risk of future virus-induced exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, A; Laing, I A; Backer, V

    2017-01-01

    the follow-up period. Of these, 15 (68%) had a respiratory virus detected at exacerbation. Sputum eosinophils >1% at baseline increased the risk of having a subsequent virus-induced exacerbation (HR 7.6 95% CI: 1.6-35.2, P=.010) as did having FeNO >25 ppb (HR 3.4 95% CI: 1.1-10.4, P=.033). CONCLUSION...... AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Established type 2 inflammation during stable disease is a risk factor for virus-induced exacerbations in a real-life setting. Measures of type 2 inflammation, such as sputum eosinophils and FeNO, could be included in the risk assessment of patients with asthma in future studies....

  2. Microbial mitigation-exacerbation continuum: a novel framework for microbiome effects on hosts in the face of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Aaron S; Thapa-Magar, Khum B; Afkhami, Michelle E

    2018-03-01

    A key challenge to understanding microbiomes and their role in ecological processes is contextualizing their effects on host organisms, particularly when faced with environmental stress. One influential theory, the Stress Gradient Hypothesis, might predict that the frequency of positive interactions increases with stressful conditions such that microbial taxa would mitigate harmful effects on host performance. Yet, equally plausible is that microbial taxa could exacerbate these effects. Here, we introduce the Mitigation-Exacerbation Continuum as a novel framework to conceptualize microbial mediation of stress. We (1) use this continuum to quantify microbial mediation of stress for six plant species and (2) test the association between these continuum values and natural species' abundance. We factorially manipulated a common stress (allelopathy) and the presence of soil microbes to quantify microbial effects in benign and stressed environments for two critical early life-history metrics, seed germination and seedling biomass. Although we found evidence of both mitigation and exacerbation among the six species, exacerbation was more common. Across species, the degree of microbial-mediated effects on germination explained >80% of the variation of natural field abundances. Our results suggest a critical role of soil microbes in mediating plant stress responses, and a potential microbial mechanism underlying species abundance. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. Exacerbation of asthma and airway infection: is the virus the villain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusmaia D.C. Costa

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: Respiratory viruses are present in the majority of asthmatic children during episodes of exacerbation. The involved physiopathological mechanisms are yet to be fully established, and the synergism between allergic inflammation and viral infection appears to determine uncontrolled disease. The role of other triggering and protective agents is yet to be clearly determined.

  4. Burden of Obesity on Pediatric Inpatients with Acute Asthma Exacerbation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Yusuke; Nochioka, Kotaro; Hataya, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro; Testa, Marcia

    Obesity and asthma are common health problems in the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical and economic burdens of obesity on hospitalized children with acute asthma exacerbation in 2012. Hospital discharge records of patients aged 2 to 18 years with a diagnosis of asthma were obtained from the 2012 Kids' Inpatient Database, wherein the data were compiled by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The discharge records were weighted to estimate the number of hospitalizations because of asthma exacerbations in the United States. To classify whether the patient was obese or not, we used the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 278.0x. We compared the odds of using noninvasive or invasive mechanical ventilation, mean total charges for inpatient service, and length of hospital stay between obese and nonobese patients. A total of 74,338 patient discharges were extracted. Of these, 3,494 discharges were excluded because of chronic medical conditions. Using discharge weight variables, we estimated a total of 100,157 hospitalizations with asthma exacerbations among children aged between 2 and 18 years in 2012. Obesity was significantly associated with higher odds of using mechanical ventilation (odds ratio 1.59, 95% CI 1.28-1.99), higher mean total hospital charges (adjusted difference: $1588, 95% CI $802-$2529), and longer mean length of hospital stay (0.24 days, 95% CI 0.17-0.32 days) compared with nonobesity. These findings suggest that obesity is a significant risk factor of severe asthma exacerbation that requires mechanical ventilation, and obesity is an economically complicating factor. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mitochondrial iron accumulation exacerbates hepatic toxicity caused by hepatitis C virus core protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, Shuichi; Ito, Konomi; Watanabe, Haruna; Nakano, Takafumi [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan); Moriya, Kyoji; Shintani, Yoshizumi; Fujie, Hajime; Tsutsumi, Takeya; Miyoshi, Hideyuki; Fujinaga, Hidetake; Shinzawa, Seiko; Koike, Kazuhiko [Department of Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Horie, Toshiharu, E-mail: t.horie@thu.ac.jp [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    Patients with long-lasting hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are at major risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Iron accumulation in the livers of these patients is thought to exacerbate conditions of oxidative stress. Transgenic mice that express the HCV core protein develop HCC after the steatosis stage and produce an excess of hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS). The overproduction of ROS in the liver is the net result of HCV core protein-induced dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. This study examined the impact of ferric nitrilacetic acid (Fe-NTA)-mediated iron overload on mitochondrial damage and ROS production in HCV core protein-expressing HepG2 (human HCC) cells (Hep39b cells). A decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS production were observed following Fe-NTA treatment. After continuous exposure to Fe-NTA for six days, cell toxicity was observed in Hep39b cells, but not in mock (vector-transfected) HepG2 cells. Moreover, mitochondrial iron ({sup 59}Fe) uptake was increased in the livers of HCV core protein-expressing transgenic mice. This increase in mitochondrial iron uptake was inhibited by Ru360, a mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uniporter inhibitor. Furthermore, the Fe-NTA-induced augmentation of mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS production, and cell toxicity were also inhibited by Ru360 in Hep39b cells. Taken together, these results indicate that Ca{sup 2+} uniporter-mediated mitochondrial accumulation of iron exacerbates hepatocyte toxicity caused by the HCV core protein. - Highlights: • Iron accumulation in the livers of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is thought to exacerbate oxidative stress. • The impact of iron overload on mitochondrial damage and ROS production in HCV core protein-expressing cells were examined. • Mitochondrial iron uptake was increased in the livers of HCV core protein-expressing transgenic mice. • Ca{sup 2+} uniporter-mediated mitochondrial accumulation of iron exacerbates

  6. Acute exacerbation of Hashimoto thyroiditis mimicking anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid: A complicated case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaya, Hiroaki; Konno, Wataru; Fukami, Satoru; Hirabayashi, Hideki; Haruna, Shin-ichi

    2014-12-01

    The fibrous variant of Hashimoto thyroiditis is uncommon, accounting for approximately 10% of all cases of Hashimoto thyroiditis. We report a case of this variant that behaved like a malignant neoplasm. The patient was a 69-year-old man who presented with a right-sided anterior neck mass that had been rapidly growing for 2 weeks. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed clusters of large multinucleated cells suggestive of an anaplastic carcinoma. A week after presentation, we ruled out that possibility when the mass had shrunk slightly. Instead, we diagnosed the patient with an acute exacerbation of Hashimoto thyroiditis on the basis of laboratory findings. We performed a right thyroid lobectomy, including removal of the isthmus, to clarify the pathology and alleviate pressure symptoms. The final diagnosis was the fibrous variant of Hashimoto thyroiditis, with no evidence of malignant changes. Physicians should keep in mind that on rare occasions, Hashimoto thyroiditis mimics a malignant neoplasm.

  7. C-reactive protein in outpatients with acute exacerbation of COPD: its relationship with microbial etiology and severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallego M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Miguel Gallego,1–3 Xavier Pomares,1,3 Silvia Capilla,4 Maria Angeles Marcos,5,6 David Suárez,7 Eduard Monsó,1–3,* Concepción Montón1,8,* 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hospital de Sabadell, Institut Universitari Parc Taulí-UAB, Sabadell, 2Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Esfera UAB, Barcelona, 3CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias, CIBERES, Bunyola, 4Laboratory of Microbiology, Institut Universitari Parc Taulí-UAB, Sabadell, 5Department of Clinical Microbiology, Hospital Clínic, 6ISGlobal, Barcelona Centre for International Health Research (CRESIB, Hospital Clínic, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, 7Epidemiology and Assessment Unit, Fundació Parc Taulí, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Sabadell, 8Health Services Research on Chronic Diseases Network-REDISSEC, Galdakao, Spain *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: C-reactive protein (CRP measurement has proven valuable for detecting exacerbations, but its usefulness in predicting etiology remains controversial. Likewise, its potential value as a marker of severity, which is well established in patients with pneumonia, remains unproven in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbations. Methods: A cohort study of 118 patients with severe COPD and acute infectious exacerbations were included and followed up over 1 year. Episodes of exacerbations meeting Anthonisen’s criteria type I–II were evaluated, analyzing the etiology and inflammatory response as measured by CRP in blood. Results: A total of 380 episodes were recorded. Full microbiological analysis was available in 265 samples. Haemophilus influenzae was the most commonly isolated bacteria and rhinovirus the most common virus. Median CRP levels from the 265 episodes were higher in the cases with positive cultures for bacteria (58.30 mg/L, interquartile range [IQR] 21.0–28.2 than in episodes only positive for viruses (37.3 mg/L, IQR 18.6–79.1 and cases negative for any

  8. 5-Aminosalicylate intolerance causing exacerbation in pediatric ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hirotaka; Arai, Katsuhiro; Tang, Julian; Hosoi, Kenji; Funayama, Rie

    2017-05-01

    5-Aminosalicylate (5-ASA) is widely used as the first-line drug for ulcerative colitis (UC). 5-ASA is mostly a safe and effective drug, but it can bring about exacerbation due to 5-ASA intolerance. 5-ASA intolerance can be confusing and it can mislead physicians into considering unnecessary treatment escalation, including corticosteroid (CS), biologics, or even surgery. In spite of the clinical importance of 5-ASA intolerance, there have been few studies on its incidence, clinical features, and diagnosis. In order to evaluate the incidence, characteristic symptoms, disease course, and laboratory data of children with 5-ASA intolerance, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 80 children with UC. Eleven of 80 children (13.8%) with UC were diagnosed with 5-ASA intolerance. The median time between the initiation of 5-ASA and the onset of 5-ASA intolerance was 10 days (range, 4-20 days) in patients not receiving CS. Drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test (DLST) was performed in 10 patients, and was positive in eight. C-reactive protein (CRP) increased significantly when exacerbation of colitis symptoms occurred. The incidence of 5-ASA intolerance was relatively high. Besides the challenge test, elevation of CRP and positive DLST appeared to support the diagnosis of 5-ASA intolerance. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. A case of acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis after proton beam therapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Tatsuya; Kotani, Yoshikazu; Fujii, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    There have been no reports describing acute exacerbations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis after particle radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. The present study describes the case of a 76-year-old Japanese man with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung that relapsed in the left upper lobe 1 year after right upper lobectomy. He had been treated with oral prednisolone 20 mg/day every 2 days for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and the relapsed lung cancer was treated by proton beam therapy, which was expected to cause the least adverse effects on the idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Fifteen days after the initiation of proton beam therapy, the idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis exacerbated, centered on the left upper lobe, for which intensive steroid therapy was given. About 3 months later, the acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis had improved, and the relapsed lung cancer became undetectable. Clinicians should be aware that an acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis may occur even in proton beam therapy, although proton beam therapy appears to be an effective treatment option for patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. (author)

  10. Seasonality and determinants of moderate and severe COPD exacerbations in the TORCH study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenkins, C R; Celli, B; Anderson, J A

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the impact of season relative to other determinants of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation frequency in a long-term international study of patients with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1))...

  11. Antibiotic treatment of exacerbations of COPD in general practice: long-term impact on healthrelated quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Miravitlles

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Marc Miravitlles1, Carles Llor2, Jesús Molina3, Karlos Naberan4, Josep M Cots5, Fernando Ros6 on behalf of the EVOCA Study Group1Fundació Clínic. Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS, Hospital Clínic, Ciber de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES, Barcelona, Spain; 2Primary Health Care Center ‘Jaume I’, Societat Catalana de Medicina Familiar i Comunitària, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain; 3Primary Health Care Center ‘Francia’, Grupo de Respiratorio de la Sociedad Madrileña de Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria, Madrid, Spain; 4Primary Health Care Center ‘Fuentes de Ebro’, Grupo de Investigación del Instituto Aragonés Ciencias de la Salud (IACS, Zaragoza, Spain; 5Primary Health Care Center ‘La Marina’, Societat Catalana de Medicina Familiar i Comunitària, Facultat de Medicina, Barcelona, Spain; 6Medical Department, Bayer Healthcare, Barcelona, SpainObjective: To investigate the impact of exacerbations in health-related quality of life (HRQL of patients with COPD and to compare the effect of treatment of COPD exacerbations with moxifloxacin (400 mg/day for 5 days and amoxicillin/clavulanate (500/125 mg 3 times a day for 10 days on HRQL.Methods: 229 outpatients with stable COPD (mean age 68.2 years; mean FEV1 % predicted 49.3% participated in a prospective, observational study of 2 years’ duration. The St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ was completed at baseline and every 6 months thereafter.Results: COPD exacerbations (mean 2.7 episodes/patient occurred in 136 patients (124 patients received the study medications [amoxicillin/clavulanate 54, moxifloxacin 70]. Differences between baseline and the final visit were higher for moxifloxacin compared with amoxicillin/clavulanate for total SGRQ score (-2.60 [13.1] vs 4.21 [16.2], P = 0.05 and “Symptoms” subscale (-5.64 [16.7] vs 8.27 [21], P = 0.02. The same findings were observed in patients with two or more

  12. Effect of tele health care on exacerbations and hospital admissions in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringbæk, Thomas; Green, Allan; Laursen, Lars Christian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Tele monitoring (TM) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has gained much interest, but studies have produced conflicting results. Our aim was to investigate the effect of TM with the option of video consultations on exacerbations and hospital...... not reduce hospital admissions for exacerbated COPD, but TM may be an alternative to visits at respiratory outpatient clinics. Further studies are needed to establish the optimal role of TM in the management of severe COPD....

  13. Major air pollutants and risk of COPD exacerbations: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li JH

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Jinhui Li,1,2 Shengzhi Sun,1,2 Robert Tang,1,2 Hong Qiu,2 Qingyuan Huang,3 Tonya G Mason,2 Linwei Tian1,2 1Shenzhen Institute of Research and Innovation, Nanshan, The University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; 3Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Minhang, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background: Short-term exposure to major air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2, PM10, and PM2.5 has been associated with respiratory risk. However, evidence on the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbations is still limited. The present study aimed at evaluating the associations between short-term exposure to major air pollutants and the risk of COPD exacerbations.Methods: After a systematic search up until March 30, 2016, in both English and Chinese electronic databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, and CNKI, the pooled relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using the random-effects model. In addition, the population-attributable fractions (PAFs were also calculated, and a subgroup analysis was conducted. Heterogeneity was assessed by I2.Results: In total, 59 studies were included. In the single-pollutant model, the risks of COPD were calculated by each 10 µg/m3 increase in pollutant concentrations, with the exception of CO (100 µg/m3. There was a significant association between short-term exposure and COPD exacerbation risk for all the gaseous and particulate pollutants. The associations were strongest at lag0 and lag3 for gaseous and particulate air pollutants, respectively. The subgroup analysis not only further confirmed the overall adverse effects but also reduced the heterogeneities obviously. When 100% exposure was assumed, PAFs ranged from 0.60% to 4.31%, depending on the pollutants. The adverse health effects of SO2 and NO2

  14. Blood eosinophil count and exacerbations in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease after withdrawal of inhaled corticosteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watz, Henrik; Tetzlaff, Kay; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2016-01-01

    were seen with eosinophil cutoffs of 300 cells per μL and 400 cells per μL, and mutually exclusive subgroups. INTERPRETATION: Blood eosinophil counts at screening were related to the exacerbation rate after complete ICS withdrawal in patients with severe to very severe COPD and a history...... of exacerbations. Our data suggest that counts of 4% or greater or 300 cells per μL or more might identify a deleterious effect of ICS withdrawal, an effect not seen in most patients with eosinophil counts below these thresholds. FUNDING: Boehringer Ingelheim....

  15. Effect of ADRB2 polymorphisms on the efficacy of salmeterol and tiotropium in preventing COPD exacerbations: a prespecified substudy of the POET-COPD trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabe, Klaus F; Fabbri, Leonardo M; Israel, Elliot; Kögler, Harald; Riemann, Kathrin; Schmidt, Hendrik; Glaab, Thomas; Vogelmeier, Claus F

    2014-01-01

    The effect of β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) polymorphisms on the treatment response to longacting bronchodilators in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unclear. We aimed to establish whether ADRB2 polymorphisms differentially affected COPD exacerbation outcomes in response to tiotropium versus salmeterol. We did a prespecified analysis of the ADRB2 polymorphisms Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu within the 1 year randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group Prevention Of Exacerbations with Tiotropium in COPD (POET-COPD) trial, comparing the effects of treatment with tiotropium or salmeterol on exacerbations in 7376 patients with COPD. One blood sample was collected for pharmacogenetic testing from each patient who elected to participate in the substudy. Random assignment of patients to treatment groups was not stratified according to genotypes. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole-blood specimens and samples were genotyped for the two SNPs, rs1042713 (Arg16Gly) and rs1042714 (Gln27Glu). All assays were done in technical duplicates and 10% of samples that were randomly chosen were repeated as technical duplicates in a second independent genotyping process. Our primary endpoint was the risk of a first exacerbation of COPD based on time to first exacerbation data. An exacerbation of COPD was defined as the increase or new onset of more than one symptom of COPD (cough, sputum, wheezing, dyspnoea, or chest tightness), with at least one of the symptoms lasting for 3 days or more and needing treatment with antibiotics or systemic glucocorticoids (moderate exacerbations), or admission to hospital (severe exacerbations). POET-COPD is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00563381. 5125 patients gave informed consent for genotyping. The distributions of ADRB2 genotypes were well matched among groups. Polymorphisms at aminoacid 27 did not affect exacerbation outcomes. In the salmeterol group, patients with Arg16Arg genotype had a significantly reduced

  16. The expression of Mirc1/Mir17-92 cluster in sputum samples correlates with pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Kathrin; Kopp, Benjamin T; Tazi, Mia F; Caution, Kyle; Hamilton, Kaitlin; Badr, Asmaa; Shrestha, Chandra; Tumin, Dmitry; Hayes, Don; Robledo-Avila, Frank; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne; Klamer, Brett G; Zhang, Xiaoli; Partida-Sanchez, Santiago; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Kirkby, Stephen E; Dakhlallah, Duaa; McCoy, Karen S; Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle; Amer, Amal O

    2017-12-11

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multi-organ disorder characterized by chronic sino-pulmonary infections and inflammation. Many patients with CF suffer from repeated pulmonary exacerbations that are predictors of worsened long-term morbidity and mortality. There are no reliable markers that associate with the onset or progression of an exacerbation or pulmonary deterioration. Previously, we found that the Mirc1/Mir17-92a cluster which is comprised of 6 microRNAs (Mirs) is highly expressed in CF mice and negatively regulates autophagy which in turn improves CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function. Therefore, here we sought to examine the expression of individual Mirs within the Mirc1/Mir17-92 cluster in human cells and biological fluids and determine their role as biomarkers of pulmonary exacerbations and response to treatment. Mirc1/Mir17-92 cluster expression was measured in human CF and non-CF plasma, blood-derived neutrophils, and sputum samples. Values were correlated with pulmonary function, exacerbations and use of CFTR modulators. Mirc1/Mir17-92 cluster expression was not significantly elevated in CF neutrophils nor plasma when compared to the non-CF cohort. Cluster expression in CF sputum was significantly higher than its expression in plasma. Elevated CF sputum Mirc1/Mir17-92 cluster expression positively correlated with pulmonary exacerbations and negatively correlated with lung function. Patients with CF undergoing treatment with the CFTR modulator Ivacaftor/Lumacaftor did not demonstrate significant change in the expression Mirc1/Mir17-92 cluster after six months of treatment. Mirc1/Mir17-92 cluster expression is a promising biomarker of respiratory status in patients with CF including pulmonary exacerbation. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Time course and recovery of arterial blood gases during exacerbations in adults with Cystic Fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Waterhouse, D F

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hypoxia and hypercapnia are closely linked to morbidity and mortality in patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). The aims of this study were to describe the changes in blood gases during and following an acute pulmonary exacerbation in adults with CF. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study of patients with CF admitted for management of an acute exacerbation. Blood gas and spirometric analysis was performed on admission, throughout the treatment period, and 31 days after discharge (day 45). RESULTS: At presentation, eight of nineteen patients had evidence of either hypoxia (PaO(2)<8 kPa) and\\/or hypercapnia (PaCO(2)>6.6 kPa). Blood gas parameters stabilized following two weeks of intravenous antibiotic therapy, with little difference evident in between treatment completion and subsequent review following discharge. Hypercapnia reversed in three patients, with persistent hypercapnia evident in two patients. CONCLUSION: In our study group, hypoxemia and hypercapnia were frequently observed at presentation of the acute exacerbation. Blood gases stabilized following two weeks of intravenous antibiotic therapy, with arterial PCO(2) one month following hospital discharge generally similar to that at time of discharge.

  18. A case of bullous pemphigoid exacerbated by irradiation after breast conservative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isohashi, Fumiaki; Konishi, Koji; Umegaki, Noriko; Tanei, Tomonori; Koizumi, Masahiko; Yoshioka, Yasuo

    2011-01-01

    We present a case, considered to be a form of the Koebner phenomenon, of bullous pemphigoid that was exacerbated mainly within the irradiated field after breast conservative radiotherapy. In May 2009, a 60-year-old woman was diagnosed with bullous pemphigoid, which was treated with steroid therapy. The following month, she was diagnosed with breast cancer (invasive ductal carcinoma, pT1cN0M0). After breast conservative surgery in December 2009, conservative radiotherapy to the right breast was performed (50 Gy in 25 fractions). Portal skin showed no serious change (up to grade 1 skin erythema) and no bullous neogenesis during conservative radiotherapy. However, 2 months after conservative radiotherapy, new blisters became exacerbated mainly within the irradiated field but also in the area outside the irradiated field. Increasing the dosage of oral steroid and minocycline resulted in relief of bullous pemphigoid, although patchy skin pigmentation remained especially in the irradiated skin. (author)

  19. Risk Factors for Asthma Exacerbation and Treatment Failure in Adults and Adolescents with Well-Controlled Asthma during Continuation and Step Down Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMango, Emily; Rogers, Linda; Reibman, Joan; Gerald, Lynn B; Brown, Mark; Sugar, Elizabeth A; Henderson, Robert; Holbrook, Janet T

    2018-06-04

    Although national and international guidelines recommend reduction of asthma controller therapy or 'step-down" therapy in patients with well controlled asthma, it is expected that some individuals may experience worsening of asthma symptoms or asthma exacerbations during step-down. Characteristics associated with subsequent exacerbations during step-down therapy have not been well defined. The effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on risk of treatment failure during asthma step down therapy has not been reported. To identify baseline characteristics associated with treatment failure and asthma exacerbation during maintenance and guideline-based step-down therapy. The present analysis uses data collected from a completed randomized controlled trial of optimal step-down therapy in patients with well controlled asthma taking moderate dose combination inhaled corticosteroids/long acting beta agonists. Participants were 12 years or older with physician diagnosed asthma and were enrolled between December 2011 and May 2014. An Emergency Room visit in the previous year was predictive of a subsequent treatment failure (HR 1.53 (1.06, 2.21 CI). For every 10% increase in baseline forced expiratory volume in one second percent predicted, the hazard for treatment failure was reduced by 14% (95% CI: 0.74-0.99). There was no difference in risk of treatment failure between adults and children, nor did duration of asthma increase risk of treatment failure. Age of asthma onset was not associated with increased risk of treatment failure. Unexpected emergency room visit in the previous year was the only risk factor significantly associated with subsequent asthma exacerbations requiring systemic corticosteroids. Time to treatment failure or exacerbation did not differ in participants with and without self-report of ETS exposure. The present findings can help clinicians identify patients more likely to develop treatment failures and exacerbations and who may therefore

  20. Bromodomain and Extra Terminal (BET Inhibitor Suppresses Macrophage-Driven Steroid-Resistant Exacerbations of Airway Hyper-Responsiveness and Inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Hiep Nguyen

    Full Text Available Exacerbations of asthma are linked to significant decline in lung function and are often poorly controlled by corticosteroid treatment. Clinical investigations indicate that viral and bacterial infections play crucial roles in the onset of steroid-resistant inflammation and airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR that are hallmark features of exacerbations. We have previously shown that interferon γ (IFNγ and lipopolysaccharide (LPS cooperatively activate pulmonary macrophages and induce steroid-resistant airway inflammation and AHR in mouse models. Furthermore, we have established a mouse model of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV-induced exacerbation of asthma, which exhibits macrophage-dependent, steroid-resistant lung disease. Emerging evidence has demonstrated a key role for bromo- and extra-terminal (BET proteins in the regulation of inflammatory gene expression in macrophages. We hypothesised that BET proteins may be involved in the regulation of AHR and airway inflammation in our steroid-resistant exacerbation models.We investigated the effects of a BET inhibitor (I-BET-762 on the development of steroid-resistant AHR and airway inflammation in two mouse models. I-BET-762 administration decreased macrophage and neutrophil infiltration into the airways, and suppressed key inflammatory cytokines in both models. I-BET treatment also suppressed key inflammatory cytokines linked to the development of steroid-resistant inflammation such as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1, keratinocyte-derived protein chemokine (KC, IFNγ, and interleukin 27 (IL-27. Attenuation of inflammation was associated with suppression of AHR.Our results suggest that BET proteins play an important role in the regulation of steroid-resistant exacerbations of airway inflammation and AHR. BET proteins may be potential targets for the development of future therapies to treat steroid-resistant inflammatory components of asthma.

  1. Lymphatic deletion of calcitonin receptor–like receptor exacerbates intestinal inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Reema B.; Kechele, Daniel O.; Blakeney, Elizabeth S.; Pawlak, John B.

    2017-01-01

    Lymphatics play a critical role in maintaining gastrointestinal homeostasis and in the absorption of dietary lipids, yet their roles in intestinal inflammation remain elusive. Given the increasing prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease, we investigated whether lymphatic vessels contribute to, or may be causative of, disease progression. We generated a mouse model with temporal and spatial deletion of the key lymphangiogenic receptor for the adrenomedullin peptide, calcitonin receptor–like receptor (Calcrl), and found that the loss of lymphatic Calcrl was sufficient to induce intestinal lymphangiectasia, characterized by dilated lacteals and protein-losing enteropathy. Upon indomethacin challenge, Calcrlfl/fl/Prox1-CreERT2 mice demonstrated persistent inflammation and failure to recover and thrive. The epithelium and crypts of Calcrlfl/fl/Prox1-CreERT2 mice exhibited exacerbated hallmarks of disease progression, and the lacteals demonstrated an inability to absorb lipids. Furthermore, we identified Calcrl/adrenomedullin signaling as an essential upstream regulator of the Notch pathway, previously shown to be critical for intestinal lacteal maintenance and junctional integrity. In conclusion, lymphatic insufficiency and lymphangiectasia caused by loss of lymphatic Calcrl exacerbates intestinal recovery following mucosal injury and underscores the importance of lymphatic function in promoting recovery from intestinal inflammation. PMID:28352669

  2. Tic Exacerbation in Adults with Tourette Syndrome: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Sara M; Chow, Christopher A; Louis, Elan D; Robakis, Daphne

    2017-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) has been described as peaking in adolescence with subsequent regression. We report patients who were diagnosed with TS during childhood who experienced a latent period (significant reduction in or absence of tics) followed by tic re-emergence in adulthood. We performed a retrospective chart review of outpatients over age 21 seen at the Yale neurology clinic between January 2012 and July 2016 who were diagnosed with childhood-onset tics, and who experienced a latent period of greater than 1 year followed by an exacerbation. Sixteen patients were identified. The mean latent period was 16 years. Ten patients (62.5%) identified an exacerbation trigger, most commonly changes in substance use (five patients). Seven patients (43.8%) reported worsening of tics since childhood. Six patients (37.5%) had received pharmacological intervention for tics as children, and 15 patients (93.8%) as adults. Six of 15 patients (40.0%) had an effective response from those pharmacological intervention(s). Our study demonstrates that the decline in symptoms as patients age may represent temporary improvement. The latent period lasted years in our patients, different from the more rapid waxing and waning in children. A change in substance use was an important trigger. Requests for pharmacological intervention were not necessarily correlated with worsening tic severity.

  3. Mitochondrial Ferritin Deletion Exacerbates β-Amyloid-Induced Neurotoxicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peina Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial ferritin (FtMt is a mitochondrial iron storage protein which protects mitochondria from iron-induced oxidative damage. Our previous studies indicate that FtMt attenuates β-amyloid- and 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. To explore the protective effects of FtMt on β-amyloid-induced memory impairment and neuronal apoptosis and the mechanisms involved, 10-month-old wild-type and Ftmt knockout mice were infused intracerebroventricularly (ICV with Aβ25–35 to establish an Alzheimer’s disease model. Knockout of Ftmt significantly exacerbated Aβ25–35-induced learning and memory impairment. The Bcl-2/Bax ratio in mouse hippocampi was decreased and the levels of cleaved caspase-3 and PARP were increased. The number of neuronal cells undergoing apoptosis in the hippocampus was also increased in Ftmt knockout mice. In addition, the levels of L-ferritin and FPN1 in the hippocampus were raised, and the expression of TfR1 was decreased. Increased MDA levels were also detected in Ftmt knockout mice treated with Aβ25–35. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the neurological impairment induced by Aβ25–35 was exacerbated in Ftmt knockout mice and that this may relate to increased levels of oxidative stress.

  4. The Relationship Between 24-Hour Symptoms and COPD Exacerbations and Healthcare Resource Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Worth, Heinrich; Soler-Cataluña, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    This observational study assessed the relationship between nighttime, early-morning and daytime chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms and exacerbations and healthcare resource use. COPD symptoms were assessed at baseline in patients with stable COPD using a standardised questionna...

  5. Prevalence of Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Infection in Patients with COPD Exacerbation; a Letter to the Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Amiri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dear editor;Currently, control and prevention of respiratory illnesses is considered a health priority in most developed countries and managing the risk factors is necessary for improving the population’s health. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is the 5th cause of death around the world and estimations have indicated that due to an increase in environmental pollution, this disease will become the 3rd cause of death in the future.In previous studies, pulmonary infection with mycoplasma pneumoniae has been introduced as one of the causes for COPD exacerbation. Mycoplasma pneumoniae affects the upper and lower respiratory tract and its clinical manifestation is trachea-bronchitis accompanied by restlessness and dry coughs. The pathogenesis spectrum of this bacterium ranges from mild pharyngitis and trachea-bronchitis to acute pneumonia. Epidemiologic studies have shown that this bacterium is responsible for more than 20% of community acquired pneumonias.In a cross-sectional study by the authors of the present letter, 66 patients over the age of 18 years who had presented to the emergency department of Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, with diagnosis of COPD exacerbation were evaluated. Sputum sample of the patients was obtained and sent to the laboratory for performing polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Mean age of the patients participating in this study was 67.28 ± 13.68 years (60.6% male. The result of PCR was positive in 6 patients out of the total of 66 patients (9.1%. The results of the present study showed that there was no correlation between age (p=0.18, sex (p=0.25, duration of being affected with COPD (p=0.20, consumption of antibiotics (p=0.35, smoking (p=0.62, opioid abuse (p=0.44, corticosteroid use (p=0.57, underlying illness (p=0.94 and health care—associated pneumonia (HCAP (p=0.46 with mycoplasma infection. However, prevalence of leukocytosis (p=0.01 and myalgia (p=0.02 was significantly higher in the mycoplasma

  6. Mo' money, mo' problems: Monetary motivation can exacerbate the attentional blink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Adam T; Adamo, Stephen H; Mitroff, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    The attentional blink (AB) is a compelling psychological phenomenon wherein observers are less likely to identify a second target (T2) when it appears approximately 200 ms after a first target (T1) in a rapidly presented stream of items. The present investigation examined how monetary motivation could impact the AB when participants were differentially motivated to identify T1 versus T2. Participants completed one of three conditions where the only difference across conditions was a motivational manipulation: a standard AB task (control condition), a motivated condition with T1 worth double the points of T2, or a motivated condition with T1 worth half the points of T2 (points in the motivated conditions were linked to a possible monetary bonus). Motivation had an expected influence on overall performance as both motivated conditions had higher overall T1 accuracy relative to the control condition. More specific to the question at hand, the AB was exacerbated (ie T2 performance was worse shortly after T1) when T1 was worth more than T2. This finding suggests that participants overallocated attentional resources to T1 processing at the expense of T2 processing, and it supports current theories of the AB.

  7. A pilot study to monitor changes in spirometry and lung volume, following an exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), as part of a supported discharge program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushen, Breda; McCormack, Niamh; Hennigan, Kerrie; Sulaiman, Imran; Costello, Richard W; Deering, Brenda

    2016-10-01

    One-third of patients with an exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease(COPD) are re-hospitalised at 90 days. Exacerbation recovery is associated with reductions in lung hyperinflation and improvements in symptoms and physical activity. We assessed the feasibility of monitoring these clinical parameters in the home. We hypothesised that the degree of change in spirometry and lung volumes differs between those who had an uneventful recovery and those who experienced a further exacerbation. Hospitalised patients with an acute exacerbation of COPD referred for a supported discharge program participated in the study. Spirometry and Inspiratory Vital Capacity(IVC) were measured in the home at Days 1, 14 and 42 post-discharge. Patients also completed Medical Research Council(MRC), Borg and COPD Assessment Test(CAT) scores and were provided with a tri-axial accelerometer. Any new exacerbation events were recorded. Sixty-five patients with 72 exacerbation episodes were recruited. Fifty percent experienced a second exacerbation. Adequate IVC measurements were achieved by 90%, while only 70% completed spirometry. Uneventful recovery was accompanied by significant improvements in physiological measurements at day14, improved symptom scores and step count, p volumes, symptoms and step count following a COPD exacerbation may help to identify patients at risk of re-exacerbation. It is feasible to carry out these assessments in the home as part of a supported discharge programme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. CMTR1 is associated with increased asthma exacerbations in patients taking inhaled corticosteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlin, Amber; Denny, Joshua; Roden, Dan M

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the most effective controller medications for asthma, and variability in ICS response is associated with genetic variation. Despite ICS treatment, some patients with poor asthma control experience severe asthma exacerbations, defined as a hospitalization or emerg...

  9. Case-fatality of COPD exacerbations: a meta-analysis and statistical modeling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, M; Hoogenveen, R T; Rutten-van Mölken, M P

    2010-01-01

    %-confidence interval. The meta-analysis based on six studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria resulted in a weighted average case-fatality rate of 15.6% (95%CI:10.9%-20.3%), ranging from 11.4% to 19.0% for the individual studies. A severe COPD exacerbation requiring hospitalization not only results...

  10. Performing Aspirin Desensitization in Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldram, Jeremy D; Simon, Ronald A

    2016-11-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is characterized by chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, asthma, and reactions to cyclooxygenase-1-inhibiting drugs. This condition is often refractory to standard medical treatments and results in aggressive nasal polyposis that often requires multiple sinus surgeries. Aspirin desensitization followed by daily aspirin therapy is an important treatment option, and its efficacy has been validated in multiple research studies. Aspirin desensitization is not without risk, but specific protocols and recommendations exist to mitigate the risk. Most patients with AERD can undergo aspirin desensitization in an outpatient setting under the supervision of an allergist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficacy and safety of moxifloxacin in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: a prospective, multicenter, observational study (AVANTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuchalin Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD, represent a substantial patient burden. Few data exist on outpatient antibiotic management for AECB/AECOPD in Eastern/South Eastern Europe, in particular on the use of moxifloxacin (Avelox®, although moxifloxacin is widely approved in this region based on evidence from international clinical studies. Methods AVANTI (AVelox® in Acute Exacerbations of chroNic bronchiTIs was a prospective, observational study conducted in eight Eastern European countries in patients > 35 years with AECB/AECOPD to whom moxifloxacin was prescribed. In addition to safety and efficacy outcomes, data on risk factors and the impact of exacerbation on daily life were collected. Results In the efficacy population (N = 2536, chronic bronchitis had been prevalent for > 10 years in 31.4% of patients and 66.0% of patients had concomitant COPD. Almost half the patients had never smoked, in contrast to data from Western Europe and the USA, where only one-quarter of COPD patients are non-smokers. The mean number of exacerbations in the last 12 months was 2.7 and 26.3% of patients had been hospitalized at least once for exacerbation. Physician compliance with the recommended moxifloxacin dose (400 mg once daily was 99.6%. The mean duration of moxifloxacin therapy for the current exacerbation (Anthonisen type I or II in 83.1%; predominantly type I was 6.4 ± 1.9 days. Symptom improvement was reported after a mean of 3.4 ± 1.4 days. After 5 days, 93.2% of patients reported improvement and, in total, 93.5% of patients were symptom-free after 10 days. In the safety population (N = 2672, 57 (2.3% patients had treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs and 4 (0.15% had serious TEAEs; no deaths occurred. These results are in line with the known safety profile of moxifloxacin. Conclusions A significant number of patients in this

  12. The Effect of Smartphone Interventions on Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwashmi, Meshari; Hawboldt, John; Davis, Erin; Marra, Carlo; Gamble, John-Michael; Abu Ashour, Waseem

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence and mortality rates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are increasing worldwide. Therefore, COPD remains a major public health problem. There is a growing interest in the use of smartphone technology for health promotion and disease management interventions. However, the effectiveness of smartphones in reducing the number of patients having a COPD exacerbation is poorly understood. To summarize and quantify the association between smartphone interventions and COPD exacerbations through a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis. A comprehensive search strategy was conducted across relevant databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, CINHA, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library Medline) from inception to October 2015. We included studies that assessed the use of smartphone interventions in the reduction of COPD exacerbations compared with usual care. Full-text studies were excluded if the investigators did not use a smartphone device or did not report on COPD exacerbations. Observational studies, abstracts, and reviews were also excluded. Two reviewers extracted the data and conducted a risk of bias assessment using the US Preventive Services Task Force quality rating criteria. A random effects model was used to meta-analyze the results from included studies. Pooled odds ratios were used to measure the effectiveness of smartphone interventions on COPD exacerbations. Heterogeneity was measured using the I(2)statistic. Of the 245 unique citations screened, 6 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. Studies were relatively small with less than 100 participants in each study (range 30 to 99) and follow-up ranged from 4-9 months. The mean age was 70.5 years (SD 5.6) and 74% (281/380) were male. The studies varied in terms of country, type of smartphone intervention, frequency of data collection from the participants, and the feedback strategy. Three studies were included in the meta-analysis. The overall assessment of potential bias

  13. Nutritional status predicts outcome in patients hospitalised with exacerbation of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Jayant

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional status affects outcome in acute illnesses. Weight loss is associated with poor lung functions and outcome in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD. There is not much data on the effects of nutritional status on hospital outcome in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. This study was conducted to address this issue. Twenty five patients with COPD admitted with acute exacerbation in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Southern India were studied. Lung functions were as-sessed by spirometry. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric mea-sures {body mass index (BMI, mid-arm circumference (MAC, triceps skin-fold thickness (TSF and fat free mass (FFM}. Resting energy expenditure (REE was measured using indirect calorimetry. Hospital outcome was determined by mortal-ity, number of days to improve subjectively and number of days to discharge. Patients with a lower BMI, MAC and TSF took a longer time to recover. REE was found to be lower in patients with weight loss unlike the Western patients. On multivariate analysis, only a lower BMI was associated with a longer time to re-covery. Thus, nutritional status is an important predictor of hospital outcome in patients with COPD.

  14. Acute Alcohol Intoxication Exacerbates Rhabdomyolysis-Induced Acute Renal Failure in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jen-Pi; Lee, Chung-Jen; Subeq, Yi-Maun; Lee, Ru-Ping; Hsu, Bang-Gee

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic and nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis can lead to acute renal failure (ARF), and acute alcohol intoxication can lead to multiple abnormalities of the renal tubules. We examined the effect of acute alcohol intoxication in a rat model of rhabdomyolysis and ARF. Intravenous injections of 5 g/kg ethanol were given to rats over 3 h, followed by glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis. Biochemical parameters, including blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cre), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), and creatine phosphokinase (CPK), were measured before and after induction of rhabdomyolysis. Renal tissue injury score, renal tubular cell expression of E-cadherin, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were determined. Relative to rats in the vehicle group, rats in the glycerol-induced rhabdomyolysis group had significantly increased serum levels of BUN, Cre, GOT, GPT, and CPK, elevated renal tissue injury scores, increased expression of NF-κB and iNOS, and decreased expression of E-cadherin. Ethanol exacerbated all of these pathological responses. Our results suggest that acute alcohol intoxication exacerbates rhabdomyolysis-induced ARF through its pro-oxidant and inflammatory effects.

  15. [The use of fenspiride for the combined treatment of exacerbation of chronic laryngitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabova, M A

    The present study was carried out based at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of I.P. Pavlov First State Medical University of Saint-Petersburg. The objective of this work was to elucidate the efficacy and safety of fenspiride therapy for the treatment of exacerbation of chronic laryngitis associated with an acute respiratory infection. The patients comprising the main group received fenspiride (Eurespal, 'Servier', France) at the standard dose in addition to the conventional therapy with the use of antibiotics, inhalation, and voice rest. The patients in the group of comparison were treated following the conventional protocol without fenspiride. The clinical symptoms evaluated based on the scoring system, the results of videolaryngoscopy, and computer-assisted analysis of the voice were compared before and after treatment in the patients of both groups. The results of the study have confirmed the high effectiveness and safety of fenspiride therapy of exacerbation of chronic laryngitis.

  16. Exacerbation of electrical storm subsequent to implantation of a right vagal stimulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Alaa A; El-Saed, Aiman; Nemec, Jan; Moossy, John J; Balzer, Jeffrey R

    2007-12-01

    A patient with advanced ischemic cardiomyopathy underwent implantation of a vagal stimulator in an attempt to control recurrent drug refractory ventricular arrhythmia. Electrical storm was exacerbated after the implant and continued after neurostimulation was discontinued. The report aims to provide a cautionary note to application of vagal stimulation for control of cardiac arrhythmia.

  17. Prediction of exacerbation chronic bronchopulmonary diseases in children with influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Afanaseva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective: To develop a method for predicting exacerbation of chronic illness in children with asthma and cystic fibrosis, patients with influenza, based on the study of the dynamics of cytokines. Materials and methods: Were examined 52 patients with bronchial asthma and 45 children with cystic fibrosis at the age from 1 year to 12 years, located in infectious pulmonary Department at the planned treatment of underlying pathology, in which influenza was in-hospital infection. Control group observations included 40 patients with the flu, without concomitant pulmonary disease. The etiology of viral infection was established by detection of viral RNA in nasopharyngeal swabs by PCR. Among the influenza viruses were identified influenza АH1N1, АH3N2, influenza B, and in 2009–2010 the predominant antigen was the pandemic influenza virus АH1N1pdm09. Determination of the concentration of serum interleukins IL-1β, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, ТNF-α, IFN-γ was performed in the 1st and 3rd day of hospitalization cytokines by the solid-phase immune-enzyme assay. Analysis of the results performed using statistical package SPSS 17.0 EN for Windows. Results: The flu caused the aggravation associated bronchopulmonary pathology in 2/3 of children, as MV patients, and patients with BA (65,4%-66,7%, respectively. With an increase of the ratio of IL-4 / IFN-γ and IL-10/IFN-γ, at least 5-6 times, influenza can be considered a trigger of exacerbation of chronic bronchopulmonary pathologies that require amplification of the therapy of bronchial asthma and of сystic fibrosis. The growth of prognostic coefficients in 2-3 times allows using for treatment of influenza in these patients only antiviral agents. Conclusion: The study has shown a method for predicting exacerbation of bronchial asthma and cystic fibrosis in children at an early stage of influenza by calculating the ratio of IL-4/IFN-γ and IL-10/IFN-γ in children aged from 1 year to 12 years. 

  18. P2X7-Regulated Protection from Exacerbations and Loss of Control Is Independent of Asthma Maintenance Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthei, David M.; Seibold, Max A.; Ahn, Kwangmi; Bleecker, Eugene; Boushey, Homer A.; Calhoun, William J.; Castro, Mario; Chinchili, Vernon M.; Fahy, John V.; Hawkins, Greg A.; Icitovic, Nicolina; Israel, Elliot; Jarjour, Nizar N.; King, Tonya; Kraft, Monica; Lazarus, Stephen C.; Lehman, Erik; Martin, Richard J.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Peters, Stephen P.; Sheerar, Dagna; Shi, Lei; Sutherland, E. Rand; Szefler, Stanley J.; Wechsler, Michael E.; Sorkness, Christine A.; Lemanske, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: The function of the P2X7 nucleotide receptor protects against exacerbation in people with mild-intermittent asthma during viral illnesses, but the impact of disease severity and maintenance therapy has not been studied. Objectives: To evaluate the association between P2X7, asthma exacerbations, and incomplete symptom control in a more diverse population. Methods: A matched P2RX7 genetic case-control was performed with samples from Asthma Clinical Research Network trial participants enrolled before July 2006, and P2X7 pore activity was determined in whole blood samples as an ancillary study to two trials completed subsequently. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 187 exacerbations were studied in 742 subjects, and the change in asthma symptom burden was studied in an additional 110 subjects during a trial of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) dose optimization. African American carriers of the minor G allele of the rs2230911 loss-of-function single nucleotide polymorphism were more likely to have a history of prednisone use in the previous 12 months, with adjustment for ICS and long-acting β2-agonists use (odds ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.2–6.2; P = 0.018). Despite medium-dose ICS, attenuated pore function predicted earlier exacerbations in incompletely controlled patients with moderate asthma (hazard ratio, 3.2; confidence interval, 1.1–9.3; P = 0.033). After establishing control with low-dose ICS in patients with mild asthma, those with attenuated pore function had more asthma symptoms, rescue albuterol use, and FEV1 reversal (P < 0.001, 0.03, and 0.03, respectively) during the ICS adjustment phase. Conclusions: P2X7 pore function protects against exacerbations of asthma and loss of control, independent of baseline severity and the maintenance therapy. PMID:23144325

  19. The effect of helium-oxygen-assisted mechanical ventilation on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation: A systemic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xu; Shao, Chuan; Zhang, Liang; Tu, Jinjing; Xu, Hui; Lin, Zhihui; Xu, Shuguang; Yu, Biyun; Tang, Yaodong; Li, Shanqun

    2018-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often accompanied by acute exacerbations. Patients of COPD exacerbation suffering from respiratory failure often need the support of mechanical ventilation. Helium-oxygen can be used to reduce airway resistance during mechanical ventilation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of helium-oxygen-assisted mechanical ventilation on COPD exacerbation through a meta-analysis. A comprehensive literature search through databases of Pub Med (1966∼2016), Ovid MEDLINE (1965∼2016), Cochrane EBM (1991∼2016), EMBASE (1974∼2016) and Ovid MEDLINE was performed to identify associated studies. Randomized clinical trials met our inclusion criteria that focus on helium-oxygen-assisted mechanical ventilation on COPD exacerbation were included. The quality of the papers was evaluated after inclusion and information was extracted for meta-analysis. Six articles and 392 patients were included in total. Meta-analysis revealed that helium-oxygen-assisted mechanical ventilation reduced Borg dyspnea scale and increased arterial PH compared with air-oxygen. No statistically significant difference was observed between helium-oxygen and air-oxygen as regards to WOB, PaCO 2 , OI, tracheal intubation rates and mortality within hospital. Our study suggests helium-oxygen-assisted mechanical ventilation can help to reduce Borg dyspnea scale. In terms of the tiny change of PH, its clinical benefit is negligible. There is no conclusive evidence indicating the beneficial effect of helium-oxygen-assisted mechanical ventilation on clinical outcomes or prognosis of COPD exacerbation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. [Local immune and oxidative status in exacerbated chronic apical periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konoplya, A I; Goldobin, D D; Loktionov, A L

    The aim of the study was to define local immune and oxidative changes in patients with exacerbated chronic apical periodontitis. These changes were assessed in saliva of 67 patients with the mean age of 31±2.5 before and after treatment. The study revealed disturbances in cytokines and complement system balance and activation of lipids peroxidation. Combination of Gepon or Vobenzim with Essentiale forte H and Kaskatol proved to be the most effective for correction of this imbalance.

  1. Efficacy of amoxycillin versus amoxycillin/clavulanate in acute exacerbations of chronic pulmonary obstructive disease in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Llor

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Carl Llor1, Silvia Hernández1, Anna Ribas2, Carmen Álvarez3, Josep Maria Cots4, Carolina Bayona5, Isabel González6, Marc Miravitlles7, BRAMOX Study Group 1Primary Care Centre Jaume I, Tarragona, Spain; 2Primary Care Centre Santa Eugènia de Berga, Spain; 3Primary Care Centre Manlleu, Spain; 4Primary Care Centre La Marina, Barcelona, Spain; 5Primary Care Centre Valls, Spain; 6Primary Care Centre Maragall, Barcelona, Spain; 7Pneumology Department. Institut Clínic del Tòrax (IDIBAPS, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES, SpainBackground: Amoxycillin/clavulanate is considered first-line treatment for ambulatory exacerbations of COPD. However, narrow-spectrum antibiotics may be as useful for mild to moderate patients.Objective: To compare the clinical efficacy of amoxycillin versus amoxicyllin/clavulanate in exacerbations of COPD in primary care.Methods: A randomized, double-blind, noninferiority clinical trial was carried out in eight primary care centers in Catalonia, Spain. Spirometrically-diagnosed patients older than 40 years with COPD, without criteria of hospitalization and Anthonisen’s types I or II exacerbations were included. The main outcome was clinical cure at the end of treatment (EOT visit on day 10.Results: A total of 137 patients were enrolled in the study (68 assigned to amoxycillin and 69 to amoxycillin/clavulanate. The mean forced expiratory flow in one second was 61.6% and the mean age was 71.4 years. At EOT, 92.8% of patients in the amoxycillin/clavulanate and 90.9% in the amoxycillin group were considered clinically cured, a statistically non-significant difference. Adverse effects were observed in 11 subjects, 3 in the amoxycillin group and 8 in the amoxycillin/clavulanate group, 2 of whom required a change in treatment.Conclusions: Amoxycillin was at least as effective clinically and as safe as amoxycilin/clavulanate in the treatment of acute exacerbations of COPD in mild to

  2. Predictors for antibiotic prescribing in patients with exacerbations of COPD in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llor, Carl; Bjerrum, Lars; Munck, Anders

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to describe the antibiotic prescribing rate in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD), to analyse predictors for antibiotic prescribing and to explore the influence of the use C-reactive protein (CRP) rapid test. ME...

  3. Inhaled corticosteroids do not influence the early inflammatory response and clinical presentation of hospitalized subjects with COPD exacerbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisafulli, Ernesto; Guerrero, Mónica; Menéndez, Rosario; Huerta, Arturo; Martinez, Raquel; Gimeno, Alexandra; Soler, Néstor; Torres, Antoni

    2014-10-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids are anti-inflammatory medications that can down-regulate the immunologic response in patients with COPD; however, their role at onset of COPD exacerbation is still not understood. The aim of this study was to assess the early inflammatory response and clinical presentation of patients with COPD exacerbation mediated by inhaled corticosteroids. Prospective data were collected on 123 hospitalized subjects with COPD exacerbation over a 30-month period at 2 Spanish university hospitals. Based on domiciliary use, comparative analyses were performed between subjects who did not use inhaled corticosteroids (n = 58) and subjects who did (n = 65). Measurements of serum biomarkers were recorded on admission to the hospital (day 1) and on day 3; clinical, physiological, microbiological, and severity data and mortality/readmission rates were also recorded. At days 1 and 3, both groups showed a similar inflammatory response; fluticasone produced lower levels of interleukin-8 compared with budesonide (P clinical features considered were similar in the 2 groups; multivariate analysis predicting clinical complications on hospitalization showed air-flow obstruction severity as the only predictive factor (odds ratio 3.13, 95% CI 1.13-8.63, P = .02). Our study demonstrates a lack of inhaled corticosteroid influence in the early systemic inflammatory response to and clinical presentation of COPD exacerbation. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  4. Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: a pharmacoeconomic review of antibacterial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Stephen; Anderson, Pippa; Irwin, Debra E

    2002-01-01

    Chronic bronchitis is a common problem affecting a large proportion of the adult population. People with chronic bronchitis are subject to recurrent attacks of bronchial inflammation called acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECBs). In patients with AECBs, symptoms may worsen due to a bacterial infection; the exacerbation is then known as an acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (ABECB). ABECBs are thought to be controllable through the use of antibacterial agents. In this paper we review current evidence on the cost of chronic bronchitis and AECBs, the cost effectiveness of antibacterials in the management of ABECB, and the factors that may affect the cost-effectiveness of antibacterials in the management of ABECB. We find that the number of economic evaluations conducted in this area is small. Of the few economic evaluations that have been conducted there has been only one prospective economic evaluation based on a clinical trial. The remainder are simple decision analysis-based modelling studies or retrospective database studies. Our principle findings are as follows: a key factor affecting the cost-effective use of antibacterials in the management of ABECB is the definitive diagnosis of the condition. Unfortunately, diagnosing a bacterial cause of an AECB is difficult, which presents problems in ensuring that antibacterials are not prescribed unnecessarily;current evidence suggests but does not prove that use of more effective but more costly first-line antibacterials may be relatively cost effective and may minimise overall expenditure by reducing the high costs associated with treatment failure;chronic bronchitis and AECB have a significant and negative physical and psychological effect on health-related quality of life. In conclusion, the small number of economic evaluations conducted in this area, coupled with the nature of the design of these studies, precludes a definitive statement recommending which specific antibacterial should be

  5. Effect of a rehabilitation-based chronic disease management program targeting severe COPD exacerbations on readmission patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalmolda C

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available C Lalmolda,1–3 R Coll-Fernández,4 N Martínez,1 M Baré,5 M Teixidó Colet,5 F Epelde,6 E Monsó1–3 On behalf of the COPD Multidisciplinary Management Group 1Respiratory Diseases Department, Hospital Universitari Parc Tauli, 2Ciber de Enfermedades Respiratorias – Ciberes, 3Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona – UAB, 4Rehabilitation Department, Hospital Universitari Parc Tauli, 5Primary Care Unit Vallés Occidental, Institut Català de la Salut, 6Short Stay Unit, Emergency Service, Hospital Universitari Parc Taulí, Barcelona, Spain Background: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR is recommended after a severe COPD exacerbation, but its short- and long-term effects on health care utilization have not been fully established. Aims: The aims of this study were to evaluate patient compliance with a chronic disease management (CDM program incorporating home-based exercise training as the main component after a severe COPD exacerbation and to determine its effects on health care utilization in the following year. Materials and methods: COPD patients with a severe exacerbation were included in a case-cohort study at admission. An intervention group participated in a nurse-supervised CDM program during the 2 months after discharge, comprising of home-based PR with exercise components directly supervised by a physiotherapist, while the remaining patients followed usual care.Results: Nineteen of the twenty-one participants (90.5% were compliant with the CDM program and were compared with 29 usual-care patients. Compliance with the program was associated with statistically significant reductions in admissions due to respiratory disease in the following year (median [interquartile range]: 0 [0–1] vs 1 [0–2.5]; P=0.022 and in days of admission (0 [0–7] vs 7 [0–12]; P=0.034, and multiple linear regression analysis confirmed the protective effect of the CDM program (β coefficient -0.785, P=0.014, and R2=0.219.Conclusion: A CDM program incorporating

  6. Natural History of COPD Exacerbations in a General Practice Based COPD Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothnie, Kieran J; Müllerová, Hana; Smeeth, Liam; Quint, Jennifer K

    2018-02-23

    Rationale Acute exacerbations (AECOPD) are important adverse events in the natural history of COPD. Objectives To investigate the natural history of AECOPD over 10-years of follow-up. Methods and Results We identified 99,574 patients with COPD 01/Jan/04-31/March/15 from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We defined moderate AECOPD as those managed outside hospital and severe as those requiring hospitalisation. During the baseline period (first year of follow-up), patients were grouped according to the number and severity of AECOPD and then followed for a maximum of 10 years (mean 4.9 years). We investigated the effect of baseline AECOPD number and severity on risk of further events and death. Around one-quarter of the COPD patients did not exacerbate during follow-up. Compared to no AECOPD in the baseline period, AECOPD number predicted the future long-term rate of AECOPD in a graduated fashion, ranging from HR 1.71(1.66-1.77) for one to HR 3.41(3.27-3.56) for 5+ events. Two or more moderate AECOPD were also associated with an increased risk of death in a graduated fashion, ranging from HR 1.10(1.03-1.18) for 2 moderate AECOPD to HR 1.57(1.45-1.70) for 5+ moderate AECOPD, compared to those with no AECOPD at baseline. Severe AECOPD were associated with an even higher risk of death (HR 1.79,1.65-1.94). Conclusions A large proportion of COPD patients do not exacerbate over a maximum 10 years of follow-up. AECOPD frequency in a single year predicts long-term AECOPD rate. Increasing frequency and severity of AECOPD is associated with risk of death, and highlights the importance of preventing AECOPD.

  7. A novel neutrophil derived inflammatory biomarker of pulmonary exacerbation in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: The focus of this study was to characterize a novel biomarker for cystic fibrosis (CF) that could reflect exacerbations of the disease and could be useful for therapeutic stratification of patients, or for testing of potential drug treatments. This study focused exclusively on a protein complex containing alpha-1 antitrypsin and CD16b (AAT:CD16b) which is released into the bloodstream from membranes of pro-inflammatory primed neutrophils. METHODS: Neutrophil membrane expression and extracellular levels of AAT and CD16b were quantified by flow cytometry, Western blot analysis and by 2D-PAGE. Interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and AAT:CD16b complex were quantified in CF plasma (n=38), samples post antibiotic treatment for 14days (n=10), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n=10), AAT deficient (n=10) and healthy control (n=14) plasma samples by ELISA. RESULTS: Cell priming with IL-8 and TNF-alpha caused release of the AAT:CD16b complex from the neutrophil cell membrane. Circulating plasma levels of IL-8, TNF-alpha and AAT:CD16b complex were significantly higher in patients with CF than in the other patient groups or healthy controls (P<0.05). Antibiotic treatment of pulmonary exacerbation in patients with CF led to decreased plasma protein concentrations of AAT:CD16b complex with a significant correlation with improved FEV1 (r=0.81, P=0.003). CONCLUSION: The results of this study have shown that levels of AAT:CD16b complex present in plasma correlate to the inflammatory status of patients. The AAT:CD16b biomarker may become a useful addition to the clinical diagnosis of exacerbations in CF.

  8. Predicting asthma exacerbations using artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Joseph; Wood, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Modern telemonitoring systems identify a serious patient deterioration when it already occurred. It would be much more beneficial if the upcoming clinical deterioration were identified ahead of time even before a patient actually experiences it. The goal of this study was to assess artificial intelligence approaches which potentially can be used in telemonitoring systems for advance prediction of changes in disease severity before they actually occur. The study dataset was based on daily self-reports submitted by 26 adult asthma patients during home telemonitoring consisting of 7001 records. Two classification algorithms were employed for building predictive models: naïve Bayesian classifier and support vector machines. Using a 7-day window, a support vector machine was able to predict asthma exacerbation to occur on the day 8 with the accuracy of 0.80, sensitivity of 0.84 and specificity of 0.80. Our study showed that methods of artificial intelligence have significant potential in developing individualized decision support for chronic disease telemonitoring systems.

  9. Vagal afferents contribute to exacerbated airway responses following ozone and allergen challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelegle, Edward S; Walby, William F

    2012-05-31

    Brown-Norway rats (n=113) sensitized and challenged with nDer f 1 allergen were used to examine the contribution of lung sensory nerves to ozone (O(3)) exacerbation of asthma. Prior to their third challenge rats inhaled 1.0ppm O(3) for 8h. There were three groups: (1) control; (2) vagus perineural capsaicin treatment (PCT) with or without hexamethonium; and (3) vagotomy. O(3) inhalation resulted in a significant increase in lung resistance (R(L)) and an exaggerated response to subsequent allergen challenge. PCT abolished the O(3)-induced increase in R(L) and significantly reduced the increase in R(L) induced by a subsequent allergen challenge, while hexamethonium treatment reestablished bronchoconstriction induced by allergen challenge. Vagotomy resulted in a significant increase in the bronchoconstriction induced by O(3) inhalation and subsequent challenge with allergen. In this model of O(3) exacerbation of asthma, vagal C-fibers initiate reflex bronchoconstriction, vagal myelinated fibers initiate reflex bronchodilation, and mediators released within the airway initiate bronchoconstriction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Exposure to Particulate Hexavalent Chromium Exacerbates Allergic Asthma Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Brent C.; Constant, Stephanie L.; Patierno, Steven R.; Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Ceryak, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. PMID:22178736

  11. Tic Exacerbation in Adults with Tourette Syndrome: A Case Series

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    Sara M. Schaefer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tourette syndrome (TS has been described as peaking in adolescence with subsequent regression. We report patients who were diagnosed with TS during childhood who experienced a latent period (significant reduction in or absence of tics followed by tic re-emergence in adulthood.Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of outpatients over age 21 seen at the Yale neurology clinic between January 2012 and July 2016 who were diagnosed with childhood-onset tics, and who experienced a latent period of greater than 1 year followed by an exacerbation.Results: Sixteen patients were identified. The mean latent period was 16 years. Ten patients (62.5% identified an exacerbation trigger, most commonly changes in substance use (five patients. Seven patients (43.8% reported worsening of tics since childhood. Six patients (37.5% had received pharmacological intervention for tics as children, and 15 patients (93.8% as adults. Six of 15 patients (40.0% had an effective response from those pharmacological intervention(s.Discussion: Our study demonstrates that the decline in symptoms as patients age may represent temporary improvement. The latent period lasted years in our patients, different from the more rapid waxing and waning in children. A change in substance use was an important trigger. Requests for pharmacological intervention were not necessarily correlated with worsening tic severity. 

  12. Co-Rumination Exacerbates Stress Generation among Adolescents with Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Amanda J; Glick, Gary C; Smith, Rhiannon L; Schwartz-Mette, Rebecca A; Borowski, Sarah K

    2017-07-01

    Through stress generation, individuals' own thoughts and behaviors can actually lead to increases in their experience of stress. Unfortunately, stress generation is especially common among individuals who are already suffering from elevated depressive symptoms. However, despite the acknowledgement that some individuals with depressive symptoms generate greater stress than others, few studies have identified specific factors that could exacerbate stress generation among individuals with depressive symptoms. The present study examines co-rumination as a factor that might exacerbate stress generation among adolescents with depressive symptoms using a short-term longitudinal design. Considering these processes among adolescents was critical given that many youth experience increases in depressive symptoms at this developmental stage and that co-rumination also becomes more common at adolescence. Participants were 628 adolescents (326 girls; 302 boys) who reported on their depressive symptoms, experiences of stress, and co-rumination with a best friend. Interpersonal stressors (peer and family stress) and non-interpersonal stressors (school and sports stress) were assessed. Consistent with past research, adolescents with depressive symptoms experienced greater interpersonal and non-interpersonal stress over time. Importantly, co-rumination interacted with both depressive symptoms and gender in predicting increases in peer stress. Depressive symptoms predicted the generation of peer stress only for girls who reported high levels of co-rumination with friends. Implications for protecting youth with depressive symptoms against stress generation are discussed.

  13. Use of antibiotics in patients admitted to the hospital due to acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S K.; Weis, N; Almdal, T

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess to what extent symptoms and signs of bacterial infection are present and evaluated in patients admitted to the hospital for exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in relation to initiation of antibiotic treatment. METHODS......: All adult patients (>18 years of age) discharged from a department of internal medicine in Copenhagen in 1997 with a diagnosis of exacerbation of COPD were included in our study and their reports were retrospectively reviewed. Gender, age, number of admissions and length of hospital stay, use...... was the initial antibiotic of choice. The median hospital stay was 6 days for the entire group of patients. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that, in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD, a relatively high number of patients with only weak symptoms or signs of bacterial infection are treated with antibiotics....

  14. Chronic stress exacerbates neuropathic pain via the integration of stress-affect-related information with nociceptive information in the central nucleus of the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Jia; Liu, Ling-Yu; Chen, Lin; Cai, Jie; Wan, You; Xing, Guo-Gang

    2017-04-01

    Exacerbation of pain by chronic stress and comorbidity of pain with stress-related psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and depression, represent significant clinical challenges. However, the underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether chronic forced swim stress (CFSS)-induced exacerbation of neuropathic pain is mediated by the integration of stress-affect-related information with nociceptive information in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). We first demonstrated that CFSS indeed produces both depressive-like behaviors and exacerbation of spared nerve injury (SNI)-induced mechanical allodynia in rats. Moreover, we revealed that CFSS induces both sensitization of basolateral amygdala (BLA) neurons and augmentation of long-term potentiation (LTP) at the BLA-CeA synapse and meanwhile, exaggerates both SNI-induced sensitization of CeA neurons and LTP at the parabrachial (PB)-CeA synapse. In addition, we discovered that CFSS elevates SNI-induced functional up-regulation of GluN2B-containing NMDA (GluN2B-NMDA) receptors in the CeA, which is proved to be necessary for CFSS-induced augmentation of LTP at the PB-CeA synapse and exacerbation of pain hypersensitivity in SNI rats. Suppression of CFSS-elicited depressive-like behaviors by antidepressants imipramine or ifenprodil inhibits the CFSS-induced exacerbation of neuropathic pain. Collectively, our findings suggest that CFSS potentiates synaptic efficiency of the BLA-CeA pathway, leading to the activation of GluN2B-NMDA receptors and sensitization of CeA neurons, which subsequently facilitate pain-related synaptic plasticity of the PB-CeA pathway, thereby exacerbating SNI-induced neuropathic pain. We conclude that chronic stress exacerbates neuropathic pain via the integration of stress-affect-related information with nociceptive information in the CeA.

  15. The impact of asthma medication guidelines on asthma controller use and on asthma exacerbation rates comparing 1997-1998 and 2004-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, Matthew A; Liesinger, Juliette T; Ziegenfuss, Jeanette Y; Branda, Megan E; Lim, Kaiser G; Yawn, Barbara P; Shah, Nilay D

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between asthma controller medication use and exacerbation rates over time is unclear at the population level. To estimate the change in asthma controller medication use between 2 time periods as measured by the controller-to-total asthma medication ratio and its association with changes in asthma exacerbation rates between 1997-1998 and 2004-2005. The study design was a cross-sectional population-level comparison between individuals from 1997-1998 and 2004-2005. Study participants were individuals aged 5 to 56 years identified as having asthma in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). The main outcome measures were a controller-to-total asthma medication ratio greater than 0.5 and asthma exacerbation rates (dispensing of systemic corticosteroid or emergency department visit/hospitalization for asthma) in 1997-1998 compared with 2004-2005. The proportion of individuals with a controller-to-total asthma medication ratio greater than 0.5, when adjusted for other demographic factors, has improved by 16.1% (95% CI: 10.8%, 21.3%) for all individuals from 1997-1998 to 2004-2005. Annual asthma exacerbation rates did not change significantly in any group from 1997-1998 to 2004-2005 (0.27/year to 0.23/year). African American and Hispanic individuals with asthma had higher asthma exacerbation rates and a lower proportion with a controller-to-total asthma medication ratio greater than 0.5 than whites in both 1997-1998 and 2004-2005; however, these differences were not statistically significant. An increase in asthma controller-to-total medication ratio in a sample reflective of the US population was not associated with a decreased asthma exacerbation rate comparing 1997-1998 and 2004-2005. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Calcium Channel Blockers and Esophageal Sclerosis: Should We Expect Exacerbation of Interstitial Lung Disease

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    Charalampos Seretis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal sclerosis is the most common visceral manifestation of systemic sclerosis, resulting in impaired esophageal clearance and retention of ingested food; in addition, co-existence of lung fibrosis with esophageal scleroderma is not uncommon. Both the progression of generalized connective tissue disorders and the damaging effect of chronic aspiration due to esophageal dysmotility appear to be involved in this procedure of interstitial fibrosis. Nifedipine is a widely prescribed calcium antagonist in a significant percentage of rheumatologic patients suffering from Raynaud syndrome, in order to inhibit peripheral vasospasm. Nevertheless, blocking calcium channels has proven to contribute to exacerbation of gastroesophageal reflux, which consequently can lead to chronic aspiration. We describe the case of severe exacerbation of interstitial lung disease in a 76-year-old female with esophageal sclerosis who was treated with oral nifedipine for Raynaud syndrome.

  17. Acute Exacerbations of COPD Are Associated With Increased Expression of Heparan Sulfate and Chondroitin Sulfate in BAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Eleni; Klagas, Ioannis; Roth, Michael; Tamm, Michael; Stolz, Daiana

    2016-03-01

    Acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPDs) are associated with accelerated aggravation of clinical symptoms and deterioration of pulmonary function. The mechanisms by which exacerbations may contribute to airway remodeling and declined lung function are poorly understood. We investigated whether AECOPDs are associated with differential expression of glycosaminoglycans in BAL in a cohort of 97 patients with COPD. Patients with COPD with either stable disease (n = 53) or AECOPD (n = 44) and undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy were matched for demographics and lung function parameters. Levels of heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in BAL were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate were significantly increased in BAL of patients during exacerbations. Levels of heparan sulfate were higher in the BAL of patients with microbial infections. Chondroitin sulfate was negatively correlated with FEV1 % predicted but not with diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide % predicted, indicating that chondroitin sulfate is associated with airway remodeling, leading to obstruction rather than to emphysema. Furthermore, heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate were significantly correlated with MMP-9, MMP-2, and MMP-12 in BAL, indicating that they were cleaved from their respective proteoglycans by MMPs and subsequently washed out in BAL. During AECOPD, there is increased expression of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate in BAL. These molecules are significantly correlated with MMPs in BAL, indicating that they may be associated with airway remodeling and may lead to lung function decline during exacerbations of COPD. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The definition and natural history of severe exacerbation of hepatitis B

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    GUO Wei

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite different opinions on its definition and classification in the past, a consensus has gradually been reached regarding the naming, classification, and clinical diagnosis of liver failure. The classification of liver failure is described, and the definition and natural history of severe exacerbation of hepatitis B are summarized. Antiviral treatment and artificial liver support in the early stage are beneficial for clinical outcomes and prognosis.

  19. Virus Infections on Prion Diseased Mice Exacerbate Inflammatory Microglial Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Nara; Mourão, Luiz; Trévia, Nonata; Passos, Aline; Farias, José Augusto; Assunção, Jarila; Bento-Torres, João; Consentino Kronka Sosthenes, Marcia; Diniz, José Antonio Picanço; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2016-01-01

    We investigated possible interaction between an arbovirus infection and the ME7 induced mice prion disease. C57BL/6, females, 6-week-old, were submitted to a bilateral intrahippocampal injection of ME7 prion strain (ME7) or normal brain homogenate (NBH). After injections, animals were organized into two groups: NBH (n = 26) and ME7 (n = 29). At 15th week after injections (wpi), animals were challenged intranasally with a suspension of Piry arbovirus 0.001% or with NBH. Behavioral changes in ME7 animals appeared in burrowing activity at 14 wpi. Hyperactivity on open field test, errors on rod bridge, and time reduction in inverted screen were detected at 15th, 19th, and 20th wpi respectively. Burrowing was more sensitive to earlier hippocampus dysfunction. However, Piry-infection did not significantly affect the already ongoing burrowing decline in the ME7-treated mice. After behavioral tests, brains were processed for IBA1, protease-resistant form of PrP, and Piry virus antigens. Although virus infection in isolation did not change the number of microglia in CA1, virus infection in prion diseased mice (at 17th wpi) induced changes in number and morphology of microglia in a laminar-dependent way. We suggest that virus infection exacerbates microglial inflammatory response to a greater degree in prion-infected mice, and this is not necessarily correlated with hippocampal-dependent behavioral deficits. PMID:28003864

  20. Association of Blood Eosinophil and Blood Neutrophil Counts with Asthma Exacerbations in the Copenhagen General Population Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Krogh, Signe; Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard; Lange, Peter

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood eosinophil count is a marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation and disease severity in asthma. However, blood neutrophil count might also be associated with disease severity. We tested the hypothesis that high blood eosinophil and neutrophil counts are both associated...... with the risk of asthma exacerbations among individuals with asthma from the general population. METHODS: From the Copenhagen General Population Study with 81351 participants, we included 4838 with self-reported asthma. We recorded baseline blood eosinophil and neutrophil counts, and asthma exacerbations during...... with blood eosinophil counts >0.29 × 10(9)/L (highest tertile) vs individuals with blood eosinophil counts

  1. Identifying and Describing the Impact of Cyclone, Storm and Flood Related Disasters on Treatment Management, Care and Exacerbations of Non-communicable Diseases and the Implications for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Benjamin; Franklin, Richard C; Burkle, Frederick M; Aitken, Peter; Smith, Erin; Watt, Kerrianne; Leggat, Peter

    2015-09-28

    .      Cyclone, flood and storm related disasters impact on treatment management and care for people with NCDs. Possible consequences include exacerbation of illness, complications or even death. There is now a need to expand traditional disaster approaches by public health to incorporate NCDs. This must be guided by the major NCDs identified by the World Health Organization and implemented in-line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction: 2015-2030. This includes understanding all the factors that influence both direct and indirect (preventable) morbidity and mortality related to NCDs during and after disasters. Once achieved, disaster planners and public health professionals will be in a position to develop and implement effective mitigation strategies.

  2. Trauma-focused treatment in PTSD patients with psychosis : symptom exacerbation, adverse events, and revictimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, D.P.G.; de Bont, P.A.J.M.; van der Vleugel, B.M.; de Roos, C.; de Jongh, A.; van Minnen, A.; van der Gaag, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Most clinicians refrain from trauma treatment for patients with psychosis because they fear symptom exacerbation and relapse. This study examined the negative side effects of trauma-focused (TF) treatment in patients with psychosis and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods:

  3. Real-life data on antibiotic prescription and sputum culture diagnostics in acute exacerbations of COPD in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bathoorn E

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Erik Bathoorn,1 Feikje Groenhof,2 Ron Hendrix,1,3 Thys van der Molen,2,4 Bhanu Sinha,1 Huib AM Kerstjens,5 Alex W Friedrich,1 Janwillem WH Kocks2,4 1Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 2Department of Primary Care, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 3Department of Pulmonary Diseases and Tuberculosis, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 4Department of Medical Microbiology, Certe – Laboratory for Infectious Diseases, Groningen, the Netherlands; 5GRIAC Research Institute, Groningen, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands Background: Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD are generally treated with optimization of bronchodilation therapy and a course of oral corticosteroids, mostly without antibiotics. The Dutch guidelines recommend prudent use of antibiotics, with amoxicillin or doxycycline as first choice. Here we evaluate adherence to these guidelines with regard to antibiotic prescription in AECOPD in primary care and the use of sputum cultures. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed a longitudinal cohort of patients in three primary care practices in the north-eastern region of the Netherlands from 2009 to 2013 (n=36,172 subjects participating in the Registration Network Groningen. Antibiotics prescribed for AECOPD -10/+28 days from the start date of corticosteroid courses were evaluated. In addition, we assessed regional data on the susceptibility of respiratory pathogens from COPD patients. Results: We identified 1,297 patients with COPD. Of these, 616 experienced one or more exacerbations, resulting in a total of 1,558 exacerbations, for which 1,594 antibiotic courses were prescribed. The recommended antibiotics doxycycline and amoxicillin accounted for 56% of the prescribed

  4. Confirmatory spirometry for adults hospitalized with a diagnosis of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Objective measurement of airflow obstruction by spirometry is an essential part of the diagnosis of asthma or COPD. During exacerbations, the feasibility and utility of spirometry to confirm the diagnosis of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are unclear. Addressing these gaps in knowledge may help define the need for confirmatory testing in clinical care and quality improvement efforts. This study was designed to determine the feasibility of spirometry and to determine its utility to confirm the diagnosis in patients hospitalized with a physician diagnosis of asthma or COPD exacerbation. Methods Multi-center study of four academic healthcare institutions. Spirometry was performed in 113 adults admitted to general medicine wards with a physician diagnosis of asthma or COPD exacerbation. Two board-certified pulmonologists evaluated the spirometry tracings to determine the proportion of patients able to produce adequate quality spirometry data. Findings were interpreted to evaluate the utility of spirometry to confirm the presence of obstructive lung disease, according to the 2005 European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society recommendations. Results There was an almost perfect agreement for acceptability (κ = 0.92) and reproducibility (κ =0.93) of spirometry tracings. Three-quarters (73%) of the tests were interpreted by both pulmonologists as being of adequate quality. Of these adequate quality tests, 22% did not present objective evidence of obstructive lung disease. Obese patients (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) were more likely to produce spirometry tracings with no evidence of obstructive lung disease, compared to non-obese patients (33% vs. 8%, p = 0.007). Conclusions Adequate quality spirometry can be obtained in most hospitalized adults with a physician diagnosis of asthma or COPD exacerbation. Confirmatory spirometry could be a useful tool to help reduce overdiagnosis of obstructive lung disease, especially among obese

  5. Bromide supplementation exacerbated the renal dysfunction, injury and fibrosis in a mouse model of Alport syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Tsubasa; Omachi, Kohei; Suico, Mary Ann; Kojima, Haruka; Kamura, Misato; Teramoto, Keisuke; Kaseda, Shota; Kuwazuru, Jun; Shuto, Tsuyoshi; Kai, Hirofumi

    2017-01-01

    A seminal study recently demonstrated that bromide (Br-) has a critical function in the assembly of type IV collagen in basement membrane (BM), and suggested that Br- supplementation has therapeutic potential for BM diseases. Because salts of bromide (KBr and NaBr) have been used as antiepileptic drugs for several decades, repositioning of Br- for BM diseases is probable. However, the effects of Br- on glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease such as Alport syndrome (AS) and its impact on the kidney are still unknown. In this study, we administered daily for 16 weeks 75 mg/kg or 250 mg/kg (within clinical dosage) NaBr or NaCl (control) via drinking water to 6-week-old AS mice (mouse model of X-linked AS). Treatment with 75 mg/kg NaBr had no effect on AS progression. Surprisingly, compared with 250 mg/kg NaCl, 250 mg/kg NaBr exacerbated the progressive proteinuria and increased the serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen in AS mice. Histological analysis revealed that glomerular injury, renal inflammation and fibrosis were exacerbated in mice treated with 250 mg/kg NaBr compared with NaCl. The expressions of renal injury markers (Lcn2, Lysozyme), matrix metalloproteinase (Mmp-12), pro-inflammatory cytokines (Il-6, Il-8, Tnf-α, Il-1β) and pro-fibrotic genes (Tgf-β, Col1a1, α-Sma) were also exacerbated by 250 mg/kg NaBr treatment. Notably, the exacerbating effects of Br- were not observed in wild-type mice. These findings suggest that Br- supplementation needs to be carefully evaluated for real positive health benefits and for the absence of adverse side effects especially in GBM diseases such as AS.

  6. Exacerbation of Dermatomyositis with Recurrence of Rectal Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Nagano

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dermatomyositis (DM is a rare idiopathic inflammatory myopathy characterized by cutaneous and muscle manifestations. The association between DM and malignancy has been well recognized for many years. The clinical course of paraneoplastic DM may be affected by malignancies, although the cause and effect relationship between exacerbation of DM and cancer progression is uncertain. Herein, we report a 44-year-old woman who presented with progressive DM associated with rectal cancer. After curative resection of rectal cancer, DM symptoms resolved. Three months after surgery, blood test surveillance showed elevation of serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels, although the patient remained asymptomatic. One month later she had a DM flare-up, and multiple lung and liver metastases were found. She immediately underwent cancer chemotherapy with prednisolone therapy for DM. However, her condition deteriorated and she was unable to swallow. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was constructed, allowing alimentation and oral delivery, which made it possible to keep her on chemotherapy. She had remarkable response for unresectable metastases 8 weeks after the administration of chemotherapy. Seven months after onset of recurrence, her condition improved considerably and she had stable disease. Moreover, she can now eat food of soft consistency. Our case provides further support for the clinical importance of cancer chemotherapy for patients who have progressive DM and unresectable rectal cancer.

  7. Correlation between arterial and venous blood gas analysis parameters in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novović Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Arterial blood gas (ABG analyses have an important role in the assessment and monitoring of the metabolic and oxygen status of patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Arterial puncture could have a lot of adverse effects, while sampling of venous blood is simpler and is not so invasive. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether venous blood gas (VBG values of pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2, partial oxygen pressure (PO2, bicarbonate (HCO3, and venous and arterial blood oxygen saturation (SO2 can reliably predict ABG levels in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. Methods. Forty-seven patients with a prior diagnosis of COPD were included in this prospective study. The patients with acute exacerbation of this disease were examined at the General Hospital EMS Department in Prijepolje. ABG samples were taken immediately after venous sampling, and both were analyzed. Results. The Pearson correlation coefficients between arterial and venous parameters were 0.828, 0.877, 0.599, 0.896 and 0.312 for pH, PCO2, PO2, HCO3 and SO2, respectively. The statistically significant correlation between arterial and venous pH, PCO2 and HCO3, values was found in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD (p<0.001. Conclusion. When we cannot provide arterial blood for analysis, venous values of the pH, Pv,CO2 and HCO3 parameters can be an alternative to their arterial equivalents in the interpretation of the metabolic status in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD, while the values of venous Pv,O2 and Sv,O2 cannot be used as predictors in the assessment of oxygen status of such patients.

  8. Assessing time to pulmonary function benefit following antibiotic treatment of acute cystic fibrosis exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Riordan Mary A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic Fibrosis (CF is a life-shortening genetic disease in which ~80% of deaths result from loss of lung function linked to inflammation due to chronic bacterial infection (principally Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pulmonary exacerbations (intermittent episodes during which symptoms of lung infection increase and lung function decreases can cause substantial resource utilization, morbidity, and irreversible loss of lung function. Intravenous antibiotic treatment to reduce exacerbation symptoms is standard management practice. However, no prospective studies have identified an optimal antibiotic treatment duration and this lack of objective data has been identified as an area of concern and interest. Methods We have retrospectively analyzed pulmonary function response data (as forced expiratory volume in one second; FEV1 from a previous blinded controlled CF exacerbation management study of intravenous ceftazidime/tobramycin and meropenem/tobramycin in which spirometry was conducted daily to assess the time course of pulmonary function response. Results Ninety-five patients in the study received antibiotics for at least 4 days and were included in our analyses. Patients received antibiotics for an average of 12.6 days (median = 13, SD = 3.2 days, with a range of 4 to 27 days. No significant differences were observed in mean or median treatment durations as functions of either treatment group or baseline lung disease stage. Average time from initiation of antibiotic treatment to highest observed FEV1 was 8.7 days (median = 10, SD = 4.0 days, with a range of zero to 19 days. Patients were treated an average of 3.9 days beyond the day of peak FEV1 (median = 3, SD = 3.8 days, with 89 patients (93.7% experiencing their peak FEV1 improvement within 13 days. There were no differences in mean or median times to peak FEV1 as a function of treatment group, although the magnitude of FEV1 improvement differed between groups. Conclusions Our

  9. Exacerbations in adults with asthma: A systematic review and external validation of prediction models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loymans, Rik J. B.; Debray, Thomas P. A.; Honkoop, Persijn J.; Termeer, Evelien H.; Snoeck-Stroband, Jiska B.; Schermer, Tjard R. J.; Assendelft, Willem J. J.; Timp, Merel; Chung, Kian Fan; Sousa, Ana R.; Sont, Jaap K.; Sterk, Peter J.; Reddel, Helen K.; ter Riet, Gerben

    2018-01-01

    Several prediction models assessing future risk of exacerbations in adult patients with asthma have been published. Applicability of these models is uncertain because their predictive performance has often not been assessed beyond the population in which they were derived. This study aimed to

  10. Clinical and laboratory aspects of diagnosis and treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease infectious exacerbations in seniors of the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Popenko

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is one of the leading causes of death in the world. The question of antibiotic therapy role during the COPD exacerbation remained for a long time not absolutely certain. It is likely that modern diagnostics, cupping and prevention of exacerbations come to the fore in patient with COPD care. Objective – to examine the role of bacterial pathogens in COPD exacerbation development, to analyze diagnostic and therapeutic measures in Ministry of Defense of Ukraine (MDU retired patients for the purpose of their optimization. Materials and methods. A retrospective analysis was carried out of 72 stories of MDU retired men diseases, whose average age was (71.1 ± 1.20 years with an average length of disease (7.85 ± 0.51 years. The control group consisted of 20 practically healthy persons. To reveal the etiological structure of the COPD infectious exacerbation, the data of bacteriological sputum examination were used, which included the quantitative detection of the pathogen and its sensitivity to antibacterial drugs. Results. A total of 30 strains of pathogens were obtained. The leading pathogen of COPD infectious exacerbation of MDU retired men turned out the Streptococcus family (53.3 %, such as S. pneumoniae, S. mitis, S. viridans, S. epedermidis and representatives of the Staphylococcus family (16.6 %. Two strains of Ps. Aeruginosa (6.6 % were found among the entire patients contingent. Conclusions. The leading causes of COPD exacerbations in pensioners of MDU mostly were hypothermia and acute viral respiratory infections – 49.9 %. Only acute viral respiratory infections were in 34.3 % of cases, only hypothermia – in 15.6 %. Physical overstrain and decompensation of concomitant pathology were less often. The most common the types I and II of exacerbations by Anthonisen were observed, which occurred in 44.5 % and 43.0 % of cases, respectively, the III type of exacerbations was found in 12.5 % of cases

  11. Development and Evaluation of an Automated, Home-Based, Electronic Questionnaire for Detecting COPD Exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de B. Velazquez-Peña

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Collaboration between patients and their medical and technical experts enabled the development of an automated questionnaire for the early detection of COPD exacerbations (AQCE. The questionnaire consisted of fourteen questions and was implemented on a computer system for use by patients at home in an un-supervised environment. Psychometric evaluation was conducted after a 6-month field trial. Fifty-two patients were involved in the development of the questionnaire. Reproducibility was studied using 19 patients (ICC = 0.94. Sixteen out of the 19 subjects started the 6 month-field trial with the computer application. Cronbach’s alpha of 0.81 was achieved. In the concurrent validity analysis, a correlation of 0.80 (p = 0.002 with the CCQ was reported. The results suggest that AQCE is a valid and reliable questionnaire, showing that an automated home-based electronic questionnaire may enable early detection of exacerbations of COPD.

  12. Use of a care bundle in the emergency department for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a feasibility study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Cormac

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To determine the efficacy and usefulness of a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) care bundle designed for the initial management of acute exacerbations of COPD and to assess whether it improves quality of care and provides better outcomes. Introduction: The level of care provided in the emergency department (ED) for COPD exacerbations varies greatly, and there is a need for a more systematic, consistent, evidence-based quality improvement approach to improve outcomes and costs. Methods: A prospective before and after study was carried out in a university teaching hospital. Fifty consecutive patients were identified in the ED with COPD exacerbations and their management was reviewed. Following the education of ED staff and the implementation of a COPD care bundle, the outcome for 51 consecutive patients was analyzed. This COPD care bundle consisted of ten elements considered essential to the management of COPD exacerbations and was scored 0–10 according to the number of items on the checklist implemented correctly. Results: Following implementation, the mean bundle score out of 10 improved from 4.6 to 7 (P,0.001). There was a significant decrease in the unnecessary use of intravenous corticosteroids from 60% to 32% (P=0.003) and also a marked improvement in the use of oxygen therapy, with appropriate treatment increasing from 76% to 96% (P=0.003). Prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism also improved from 54% to 73% (P=0.054). The 30-day readmission rate did not significantly improve. Conclusion: The use of a bundle improves the delivery of care for COPD exacerbations in the ED. There is more appropriate use of therapeutic interventions, especially oxygen therapy and intravenous corticosteroids.

  13. Alterations in the expression of the NF-κB family member RelB as a novel marker of cardiovascular outcomes during acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Labonté

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbations are acute events of worsened respiratory symptoms and enhanced inflammation partly mediated by NF-κB activation. RelB, an NF-κB family member, suppresses cigarette smoke-induced inflammation but its expression in COPD is unknown. Moreover, there is no information on its association with clinical features of COPD. The objectives of this study were to assess RelB expression relative to markers of inflammation as well as its association with cardiovascular and pulmonary features of COPD patients at stable-state and exacerbation.Data from 48 COPD patients were analyzed. Blood samples were collected from stable-state and exacerbating patients. After RNA isolation, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR was performed to assess RelB, Cox-2, IL-8 and IL-1β mRNA expression and their associations with measured clinical variables.Of the 48 COPD subjects, 18 were in stable-state and 30 were in exacerbation. RelB mRNA expression was lower than that of Cox-2, IL-8, and IL-1β in all cases (all p<0.001, except for IL-8 at exacerbation (p = 0.22. Cox-2, IL-8 and IL-1β were significantly associated with clinical features of patients in both stable-state and at exacerbation. There was no association with RelB expression and any clinical features in COPD subjects at stable-state. RelB mRNA levels were significantly associated with cardiovascular events such as systolic blood pressure during exacerbation.RelB mRNA expression is lower than that of the other inflammatory mediators. Expression of Cox-2, IL-8 and IL-1β were related to clinical features in both stable-state and at exacerbation. However, RelB expression was associated with clinical features of patients only during exacerbation, suggesting that RelB may represent a novel marker of health outcomes, in particular cardiovascular, during exacerbation in COPD.

  14. Effectiveness of school-based family asthma educational programs in quality of life and asthma exacerbations in asthmatic children aged five to 18: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Helen; Sadeque-Iqbal, Fatema; Ulysse, Rose; Castillo, Doreen; Fitzpatrick, Aileen; Singleton, Joanne

    2016-11-01

    using standardized critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data were extracted from articles included in the review using the standardized data extraction tool from the Joanna Briggs Institute. The data extracted included specific details about the populations, interventions, study methods and outcomes of significance to the review question and its specific objectives. Due to the heterogeneity among the included studies, statistical pooling and meta-analysis was not possible. Results are presented in narrative form. Six studies examining the intervention were included in this review. All six of the included studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). All six studies compared the effects of school-based asthma education to no school-based asthma education/usual care on quality of life and number of asthma exacerbations. Three out of four RCTs showed that children who participated in school-based family asthma educational programs demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in overall quality of life (P educational programs for children that include caregivers can have a positive impact on the quality of life and asthma management of children with asthma. Other outcomes that can be positively affected by school-based family asthma educational programs include absenteeism from school or work, physical activity intolerance and emergency hospital visits as result of asthma exacerbations.

  15. Risk of acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia after pulmonary resection for lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis based on preoperative high-resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hidemi; Sekine, Yasuo; Yoshida, Shigetoshi

    2011-01-01

    In patients with lung cancer accompanied by idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), acute exacerbation of the IPF often occurs after pulmonary resection; however, few studies have been done to identify its preexisting risk factors. We analyzed the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of IPF to identify the radiological characteristics of IPF susceptible to acute exacerbation after lung cancer surgery. We reviewed retrospectively 28 lung cancer patients with IPF who underwent pulmonary resection. Clinical data, respiratory function, HRCT findings, and historical features were compared between the acute exacerbation (n=9) and nonexacerbation (n=19) groups. The classification of radiological findings of IPF on HRCT was done using a scoring system of seven factors related to the interstitial shadow, including fibrosis, ground-glass opacity, and low-attenuation area. There were no significant differences in clinical background, respiratory function, composite physiologic index, or pathological features between the groups; however, the degree of fibrosis on preoperative HRCT was significantly higher in the exacerbation group (P<0.003). The fibrosis score was higher on the opposite side to the lung cancer in the exacerbation group (P<0.05). Although it is difficult to predict postoperative acute IPF exacerbation, the degree and laterality of co-existing fibrosis seem to be predictors. (author)

  16. Anaphylaxis, Intra-Abdominal Infections, Skin Lacerations, and Behavioral Emergencies: A Literature Review of Austere Analogs for a near Earth Asteroid Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chough, Natacha G.; Watkins, Sharmi; Menon, Anil S.

    2012-01-01

    As space exploration is directed towards destinations beyond low-Earth orbit, the consequent new set of medical risks will drive requirements for new capabilities and more resources to ensure crew health. The Space Medicine Exploration Medical Conditions List (SMEMCL), developed by the Exploration Medical Capability element of the Human Research Program, addresses the risk of "unacceptable health and mission outcomes due to limitations of in-flight medical capabilities". It itemizes 85 evidence-based clinical requirements for eight different mission profiles and identifies conditions warranting further research and technology development. Each condition is given a clinical priority for each mission profile. Four conditions -- intra-abdominal infections, skin lacerations, anaphylaxis, and behavioral emergencies -- were selected as a starting point for analysis. A systematic literature review was performed to understand how these conditions are treated in austere, limited-resource, space-analog environments (i.e., high-altitude and mountain environments, submarines, military deployments, Antarctica, isolated wilderness environments, in-flight environments, and remote, resource-poor, rural environments). These environments serve as analogs to spaceflight because of their shared characteristics (limited medical resources, delay in communication, confined living quarters, difficulty with resupply, variable time to evacuation). Treatment of these four medical conditions in austere environments provides insight into medical equipment and training requirements for exploration-class missions.

  17. Management of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Guidelines from the Société de pneumologie de langue française (summary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouneau, S; Dres, M; Guerder, A; Bele, N; Bellocq, A; Bernady, A; Berne, G; Bourdin, A; Brinchault, G; Burgel, P R; Carlier, N; Chabot, F; Chavaillon, J M; Cittee, J; Claessens, Y E; Delclaux, B; Deslée, G; Ferré, A; Gacouin, A; Girault, C; Ghasarossian, C; Gouilly, P; Gut-Gobert, C; Gonzalez-Bermejo, J; Jebrak, G; Le Guillou, F; Léveiller, G; Lorenzo, A; Mal, H; Molinari, N; Morel, H; Morel, V; Noel, F; Pégliasco, H; Perotin, J M; Piquet, J; Pontier, S; Rabbat, A; Revest, M; Reychler, G; Stelianides, S; Surpas, P; Tattevin, P; Roche, N

    2017-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the chronic respiratory disease with the most important burden on public health in terms of morbidity, mortality and health costs. For patients, COPD is a major source of disability because of dyspnea, restriction in daily activities, exacerbation, risk of chronic respiratory failure and extra-respiratory systemic organ disorders. The previous French Language Respiratory Society (SPLF) guidelines on COPD exacerbations were published in 2003. Using the GRADE methodology, the present document reviews the current knowledge on COPD exacerbation through 4 specific outlines: (1) epidemiology, (2) clinical evaluation, (3) therapeutic management and (4) prevention. Specific aspects of outpatients and inpatients care are discussed, especially regarding assessment of exacerbation severity and pharmacological approach. Copyright © 2017 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Respiratory infectious phenotypes in acute exacerbation of COPD: an aid to length of stay and COPD Assessment Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai MY

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Meng-Yuan Dai,1 Jin-Ping Qiao,2 Yuan-Hong Xu,2 Guang-He Fei1 1Pulmonary Department, 2Department of Clinical Laboratory, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China Purpose: To investigate the respiratory infectious phenotypes and their impact on length of stay (LOS and the COPD Assessment Test (CAT Scale in acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD. Patients and methods: We categorized 81 eligible patients into bacterial infection, viral infection, coinfection, and non-infectious groups. The respiratory virus examination was determined by a liquid bead array xTAG Respiratory Virus Panel in pharyngeal swabs, while bacterial infection was studied by conventional sputum culture. LOS and CAT as well as demographic information were recorded. Results: Viruses were detected in 38 subjects, bacteria in 17, and of these, seven had both. Influenza virus was the most frequently isolated virus, followed by enterovirus/rhinovirus, coronavirus, bocavirus, metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus types 1, 2, 3, and 4, and respiratory syncytial virus. Bacteriologic analyses of sputum showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common bacteria, followed by Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The longest LOS and the highest CAT score were detected in coinfection group. CAT score was positively correlated with LOS. Conclusion: Respiratory infection is a common causative agent of exacerbations in COPD. Respiratory coinfection is likely to be a determinant of more severe acute exacerbations with longer LOS. CAT score may be a predictor of longer LOS in AECOPD. Keywords: COPD, acute exacerbation, respiratory infectious, phenotypes, LOS, CAT

  19. Outcomes of Noninvasive and Invasive Ventilation in Patients Hospitalized with Asthma Exacerbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Mihaela S; Nathanson, Brian H; Lagu, Tara; Priya, Aruna; Pekow, Penelope S; Steingrub, Jay S; Hill, Nicholas S; Goldberg, Robert J; Kent, David M; Lindenauer, Peter K

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about the effectiveness of noninvasive ventilation for patients hospitalized with asthma exacerbation. To assess clinical outcomes of noninvasive (NIV) and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and examine predictors for NIV use in patients hospitalized with asthma. This was a retrospective cohort study at 97 U.S. hospitals using an electronic medical record database. We developed a hierarchical regression model to identify factors associated with the choice of initial ventilation and used the Laboratory Acute Physiological Score to adjust for differences in the severity of illness. We assessed the outcomes of patients treated with initial NIV or IMV in a propensity-matched cohort. Among 13,930 subjects, 73% were women and 54% were white. The median age was 53 years. Overall, 1,254 patients (9%) required ventilatory support (NIV or IMV). NIV was the initial ventilation method for 556 patients (4.0%) and IMV for 668 (5.0%). Twenty-six patients (4.7% of patients treated with NIV) had to be intubated (NIV failure). The in-hospital mortality was 0.2, 2.3, 14.5, and 15.4%, and the median length of stay was 2.9, 4.1, 6.7, and 10.9 days among those not ventilated, ventilated with NIV, ventilated with IMV, and with NIV failure, respectively. Older patients were more likely to receive NIV (odds ratio, 1.06 per 5 yr; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.11), whereas those with higher acuity (Laboratory Acute Physiological Score per 5 units: odds ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.82-0.88) and those with concomitant pneumonia were less likely to receive NIV. In a propensity-matched sample, NIV was associated with a lower inpatient risk of dying (risk ratio, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.03-0.51) and shorter lengths of stay (4.3 d less; 95% CI, 2.9-5.8) than IMV. Among patients hospitalized with asthma exacerbation and requiring ventilatory support (NIV or IMV), more than 40% received NIV. Although patients successfully treated with NIV appear to have better outcomes than those treated

  20. Benefits and complications of noninvasive mechanical ventilation for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Eduardo; Carneiro, Elida Mara

    2008-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined as a syndrome characterized by usually progressive chronic airflow limitation which is associated to a bronchial hyperresponsiveness and is partially reversible. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation is an alternative treatment for patients with COPD exacerbations. The objective of the literature reviews was to verify noninvasive mechanical ventilation benefits and complications in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients. This national and international's scientific literature review was developed according to criteria established for documentary research in the MedLine, LILACS, SciElo, PubMed and Cochrane, databases using the key words: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and noninvasive mechanical ventilation. Inclusion criteria were articles published from 1995 to 2007; in English, Spanish and Portuguese; studies in the human model and with no gender restriction. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation can reduce partial pressure of carbon dioxide, improve gas exchange, alleviate symptoms as dyspnea caused by fatigue of the respiratory muscles, reduce duration of hospitalization, decrease need for invasive mechanical ventilation, reduce number of complications and also lessen hospital mortality. The main complications found were: facial skin erythema, claustrophobia, nasal congestion, face pain, eye irritation, aspiration pneumonia, hypotension, pneumothorax, aerophagia, hypercapnia, gastric insufflation, vomit, bronchoaspiration, morning headaches, face injuries, air embolism and, last but not least, discomfort of the patient. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation can be more effective in patients with moderate-severe exacerbations of COPD and these complications can be minimized by an adequate interface also by the contribution of the physiotherapist experience.

  1. Effect of long-acting beta2 agonists on exacerbation rates of asthma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to examine the effect of long-acting beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists (LABAs) on the asthma exacerbation rate in pediatric patients. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) that included the use of LABAs to treat symptoms of pediatric asthma in children on inhaled cortico...

  2. Montelukast reduces asthma exacerbations in 2- to 5-year-old children with intermittent asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Zielen, Stefen; Garcia-Garcia, María Luz

    2005-01-01

    The PREVIA study was designed to investigate the role of montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, in the prevention of viral-induced asthma exacerbations in children aged 2 to 5 years with a history of intermittent asthma symptoms. The study was a 12-month multicenter, double-blind, parall...

  3. Comparative effectiveness of long term drug treatment strategies to prevent asthma exacerbations: network meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loymans, Rik J. B.; Gemperli, Armin; Cohen, Judith; Rubinstein, Sidney M.; Sterk, Peter J.; Reddel, Helen K.; Jüni, Peter; ter Riet, Gerben

    2014-01-01

    To determine the comparative effectiveness and safety of current maintenance strategies in preventing exacerbations of asthma. Systematic review and network meta-analysis using Bayesian statistics. Cochrane systematic reviews on chronic asthma, complemented by an updated search when appropriate.

  4. The effect of COPD severity and study duration on exacerbation outcome in randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eriksson, Goran; Calverley, Peter M.; Jenkins, Christine R.; Anzueto, Antonio R.; Make, Barry J.; Lindberg, Magnus; Fageras, Malin; Postma, Dirkje S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: When discontinuation in COPD randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is unevenly distributed between treatments (differential dropout), the capacity to demonstrate treatment effects may be reduced. We investigated the impact of the time of differential dropout on exacerbation outcomes in

  5. Change in inflammation in out-patient COPD patients from stable phase to a subsequent exacerbation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bathoorn, Erik; Liesker, Jeroen J W; Postma, Dirkje S; Koëter, Gerard H; van der Toorn, Marco; van der Heide, Sicco; Ross, H Alec; van Oosterhout, Antoon J M; Kerstjens, Huib A M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inflammation increases during exacerbations of COPD, but only a few studies systematically assessed these changes. Better identification of these changes will increase our knowledge and potentially guide therapy, for instance by helping with quicker distinction of bacterially induced

  6. Frequency and risk factors of COPD exacerbations and hospitalizations: a nationwide study in Greece (Greek Obstructive Lung Disease Epidemiology and health ecoNomics: GOLDEN study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Malli, Foteini; Mitsiki, Eirini; Bania, Eleni G; Varounis, Christos; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I

    2015-01-01

    COPD exacerbations and hospitalizations have been associated with poor prognosis for the COPD patient. To evaluate the frequency and risk factors of COPD exacerbations, hospitalizations, and admissions to intensive care units (ICUs) in Greece by a nationwide cross-sectional study. A nationwide observational, multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted in the clinical practice setting of respiratory medicine physicians over a 6 month-period (October 2010 to March 2011). A total of 6,125 COPD patients were recruited by 199 respiratory physicians. Participants had a median age of 68.0 years, 71.3% were males, and 71.8% suffered from comorbidities. The median disease duration was 10.0 years. Of the patients, 45.3% were classified as having GOLD (Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) stage III or IV COPD. Patients with four or more comorbidities had 78.5% and threefold-higher than expected number of exacerbations and hospitalizations, respectively, as well as fivefold-higher risk of admission to the ICU compared to those with no comorbidities. Obese patients had 6.2% fewer expected exacerbations compared to those with a normal body mass index. Patients with GOLD stage IV had 74.5% and fivefold-higher expected number of exacerbations and hospitalizations, respectively, and nearly threefold-higher risk of admission to the ICU compared to stage I patients. An additional risk factor for exacerbations and hospitalizations was low compliance with treatment: 45% of patients reported forgetting to take their medication, and 81% reported a preference for a treatment with a lower dosing frequency. Comorbidities, disease severity, and compliance with treatment were identified as the most notable risk factors for exacerbations, hospitalizations, and ICU admissions. The results point to the need for a multifactorial approach for the COPD patient and for the development of strategies that can increase patient compliance with treatment.

  7. Childhood asthma exacerbations and the Arg16 β2-receptor polymorphism: A meta-analysis stratified by treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Steve; Francis, Ben; Vijverberg, Susanne; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H; Basu, Kaninika; Bignell, Lauren; Mukhopadhyay, Somnath; Tavendale, Roger; Palmer, Colin; Hawcutt, Daniel; Pirmohamed, Munir; Burchard, Esteban G; Lipworth, Brian

    2016-07-01

    The Gly-to-Arg substitution at the 16 position (rs1042713) in the β2-adrenoceptor gene (ADRB2) is associated with enhanced downregulation and uncoupling of β2-receptors. We sought to undertake a meta-analysis to test the hypothesis that there is an interaction between the A allele of rs1042713 (Arg16 amino acid) and long-acting β-agonist (LABA) exposure for asthma exacerbations in children. Children with diagnosed asthma were recruited in 5 populations (BREATHE, Genes-Environments and Admixture in Latino Americans II, PACMAN, the Paediatric Asthma Gene Environment Study, and the Pharmacogenetics of Adrenal Suppression with Inhaled Steroid Study). A history of recent exacerbation and asthma treatment was determined from questionnaire data. DNA was extracted, and the Gly16Arg genotype was determined. Data from 4226 children of white Northern European and Latino origin were analyzed, and the odds ratio for exacerbation increased by 1.52 (95% CI, 1.17-1.99; P = .0021) for each copy of the A allele among the 637 children treated with inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) plus LABAs but not for treatment with ICSs alone (n = 1758) or ICSs plus leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRAs; n = 354) or ICSs plus LABAs plus LTRAs (n = 569). The use of a LABA but not an LTRA as an "add-on controller" is associated with increased risk of asthma exacerbation in children carrying 1 or 2 A alleles at rs1042713. Prospective genotype-stratified clinical trials are now required to explore the potential role of rs1042713 genotyping for personalized asthma therapy in children. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Bacterial–viral load and the immune response in stable and exacerbated COPD: significance and therapeutic prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Anna SE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Silvestro Ennio D’Anna,1 Bruno Balbi,2 Francesco Cappello,3,4 Mauro Carone,2 Antonino Di Stefano21Department of Rehabilitation, Cardiorespiratory Unit, Fondazione Istituto G. Giglio di Cefalù, 2Pneumology Unit and Laboratory of Cytoimmunopathology of Heart and Lung, Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, IRCCS, Veruno (NO and Cassano delle Murge (BA, 3Human Anatomy Section, Department of Experimental Biomedicine and Clinical Neuroscience, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 4Euro-Mediterranean Institute of Science and Technology, Palermo, ItalyAbstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by persistent airflow limitation and an abnormal inflammatory response of the lung. Bacteria and viruses are a major cause of COPD exacerbations and may contribute to COPD progression by perpetuating the inflammatory response in the airways. Bacterial variety diminishes with increasing COPD severity. Respiratory viruses can colonize the lower respiratory tract in stable COPD, altering the respiratory microbiome and facilitating secondary bacterial infections. In this review, we present the most updated information about the role of bacteria and viruses in stable and exacerbated COPD. In our opinion, to optimize therapeutic strategies, the dynamic events involving bacterial–viral infections and related immune response in COPD phenotypes need to be better clarified. Our paper would address these points that we consider of great importance for the clinical management of COPD.Keywords: COPD phenotype, biomarkers, exacerbations, severity of COPD, microbiome

  9. Particulate matter air pollution exposure: role in the development and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean H Ling

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sean H Ling, Stephan F van EedenJames Hogg iCAPTURE Centre for Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Research and Heart and Lung Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Due to the rapid urbanization of the world population, a better understanding of the detrimental effects of exposure to urban air pollution on chronic lung disease is necessary. Strong epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to particulate matter (PM air pollution causes exacerbations of pre-existing lung conditions, such as, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. However, little is known whether a chronic, low-grade exposure to ambient PM can cause the development and progression of COPD. The deposition of PM in the respiratory tract depends predominantly on the size of the particles, with larger particles deposited in the upper and larger airways and smaller particles penetrating deep into the alveolar spaces. Ineffective clearance of this PM from the airways could cause particle retention in lung tissues, resulting in a chronic, low-grade inflammatory response that may be pathogenetically important in both the exacerbation, as well as, the progression of lung disease. This review focuses on the adverse effects of exposure to ambient PM air pollution on the exacerbation, progression, and development of COPD.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, particulate matter, air pollution, alveolar macrophage

  10. Trends in assisted ventilation and outcome for obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations. A nationwide study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Pernille Toft-Petersen

    Full Text Available Non-invasive ventilation (NIV has been used for decades in treatment of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The impact of the changing use of assisted ventilation in acute exacerbations on outcomes has not been fully elucidated and we aimed to describe these changes in the Danish population and describe their consequences for mortality.A register-based study was conducted of a cohort of 12,847 patients admitted for acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD from 2004 through 2011, treated with invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV or NIV for the first time. Age, sex, in-hospital mortality rates, time to death or readmission for AECOPD were established and changes over time tracked.The number of admissions for AECOPD where assisted ventilation was used was 1,130 in 2004 and had increased by 145% in 2011. First time ventilations increased by 88%. This was mainly due to an increase in use of NIV accounting for 36% of the total number of assisted ventilations in 2004 and 67% in 2011. The number of IMV with or without NIV treatments remained constant. The mean age of NIV patients increased from 71.5 to 73.6 years, but remained constant at 70.0 years in IMV patients. Mortality rates both in hospital and after discharge for patients receiving NIV remained constant throughout the period. In-hospital mortality following IMV increased from 30% to 38%, but mortality after discharge remained stable.Assisted ventilation has been increasingly used in a broader spectrum of AECOPD patients since the introduction of NIV. The changes in treatment strategies have been followed by shifts in in-hospital mortality rates following IMV.

  11. Inflammation and airway microbiota during cystic fibrosis pulmonary exacerbations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith T Zemanick

    Full Text Available Pulmonary exacerbations (PEx, frequently associated with airway infection and inflammation, are the leading cause of morbidity in cystic fibrosis (CF. Molecular microbiologic approaches detect complex microbiota from CF airway samples taken during PEx. The relationship between airway microbiota, inflammation, and lung function during CF PEx is not well understood.To determine the relationships between airway microbiota, inflammation, and lung function in CF subjects treated for PEx.Expectorated sputum and blood were collected and lung function testing performed in CF subjects during early (0-3d. and late treatment (>7d. for PEx. Sputum was analyzed by culture, pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons, and quantitative PCR for total and specific bacteria. Sputum IL-8 and neutrophil elastase (NE; and circulating C-reactive protein (CRP were measured.Thirty-seven sputum samples were collected from 21 CF subjects. At early treatment, lower diversity was associated with high relative abundance (RA of Pseudomonas (r = -0.67, p<0.001, decreased FEV(1% predicted (r = 0.49, p = 0.03 and increased CRP (r = -0.58, p = 0.01. In contrast to Pseudomonas, obligate and facultative anaerobic genera were associated with less inflammation and higher FEV₁. With treatment, Pseudomonas RA and P. aeruginosa by qPCR decreased while anaerobic genera showed marked variability in response. Change in RA of Prevotella was associated with more variability in FEV₁ response to treatment than Pseudomonas or Staphylococcus.Anaerobes identified from sputum by sequencing are associated with less inflammation and higher lung function compared to Pseudomonas at early exacerbation. CF PEx treatment results in variable changes of anaerobic genera suggesting the need for larger studies particularly of patients without traditional CF pathogens.

  12. Fixed versus variable practice for teaching medical students the management of pediatric asthma exacerbations using simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, David; Truchot, Jennifer; Fabbro, Eleonora; Ceccaldi, Pierre-François; Plaisance, Patrick; Tesnière, Antoine; Hadchouel, Alice

    2018-02-01

    Simulation-based trainings represent an interesting approach to teach medical students the management of pediatric asthma exacerbations (PAEs). In this study, we compared two pedagogical approaches, training students once on three different scenarios of PAEs versus training students three times on the same scenario of PAE. Eighty-five third-year medical students, novice learners for the management of PAEs, were randomized and trained. Students were assessed twice, 1 week and 4 months after the training, on a scenario of PAE new to both groups and on scenarios used during the training. The main outcome was the performance score on the new scenario of PAE at 1 week, assessed on a checklist custom-designed for the study. All students progressed rapidly and acquired excellent skills. One week after the training, there was no difference between the two groups on all the scenarios tested, including the new scenario of PAE (median performance score (IQR) of 8.3 (7.4-10.0) in the variation group versus 8.0 (6.0-10.0) in the repetition group (p = 0.16)). Four months later, the performance of the two groups remained similar. Varying practice with different scenarios was equivalent to repetitive practice on the same scenario for novice learners, with both methods leading to transfer and long-term retention of the skills acquired during the training. What is known: • Simulation-based trainings represent an interesting approach to teach medical students the management of pediatric asthma exacerbations. • It is unclear whether students would benefit more from repetitive practice on the same scenario of asthma exacerbation or from practice on different scenarios in terms of transfer of skills. What is new: • An individual 30-min training on the management of pediatric asthma exacerbations using simulation allows transfer and long-term retention of the skills acquired. • Varying practice with different scenarios is equivalent to repetitive practice on the same

  13. [Treatment of multiple sclerosis symptoms and exacerbations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto González, José María

    2014-12-01

    In the last few years, there has been an explosion of new drugs acting on the clinical course of multiple sclerosis (MS) but less attention has been paid to better knowledge of the symptoms of this disease and their pathogenesis and treatment, which is essential to improve patients' quality of life. Because many patients have numerous concurrent symptoms during their clinical course, their management is complex and consequently it is important to know which symptoms are a direct result of the degenerative lesions of MS. The present article describes all the therapeutic options available for spasticity and its associated pain, paroxystic symptoms, fatigue, genitourinary disorders and sexual dysfunction, tremor, ataxia, gait disorder and cognitive impairment, with special emphasis on novel treatments. The article also defines exacerbations, how to recognize them and the available treatments, mainly oral administration of high-dose methylprednisolone and plasmapheresis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. A H2S Donor GYY4137 Exacerbates Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H2S is highly involved in inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis and contributes to the pathogenesis of kidney diseases. However, the role of H2S in cisplatin nephrotoxicity is still debatable. Here we investigated the effect of GYY4137, a novel slow-releasing H2S donor, on cisplatin nephrotoxicity in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with GYY4137 for 72 h prior to cisplatin injection. After cisplatin treatment for 72 h, mice developed obvious renal dysfunction and kidney injury as evidenced by elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN and histological damage. Consistently, these mice also showed increased proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in circulation and/or kidney tissues. Meanwhile, circulating thiobarbituric aid-reactive substances (TBARS and renal apoptotic indices including caspase-3, Bak, and Bax were all elevated. However, application of GYY4137 further aggravated renal dysfunction and kidney structural injury in line with promoted inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptotic response following cisplatin treatment. Taken together, our results suggested that GYY4137 exacerbated cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice possibly through promoting inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptotic response.

  15. Fish oil prevents sucrose-induced fatty liver but exacerbates high-safflower oil-induced fatty liver in ddy mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tomomi; Nakamori, Akiko; Sasaki, Eriko; Wada, Satoshi; Ezaki, Osamu

    2007-12-01

    Diets high in sucrose/fructose or fat can result in hepatic steatosis (fatty liver). We analyzed the effects of dietary fish oil on fatty liver induced by sucrose, safflower oil, and butter in ddY mice. In experiment I, mice were fed a high-starch diet [70 energy% (en%) starch] plus 20% (wt/wt) sucrose in the drinking water or fed a high-safflower oil diet (60 en%) for 11 weeks. As a control, mice were fed a high-starch diet with drinking water. Fish oil (10 en%) was either supplemented or not. Mice supplemented with sucrose or fed safflower oil showed a 1.7-fold or 2.2-fold increased liver triglyceride content, respectively, compared with that of control mice. Fish oil completely prevented sucrose-induced fatty liver, whereas it exacerbated safflower oil-induced fatty liver. Sucrose increased SREBP-1c and target gene messenger RNAs (mRNAs), and fish oil completely inhibited these increases. In experiment II, mice were fed a high-safflower oil or a high-butter diet, with or without fish oil supplementation. Fish oil exacerbated safflower oil-induced fatty liver but did not affect butter-induced fatty liver. Fish oil increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and target CD36 mRNA in safflower oil-fed mice. These increases were not observed in sucrose-supplemented or butter-fed mice. The effects of dietary fish oil on fatty liver differ according to the cause of fatty liver; fish oil prevents sucrose-induced fatty liver but exacerbates safflower oil-induced fatty liver. The exacerbation of fatty liver may be due, at least in part, to increased expression of liver PPARgamma.

  16. [Etiological and exacerbation factors for COPD. Body weight loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akihito

    2016-05-01

    Hunger or malnutrition is not only a historical issue but also a current problem worldwide. Biological responses to hunger are evolutionary prepared in our body, including energy generation by degradation of body proteins. Extreme weight loss (malnutrition) can cause air space enlargement in human and rodents. However, the changes in rodents could be reversible, since refeeding could repair the pathology. On the other hand, weight loss is a common feature in patients with more severe COPD. Complex factors, such as increased energy consumption, decreased food uptake by low grade inflammation, socio-economic factors and so on, are involved in weight loss. Weight loss in patients with COPD also increases the risk of exacerbation, hospitalization, and death.

  17. Montelukast and fluticasone compared with salmeterol and fluticasone in protecting against asthma exacerbation in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjermer, Leif; Bisgaard, Hans; Bousquet, Jean

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of montelukast versus salmeterol added to inhaled fluticasone propionate on asthma exacerbation in patients whose symptoms are inadequately controlled with fluticasone alone. Design and setting A 52 week, two period, double blind, multicentre trial during which pa...

  18. Costs of the Patients Hospitalized with Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in a University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Yıldırım

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, although a preventable and treatable disease continues to be a major health problem. Acute exacerbations of COPD is a major cause of hospitalization of patients and it constitutes a significant portion of COPD-related health care costs. In this study, we aimed to determine the cost of patients hospitalized with acute exacerbations of COPD in a university hospital. Methods: Data of the patients that were hospitalized due to COPD exacerbation between 1 September 2013-1 September 2014 in Hospital of Gazi University Medical Faculty were retrospectively analyzed. Cost data were gathered from data processing department. Costs were identified for drugs, laboratory tests, bed costs and other materials. Results: A total of 790 patients were hospitalized during twelve months. Among these patients 181 (23.0% patients had COPD and 99 (12.5% were hospitalized due to acute exacerbation of COPD. Of these 99 patients 77 (77.8% were male and 22 (22.2% were female. Forty-nine (49.5% patients were hospitalized from the emergency department, 50 (50.5% patients were from the outpatient clinic. The median age was 70 (64-77 years old and median length of hospital stay was 8 (6-13 days. Ninety-one (91.9% of them were discharged from the service. Eight (8.1% patients were transfered to the intensive care unit (ICU due to respiratory failure, and 7 of these patients (7.4% hospitalized back to the service after treatment at ICU, 2 (2.1% patients died. The median cost per patient was 1.064 (726-1.866 Turkish Lira (TL. Drug costs accounted the largest portion (36.0% of the median cost, followed by bed cost (26.0%. Two (2.1% of patients died in hospital. Although the number of patients without antibiotic usage is less (17.2% vs 82.8%; the median cost per patient in the antibiotic using group was higher than that were without antibiotic using (median 643 vs 1.162 TL p=0.001. Presence of a comorbidity, hypoxemia

  19. Frequency and risk factors of COPD exacerbations and hospitalizations: a nationwide study in Greece (Greek Obstructive Lung Disease Epidemiology and health ecoNomics: GOLDEN study

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    Alexopoulos EC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Evangelos C Alexopoulos,1 Foteini Malli,2 Eirini Mitsiki,3 Eleni G Bania,2 Christos Varounis,3 Konstantinos I Gourgoulianis1 1School of Social Sciences, Hellenic Open University, Patras, 2Respiratory Medicine Department, University of Thessaly Medical School, University Hospital of Larissa, Larissa, 3Medical Department, Novartis Hellas, Athens, Greece Background: COPD exacerbations and hospitalizations have been associated with poor prognosis for the COPD patient.Objective: To evaluate the frequency and risk factors of COPD exacerbations, hospitalizations, and admissions to intensive care units (ICUs in Greece by a nationwide cross-sectional study.Materials and methods: A nationwide observational, multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted in the clinical practice setting of respiratory medicine physicians over a 6 month-period (October 2010 to March 2011. A total of 6,125 COPD patients were recruited by 199 respiratory physicians.Results: Participants had a median age of 68.0 years, 71.3% were males, and 71.8% suffered from comorbidities. The median disease duration was 10.0 years. Of the patients, 45.3% were classified as having GOLD (Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage III or IV COPD. Patients with four or more comorbidities had 78.5% and threefold-higher than expected number of exacerbations and hospitalizations, respectively, as well as fivefold-higher risk of admission to the ICU compared to those with no comorbidities. Obese patients had 6.2% fewer expected exacerbations compared to those with a normal body mass index. Patients with GOLD stage IV had 74.5% and fivefold-higher expected number of exacerbations and hospitalizations, respectively, and nearly threefold-higher risk of admission to the ICU compared to stage I patients. An additional risk factor for exacerbations and hospitalizations was low compliance with treatment: 45% of patients reported forgetting to take their medication, and 81% reported a

  20. Computerised Analysis of Telemonitored Respiratory Sounds for Predicting Acute Exacerbations of COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Granero, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Morillo, Daniel; Leon-Jimenez, Antonio

    2015-10-23

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the commonest causes of death in the world and poses a substantial burden on healthcare systems and patients' quality of life. The largest component of the related healthcare costs is attributable to admissions due to acute exacerbation (AECOPD). The evidence that might support the effectiveness of the telemonitoring interventions in COPD is limited partially due to the lack of useful predictors for the early detection of AECOPD. Electronic stethoscopes and computerised analyses of respiratory sounds (CARS) techniques provide an opportunity for substantial improvement in the management of respiratory diseases. This exploratory study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using: (a) a respiratory sensor embedded in a self-tailored housing for ageing users; (b) a telehealth framework; (c) CARS and (d) machine learning techniques for the remote early detection of the AECOPD. In a 6-month pilot study, 16 patients with COPD were equipped with a home base-station and a sensor to daily record their respiratory sounds. Principal component analysis (PCA) and a support vector machine (SVM) classifier was designed to predict AECOPD. 75.8% exacerbations were early detected with an average of 5 ± 1.9 days in advance at medical attention. The proposed method could provide support to patients, physicians and healthcare systems.

  1. Influence of macrolide maintenance therapy and bacterial colonisation on exacerbation frequency and progression of COPD (COLUMBUS: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

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    Uzun Sevim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterised by progressive development of airflow limitation that is poorly reversible. Because of a poor understanding of COPD pathogenesis, treatment is mostly symptomatic and new therapeutic strategies are limited. There is a direct relationship between the severity of the disease and the intensity of the inflammatory response. Besides smoking, one of the hypotheses for the persistent airway inflammation is the presence of recurrent infections. Macrolide antibiotics have bacteriostatic as well as anti-inflammatory properties in patients with cystic fibrosis and other inflammatory pulmonary diseases. There is consistent evidence that macrolide therapy reduces infectious exacerbations, decreases the requirement for additional antibiotics and improves nutritional measures. Because of these positive effects we hypothesised that maintenance macrolide therapy may also have beneficial effects in patients with COPD who have recurrent exacerbations. The effects on development of bacterial resistance to macrolides due to this long-term treatment are unknown. Until now, studies investigating macrolide therapy in COPD are limited. The objective of this study is to assess whether maintenance treatment with macrolide antibiotics in COPD patients with three or more exacerbations in the previous year decreases the exacerbation rate in the year of treatment and to establish microbial resistance due to the long-term treatment. Methods/design The study is set up as a prospective randomised double-blind placebo-controlled single-centre trial. A total of 92 patients with COPD who have had at least three exacerbations of COPD in the previous year will be included. Subjects will be randomised to receive either azithromycin 500 mg three times a week or placebo. Our primary endpoint is the reduction in the number of exacerbations of COPD in the year of treatment. Discussion We investigate whether

  2. Sources, factors, mechanisms and possible solutions to pollutants in marine ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostofa, Khan M.G.; Liu, Cong-Qiang; Vione, Davide; Gao, Kunshan; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Algal toxins or red-tide toxins produced during algal blooms are naturally-derived toxic emerging contaminants (ECs) that may kill organisms, including humans, through contaminated fish or seafood. Other ECs produced either naturally or anthropogenically ultimately flow into marine waters. Pharmaceuticals are also an important pollution source, mostly due to overproduction and incorrect disposal. Ship breaking and recycle industries (SBRIs) can also release various pollutants and substantially deteriorate habitats and marine biodiversity. Overfishing is significantly increasing due to the global food crisis, caused by an increasing world population. Organic matter (OM) pollution and global warming (GW) are key factors that exacerbate these challenges (e.g. algal blooms), to which acidification in marine waters should be added as well. Sources, factors, mechanisms and possible remedial measures of these challenges to marine ecosystems are discussed, including their eventual impact on all forms of life including humans. -- Review of sources, factors, mechanisms and possible remedial measures of key pollutants (contaminants, toxins, ship breaking, overfishing) in marine ecosystems

  3. Lower extremity ulceration caused by medical scooter injury: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparone, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    The motorized mobility scooter (MMS) provides considerable benefits to patients with mobility limitations. Nevertheless, safety concerns related to MMS use are an issue. With increased use because of increased life expectancy and chronic illness, there are a growing number of reports of MMS-related injuries, ranging from lacerations and contusions to fatalities. Comorbidities may also exacerbate wound care. Prevention of these injuries is greatly needed. The author presents 5 patients with lower-extremity ulceration caused by MMS injuries. To prevent these injuries, health care providers must carefully evaluate and monitor patients. Clinicians and MMS manufacturers also need to educate and train patients on the safe use of MMS devices, including the regular use of footwear. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Use of Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation for the Treatment of Acute Exacerbations of Copd in Canada

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    Jennifer Drummond

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV is accepted as a life-saving treatment for patients presenting to the emergency department and other acute care settings with severe exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.

  5. Obesity-metabolic derangement exacerbates cardiomyocyte loss distal to moderate coronary artery stenosis in pigs without affecting global cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi-Lun; Ebrahimi, Behzad; Zhang, Xin; Eirin, Alfonso; Woollard, John R; Tang, Hui; Lerman, Amir; Wang, Shen-Ming; Lerman, Lilach O

    2014-04-01

    Obesity associated with metabolic derangements (ObM) worsens the prognosis of patients with coronary artery stenosis (CAS), but the underlying cardiac pathophysiologic mechanisms remain elusive. We tested the hypothesis that ObM exacerbates cardiomyocyte loss distal to moderate CAS. Obesity-prone pigs were randomized to four groups (n = 6 each): lean-sham, ObM-sham, lean-CAS, and ObM-CAS. Lean and ObM pigs were maintained on a 12-wk standard or atherogenic diet, respectively, and left circumflex CAS was then induced by placing local-irritant coils. Cardiac structure, function, and myocardial oxygenation were assessed 4 wk later by computed-tomography and blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) MRI, the microcirculation with micro-computed-tomography, and injury mechanisms by immunoblotting and histology. ObM pigs showed obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. The degree of CAS (range, 50-70%) was similar in lean and ObM pigs, and resting myocardial perfusion and global cardiac function remained unchanged. Increased angiogenesis distal to the moderate CAS observed in lean was attenuated in ObM pigs, which also showed microvascular dysfunction and increased inflammation (M1-macrophages, TNF-α expression), oxidative stress (gp91), hypoxia (BOLD-MRI), and fibrosis (Sirius-red and trichrome). Furthermore, lean-CAS showed increased myocardial autophagy, which was blunted in ObM pigs (downregulated expression of unc-51-like kinase-1 and autophagy-related gene-12; P < 0.05 vs. lean CAS) and associated with marked apoptosis. The interaction diet xstenosis synergistically inhibited angiogenic, autophagic, and fibrogenic activities. ObM exacerbates structural and functional myocardial injury distal to moderate CAS with preserved myocardial perfusion, possibly due to impaired cardiomyocyte turnover.

  6. Effect of glucocorticoid therapy upon glucose metabolism in COPD patients with acute exacerbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Sihai; Wei Zhenggan; Huang Ming'an; Yao Jianguo; Li Hongsheng

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of glucocorticoids therapy upon glucose metabolism in COPD patients with acute exacerbation. Methods: Plasma glucose and insulin levels in COPD patients after intravenous administration of 10 mg dexamethasone daily for 5 days were determined oral with glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin release test (IRT). Results: 1) The levels of basal plasma glucose and insulin were significantly higher in severe hypoxemic group than those in moderate hypoxemic group (p 2 (r = -0.5242, p < 0.05). 2) The levels of plasma glucose in intermediate and severe hypoxemic groups were remarkable higher (p < 0.05) than those in mild group. The two peak times of glucose curve were observed at one and two hour after oral glucose load. 3) After the administration of glucocorticoids, at half an hour and one hour plasma glucose levels were significantly higher than those before, the peak time of glucose levels appeared earlier and the insulin release levels were higher than they were before therapy (p < 0.05). Conclusion: COPD patients with acute exacerbation complicated with hypoxemia had problems of impaired glucose tolerance. The administration of glucocorticoids made the impairment worse

  7. Cerebral ischemia is exacerbated by extracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase via a non-enzymatic mechanism.

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    Bing Zhao

    Full Text Available Intracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (iNAMPT in neuron has been known as a protective factor against cerebral ischemia through its enzymatic activity, but the role of central extracellular NAMPT (eNAMPT is not clear. Here we show that eNAMPT protein level was elevated in the ischemic rat brain after middle-cerebral-artery occlusion (MCAO and reperfusion, which can be traced to at least in part from blood circulation. Administration of recombinant NAMPT protein exacerbated MCAO-induced neuronal injury in rat brain, while exacerbated oxygen-glucose-deprivation (OGD induced neuronal injury only in neuron-glial mixed culture, but not in neuron culture. In the mixed culture, NAMPT protein promoted TNF-α release in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion, while TNF-α neutralizing antibody protected OGD-induced, NAMPT-enhanced neuronal injury. Importantly, H247A mutant of NAMPT with essentially no enzymatic activity exerted similar effects on ischemic neuronal injury and TNF-α release as the wild type protein. Thus, eNAMPT is an injurious and inflammatory factor in cerebral ischemia and aggravates ischemic neuronal injury by triggering TNF-α release from glia cells, via a mechanism not related to NAMPT enzymatic activity.

  8. Statin therapy exacerbates alcohol-induced constriction of cerebral arteries via modulation of ethanol-induced BK channel inhibition in vascular smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakova, Maria N; Bisen, Shivantika; Dopico, Alex M; Bukiya, Anna N

    2017-12-01

    Statins constitute the most commonly prescribed drugs to decrease cholesterol (CLR). CLR is an important modulator of alcohol-induced cerebral artery constriction (AICAC). Using rats on a high CLR diet (2% CLR) we set to determine whether atorvastatin administration (10mg/kg daily for 18-23weeks) modified AICAC. Middle cerebral arteries were pressurized in vitro at 60mmHg and AICAC was evoked by 50mM ethanol, that is within the range of blood alcohol detected in humans following moderate-to-heavy drinking. AICAC was evident in high CLR+atorvastatin group but not in high CLR diet+placebo. Statin exacerbation of AICAC persisted in de-endothelialized arteries, and was blunted by CLR enrichment in vitro. Fluorescence imaging of filipin-stained arteries showed that atorvastatin decreased vascular smooth muscle (VSM) CLR when compared to placebo, this difference being reduced by CLR enrichment in vitro. Voltage- and calcium-gated potassium channels of large conductance (BK) are known VSM targets of ethanol, with their beta1 subunit being necessary for ethanol-induced channel inhibition and resulting AICAC. Ethanol-induced BK inhibition in excised membrane patches from freshly isolated myocytes was exacerbated in the high CLR diet+atorvastatin group when compared to high CLR diet+placebo. Unexpectedly, atorvastatin decreased the amount and function of BK beta1 subunit as documented by immunofluorescence imaging and functional patch-clamp studies. Atorvastatin exacerbation of ethanol-induced BK inhibition disappeared upon artery CLR enrichment in vitro. Our study demonstrates for the first time statin's ability to exacerbate the vascular effect of a widely consumed drug of abuse, this exacerbation being driven by statin modulation of ethanol-induced BK channel inhibition in the VSM via CLR-mediated mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A retrospective study on drug utilization in patients with acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma in adults at a tertiary teaching hospital in Bengaluru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraju Thejur Jayadeva

    2016-01-01

    Results: Majority of the prescriptions irrespective of severity received inhalation β2 agonist (formoterol as a bronchodilator. Nebulization route was given for managing the acute exacerbations followed by inhalation route. Hydrocortisone was prescribed to all patients for managing acute exacerbations. Montelukast was used an adjuvant therapy. Most of them were prescribed combination therapy. Doxophylline was prescribed among all the methylxanthines.

  10. Cyanoacrylate for Intraoral Wound Closure: A Possibility?

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    Parimala Sagar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound closure is a part of any surgical procedure and the objective of laceration repair or incision closure is to approximate the edges of a wound so that natural healing process may occur. Over the years new biomaterials have been discovered as an alternate to conventional suture materials. Cyanoacrylate bioadhesives are one among them. They carry the advantages of rapid application, patient comfort, resistance to infection, hemostatic properties, and no suture removal anxiety. Hence this study was undertaken to study the effect of long chain cyanoacrylate as an adhesive for intraoral wound closure and also to explore its hemostatic and antibacterial effects. Isoamyl-2-cyanoacrylate (AMCRYLATE was used as the adhesive in the study. In conclusion isoamyl cyanoacrylate can be used for intraoral wound closure, as an alternative to sutures for gluing the mucoperiosteum to bone, for example, after impaction removal, periapical surgeries, and cleft repair. Its hemostatic and antibacterial activity has to be further evaluated.

  11. Optical Spectroscopy of SDSS J004054.65-0915268: Three Possible Scenarios for the Classification. A z ˜ 5 BL Lacertae, a Blue FSRQ, or a Weak Emission Line Quasar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landoni, M.; Zanutta, A.; Bianco, A.; Tavecchio, F.; Bonnoli, G.; Ghisellini, G.

    2016-02-01

    The haunt of high-redshift BL Lacerate objects is day by day more compelling to firmly understand their intrinsic nature and evolution. SDSS J004054.65-0915268 is, at the moment, one of the most distant BL Lac candidates, at z ˜ 5. We present a new optical-near-IR spectrum obtained with ALFOSC-NOT with a new, custom designed dispersive grating aimed to detect broad emission lines that could disprove this classification. In the obtained spectra, we do not detect any emission features and we provide an upper limit to the luminosity of the C IV broad emission line. Therefore, the nature of the object is then discussed, building the overall spectral energy distribution (SED) and fitting it with three different models. Our fits, based on SED modeling with different possible scenarios, cannot rule out the possibility that this source is indeed a BL Lac object, though the absence of optical variability and the lack of strong radio flux seem to suggest that the observed optical emission originates from a thermalized accretion disk.

  12. Exacerbation of Brain Injury by Post-Stroke Exercise Is Contingent Upon Exercise Initiation Timing

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    Fengwu Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that post-stroke physical rehabilitation may reduce morbidity. The effectiveness of post-stroke exercise, however, appears to be contingent upon exercise initiation. This study assessed the hypothesis that very early exercise exacerbates brain injury, induces reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, and promotes energy failure. A total of 230 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery (MCA occlusion for 2 h, and randomized into eight groups, including two sham injury control groups, three non-exercise and three exercise groups. Exercise was initiated after 6 h, 24 h and 3 days of reperfusion. Twenty-four hours after completion of exercise (and at corresponding time points in non-exercise controls, infarct volumes and apoptotic cell death were examined. Early brain oxidative metabolism was quantified by examining ROS, ATP and NADH levels 0.5 h after completion of exercise. Furthermore, protein expressions of angiogenic growth factors were measured in order to determine whether post-stroke angiogenesis played a role in rehabilitation. As expected, ischemic stroke resulted in brain infarction, apoptotic cell death and ROS generation, and diminished NADH and ATP production. Infarct volumes and apoptotic cell death were enhanced (p < 0.05 by exercise that was initiated after 6 h of reperfusion, but decreased by late exercise (24 h, 3 days. This exacerbated brain injury at 6 h was associated with increased ROS levels (p < 0.05, and decreased (p < 0.05 NADH and ATP levels. In conclusion, very early exercise aggravated brain damage, and early exercise-induced energy failure with ROS generation may underlie the exacerbation of brain injury. These results shed light on the manner in which exercise initiation timing may affect post-stroke rehabilitation.

  13. The complexity of managing COPD exacerbations: a grounded theory study of European general practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risør, Mette Bech; Spigt, Mark; Iversen, R; Godycki-Cwirko, M; Francis, N; Altiner, A; Andreeva, E; Kung, K; Melbye, H

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To understand the concerns and challenges faced by general practitioners (GPs) and respiratory physicians about primary care management of acute exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Design 21 focus group discussions (FGDs) were performed in seven countries with a Grounded Theory approach. Each country performed three rounds of FGDs. Setting Primary and secondary care in Norway, Germany, Wales, Poland, Russia, The Netherlands, China (Hong Kong). Participants 142 GPs and respiratory physicians were chosen to include urban and rural GPs as well as hospital-based and out patient-clinic respiratory physicians. Results Management of acute COPD exacerbations is dealt with within a scope of concerns. These concerns range from ‘dealing with comorbidity’ through ‘having difficult patients’ to ‘confronting a hopeless disease’. The first concern displays medical uncertainty regarding diagnosis, medication and hospitalisation. These clinical processes become blurred by comorbidity and the social context of the patient. The second concern shows how patients receive the label ‘difficult’ exactly because they need complex attention, but even more because they are time consuming, do not take responsibility and are non-compliant. The third concern relates to the emotional reactions by the physicians when confronted with ‘a hopeless disease’ due to the fact that most of the patients do not improve and the treatment slows down the process at best. GPs and respiratory physicians balance these concerns with medical knowledge and practical, situational knowledge, trying to encompass the complexity of a medical condition. Conclusions Knowing the patient is essential when dealing with comorbidities as well as with difficult relations in the consultations on exacerbations. This study suggests that it is crucial to improve the collaboration between primary and secondary care, in terms of, for example, shared consultations

  14. Effect of ELOM-080 on exacerbations and symptoms in COPD patients with a chronic bronchitis phenotype – a post-hoc analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beeh KM

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Kai-Michael Beeh,1 Jutta Beier,1 Henning Candler,2 Thomas Wittig2 1Insaf Respiratory Research Institute, Wiesbaden, Germany; 2G. Pohl-Boskamp GmbH & Co KG, Hohenlockstedt, Germany Background: Treating symptoms and preventing exacerbations are key components of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD long-term management. Recently, a more tailored treatment approach has been proposed, in particular for two well-established clinical phenotypes, frequent exacerbators and chronic bronchitis-dominant COPD. ELOM-080 has demonstrated clinical efficacy in treating symptoms and preventing exacerbations in subjects with chronic bronchitis. However, little is known about the potential effects of ELOM-080 in COPD patients. Aim: To evaluate the effect on exacerbation, cough sputum, and general state of health of long-term treatment with ELOM-080 in COPD patients with an exacerbation history and chronic bronchitis. Methods: We performed a post-hoc analysis of a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled parallel-group clinical trial of a 6-month treatment with ELOM-080 (3×300 mg in patients with chronic bronchitis and concomitant COPD. The primary outcome was the proportion of subjects with at least one exacerbation over the 6-month study period. Secondary outcomes included the total number of exacerbations (ie, cumulative occurrence of exacerbations during the study period and the proportion of acute exacerbations necessitating an antibiotic treatment, monthly evaluations of sputum and cough symptoms, and the general state of health and a safety analysis. Results: Of 260 randomized subjects, 64 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria for COPD (ELOM-080: 35, placebo: 29. Compared to placebo, ELOM-080 reduced the percentage of subjects with at least one exacerbation (29% versus 55%, P=0.031 and a reduction in the overall occurrence of exacerbations (ELOM-080: 10, placebo: 21, P=0.012 during the winter season. The percentage of asymptomatic or

  15. Profil épidémiologique et prise en charge des exacerbations d'asthme chez l'enfant à l'hôpital d'enfants de Rabat au Maroc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubkraoui, Mohamed El Mahdi; Benbrahim, Fadoua; Assermouh, Abdellah; El Hafidi, Naima; Benchekroun, Soumia; Mahraoui, Chafiq

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'exacerbation d'asthme est un phénomène paroxystique qui peut mettre en jeu le pronostic vital. Le but de l’étude est d’évaluer le profil épidémiologique et les modalités de prise en charge de l'exacerbation d'asthme chez les enfants âgés de 2 à 15 ans dans l'unité de pneumoallergologie pédiatrique de l'hôpital d'enfants de Rabat au Maroc. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective qui a concerné 1461 enfants hospitalisés pour exacerbation d'asthme modérée à sévère durant une période d'un an allant de décembre 2011 à novembre 2012, les exacerbations légères étant traitées en ambulatoire. Résultats Les hospitalisations pour exacerbation d'asthme chez les enfants ont représenté 34% de l'ensemble des hospitalisations avec trois pics en mai, septembre et décembre. L’âge moyen de survenue était de 3 ans et demi avec une prédominance masculine nette. L'exacerbation d'asthme était inaugurale dans 22% des cas. Les infections respiratoires virales dominaient les facteurs déclenchants des exacerbations d'asthme. Le séjour hospitalier était en moyenne de 3 jours. Un transfert en réanimation a été nécessaire dans 2% des cas. L’évolution sous traitement a toujours été favorable et la mortalité a été nulle. Conclusion La prévalence des hospitalisations pour exacerbation d'asthme suit un profil saisonnier lié aux effets environnementaux. La plupart de ces hospitalisations pourraient cependant être évitées grâce à un meilleur contrôle de l'asthme et à l'amélioration de l’éducation thérapeutique de l'enfant asthmatique et de son entourage. PMID:26090031

  16. Benefits of whole body vibration training in patients hospitalised for COPD exacerbations - a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greulich, Timm; Nell, Christoph; Koepke, Janine; Fechtel, Juliane; Franke, Maja; Schmeck, Bernd; Haid, Daniel; Apelt, Sandra; Filipovic, Silke; Kenn, Klaus; Janciauskiene, Sabina; Vogelmeier, Claus; Koczulla, Andreas Rembert

    2014-04-11

    Patients with stable COPD show improvements in exercise capacity and muscular function after the application of whole body vibration. We aimed to evaluate whether this modality added to conventional physiotherapy in exacerbated hospitalised COPD patients would be safe and would improve exercise capacity and quality of life. 49 hospitalised exacerbated COPD patients were randomized (1:1) to undergo physiotherapy alone or physiotherapy with the addition of whole body vibration. The primary endpoint was the between-group difference of the 6-minute walking test (day of discharge - day of admission). Secondary assessments included chair rising test, quality of life, and serum marker analysis. Whole body vibration did not cause procedure-related adverse events. Compared to physiotherapy alone, it led to significantly stronger improvements in 6-minute walking test (95.55 ± 76.29 m vs. 6.13 ± 81.65 m; p = 0.007) and St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (-6.43 ± 14.25 vs. 5.59 ± 19.15, p = 0.049). Whole body vibration increased the expression of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator receptor gamma coactivator-1-α and serum levels of irisin, while it decreased serum interleukin-8. Whole body vibration during hospitalised exacerbations did not cause procedure-related adverse events and induced clinically significant benefits regarding exercise capacity and health-related quality of life that were associated with increased serum levels of irisin, a marker of muscle activity. German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00005979. Registered 17 March 2014.

  17. Linking Asthma Exacerbation and Air Pollution Data: A Step Toward Public Health and Environmental Data Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruque, Fazlay; Finley, Richard; Marshall, Gailen; Brackin, Bruce; Li, Hui; Williams, Worth; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Luvall, Jeffrey; Rickman, Doug; Crosson, Bill

    2006-01-01

    Studies have shown that reducing exposure to triggers such as air pollutants can reduce symptoms and the need for medication in asthma patients. However, systems that track asthma are generally not integrated with those that track environmental hazards related to asthma. Tlvs lack of integration hinders public health awareness and responsiveness to these environmental triggers. The current study is a collaboration between health and environmental professionals to utilize NASA-derived environmental data to develop a decision support system (DSS) for asthma prediction, surveillance, and intervention. The investigators link asthma morbidity data from the University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC) and Mississippi Department of Health (MDH) with air quality data from the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) and remote sensing data from NASA. Daily ambient environmental hazard data for PM2.5 and ozone are obtained from the MDEQ air quality monitoring locations and are combined with remotely sensed data from NASA to develop a state-wide spatial and time series profile of environmental air quality. These data are then used to study the correlation of these measures of air quality variation with the asthma exacerbation incidence throughout the state over time. The goal is to utilize these readily available measures to allow real-time risk assessment for asthma exacerbations. GeoMedStat, a DSS previously developed for biosurveillance, will integrate these measures to monitor, analyze and report the real-time risk assessment for asthma exacerbation throughout the state.

  18. Loss of regulator of G protein signaling 5 exacerbates obesity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation and insulin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Deng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of regulator of G protein signaling 5 (RGS5 on cardiac hypertrophy, atherosclerosis and angiogenesis has been well demonstrated, but the role in the development of obesity and insulin resistance remains completely unknown. We determined the effect of RGS5 deficiency on obesity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation and insulin resistance in mice fed either a normal-chow diet (NC or a high-fat diet (HF. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male, 8-week-old RGS5 knockout (KO and littermate control mice were fed an NC or an HF for 24 weeks and were phenotyped accordingly. RGS5 KO mice exhibited increased obesity, fat mass and ectopic lipid deposition in the liver compared with littermate control mice, regardless of diet. When fed an HF, RGS5 KO mice had a markedly exacerbated metabolic dysfunction and inflammatory state in the blood serum. Meanwhile, macrophage recruitment and inflammation were increased and these increases were associated with the significant activation of JNK, IκBα and NF-κBp65 in the adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscle of RGS5 KO mice fed an HF relative to control mice. These exacerbated metabolic dysfunction and inflammation are accompanied with decreased systemic insulin sensitivity in the adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscle of RGS5 KO mice, reflected by weakened Akt/GSK3β phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that loss of RGS5 exacerbates HF-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation and insulin resistance.

  19. Prevalence of venous thrombo-embolism in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Kamel

    2013-10-01

    Conclusion: VTE appeared to be a common problem in COPD patients with exacerbations. The role of CTPA is the cornerstone in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. DVT of lower limbs was not essential in all cases of proven pulmonary embolism. Serum D-dimer, Wells criteria and Geneva score are useful bedside criteria that may help to assess the occurrence of VTE in such patients.

  20. Intensive care unit nurses' perceptions of patient participation in the acute phase of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation: an interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvangarsnes, Marit; Torheim, Henny; Hole, Torstein; Öhlund, Lennart S

    2013-02-01

    To report a study conducted to explore intensive care unit nurses' perceptions of patient participation in the acute phase of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation. An acute exacerbation is a life-threatening situation, which patients often consider to be extremely frightening. Healthcare personnel exercise considerable power in this situation, which challenges general professional notions of patient participation. Critical discourse analysis. In the autumn of 2009, three focus group interviews with experienced intensive care nurses were conducted at two hospitals in western Norway. Two groups had six participants each, and one group had five (N = 17). The transcribed interviews were analysed by means of critical discourse analysis. The intensive care nurses said that an exacerbation is often an extreme situation in which healthcare personnel are exercising a high degree of control and power over patients. Patient participation during exacerbation often takes the form of non-involvement. The participating nurses attached great importance to taking a sensitive approach when meeting patients. The nurses experienced challenging ethical dilemmas. This study shows that patient participation should not be understood in universal terms, but rather in relation to a specific setting and the interactions that occur in this setting. Healthcare personnel must develop skill, understanding, and competence to meet these challenging ethical dilemmas. A collaborative inter-professional approach between physicians and nurses is needed to meet the patients' demand for involvement. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Parents' experience of unintended childbearing: A qualitative study of factors that mitigate or exacerbate effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Megan L; Kost, Kathryn; Frohwirth, Lori; Maddow-Zimet, Isaac; Gor, Vivian

    2017-02-01

    Births resulting from an unintended pregnancy affect individuals differentially, and some may experience more negative consequences than others. In this study, we sought to describe the mechanisms through which the severity of effects may be mitigated or exacerbated. We conducted in-depth interviews with 35 women and 30 men, all with a youngest child born resulting from an unintended pregnancy, in two urban sites in the United States. Respondents described both negative and positive effects of the child's birth in the areas of school; work and finances; partner relationships; personal health and outlook on life trajectories. Mechanisms through which unintended pregnancies mitigated or exacerbated certain effects fell at the individual (e.g. lifestyle modification), interpersonal (e.g. partner support) and structural (e.g. workplace flexibility) levels. These qualitative findings deepen understanding of the impact of unintended childbearing on the lives of women, men and families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. COPD Patients with Acute Exacerbation Who Developed Refeeding Syndrome during Hospitalization Had Poor Outcome: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuen Shan Jih

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: The study retrospectively investigated risk factors for refeeding syndrome in COPD patients with acute exacerbation and its impact on clinical outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed discharge notes of patients with primary diagnosis of COPD with acute exacerbation from August 2014 to December 2015. Demographic data, BMI, the last post-bronchodilator FEV1, case-mixed index (CMI, APACHE-II score, average daily total energy intake (TEI and adjusted by current BW to obtain average daily total energy intake index (TEII of the first four hospitalization days, the initial ABG with calculated PaO2/FiO2 were collected. Laboratory RFS was arbitrarily defined as either serum P or Mg declined 15% or more after feeding in comparison with the pre-feeding one and fell below the lower limit of normal ranges. Results: 61 patients were eligible for analysis and 38% had RFS. Univariate analyses showed that advanced age, low BMI, high TEII, low post-bronchodilator FEV1, high APACHE-II score, low PaO2/FiO2, high PaCO2, low pH, and leukocytosis at admission were risk factors for RFS. However, multiple logistic regression revealed that only BMI, TEII and the last post-bronchodilator FEV1 were the risk predictors for RFS. Those who developed RFS had high risk to suffer from delirium, be intubated and receive invasive mechanical ventilation with difficult weaning from the ventilator, and have longer LOS. No in-hospital mortality was found. Conclusion: RFS should not be overlooked in COPD patients with acute exacerbation. Awareness of this feeding-related complication is mandatory for early diagnosis and appropriate management to prevent morbidity and mortality. Keywords: refeeding syndrome, COPD with acute exacerbation

  3. Exacerbation of pre-existing diabetes insipidus during pregnancy, mechanisms and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Lloyd J W; T'Sjoen, Guy; Lapauw, Bruno

    2017-06-01

    During pregnancy, physiological changes in osmotic homeostasis cause water retention. If excessive, this can cause gestational diabetes insipidus (DI), particularly in patients with already impaired vasopressin secretion. We present the case of a 34-year-old patient with pre-existing hypopituitarism who experienced a transient exacerbation of her DI during a twin pregnancy. In contrast to typical gestational DI, polyuria and polydipsia occurred during the first trimester and remained stable thereafter. This case highlights a challenging clinical entity of which pathophysiology, diagnostic approach and treatment will be discussed.

  4. The EFFECT trial: evaluating exacerbations, biomarkers, and safety outcomes with two dose levels of fluticasone propionate/formoterol in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papi A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alberto Papi,1 Paul W Jones,2 Prashant S Dalvi,3 Kirsten McAulay,4 Tammy McIver,5 Sanjeeva Dissanayake3 1Department of Internal and CardioRespiratory Medicine, Research Centre on Asthma and COPD, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy; 2Institute for Infection and Immunity, St George’s, University of London, London, UK; 3Medical Science – Respiratory, 4Medical Operations, 5Data Management and Statistics, Mundipharma Research Ltd, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist combination therapy is recommended in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients at high risk of exacerbations. The EFFECT (Efficacy of Fluticasone propionate/FormotErol in COPD Treatment trial is a Phase III, 52-week, randomized, double-blind study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two doses of fluticasone propionate/formoterol compared to formoterol monotherapy in COPD patients with FEV1 ≤50% predicted and a history of exacerbations. The primary endpoint is the annualized rate of moderate and severe exacerbations. Secondary endpoints include pre-dose FEV1, EXACT-PRO (EXAcerbations of Chronic pulmonary disease Tool – Patient-Reported Outcome-defined exacerbations, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire for COPD, COPD Assessment Test, and EXACT-Respiratory Symptoms total score. Lung-specific biomarkers (surfactant protein D and CC chemokine ligand-18 will be measured in a subset of patients to explore their relationship to other clinical indices in COPD and their predictive utility. Pneumonia will be diagnosed per criteria defined by the British Thoracic Society community acquired pneumonia guideline, primarily by radiological confirmation and, additionally, using clinical criteria when a chest radiograph cannot be obtained. Serial measurements of serum potassium, vital signs and electrocardiograms, 24-hour Holter monitoring, and 24-hour urinary cortisol measurement will be performed in a subset of patients in addition to

  5. Aversive stimuli exacerbate defensive motor behaviour in motor conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, Rebekah L; Sinanaj, Indrit; Galli, Silvio; Aybek, Selma; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2016-12-01

    Conversion disorder or functional neurological symptom disorder (FND) can affect the voluntary motor system, without an organic cause. Functional symptoms are thought to be generated unconsciously, arising from underlying psychological stressors. However, attempts to demonstrate a direct relationship between the limbic system and disrupted motor function in FND are lacking. We tested whether negative affect would exacerbate alterations of motor control and corresponding brain activations in individuals with FND. Ten patients and ten healthy controls produced an isometric precision-grip contraction at 10% of maximum force while either viewing visual feedback of their force output, or unpleasant or pleasant emotional images (without feedback). Force magnitude was continuously recorded together with change in brain activity using fMRI. For controls, force output decayed from the target level while viewing pleasant and unpleasant images. Patients however, maintained force at the target level without decay while viewing unpleasant images, indicating a pronounced effect of negative affect on force output in FND. This emotional modulation of force control was associated with different brain activation patterns between groups. Contrasting the unpleasant with the pleasant condition, controls showed increased activity in the inferior frontal cortex and pre-supplementary motor area, whereas patients had greater activity in the cerebellum (vermis), posterior cingulate cortex, and hippocampus. Engagement of a cerebellar-limbic network in patients is consistent with heightened processing of emotional salience, and supports the role of the cerebellum in freezing responses in the presence of aversive events. These data highlight a possible neural circuit through which psychological stressors elicit defensive behaviour and modulate motor function in FND. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lights and shadows of non-invasive mechanical ventilation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Lopez-Campos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the overwhelming evidence justifying the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV for providing ventilatory support in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbations, recent studies demonstrated that its application in real-life settings remains suboptimal. European clinical audits have shown that 1 NIV is not invariably available, 2 its availability depends on countries and hospital sizes, and 3 numerous centers declare their inability to provide NIV to all of the eligible patients presenting throughout the year. Even with an established indication, the use of NIV in acute respiratory failure due to COPD exacerbations faces important challenges. First, the location and personnel using NIV should be carefully selected. Second, the use of NIV is not straightforward despite the availability of technologically advanced ventilators. Third, NIV therapy of critically ill patients requires a thorough knowledge of both respiratory physiology and existing ventilatory devices. Accordingly, an optimal team-training experience, the careful selection of patients, and special attention to the selection of devices are critical for optimizing NIV outcomes. Additionally, when applied, NIV should be closely monitored, and endotracheal intubation should be promptly available in the case of failure. Another topic that merits careful consideration is the use of NIV in the elderly. This patient population is particularly fragile, with several physiological and social characteristics requiring specific attention in relation to NIV. Several other novel indications should also be critically examined, including the use of NIV during fiberoptic bronchoscopy or transesophageal echocardiography, as well as in interventional cardiology and pulmonology. The present narrative review aims to provide updated information on the use of NIV in acute settings to improve the clinical outcomes of patients hospitalized for COPD exacerbations.

  7. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Other possible complications of the procedure include: fever muscle stiffness in the neck bruising on the neck ... lining abdominal bleeding that might require a transfusion laceration of the hepatic artery, which may result in ...

  8. Computerised Analysis of Telemonitored Respiratory Sounds for Predicting Acute Exacerbations of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Fernandez-Granero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is one of the commonest causes of death in the world and poses a substantial burden on healthcare systems and patients’ quality of life. The largest component of the related healthcare costs is attributable to admissions due to acute exacerbation (AECOPD. The evidence that might support the effectiveness of the telemonitoring interventions in COPD is limited partially due to the lack of useful predictors for the early detection of AECOPD. Electronic stethoscopes and computerised analyses of respiratory sounds (CARS techniques provide an opportunity for substantial improvement in the management of respiratory diseases. This exploratory study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using: (a a respiratory sensor embedded in a self-tailored housing for ageing users; (b a telehealth framework; (c CARS and (d machine learning techniques for the remote early detection of the AECOPD. In a 6-month pilot study, 16 patients with COPD were equipped with a home base-station and a sensor to daily record their respiratory sounds. Principal component analysis (PCA and a support vector machine (SVM classifier was designed to predict AECOPD. 75.8% exacerbations were early detected with an average of 5 ± 1.9 days in advance at medical attention. The proposed method could provide support to patients, physicians and healthcare systems.

  9. Severe asthma exacerbation: role of acute Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentini, Roberto; Tarsia, Paolo; Canetta, Ciro; Graziadei, Giovanna; Brambilla, Anna Maria; Aliberti, Stefano; Pappalettera, Maria; Tantardini, Francesca; Blasi, Francesco

    2008-05-30

    Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae are associated with acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma (AEBA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between these acute bacterial infections and the severity of AEBA. We prospectively analysed consecutive patients admitted to the Emergency Department with acute asthma exacerbation. In every patient peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurement was performed on admission, and spirometry during follow-up. Serology for Chlamydophila and Mycoplasma pneumoniae was performed on admission and after 4-8 weeks. Fifty-eight patients completed the study. Acute atypical infections (AAI) was observed in 22/58 cases; we found single acute C. pneumoniae in 19 cases, single acute M. pneumoniae in 2 cases, and double acute infection in one case. Functional impairment on admission was greater in patients with AAI than in patients without AAI (PEF 205 +/- 104 L/min vs 276 +/- 117 p = 0.02) and persisted until visit 2 (FEV1% 76.30 +/- 24.54 vs FEV1% 92.91 +/- 13.89, p = 0.002). Moreover, the proportion of patients who presented with severe AEBA was significantly greater in the group with AAI than in the group without AAI (15/22 vs 12/36, p = 0.01; OR 4.29, 95% CI 1.38-13.32). Our data suggest an association between acute atypical infection and a more severe AEBA.

  10. Excessive gestational weight gain in first trimester is a risk factor for exacerbation of asthma during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Zarqa; Nilas, Lisbeth; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute exacerbation during pregnancy is the most important risk factor for an unfavorable outcome of pregnancy in women with asthma. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify pregnancy-related risk factors for acute exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy. METHODS: Since 2007, all pregnant women...... referred to give birth at Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, have been offered participation in the prospective Management of Asthma during Pregnancy (MAP) program. Women were included in the present analysis if they fulfilled the following criteria: (1) diagnosed with asthma, (2) prescribed at least rescue...... bronchodilator, and (3) had the first visit to the respiratory outpatient clinic within the first 18 weeks of pregnancy. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression models with backward stepwise elimination (Proc Logistic procedure in SAS). RESULTS: Over an 8-year study period, a total of 1283...

  11. Impact of lung function on exacerbations, health care utilization, and costs among patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke X

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Xuehua Ke,1 Jessica Marvel,2 Tzy-Chyi Yu,2 Debra Wertz,1 Caroline Geremakis,1 Liya Wang,1 Judith J Stephenson,1 David M Mannino3 1HealthCore Inc., Wilmington, DE, 2Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, 3University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA Objective: To evaluate the impact of lung function, measured as forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 % predicted, on health care resource utilization and costs among patients with COPD in a real-world US managed-care population.Methods: This observational retrospective cohort study utilized administrative claim data augmented with medical record data. The study population consisted of patients with one or more medical claims for pre- and postbronchodilator spirometry during the intake period (July 1, 2012 to June 30, 2013. The index date was the date of the earliest medical claim for pre- and postbronchodilator spirometry. Spirometry results were abstracted from patients’ medical records. Patients were divided into two groups (low FEV1% predicted [<50%] and high FEV1% predicted [≥50%] based on the 2014 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease report. Health care resource utilization and costs were based on the prevalence and number of discrete encounters during the 12-month postindex follow-up period. Costs were adjusted to 2014 US dollars.Results: A total of 754 patients were included (n=297 low FEV1% predicted group, n=457 high FEV1% predicted group. COPD exacerbations were more prevalent in the low FEV1% predicted group compared with the high group during the 12-month pre- (52.5% vs 39.6% and postindex periods (49.8% vs 36.8%. Mean (standard deviation follow-up all-cause and COPD-related costs were $27,380 ($38,199 and $15,873 ($29,609 for patients in the low FEV1% predicted group, and $22,075 ($28,108 and $10,174 ($18,521 for patients in the high group. In the multivariable analyses, patients in the low FEV1% predicted group were more likely to have COPD

  12. Fine particulate matter in acute exacerbation of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eNi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a common airway disorder. In particular, acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD can significantly reduce pulmonary function. The majority of AECOPD episodes are attributed to infections, although environmental stress also plays a role. Increasing urbanization and associated air pollution, especially in developing countries, have been shown to contribute to COPD pathogenesis. Elevated levels of particulate matter (PM in polluted air are strongly correlated with the onset and development of various respiratory diseases. In this review, we have conducted an extensive literature search of recent studies of the role of PM2.5 (fine PM in AECOPD. PM2.5 leads to AECOPD via inflammation, oxidative stress, immune dysfunction, and altered airway epithelial structure and microbiome. Reducing PM2.5 levels is a viable approach to lower AECOPD incidence, attenuate COPD progression and decrease the associated healthcare burden.

  13. Serum adiponectin level in obese and non-obese COPD patients during acute exacerbation and stable conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Mohammad Omar

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Serum adiponectin was significantly higher in obese and nonobese COPD than controls, the rising is more during exacerbation than stable condition and more in non obese than obese COPD and non significant correlation between changes in adiponectin and ventilatory functions was found.

  14. Azithromycin for prevention of exacerbations in severe asthma (AZISAST): A multicentre randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.G. Brusselle (Guy); C. VanderStichele (Christine); P. Jordens (Paul); R. Deman (René); H. Slabbynck (Hans); V. Ringoet (Veerle); G. Verleden (Geert); I.K. Demedts (Ingel); K.M.C. Verhamme (Katia); A. Delporte (Anja); B. Demeyere (Bénédicte); T. Claeys (Tine); J. Boelens (Jerina); E. Padalko (Elizaveta); J. Verschakelen (Johny); G. van Maele (Georges); E. Deschepper (Ellen); G.F. Joos (Guy)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ Patients with severe asthma are at increased risk of exacerbations and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). Severe asthma is heterogeneous, encompassing eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic (mainly neutrophilic) phenotypes. Patients with neutropilic airway diseases

  15. Compressed air blast injury with palpebral, orbital, facial, cervical, and mediastinal emphysema through an eyelid laceration: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Takahiro; Ogami, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Fumiki; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2013-11-07

    To the best of our knowledge, only 14 cases of orbital or periorbital compressed air injuries from air guns or hoses have been reported in the literature. A 30-year-old man was accidentally injured when a compressed air hose nozzle hit his right eye. The right half of his face was markedly swollen and a skin laceration near the right medial canthus was identified. A computed tomography scan showed subcutaneous and intraorbital emphysema around the right eye as well as cervical and mediastinal emphysema. He was prophylactically treated with systemic and topical antibiotics to prevent infection. All emphysemas had completely resolved 2 weeks after the injury. A review of all 15 cases (including ours) showed that all patients were male and that 6 of the 15 (40.0%) cases were related to industrial accidents. Although emphysema was restricted to the subconjunctival space in 2 (13.3%) cases, it spread to the orbit in the remaining 13 (86.7%) cases. Cervical and mediastinal emphysemas were found in 3 (20.0%) cases, and intracranial emphysema was confirmed in 6 (40.0%) cases. Prophylactic antibiotics were used in most cases and the prognosis was generally good in all but one patient, who developed optic atrophy and blindness.

  16. OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY OF SDSS J004054.65-0915268: THREE POSSIBLE SCENARIOS FOR THE CLASSIFICATION. A z ∼ 5 BL LACERTAE, A BLUE FSRQ, OR A WEAK EMISSION LINE QUASAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landoni, M.; Zanutta, A.; Bianco, A.; Tavecchio, F.; Bonnoli, G.; Ghisellini, G.

    2016-01-01

    The haunt of high-redshift BL Lacerate objects is day by day more compelling to firmly understand their intrinsic nature and evolution. SDSS J004054.65-0915268 is, at the moment, one of the most distant BL Lac candidates, at z ∼ 5. We present a new optical-near-IR spectrum obtained with ALFOSC-NOT with a new, custom designed dispersive grating aimed to detect broad emission lines that could disprove this classification. In the obtained spectra, we do not detect any emission features and we provide an upper limit to the luminosity of the C iv broad emission line. Therefore, the nature of the object is then discussed, building the overall spectral energy distribution (SED) and fitting it with three different models. Our fits, based on SED modeling with different possible scenarios, cannot rule out the possibility that this source is indeed a BL Lac object, though the absence of optical variability and the lack of strong radio flux seem to suggest that the observed optical emission originates from a thermalized accretion disk

  17. Using the Electronic Nose to Identify Airway Infection during COPD Exacerbations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa Shafiek

    Full Text Available The electronic nose (e-nose detects volatile organic compounds (VOCs in exhaled air. We hypothesized that the exhaled VOCs print is different in stable vs. exacerbated patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, particularly if the latter is associated with airway bacterial infection, and that the e-nose can distinguish them.Smell-prints of the bacteria most commonly involved in exacerbations of COPD (ECOPD were identified in vitro. Subsequently, we tested our hypothesis in 93 patients with ECOPD, 19 of them with pneumonia, 50 with stable COPD and 30 healthy controls in a cross-sectional case-controlled study. Secondly, ECOPD patients were re-studied after 2 months if clinically stable. Exhaled air was collected within a Tedlar bag and processed by a Cynarose 320 e-nose. Breath-prints were analyzed by Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA with "One Out" technique and Sensor logic Relations (SLR. Sputum samples were collected for culture.ECOPD with evidence of infection were significantly distinguishable from non-infected ECOPD (p = 0.018, with better accuracy when ECOPD was associated to pneumonia. The same patients with ECOPD were significantly distinguishable from stable COPD during follow-up (p = 0.018, unless the patient was colonized. Additionally, breath-prints from COPD patients were significantly distinguished from healthy controls. Various bacteria species were identified in culture but the e-nose was unable to identify accurately the bacteria smell-print in infected patients.E-nose can identify ECOPD, especially if associated with airway bacterial infection or pneumonia.

  18. A genome-wide association study identifies CDHR3 as a susceptibility locus for early childhood asthma with severe exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Sleiman, Patrick; Nielsen, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    Asthma exacerbations are among the most frequent causes of hospitalization during childhood, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We performed a genome-wide association study of a specific asthma phenotype characterized by recurrent, severe exacerbations occurring between 2 and 6......1RL1, were previously reported as asthma susceptibility loci, but the effect sizes for these loci in our cohort were considerably larger than in the previous genome-wide association studies of asthma. We also obtained strong evidence for a new susceptibility gene, CDHR3 (encoding cadherin......-related family member 3), which is highly expressed in airway epithelium. These results demonstrate the strength of applying specific phenotyping in the search for asthma susceptibility genes....

  19. Does pre-hospital telephone communication with a clinician result in more appropriate medication administration by parents during childhood asthma exacerbations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garro, A C; Fearon, D; Koinis-Mitchell, D; McQuaid, E L

    2009-11-01

    The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute asthma guidelines recommend that parents communicate with a clinician during childhood asthma exacerbations when symptoms worsen or do not improve with initial therapy. This study tested the hypothesis that communication by parents with a clinician before an Emergency Department visit was associated with more appropriate medication administration for children with asthma exacerbations. This was a retrospective cohort study using data gathered from parents of children presenting with an asthma exacerbation to the emergency department. The communicating cohort included parents who communicated by telephone with a clinician during the exacerbation and the non-communicating cohort included parents who did not. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to test three hypotheses; communication with a clinician is associated with (1) administration of short-acting beta-agonists (SABAs), (2) increased dosing frequency of SABAs, and (3) administration of an oral corticosteroid. A total of 199 subjects were enrolled, with 104 (52.3%) in the communicating and 95 (47.7%) in the non-communicating cohort. There was an association between communication and provider practice type, with children who received routine care from a private practice provider more likely to communicate with the clinician than children in hospital-based clinics or community health centers (Adjusted OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.7). Impoverished children and children insured by Medicaid were less likely to communicate with a clinician (controlling for provider type). Parents who communicated with a clinician were more likely to administer a SABA (adjusted OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.3-9.4) and an oral corticosteroid (adjusted OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.3-8.4) but were not more likely to administer a SABA with increased dosing frequency (adjusted OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.5-1.6). Parents of children with asthma exacerbations who communicated with clinicians were more likely to administer SABAs

  20. Is It Time to Change the Definition of Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmornary Disease? What Do We Need to Add?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes de Oca, Maria; Laucho-Contreras, Maria Eugenia

    2018-06-14

    Acute exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) are associated with increased mortality, rate of hospitalization, use of healthcare resources, and have a negative impact on disease progression, quality of life and lung function of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is an imperative need to homogenize the definition of AECOPD because the incidence of exacerbations has a significant influence or implication on treatment decision making, particularly in pharmacotherapy and could impact the outcome or change the statistical significance of a therapeutic intervention in clinical trials. In this review, using PubMed searches, we have analyzed the weaknesses and strengths of the different used AECOPD definitions (symptom-based, healthcare-based definition or the combinations of both), as well as the findings of the studies that have assessed the relationship of different biomarkers with the diagnosis, etiology and differential diagnosis of AECOPD and the progress towards the development of a more precise definition of COPD exacerbation. Finally, we have proposed a simple definition of AECOPD, which must be validated in future clinical trials to define its accuracy and usefulness in daily practice.

  1. Early rehabilitation exercise program for inpatients during an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Clarice Y; Blackstock, Felicity C; Clarence, Michael; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether an early rehabilitation program was safe and feasible for patients during an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this phase 1 randomized controlled trial, patients with an acute exacerbation of COPD admitted to the hospital were randomly allocated to a low-intensity exercise group, a moderate- to high-intensity exercise group, or a control group, who received routine physical therapy. In addition to routine physical therapy, patients in the exercise group had to participate in an exercise program. The program consisted of twice-daily aerobic and resistance exercise sessions. Primary outcomes were the number and classification of adverse events and program adherence. In 174 exercise sessions, there was 1 serious adverse event of arrhythmia in the low-intensity exercise group that resolved within 1 hour. There were 12 other minor adverse events involving 5 patients with no significant differences between groups. Patients completed an average of 80% of their scheduled sessions with no significant between-group differences. The exercise groups improved significantly in walking distance; however, no significant between-group differences were observed. There was preliminary evidence that it was safe and feasible to implement an exercise program for patients during an acute exacerbation of COPD. Additional studies with larger sample sizes are required to accurately evaluate program effectiveness.

  2. Exacerbation of Behçet's syndrome and familial Mediterranean fever with menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzelant, Gul; Ozguler, Yesim; Esatoglu, Sinem Nihal; Karatemiz, Guzin; Ozdogan, Huri; Yurdakul, Sebahattin; Yazici, Hasan; Seyahi, Emire

    2017-01-01

    Menstruation triggers several conditions such as migraine, recurrent aphthous stomatitis and acne vulgaris in healthy individuals. There is evidence that Behçet's syndrome (BS) and familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) may exacerbate during menstruation. The aim is to assess whether BS and FMF patients experience menstrual flares. Females of reproductive age with BS and FMF seen consecutively at the outpatient clinic of Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty at Istanbul, as well as apparently healthy hospital workers were studied using a standardised questionnaire. BS patients were asked whether they experienced increased skin-mucosa lesions during the menstrual period. A similar questionnaire assessing this time the frequency of abdominal pain, chest pain and fever attacks was given to the patients with FMF. The healthy controls received both questionnaires. A total of 200 BS patients, 240 FMF patients and 250 healthy controls were studied. The most commonly reported symptom among both BS patients (51%) and healthy controls (62%) was the acneiform lesion. At least 79% patients with FMF reported attacks with menstruation, notably abdominal pain which, majority thought, could be differentiated from dysmenorrhea. Additionally, 76% of healthy controls reported having abdominal pain consistent most probably with dysmenorrhea. This survey showed that, in 68% of the patients with BS at least one skin mucosa lesion was exacerbated with menstruation, this was most commonly acneiform lesion. Menstruation had a slightly stronger effect on FMF, triggering at least one symptom in 79%. The main limitation of the study was the self-reported assessment methodology.

  3. Severe asthma exacerbation: role of acute Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappalettera Maria

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae are associated with acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma (AEBA. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between these acute bacterial infections and the severity of AEBA. Methods We prospectively analysed consecutive patients admitted to the Emergency Department with acute asthma exacerbation. In every patient peak expiratory flow (PEF measurement was performed on admissio