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Sample records for laboratory turnaround time

  1. Additional technician tasks and turnaround time in the clinical Stat laboratory.

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    Salinas, Maria; López-Garrigós, Maite; Flores, Emilio; Leiva-Salinas, Maria; Lillo, Rosa; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Many additional tasks in the Stat laboratory (SL) increase the workload. It is necessary to control them because they can affect the service provided by the laboratory. Our aim is to calculate these tasks, study their evolution over a 10 year period, and compare turnaround times (TAT) in summer period to the rest of the year. Materials and methods: Additional tasks were classified as “additional test request” and “additional sample”. We collected those incidences from the lab...

  2. Lean six sigma methodologies improve clinical laboratory efficiency and reduce turnaround times.

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    Inal, Tamer C; Goruroglu Ozturk, Ozlem; Kibar, Filiz; Cetiner, Salih; Matyar, Selcuk; Daglioglu, Gulcin; Yaman, Akgun

    2017-02-15

    Organizing work flow is a major task of laboratory management. Recently, clinical laboratories have started to adopt methodologies such as Lean Six Sigma and some successful implementations have been reported. This study used Lean Six Sigma to simplify the laboratory work process and decrease the turnaround time by eliminating non-value-adding steps. The five-stage Six Sigma system known as define, measure, analyze, improve, and control (DMAIC) is used to identify and solve problems. The laboratory turnaround time for individual tests, total delay time in the sample reception area, and percentage of steps involving risks of medical errors and biological hazards in the overall process are measured. The pre-analytical process in the reception area was improved by eliminating 3 h and 22.5 min of non-value-adding work. Turnaround time also improved for stat samples from 68 to 59 min after applying Lean. Steps prone to medical errors and posing potential biological hazards to receptionists were reduced from 30% to 3%. Successful implementation of Lean Six Sigma significantly improved all of the selected performance metrics. This quality-improvement methodology has the potential to significantly improve clinical laboratories. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Additional technician tasks and turnaround time in the clinical Stat laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Maria; López-Garrigós, Maite; Flores, Emilio; Leiva-Salinas, Maria; Lillo, Rosa; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Many additional tasks in the Stat laboratory (SL) increase the workload. It is necessary to control them because they can affect the service provided by the laboratory. Our aim is to calculate these tasks, study their evolution over a 10 year period, and compare turnaround times (TAT) in summer period to the rest of the year. Additional tasks were classified as "additional test request" and "additional sample". We collected those incidences from the laboratory information system (LIS), and calculated their evolution over time. We also calculated the monthly TAT for troponin for Emergency department (ED) patients, as the difference between the verification and LIS registration time. A median time of 30 minutes was our indicator target. TAT results and tests workload in summer were compared to the rest of the year. Over a 10-year period, the technologists in the SL performed 51,385 additional tasks, a median of 475 per month. The workload was significantly higher during the summer (45,496 tests) than the rest of the year (44,555 tests) (P = 0.019). The troponin TAT did not show this variation between summer and the rest of the year, complying always with our 30 minutes indicator target. The technicians accomplished a significant number of additional tasks, and the workload kept increasing over the period of 10 years. That did not affect the TAT results.

  4. Predicting turnaround time reductions of the diagnostic track in the histopathology laboratory using mathematical modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeftink, A G; Boucherie, R J; Hans, E W; Verdaasdonk, M A M; Vliegen, I M H; van Diest, P J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pathology departments face a growing volume of more and more complex testing in an era where healthcare costs tend to explode and short turnaround times (TATs) are expected. In contrast, the histopathology workforce tends to shrink, so histopathology employees experience high workload du

  5. Predicting turnaround time reductions of the diagnostic track in the histopathology laboratory using mathematical modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeftink, A G; Boucherie, R J; Hans, E W; Verdaasdonk, M A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304810851; Vliegen, I M H; van Diest, P J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075281775

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pathology departments face a growing volume of more and more complex testing in an era where healthcare costs tend to explode and short turnaround times (TATs) are expected. In contrast, the histopathology workforce tends to shrink, so histopathology employees experience high workload du

  6. Predicting turnaround time reductions of the diagnostic track in the histopathology laboratory using mathematical modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeftink, Anne Greetje; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Hans, Elias W.; Verdaasdonk, M.A.M.; Vliegen, Ingrid; Van Diest, P.J

    2016-01-01

    Background Pathology departments face a growing volume of more and more complex testing in an era where healthcare costs tend to explode and short turnaround times (TATs) are expected. In contrast, the histopathology workforce tends to shrink, so histopathology employees experience high workload dur

  7. Laboratory Automation and Intra-Laboratory Turnaround Time: Experience at the University Hospital Campus Bio-Medico of Rome.

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    Angeletti, Silvia; De Cesaris, Marina; Hart, Jonathan George; Urbano, Michele; Vitali, Massimiliano Andrea; Fragliasso, Fulvio; Dicuonzo, Giordano

    2015-12-01

    Intra-laboratory turnaround time (TAT) is a key indicator of laboratory performance. Improving TAT is a complex task requiring staff education, equipment acquisition, and adequate TAT monitoring. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intra-laboratory TAT after laboratory automation implementation (June 2013-June 2014) and to compare it to that in the preautomation period (July 2012-May 2013). Intra-laboratory TAT was evaluated both as the mean TAT registered and the percentage of outlier (OP) exams. The mean TAT was 36, 38, and 34 min during the study periods, respectively. These values respected the goal TAT established at 45 min. The OP, calculated at 45 min as well as at 60 min, decreased from 26 to 21 and from 11 to 5, respectively. From a focused analysis on blood count cell, troponin I, and prothrombin (PT) test, TAT improvement was more evident for tests requiring longer preanalytical process. The follow-up of TAT from June 2013 to June 2014 revealed the reduction of the mean TAT as well as of the OP exams after automation implementation and that automation more strongly affects the test in the preanalytical phase including centrifugation of the sample, such as troponin I and PT.

  8. Laboratory Tests Turnaround Time in Outpatient and Emergency Patients in Nigeria: Results of A Physician Survey on Point of Care Testing

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    Bolodeoku J

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory analytical turnaround time is a well-recognised indicator of how well a laboratory is performing and is sometimes regarded as the benchmark for laboratory performance. Methods: Total 104 doctors in public and private health institutions in Nigeria, spread across all six geo-political zones participated in survey requesting information on their experience with laboratory turnaround times in emergency situations (emergency room, special care baby unit, intensive care unit, dialysis unit and outpatient situations (general medicine and diabetes. Results: The average turnaround time in hours was 5.12, 8.35, 7.32 and 8.33 for the emergency room, special care baby unit, intensive care unit and dialysis unit, respectively. For the outpatient situations, the average turnaround time in hours was 10.74 and 15.70 hours for the diabetes and general medical outpatients. The median range (hours and modal range (hours for: the emergency room was 2-4 and <2; the special care baby unit was 4-8 and 4-8; the intensive care unit was 2-4 and 2-4; the dialysis unit was 4-8 and 4-8. The median range (hours and modal range (hours for: the general outpatient clinic was 12-24 and 12-24; the diabetic clinic was 4-8 and 12-24 hours. Conclusion: These turnaround time results are quite consistent with published data from other countries. However, there is some measure of improvement that is required in some areas to reduce the laboratory turnaround in the emergency situations. This could be overcome with the introduction of more point of care testing devices into emergency units.

  9. Total Automation for the Core Laboratory: Improving the Turnaround Time Helps to Reduce the Volume of Ordered STAT Tests.

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    Ialongo, Cristiano; Porzio, Ottavia; Giambini, Ilio; Bernardini, Sergio

    2016-06-01

    The transition to total automation represents the greatest leap for a clinical laboratory, characterized by a totally new philosophy of process management. We have investigated the impact of total automation on core laboratory efficiency and its effects on the clinical services related to STAT tests. For this purpose, a 47-month retrospective study based on the analysis of 44,212 records of STAT cardiac troponin I (CTNI) tests was performed. The core laboratory reached a new efficiency level 3 months after the implementation of total automation. Median turnaround time (TAT) was reduced by 14.9±1.5 min for the emergency department (p < 0.01), reaching 41.6±1.2 min. In non-emergency departments, median TAT was reduced by 19.8±2.2 min (p < 0.01), reaching 52±1.3 min. There was no change in the volume of ordered STAT CTNI tests by the emergency department (p = 0.811), whereas for non-emergency departments there was a reduction of 115.7±50 monthly requests on average (p = 0.026). The volume of ordered tests decreased only in time frames of the regular shift following the morning round. Thus, total automation significantly improves the core laboratory efficiency in terms of TAT. As a consequence, the volume of STAT tests ordered by hospital departments (except for the emergency department) decreased due to reduced duplicated requests.

  10. Multiple pre- and post-analytical lean approaches to the improvement of the laboratory turnaround time in a large core laboratory.

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    Lou, Amy H; Elnenaei, Manal O; Sadek, Irene; Thompson, Shauna; Crocker, Bryan D; Nassar, Bassam A

    2017-10-01

    Core laboratory (CL), as a new business model, facilitates consolidation and integration of laboratory services to enhance efficiency and reduce costs. This study evaluates the impact of total laboratory automation system (TLA), electric track vehicle (ETV) system and auto-verification (AV) of results on overall turnaround time (TAT) (phlebotomy to reporting TAT: PR-TAT) within a CL setting. Mean, median and percentage of outlier (OP) for PR-TAT were compared for pre- and post-CL eras using five representative tests based on different request priorities. Comparison studies were also carried out on the intra-laboratory TAT (in-lab to reporting TAT: IR-TAT) and the delivery TAT (phlebotomy to in-lab TAT: PI-TAT) to reflect the efficiency of the TLA (both before and after introducing result AV) and ETV systems respectively. Median PR-TATs for the urgent samples were reduced on average by 16% across all representative analytes. Median PR-TATs for the routine samples were curtailed by 51%, 50%, 49%, 34% and 22% for urea, potassium, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), complete blood count (CBC) and prothrombin time (PT) respectively. The shorter PR-TAT was attributed to a significant reduction of IR-TAT through the TLA. However, the median PI-TAT was delayed when the ETV was used. Application of various AV rules shortened the median IR-TATs for potassium and urea. However, the OP of PR-TAT for the STAT requests exceeding 60min were all higher than those from the pre-CL era. TLA and auto-verification rules help to efficiently manage substantial volumes of urgent and routine samples. However, the ETV application as it stands shows a negative impact on the PR-TAT. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Laboratory-based clinical audit as a tool for continual improvement: an example from CSF chemistry turnaround time audit in a South-African teaching hospital.

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    Imoh, Lucius C; Mutale, Mubanga; Parker, Christopher T; Erasmus, Rajiv T; Zemlin, Annalise E

    2016-01-01

    Timeliness of laboratory results is crucial to patient care and outcome. Monitoring turnaround times (TAT), especially for emergency tests, is important to measure the effectiveness and efficiency of laboratory services. Laboratory-based clinical audits reveal opportunities for improving quality. Our aim was to identify the most critical steps causing a high TAT for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) chemistry analysis in our laboratory. A 6-month retrospective audit was performed. The duration of each operational phase across the laboratory work flow was examined. A process-mapping audit trail of 60 randomly selected requests with a high TAT was conducted and reasons for high TAT were tested for significance. A total of 1505 CSF chemistry requests were analysed. Transport of samples to the laboratory was primarily responsible for the high average TAT (median TAT = 170 minutes). Labelling accounted for most delays within the laboratory (median TAT = 71 minutes) with most delays occurring after regular work hours (P work station (caused by a preference for microbiological testing prior to CSF chemistry). A laboratory-based clinical audit identified sample transportation, work shift periods and use of inappropriate CSF sample tubes as drivers of high TAT for CSF chemistry in our laboratory. The results of this audit will be used to change pre-analytical practices in our laboratory with the aim of improving TAT and customer satisfaction.

  12. Emergency Department Overcrowding and Ambulance Turnaround Time.

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    Lee, Yu Jin; Shin, Sang Do; Lee, Eui Jung; Cho, Jin Seong; Cha, Won Chul

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe overcrowding in regional emergency departments in Seoul, Korea and evaluate the effect of crowdedness on ambulance turnaround time. This study was conducted between January 2010 and December 2010. Patients who were transported by 119-responding ambulances to 28 emergency centers within Seoul were eligible for enrollment. Overcrowding was defined as the average occupancy rate, which was equal to the average number of patients staying in an emergency department (ED) for 4 hours divided by the number of beds in the ED. After selecting groups for final analysis, multi-level regression modeling (MLM) was performed with random-effects for EDs, to evaluate associations between occupancy rate and turnaround time. Between January 2010 and December 2010, 163,659 patients transported to 28 EDs were enrolled. The median occupancy rate was 0.42 (range: 0.10-1.94; interquartile range (IQR): 0.20-0.76). Overcrowded EDs were more likely to have older patients, those with normal mentality, and non-trauma patients. Overcrowded EDs were more likely to have longer turnaround intervals and traveling distances. The MLM analysis showed that an increase of 1% in occupancy rate was associated with 0.02-minute decrease in turnaround interval (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.03). In subgroup analyses limited to EDs with occupancy rates over 100%, we also observed a 0.03 minute decrease in turnaround interval per 1% increase in occupancy rate (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.05). In this study, we found wide variation in emergency department crowding in a metropolitan Korean city. Our data indicate that ED overcrowding is negatively associated with turnaround interval with very small practical significance.

  13. Real life turnaround time of blood cultures in the clinical microbiology laboratory: results of the first Italian survey, May 2015

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    Fabio Arena

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Blood culture (BC results are essential to guide antimicrobial chemotherapy for patients with sepsis. However, BC is a time-consuming exam, which can take several days. Reducing BCs turn around time (TAT could impact on multiple outcome parameters and TAT monitoring is an important tool for measurement of microbiology laboratory performance. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of BC TATs among Italian microbiology laboratories. Materials and methods: Five laboratories collected and recorded, for a month period, date and time of the BC processing events. Cumulative TATs were analysed using the GraphPad software. Results: Participating laboratories reported data from 302 sepsis episodes. The median time from when the BC system produced a positive signal until Gram-stain results were reported was 7.6 hours. A rapid molecular identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST was performed in 26.5% of BCs. Mean TAT for identification report was significantly lower when a molecular approach was adopted (12 vs. 28.7 hours, P<0.001. Similarly, results of the molecular AST were obtained more than 24 hours in advance compared with phenotypic AST (mean 13.2 vs. 47.6, P<0.001. TATs from BC positivity of laboratories opened 7 days/week were not significantly lower than those of laboratories opened 6 days/week. Conclusions: BC is a time-consuming exam, however, molecular identification and AST methods can drastically reduce time to results. The lack of difference between TATs observed for laboratories working 7 days/week and 6 days/week, coupled with a high rate of BCs turning positive during the night enable to conclude that the most urgent measure to reduce TATs is the expansion of laboratory regular duty hours.

  14. Acute Infections, Cost per Infection and Turnaround Time in Three United States Hospital Laboratories Using Fourth-Generation Antigen-Antibody Human Immunodeficiency Virus Immunoassays.

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    Wesolowski, Laura G; Nasrullah, Muazzam; Coombs, Robert W; Rosenberg, Eric; Ethridge, Steven F; Hutchinson, Angela B; Dragavon, Joan; Rychert, Jennifer; Nolte, Frederick S; Madory, James E; Werner, Barbara G

    2016-01-01

    Background.  To improve clinical and public health outcomes through early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) detection, fourth-generation antigen/antibody immunoassay (4IA) and supplemental testing results must be returned rapidly. Methods.  We examined HIV testing data at Harborview Medical Center (HMC), Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), and the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), which used 4IA and supplemental antibody and nucleic acid tests (NATs). At MGH and MUSC, HIV-1 Western blot (WB) and HIV-2 testing were conducted at a reference laboratory. We compared time from specimen collection to laboratory result for established (positive WB) and acute infections (reactive 4IA, negative/indeterminate WB, detectable NAT), and we calculated testing cost per positive-test result. Results.  From 3731 (MUSC) to 19 774 (MGH) tests were conducted; 0.01% (MGH) to 0.05% (HMC) were acute infections. Each laboratory had reactive 4IA, WB-negative, or indeterminate specimens without NAT (ie, potential acute infections). Time to result was 1.5 (HMC) to 5.2 days (MGH) for acute and 1.0 (HMC) to 5.2 days (MGH) for established infections. Costs were $1054 (MGH) to $1521 (MUSC). Conclusions.  Conducting supplemental testing in-house lowered turnaround times, which may be further reduced with rapid HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation tests. Hospitals may benefit from quantitative NATs not requiring physician orders, so all potential acute infections receive NAT.

  15. Improved sensitivity, safety and laboratory turnaround time in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis by use of bleach sedimentation

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    Ameh James

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inadequate diagnostic processes and human resources in laboratories contribute to a high burden of tuberculosis (TB in low- and middle-income countries. Direct smear microscopy is relied on for TB diagnosis; however, sensitivity rates vary. To improve sensitivity of direct microscopy, the researchers employed several approaches, including sputum digestion and concentration of acid-fast bacilli (AFB, a technique which uses commercial bleach.Objectives: This study compared methods used to diagnose active Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections.Methods: Three sputum specimens were collected from each of 340 participants in Abuja, Nigeria, over two consecutive days. Direct microscopy was performed on all specimens; following microscopy, one specimen from each patient was selected randomly for bleach sedimentation and one for Lowenstein-Jensen culture.Results: Direct microscopy produced 28.8% AFB-positive results, whilst bleach sedimentation resulted in 30.3%. When compared with the cultures, 26.5% were AFB true positive using direct microscopy and 27.1% using bleach sedimentation. Whilst the specificity rate between these two methods was not statistically significant (P = 0.548, the sensitivity rate was significant (P = 0.004.Conclusion: Based on these results, bleach increases the sensitivity of microscopy compared with direct smear and has similar specificity. When diagnosing new cases of pulmonary TB, one bleach-digested smear is as sensitive as three direct smears, reducing waiting times for patients and ensuring the safety of laboratory technicians.

  16. Mapping Turnaround Times (TAT to a Generic Timeline: A Systematic Review of TAT Definitions in Clinical Domains

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    Thiemann Volker

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessing turnaround times can help to analyse workflows in hospital information systems. This paper presents a systematic review of literature concerning different turnaround time definitions. Our objectives were to collect relevant literature with respect to this kind of process times in hospitals and their respective domains. We then analysed the existing definitions and summarised them in an appropriate format. Methods Our search strategy was based on Pubmed queries and manual reviews of the bibliographies of retrieved articles. Studies were included if precise definitions of turnaround times were available. A generic timeline was designed through a consensus process to provide an overview of these definitions. Results More than 1000 articles were analysed and resulted in 122 papers. Of those, 162 turnaround time definitions in different clinical domains were identified. Starting and end points vary between these domains. To illustrate those turnaround time definitions, a generic timeline was constructed using preferred terms derived from the identified definitions. The consensus process resulted in the following 15 terms: admission, order, biopsy/examination, receipt of specimen in laboratory, procedure completion, interpretation, dictation, transcription, verification, report available, delivery, physician views report, treatment, discharge and discharge letter sent. Based on this analysis, several standard terms for turnaround time definitions are proposed. Conclusion Using turnaround times to benchmark clinical workflows is still difficult, because even within the same clinical domain many different definitions exist. Mapping of turnaround time definitions to a generic timeline is feasible.

  17. Emergency care center turnaround time--an improvement story.

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    Gelrud, Joan; Burroughs, Helen; Koterwas, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    Emergency department overcrowding is a nationally recognized barrier to patient safety. Other obstacles to efficiency and adequate care in emergency rooms include lengthy patient waits and side-tracked ambulances. This article explores one community hospital's approach to significantly decreasing emergency visit turnaround times while increasing patient satisfaction.

  18. Prospective evaluation of the VITEK MS for the routine identification of bacteria and yeast in the clinical microbiology laboratory: assessment of accuracy of identification and turnaround time.

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    Charnot-Katsikas, Angella; Tesic, Vera; Boonlayangoor, Sue; Bethel, Cindy; Frank, Karen M

    2014-02-01

    This study assessed the accuracy of bacterial and yeast identification using the VITEK MS, and the time to reporting of isolates before and after its implementation in routine clinical practice. Three hundred and sixty-two isolates of bacteria and yeast, consisting of a variety of clinical isolates and American Type Culture Collection strains, were tested. Results were compared with reference identifications from the VITEK 2 system and with 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The VITEK MS provided an acceptable identification to species level for 283 (78 %) isolates. Considering organisms for which genus-level identification is acceptable for routine clinical care, 315 isolates (87 %) had an acceptable identification. Six isolates (2 %) were identified incorrectly, five of which were Shigella species. Finally, the time for reporting the identifications was decreased significantly after implementation of the VITEK MS for a total mean reduction in time of 10.52 h (Pmicrobiology laboratory and future expansion of the database should provide improved accuracy for the identification of micro-organisms.

  19. Timeliness “at a glance”: assessing the turnaround time through the six sigma metrics.

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    Ialongo, Cristiano; Bernardini, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Almost thirty years of systematic analysis have proven the turnaround time to be a fundamental dimension for the clinical laboratory. Several indicators are to date available to assess and report quality with respect to timeliness, but they sometimes lack the communicative immediacy and accuracy. The six sigma is a paradigm developed within the industrial domain for assessing quality and addressing goal and issues. The sigma level computed through the Z-score method is a simple and straightforward tool which delivers quality by a universal dimensionless scale and allows to handle non-normal data. Herein we report our preliminary experience in using the sigma level to assess the change in urgent (STAT) test turnaround time due to the implementation of total automation. We found that the Z-score method is a valuable and easy to use method for assessing and communicating the quality level of laboratory timeliness, providing a good correspondence with the actual change in efficiency which was retrospectively observed.

  20. Reducing diagnostic turnaround times of exome sequencing for families requiring timely diagnoses.

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    Bourchany, Aurélie; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Lehalle, Daphné; Bruel, Ange-Line; Masurel-Paulet, Alice; Jean, Nolwenn; Nambot, Sophie; Willems, Marjorie; Lambert, Laetitia; El Chehadeh-Djebbar, Salima; Schaefer, Elise; Jaquette, Aurélia; St-Onge, Judith; Poe, Charlotte; Jouan, Thibaud; Chevarin, Martin; Callier, Patrick; Mosca-Boidron, Anne-Laure; Laurent, Nicole; Lefebvre, Mathilde; Huet, Frédéric; Houcinat, Nada; Moutton, Sébastien; Philippe, Christophe; Tran-Mau-Them, Frédéric; Vitobello, Antonio; Kuentz, Paul; Duffourd, Yannis; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Thevenon, Julien; Faivre, Laurence

    2017-08-12

    Whole-exome sequencing (WES) has now entered medical practice with powerful applications in the diagnosis of rare Mendelian disorders. Although the usefulness and cost-effectiveness of WES have been widely demonstrated, it is essential to reduce the diagnostic turnaround time to make WES a first-line procedure. Since 2011, the automation of laboratory procedures and advances in sequencing chemistry have made it possible to carry out diagnostic whole genome sequencing from the blood sample to molecular diagnosis of suspected genetic disorders within 50 h. Taking advantage of these advances, the main objective of the study was to improve turnaround times for sequencing results. WES was proposed to 29 patients with severe undiagnosed disorders with developmental abnormalities and faced with medical situations requiring rapid diagnosis. Each family gave consent. The extracted DNA was sequenced on a NextSeq500 (Illumina) instrument. Data were analyzed following standard procedures. Variants were interpreted using in-house software. Each rare variant affecting protein sequences with clinical relevance was tested for familial segregation. The diagnostic rate was 45% (13/29), with a mean turnaround time of 40 days from reception of the specimen to delivery of results to the referring physician. Besides permitting genetic counseling, the rapid diagnosis for positive families led to two pre-natal diagnoses and two inclusions in clinical trials. This pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of rapid diagnostic WES in our primary genetics center. It reduced the diagnostic odyssey and helped provide support to families. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. National turnaround time survey: professional consensus standards for optimal performance and thresholds considered to compromise efficient and effective clinical management.

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    McKillop, Derek J; Auld, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background Turnaround time can be defined as the time from receipt of a sample by the laboratory to the validation of the result. The Royal College of Pathologists recommends that a number of performance indicators for turnaround time should be agreed with stakeholders. The difficulty is in arriving at a goal which has some evidence base to support it other than what may simply be currently achievable technically. This survey sought to establish a professional consensus on the goals and meaning of targets for laboratory turnaround time. Methods A questionnaire was circulated by the National Audit Committee to 173 lead consultants for biochemistry in the UK. The survey asked each participant to state their current target turnaround time for core investigations in a broad group of clinical settings. Each participant was also asked to provide a professional opinion on what turnaround time would pose an unacceptable risk to patient safety for each departmental category. A super majority (2/3) was selected as the threshold for consensus. Results The overall response rate was 58% ( n = 100) with a range of 49-72% across the individual Association for Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine regions. The consensus optimal turnaround time for the emergency department was 2 h considered unacceptable. The times for general practice and outpatient department were 48 h and for Wards 12 h, respectively. Conclusions We consider that the figures provide a useful benchmark of current opinion, but clearly more empirical standards will have to develop alongside other aspects of healthcare delivery.

  2. Using lean principles to improve outpatient adult infusion clinic chemotherapy preparation turnaround times.

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    Lamm, Matthew H; Eckel, Stephen; Daniels, Rowell; Amerine, Lindsey B

    2015-07-01

    The workflow and chemotherapy preparation turnaround times at an adult infusion clinic were evaluated to identify opportunities to optimize workflow and efficiency. A three-phase study using Lean Six Sigma methodology was conducted. In phase 1, chemotherapy turnaround times in the adult infusion clinic were examined one year after the interim goal of a 45-minute turnaround time was established. Phase 2 implemented various experiments including a five-day Kaizen event, using lean principles in an effort to decrease chemotherapy preparation turnaround times in a controlled setting. Phase 3 included the implementation of process-improvement strategies identified during the Kaizen event, coupled with a final refinement of operational processes. In phase 1, the mean turnaround time for all chemotherapy preparations decreased from 60 to 44 minutes, and a mean of 52 orders for adult outpatient chemotherapy infusions was received each day. After installing new processes, the mean turnaround time had improved to 37 minutes for each chemotherapy preparation in phase 2. In phase 3, the mean turnaround time decreased from 37 to 26 minutes. The overall mean turnaround time was reduced by 26 minutes, representing a 57% decrease in turnaround times in 19 months through the elimination of waste and the implementation of lean principles. This reduction was accomplished through increased efficiencies in the workplace, with no addition of human resources. Implementation of Lean Six Sigma principles improved workflow and efficiency at an adult infusion clinic and reduced the overall chemotherapy turnaround times from 60 to 26 minutes. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Improving Autopsy Report Turnaround Times by Implementing Lean Management Principles.

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    Cromwell, Susan; Chiasson, David A; Cassidy, Debra; Somers, Gino R

    2017-01-01

    The autopsy is an integral part of the service of a large academic pathology department. Timely reporting is central to providing good service and is beneficial for many stakeholders, including the families, the clinical team, the hospital, and the wider community. The current study aimed to improve hospital-consented autopsy reporting times (turnaround time, TAT) by using lean principles modified for a healthcare setting, with an aim of signing out 90% of autopsies in 90 days. An audit of current and historical TATs was performed, and a working group incorporating administrative, technical, and professional staff constructed a value stream map documenting the steps involved in constructing an autopsy report. Two areas of delay were noted: examination of the microscopy and time taken to sign-out the report after the weekly autopsy conference. Several measures were implemented to address these delays, including visual tracking using a whiteboard and individualized tracking sheets, weekly whiteboard huddles, and timelier scheduling of clinicopathologic conference rounds. All measures resulted in an improvement of TATs. In the 30 months prior to the institution of lean, 37% of autopsies (53/144) were signed out in 90 days, with a wide variation in reporting times. In the 30 months following the institution of lean, this improved to 74% (136/185) ( P lean; 63 days post-lean). The application of lean principles to autopsy sign-out workflow can significantly improve TATs and reduce variability, without changing staffing levels or significantly altering scheduling structure.

  4. Turnaround times in breast cancer: From screening to diagnosis to treatment

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    Kaylene J Logan

    2013-01-01

    Discussion: The CCBCC ranks at the 75%ile in overall turnaround times; however, this turnaround time included an interval of MRI, not previously measured in NQMBC benchmark. Rate-limiting steps were identified as the time from screening mammogram to diagnostic mammogram, and biopsy to surgery-specifically, the sub-interval MRI to surgery. Since 2009, the CCBCC has already improved the process for obtaining insurance approval and preauthorization for MRIs; and has added an additional breast surgeon to share the burden of benign cases, and a nurse practitioner to see post-op and follow up patients, improving the accessibility to the primary breast surgeon specialist. Consideration should be given to future time interval studies that evaluate breast cancer turnaround time including MRI to help establish benchmarks.

  5. Turnaround times in breast cancer:From screening to diagnosis to treatment

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    Kaylene J Logan; Patrice M. Weiss; Catherine Hagan-Aylor; Bob Herbertson

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare our institution with national benchmark times, and identify rate-limiting steps in the process by conducte a retrospective review of the turnaround times in 2009 at the Carilion Clinic Breast Care Center (CCBCC). To evaluate patient satisfaction with the turn around times. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed to evaluate the time intervals from abnormal screening mammogram to diagnostic mammogram, diagnostic mammogram to biopsy, biopsy to MRI, and MRI to surgery of all patients seen for breast cancer in 2009. A patient survey was mailed out to all patients (131) managed from abnormal screening to surgery in 2009, assessing their satisfaction with the turnaround times from screening mammogram to call back, call back to diagnostic mammogram, diagnostic mammogram to biopsy, biopsy to results call, biopsy result to MRI appointment, MRI appointment to surgery consult, and surgery consult to surgery; and assessing possible reasons why patients may perceive the process to be delayed. The MEANS procedure was applied to evaluate the turnaround times, and a Box and Whisker Plot statistical comparison was made between patient satisfaction and turnaround times. Results: The mean turnaround time at the CCBCC in 2009 from abnormal screening mammogram to surgery was 45 d. This falls within the 75th %ile of the National Quality Measures for Breast Centers (NQMBC), established by the National Consortium of Breast Centers (NCBC). Of 131 surveys mailed out, 57 were returned (44%). The patient satisfaction rates for each interval ranged from 96%-100%, with an overall satisfaction rate of 98% for abnormal screening mammogram to surgery. Discussion:The CCBCC ranks at the 75%ile in overall turnaround times; however, this turnaround time included an interval of MRI, not previously measured in NQMBC benchmark. Rate-limiting steps were identified as the time from screening mammogram to diagnostic mammogram, and biopsy to surgery-specifically, the sub

  6. A strategy for reducing turnaround time in design optimization using a distributed computer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Katherine C.; Padula, Sharon L.; Rogers, James L.

    1988-01-01

    There is a need to explore methods for reducing lengthly computer turnaround or clock time associated with engineering design problems. Different strategies can be employed to reduce this turnaround time. One strategy is to run validated analysis software on a network of existing smaller computers so that portions of the computation can be done in parallel. This paper focuses on the implementation of this method using two types of problems. The first type is a traditional structural design optimization problem, which is characterized by a simple data flow and a complicated analysis. The second type of problem uses an existing computer program designed to study multilevel optimization techniques. This problem is characterized by complicated data flow and a simple analysis. The paper shows that distributed computing can be a viable means for reducing computational turnaround time for engineering design problems that lend themselves to decomposition. Parallel computing can be accomplished with a minimal cost in terms of hardware and software.

  7. Customising turnaround time indicators to requesting clinician: a 10-year study through balanced scorecard indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Maria; López-Garrigós, Maite; Santo-Quiles, Ana; Gutierrez, Mercedes; Lugo, Javier; Lillo, Rosa; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is, first to present a 10-year monitoring of postanalytical turnaround time (TAT) adapted to different clinicians and patient situations, second to evaluate and analyse the indicators results during that period of time, and finally to show a synthetic appropriate indicator to be included in the balanced scorecard management system. TAT indicator for routine samples was devised as the percentage of certain key tests that were verified before a specific time on the phlebotomy day. A weighted mean synthetic indicator was also designed. They were calculated for inpatients at 15:00 and 12:00 and for primary care patients only at 15:00. The troponin TAT of emergency department patients, calculated as the difference between the troponin verification and registration time, was selected as the stat laboratory TAT indicator. The routine and stat TAT improved along the 10-year study period. The synthetic indicator showed the same trend. The implementation of systematic and continuous monitoring over years, promoted a continuous improvement in TAT which will probably benefit patient outcome and safety.

  8. An Audit of VDRL Testing from an STI Clinic in India: Analysing the Present Scenario with Focus on Estimating and Optimizing the Turnaround Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Bhanu; Bhalla, Preena; Rawat, Deepti; Saxena, Shikhar

    2015-08-01

    Timeliness of reporting is of utmost importance to limit the spread of syphilis. The present analysis was undertaken to evaluate the turnaround time of syphilis testing (mainly Venereal disease research laboratory /VDRL test) in a sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic in India; to find out the possible reasons for delay; to describe the trends of clinical indications for syphilis testing from an STI clinic; to assess the frequency of a positive syphilis serology among STI clinic attendees; and to analyse the follow-up rates of VDRL report collection. Two hundred consecutive VDRL requests received at the serology laboratory of a tertiary care health facility from the STI clinic of the linked hospital were prospectively analysed to evaluate the above parameters. For the 200 requests audited, the mean absolute turnaround time of VDRL test was 7.46±2.81 days. The mean duration of the pre-laboratory, laboratory and post laboratory phases was 0, 4.69±2.13 and 2.77±2.51 days respectively. The interval from specimen receipt to performance of tests (mean duration=4.25±1.96 days) was the major reason for long VDRL turnaround time. The common indications for syphilis testing in STI clinic attendees were lower abdominal pain (33%), vaginal discharge (26.5%) and genital ulcer disease (9%); and the follow-up rate for report collection was 71%. Our study highlights the strong need to shift to alternative testing methods, mainly rapid point of care procedures for serodiagnosis of syphilis in order to circumvent the problems of long turnaround time and low patient follow-up rates.

  9. A quality initiative of postoperative radiographic imaging performed on mastectomy specimens to reduce histology cost and pathology report turnaround time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallen, Michael E; Sim, Myung S; Radosavcev, Bryan L; Humphries, Romney M; Ward, Dawn C; Apple, Sophia K

    2015-10-01

    Breast pathology relies on gross dissection for accurate diagnostic work, but challenges can necessitate submission of high tissue volumes resulting in excess labor, laboratory costs, and delays. To address these issues, a quality initiative was created through implementation of the Faxitron PathVision specimen radiography system as part of the breast gross dissection protocol; this report documents its impact on workflow and clinical care. Retrospective data from 459 patients who underwent simple or modified radical mastectomy at our institution between May 2012 and December 2014 were collected. Comparison was made between the mastectomy specimen control group before radiography use (233 patients, 340 breasts) and Faxitron group that underwent postoperative radiography (226 patients, 338 breasts). We observed a statistically significant decrease in mean number of blocks between control and Faxitron groups (47.0 vs 39.7 blocks; Pmastectomy. A statistically significant decrease in pathology report turnaround time was also observed (4.2 vs 3.8days; P=.038). Postoperative mastectomy specimen radiography has increased workflow efficiency and decreased histology costs and pathology report turnaround time. These findings may underestimate actual benefits and highlight the importance of quality improvement projects in anatomical pathology.

  10. External Quality Assessment of stat test intralaboratory turnaround times. Pilot study from the Members of the Working Group for the Standardization and Promotion of Turnaround Time Control under the Auspices of the Comitato Italiano per la Standardizzazione dei Metodi Ematologici e di Laboratorio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, M; Carraro, P; Caenaro, G; Cappelletti, P; Giavarina, D; Mezzena, G; Prandini, B; Rampoldi, E; Siviero, F

    1998-11-01

    We describe procedures, results and prospects of a pilot program in External Quality Assessment (EQA) of the stat test intralaboratory turnaround times. Our goals are to promote quality by systematic monitoring and comparison of performances by laboratories, continuous investigation into the state of the art of the processes from receipt of sample to transmission of results and creation of a data base for standardization of measures and definition of consensus values for turnaround time. Of 30 laboratories invited to participate, 25 took part, agreeing to record times of arrival and transmission for all determinations of three analytes (blood hemoglobin, serum/plasma potassium and plasma prothrombin time) for seven consecutive days and to continue for one or more further periods of seven days as necessary if there were less than 300 determinations for each analyte. Within a preset time limit, data were sent by e-mail on an Excel file and we sent back two reports per analyte, showing: i) the graph for time vs. percentage of tests completed and several measures of turnaround time; ii) results of all laboratories in graph form, allowing each laboratory to identify only its own data. The high proportion of participating laboratories among those invited (83%) encourages us to implement the EQA program systematically, on a half-yearly basis, extending it to all laboratories wishing to participate in Italy or elsewhere in Europe.

  11. The effect of an ambulance diversion ban on emergency department length of stay and ambulance turnaround time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Laura G; Joyce, Nina; Baker, William E; Biddinger, Paul D; Dyer, K Sophia; Friedman, Franklin D; Imperato, Jason; King, Alice; Maciejko, Thomas M; Pearlmutter, Mark D; Sayah, Assaad; Zane, Richard D; Epstein, Stephen K

    2013-03-01

    Massachusetts became the first state in the nation to ban ambulance diversion in 2009. It was feared that the diversion ban would lead to increased emergency department (ED) crowding and ambulance turnaround time. We seek to characterize the effect of a statewide ambulance diversion ban on ED length of stay and ambulance turnaround time at Boston-area EDs. We conducted a retrospective, pre-post observational analysis of 9 Boston-area hospital EDs before and after the ban. We used ED length of stay as a proxy for ED crowding. We compared hospitals individually and in aggregate to determine any changes in ED length of stay for admitted and discharged patients, ED volume, and turnaround time. No ED experienced an increase in ED length of stay for admitted or discharged patients or ambulance turnaround time despite an increase in volume for several EDs. There was an overall 3.6% increase in ED volume in our sample, a 10.4-minute decrease in length of stay for admitted patients, and a 2.2-minute decrease in turnaround time. When we compared high- and low-diverting EDs separately, neither saw an increase in length of stay, and both saw a decrease in turnaround time. After the first statewide ambulance diversion ban, there was no increase in ED length of stay or ambulance turnaround time at 9 Boston-area EDs. Several hospitals actually experienced improvements in these outcome measures. Our results suggest that the ban did not worsen ED crowding or ambulance availability at Boston-area hospitals. Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  12. Identification of blood culture isolates directly from positive blood cultures by use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and a commercial extraction system: analysis of performance, cost, and turnaround time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R S; Adam, Heather J; Karlowsky, James A; Nichol, Kimberly A; Pang, Paulette F; Guenther, Jodi; Webb, Amanda A; Miller, Crystal; Alfa, Michelle J

    2012-10-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry represents a revolution in the rapid identification of bacterial and fungal pathogens in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Recently, MALDI-TOF has been applied directly to positive blood culture bottles for the rapid identification of pathogens, leading to reductions in turnaround time and potentially beneficial patient impacts. The development of a commercially available extraction kit (Bruker Sepsityper) for use with the Bruker MALDI BioTyper has facilitated the processing required for identification of pathogens directly from positive from blood cultures. We report the results of an evaluation of the accuracy, cost, and turnaround time of this method for 61 positive monomicrobial and 2 polymicrobial cultures representing 26 species. The Bruker MALDI BioTyper with the Sepsityper gave a valid (score, >1.7) identification for 85.2% of positive blood cultures with no misidentifications. The mean reduction in turnaround time to identification was 34.3 h (P blood cultures and 26.5 h in a more practical setting where conventional identification or identification from subcultures was required for isolates that could not be directly identified by MALDI-TOF. Implementation of a MALDI-TOF-based identification system for direct identification of pathogens from blood cultures is expected to be associated with a marginal increase in operating costs for most laboratories. However, the use of MALDI-TOF for direct identification is accurate and should result in reduced turnaround time to identification.

  13. Expectations Among Academic Clinicians of Inpatient Imaging Turnaround Time: Does it Correlate with Satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Keith T; Carroll, Tamara; Linnau, Ken F; Lehnert, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    Imaging report turnaround time (RTAT) is an important measure of radiology performance and has become the leading priority in customer satisfaction surveys conducted among nonradiologists, who may not be familiar with the imaging workflow. Our aim was to assess physicians' expected RTAT for commonly ordered studies and determine if satisfaction correlates with met expectations. Retrospective review of inpatient imaging was conducted at a single academic institution, and RTAT for 18,414 studies was calculated. Examinations were grouped by study type, priority, and time of day. A cross-sectional survey instrument was completed by 48 internal medicine and surgery resident physicians with questions regarding RTAT and their level of satisfaction with various examinations. Actual RTAT ranged from 1.6 to 26.0 hours, with chest radiographs and computed tomographies generally faster than magnetic resonance images and ultrasounds. Urgent (STAT) examinations and those ordered during business hours have shorter RTAT. The time for image interpretation largely contributed to the RTAT because of the lack of night-time radiology coverage. Referring physician expectations were consistently shorter than actual RTAT, ranging from 30 minutes to 24 hours. Overall satisfaction scores were inversely correlated with RTAT, with a strong correlation to the time from study order to imaging (r(2) = 0.63) and a weak correlation to the image interpretation time (r(2) = 0.17). Satisfaction scores did not correlate with whether the actual RTAT met expectations (r(2) = 0.06). Referring physician satisfaction is likely multifactorial. Although RTAT has been reported as a priority, shortening turnaround time alone may not directly improve clinician satisfaction. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lack of effect of shorter turnaround time of microbiological procedures on clinical outcomes : a randomised controlled trial among hospitalised patients in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, M; Oord, H; Bloembergen, P; Wolfhagen, M; Casparie, A; Degener, J; Ruijs, G

    2005-01-01

    Shortening the turnaround time of microbiological procedures was associated with an improved clinical outcome in two studies performed in the USA. To study the clinical impact of a shortened turnaround time in a northwest European setting in which an automated system was used for bacterial identific

  15. Minimizing manual image segmentation turn-around time for neuronal reconstruction by embracing uncertainty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Plaza

    Full Text Available The ability to automatically segment an image into distinct regions is a critical aspect in many visual processing applications. Because inaccuracies often exist in automatic segmentation, manual segmentation is necessary in some application domains to correct mistakes, such as required in the reconstruction of neuronal processes from microscopic images. The goal of the automated segmentation tool is traditionally to produce the highest-quality segmentation, where quality is measured by the similarity to actual ground truth, so as to minimize the volume of manual correction necessary. Manual correction is generally orders-of-magnitude more time consuming than automated segmentation, often making handling large images intractable. Therefore, we propose a more relevant goal: minimizing the turn-around time of automated/manual segmentation while attaining a level of similarity with ground truth. It is not always necessary to inspect every aspect of an image to generate a useful segmentation. As such, we propose a strategy to guide manual segmentation to the most uncertain parts of segmentation. Our contributions include 1 a probabilistic measure that evaluates segmentation without ground truth and 2 a methodology that leverages these probabilistic measures to significantly reduce manual correction while maintaining segmentation quality.

  16. Turnaround Necessities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, William S.; Buntrock, LeAnn M.

    2011-01-01

    Turning around chronically low-performing schools is challenging work requiring fundamental rethinking of the change process, and a systemic rather than school-by-school approach. Without a doubt, high-impact school leaders are critical to turnaround success, and pockets of success around the country demonstrate this. However, transformational and…

  17. Phase II of a Six sigma Initiative to Study DWPF SME Analytical Turnaround Times: SRNL's Evaluation of Carbonate-Based Dissolution Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Thomas

    2005-09-01

    The Analytical Development Section (ADS) and the Statistical Consulting Section (SCS) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) are participating in a Six Sigma initiative to improve the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Laboratory. The Six Sigma initiative has focused on reducing the analytical turnaround time of samples from the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) by developing streamlined sampling and analytical methods [1]. The objective of Phase I was to evaluate the sub-sampling of a larger sample bottle and the performance of a cesium carbonate (Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) digestion method. Successful implementation of the Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} fusion method in the DWPF would have important time savings and convenience benefits because this single digestion would replace the dual digestion scheme now used. A single digestion scheme would result in more efficient operations in both the DWPF shielded cells and the inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) laboratory. By taking a small aliquot of SME slurry from a large sample bottle and dissolving the vitrified SME sample with carbonate fusion methods, an analytical turnaround time reduction from 27 hours to 9 hours could be realized in the DWPF. This analytical scheme has the potential for not only dramatically reducing turnaround times, but also streamlining operations to minimize wear and tear on critical shielded cell components that are prone to fail, including the Hydragard{trademark} sampling valves and manipulators. Favorable results from the Phase I tests [2] led to the recommendation for a Phase II effort as outlined in the DWPF Technical Task Request (TTR) [3]. There were three major tasks outlined in the TTR, and SRNL issued a Task Technical and QA Plan [4] with a corresponding set of three major task activities: (1) Compare weight percent (wt%) total solids measurements of large volume samples versus peanut vial samples. (2) Evaluate Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3

  18. Port-City Closeness and Turnaround Time Critical for Short Sea Shipping Sustainable Performance a Case Study: Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Martínez de Osés

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is the most relevant externality of maritime transport and its effects are more acute in urban areas. As Short Sea Shipping (SSS services call ports frequently and expend significant time in port, both the overall turnaround time and the port city closeness, become critical in their sustainable performance. This paper analyses the impact of maritime transport on Spanish SSS ports and identifies the ideal ones, reflecting the differences in their sustainable performance and finally identifying the characteristics that a harbour needs to gather in order to minimize air pollution impact in the maritime transport sector.

  19. Turnaround time of positive blood cultures after the introduction of matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, Silvia; Dicuonzo, Giordano; D'Agostino, Alfio; Avola, Alessandra; Crea, Francesca; Palazzo, Carlo; Dedej, Etleva; De Florio, Lucia

    2015-07-01

    A comparative evaluation of the turnaround time (TAT) of positive blood culture before and after matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) introduction in the laboratory routine was performed. A total of 643 positive blood cultures, of which 310 before and 333 after MALDI-TOF technique introduction, were collected. In the post MALDI-TOF period, blood culture median TAT decreased from 73.53 hours to 71.73 for Gram-positive, from 64.09 hours to 63.59 for Gram-negative and from 115.7 hours to 47.62 for anaerobes. MALDI-TOF significantly decreased the TAT of anaerobes, for which antimicrobial susceptibility test is not routinely performed. Furthermore, the major advantage of MALDI-TOF introduction was the decrease of the time for pathogen identification (TID) independently from the species with an improvement of 93% for Gram-positive, 86% for Gram-negative and 95% for anaerobes. In addition, high species-level identification rates and cost savings than conventional methods were achieved after MALDI-TOF introduction.

  20. Ditching the Disc: The Effects of Cloud-Based Image Sharing on Department Efficiency and Report Turnaround Times in Mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Matthew B; Young, Elizabeth; Harada, Scott; Winkler, Nicole; Riegert, Joanna; Jones, Tony; Hu, Nan; Stein, Matthew

    2017-09-29

    In screening mammography, accessing prior examination images is crucial for accurate diagnosis and avoiding false-positives. When women visit multiple institutions for their screens, these "outside" examinations must be retrieved for comparison. Traditionally, prior images are obtained by faxing requests to other institutions and waiting for standard mail (film or CD-ROM), which can greatly delay report turnaround times. Recently, advancements in cloud-based image transfer technology have opened up more efficient options for examination transfer between institutions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of cloud-based image transfer on mammography department workflow, time required to obtain prior images, and report turnaround times. Sixty screening examinations requiring prior images were placed into two groups (30 each). The control group used the standard institutional protocol for requesting prior images: faxing requests and waiting for mailed examinations. The experimental group used a cloud-based transfer for both requesting and receiving examinations. The mean number of days between examination request and examination receipt was measured for both groups and compared. The mean number of days from examination request to receipt was 6.08 days (SD 3.50) in the control group compared with 3.16 days (SD 3.95) in the experimental group. Using a cloud-based image transfer to obtain prior mammograms resulted in an average reduction of 2.92 days (P = .0361; 95% confidence interval 0.20-5.65) between examination request and receipt. This improvement in system efficiency is relevant for interpreting radiologists working to improve reporting times and for patients anxious to receive their mammography results. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Implementation and Operational Research: Expedited Results Delivery Systems Using GPRS Technology Significantly Reduce Early Infant Diagnosis Test Turnaround Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Sarang; Crea, Lindy; Quevedo, Jorge; Lehe, Jonathan; Vojnov, Lara; Peter, Trevor; Jani, Ilesh

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of a new technology to communicate the results of an infant HIV diagnostic test on test turnaround time and to quantify the association between late delivery of test results and patient loss to follow-up. We used data collected during a pilot implementation of Global Package Radio Service (GPRS) printers for communicating results in the early infant diagnosis program in Mozambique from 2008 through 2010. Our dataset comprised 1757 patient records, of which 767 were from before implementation and 990 from after implementation of expedited results delivery system. We used multivariate logistic regression model to determine the association between late result delivery (more than 30 days between sample collection and result delivery to the health facility) and the probability of result collection by the infant's caregiver. We used a sample selection model to determine the association between late result delivery to the facility and further delay in collection of results by the caregiver. The mean test turnaround time reduced from 68.13 to 41.05 days post-expedited results delivery system. Caregivers collected only 665 (37.8%) of the 1757 results. After controlling for confounders, the late delivery of results was associated with a reduction of approximately 18% (0.44 vs. 0.36; P < 0.01) in the probability of results collected by the caregivers (odds ratio = 0.67, P < 0.05). Late delivery of results was also associated with a further average increase in 20.91 days of delay in collection of results (P < 0.01). Early infant diagnosis program managers should further evaluate the cost-effectiveness of operational interventions (eg, GPRS printers) that reduce delays.

  2. Turnaround time for early infant HIV diagnosis in rural Zambia: A chart review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G. Sutcliffe (Catherine); J.H. van Dijk (Janneke); F. Hamangaba (Francis); F. Mayani (Felix); W.J. Moss (William)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Early infant HIV diagnosis is challenging in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in rural areas where laboratory capacity is limited. Specimens must be transported to central laboratories for testing, leading to delays in diagnosis and initiation of antiretroviral therapy. This

  3. The Impact of a Health IT Changeover on Medical Imaging Department Work Processes and Turnaround Times: A mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, A; Prgomet, M; Lymer, S; Hordern, A; Ridley, L; Westbrook, J

    2015-01-01

    To assess the impact of introducing a new Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) and Radiology Information System (RIS) on: (i) Medical Imaging work processes; and (ii) turnaround times (TATs) for x-ray and CT scan orders initiated in the Emergency Department (ED). We employed a mixed method study design comprising: (i) semi-structured interviews with Medical Imaging Department staff; and (ii) retrospectively extracted ED data before (March/April 2010) and after (March/April 2011 and 2012) the introduction of a new PACS/RIS. TATs were calculated as: processing TAT (median time from image ordering to examination) and reporting TAT (median time from examination to final report). Reporting TAT for x-rays decreased significantly after introduction of the new PACS/RIS; from a median of 76 hours to 38 hours per order (pMedical Imaging staff reported that the changeover to the new PACS/RIS led to gains in efficiency, particularly regarding the accessibility of images and patient-related information. Nevertheless, assimilation of the new PACS/RIS with existing Departmental work processes was considered inadequate and in some instances unsafe. Issues highlighted related to the synchronization of work tasks (e.g., porter arrangements) and the material set up of the work place (e.g., the number and location of computers). The introduction of new health IT can be a "double-edged sword" providing improved efficiency but at the same time introducing potential hazards affecting the effectiveness of the Medical Imaging Department.

  4. MDR-TB in Puducherry, India: reduction in attrition and turnaround time in the diagnosis and treatment pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewade, H D; Govindarajan, S; Thekkur, P; Palanivel, C; Muthaiah, M; Kumar, A M V; Gupta, V; Sharath, B N; Tripathy, J P; Vivekananda, K; Roy, G

    2016-12-21

    Setting: A mixed-methods operational research (OR) study was conducted to examine the diagnosis and treatment pathway of patients with presumptive multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) during 2012-2013 under the national TB programme in Puducherry, India. High pre-diagnosis and pre-treatment attrition and the reasons for these were identified. The recommendations from this OR were implemented and we planned to assess systematically whether there were any improvements. Objectives: Among patients with presumptive MDR-TB (July-December 2014), 1) to determine pre-diagnosis and pre-treatment attrition, 2) to determine factors associated with pre-diagnosis attrition, 3) to determine the turnaround time (TAT) from eligibility to testing and from diagnosis to treatment initiation, and 4) to compare these findings with those of the previous study (2012-2013). Design: This was a retrospective cohort study based on record review. Results: Compared to the previous study, there was a decrease in pre-diagnosis attrition from 45% to 24% (P TB co-infection or those with extra-pulmonary TB not undergoing drug susceptibility testing. Conclusion: The implementation of findings from OR resulted in improved programme outcomes.

  5. Short Planning Turn-Around Time and High Flexibility of the Swedish Astronomy/Aeronomy Satellite Odin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, B.; Karlsson, T.; Nylund, M.; Olsson, T.; Vinterhav, E.

    2002-01-01

    The Swedish small satellite Odin combines two different scientific disciplines, astronomy and atmospheric research. It has a 3-axis stabilized, zero momentum, attitude control system that operates in two different modes, an inertial pointing astronomy mode and an atmospheric mode providing pointing/scanning of the Earth limb. The reference attitude for the atmospheric mode is created by a versatile reference attitude generator, providing also capability for observing and tracking any celestial or solar system objects. The absolute pointing requirements in the scientific modes are 15 arc-seconds inertial pointing and 1.2 arc-minutes in atmospheric mode reconstructed attitude. One part of the Odin mission is to observe the formation of the ozone holes at the poles in spring and fall and another is to observe moving celestial objects such as comets. The unpredictability of when such observation opportunities occur together with rapidly changing scientific demands put high requirements on a short turn- around time for the Operations Cycle - science demand, planning and command generation, reconstruction of attitude history, feedback and delivery to scientists. A small efficient team, including also members that was deeply involved with and responsible for the design and development of the system, has been a key to provide this a short turn-around time for the Operations Cycle. It is possible to safely reconfigure the satellite for either of two disciplines with short notice and have a reconstructed attitude available to the users shortly after the observations have been done. The small efficient team together with modular software based on MATLAB also facilitates in rapidly meeting new demands on the planning and attitude reconstruction from the users.

  6. Real-time polymerase chain reaction with melting analysis of positive blood culture specimens in bloodstream infections: diagnostic value and turnaround time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, Silvia; Gherardi, Giovanni; De Florio, Lucia; Avola, Alessandra; Crea, Francesca; Riva, Elisabetta; Vitali, Massimiliano Andrea; Galluzzo, Sara; Dicuonzo, Giordano

    2013-01-01

    A Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with melting analysis was devised to target bacterial and fungal genes together with the most prevalent antimicrobial resistance genes in 250 positive blood culture broths. This method allowed the blood culture cultivated pathogens to be classified into clinically relevant groups such as Enterobacteriaceae, oxidase-positive bacilli, oxidase-positive coccobacilli, S. aureus and yeast. Enterococci and streptococci could be distinguished from CoNS only by the Gram stain. Gram-positive bacilli were discriminated from Gram-positive cocci by Gram stain. Furthermore, the most important antimicrobial resistant genes such as mecA, vanA, bla TEM , bla SHV and bla CTX-M could be identified. All results were obtained with a turnaround time of three hours from the moment of blood culture positivity compared to 24-72 hours for phenotypic methods. In conclusion, the proposed approach can allow the clinician to implement proper early management of sepsis patients.

  7. Scaling School Turnaround

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the research on turning around low performing schools to summarize what we know, what we don't know, and what this means for scaling school turnaround efforts. "School turnaround" is defined here as quick, dramatic gains in academic achievement for persistently low performing schools. The article first considers the…

  8. Human Capital in Turnaround Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    Finding, keeping and supporting great educators presents the single biggest challenge to successful school turnarounds. Without teachers and administrators who bring the needed combination of skills and passion, nothing else will achieve the desired effect. The turnaround model supported by the U.S. Department of Education School Improvement Grant…

  9. Transforming Turnaround Schools in China: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on how Chinese turnaround schools are improved in practice. It starts by defining turnaround schools in the Chinese context, and then discusses the essential reasons why such schools exist. Approaches to improving turnaround schools, successful experiences of transforming turnaround schools, and the challenges…

  10. FCC-hh turn-around cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Alemany Fernandez, Reyes; Bartmann, Wolfgang; Buffat, Xavier; Niemi, Arto; Schulte, Daniel; Solfaroli Camillocci, Matteo; Stoel, Linda

    2016-01-01

    The turn-around cycle time of a collider is defined as the time spent between the end of stable beams and the start of the next stable beams period, and its calculation is of fundamental importance. On one side it is a crucial ingredient for the computation of the optimal time spent in luminosity production, which defines the integrated luminosity per fill or store. On the other side, combined with the availability and reliability of the machine, it allows to perform a detailed breakdown of the operational performance of the collider over an operational season, i.e. percentage of time in stable beams and beam in the machine with respect to down time. This paper presents a preliminary operational cycle definition for the hadron-hadron Future Circular Collider, as a base line for estimating the corresponding turn-around time. The cycle definition is based on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) operational cycle. Two turn-around times are presented, the theoretical one and a more realistic one based on the LHC exper...

  11. TURNAROUND COORDINATOR. YES OR NOT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin HROMÁDKA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Both low cost carriers ‘fresh wind’ and liberalisation of ground handling market makes airlines to be cost-wise in every single field. Thus, ground handling contract are cutting down in terms of their costs. Handling companies struggle with pressure being put from the market environment, they rush 25 minutes turnaround with couple of people. This can be potentially dangerous from the safety point of view. One of possible solutions seems to be introducing turnaround coordinator, person who would supervise the ramp handling procedures. This paper discusses the role of turnaround coordinator within the aircraft turnaround process. Duties and responsibilities of this person are described. However, not every airport is staffing this position. The survey shows that smaller airports pay much more attention to this issue than the big ones.

  12. Providing critical laboratory results on time, every time to help reduce emergency department length of stay: how our laboratory achieved a Six Sigma level of performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blick, Kenneth E

    2013-08-01

    To develop a fully automated core laboratory, handling samples on a "first in, first out" real-time basis with Lean/Six Sigma management tools. Our primary goal was to provide services to critical care areas, eliminating turnaround time outlier percentage (TAT-OP) as a factor in patient length of stay (LOS). A secondary goal was to achieve a better laboratory return on investment. In 2011, we reached our primary goal when we calculated the TAT-OP distribution and found we had achieved a Six Sigma level of performance, ensuring that our laboratory service can be essentially eliminated as a factor in emergency department patient LOS. We also measured return on investment, showing a productivity improvement of 35%, keeping pace with our increased testing volume. As a result of our Lean process improvements and Six Sigma initiatives, in part through (1) strategic deployment of point-of-care testing and (2) core laboratory total automation with robotics, middleware, and expert system technology, physicians and nurses at the Oklahoma University Medical Center can more effectively deliver lifesaving health care using evidence-based protocols that depend heavily on "on time, every time" laboratory services.

  13. Turnaround radius in modified gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Faraoni, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    In an accelerating universe in General Relativity there is a maximum radius above which a shell of test particles cannot collapse, but is dispersed by the cosmic expansion. This radius could be used in conjunction with observations of large structures to constrain the equation of state of the universe. We extend the concept of turnaround radius to modified theories of gravity for which the gravitational slip is non-vanishing.

  14. Sample Language of Modified Contract Elements from Existing CBAs, MOUs, or EWAs to Support Turnaround

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass Insight Education (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Organized by the key conditions areas for turnaround, "People, Program, Time and Money," this tool offers sample language for each contract element to serve as a model for modifications from a traditional CBA that may support a district's turnaround efforts. Sample language is offered from existing provisions in district-wide collective bargaining…

  15. Challenge energy policy turnaround; Herausforderung Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Michael; Brandt-Schwabedissen, Annette; Graaff, Rudolf; Queitsch, Peter; Thomas, Roland [Staedte- und Gemeindebund Nordrhein-Westfalen e.V., Duesseldorf (Germany); Becker, Sven [Trianel GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Portz, Norbert; Schmitz, Johannes [Deutscher Staedte- und Gemeindebund, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The documentation under consideration makes suggestions to cities and communities in light of the energy policy turnaround. The documentation contains the following contributions: (1) Power generation by means of renewable energy resources (Johannes Schmitz); (2) The energy policy turnaround needs acceptance - communication as the key to success (Sven Becker); (3) Climate-conscious communal construction planning (Michael Becker); (4) Establishment of climate concepts (Peter Queitsch); (5) Energetic measures at buildings (Annette Brandt-Schwabedissen); (6) Energy political turnaround and awarding (Norbert Portz); (7) Electromobility (Roland Thomas); (8) Position paper of DStB for the energy policy turnaround.

  16. From turnaround to continuous innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnø, Ole-Christian

    2002-01-01

    sourcing, explorative case research and continuous innovation a series of findings is identified, and from these findings a management model is proposed. This model is intended to fill in an identified gap in the toolbox for maintenance and further development of the business partners network established......In this article a five year longitudinal study performed at a medium-sized producer of electronics is reported during which we studied the company's change process. The paper deals with the concept of strategic sourcing as a component in turnaround change management. Based on theories of strategic...

  17. From turnaround to continuous innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnø, Ole-Christian

    2002-01-01

    sourcing, explorative case research and continuous innovation a series of findings is identified, and from these findings a management model is proposed. This model is intended to fill in an identified gap in the toolbox for maintenance and further development of the business partners network established......In this article a five year longitudinal study performed at a medium-sized producer of electronics is reported during which we studied the company's change process. The paper deals with the concept of strategic sourcing as a component in turnaround change management. Based on theories of strategic...

  18. Summary inside IBM's historic turnaround

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This work offers a summary of the book "WHO SAYS ELEPHANTS CAN'T DANCE? Inside IBM's Historic Turnaround" by Louis Gerstner.In nine years as the chairman and CEO of International Business Machine Corporation (IBM), Louis Gerstner brought about a dramatic change in the company's fortunes. When he took charge, IBM was on the verge of extinction as the victim of rapid changes in the computer industry. However, instead of breaking up IBM as most analysts were suggesting, Gerstner and his management team turned the company around and restored it to a position of power and influence within the indu

  19. Turnaround Arts Initiative: Summary of Key Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoelinga, Sara Ray; Silk, Yael; Reddy, Prateek; Rahman, Nadiv

    2015-01-01

    Turnaround Arts is a public-private partnership that aims to test the hypothesis that strategically implementing high-quality and integrated arts education programming in high-poverty, chronically underperforming schools adds significant value to school-wide reform. In 2014, the Turnaround Arts initiative completed an evaluation report covering…

  20. Laboratory Automation and Middleware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riben, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The practice of surgical pathology is under constant pressure to deliver the highest quality of service, reduce errors, increase throughput, and decrease turnaround time while at the same time dealing with an aging workforce, increasing financial constraints, and economic uncertainty. Although not able to implement total laboratory automation, great progress continues to be made in workstation automation in all areas of the pathology laboratory. This report highlights the benefits and challenges of pathology automation, reviews middleware and its use to facilitate automation, and reviews the progress so far in the anatomic pathology laboratory.

  1. Rapid PCR amplification protocols decrease the turn-around time for detection of antibiotic resistance genes in Gram-negative pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Chelsie N; Hanson, Nancy D

    2013-10-01

    A previously designed end-point multiplex PCR assay and singleplex assays used to detect β-lactamase genes were evaluated using rapid PCR amplification methodology. Amplification times were 16-18 minutes with an overall detection time of 1.5 hours. Rapid PCR amplifications could decrease the time required to identify resistance mechanisms in Gram-negative organisms.

  2. Decreasing Turnaround Time and Increasing Patient Satisfaction in a Safety Net Hospital-Based Pediatrics Clinic Using Lean Six Sigma Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinha, Yasangi

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, health care quality indicators are focusing on patient-centeredness as an indicator of performance. The National Quality Forum lists assessment of patient experience, often conducted using patient surveys, as a top priority. We developed a patient-reported time stamp data collection tool that was used to collect cycle times in a safety net hospital-based outpatient pediatrics clinic. Data were collected using patient-reported survey to obtain cycle times in Pediatric clinic, as well as qualitative and quantitative patient satisfaction data. Several rapid-cycle improvements were performed using Lean Six Sigma methodologies to reduce cycle time by eliminating waste and revise unnecessary processes to improve operational effectiveness and patient and staff satisfaction. A total of 94 surveys were collected and revealed average cycle time of 113 minutes. Our measured patient satisfaction rating was 87%. Discharge and check-in processes were identified as the least efficient and were targeted for intervention. Following implementation, the overall cycle time was decreased from 113 to 90 minutes. Patient satisfaction ratings increased from 87% to 95%. We demonstrate that using Lean Six Sigma tools can be invaluable to clinical restructuring and redesign and results in measurable, improved outcomes in care delivery.

  3. An Integrated Gate Turnaround Management Concept Leveraging Big Data Analytics for NAS Performance Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, William W.; Ingram, Carla D.; Ahlquist, Douglas Kurt; Chachad, Girish H.

    2016-01-01

    unique airport attributes (e.g., runway, taxiway, terminal, and gate configurations and tenants), and combined statistics from past data and live data based on a specific set of ATM concept-of-operations (ConOps) and operational parameters via systems analysis using an analytic network learning model. The IGTM tool will then bound the uncertainties that arise from nominal and off-nominal operational conditions with direct assessment of the gate turnaround status and the impact of a certain operational decision on the NAS performance, and provide a set of recommended actions to optimize the NAS performance by allowing stakeholders to take mitigation actions to reduce uncertainty and time deviation of planned operational events. An IGTM prototype was developed at NASA Ames Simulation Laboratories (SimLabs) to demonstrate the benefits and applicability of the concept. A data network, using the System Wide Information Management (SWIM)-like messaging application using the ActiveMQ message service, was connected to the simulated data warehouse, scheduled flight plans, a fast-time airport simulator, and a graphic UI. A fast-time simulation was integrated with the data warehouse or Big Data/Analytics (BAI), scheduled flight plans from Aeronautical Operational Control AOC, IGTM Controller, and a UI via a SWIM-like data messaging network using the ActiveMQ message service, illustrated in Figure 1, to demonstrate selected use-cases showing the benefits of the IGTM concept on the NAS performance.

  4. Impact of the New Abbott mPLUS feature on clinical laboratory efficiencies of abbott RealTime assays for detection of HIV-1, Hepatitis C Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucic, Danijela; Jones, Sara; Wiesneth, Russ; Barry, Cathy; Webb, Erika; Belova, Larissa; Dolan, Peggy; Ho, Shiaolan; Abravaya, Klara; Cloherty, Gavin

    2013-12-01

    Diagnostic laboratories are under increasing pressure to improve and expand their services. Greater flexibility in sample processing is a critical factor that can improve the time to results while reducing reagent waste, making laboratories more efficient and cost-effective. The introduction of the Abbott mPLUS feature, with the capacity for extended use of amplification reagents, significantly increases the flexibility of the m2000 platform and enables laboratories to customize their workflows based on sample arrival patterns. The flexibility in sample batch size offered by mPLUS enables significant reductions in processing times. For hepatitis B virus tests, a reduction in sample turnaround times of up to 30% (105 min) was observed for batches of 12 samples compared with those for batches of 24 samples; for Chlamydia trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae tests, the ability to run batches of 24 samples reduced the turnaround time by 83% (54 min) compared with that for batches of 48 samples. Excellent correlations between mPLUS and m2000 standard condition results were observed for all RealTime viral load assays evaluated in this study, with correlation r values of 0.998 for all assays tested. For the qualitative RealTime C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae assay, the overall agreements between the two conditions tested were >98% for C. trachomatis and 100% for N. gonorrhoeae. Comparable precision results were observed for the two conditions tested for all RealTime assays. The enhanced mPLUS capability provides clinical laboratories with increased efficiencies to meet increasingly stringent turnaround time requirements without increased costs associated with discarding partially used amplification reagents.

  5. Positioning Navigation and Timing System Integration Laboratory (PNT SIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ThePositioning Navigation and Timing System Integration Laboratory (PNT SIL)is currently used for a number of PNT system development test and evaluation activities...

  6. School Turnaround: Cristo Rey Boston High School Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielman, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    The mandates of the federal No Child Left Behind Law, including the threat of closing a school for underperformance, have led to multiple public school turnaround attempts. Because turnaround is a relatively new area of focus in education, there is limited research on what does and does not work, and even the definition of turnaround is a work in…

  7. Adoption of lean principles in a high-volume molecular diagnostic microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, P Shawn; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Yao, Joseph D C

    2014-07-01

    Clinical laboratories are constantly facing challenges to do more with less, enhance quality, improve test turnaround time, and reduce operational expenses. Experience with adopting and applying lean concepts and tools used extensively in the manufacturing industry is described for a high-volume clinical molecular microbiology laboratory, illustrating how operational success and benefits can be achieved.

  8. Hospital turnarounds--thinking strategically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, R H

    1990-01-01

    Healthcare executives throughout the country are losing confidence that their organizations can remain viable without significant organizational change. Now is the time to review principal trends in this area--conversions and partnerships--and to assess how well particular arrangements seem to be working.

  9. Turnaround Necessities: Basic Conditions for an Effective, Sustainable, and Scalable School Turnaround

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, William S.; Buntrock, LeAnn M.

    2011-01-01

    Turning around chronically low-performing schools is challenging work requiring fundamental rethinking of the change process, and a systemic rather than school-by-school approach. Without a doubt, high-impact school leaders are critical to turnaround success, and pockets of success around the country demonstrate this. However, transformational and…

  10. Laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae infections

    OpenAIRE

    Peeling, Rosanna W

    1995-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important cause of respiratory illness. There is a need for accurate and rapid laboratory diagnostic methods that will lead to improved patient care, appropriate use of antimicrobial therapy and a better understanding of the epidemiology of this emerging pathogen. Culture is highly specific but is technically demanding, expensive, has a long turnaround time and its sensitivity is highly dependent on transport conditions. Antigen detection tests such as enzyme immuno...

  11. Immediate incubation of blood cultures outside routine laboratory hours of operation accelerates antibiotic switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Kerremans (Jos); A.K. van der Bij (Akke); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); M.C. Vos (Margreet)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was to assess the impact of immediate incubation of blood cultures delivered to the laboratory outside its hours of operation on turnaround times, antibiotic prescription practices, and patient outcomes. A continuously moni

  12. Five Myths of School Turnaround Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Coby V.; Smylie, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the intensity of funding and numerous intervention efforts in recent school turnaround initiatives, many perspectives, practices, and policies specific to school turnaround appear to be at odds with organizational theory. Yet, many actors in research, policy, and practice arenas appear convinced that their steadfastness will eventually be…

  13. "Turnaround" as Shock Therapy: Race, Neoliberalism, and School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Amanda Walker

    2013-01-01

    "Turnaround" strategies of educational reform promise that school closure, reconstitution, privatizing, and reopening them will bring miraculous results. Questioning the implications, this article situates "turnaround" strategies locally, following the closure of a predominantly minority high school in 2008, in Austin, Texas. The neoliberal…

  14. A Contribution to Real-Time Experiments in Remote Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Janík

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on realization of hard real-time control of experiments in on-line laboratories. The presented solution utilizes already developed on-line laboratory portal that is based on open-source Scilab environment. The customized solution is based on Linux RTAI platform with RTAI-XML server, Comedi and jRTAILab with support of ScicosLab environment. It generates real-time executable code that is used to operate student experiments performed on Humusoft CE152 Magnetic Levitation plant.

  15. Turnaround operations analysis for OTV. Volume 2: Detailed technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The objectives and accomplishments were to adapt and apply the newly created database of Shuttle/Centaur ground operations. Previously defined turnaround operations analyses were to be updated for ground-based OTVs (GBOTVs) and space-based OTVs (SBOTVs), design requirements identified for both OTV and Space Station accommodations hardware, turnaround operations costs estimated, and a technology development plan generated to develop the required capabilities. Technical and programmatic data were provided for NASA pertinent to OTV round and space operations requirements, turnaround operations, task descriptions, timelines and manpower requirements, OTV modular design and booster and Space Station interface requirements. SBOTV accommodations development schedule, cost and turnaround operations requirements, and a technology development plan for ground and space operations and space-based accommodations facilities and support equipment. Significant conclusion are discussed.

  16. Airport Logistics : Modeling and Optimizing the Turn-Around Process

    OpenAIRE

    Norin, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this licentiate thesis is air transportation and especially the logistics at an airport. The concept of airport logistics is investigated based on the following definition: Airport logistics is the planning and control of all resources and information that create a value for the customers utilizing the airport. As a part of the investigation, indicators for airport performance are considered. One of the most complex airport processes is the turn-around process. The turn-around is...

  17. Improving the turnaround maintenance of the Escravos gas plant / Ishekwene, I.V.

    OpenAIRE

    Ishekwene, Isaac Victor

    2011-01-01

    According to Oliver (2002) the success of turnaround maintenances is measured in terms of the cost of completion, time, safety performance and the performance of the plant afterwards. The Escravos gas plant (EGP) is a gas processing plant that converts associated gas from Chevron owned crude oil wells to liquefied petroleum gas, natural gas and gas condensate (Chevron intranet. Website assessed on September 14, 2007). According to the EGP plant operations coordinator (See inter...

  18. An integrated tiered service delivery model (ITSDM based on local CD4 testing demands can improve turn-around times and save costs whilst ensuring accessible and scalable CD4 services across a national programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah K Glencross

    Full Text Available The South African National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS responded to HIV treatment initiatives with two-tiered CD4 laboratory services in 2004. Increasing programmatic burden, as more patients access anti-retroviral therapy (ART, has demanded extending CD4 services to meet increasing clinical needs. The aim of this study was to review existing services and develop a service-model that integrated laboratory-based and point-of-care testing (POCT, to extend national coverage, improve local turn-around/(TAT and contain programmatic costs.NHLS Corporate Data Warehouse CD4 data, from 60-70 laboratories and 4756 referring health facilities was reviewed for referral laboratory workload, respective referring facility volumes and related TAT, from 2009-2012.An integrated tiered service delivery model (ITSDM is proposed. Tier-1/POCT delivers CD4 testing at single health-clinics providing ART in hard-to-reach areas (350-1500 tests/day, serving ≥ 200 health-clinics. Tier-6 provides national support for standardisation, harmonization and quality across the organization.The ITSDM offers improved local TAT by extending CD4 services into rural/remote areas with new Tier-3 or Tier-2/POC-Hub services installed in existing community laboratories, most with developed infrastructure. The advantage of lower laboratory CD4 costs and use of existing infrastructure enables subsidization of delivery of more expensive POC services, into hard-to-reach districts without reasonable access to a local CD4 laboratory. Full ITSDM implementation across 5 service tiers (as opposed to widespread implementation of POC testing to extend service can facilitate sustainable 'full service coverage' across South Africa, and save>than R125 million in HIV/AIDS programmatic costs. ITSDM hierarchical parental-support also assures laboratory/POC management, equipment maintenance, quality control and on-going training between tiers.

  19. Energy turnaround and expansion of the power grids as seen by the population; Energiewende und Stromnetzausbau aus Sicht der Bevoelkerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, Diana; Fischer, Wolfgang; Hake, Juergen-Friedrich [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung, Systemforschung und Technologische Entwicklung (IEK-STE)

    2013-07-15

    The expansion of the power grids is a central component of the energy turnaround. However, time and again transmission line construction projects meet with opposition from parts of the population. For the purposes of implementing the energy turnaround it is therefore of interest to ask what factors could be significant for the degree of public acceptance of power transmission lines. Answers to this question are available from the results of a recent representative panel survey on the acceptance in the population of the transformation of the energy supply system.

  20. An Integrated Gate Turnaround Management Concept Leveraging Big Data/Analytics for NAS Performance Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, William; Chachad, Girish; Hochstetler, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Gate Turnaround Management (IGTM) concept was developed to improve the gate turnaround performance at the airport by leveraging relevant historical data to support optimization of airport gate operations, which include: taxi to the gate, gate services, push back, taxi to the runway, and takeoff, based on available resources, constraints, and uncertainties. By analyzing events of gate operations, primary performance dependent attributes of these events were identified for the historical data analysis such that performance models can be developed based on uncertainties to support descriptive, predictive, and prescriptive functions. A system architecture was developed to examine system requirements in support of such a concept. An IGTM prototype was developed to demonstrate the concept using a distributed network and collaborative decision tools for stakeholders to meet on time pushback performance under uncertainties.

  1. Successful integration of fast track projects into turnarounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J. Patrick; Loureiro, Ramon C. [KBC Advanced Technologies, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Fast track projects can provide quick wins and competitive advantage. However, in most cases the implementation of these projects requires a shutdown for installing the necessary tie-ins or integration into an upcoming turnaround (TA). Depending on the nature of the project and complexity of the TA, the integration can be seamless or result in cost or duration overruns and safety incidents. The risk of such overruns and safety incidents increases with the amount of project work to be integrated into the operations, maintenance and inspection schedules to be executed during the TA. The risk further increases with TA size and other factors. If not planned and scheduled properly and in a timely fashion, capital projects, in particular fast track projects trying to take advantage of an upcoming TA, can severely impact both TA performance, and the safety and reliability of the facility until the next opportunity for eliminating the defects introduced during the TA. Successful TAs are those delivered in a safe, on time, on budget manner, and with the quality standards needed for a leak-free start-up and a safe and reliable operation over the next run cycle. This paper discusses the key elements that are required to minimize the TA risks derived from the inclusion of fast track projects and how to establish the cut off criteria to either cancel or defer the project, or delay the TA in order to balance TA scope freeze and the case for compelling economics.(author)

  2. Developing a lean culture in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoles, Leyda; Quintana, Maria

    2006-07-25

    The Director of Pathology at Jackson Memorial Hospital was interested in improving the operational efficiencies of the department in order to enhance the department's level of service in conjunction with the expansion of the overall health system. The decision was made to implement proven Lean practices in the laboratory under the direction of a major consulting firm. This article details the scope of the initial project as well as the operating principles of Lean manufacturing practices as applied to the clinical laboratory. The goals of the project were to improve turnaround times of laboratory results, reduce inventory and supply costs, improve staff productivity, maximize workflow, and eliminate waste. Extensive data gathering and analysis guided the work process by highlighting the areas of highest opportunity. This systematic approach resulted in recommendations for the workflow and physical layout of the laboratory. It also included the introduction of "standard workflow" and "visual controls" as critical items that streamlined operational efficiencies. The authors provide actual photographs and schematics of the reorganization and improvements to the physical layout of the laboratory. In conclusion, this project resulted in decreased turnaround times and increased productivity, as well as significant savings in the overall laboratory operations.

  3. Improving quality management systems of laboratories in developing countries: an innovative training approach to accelerate laboratory accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Katy; McKinney, Barbara; Murphy, Anna; Rotz, Phil; Wafula, Winnie; Sendagire, Hakim; Okui, Scolastica; Nkengasong, John N

    2010-09-01

    The Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) program was developed to promote immediate, measurable improvement in laboratories of developing countries. The laboratory management framework, a tool that prescribes managerial job tasks, forms the basis of the hands-on, activity-based curriculum. SLMTA is implemented through multiple workshops with intervening site visits to support improvement projects. To evaluate the effectiveness of SLMTA, the laboratory accreditation checklist was developed and subsequently adopted by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO). The SLMTA program and the implementation model were validated through a pilot in Uganda. SLMTA yielded observable, measurable results in the laboratories and improved patient flow and turnaround time in a laboratory simulation. The laboratory staff members were empowered to improve their own laboratories by using existing resources, communicate with clinicians and hospital administrators, and advocate for system strengthening. The SLMTA program supports laboratories by improving management and building preparedness for accreditation.

  4. Policy Perspective: School Turnaround in England. Utilizing the Private Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This paper, written by strategic partner of the Center on School Turnaround (CST), Julie Corbett, provides research and examples on England's approach to turning around its lowest performing schools. The English education system utilizes private vendors to support chronically low-performing schools and districts. The introduction is followed by…

  5. Democratic School Turnarounds: Pursuing Equity and Learning from Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Tina; Renée, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    the report "Democratic School Turnarounds" considers the democratic tensions inherent in the federal School Improvement Grant (SIG) policy's market-based school reforms and critiques the research base that many of these reforms are based on. It concludes with a set of recommendations that re-center the purposes of public education…

  6. Turnaround overdensity as a cosmological observable: the case for a local measurement of $\\Lambda$

    CERN Document Server

    Tanoglidis, Dimitrios; Tomaras, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that, in the context of the $\\Lambda$CDM model, it is in principle possible to measure the value of the cosmological constant by tracing, across cosmic time, the evolution of the turnaround radius of cosmic structures. The novelty of the presented method is that it is local, in the sense that it uses the effect of the cosmological constant on the relatively short scales of cosmic structures and not on the dynamics of the Universe at its largest scales. In this way, it can provide an important consistency check for the standard cosmological model and can give signs of new physics, beyond $\\Lambda$CDM.

  7. QIKMIX: a quick-turnaround computer program for computing opacities of mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdallah, J. Jr.; Huebner, W.F.

    1979-05-01

    QIKMIX is a quick-turnaround computer code developed to compute the radiative Rosseland mean opacity of specified mixtures at specified temperature and density points. The QIKLIB data base, which QIKMIX uses, has been derived from the OPLIB library. For most mixtures, QIKMIX can compute opacities over a temperature range of 50 to 25,000 eV in less than 1 min of CDC 7600 computer time. The purpose of this report is to discuss the QIKLIB data base and the operation of the QIKMIX code.

  8. Realistic modeling of clinical laboratory operation by computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, W; Braun, S L; Hanssmann, F; Liebl, F; Berchtold, G; Blaschke, H; Eckert, M; Hoffmann, G E; Klose, S

    1994-06-01

    An important objective of laboratory management is to adjust the laboratory's capability to the needs of patients' care as well as economy. The consequences of management may be changes in laboratory organization, equipment, or personnel planning. At present only one's individual experience can be used for making such decisions. We have investigated whether the techniques of operations research could be transferred to a clinical laboratory and whether an adequate simulation model of the laboratory could be realized. First we listed and documented the system design and the process flow for each single laboratory request. These input data were linked by the simulation model (programming language SIMSCRIPT II.5). The output data (turnaround times, utilization rates, and analysis of queue length) were validated by comparison with the current performance data obtained by tracking specimen flow. Congruence of the data was excellent (within +/- 4%). In planning experiments we could study the consequences of changes in order entry, staffing, and equipment on turnaround times, utilization, and queue lengths. We conclude that simulation can be a valuable tool for better management decisions.

  9. Time to pregnancy among Danish laboratory technicians who were a part of the National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Danish National Birth Cohort was used to examine whether laboratory work was associated with reduced fecundity. METHODS: Self-reported data on laboratory work and waiting time to pregnancy (0-2, 3-5, 6-12 and > 12 months) were used for 829 female laboratory technicians interviewed...

  10. Comparable Educational Benefits in Half the Time: An Alternating Organic Chemistry Laboratory Sequence Targeting Prehealth Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sherri C.; Colabroy, Keri L.; Baar, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    The laboratory is a mainstay in STEM education, promoting the development of critical thinking skills, dexterity, and scientific curiosity. The goals in the laboratory for nonchemistry, prehealth majors, though, could be distinguished from those for chemistry majors. In service courses such as organic chemistry, much laboratory time is often spent…

  11. Comparable Educational Benefits in Half the Time: An Alternating Organic Chemistry Laboratory Sequence Targeting Prehealth Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sherri C.; Colabroy, Keri L.; Baar, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    The laboratory is a mainstay in STEM education, promoting the development of critical thinking skills, dexterity, and scientific curiosity. The goals in the laboratory for nonchemistry, prehealth majors, though, could be distinguished from those for chemistry majors. In service courses such as organic chemistry, much laboratory time is often spent…

  12. Time and Frequency Activities at the JHU Applied Physics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Resolution Offset Generator  2 GPS Time Transfer Receivers Time and Frequency Dissemination  1 MHz, 5 MHz, 10 MHz, 100 MHz  1 PPS  IRIG ...B APL Local Time  IRIG -B UTC  Common View GPS Time Transfer •NIST, USNO, BIPM 41 st Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting...MASER* CESIUM 3 MICROPHASE STEPPER 5 MHZ DISTRIBUTION APL TIMESCALE PROCESSOR PREDICTION ALGORITHM TIMECODE 1PPS & IRIG 8 CHANNEL GPS A

  13. Comparison between the turnaround time and the elapsed time of different experimental diagnostic projects for acute promyelocytic leukemia%不同急性早幼粒细胞白血病诊断性检验项目的周转时间及总消耗时间的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖作淼; 肖德俊; 何程明; 余路虎; 石远苹; 王小中

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the turnaround time (TAT) and the elapsed time (TET) of different experimental diagnostic projects for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). that provide evidence for early diagnosis and treatment of APL. Methods TAT and TET of different experimental diagnostic projects for 20 newly diagnosed APL patients were collected and analyzed ,those di-agnostic projects included morphological findings,immunophenotype,cytogenetics,and molecular studies (MICM) in peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM),TET between the initiation of induction therapy with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and hospital admission also was analyzed. Results TAT and TET of different experimental diagnostic projects,including cell morphology of PB,informal reports of BM morphology,formal reports of BM morphology,immunophenotyping,chromosome analysis,molecular studies of PML/RARa fusion gene,were (2.6±2.6)h/(5.8±5.5)h,(2.4±0.5)h/(20.6±12.3)h,(26.9±19.9)h/(40.4±24.9)h,(23.5±9. 1)h/(62.1±32.2)h,(259.9±82.8)h/(283.1±94.4)h,(67.4±26.4)h/(98.5±39.6)h respectively. Compare to cell morphology of PB, there was significantly difference(P<0.01) with TAT and TET in all projects,except TAT of informal reports of BM (P=0.246). TET of initial treatment with ATRA was (7.0±29.1)h. There was no difference with TET of cell morphology of PB(P=0.778). Conclu-sion Cell morphology of PB could provide evidence quickly for newly diagnosed APL,and contribute to cutting down TAT of infor-mal reports of BM morphology. The combination of cell morphology of PB and BM (informal report) could effectively provide exper-imental evidences for induction therapy with ATRA in APL patients as soon as possible. Consequently ,these may create conditions to reduce the early death rate in newly diagnosed patients with APL.%目的:比较急性早幼粒细胞白血病(acute promyelocytic leukemia,APL)诊断性检验项目的周转时间(turn around time,TAT)及总消耗时间(the elapsed time,TET

  14. Adapting lean to histology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesa, René J

    2009-10-01

    Histology laboratories (histolabs) can increase productivity and reduce turnaround time and errors by using any one of several available management tools. After a few years of operation, all histolabs develop workflow problems. Histology laboratories handling more than 20,000 cases per year benefit the most from implementing management tools, as occurred in the 25 facilities summarized in this article. Discontinuous workflow, lack of "pulling" between steps, accepting unavoidable waiting times while working with small batches within work cells, and a workflow with an uneven rate of completion, are some of the adaptations required by the Lean system when it is used in histology because 70% of the tasks are manual and the flow has to be interrupted to add value to the pieces of tissue during tissue processing, no matter how short that step is. After all these adaptations are incorporated, the histolab becomes as "Lean" as it can be, and the qualifier is also a recognition of the effort and personnel involvement in the implementation. Given its service nature, productivity increments do not expand the histolab customer base and could lead to staffing reductions. This is one of the causes of reluctance by some employees for implementing these techniques which are mostly driven by cost reductions sought by insurance companies and administrators, and not necessarily because of a real medical need to reduce the turnaround time. Finally, any histolab wanting to improve its workflow can follow some easy steps presented here as a guide to accomplish that objective. These steps stress the need for the supervisors to insure that the personnel in the histology laboratory are being paid at a comparable rate as other histolabs in the area.

  15. [Pneumatic tube system for transport of laboratory samples: preanalytical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Judit; Lenkey, Ágota; V Oláh, Anna; Köteles, Julianna; Kissné Sziráki, Valéria; Kerényi, Adrienne; Kappelmayer, János

    2014-07-13

    A considerable proportion of laboratory errors occurs in the preanalytical phase. The aims of the authors were to study preanalytical errors in routine and emergency laboratory diagnostics in a regional clinical laboratory and evaluate the effect of the pneumatic tube system on turnaround time and laboratory results. The ratio of preanalytical errors and reasons of test rejection were analysed. In addition, the effects of pneumatic tube and manual transport on the occurrence of hemolysis and platelet activation were compared. Using the pneumatic tube transport system, preanalytical error was below 1%. The main causes of test rejection were haemolysis in case of serum samples, and clot formation and citrate excess in anticoagulated samples. The pneumatic tube transport resulted in significantly faster sample transport, more equalized sample arrival and processing, hence the turnaround time became shorter both for routine and emergency tests. Autovalidation and proper control of preanalytical errors are essential for rapid and reliable laboratory service supported by the pneumatic tube system for sample transport.

  16. Turnaround strategies: Prípadová štúdia spoločnosti Yahoo!

    OpenAIRE

    Kartalová, Petra

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor thesis focuses on Marissa Mayer's turnaround strategy in Yahoo. The thesis consists of three parts. The first part deals with the theoretical concept of a turnaround. In the second part, the whole Internet Industry Provider Industry is being analysed, as well as the main reasons that led Yahoo to fall behind the competition and lose its user base. The last part of the thesis deals with the particular turnaround strategy and its four main components -- people, products, traffic a...

  17. A Software Engineering Paradigm for Quick-turnaround Earth Science Data Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K.

    2016-12-01

    As is generally the case with applied sciences professional and educational programs, the participants of such programs can come from a variety of technical backgrounds. In the NASA DEVELOP National Program, the participants constitute an interdisciplinary set of backgrounds, with varying levels of experience with computer programming. DEVELOP makes use of geographically explicit data sets, and it is necessary to use geographic information systems and geospatial image processing environments. As data sets cover longer time spans and include more complex sets of parameters, automation is becoming an increasingly prevalent feature. Though platforms such as ArcGIS, ERDAS Imagine, and ENVI facilitate the batch-processing of geospatial imagery, these environments are naturally constricting to the user in that they limit him or her to the tools that are available. Users must then turn to "homemade" scripting in more traditional programming languages such as Python, JavaScript, or R, to automate workflows. However, in the context of quick-turnaround projects like those in DEVELOP, the programming learning curve may be prohibitively steep. In this work, we consider how to best design a software development paradigm that addresses two major constants: an arbitrarily experienced programmer and quick-turnaround project timelines.

  18. Time to pregnancy among Danish laboratory technicians who were a part of the National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo;

    2005-01-01

    ) 0.86-1.02] for all pregnancies and 0.98 (95% CI 0.86-1.13) for first pregnancies. A healthy worker effect was found for the laboratory technicians working with the work processes under study. CONCLUSIONS: The results do not suggest that laboratory work in Denmark at present impairs female fecundity.......OBJECTIVES: The Danish National Birth Cohort was used to examine whether laboratory work was associated with reduced fecundity. METHODS: Self-reported data on laboratory work and waiting time to pregnancy (0-2, 3-5, 6-12 and > 12 months) were used for 829 female laboratory technicians interviewed...

  19. The Benefits and Challenges of an Interfaced Electronic Health Record and Laboratory Information System: Effects on Laboratory Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrides, Athena K; Bixho, Ida; Goonan, Ellen M; Bates, David W; Shaykevich, Shimon; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Landman, Adam B; Tanasijevic, Milenko J; Melanson, Stacy E F

    2017-03-01

    - A recent government regulation incentivizes implementation of an electronic health record (EHR) with computerized order entry and structured results display. Many institutions have also chosen to interface their EHR with their laboratory information system (LIS). - To determine the impact of an interfaced EHR-LIS on laboratory processes. - We analyzed several different processes before and after implementation of an interfaced EHR-LIS: the turnaround time, the number of stat specimens received, venipunctures per patient per day, preanalytic errors in phlebotomy, the number of add-on tests using a new electronic process, and the number of wrong test codes ordered. Data were gathered through the LIS and/or EHR. - The turnaround time for potassium and hematocrit decreased significantly (P = .047 and P = .004, respectively). The number of stat orders also decreased significantly, from 40% to 7% for potassium and hematocrit, respectively (P < .001 for both). Even though the average number of inpatient venipunctures per day increased from 1.38 to 1.62 (P < .001), the average number of preanalytic errors per month decreased from 2.24 to 0.16 per 1000 specimens (P < .001). Overall there was a 16% increase in add-on tests. The number of wrong test codes ordered was high and it was challenging for providers to correctly order some common tests. - An interfaced EHR-LIS significantly improved within-laboratory turnaround time and decreased stat requests and preanalytic phlebotomy errors. Despite increasing the number of add-on requests, an electronic add-on process increased efficiency and improved provider satisfaction. Laboratories implementing an interfaced EHR-LIS should be cautious of its effects on test ordering and patient venipunctures per day.

  20. Time to pregnancy among Danish laboratory technicians who were a part of the National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2005-01-01

    in 1997-2003. Altogether 6250 female teachers formed the reference group. A discrete-time survival analysis with a complementary log-log link was applied to estimate the fecundability ratio between the exposed and unexposed women, with adjustment for maternal age, gravidity, smoking, prepregnancy body......OBJECTIVES: The Danish National Birth Cohort was used to examine whether laboratory work was associated with reduced fecundity. METHODS: Self-reported data on laboratory work and waiting time to pregnancy (0-2, 3-5, 6-12 and > 12 months) were used for 829 female laboratory technicians interviewed...... mass index, and paternal job. RESULTS: No difference in time to pregnancy was found between the laboratory technicians and teachers or between the laboratory technicians with different exposures. The adjusted fecundability ratio for the laboratory technicians was 0.94 [95% confidence interval (95% CI...

  1. Meeting the challenge of a group practice turnaround.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porn, L M

    2001-03-01

    Many healthcare organizations that acquired group practices to enhance their market share have found that the practices have not met their financial goals. Turning around a financially troubled, hospital-owned group practice is challenging but not impossible for healthcare organizations that take certain basic actions. Direction, data, desire, dedication, and drive must be present to effect the financial turnaround of a group practice. The healthcare organization needs to evaluate the practice's strategy and operations and identify the issues that are hindering the practice's ability to optimize revenues. Efforts to achieve profitable operations have to be ongoing.

  2. The Timing Activities of the National Time and Frequency Standard Laboratory of the Telecommunication Laboratories, CHT Co. Ltd., Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    via the IRIG -B code dissemination system by a dedicated lease lines and broadcast through PSTN 24 hours a day automatically. Figure 3...Taiwan’s Computer Time Service (TCTS) system in 1998, an ACTS-like telephone line service system. It is synchronized to UTC (TL) with the IRIG -B

  3. Implementation of Time and Frequency Response Analysis for Web-Based Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teyana Sapula

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The University of Dar Es Salaam has developed the web-based laboratory for Time and Frequency Response Analysis. The purpose of this web-based laboratory is the utilization of real data from real experiments, in terms of instrumentation and experimental circuits, rather than simulations. The use of webbased laboratory came after realizing the difficulties imposed by the traditional laboratories. Web-based laboratories allow students and educators to interact with real laboratory equipment located anywhere in the world at anytime. This paper presents the implementation of web-based laboratory of single stage common emitter, resistor capacitor coupled amplifier using National Instruments Educational Laboratory Virtual Instrument Suite platform. Two components are deployed: time response analysis and frequency response analysis. The experiment allows students to carryout time and frequency analysis of the amplifier. The modular can be used to any microelectronic circuits to carry out any time response and frequency response analysis. Both the time response and frequency response analysis results of the amplifier are validated.

  4. School Turnaround Fever: The Paradoxes of a Historical Practice Promoted as a New Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Craig; Reitzug, Ulrich C.

    2014-01-01

    School "turnaround" has received significant attention recently in education literature and policy action, especially as a means to dramatically improve urban education. In current common education usage, "turnaround" refers to the rapid, significant improvement in the academic achievement of persistently low-achieving schools.…

  5. School Turnarounds: Resisting the Hype, Giving Them Hope. Education Outlook No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Frederick M.; Gift, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Education reformers are abuzz over school "turnarounds," a simple idea that has undeniable appeal. School turnarounds offer the opportunity to take familiar educational institutions and improve them through coaching, mentoring, capacity building, best practices, and other existing tools. Unlike most reform efforts, which focus on incremental…

  6. Translating a National Laboratory Strategic Plan into action through SLMTA in a district hospital laboratory in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keoratile Ntshambiwa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Ministry of Health (MOH of Botswana adopted Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA, a structured quality improvement programme, as a key tool for the implementation of quality management systems in its public health laboratories. Coupled with focused mentorship, this programme aimed to help MOH achieve the goals of the National Laboratory Strategic Plan to provide quality and timely clinical diagnosis.Objectives: This article describes the impact of implementing SLMTA in Sekgoma Memorial Hospital Laboratory (SMHL in Serowe, Botswana.Methods: SLMTA implementation in SMHL included trainings, improvement projects, site visits and focused mentorship. To measure progress, audits using the Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA checklist were conducted at baseline and exit of the programme, with scores corresponding to a zero- to five-star scale.Turnaround times and customer satisfaction were tracked.Results: The laboratory scored 53% (zero stars at the baseline audit and 80% (three stars at exit. Nearly three years later, the laboratory scored 85% (four stars in an official audit conducted by the African Society for Laboratory Medicine. Turnaround times became shorter after SLMTA implementation, with reductions ranging 19% to 52%; overall patient satisfaction increased from 56% to 73%; and clinician satisfaction increased from 41% to 72%. Improvements in inventory management led to decreases in discarded reagents, reducinglosses from US $18 000 in 2011 to $40 in 2013.Conclusion: The SLMTA programme contributed to enhanced performance of the laboratory,which in turn yielded potential positive impacts for patient care at the hospital.

  7. Evaluation of Radiometers in Full-Time Use at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, S. M.; Myers, D. R.

    2008-12-01

    This report describes the evaluation of the relative performance of the complement of solar radiometers deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL).

  8. Turnaround strategies for companies in crisis: Watch out the causes of decline before firing people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Santana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available When a company goes into crisis, the first and most typical response is the dismissal of people, even before considering the sources of the decline. Although the reduction of costs may seem a quick and reasonable measure in this context, downsizing is not the only possibility, nor the most advisable response when facing decline. In turn, by identifying and understanding the sources of decline in time, a company may want to decide on human resource (HR alternatives to layoffs. This research shows how the HR responses of declining companies should be in line with the sources of the decline. Adopting a configurational perspective, we propose a model of analysis that links sources of decline, turnaround strategy, and HR strategy (HRS and practices. This model identifies four basic HRS for organizations in decline, according to its sources: flexibility-oriented, efficiency-oriented, niche-oriented, and maintenance-oriented HRS.

  9. Evolution of a residue laboratory network and the management tools for monitoring its performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, E S; Conceição, E S; Mauricio, A De Q

    2012-01-01

    Since 2005 the National Residue & Contaminants Control Plan (NRCCP) in Brazil has been considerably enhanced, increasing the number of samples, substances and species monitored, and also the analytical detection capability. The Brazilian laboratory network was forced to improve its quality standards in order to comply with the NRCP's own evolution. Many aspects such as the limits of quantification (LOQs), the quality management systems within the laboratories and appropriate method validation are in continuous improvement, generating new scenarios and demands. Thus, efficient management mechanisms for monitoring network performance and its adherence to the established goals and guidelines are required. Performance indicators associated to computerised information systems arise as a powerful tool to monitor the laboratories' activity, making use of different parameters to describe this activity on a day-to-day basis. One of these parameters is related to turnaround times, and this factor is highly affected by the way each laboratory organises its management system, as well as the regulatory requirements. In this paper a global view is presented of the turnaround times related to the type of analysis, laboratory, number of samples per year, type of matrix, country region and period of the year, all these data being collected from a computerised system called SISRES. This information gives a solid background to management measures aiming at the improvement of the service offered by the laboratory network.

  10. Laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling, Rosanna W

    1995-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important cause of respiratory illness. There is a need for accurate and rapid laboratory diagnostic methods that will lead to improved patient care, appropriate use of antimicrobial therapy and a better understanding of the epidemiology of this emerging pathogen. Culture is highly specific but is technically demanding, expensive, has a long turnaround time and its sensitivity is highly dependent on transport conditions. Antigen detection tests such as enzyme immunoassay and direct fluorescent antibody assay, and molecular detection methods such as the polymerase chain reaction assay, may provide a rapid diagnosis without the requirement for stringent transport conditions. The results of these tests should be interpreted with caution until more thorough evaluation is available. Serology remains the method of choice. The limitations of different serological methods for the laboratory diagnosis of C pneumoniae are discussed. PMID:22514397

  11. Laboratory Diagnosis of Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna W Peeling

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important cause of respiratory illness. There is a need for accurate and rapid laboratory diagnostic methods that will lead to improved patient care, appropriate use of antimicrobial therapy and a better understanding of the epidemiology of this emerging pathogen. Culture is highly specific but is technically demanding, expensive, has a long turnaround time and its sensitivity is highly dependent on transport conditions. Antigen detection tests such as enzyme immunoassay and direct fluorescent antibody assay, and molecular detection methods such as the polymerase chain reaction assay, may provide a rapid diagnosis without the requirement for stringent transport conditions. The results of these tests should be interpreted with caution until more thorough evaluation is available. Serology remains the method of choice. The limitations of different serological methods for the laboratory diagnosis of C pneumoniae are discussed.

  12. Sociology of the energy turnaround. Renewable energy sources and transition of rural regions; Soziologie der Energiewende. Erneuerbare Energien und die Transition des laendlichen Raums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunze, Conrad

    2012-11-01

    German politicians, industry and society are working on the 'energy turnaround'. While changes in centralized power generation and transmission are going slow, there is an increasing number of 'test laboratories' in rural regions as communities and villages abandon imported fossil fuels and generate their own power on the basis of solar, wind and geothermal resources. In his study, the author investigates the transition phase using tools of empirical sociology. He shows that local processes reflect the importance of the energy turnaround as a cultural change and as a full-scale transformation of rural regions. The development of local, decentral energy infrastructures is interpreted theoretically as an interdependence between social and technological compolexity. The further geographic diffusion of the model in German-language regions can thus be explained as a consequence of specific social structures.

  13. The Henry Ford production system: LEAN process redesign improves service in the molecular diagnostic laboratory: a paper from the 2008 William Beaumont hospital symposium on molecular pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankovic, Milena; Varney, Ruan C; Whiteley, Lisa; Brown, Ron; D'Angelo, Rita; Chitale, Dhananjay; Zarbo, Richard J

    2009-09-01

    Accurate and timely molecular test results play an important role in patient management; consequently, there is a customer expectation of short testing turnaround times. Baseline data analysis revealed that the greatest challenge to timely result generation occurred in the preanalytic phase of specimen collection and transport. Here, we describe our efforts to improve molecular testing turnaround times by focusing primarily on redesign of preanalytic processes using the principles of LEAN production. Our goal was to complete greater than 90% of the molecular tests in less than 3 days. The project required cooperation from different laboratory disciplines as well as individuals outside of the laboratory. The redesigned processes involved defining and standardizing the protocols and approaching blood and tissue specimens as analytes for molecular testing. The LEAN process resulted in fewer steps, approaching the ideal of a one-piece flow for specimens through collection/retrieval, transport, and different aspects of the testing process. The outcome of introducing the LEAN process has been a 44% reduction in molecular test turnaround time for tissue specimens, from an average of 2.7 to 1.5 days. In addition, extending LEAN work principles to the clinician suppliers has resulted in a markedly increased number of properly collected and shipped blood specimens (from 50 to 87%). These continuous quality improvements were accomplished by empowered workers in a blame-free environment and are now being sustained with minimal management involvement.

  14. Physician satisfaction with clinical laboratory services: a College of American Pathologists Q-probes study of 138 institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bruce A; Bekeris, Leonas G; Nakhleh, Raouf E; Walsh, Molly K; Valenstein, Paul N

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring customer satisfaction is a valuable component of a laboratory quality improvement program. To survey the level of physician satisfaction with hospital clinical laboratory services. Participating institutions provided demographic and practice information and survey results of physician satisfaction with defined aspects of clinical laboratory services, rated on a scale of 1 (poor) to 5 (excellent). One hundred thirty-eight institutions participated in this study and submitted a total of 4329 physician surveys. The overall satisfaction score for all institutions ranged from 2.9 to 5.0. The median overall score for all participants was 4.1 (10th percentile, 3.6; 90th percentile, 4.5). Physicians were most satisfied with the quality/reliability of results and staff courtesy, with median values of excellent or good ratings of 89.9%. Of the 5 service categories that received the lowest percentage values of excellent/good ratings (combined scores of 4 and 5), 4 were related to turnaround time for inpatient stat, outpatient stat, routine, and esoteric tests. Surveys from half of the participating laboratories reported that 96% to 100% of physicians would recommend the laboratory to other physicians. The category most frequently selected as the most important category of laboratory services was quality/reliability of results (31.7%). There continues to be a high level of physician satisfaction and loyalty with clinical laboratory services. Test turnaround times are persistent categories of dissatisfaction and present opportunities for improvement.

  15. Usage of OpenStack Virtual Machine and MATLAB HPC Add-on leads to faster turnaround

    KAUST Repository

    Van Waveren, Matthijs

    2017-03-16

    We need to run hundreds of MATLAB® simulations while changing the parameters between each simulation. These simulations need to be run sequentially, and the parameters are defined manually from one simulation to the next. This makes this type of workload unsuitable for a shared cluster. For this reason we are using a cluster running in an OpenStack® Virtual Machine and are using the MATLAB HPC Add-on for submitting jobs to the cluster. As a result we are now able to have a turnaround time for the simulations of the order of a few hours, instead of the 24 hours needed on a local workstation.

  16. Is "Turnaround" a useful model for low-performing schools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Stotsky

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Since passage of the No Child Left Behind act in 2001, all states have been under federal pressure to identify “failing schools.” The US Department of Education has strongly encouraged “turnaround” as an option for schools to use in order to improve student achievement. The study reported here reviewed the research literature on school “turnaround,” with a particular focus on the results in Arkansas of the use of the same “turnaround” partner (America’s Choice for over five years for many of the state’s “failing” elementary, middle, and high schools. There was little evidence to support either this partner or this policy option. The lack of evidence raises a basic question about the usefulness and cost of the federal government’s intervention in local education policy. Nor is it clear how a new program titled Excellence for All now offered by the developers of America’s Choice will differ. It is described as follows: “Excellence for All provides a clear, practical strategy for every student to graduate from high school prepared to succeed in college or in a program of career and technical education that will lead to a successful career.” We are also told: “Excellence for All is aligned with the Common Core State Standards, enabling participating high schools to not just lay the foundation for the Common Core but to get a head start on implementation.” According to a draft of a yet-to-be-voted-on re-authorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA/NCLB, state departments of education are to submit “college-ready” standards for approval by the USDE if they want Title I funds. However, state legislators, local school board members, parents, and a state’s own higher education academic experts are excluded from approving the standards their state department of education submits, perhaps to ensure that only the “right” standards are submitted. If the language in the current re

  17. Results from laboratory tests of the two-dimensional Time-Encoded Imaging System.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marleau, Peter; Brennan, James S.; Brubaker, Erik; Gerling, Mark D; Le Galloudec, Nathalie Joelle

    2014-09-01

    A series of laboratory experiments were undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility of two dimensional time-encoded imaging. A prototype two-dimensional time encoded imaging system was designed and constructed. Results from imaging measurements of single and multiple point sources as well as extended source distributions are presented. Time encoded imaging has proven to be a simple method for achieving high resolution two-dimensional imaging with potential to be used in future arms control and treaty verification applications.

  18. Service quality framework for clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramessur, Vinaysing; Hurreeram, Dinesh Kumar; Maistry, Kaylasson

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate a service quality framework that enhances service delivery in clinical laboratories by gauging medical practitioner satisfaction and by providing avenues for continuous improvement. The case study method has been used for conducting the exploratory study, with focus on the Mauritian public clinical laboratory. A structured questionnaire based on the SERVQUAL service quality model was used for data collection, analysis and for the development of the service quality framework. The study confirms the pertinence of the following service quality dimensions within the context of clinical laboratories: tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, turnaround time, technology, test reports, communication and laboratory staff attitude and behaviour. The service quality framework developed, termed LabSERV, is vital for clinical laboratories in the search for improving service delivery to medical practitioners. This is a pioneering work carried out in the clinical laboratory sector in Mauritius. Medical practitioner expectations and perceptions have been simultaneously considered to generate a novel service quality framework for clinical laboratories.

  19. Teacher Pay-for-Performance in School Turnaround: How Bonuses and Differentiated Pay Scales Can Help Support School Turnaround. Meeting the Turnaround Challenge: Strategies, Resources & Tools to Transform a Framework into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass Insight Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Given the importance of good teaching and leadership for school success, turnaround schools should think carefully about how to structure professional environments that reward and motivate excellence. A system of "Pay-for-Contribution" that includes tools such as hard-to-staff and skill shortage pay, performance pay, and/or retention pay, will…

  20. Network time and frequency transfer with GNSS receivers located in time laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerretto, Giancarlo; Perucca, Andrea; Tavella, Patrizia; Mozo, Alvaro; Piriz, Ricardo; Romay, Miguel

    2010-06-01

    In this paper we investigate a possible network solution, similar to the IGS analysis center solutions, that can be easily managed by a network of timing institutes to solve for all the clock differences (in addition to other quantities) in a unique system to understand the feasibility and the advantages of this approach in time and frequency transfer. The investigation is based on a suite of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) software products that allows the users to perform a wide range of calculations and analyses related to GNSS, from the evaluation of performances at the user level to the computation of precise GNSS orbits and clocks, including the calculation of precise receiver coordinates. The time and frequency transfer capabilities of the network solution (named ODTS) are evaluated and compared with PPP solutions as well as to other time transfer results.

  1. Process evaluation of an open architecture real-time molecular laboratory platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Robin A; Jackson, Keith D; Walter, Adam M

    2014-10-01

    The needs of molecular diagnostic laboratories that perform both Food and Drug Administration-cleared as well as laboratory-developed tests are usually not met on a single analytical platform. Furthermore, little information is available about the direct impact of molecular automation on labor costs and efficiency in clinical laboratories. We performed a process impact analysis from time and motion studies of a novel molecular diagnostic robotic system designed to automate sample preparation, extraction, and analysis. All 27 preanalytical tasks were quantified for the amount of time spent preparing 24 specimens for analysis. These steps were completed in 899 s (14 min, 59 s) followed by 7887 s (131 min, 27 s) of instrument operation independent of operator control (walk-away time). Postanalytical results evaluation required 1 min per specimen. The instrument automatically extracted the nucleic acid from the specimen, added the eluted DNA to the amplification reagents, and performed the analysis. Only 12% of the total instrument operations required relatively unskilled human labor. Thus, the availability of automated molecular diagnostic instruments will facilitate the expansion of molecular testing in the clinical laboratory because they reduce operator costs with respect to time and complexity of the tasks they are asked to perform.

  2. Physician Satisfaction With Clinical Laboratory Services: A College of American Pathologists Q-Probes Study of 81 Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Shannon J; Souers, Rhona J; Blond, Barbara; Massie, Larry

    2016-10-01

    -Assessment of customer satisfaction is a vital component of the laboratory quality improvement program. -To survey the level of physician satisfaction with hospital clinical laboratory services. -Participating institutions provided demographic information and survey results of physician satisfaction, with specific features of clinical laboratory services individually rated on a scale of 5 (excellent) to 1 (poor). -Eighty-one institutions submitted 2425 surveys. The median overall satisfaction score was 4.2 (10th percentile, 3.6; 90th percentile, 4.6). Of the 16 surveyed areas receiving the highest percentage of excellent/good ratings (combined scores of 4 and 5), quality of results was highest along with test menu adequacy, staff courtesy, and overall satisfaction. Of the 4 categories receiving the lowest percentage values of excellent/good ratings, 3 were related to turnaround time for inpatient "STAT" (tests performed immediately), outpatient STAT, and esoteric tests. The fourth was a new category presented in this survey: ease of electronic order entry. Here, 11.4% (241 of 2121) of physicians assigned below-average (2) or poor (1) scores. The 5 categories deemed most important to physicians included quality of results, turnaround times for inpatient STAT, routine, and outpatient STAT tests, and clinical report format. Overall satisfaction as measured by physician willingness to recommend their laboratory to another physician remains high at 94.5% (2160 of 2286 respondents). -There is a continued trend of high physician satisfaction and loyalty with clinical laboratory services. Physician dissatisfaction with ease of electronic order entry represents a new challenge. Test turnaround times are persistent areas of dissatisfaction, representing areas for improvement.

  3. New Discoveries in Galaxies across Cosmic Time through Advances in Laboratory Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Brickhouse, AAS WGLA: Nancy; Drake, Paul; Federman, Steven; Ferland, Gary; Frank, Adam; Herbst, Eric; Olive, Keith; Salama, Farid; Savin, Daniel Wolf; Ziurys, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    As the Galaxies across Cosmic Time (GCT) panel is fully aware, the next decade will see major advances in our understanding of these areas of research. To quote from their charge, these advances will occur in studies of the formation, evolution, and global properties of galaxies and galaxy clusters, as well as active galactic nuclei and QSOs, mergers, star formation rate, gas accretion, and supermassive black holes. Central to the progress in these areas are the corresponding advances in laboratory astrophysics that are required for fully realizing the GCT scientific opportunities within the decade 2010-2020. Laboratory astrophysics comprises both theoretical and experimental studies of the underlying physics that produce the observed astrophysical processes. The 5 areas of laboratory astrophysics that we have identified as relevant to the CFP panel are atomic, molecular, solid matter, plasma, nuclear, and particle physics. In this white paper, we describe in Section 2 some of the new scientific opportunities...

  4. Which laboratory variable is related with time trial performance time in the Tour de France?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, A; Hoyos, J; Perez, M; Santalla, A; Earnest, C; Chicharro, J

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between several physiological variables that can be easily obtained during cycle ergometer gradual testing (for example, peak power output (Wpeak), VO2max, or ventilatory threshold (VT)) and actual (>50 km) time trials (TT) time performance during the Tour de France. Methods: We collected data in professional cyclists from the first TT of the 1998 Tour de France (TT1, 58 km distance; n = 6 cyclists) and the first (TT2, 56.5 km; n = 5) and second TT of the 1999 Tour de France (TT3, 57 km; n = 5). Results: A negative relationship was found between power output (W) at VT (VTWatt) and TT final time (s) in TT1 (r = –0.864; p = 0.026; standard error of estimate (SEE) of 73 s; and 95% confidence limits (95% CL) –0.98; –0.18), TT2 (r = –0.77; p = 0.27; SEE of 139 s; and 95% CL –0.98; 0.35), and TT3 (r = –0.923; p = 0.025; SEE of 94 s; and 95% CL –1.00; –0.22). Conclusions: Actual performance in long TT during the Tour de France (>50 km distance, performed after at least 1–2 weeks of continuous competition), in which some cumulative fatigue inevitably occurs, is related, at least in part, to the power output that elicits the VT. No other routine physiological variable (for example, VO2max or Wpeak) is related to performance in this type of event. PMID:15388555

  5. Real-time laboratory exercises to test contingency plans for classical swine fever: experiences from two national laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koenen, K.; Uttenthal, Åse; Meindl-Böhmer, A.

    2007-01-01

    In order to adequately and efficiently handle outbreaks of contagious diseases such as classical swine fever (CSF), foot and mouth disease or highly pathogenic avian influenza, competent authorities and the laboratories involved have to be well prepared and must be in possession of functioning...... of a well-documented laboratory contingency plan. The major pitfalls encountered were shortage of space, difficulties in guaranteeing biosecurity and sufficient supplies of sterile equipment and consumables. The need for a standardised laboratory information management system, that is used by all those...

  6. Time-resolved Rocking Curve Measurement Method using Laboratory X-ray Source

    OpenAIRE

    林, 雄二郎; 佐藤, 真伸; 古賀, 三井; 佃, 昇; 蔵元, 英一

    2005-01-01

    Fast x-ray detectors and fast signal processing devices have enabled to measure time dependence of x-ray diffraction intensity. Using a fast x-ray detection system, we have developed a time-resolved measurement method of rocking curves with a laboratory x-ray source. The method has been demonstrated for time-resolved rocking curves from an ultrasound-vibrated silicon crystal in MHz range. The measured rocking curves have been consistent with simulated curves based on the dynamical diffraction...

  7. Time study of clinical and nonclinical workload in pathology and laboratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Martin J; Larsen, Erik T; Tait, Nicholas; Wright, James R

    2009-06-01

    We describe a detailed, cross-sectional, self-report time study of laboratory physician tasks in a regionalized, multisite academic setting, using custom data collection templates programmed into personal digital assistants (PDAs). The 7-week study was completed by 56 medical and scientific staff (86% participation rate). Participants recorded 12,781 PDA entries of specific tasks completed during the study period. The mean number of entries per worked day per participant was 8.14 (range, 1.96-14.33). Study results demonstrated that professional staff worked, on average, 53.5 hours per week. Percentage work time spent in each activity area was as follows: clinical, direct, 50.6%; administration, 18.5%; clinical, indirect, 9.5%; research, 8.2%; learning/continuing education, 5.3%; teaching, 4.9%; and quality assurance, 3.1%. These percentages varied significantly by laboratory medicine subspecialty and by type of academic appointment. The findings confirm that activities not directly involved with patient care, such as administration, quality assurance, teaching, research, and professional development, typically occupy 40% to 50% of a laboratory physician's time.

  8. Performance of a weighing rain gauge under laboratory simulated time-varying reference rainfall rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, M.; Lanza, L. G.; La Barbera, P.

    2013-09-01

    The available calibration experiences about rain intensity gauges relying on the weighing measuring principle are based on laboratory tests performed under constant reference flow rate conditions. Although the Weighing Gauges (WG) do provide better performance than more traditional Tipping Bucket Rain Gauges (TBR) under constant reference flow rates, dynamic effects do impact on the accuracy of WG measurements under real-world/time-varying rainfall conditions. The most relevant biases are due to the response time of the measurement system and the derived systematic delay in assessing the exact weight of the volume of cumulated precipitation collected in the container. This delay assumes a relevant role in case high resolution rainfall intensity (RI) time series are sought from the instrument, as is the case of many hydrologic and meteo-climatic applications (the one-minute time resolution recommended by the WMO for rainfall intensity measurements is here assumed). A significant sampling error is also attributable to some kind of weighing gauge, which affects the low intensity range as well. A laboratory investigation of the accuracy and precision of a modern weighing gauge manufactured by OTT (Pluvio2) under unsteady-state reference RI conditions is here addressed. Three different laboratory test conditions are applied: single and double step variations of the reference flow rate and a simulated real-world event. The preliminary development and validation of a suitable rainfall simulator for the generation of time-variable reference intensities is presented. The generator is demonstrated to have a sufficiently short time response with respect to the expected instrument behavior in order to ensure effective comparison of the measured vs. reference intensities. The measurements obtained from the WG are compared with those derived from a traditional TBR (manufactured by Casella) under the same laboratory conditions. The TBR measurements have been corrected to account

  9. Real-Time Microbiology Laboratory Surveillance System to Detect Abnormal Events and Emerging Infections, Marseille, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abat, Cédric; Chaudet, Hervé; Colson, Philippe; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier

    2015-08-01

    Infectious diseases are a major threat to humanity, and accurate surveillance is essential. We describe how to implement a laboratory data-based surveillance system in a clinical microbiology laboratory. Two historical Microsoft Excel databases were implemented. The data were then sorted and used to execute the following 2 surveillance systems in Excel: the Bacterial real-time Laboratory-based Surveillance System (BALYSES) for monitoring the number of patients infected with bacterial species isolated at least once in our laboratory during the study periodl and the Marseille Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance System (MARSS), which surveys the primary β-lactam resistance phenotypes for 15 selected bacterial species. The first historical database contained 174,853 identifications of bacteria, and the second contained 12,062 results of antibiotic susceptibility testing. From May 21, 2013, through June 4, 2014, BALYSES and MARSS enabled the detection of 52 abnormal events for 24 bacterial species, leading to 19 official reports. This system is currently being refined and improved.

  10. Real-time laboratory exercises to test contingency plans for classical swine fever: experiences from two national laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koenen, K.; Uttenthal, Åse; Meindl-Böhmer, A.

    2007-01-01

    In order to adequately and efficiently handle outbreaks of contagious diseases such as classical swine fever (CSF), foot and mouth disease or highly pathogenic avian influenza, competent authorities and the laboratories involved have to be well prepared and must be in possession of functioning co...

  11. Lean-Agile Adaptations in Clinical Laboratory Accredited ISO 15189

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vilaplana Pérez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It’s introduced Lean techniques in a Clinical Laboratory to improve the operability and the efficiency in continuous processes of analysis, failsafe systems, analysis of areas of value pursuit of zero defects and reduction of waste, and it promote continuous improvement in presented difficulties in adapting to the changing needs of the healthcare environment. Whereas it is necessary to incorporate certification and accreditation, note that the adaptability of the clinical laboratory to the changing needs of physicians in obtaining analytical information is reduced. The application of an agile methodology on analytical systems can provide a line of work that allows the incorporation of planning short work cycles on equips quickly with operational autonomy on the basis of demand and respecting the accreditation requirements and flexibility to ensure adequate performance as the intercomparison of results from the different units analytics, analytical quality and turnaround times. Between 2012 and 2014, a process of analysis and improvement was applied to circuits, a 5 s system, transportation of samples, inventory of reactive and samples, motion of personal and samples, reductions of waiting and delays, overproduction, over processing, and defects of results and reports. At last it seems necessary to apply the Agile methodology to adapt to the evolving necessities in time and the different origins of the samples. It’s have used modular systems where the modules of this study are programmed with immunoassay techniques and it has reduced the operative modules depending on the required activity, ensuring the goals of turnaround times, analytic quality, service, health care continuity, and keeping up with the ISO 15189 accreditation requirements. The results of applying the concept of Lean-Agile to a modular system allows us to reduce the associated costs to the seasonal variation of the health care demand and to adapt the system to the changes on

  12. From customer satisfaction survey to corrective actions in laboratory services in a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oja, Paula I; Kouri, Timo T; Pakarinen, Arto J

    2006-12-01

    To find out the satisfaction of clinical units with laboratory services in a university hospital, to point out the most important problems and defects in services, to carry out corrective actions, and thereafter to identify the possible changes in satisfaction. and Senior physicians and nurses-in-charge of the clinical units at Oulu University Hospital, Finland. Customer satisfaction survey using a questionnaire was carried out in 2001, indicating the essential aspects of laboratory services. Customer-specific problems were clarified, corrective actions were performed, and the survey was repeated in 2004. In 2001, the highest dissatisfaction rates were recorded for computerized test requesting and reporting, turnaround times of tests, and the schedule of phlebotomy rounds. The old laboratory information system was not amenable to major improvements, and it was renewed in 2004-05. Several clinical units perceived turnaround times to be long, because the tests were ordered as routine despite emergency needs. Instructions about stat requesting were given to these units. However, no changes were evident in the satisfaction level in the 2004 survey. Following negotiations with the clinics, phlebotomy rounds were re-scheduled. This resulted in a distinct increase in satisfaction in 2004. Satisfaction survey is a screening tool that identifies topics of dissatisfaction. Without further clarifications, it is not possible to find out the specific problems of customers and to undertake targeted corrective actions. Customer-specific corrections are rarely seen as improvements in overall satisfaction rates.

  13. Development time plasticity of the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa populations under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Berardi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae is a univoltine defoliator that is active over a wide range of latitudes and elevations, being largely influenced by temperature variations, especially during larval development across the winter. This work compares field development time with that observed in the laboratory rearing under controlled conditions, in four Th. pityocampa populations characterized by different life history phenology: two populations from the Italian Alps characterized by early and late adult emergence, and two populations from Portugal, the first characterized by winter feeding and late adult emergence, the second by a switch of the larval feeding from winter to summer. The rearing started from the egg stage and was maintained in the laboratory at 20-25°C under natural light in transparent boxes. In spite of the different geographic origins and asynchrony of the period of larval development, all populations maintained an annual life cycle under laboratory conditions, as well as a phenology similar to that of the field populations. Such an outcome was possible due to a trade-off in the duration of the larval and pupal stages, the latter being identified as the phase of development when an efficient regulatory mechanism is acting to maintain the univoltine life cycle.

  14. Comprehensive GMO detection using real-time PCR array: single-laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Junichi; Harada, Mioko; Takabatake, Reona; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi; Nakamura, Kosuke; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Noritake, Hiromichi; Hatano, Shuko; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Iizuka, Tayoshi

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a real-time PCR array method to comprehensively detect genetically modified (GM) organisms. In the method, genomic DNA extracted from an agricultural product is analyzed using various qualitative real-time PCR assays on a 96-well PCR plate, targeting for individual GM events, recombinant DNA (r-DNA) segments, taxon-specific DNAs, and donor organisms of the respective r-DNAs. In this article, we report the single-laboratory validation of both DNA extraction methods and component PCR assays constituting the real-time PCR array. We selected some DNA extraction methods for specified plant matrixes, i.e., maize flour, soybean flour, and ground canola seeds, then evaluated the DNA quantity, DNA fragmentation, and PCR inhibition of the resultant DNA extracts. For the component PCR assays, we evaluated the specificity and LOD. All DNA extraction methods and component PCR assays satisfied the criteria set on the basis of previous reports.

  15. Particle tracking during Ostwald ripening using time-resolved laboratory X-ray microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werz, T., E-mail: thomas.werz@uni-ulm.de [Ulm University, Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, 89081 (Germany); Baumann, M. [Ulm University, Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, 89081 (Germany); Wolfram, U. [Ulm University, Institute of Orthopaedic Research and Biomechanics, Helmholtzstrasse 14, 89081 (Germany); Krill, C.E. [Ulm University, Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, 89081 (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    Laboratory X-ray microtomography is investigated as a method for obtaining time-resolved images of microstructural coarsening of the semisolid state of Al–5 wt.% Cu samples during Ostwald ripening. Owing to the 3D imaging capability of tomography, this technique uniquely provides access to the growth rates of individual particles, thereby not only allowing a statistical characterization of coarsening—as has long been possible by conventional metallography—but also enabling quantification of the influence of local environment on particle boundary migration. The latter information is crucial to understanding growth kinetics during Ostwald ripening at high volume fractions of the coarsening phase. Automated image processing and segmentation routines were developed to close gaps in the network of particle boundaries and to track individual particles from one annealing step to the next. The particle tracking success rate places an upper bound of only a few percent on the likelihood of segmentation errors for any given particle. The accuracy of particle size trajectories extracted from the time-resolved tomographic reconstructions is correspondingly high. Statistically averaged coarsening data and individual particle growth rates are in excellent agreement with the results of prior experimental studies and with computer simulations of Ostwald ripening. - Highlights: • Ostwald ripening in Al–5 wt.% Cu measured by laboratory X-ray microtomography • Time-resolved measurement of individual particle growth • Automated segmentation routines developed to close gaps in particle boundary network • Particle growth/shrinkage rates deviate from LSW model prediction.

  16. "I've Never Seen People Work So Hard!" Teachers' Working Conditions in the Early Stages of School Turnaround

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiara, Maia Bloomfield; Rooney, Erin; Robertson-Kraft, Claire

    2015-01-01

    School turnaround--a reform strategy that strives for quick and dramatic transformation of low-performing schools--has gained prominence in recent years. This study uses interviews and focus groups conducted with 86 teachers in 13 schools during the early stages of school turnaround in a large urban district to examine teachers' perceptions of the…

  17. Academic Turnarounds: Restoring Vitality to Challenged American Colleges and Universities. ACE/Praeger Series on Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacTaggart, Terrence, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book discusses the early indicators of a college or university's need for a turnaround. It outlines financial trends and other indicators of distress, as well as benchmarks for the various stages of an effective turnaround strategy. The book will help trustees, presidents, and faculty members diagnose whether they are in denial about the true…

  18. Computer Aided Fast Turnaround Laboratory for Research in VLSI (Very Large Scale Integrated).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-31

    before usage , the losses do to parasitic components were almost negligible but were considered in our analysis, and an agreement from power readings to...important issue in optimizing the process. Residues form as a result of polymerisation reactions occurring between the free radicals created in the

  19. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory system. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, S.M.; Keith, V.F.; Spertzel, R.O.; De Avila, J.C.; O`Donnell, M.; Vann, R.L.

    1993-09-01

    This developmental effort clearly shows that a Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory System is a worthwhile and achievable goal. The RTAL is designed to fully analyze (radioanalytes, and organic and inorganic chemical analytes) 20 samples per day at the highest levels of quality assurance and quality control. It dramatically reduces the turnaround time for environmental sample analysis from 45 days (at a central commercial laboratory) to 1 day. At the same time each RTAL system will save the DOE over $12 million per year in sample analysis costs compared to the costs at a central commercial laboratory. If RTAL systems were used at the eight largest DOE facilities (at Hanford, Savannah River, Fernald, Oak Ridge, Idaho, Rocky Flats, Los Alamos, and the Nevada Test Site), the annual savings would be $96,589,000. The DOE`s internal study of sample analysis needs projects 130,000 environmental samples requiring analysis in FY 1994, clearly supporting the need for the RTAL system. The cost and time savings achievable with the RTAL system will accelerate and improve the efficiency of cleanup and remediation operations throughout the DOE complex.

  20. MOBLAB: a mobile laboratory for testing real-time vision-based systems in path monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumani, Aldo; Denasi, Sandra; Grattoni, Paolo; Guiducci, Antonio; Pettiti, Giuseppe; Quaglia, Giorgio

    1995-01-01

    In the framework of the EUREKA PROMETHEUS European Project, a Mobile Laboratory (MOBLAB) has been equipped for studying, implementing and testing real-time algorithms which monitor the path of a vehicle moving on roads. Its goal is the evaluation of systems suitable to map the position of the vehicle within the environment where it moves, to detect obstacles, to estimate motion, to plan the path and to warn the driver about unsafe conditions. MOBLAB has been built with the financial support of the National Research Council and will be shared with teams working in the PROMETHEUS Project. It consists of a van equipped with an autonomous power supply, a real-time image processing system, workstations and PCs, B/W and color TV cameras, and TV equipment. This paper describes the laboratory outline and presents the computer vision system and the strategies that have been studied and are being developed at I.E.N. `Galileo Ferraris'. The system is based on several tasks that cooperate to integrate information gathered from different processes and sources of knowledge. Some preliminary results are presented showing the performances of the system.

  1. Real-Time Hardware-in-the-Loop Laboratory Testing for Multisensor Sense and Avoid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarmine Fasano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a hardware-in-the-loop facility aimed at real-time testing of architectures and algorithms of multisensor sense and avoid systems. It was developed within a research project aimed at flight demonstration of autonomous non-cooperative collision avoidance for Unmanned Aircraft Systems. In this framework, an optionally piloted Very Light Aircraft was used as experimental platform. The flight system is based on multiple-sensor data integration and it includes a Ka-band radar, four electro-optical sensors, and two dedicated processing units. The laboratory test system was developed with the primary aim of prototype validation before multi-sensor tracking and collision avoidance flight tests. System concept, hardware/software components, and operating modes are described in the paper. The facility has been built with a modular approach including both flight hardware and simulated systems and can work on the basis of experimentally tested or synthetically generated scenarios. Indeed, hybrid operating modes are also foreseen which enable performance assessment also in the case of alternative sensing architectures and flight scenarios that are hardly reproducible during flight tests. Real-time multisensor tracking results based on flight data are reported, which demonstrate reliability of the laboratory simulation while also showing the effectiveness of radar/electro-optical fusion in a non-cooperative collision avoidance architecture.

  2. Impact of SMS/GPRS printers in reducing time to early infant diagnosis compared to routine result reporting: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojnov, Lara; Markby, Jessica; Boeke, Caroline; Penazzato, Martina; Urick, Brittany; Ghadrshenas, Anisa; Harris, Lindsay; Ford, Nathan; Peter, Trevor

    2017-08-18

    Despite significant gains made towards improving access, early infant diagnosis (EID) testing programs suffer from long test turnaround times that result in substantial loss to follow-up and mortality associated with delays in antiretroviral therapy initiation. These delays in treatment initiation are particularly impactful due to significant HIV-related infant mortality observed by 2-3 months of age. Short message service (SMS) and general packet radio service (GPRS) printers allow test results to be transmitted immediately to health care facilities upon completion of testing in the laboratory. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the benefit of using SMS/GPRS printers to increase the efficiency of EID test result delivery compared with traditional courier paper-based results delivery methods. We identified 11 studies contributing data for over 16,000 patients from East and Southern Africa. The test turnaround time from specimen collection to result received at the health care facility with courier paper-based methods was 68.0 days (n=6,835), while the test turnaround time with SMS/GPRS printers was 51.1 days (n=6,711), resulting in a 2.5 week (25%) reduction in turnaround time. Courier paper-based EID test result delivery methods are estimated to add 2.5 weeks to EID test turnaround times in low resource settings and increase the risk that infants receive test results during or after the early peak of infant mortality. SMS/GPRS result delivery to health care facility printers significantly reduced test turnaround time and may reduce this risk. SMS/GPRS printers should be considered for expedited delivery of EID and other centralized laboratory test results.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used

  3. Real-time alpha monitoring of a radioactive liquid waste stream at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.D.; Whitley, C.R.; Rawool-Sullivan, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This poster display concerns the development, installation, and testing of a real-time radioactive liquid waste monitor at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The detector system was designed for the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility so that influent to the plant could be monitored in real time. By knowing the activity of the influent, plant operators can better monitor treatment, better segregate waste (potentially), and monitor the regulatory compliance of users of the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System. The detector system uses long-range alpha detection technology, which is a nonintrusive method of characterization that determines alpha activity on the liquid surface by measuring the ionization of ambient air. Extensive testing has been performed to ensure long-term use with a minimal amount of maintenance. The final design was a simple cost-effective alpha monitor that could be modified for monitoring influent waste streams at various points in the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System.

  4. Single incision laparoscopic surgery – is it time for laboratory skills training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łaski, Dariusz; Makarewicz, Wojciech; Bobowicz, Maciej; Kobiela, Jarosław; Nateghi, Behzad; Proczko, Monika; Madejewska, Ilona; Gruca, Zbigniew; Śledzinski, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Introduction With the introduction of new surgical equipment, there is always the need for new, more advanced training. The authors try to answer whether the use of the newest generation tools has an impact on achieving better results in single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) technique during the exercises in the surgical skills laboratory. Material and methods There were 51 participants in the study: 44 ‘novices’ and 7 ‘experts’. All subjects performed the ‘advanced grasping’ exercise according to the FLS programme manual using four types of laparoscopic approach including two SILS ports and SILS-dedicated instruments. The outcome measures involved task completion time and the number of errors. Results Tasks using straight laparoscopic instruments set together with classic three-port access as well as SILS access ports were finished significantly faster when compared with SILS-dedicated instruments (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in performance times between the two setups with straight instruments (p < 0.05) and both setups with SILS-dedicated instruments, irrespective of the use of curved or dynamic articulated tools. Students with no previous laparoscopic experience had significantly worse task completion times in all tasks in comparison to students with laparoscopic laboratory training and the ‘experts’ group. Conclusions The use of the straight instruments in the SILS technique remain similar to its performance in full triangulation. SILS-dedicated instruments paradoxically increase the task completion time irrespective of possessed skills. The study showed the necessity of a SILS-dedicated tools training programme. PMID:24130635

  5. MITRA Virtual laboratory for operative application of satellite time series for land degradation risk estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nole, Gabriele; Scorza, Francesco; Lanorte, Antonio; Manzi, Teresa; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    This paper aims to present the development of a tool to integrate time series from active and passive satellite sensors (such as of MODIS, Vegetation, Landsat, ASTER, COSMO, Sentinel) into a virtual laboratory to support studies on landscape and archaeological landscape, investigation on environmental changes, estimation and monitoring of natural and anthropogenic risks. The virtual laboratory is composed by both data and open source tools specifically developed for the above mentioned applications. Results obtained for investigations carried out using the implemented tools for monitoring land degradation issues and subtle changes ongoing on forestry and natural areas are herein presented. In detail MODIS, SPOT Vegetation and Landsat time series were analyzed comparing results of different statistical analyses and the results integrated with ancillary data and evaluated with field survey. The comparison of the outputs we obtained for the Basilicata Region from satellite data analyses and independent data sets clearly pointed out the reliability for the diverse change analyses we performed, at the pixel level, using MODIS, SPOT Vegetation and Landsat TM data. Next steps are going to be implemented to further advance the current Virtual Laboratory tools, by extending current facilities adding new computational algorithms and applying to other geographic regions. Acknowledgement This research was performed within the framework of the project PO FESR Basilicata 2007/2013 - Progetto di cooperazione internazionale MITRA "Remote Sensing tecnologies for Natural and Cultural heritage Degradation Monitoring for Preservation and valorization" funded by Basilicata Region Reference 1. A. Lanorte, R Lasaponara, M Lovallo, L Telesca 2014 Fisher-Shannon information plane analysis of SPOT/VEGETATION Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series to characterize vegetation recovery after fire disturbance International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and

  6. Operational Authority, Support, and Monitoring of School Turnaround. NCEE Evaluation Brief. NCEE 2014-4008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rebecca; Graczewski, Cheryl; James-Burdumy, Susanne; Murray, Matthew; Perez-Johnson, Irma; Tanenbaum, Courtney

    2013-01-01

    The federal School Improvement Grants (SIG) program, to which $3 billion were allocated under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA), supports schools attempting to turn around a history of low performance. School turnaround also is a focus of Race to the Top (RTT), another ARRA-supported initiative, which involved a roughly $4…

  7. CAD/CAM, Creativity, and Discipline Lead to Turnaround School Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Miami Central High School technology teacher Frank Houghtaling thinks the connection between theory and application is one reason his students perform better on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT). The impressive turnaround school drew local and national attention last spring when one of Houghtaling's students, Dagoberto Cruz, won…

  8. Tinkering and Turnarounds: Understanding the Contemporary Campaign to Improve Low-Performing Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    An unprecedented amount of attention in recent years has been focused on turning around low-performing schools. Drawing on insights from Tyack and Cuban's (1995) "Tinkering Toward Utopia," the article analyzes the forces behind the school turnaround phenomenon and how they have evolved since passage of the No Child Left Behind Act. The…

  9. Investigating the Role of Human Resources in School Turnaround: Evidence from Two States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Teachers are generally recognized as the schooling factor accounting for the highest proportion of student learning outcomes (Aaronson et al., 2007; Hanushek, 1986). This implies the quick and dramatic improvement in school performance observed in turnaround (TA) schools was associated with a major change in the performance of its teachers. This…

  10. Turnaround radius in an accelerated universe with quasi-local mass

    CERN Document Server

    Faraoni, Valerio; Prain, Angus

    2015-01-01

    We apply the Hawking-Hayward quasi-local energy construct to obtain in a rigorous way the turnaround radius of cosmic structures in General Relativity. A splitting of this quasi-local mass into local and cosmological parts describes the interplay between local attraction and cosmological expansion.

  11. Turnaround, Transformational, or Transactional Leadership: An Ethical Dilemma in School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mette, Ian M.; Scribner, Jay P.

    2014-01-01

    This case was written for school leaders, specifically building-level principals and central office administrators attempting to implement school turnaround reform efforts. Often, leaders who embark on this type of organizational change work in intense environments that produce high levels of pressure to demonstrate improvement in student…

  12. Chronically Low-Performing Schools and Turnaround: Evidence from Three States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael; Choi, Kilchan

    2012-01-01

    The criteria for determining the student outcomes that define a school as having "turned around" are not well defined, and the definition of turnaround performance varies across studies. Although current policy initiatives offer guidelines for identifying CLP schools, there is no standard definition or methodology in common usage. This…

  13. CAD/CAM, Creativity, and Discipline Lead to Turnaround School Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Miami Central High School technology teacher Frank Houghtaling thinks the connection between theory and application is one reason his students perform better on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT). The impressive turnaround school drew local and national attention last spring when one of Houghtaling's students, Dagoberto Cruz, won…

  14. State Capacity to Support School Turnaround. NCEE Evaluation Brief. NCEE 2015-4012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Courtney; Boyle, Andrea; Graczewski, Cheryl; James-Burdumy, Susanne; Dragoset, Lisa; Hallgren, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    One objective of the U.S. Department of Education's (ED) School Improvement Grants (SIG) and Race to the Top (RTT) program is to help states enhance their capacity to support the turnaround of low-performing schools. This capacity may be important, given how difficult it is to produce substantial and sustained achievement gains in low-performing…

  15. Strategies of organization and service for the critical-care laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisher, M; Schwartz, M K

    1990-08-01

    Critical-care medicine requires rapidity of treatment decisions and clinical management. To meet the objectives of critical-care medicine, the critical-care laboratory must consider four major aspects of laboratory organization in addition to analytical responsibilities: specimen collection and delivery, training of technologists, selection of reliable instrumentation, and efficient data dissemination. One must also consider the advantages and disadvantages of centralization vs decentralization, the influence of such a laboratory on patient care and personnel needs, and the space required for optimal operation. Centralization may lead to workflow interruption and increased turnaround time (TAT); decentralization requires redundancy of instrumentation and staff but may shorten TAT. Minimal TAT is the hallmark of efficient laboratory service. We surveyed 55 laboratories in 33 hospitals and found that virtually all hospitals with 200 or more beds had a critical-care laboratory operating as a satellite of the main laboratory. We present data on actual TAT, although these were available in only eight of the 15 routine laboratories that provided emergency service and in eight of the 40 critical-care laboratories. In meeting the challenges of an increasing workload, a reduced clinical laboratory work force, and the need to reduce TAT, changes in traditional laboratory practice are mandatory. An increased reliance on whole-blood analysis, for example, should eliminate delays associated with sample preparation, reduce the potential hazards associated with centrifugation, and eliminate excess specimen handling.

  16. Laboratory preparation questionnaires as a tool for the implementation of the Just in Time Teaching in the Physics I laboratories: Research training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, David A.; Sanchez, Melba J.; Forero, Oscar M.

    2017-06-01

    The implementation of the JiTT (Just in Time Teaching) strategy is presented to increase the previous preparation of students enrolled in the subject Physics Laboratory I offered at the Industrial University of Santander (UIS), Colombia. In this study, a laboratory preparation questionnaire (CPL) was applied as a tool for the implementation of JiTT combined with elements of mediated learning. It was found that the CPL allows to improve the students’ experience regarding the preparation of the laboratory and the development of the experimental session. These questionnaires were implemented in an academic manager (Moodle) and a web application (lab.ciencias.uis.edu.co) was used to publish the contents essential for the preparation of the student before each practical session. The most significant result was that the students performed the experimental session with the basic knowledge to improve their learning experience.

  17. Commissioning of a UV/time-resolved-FTIR beamline at the Duke FEL laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Hutson, M S; Chang, M S; Gillikin, A; Litvinenko, V N; Edwards, G

    2002-01-01

    We describe the commissioning of a novel two-color beamline at the Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory, designed to perform time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy in a pump-probe scheme with sub-nanosecond resolution to measure dynamical processes with durations as long as 10 ns. The UV pump pulses are produced by the tunable (193-700 nm) output of the OK-4 Storage-Ring FEL. The broadband, infrared probe pulses are generated as synchrotron radiation in a bending magnet downstream of the OK-4 wiggler. The repetition rate of the light source (2.79 MHz) is ideal for operating the interferometer in the rapid-scan, asynchronous sampling mode. An investigation of DNA photolyase is proposed.

  18. Broadcasting Engineering Laboratories--Audio/Video and Data--in Real-Time over the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Prashant K.; Gu, Yuxiang; Rizwan-uddin

    2008-01-01

    Internet extends the reach of existing laboratory and training infrastructure to beyond the walls of such facilities. Though nothing can replace the hands-on experience in a laboratory; a carefully developed web-based digital lab may be the next best thing. In some cases, there may be benefits associated with a "distance laboratory" that…

  19. Energy efficiency is decisive for the success of the energy policy turnaround. Energy Policy Turnaround Index 3rd Quarter 2012; Energieeffizienz entscheidend fuer den Erfolg der Energiewende. Energiewende-Index 3. Quartal 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelmann, Helmut [Ernst und Young GmbH Wirtschaftspruefungsgesellschaft, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kohler, Stephan [Deutsche Energieagentur GmbH (dena), Berlin (Germany)

    2012-10-01

    Since May 2012, Ernst and Young GmbH (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) and the Deutsche Energieagentur GmbH (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) report on the German Energy Policy Turnaround Index (DEX) at the middle of each quarter. The DEX reflects the mood of the sectors concerned with regard to the energy policy turnaround. Quarterly, 2,000 executive boards and managing directors from various industrial sectors were asked in a written form. DEX reflects the mood of the companies concerned in order to contribute to an objective discussion on the energy policy turnaround and the necessary need for action.

  20. Suitability of the echo-time-shift method as laboratory standard for thermal ultrasound dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Tina; Georg, Olga; Haller, Julian; Jenderka, Klaus-Vitold

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound therapy is a promising, non-invasive application with potential to significantly improve cancer therapies like surgery, viro- or immunotherapy. This therapy needs faster, cheaper and more easy-to-handle quality assurance tools for therapy devices as well as possibilities to verify treatment plans and for dosimetry. This limits comparability and safety of treatments. Accurate spatial and temporal temperature maps could be used to overcome these shortcomings. In this contribution first results of suitability and accuracy investigations of the echo-time-shift method for two-dimensional temperature mapping during and after sonication are presented. The analysis methods used to calculate time-shifts were a discrete frame-to-frame and a discrete frame-to-base-frame algorithm as well as a sigmoid fit for temperature calculation. In the future accuracy could be significantly enhanced by using continuous methods for time-shift calculation. Further improvements can be achieved by improving filtering algorithms and interpolation of sampled diagnostic ultrasound data. It might be a comparatively accurate, fast and affordable method for laboratory and clinical quality control.

  1. Attaining ISO 15189 accreditation through SLMTA: A journey by Kenya’s National HIV Reference Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gachuki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The National HIV Reference Laboratory (NHRL serves as Kenya’s referral HIV laboratory, offering specialised testing and external quality assessment, as well as operating the national HIV serology proficiency scheme. In 2010, the Kenya Ministry of Health established a goal for NHRL to achieve international accreditation.Objectives: This study chronicles the journey that NHRL took in pursuit of accreditation, along with the challenges and lessons learned.Methods: NHRL participated in the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA programme from 2010–2011. Improvement projects were undertaken to address gaps in the 12 quality system essentials through development of work plans, team formation, training and mentorship of personnel. Audits were conducted and the scores used to track progress along a five-star grading scale. Standard quality indicators (turn-around time, specimen rejection rates and service interruptions were measured. Costs of improvement projects and accreditation were estimated based on expenditures.Results: NHRL scored 45% (zero stars at baseline in March 2010 and 95% (five stars after programme completion in October 2011; in 2013 it became the first public health laboratory in Kenya to attain ISO 15189 accreditation. From 2010–2013, turn-around times decreased by 50% – 95%, specimen rejections decreased by 93% and service interruptions dropped from 15 to zero days. Laboratory expenditures associated with achieving accreditation were approximately US $36 500.Conclusion: International accreditation is achievable through SLMTA, even for a laboratory with limited initial quality management systems. Key success factors were dedication to a shared goal, leadership commitment, team formation and effective mentorship. Countries wishing to achieve accreditation must ensure adequate funding and support.

  2. Real-time data and communications services of NCAR's Earth Observing Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, C. J.; Daniels, M.; Stossmeister, G.

    2011-12-01

    Near real-time information is critical for mission management of atmospheric observing systems. Advances in satellite communications and Internet distribution have allowed the Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) of NCAR to provide data, information and imagery to the scientists during evolving weather situations. Real-time data are necessary for updating interactive displays that show products from forecast models and many disparate observation systems (e.g. satellite, soundings, surface radars and aircraft in-situ observations). At the same time, network-based collaborative tools such as chat and web conferencing facilitate interactive participation between remote groups of scientists, engineers, operations centers and the observing platforms. In the recent PREDICT deployment of the NSF/NCAR GV research aircraft, dropsondes were released from the aircraft at 45,000 ft over a 1000 km x 1000 km area to give profiles of pressure, temperature, humidity and wind below the aircraft. Real-time data from the sondes was collected by the aircraft and relayed by satcom into the Global Telecommunications System (GTS) and assimilated into forecast models. The model forecast results were then fed back into ground-based and airborne displays (along with a multitude of observations) for enhanced decision-making and mission guidance. This environment of streaming data in real-time also allows more experts to look at data and compare it with other measurements. One particular benefit is that it alerts instrument operators on the ground and in the air to instrument problems, which can then be addressed very rapidly. The resulting communications and collaborations infrastructure results in unprecedented improvements to our data quality and rapid targeting of mission resources to important weather events. Using several examples, this presentation will provide an overview of current tools and processes in use at EOL, and future needs will be discussed.

  3. A Computational Method for 3D Anisotropic Travel-time Tomography of Rocks in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghofranitabari, Mehdi; Young, R. Paul

    2013-04-01

    True triaxial loading in the laboratory applies three principal stresses on a cubic rock specimen. Elliptical anisotropy and distributed heterogeneities are introduced in the rock due to closure and opening of the pre-existing cracks and creation and growth of the new aligned cracks. The rock sample is tested in a Geophysical Imaging Cell that is armed with an Acoustic Emission monitoring system which can perform transducer to transducer velocity surveys to image velocity structure of the sample during the experiment. Ultrasonic travel-time tomography as a non-destructive method outfits a map of wave propagation velocity in the sample in order to detect the uniformly distributed or localised heterogeneities and provide the spatial variation and temporal evolution of induced damages in rocks at various stages of loading. The rock sample is partitioned into cubic grid cells as model space. Ray-based tomography method measuring body wave travel time along ray paths between pairs of emitting and receiving transducers is used to calculate isotropic ray-path segment matrix elements (Gij) which contain segment lengths of the ith ray in the jth cell in three dimensions. Synthetic P wave travel times are computed between pairs of transducers in a hypothetical isotropic heterogeneous cubic sample as data space along with an error due to precision of measurement. 3D strain of the squeezed rock and the consequent geometrical deformation is also included in computations for further accuracy. Singular Value Decomposition method is used for the inversion from data space to model space. In the next step, the anisotropic ray-path segment matrix and the corresponded data space are computed for hypothetical anisotropic heterogeneous samples based on the elliptical anisotropic model of velocity which is obtained from the real laboratory experimental data. The method is examined for several different synthetic heterogeneous models. An "Inaccuracy factor" is utilized to inquire the

  4. Physicians' and nurses' satisfaction with the clinical laboratory service of Gondar University Hospital, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addis, Zelalem; Birhan, Wubet; Derseh, Dejene; Sahle, Biruktawit; Gizaw, Netsanet

    2013-09-01

    To assess physicians' and nurses' satisfaction with the service provided by the laboratory at Gondar University Hospital. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 196 nurses and physicians. Overall level of satisfaction was 51.1% for nurses and 51.5% for physicians. Lack of consistency in the quality of laboratory work, absence of a timely report of critical values, test turnaround time, acceptability of results released, and reporting of reference ranges with test results were areas mentioned as sources of dissatisfaction. The study showed wide room for improvement. In addition to taking intervention, root causes of dissatisfaction need to be investigated and means of improving the satisfaction level should be designed and implemented.

  5. The German 2020 Energy Turnaround Index featuring a special focus on economic efficiency; Energiewende-Index Deutschland 2020. Fokusthema Wirtschaftlichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahlenkamp, Thomas [McKinsey and Company, Duesseldorf (Germany); Gohl, Matthias [McKinsey and Company, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    The decision to raise the levy imposed by the Renewable Energies Law has kindled the discussion as to how the energy turnaround can best be implemented and made affordable in the first place. The search for solutions should be founded on as full a picture of the situation as possible as well as a fact base shared by all. The aspiration and purpose of the German 2020 Energy Turnaround Index created by McKinsey and Company is to create precisely such a fact base. Every 3 months the index gives an update on the status of the energy turnaround based on 15 indicators. The present update additionally takes a closer look at the aspect of economic efficiency, which together with climate and environment protection and security of supply forms the triad of imperatives driving the energy turnaround.

  6. LASER ABLATION-INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA-ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY STUDY AT THE 222-S LABORATORY USING HOT-CELL GLOVE BOX PROTOTYPE SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEIDEL CM; JAIN J; OWENS JW

    2009-02-23

    This report describes the installation, testing, and acceptance of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) procured laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES) system for remotely analyzing high-level waste (HLW) samples in a hot cell environment. The work was completed by the Analytical Process Development (APD) group in accordance with Task Order 2005-003; ATS MP 1027, Management Plan for Waste Treatment Plant Project Work Performed by Analytical Technical Services. The APD group at the 222-S Laboratory demonstrated acceptable turnaround time (TAT) and provide sufficient data to assess sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the LA-ICP-AES method.

  7. [The experiments with laboratory animals from a bioethical point of view--history, modern time, perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopaladze, R A

    2004-01-01

    The origin of laboratory animal science was called forth by violent development of experimental biology and medicine in the XIX century on the one hand, and on the other hand by the necessity to have standard healthy animals for experiments with strictly definite biological characteristics. With this aim in view management technology and animal use in experiments have been constantly improved. "Laboratory animal" notion has been formed by the end of the XIX century. At the beginning of laboratory animal science development ethical problems were not as urgent as they are now. It is established that the three Rs bioethical conception of W.M.S. Russel and R.L. Burch (1959) has influence on modern state and perspectives of the development of animal experimental methods. It is shown that the existence of laboratory animal protection laws and the reflection in them of compulsory ethical review of scientific project and statistics of used laboratory animals is absolutely necessary.

  8. 9 CFR 147.31 - Laboratory procedures recommended for the real-time polymerase chain reaction test for Mycoplasma...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the real-time polymerase chain reaction test for Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MGLP ReTi). 147.31 Section... Examination Procedures § 147.31 Laboratory procedures recommended for the real-time polymerase chain reaction... lp gene. (c) MGLP ReTi. Primers and probe should be utilized in a 25 µl reaction containing 12.5...

  9. Does fault strengthening in laboratory rock friction experiments really depend primarily upon time and not slip?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Pathikrit; Rubin, Allan M.; Beeler, Nicholas M.

    2017-08-01

    The popular constitutive formulations of rate-and-state friction offer two end-member views on whether friction evolves only with slip (Slip law) or with time even without slip (Aging law). While rate stepping experiments show support for the Slip law, laboratory-observed frictional behavior near-zero slip rates has traditionally been inferred as supporting Aging law style time-dependent healing, in particular, from the slide-hold-slide experiments of Beeler et al. (1994). Using a combination of new analytical results and explicit numerical (Bayesian) inversion, we show instead that the slide-hold-slide data of Beeler et al. (1994) favor slip-dependent state evolution during holds. We show that, while the stiffness-independent rate of growth of peak stress (following reslides) with hold duration is a property shared by both the Aging and (under a more restricted set of parameter combinations) Slip laws, the observed stiffness dependence of the rate of stress relaxation during long holds is incompatible with the Aging law with constant rate-state parameters. The Slip law consistently fits the evolution of the stress minima at the end of the holds well, whether fitting jointly with peak stresses or otherwise. But neither the Aging nor Slip laws fit all the data well when a - b is constrained to values derived from prior velocity steps. We also attempted to fit the evolution of stress peaks and minima with the Kato-Tullis hybrid law and the shear stress-dependent Nagata law, both of which, even with the freedom of an extra parameter, generally reproduced the best Slip law fits to the data.

  10. Learning to Lead School Turnaround: The Mississippi LEADS Professional Development Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Clifford

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on a systematic principal professional development program called “Mississippi LEADS,” which is designed to provide current school principals the technical and practical knowledge that they need to enact comprehensive school turnaround efforts. The Mississippi LEADS professional development program is a year-long training experience that includes executive coaching and establishes a state-wide and district-wide professional support system for principals. The goal of Mississippi LEADS is to turnaround chronically low performing schools by investing in leadership development, rather than replacing the school principal. Although many turnaround efforts begin by replacing principals, Mississippi LEADS administrators view principal replacement as impractical for many rural, impoverished school districts that face educator recruitment challenges. The Mississippi LEADS program theory of action is discussed, which includes formalized classroom work, enactment of ambitious school improvement plans, one-on-one executive coaching, and data monitoring. Early data from the evaluation study indicates that Mississippi LEADS is having expected impacts.

  11. Where the world stands still: turnaround as a strong test of ΛCDM cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlidou, V.; Tomaras, T.N., E-mail: pavlidou@physics.uoc.gr, E-mail: tomaras@physics.uoc.gr [Department of Physics and ITCP, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece)

    2014-09-01

    Our intuitive understanding of cosmic structure formation works best in scales small enough so that isolated, bound, relaxed gravitating systems are no longer adjusting their radius; and large enough so that space and matter follow the average expansion of the Universe. Yet one of the most robust predictions of ΛCDM cosmology concerns the scale that separates these limits: the turnaround radius, which is the non-expanding shell furthest away from the center of a bound structure. We show that the maximum possible value of the turnaround radius within the framework of the ΛCDM model is, for a given mass M, equal to (3GM/Λ c{sup 2}){sup 1/3}, with G Newton's constant and c the speed of light, independently of cosmic epoch, exact nature of dark matter, or baryonic effects. We discuss the possible use of this prediction as an observational test for ΛCDM cosmology. Current data appear to favor ΛCDM over alternatives with local inhomogeneities and no Λ. However there exist several local-universe structures that have, within errors, reached their limiting size. With improved determinations of their turnaround radii and the enclosed mass, these objects may challenge the limit and ΛCDM cosmology.

  12. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry in the clinical mycology laboratory: identification of fungi and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posteraro, Brunella; De Carolis, Elena; Vella, Antonietta; Sanguinetti, Maurizio

    2013-04-01

    MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) is becoming essential in most clinical microbiology laboratories throughout the world. Its successful use is mainly attributable to the low operational costs, the universality and flexibility of detection, as well as the specificity and speed of analysis. Based on characteristic protein spectra obtained from intact cells - by means of simple, rapid and reproducible preanalytical and analytical protocols - MALDI-TOF MS allows a highly discriminatory identification of yeasts and filamentous fungi starting from colonies. Whenever used early, direct identification of yeasts from positive blood cultures has the potential to greatly shorten turnaround times and to improve laboratory diagnosis of fungemia. More recently, but still at an infancy stage, MALDI-TOF MS is used to perform strain typing and to determine antifungal drug susceptibility. In this article, the authors discuss how the MALDI-TOF MS technology is destined to become a powerful tool for routine mycological diagnostics.

  13. Guidance for laboratories performing molecular pathology for cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cree, Ian A; Deans, Zandra; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J L; Normanno, Nicola; Edsjö, Anders; Rouleau, Etienne; Solé, Francesc; Thunnissen, Erik; Timens, Wim; Schuuring, Ed; Dequeker, Elisabeth; Murray, Samuel; Dietel, Manfred; Groenen, Patricia; Van Krieken, J Han

    2014-11-01

    Molecular testing is becoming an important part of the diagnosis of any patient with cancer. The challenge to laboratories is to meet this need, using reliable methods and processes to ensure that patients receive a timely and accurate report on which their treatment will be based. The aim of this paper is to provide minimum requirements for the management of molecular pathology laboratories. This general guidance should be augmented by the specific guidance available for different tumour types and tests. Preanalytical considerations are important, and careful consideration of the way in which specimens are obtained and reach the laboratory is necessary. Sample receipt and handling follow standard operating procedures, but some alterations may be necessary if molecular testing is to be performed, for instance to control tissue fixation. DNA and RNA extraction can be standardised and should be checked for quality and quantity of output on a regular basis. The choice of analytical method(s) depends on clinical requirements, desired turnaround time, and expertise available. Internal quality control, regular internal audit of the whole testing process, laboratory accreditation, and continual participation in external quality assessment schemes are prerequisites for delivery of a reliable service. A molecular pathology report should accurately convey the information the clinician needs to treat the patient with sufficient information to allow for correct interpretation of the result. Molecular pathology is developing rapidly, and further detailed evidence-based recommendations are required for many of the topics covered here.

  14. Using corporate finance to engineer an organizational turnaround.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Jason H; Dziesinski, Ray R

    2002-11-01

    Georgia's Southern Regional Medical Center used a proven corporate finance approach to dramatically improve its financial position and integrate its strategic and financial planning. Managers throughout the organization were educated about principles of corporate finance. Reliable cash-flow projections were used to create a multiyear glide path to financial stability. Initiatives were tied to specific time frames and quantifiable financial goals and underwent a standardized review process.

  15. Regional and supraregional biochemistry services in Scotland: a survey of hospital laboratory users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M J; Dryburgh, F J; Shepherd, J

    1994-05-01

    To ascertain the views of Scottish hospital laboratory users on aspects of regional and supraregional biochemical services offered by the Institute of Biochemistry at Glasgow Royal Infirmary. A questionnaire was circulated asking questions or inviting opinions under various headings, including current patterns of usage of the services provided, availability of information on specimen collection requirements and reference ranges, current arrangements for transport of specimens, turnaround times for delivery of reports, layout and content of request and report forms, quantity and quality of interpretive advice, potential changes in laboratory services, and overall impression of the services provided. Opportunities were provided for free text comment. The questionnaire was circulated in 1992 to heads of department in 23 Scottish hospital biochemistry laboratories. Twenty one replies were received. Services used widely included trace metals/vitamins (n = 20) and specialised endocrine tests (n = 19). Other services also used included specialised lipid tests (n = 13), toxicology (n = 12), thyroid function tests (n = nine), and tumour markers (n = eight). Fifteen laboratories used one or more of the services at least weekly. Most (n = 20) welcomed the idea of a handbook providing information on specimen collection and reference ranges. Nine identified loss of specimens as a problem. Other perceived problems included the absence of reference ranges from report forms, quantity and quality of interpretive advice, and turnaround times of some tests. Overall impressions of the service(s) offered were very good (n = 12); adequate (n = seven); poor (n = one). Useful information was obtained about patterns of use and transport arrangements. Areas identified as requiring follow up included provision of information, alternative ways of communicating reports, and improvement in quantity and quality of interpretive advice.

  16. Clinical Practice as Natural Laboratory for Psychotherapy Research: A Guide to Case-Based Time-Series Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borckardt, Jeffrey J.; Nash, Michael R.; Murphy, Martin D.; Moore, Mark; Shaw, Darlene; O'Neil, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Both researchers and practitioners need to know more about how laboratory treatment protocols translate to real-world practice settings and how clinical innovations can be systematically tested and communicated to a skeptical scientific community. The single-case time-series study is well suited to opening a productive discourse between practice…

  17. Cuts will stop time for a year at Big Bang laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    "The nuclear research laboratory that develped the world's most powerful particle accelerator has become the latest victim of Europe's financial crisis. All the accelerator experiments at Cern, the European Organisation for Nuclear Research, are to be closed for a year in 2012, after Britain led demands by financially troubled member states for a 215 million pounds cut to its budget" (1 page)

  18. Field demonstration of rapid turnaround, multilevel groundwater screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingle, A.R. [Analysas Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baker, L. [Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Long, D.D. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program; Miracle, M. [Advanced Sciences, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1994-09-01

    A combined technology approach to rapidly characterizing source area and downgradient groundwater associated with a past fuel spill has been field tested. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the presence and extent of fuel-related compounds or indications of their biodegradation in groundwater. The distance from the source area to be investigated was established by calculating the potential extent of a plume based only on groundwater flow velocities. To accomplish this objective, commercially available technologies were combined and used to rapidly assess the source area and downgradient groundwater associated with the fuel discharge. The source of contamination that was investigated overlies glacial sand and gravel outwash deposits. Historical data suggest that from 1955 to 1970 as many as 1 to 6 million pi of aviation gasoline (AVGAS) were god at the study area. Although the remedial investigation (RI) for this study area indicated fuel-related groundwater contamination at the source area, fuel-related contamination was not detected in downgradient monitoring wells. Rapid horizontal groundwater velocities and the 24-year time span from the last reported spill farther suggest that a plume of contaminated groundwater could extend several thousand feet downgradient. The lack of contamination downgradient from the source suggests two possibilities: (1) monitoring wells installed during the RI did not intersect the plume or (2) fuel-related compounds had naturally degraded.

  19. Varied sentiment in the industry. The energy turnaround index in the second quarter of 2012; Differenzierte Stimmung in der Branche. Der Energiewende-Index des 2. Quartals 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelmann, Helmut [Ernst und Young GmbH Wirtschaftspruefungsgesellschaft, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kohler, Stephan [dena, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    The German economy is facing mounting challenges from the energy turnaround that was brought about by decisions taken in the summer of 2011. A recent survey conducted among major players of the energy sector to calculate the Energy Turnaround Index (DEX) has shown that while the overall sentiment is quite calm, expectations for the future vary considerably between different groups. The industry is willing to bring the energy turnaround forward, but it takes a critical view on the regulatory and legal framework, since these could inhibit investments for a speedier turnaround and compromise security of supply.

  20. DB4US: A Decision Support System for Laboratory Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortas, Maria Luisa; Baena-García, Manuel; Lana-Linati, Jorge; González, Carlos; Redondo, Maximino; Morales-Bueno, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Background Until recently, laboratory automation has focused primarily on improving hardware. Future advances are concentrated on intelligent software since laboratories performing clinical diagnostic testing require improved information systems to address their data processing needs. In this paper, we propose DB4US, an application that automates information related to laboratory quality indicators information. Currently, there is a lack of ready-to-use management quality measures. This application addresses this deficiency through the extraction, consolidation, statistical analysis, and visualization of data related to the use of demographics, reagents, and turn-around times. The design and implementation issues, as well as the technologies used for the implementation of this system, are discussed in this paper. Objective To develop a general methodology that integrates the computation of ready-to-use management quality measures and a dashboard to easily analyze the overall performance of a laboratory, as well as automatically detect anomalies or errors. The novelty of our approach lies in the application of integrated web-based dashboards as an information management system in hospital laboratories. Methods We propose a new methodology for laboratory information management based on the extraction, consolidation, statistical analysis, and visualization of data related to demographics, reagents, and turn-around times, offering a dashboard-like user web interface to the laboratory manager. The methodology comprises a unified data warehouse that stores and consolidates multidimensional data from different data sources. The methodology is illustrated through the implementation and validation of DB4US, a novel web application based on this methodology that constructs an interface to obtain ready-to-use indicators, and offers the possibility to drill down from high-level metrics to more detailed summaries. The offered indicators are calculated beforehand so that they

  1. Open-source software for demand forecasting of clinical laboratory test volumes using time-series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Demand forecasting is the area of predictive analytics devoted to predicting future volumes of services or consumables. Fair understanding and estimation of how demand will vary facilitates the optimal utilization of resources. In a medical laboratory, accurate forecasting of future demand, that is, test volumes, can increase efficiency and facilitate long-term laboratory planning. Importantly, in an era of utilization management initiatives, accurately predicted volumes compared to the realized test volumes can form a precise way to evaluate utilization management initiatives. Laboratory test volumes are often highly amenable to forecasting by time-series models; however, the statistical software needed to do this is generally either expensive or highly technical. Method: In this paper, we describe an open-source web-based software tool for time-series forecasting and explain how to use it as a demand forecasting tool in clinical laboratories to estimate test volumes. Results: This tool has three different models, that is, Holt-Winters multiplicative, Holt-Winters additive, and simple linear regression. Moreover, these models are ranked and the best one is highlighted. Conclusion: This tool will allow anyone with historic test volume data to model future demand.

  2. Open-source Software for Demand Forecasting of Clinical Laboratory Test Volumes Using Time-series Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Emad A; Naugler, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Demand forecasting is the area of predictive analytics devoted to predicting future volumes of services or consumables. Fair understanding and estimation of how demand will vary facilitates the optimal utilization of resources. In a medical laboratory, accurate forecasting of future demand, that is, test volumes, can increase efficiency and facilitate long-term laboratory planning. Importantly, in an era of utilization management initiatives, accurately predicted volumes compared to the realized test volumes can form a precise way to evaluate utilization management initiatives. Laboratory test volumes are often highly amenable to forecasting by time-series models; however, the statistical software needed to do this is generally either expensive or highly technical. In this paper, we describe an open-source web-based software tool for time-series forecasting and explain how to use it as a demand forecasting tool in clinical laboratories to estimate test volumes. This tool has three different models, that is, Holt-Winters multiplicative, Holt-Winters additive, and simple linear regression. Moreover, these models are ranked and the best one is highlighted. This tool will allow anyone with historic test volume data to model future demand.

  3. Anatomy of a public health agency turnaround: the case of the general health district in Mahoning County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honoré, Peggy A; Stefanak, Matthew; Dessens, Scott

    2012-01-01

    A turnaround describes an organization's ability to recover from successive periods of decline. Current and projected declines in US economic conditions continue to place local public health departments at risk of fiscal exigency. This examination focused on turnaround methodologies used by a local public health department to reverse successive periods of operational and financial declines. Illustrations are provided on the value added by implementing financial ratio and trend analysis in addition to using evidence-based private sector turnaround strategies of retrenchment, repositioning, and reorganization. Evidence has shown how the financial analysis and strategies aided in identifying operational weakness and set in motion corrective measures. The Public Health Uniform Data System is introduced along with a list of standards offered for mainstreaming these and other routine stewardship practices to diagnose, predict, and prevent agency declines.

  4. School Turnaround as National Policy in the United States: Considerations from Three Studies Conducted in the Midwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coby V. Meyers

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available School turnaround policy has become prominent in American education discourse. Some federal initiatives specifically target the lowest achieving five percent of schools in the nation, with the goal of bringing schools out of improvement status rapidly. This paper considers and extends the work of three recent studies of school turnaround. Collectively, the studies demonstrate how a strong federal initiative can impact public education on multiple levels, including the state, district, school, and individual levels. School turnaround demonstrates the power of federal initiatives in the United States to impact the public school system at all levels. State departments of education have responded in ways to obtain federal funding. Districts and schools generally with the least capacity to enact change have been challenged with an opportunity to win substantial dollars, but many elected not to compete. Increases in student achievement through such reform appear to be possible, but the human and social costs have yet to be adequately considered.

  5. [Team approaches to critical bleeding (massive bleeding and transfusion) - chairmen's introductory remarks. Questionnaire survey on current status of hospital clinical laboratories evaluating critical hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino, Shuichi; Suwabe, Akira

    2014-12-01

    In 2007, "the Guidelines for Actions against Intraoperative Critical Hemorrhage" were established by the Japanese Society of Anaesthesiologists and the Japanese Society of Blood transfusion and Cell Therapy. The documentation of in-hospital procedures for critical hemorrhage, especially about how to select RBC units, has widely standardized hospital practice. Patients with intraoperative critical hemorrhage sometimes suffer from massive blood loss. In this situation, some patients develop coagulopathy. To treat them, we need to evaluate their coagulation status based on laboratory test results. So, we performed a nationwide questionnaire survey on the current status of hospital clinical laboratories evaluating critical hemorrhage. From the results of this survey, it was recommended that central hospital laboratories should try to reduce the turn-around time required to test for coagulation parameters as much as possible for appropriate substitution therapy. (Review).

  6. Real time Intelligent Control Laboratory (RT-ICL) of PowerLabDK for smart grid technology development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Jacob; Wu, Qiuwei; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the Intelligent Control Laboratory (ICL) of the PowerLabDK and describes examples of ongoing research work utilizing the ICL. The ICL is comprised of a real time digital simulator (RTDS) with 5 racks, a full scale SCADA system and experimental control room with a link to the B......This paper presents the Intelligent Control Laboratory (ICL) of the PowerLabDK and describes examples of ongoing research work utilizing the ICL. The ICL is comprised of a real time digital simulator (RTDS) with 5 racks, a full scale SCADA system and experimental control room with a link...... to the Bornholm power system data, an IBM blade server for optimization and control implementation, and a Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) Lab. It is possible to interface PMUs and other hardware with the RTDS for hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) and power-hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) tests. The ICL can interface...

  7. Impact of routine real-time PCR testing of imported malaria over 4 years of implementation in a clinical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokoples, Sandra; Mukhi, Shamir N; Scott, Allison N; Yanow, Stephanie K

    2013-06-01

    In clinical laboratories, diagnosis of imported malaria is commonly performed by microscopy. However, the volume of specimens is generally low and maintaining proficiency in reading blood smears, particularly at the species level, is challenging in this setting. To address this problem, the Provincial Laboratory for Public Health (ProvLab) in Alberta, Canada, implemented real-time PCR for routine confirmation of all smear-positive samples in the province. Here we report our experience over a 4-year period (2008 to 2012) with this new diagnostic algorithm. While detection of Plasmodium falciparum by microscopy alone was accurate, real-time PCR served as an important adjunct to microscopy for the identification of non-falciparum species. In 18% of cases, the result was reported as non-falciparum or the species could not be identified by microscopy alone, and in all cases, the species was resolved by real-time PCR. In another 4% of cases, the species was misidentified by microscopy. To enhance surveillance for malaria, we integrated our demographic, clinical, and laboratory data into a new system developed by the Canadian Network for Public Health Intelligence, called the Malaria System for Online Surveillance (SOS). Using this application, we characterized our patient populations and travel history to identify risk factors associated with malaria infection abroad.

  8. A blood-result turn-around time survey to improve congenital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    attenders between 19 rural clinics and their base hospital, ... work on policy development, the majority of health service ... Community Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg ... serological tests for syphilis include problems in health ... The clinics are in radio contact with ..... Wesr Indian Med J 1991; 4&.

  9. A benchmark for predicting turnaround time for trucks at a container terminal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoel, van der Sjoerd Jurrian; Amrit, Chintan; Hillegersberg, van Jos

    2016-01-01

    Creating a reliable predictive model is a vital part of business intelligence applications. However, without a proper benchmark, it is very difficult to assess how good a predictive model really is. Furthermore, existing literature does not provide much guidance on how to create such benchmarks. In

  10. Impactful times memories of 60 years of shock wave research at Sandia National Laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Asay, James R; Lawrence, R Jeffery; Sweeney, Mary Ann

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a history of shock compression science, including development of experimental, material modeling, and hydrodynamics code technologies over the past six decades at Sandia National Laboratories. The book is organized into a discussion of major accomplishments by decade with over 900 references, followed by a unique collection of 45 personal recollections detailing the trials, tribulations, and successes of building a world-class organization in the field. It explains some of the challenges researchers faced and the gratification they experienced when a discovery was made. Several visionary researchers made pioneering advances that integrated these three technologies into a cohesive capability to solve complex scientific and engineering problems. What approaches worked, which ones did not, and the applications of the research are described. Notable applications include the turret explosion aboard the USS Iowa and the Shoemaker-Levy comet impact on Jupiter. The personal anecdotes and recollec...

  11. Development of a Laboratory Synchrophasor Network and an Application to Estimate Transmission Line Parameters in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almiron Bonnin, Rubens Eduardo

    The development of an experimental synchrophasors network and application of synchrophasors for real-time transmission line parameter monitoring are presented in this thesis. In the laboratory setup, a power system is simulated in a RTDS real-time digital simulator, and the simulated voltages and currents are input to hardware phasor measurement units (PMUs) through the analog outputs of the simulator. Time synchronizing signals for the PMU devices are supplied from a common GPS clock. The real time data collected from PMUs are sent to a phasor data concentrator (PDC) through Ethernet using the TCP/IP protocol. A real-time transmission line parameter monitoring application program that uses the synchrophasor data provided by the PDC is implemented and validated. The experimental synchrophasor network developed in this thesis is expected to be used in research on synchrophasor applications as well as in graduate and undergraduate teaching.

  12. Assessment of human embryos by time-lapse videography: A comparison of quantitative and qualitative measures between two independent laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanhe; Copeland, Christopher; Stevens, Adam; Feenan, Katie; Chapple, Vincent; Myssonski, Kim; Roberts, Peter; Matson, Phillip

    2015-12-01

    A total of 488 Day 3 human embryos with known implantation data from two independent in vitro fertilization laboratories were included for analysis, with 270 from Fertility North (FN) and 218 from Canberra Fertility Centre (CFC). Implanting embryos grew at different rates between FN and CFC as indicated in hours of the time intervals between pronuclear fading and the 4- (13.9 ± 1.1 vs. 14.9 ± 1.8), 5- (25.7 ± 1.9 vs. 28.4 ± 3.7) and 8-cell stages (29.0 ± 3.2 vs. 32.2 ± 4.6), as well as the durations of 2- (10.8 ± 0.8 vs. 11.6 ± 1.1), 3- (0.4 ± 0.5 vs. 0.9 ± 1.2), and 4-cell stages (11.8 ± 1.4 vs. 13.6 ± 2.9), all pqualitative measures including poor conventional morphology, direct cleavage, reverse cleavage and 0.05) or non-implanting embryos (30.4% vs. 38.3%, p>0.05) between FN and CFC. Furthermore, implanting embryos favored lower proportions of the above biological events compared to the non-implanting ones in both laboratories (both pquantitative timing parameters may have reduced inter-laboratory transferability; qualitative measures are independent of cell division timings, with potentially improved inter-laboratory reproducibility. Copyright © 2015 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatial analysis of aquifer response times for radial flow processes: Nondimensional analysis and laboratory-scale tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazaei, Farhad; Simpson, Matthew J.; Clement, T. Prabhakar

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental concept in groundwater hydrology is the notion of steady state, or equilibrium conditions. When a system at some initial steady state condition is perturbed by pumping, a transient cone of depression will develop and the system will approach a new steady state condition. Understanding the time scale required for the transient process to occur is of practical interest since it would help practitioners decide whether to use a steady state model or a more complicated transient model. Standard approaches to estimate the response time use simple scaling relationships which neglect spatial variations. Alternatively, others define the response time to be the amount of time taken for the difference between the transient and steady state solutions to fall below some arbitrary tolerance level. Here, we present a novel approach and use the concept of mean action time to predict aquifer response time scales in a two-dimensional radial geometry for pumping, injection and recovery processes. Our approach leads to relatively simple closed form expressions that explicitly show how the time scale depends on the hydraulic parameters and position. Furthermore, our dimensionless framework allows us to predict the response time scales for a range of applications including small scale laboratory problems and large scale field problems. Our analysis shows that the response time scales vary spatially, but are equivalent for pumping, injection and associated recovery processes. Furthermore, the time scale is independent of the pumping or injection flow rate. We test these predictions in a laboratory scale aquifer and find that our physical measurements corroborate the theoretical predictions.

  14. Except in Highly Idealized Cases, Repeating Earthquakes and Laboratory Earthquakes are Neither Time- nor Slip-Predictable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, J. L.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Beeler, N. M.; Chen, K. H.; Lockner, D. A.; Uchida, N.

    2010-12-01

    Sequences of repeating earthquakes in California, Taiwan and Japan are characterized by interevent times that are more regular than expected from a Poisson process, and are better described by a 2-parameter renewal model (mean rate and variability) of independent and identically distributed intervals that only depends on the time of the last event. Using precise measurements of the relative size of earthquakes in each repeating earthquake family we examine the additional predictive power of the time- and slip-predictable models. We find that neither model offers statistically significant predictive power over a renewal model. In a highly idealized laboratory system, we find that earthquakes are both time- and slip-predictable, but with the addition of a small amount of the complexity (e.g., an uneven fault surface) the time- and slip-predictable models offer little or no advantage over a much simpler renewal model that has constant slip or constant recurrence intervals. Given that repeating natural and laboratory earthquakes are not well explained by either time- or slip-predictability, we conclude that these models are too idealized to explain the recurrence behavior of natural earthquakes. These models likely fail because their key assumptions (1 -- constant loading rate, 2 -- constant failure threshold OR constant final stress, and 3 - the fault is locked throughout the loading cycle) are too idealized to apply in a complex, natural system. While the time- and slip-predictable models do not appear to work for natural earthquakes, we do note that moment (slip) scales with recurrence time according to the mean magnitude of each repeating earthquake family in Parkfield, CA, but not in the other locations. While earthquake size and recurrence time are related in Parkfield, the simplest slip-predictable model still doesn’t work because fitting a linear trend to the data predicts a non-zero earthquake size at instantaneous recurrence time. This scaling, its presence

  15. Time accuracy of a barcode system for recording resuscitation events: laboratory trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J A; Short, F A

    1999-11-01

    Barcode systems for recording clinical data from resuscitation attempts offer the prospect of more complete and time-accurate data collection; in addition, collection of data in digital form and the resulting ease of computer processing promises to facilitate data analysis for quality improvement and research. We conducted trials of such a barcode system, recording events during a videotaped, simulated in-hospital resuscitation, with particular attention to time accuracy. Nine subjects watched a videotape of a simulated cardiac resuscitation, recording events first with the barcode system and then with a conventional handwritten form. Recorded times were compared to an accurate record of events (gold standard) from the videotape. Mean absolute errors and standard deviations of errors from the gold standard were significantly smaller with the barcode system (P system is more accurate than conventional handwritten recording in capturing event times from a simulated resuscitation. The system shows promise as a means to improve time accuracy of resuscitation records.

  16. Addressing the key communication barriers between microbiology laboratories and clinical units: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodvin, Brita; Aase, Karina; Brekken, Anita Løvås; Charani, Esmita; Lindemann, Paul Christoffer; Smith, Ingrid

    2017-09-01

    Many countries are on the brink of establishing antibiotic stewardship programmes in hospitals nationwide. In a previous study we found that communication between microbiology laboratories and clinical units is a barrier to implementing efficient antibiotic stewardship programmes in Norway. We have now addressed the key communication barriers between microbiology laboratories and clinical units from a laboratory point of view. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 employees (managers, doctors and technicians) from six diverse Norwegian microbiological laboratories, representing all four regional health authorities. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was applied, identifying emergent themes, subthemes and corresponding descriptions. The main barrier to communication is disruption involving specimen logistics, information on request forms, verbal reporting of test results and information transfer between poorly integrated IT systems. Furthermore, communication is challenged by lack of insight into each other's area of expertise and limited provision of laboratory services, leading to prolonged turnaround time, limited advisory services and restricted opening hours. Communication between microbiology laboratories and clinical units can be improved by a review of testing processes, educational programmes to increase insights into the other's area of expertise, an evaluation of work tasks and expansion of rapid and point-of-care test services. Antibiotic stewardship programmes may serve as a valuable framework to establish these measures.

  17. Acute Lethality of Inhaled Hydrogen Cyanide in the Laboratory Rat: Impact of Concentration x Time Profile and Evaluation of the Predictivity of Toxic Load Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    Naval Medical Research Unit Dayton Acute Lethality of Inhaled Hydrogen Cyanide in the Laboratory Rat : Impact of Concentration × Time Profile and...Cyanide in the Laboratory Rat : Impact of Concentration x Time Profile and Evaluation of the Predictivity of “Toxic Load” Models. 5a. Contract

  18. In search of supply concepts for the mass market in the face of the energy turnaround; Auf der Suche nach massenmarktfaehigen Belieferungskonzepten fuer die Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fest, Claus [RWE Effizienz GmbH, Dortmund (Germany); Ploch, Dieter [eprimo GmbH, Neu-Isenburg (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    There are increasing demands both in Germany and at the European level that electricity price models for household and industrial customers should be brought in line with the times by allowing greater flexibility and allocating costs to causes. In Germany they have issued from the discussion over the consequences of the energy turnaround for the mass customer business and the associated search for viable supply concepts. A number of proposals have been made to this end, largely revolving around the question of how prices for supplying end customers can be made to more closely approximate conditions as they prevail in the wholesale market while allowing price advantages to become effective. However, in many instances the public debate has so far neglected an essential factor: In order for a product to become firmly established on the market it must confer benefits to all involved, that is to both customers and suppliers.

  19. Time-dependent VOC-profile of decomposed human and animal remains in laboratory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosier, E; Loix, S; Develter, W; Van de Voorde, W; Tytgat, J; Cuypers, E

    2016-09-01

    A validated method using a thermal desorber combined with a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer was used to identify the volatile organic compounds released in decomposed human and animal remains after 9 and 12 months in glass jars in a laboratory environment. This is a follow-up study on a previous report where the first 6 months of decomposition of 6 human and 26 animal remains was investigated. In the first report, out of 452 identified compounds, a combination of 8 compounds was proposed as human and pig specific. The goal of the current study was to investigate if these 8 compounds were still released after 9 and 12 months. The next results were noticed: 287 compounds were identified; only 9 new compounds were detected and 173 were no longer seen. Sulfur-containing compounds were less prevalent as compared to the first month of decomposition. The appearance of nitrogen-containing compounds and alcohols was increasingly evident during the first 6 months, and the same trend was seen in the following 6 months. Esters became less important after 6 months. From the proposed human and pig specific compounds, diethyl disulfide was only detected during the first months of decomposition. Interestingly, the 4 proposed human and pig specific esters, as well as pyridine, 3-methylthio-1-propanol and methyl(methylthio)ethyl disulfide were still present after 9 and 12 months of decomposition. This means that these 7 human and pig specific markers can be used in the development of training aids for cadaver dogs during the whole decomposition process. Diethyl disulfide can be used in training aids for the first month of decomposition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Between the laboratory and the museum: Claude Bernard and the problem of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidgen, Henning

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the relation between biological and historical time with respect to Claude Bernard's Lectures on the Phenomena of Life Common to Animals and Plants (1878). These lectures mirror Bernard's turn from the experimental physiology of animal organisms to a "general physiology" of elementary organisms, or cells, and discuss the problematic interrelation of science, life, and time. The paper argues that experimental life sciences in Bernard's sense are always also "living sciences," i.e., sciences in dynamic development. The perspectives of this conception are discussed with reference to Hans-Jörg Rheinberger's historical studies concerning the materiality and semiotics of "experimental systems."

  1. Point of care technology or standard laboratory service in an emergency department: is there a difference in time to action? A randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer Mogensen, Christian; Borch, Anders; Brandslund, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Emergency Departments (ED) have a high flow of patients and time is often crucial. New technologies for laboratory analysis have been developed, including Point of Care Technologies (POCT), which can reduce the transport time and time of analysis significantly compared with central laboratory...... services. However, the question is if the time to clinical action is also reduced if a decisive laboratory answer is available during the first contact between the patient and doctor. The present study addresses this question: Does a laboratory answer, provided by POCT to the doctor who first attends...... the patient on admission, change the time to clinical decision in commonly occurring diseases in an ED compared with the traditional service from a central laboratory?...

  2. The circular F-actin bundles provide a track for turnaround and bidirectional movement of mitochondria in Arabidopsis root hair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available The movement of organelles in root hairs primarily occurs along the actin cytoskeleton. Circulation and "reverse fountain" cytoplasmic streaming constitute the typical forms by which most organelles (such as mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus in plant root hair cells engage in bidirectional movement. However, there remains a lack of in-depth research regarding the relationship between the distribution of the actin cytoskeleton and turnaround organelle movement in plant root hair cells.In this paper, Arabidopsis seedlings that had been stably transformed with a GFP-ABD2-GFP (green fluorescent protein-actin-binding domain 2-green fluorescent protein construct were utilized to study the distribution of bundles of filamentous (F-actin and the directed motion of mitochondria along these bundles in root hairs. Observations with a confocal laser scanning microscope revealed that there were widespread circular F-actin bundles in the epidermal cells and root hairs of Arabidopsis roots. In root hairs, these circular bundles primarily start at the sub-apical region, which is the location where the turnaround movement of organelles occurs. MitoTracker probes were used to label mitochondria, and the dynamic observation of root hair cells with a confocal laser scanning microscope indicated that turnaround mitochondrial movement occurred along circular F-actin bundles.Relevant experimental results demonstrated that the circular F-actin bundles provide a track for the turnaround and bidirectional movement of mitochondria.

  3. Growth and Change in Nonmetropolitan Schools: Effects of the Population Migration Turnaround in Osceola County, Michigan During the 1970's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankena, Frederick

    Findings of a study to establish the determinants and effects of urban to rural population migration patterns in Osceola County, Michigan, where a 27.6% increase (4,090 people) occurred during the 1970's, illustrate typical effects of population migration turnaround on nonmetropolitan schools. The study revealed that school facilities were…

  4. The Effect of Modified Gravity on the Odds of the Bound Violations of the Turn-Around Radii

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jounghun

    2016-01-01

    The turn-around radii of the galaxy groups shows the imprint of a long battle between their self-gravitational forces and the accelerating space. The standard LambdaCDM cosmology based on the general relativity (GR) predicts the existence of an upper bound on the expectation value of the turn-around radius which is rarely violated by individual galaxy groups. We speculate that a deviation of the gravitational law from GR on the cosmological scale could cause an appreciable shift of the mean turn-around radius to higher values and make the occurrence of the bound violation more probable. Analyzing the data from high-resolution N-body simulations for two specific models with modified gravity (MG) and the standard GR+LambdaCDM cosmology, we determine the turn-around radii of the massive Rockstar groups from the peculiar motions of the galactic halos located in the bound zone where the fifth force generated by MG is expected to be at most partially shielded. We detect a 4 sigma signal of difference in the odds of...

  5. The Double Bind for Women: Exploring the Gendered Nature of Turnaround Leadership in a Principal Preparation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Jennie Miles; Burton, Laura J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study of nine participants in a turnaround principal preparation program, Jennie Miles Weiner and Laura J. Burton explore how gender role identity shaped participants' views of effective principal leadership and their place within it. The authors find that although female and male participants initially framed effective leadership…

  6. Comparison of real-time PCR protocols for differential laboratory diagnosis of amebiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; James, Cleve; Xayavong, Maniphet; Holloway, Brian P; Visvesvara, Govinda S; Sriram, Rama; da Silva, Alexandre J

    2005-11-01

    Specific identification of Entamoeba spp. in clinical specimens is an important confirmatory diagnostic step in the management of patients who may be infected with Entamoeba histolytica, the species that causes clinical amebiasis. Distinct real-time PCR protocols have recently been published for identification of E. histolytica and differentiation from the morphologically identical nonpathogenic Entamoeba dispar. In this study, we compared three E. histolytica real-time PCR techniques published by December 2004. The limits of detection and efficiency of each real-time PCR assay were determined using DNA extracted from stool samples spiked with serially diluted cultured E. histolytica trophozoites. The ability of each assay to correctly distinguish E. histolytica from E. dispar was evaluated with DNA extracted from patients' stools and liver aspirates submitted for confirmatory diagnosis. Real-time PCR allowed quantitative analysis of the spiked stool samples, but major differences in detection limits and assay performance were observed among the evaluated tests. These results illustrate the usefulness of comparative evaluations of diagnostic assays.

  7. Real-time Series Resistance Monitoring in PV Systems; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deceglie, M. G.; Silverman, T. J.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2015-06-14

    We apply the physical principles of a familiar method, suns-Voc, to a new application: the real-time detection of series resistance changes in modules and systems operating outside. The real-time series resistance (RTSR) method that we describe avoids the need for collecting IV curves or constructing full series-resistance-free IV curves. RTSR is most readily deployable at the module level on apply the physical principles of a familiar method, suns-Voc, to a new application: the real-time detection of series resistance changes in modules and systems operating outside. The real-time series resistance (RTSR) method that we describe avoids the need for collecting IV curves or constructing full series-resistance-free IV curves. RTSR is most readily deployable at the module level on micro-inverters or module-integrated electronics, but it can also be extended to full strings. Automated detection of series resistance increases can provide early warnings of some of the most common reliability issues, which also pose fire risks, including broken ribbons, broken solder bonds, and contact problems in the junction or combiner box. We describe the method in detail and describe a sample application to data collected from modules operating in the field.

  8. 3D Printing in the Laboratory: Maximize Time and Funds with Customized and Open-Source Labware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Meghan; Hurt, Darrell E

    2016-08-01

    3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, is the computer-guided process of fabricating physical objects by depositing successive layers of material. It has transformed manufacturing across virtually every industry, bringing about incredible advances in research and medicine. The rapidly growing consumer market now includes convenient and affordable "desktop" 3D printers. These are being used in the laboratory to create custom 3D-printed equipment, and a growing community of designers are contributing open-source, cost-effective innovations that can be used by both professionals and enthusiasts. User stories from investigators at the National Institutes of Health and the biomedical research community demonstrate the power of 3D printing to save valuable time and funding. While adoption of 3D printing has been slow in the biosciences to date, the potential is vast. The market predicts that within several years, 3D printers could be commonplace within the home; with so many practical uses for 3D printing, we anticipate that the technology will also play an increasingly important role in the laboratory. © 2016 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  9. Elastic Time Reversal Mirror Experiment in a Mesoscopic Natural Medium at the Low Noise Underground Laboratory of Rustrel, France

    CERN Document Server

    Gaffet, Stephane; Senechal, Guy; Rousset, Dominique; Zeyen, Hermann; Auguste, Michel; Boyer, Daniel; Cavaillou, Alain

    2010-01-01

    A seismic time reversal experiment based on Time Reversal Mirror (TRM) technique was conducted in the mesoscopically scaled medium at the LSBB Laboratory, France. Two sets of 50 Hz geophones were distributed at one meter intervals in two horizontal and parallel galleries 100 m apart, buried 250 m below the surface. The shot source used was a 4 kg sledgehammer. Analysis shows that elastic seismic energy is refocused in space and time to the shot locations with good accuracy. The refocusing ability of seismic energy to the shot locations is roughly achieved for the direct field, and with excellent quality, for the early and later coda. Hyper-focussing is achieved at the shot points as a consequence of the fine scale randomly heterogeneous medium between the galleries. TRM experiment is sensitive to the roughness of the mirror used. Roughness induces a slight experimental discrepancy between recording and re-emitting directions degrading the quality of the reversal process.

  10. Time to move from presumptive malaria treatment to laboratory-confirmed diagnosis and treatment in African children with fever.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie D'Acremont

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND TO THE DEBATE: Current guidelines recommend that all fever episodes in African children be treated presumptively with antimalarial drugs. But declining malarial transmission in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, declining proportions of fevers due to malaria, and the availability of rapid diagnostic tests mean it may be time for this policy to change. This debate examines whether enough evidence exists to support abandoning presumptive treatment and whether African health systems have the capacity to support a shift toward laboratory-confirmed rather than presumptive diagnosis and treatment of malaria in children under five.

  11. Current status of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Jen; Chen, Sharon C A; Dwyer, Dominic E; Iredell, Jonathan R

    2013-01-01

    The integration of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) into many clinical microbiology laboratories has revolutionised routine pathogen identification. MALDI-TOF MS complements and has good potential to replace existing phenotypic identification methods. Results are available in a more clinically relevant timeframe, particularly in bacteraemic septic shock. Novel applications include strain typing and the detection of antimicrobial resistance, but these are not widely used. This review discusses the technical aspects, current applications, and limitations of MALDI-TOF MS.

  12. Laboratory Evaluation of Time-Domain Reflectometry for Bridge Scour Measurement: Comparison with the Ultrasonic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbao Yu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bridge scour is a major factor causing instability of bridges crossing waterways. Excessive scour contributes to their high construction and maintenance costs. Design of innovative scour-monitoring instrumentation is essential to ensure the safety of scour-critical bridges. The ability of real-time surveillance is important since the most severe scour typically happens near the peak flood discharge. A new scour-monitoring instrument based on the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR principle has been developed to provide real-time monitoring of scour evolution. A framework based on dielectric mixing model has been developed, which can be easily incorporated into an automatic analysis algorithm. This paper introduces a comparative study of TDR method and ultrasonic method for scour measurements. The results indicate that both TDR and ultrasonic methods can accurately estimate scour depth. TDR method, with the developed analysis algorithm, yields information on the river properties such as the electrical conductivity of river water and the density of sediments. TDR methods are also found less influenced by turbulence and air bubbles, both likely to occur during flood events.

  13. Reservation System for machine time in the laboratories of the University of Information Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Mar Cornelio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In organizations that many people have access to services of machine time, it requires proper planning and control. At the University of Computer Sciences, is done through pre-printed models which generates an inefficient management and poor quality service. In this paper we describe the solution of this problem from the computerization of the process for which was coded using a programming language such as PHP5 on Eclipse Integrated Development Environment with CodeIgniter framework, MySQL as a delivery system database. The system also has a set of reports that facilitate decision making to managers such as availability, location number reserved among others.

  14. Development of a Real-Time General-Purpose Digital Signal Processing Laboratory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    for AF/LE computer support (receiving the Air Force Meritorious Service Medal for his performance) and ,I as a White House Social Aide. He entered AFIT...8217 " ’"".i2" ",. , , ,: ., 2 22 : Abstract This investigation resulted in the design and implementation of software to support a real-time, general...purpose digital signal processing (DSP) system. The major design aims for the system were that it: be easy to use, support a wide variety of DSP

  15. Oviposition by Female Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): Description and Time Budget Analysis of Behaviors in Laboratory Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambaraju, Kishan R; Donelson, Sarah L; Bozic, Janko; Phillips, Thomas W

    2016-01-22

    The oviposition behavior of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a major insect pest of durable stored foods, was studied in small experimental arenas under laboratory conditions using videography, and a time budget analysis of its behaviors was documented. Resting gravid females typically became active shortly after the start of the scotophase. The characteristic behaviors exhibited by mated females prior to oviposition included antennal movement, grooming of antennae and mouth parts using the forelegs, walking or flying, and abdomen bending and dragging. Pre-oviposition behaviors such as antennal grooming and walking or flying were observed to alternate several times before females commenced the abdominal dragging behavior that preceded egg laying. Eggs were laid singly or sometimes in groups, either freely or stuck to food material. Gravid females showed little or no movement during the photophase; however, they actively flew and oviposited during the scotophase. Females allocated only a small portion of their time to oviposition while the rest of the time was spent away from food. Females oviposited on food material by making repeated visits, predominantly during the first four hours of the scotophase. Visits and time spent on food declined as the scotophase advanced.

  16. Oviposition by Female Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Description and Time Budget Analysis of Behaviors in Laboratory Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishan R. Sambaraju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The oviposition behavior of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, a major insect pest of durable stored foods, was studied in small experimental arenas under laboratory conditions using videography, and a time budget analysis of its behaviors was documented. Resting gravid females typically became active shortly after the start of the scotophase. The characteristic behaviors exhibited by mated females prior to oviposition included antennal movement, grooming of antennae and mouth parts using the forelegs, walking or flying, and abdomen bending and dragging. Pre-oviposition behaviors such as antennal grooming and walking or flying were observed to alternate several times before females commenced the abdominal dragging behavior that preceded egg laying. Eggs were laid singly or sometimes in groups, either freely or stuck to food material. Gravid females showed little or no movement during the photophase; however, they actively flew and oviposited during the scotophase. Females allocated only a small portion of their time to oviposition while the rest of the time was spent away from food. Females oviposited on food material by making repeated visits, predominantly during the first four hours of the scotophase. Visits and time spent on food declined as the scotophase advanced.

  17. Oviposition by Female Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): Description and Time Budget Analysis of Behaviors in Laboratory Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambaraju, Kishan R.; Donelson, Sarah L.; Bozic, Janko; Phillips, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    The oviposition behavior of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a major insect pest of durable stored foods, was studied in small experimental arenas under laboratory conditions using videography, and a time budget analysis of its behaviors was documented. Resting gravid females typically became active shortly after the start of the scotophase. The characteristic behaviors exhibited by mated females prior to oviposition included antennal movement, grooming of antennae and mouth parts using the forelegs, walking or flying, and abdomen bending and dragging. Pre-oviposition behaviors such as antennal grooming and walking or flying were observed to alternate several times before females commenced the abdominal dragging behavior that preceded egg laying. Eggs were laid singly or sometimes in groups, either freely or stuck to food material. Gravid females showed little or no movement during the photophase; however, they actively flew and oviposited during the scotophase. Females allocated only a small portion of their time to oviposition while the rest of the time was spent away from food. Females oviposited on food material by making repeated visits, predominantly during the first four hours of the scotophase. Visits and time spent on food declined as the scotophase advanced. PMID:26805893

  18. Genetic antimicrobial susceptibility testing in Gram-negative sepsis - impact on time to results in a routine laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommedal, Øyvind; Aasen, Johanne Lind; Lindemann, Paul Christoffer

    2016-07-01

    Diagnostic testing of positive blood cultures is among the most critical tasks performed by clinical microbiology laboratories, and the total analysis time from sampling to results should be kept as short as possible. By providing identification of pelleted bacteria directly from positive blood-cultures, MALDI-TOF MS opens for relatively low-complex species-adjusted genetic susceptibility testing from the same bacterial pellet. In our lab routine, we prospectively evaluated a rapid in-house real-time PCR targeting the most common aminoglycoside and cephalosporin resistance genes in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and measured time to preliminary susceptibility reporting for 138 samples. The results were compared to direct phenotypic susceptibility testing with interpretation after 6 h and overnight incubation respectively. Results from the genetic susceptibility testing were available for 69.5% (96/138) of the positive blood cultures within 24 h after sample collection. No phenotypic susceptibility results were available at this time. Compared to overnight direct susceptibility testing, the average time from sample collection to preliminary susceptibility reporting was reduced with 43%, from 45 h and 5 min to 25 h and 44 min, providing an earlier adjustment of antimicrobial therapy for 12 patients. Minor logistic adjustments have the potential to save yet another 4 h.

  19. The right of energy storage after the energy policy turnaround. The new regulations for electricity storage in EnWG and EEG; Das Recht der Energiespeicherung nach der Energiewende. Die neuen Regelungen zur Stromspeicherung im EnWG und EEG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailer, Frank [Stiftung Umweltenergierecht, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    The legislation on the energy policy turnaround in the summer of 2011 results not only in legislative changes in the power distribution networks (e.g., paragraph 12a et seq EnWG, NABEG), but also in the electricity storage. Thus the ''law of energy storage'' has been partially revised and for the first time comprehensively codified with a view to the EnWG. The author of the contribution under consideration analyzes this in more detail.

  20. Influenza outbreak during Sydney World Youth Day 2008: the utility of laboratory testing and case definitions on mass gathering outbreak containment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan J van Hal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza causes annual epidemics and often results in extensive outbreaks in closed communities. To minimize transmission, a range of interventions have been suggested. For these to be effective, an accurate and timely diagnosis of influenza is required. This is confirmed by a positive laboratory test result in an individual whose symptoms are consistent with a predefined clinical case definition. However, the utility of these clinical case definitions and laboratory testing in mass gathering outbreaks remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: An influenza outbreak was identified during World Youth Day 2008 in Sydney. From the data collected on pilgrims presenting to a single clinic, a Markov model was developed and validated against the actual epidemic curve. Simulations were performed to examine the utility of different clinical case definitions and laboratory testing strategies for containment of influenza outbreaks. Clinical case definitions were found to have the greatest impact on averting further cases with no added benefit when combined with any laboratory test. Although nucleic acid testing (NAT demonstrated higher utility than indirect immunofluorescence antigen or on-site point-of-care testing, this effect was lost when laboratory NAT turnaround times was included. The main benefit of laboratory confirmation was limited to identification of true influenza cases amenable to interventions such as antiviral therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous re-evaluation of case definitions and laboratory testing strategies are essential for effective management of influenza outbreaks during mass gatherings.

  1. Once-a-day Concerta methylphenidate versus three-times-daily methylphenidate in laboratory and natural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelham, W E; Gnagy, E M; Burrows-Maclean, L; Williams, A; Fabiano, G A; Morrisey, S M; Chronis, A M; Forehand, G L; Nguyen, C A; Hoffman, M T; Lock, T M; Fielbelkorn, K; Coles, E K; Panahon, C J; Steiner, R L; Meichenbaum, D L; Onyango, A N; Morse, G D

    2001-06-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH), the most commonly prescribed drug for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), has a short half-life, which necessitates multiple daily doses. The need for multiple doses produces problems with medication administration during school and after-school hours, and therefore with compliance. Previous long-acting stimulants and preparations have shown effects equivalent to twice-daily dosing of MPH. This study tests the efficacy and duration of action, in natural and laboratory settings, of an extended-release MPH preparation designed to last 12 hours and therefore be equivalent to 3-times-daily dosing. Sixty-eight children with ADHD, 6 to 12 years old, participated in a within-subject, double-blind comparison of placebo, immediate-release (IR) MPH 3 times a day (tid), and Concerta, a once-daily MPH formulation. Three dosing levels of medication were used: 5 mg IR MPH tid/18 mg Concerta once a day (qd); 10 mg IR MPH tid/36 mg Concerta qd; and 15 mg IR MPH tid/54 mg Concerta qd. All children were currently medicated with MPH at enrollment, and each child's dose level was based on that child's MPH dosing before the study. The doses of Concerta were selected to be comparable to the daily doses of MPH that each child received. To achieve the ascending rate of MPH delivery determined by initial investigations to provide the necessary continuous coverage, Concerta doses were 20% higher on a daily basis than a comparable tid regimen of IR MPH. Children received each medication condition for 7 days. The investigation was conducted in the context of a background clinical behavioral intervention in both the natural environment and the laboratory setting. Parents received behavioral parent training and teachers were taught to establish a school-home daily report card (DRC). A DRC is a list of individual target behaviors that represent a child's most salient areas of impairment. Teachers set daily goals for each child's impairment targets, and parents

  2. Implications of quantum ambiguities in k=1 loop quantum cosmology: distinct quantum turnarounds and the super-Planckian regime

    CERN Document Server

    Dupuy, John L

    2016-01-01

    The spatially closed Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker model in loop quantum cosmology admits two inequivalent consistent quantizations: one based on expressing field strength in terms of holonomies over closed loops, and, another using a connection operator and open holonomies. Using effective dynamics, we investigate the phenomenological differences between the two quantizations for single fluid and two fluid scenarios with various equations of state, including phantom matter. We show that a striking difference between the two quantizations is the existence of two distinct quantum turnarounds, either bounces or recollapses, in the connection quantization, in contrast to a single distinct quantum bounce or recollapse in the holonomy quantization. These results generalize an earlier result on two distinct quantum bounces for stiff matter by Corichi and Karami. However, we find that in certain situations two distinct quantum turnarounds can become virtually indistinguishable. And depending on initial conditi...

  3. Timely detection of localized excess influenza activity in Northern California across patient care, prescription, and laboratory data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Sharon K; Kulldorff, Martin; Huang, Jie; Brand, Richard J; Kleinman, Kenneth P; Hsu, John; Platt, Richard

    2011-02-28

    Timely detection of clusters of localized influenza activity in excess of background seasonal levels could improve situational awareness for public health officials and health systems. However, no single data type may capture influenza activity with optimal sensitivity, specificity, and timeliness, and it is unknown which data types could be most useful for surveillance. We compared the performance of 10 types of electronic clinical data for timely detection of influenza clusters throughout the 2007/08 influenza season in northern California. Kaiser Permanente Northern California generated zip code-specific daily episode counts for: influenza-like illness (ILI) diagnoses in ambulatory care (AC) and emergency departments (ED), both with and without regard to fever; hospital admissions and discharges for pneumonia and influenza; antiviral drugs dispensed (Rx); influenza laboratory tests ordered (Tests); and tests positive for influenza type A (FluA) and type B (FluB). Four credible events of localized excess illness were identified. Prospective surveillance was mimicked within each data stream using a space-time permutation scan statistic, analyzing only data available as of each day, to evaluate the ability and timeliness to detect the credible events. AC without fever and Tests signaled during all four events and, along with Rx, had the most timely signals. FluA had less timely signals. ED, hospitalizations, and FluB did not signal reliably. When fever was included in the ILI definition, signals were either delayed or missed. Although limited to one health plan, location, and year, these results can inform the choice of data streams for public health surveillance of influenza.

  4. SLIPTA e-Tool improves laboratory audit process in Vietnam and Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuong T. Nguyen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA checklist is used worldwide to drive quality improvement in laboratories in developing countries and to assess the effectiveness of interventions such as the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA programme. However, the paperbased format of the checklist makes administration cumbersome and limits timely analysis and communication of results.Development of e-Tool: In early 2012, the SLMTA team in Vietnam developed an electronic SLIPTA checklist tool. The e-Tool was pilot tested in Vietnam in mid-2012 and revised. It was used during SLMTA implementation in Vietnam and Cambodia in 2012 and 2013 and further revised based on auditors’ feedback about usability.Outcomes: The SLIPTA e-Tool enabled rapid turn-around of audit results, reduced workload and language barriers and facilitated analysis of national results. Benefits of the e-Tool will be magnified with in-country scale-up of laboratory quality improvement efforts and potential expansion to other countries.

  5. Implications of quantum ambiguities in k =1 loop quantum cosmology: Distinct quantum turnarounds and the super-Planckian regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, John L.; Singh, Parampreet

    2017-01-01

    The spatially closed Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker model in loop quantum cosmology admits two inequivalent consistent quantizations: one based on expressing the field strength in terms of the holonomies over closed loops and another using a connection operator and open holonomies. Using the effective dynamics, we investigate the phenomenological differences between the two quantizations for the single-fluid and the two-fluid scenarios with various equations of state, including the phantom matter. We show that a striking difference between the two quantizations is the existence of two distinct quantum turnarounds, either bounces or recollapses, in the connection quantization, in contrast to a single distinct quantum bounce or a recollapse in the holonomy quantization. These results generalize an earlier result on the existence of two distinct quantum bounces for stiff matter by Corichi and Karami. However, we find that in certain situations two distinct quantum turnarounds can become virtually indistinguishable. And depending on the initial conditions, a pure quantum cyclic universe can also exist undergoing a quantum bounce and a quantum recollapse. We show that for various equations of states, connection-based quantization leads to super-Planckian values of the energy density and the expansion scalar at quantum turnarounds. Interestingly, we find that very extreme energy densities can also occur for the holonomy quantization, breaching the maximum allowed density in the spatially flat loop quantized model. However, the expansion scalar in all these cases is bounded by a universal value.

  6. A Bound Violation on the Galaxy Group Scale: the Turn-Around Radius of NGC 5353/4

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jounghun; Rey, Soo-Chang

    2015-01-01

    The first observational evidence for the violation of the maximum turn-around radius on the galaxy group scale is presented. The NGC 5353/4 group is chosen as an ideal target of our investigation of the bound-violation because of its proximity, low-density environment, optimal mass scale, and existence of a nearby thin straight filament. Using the observational data on the line-of-sight velocities and three dimensional distances of the filament galaxies located in the bound zone of the NGC 5353/4 group, we construct their radial velocity profile as a function of separation distance from the group center and then compares it with the analytic formula obtained empirically by Falco et al. (2014) to find the best-fit value of an adjustable parameter with the help of the maximum likelihood method. The turn-around radius of NGC 5353/4 is determined as the separation distance where the adjusted analytic formula for the radial velocity profile yields zero. The estimated turn-around radius of NGC 5353/4 turns out to s...

  7. A Bound Violation on the Galaxy Group Scale: The Turn-around Radius of NGC 5353/4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jounghun; Kim, Suk; Rey, Soo-Chang

    2015-12-01

    The first observational evidence for the violation of the maximum turn-around radius on the galaxy group scale is presented. The NGC 5353/4 group is chosen as an ideal target for our investigation of the bound-violation because of its proximity, low-density environment, optimal mass scale, and the existence of a nearby thin straight filament. Using the observational data on the line-of-sight velocities and three-dimensional distances of the filament galaxies located in the bound zone of the NGC 5353/4 group, we construct their radial velocity profile as a function of separation distance from the group center and then compare it to the analytic formula obtained empirically by Falco et al. to find the best-fit value of an adjustable parameter with the help of the maximum likelihood method. The turn-around radius of NGC 5353/4 is determined to be the separation distance where the adjusted analytic formula for the radial velocity profile yields zero. The estimated turn-around radius of NGC 5353/4 turned out to substantially exceed the upper limit predicted by the spherical model based on the ΛCDM cosmology. Even when the restrictive condition of spherical symmetry is released, the estimated value is found to be only marginally consistent with the ΛCDM expectation.

  8. German energy turnaround and Poland's start in nuclear power? A survey; Deutschlands Energiewende und Polens Einstieg in die Kernenergie? Eine Bestandsaufnahme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knopp, Lothar; Gorski, Marek (eds.)

    2015-07-01

    The book includes contributions from two meetings: 1. Meeting in Berlin, October 8,2014: Energy transition in Poland - historical background, development and actual situation; legal boundary conditions of the entry into nuclear power in Poland; ecologic and economic causes motivation for the atomic energy entry in Poland; promotion systems for renewable energy in Poland, current status and political background; construction of a nuclear power plant in Northern Poland site specific impacts and social assessment. Meeting in Stettin on November 5, 2014: Energy turnaround in Germany -German nuclear phaseout under consideration of EU legislation; ecologic and economic motivation for the energy turnaround in Germany; energy turnaround in Germany - new legal boundary conditions, especially the amendment to tue renewable energy law; contribution of the industry to the energy turnaround - taking the example waste management and waste incineration plants; fracking as a factor of the energy turnaround? - legal boundary conditions and ecologic risks; ecological, ethical and sociopolitical aspects of the energy turnaround in Germany and Poland.

  9. A laboratory validation study of the time-lapse oscillatory pumping test for leakage detection in geological repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Alexander Y.; Lu, Jiemin; Islam, Akand

    2017-05-01

    Geologic repositories are extensively used for disposing byproducts in mineral and energy industries. The safety and reliability of these repositories are a primary concern to environmental regulators and the public. Time-lapse oscillatory pumping test (OPT) has been introduced recently as a pressure-based technique for detecting potential leakage in geologic repositories. By routinely conducting OPT at a number of pulsing frequencies, an operator may identify the potential repository anomalies in the frequency domain, alleviating the ambiguity caused by reservoir noise and improving the signal-to-noise ratio. Building on previous theoretical and field studies, this work performed a series of laboratory experiments to validate the concept of time-lapse OPT using a custom made, stainless steel tank under relatively high pressures. The experimental configuration simulates a miniature geologic storage repository consisting of three layers (i.e., injection zone, caprock, and above-zone aquifer). Results show that leakage in the injection zone led to deviations in the power spectrum of observed pressure data, and the amplitude of which also increases with decreasing pulsing frequencies. The experimental results are further analyzed by developing a 3D flow model, using which the model parameters are estimated through frequency domain inversion.

  10. Sleep and sleepiness among first-time postpartum parents: a field- and laboratory-based multimethod assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insana, Salvatore P; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E

    2013-05-01

    The study aim was to compare sleep, sleepiness, fatigue, and neurobehavioral performance among first-time mothers and fathers during their early postpartum period. Participants were 21 first-time postpartum mother-father dyads (N = 42) and seven childless control dyads (N = 14). Within their natural environment, participants completed 1 week of wrist actigraphy monitoring, along with multi-day self-administered sleepiness, fatigue, and neurobehavioral performance measures. The assessment week was followed by an objective laboratory-based test of sleepiness. Mothers obtained more sleep compared to fathers, but mothers' sleep was more disturbed by awakenings. Fathers had greater objectively measured sleepiness than mothers. Mothers and fathers did not differ on subjectively measured sleep quality, sleepiness, or fatigue; however, mothers had worse neurobehavioral performance than fathers. Compared to control dyads, postpartum parents experienced greater sleep disturbance, sleepiness, and sleepiness-associated impairments. Study results can inform social policy, postpartum sleep intervention development, and research on postpartum family systems and mechanisms that propagate sleepiness.

  11. A fluid response: Alpha-amylase reactions to acute laboratory stress are related to sample timing and saliva flow rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Tamás; van Lien, René; Willemsen, Gonneke; Proctor, Gordon; Efting, Marieke; Fülöp, Márta; Bárdos, György; Veerman, Enno C I; Bosch, Jos A

    2015-07-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) is used as a sympathetic (SNS) stress marker, though its release is likely co-determined by SNS and parasympathetic (PNS) activation. The SNS and PNS show asynchronous changes during acute stressors, and sAA responses may thus vary with sample timing. Thirty-four participants underwent an eight-minute memory task (MT) and cold pressor task (CPT). Cardiovascular SNS (pre-ejection period, blood pressure) and PNS (heart rate variability) activity were monitored continuously. Unstimulated saliva was collected repeatedly during and after each laboratory stressor, and sAA concentration (U/ml) and secretion (U/minute) determined. Both stressors increased anxiety. The MT caused an immediate and continued cardiac SNS activation, but sAA concentration increased at task cessation only (+54%); i.e., when there was SNS-PNS co-activation. During the MT sAA secretion even decreased (-35%) in conjunction with flow rate and vagal tone. The CPT robustly increased blood pressure but not sAA. In summary, sAA fluctuations did not parallel changes in cardiac SNS activity or anxiety. sAA responses seem contingent on sample timing and flow rate, likely involving both SNS and PNS influences. Verification using other stressors and contexts seems warranted.

  12. Thresholds and timing of pre-operative thrombocytosis and ovarian cancer survival: analysis of laboratory measures from electronic medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Gabriella D; Samuel, Jacob M; Fromal, Jason T; Keene, Spencer; Crispens, Marta A; Khabele, Dineo; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia

    2016-08-08

    Thrombocytosis has been associated with poor ovarian cancer prognosis. However, comparisons of thresholds to define thrombocytosis and evaluation of relevant timing of platelet measurement has not been previously conducted. We selected Tumor Registry confirmed ovarian, primary peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancer cases diagnosed between 1995-2013 from the Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Laboratory measured platelet values from electronic medical records (EMR) were used to determine thrombocytosis at three thresholds: a platelet count greater than 350, 400, or 450 × 10(9)/liter. Timing was evaluated with 5 intervals: on the date of diagnosis, and up to 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks prior to the date of diagnosis. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and confidence intervals (CI) for association with overall survival; adjustment included age, stage, grade, and histologic subtype of disease. Pre-diagnosis platelet measures were available for 136, 241, 280, 297, and 304 cases in the five intervals. The prevalence of thrombocytosis decreased with increasing thresholds and was generally consistent across the five time intervals, ranging from 44.8-53.2 %, 31.6-39.4 %, and 19.9-26.1 % across the three thresholds. Associations with higher grade and stage of disease gained significance as the threshold increased. With the exception of the lowest threshold on the date of diagnosis (HR350: 1.55, 95 % CI: 0.97-2.47), all other survival associations were significant, with the highest reaching twice the risk of death for thrombocytosis on the date of diagnosis (HR400: 2.01, 95 % CI: 1.25-3.23). Our EMR approach yielded associations comparable to published findings from medical record abstraction approaches. In addition, our results indicate that lower thrombocytosis thresholds and platelet measures up to 8 weeks before diagnosis may inform ovarian cancer characteristics and prognosis.

  13. Inter-laboratory and inter-assay comparison on two real-time PCR techniques for quantification of PCV2 nucleic acid extracted from field samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Grau-Roma, L.; Sibila, M.

    2009-01-01

    ) diagnosis has been suggested. However, neither inter-laboratory nor inter-assay comparisons have been published so far. In the present study two different qPCR probe assays Used routinely in two laboratories were compared on DNA extracted From serum, nasal and rectal swabs. Results showed a significant......Several real-time PCR assays for quantification of PCV2 DNA (qPCR) have been described in the literature. and different in-house assays are being used by laboratories around the world. A general threshold of it copies of PCV2 per millilitre serum for postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS...

  14. Group dynamic and its effect on classroom climate, achievement, and time in lab in the organic chemistry laboratory classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Rachael S.

    Despite the many studies on the benefits of cooperative learning, there is surprising little research into how the classroom as a whole changes when these cooperative groups are reassigned. In one section of CHEM 3011 in Fall 2013, students were allowed to pick their partner and kept the same partner all semester. In another section during the same semester, students were assigned a different partner for every wet lab and were allowed to pick their partners during the computer simulation labs. The students in both sections were given the "preferred" version of the Science Laboratory Environment Inventory (SLEI) at the beginning of the semester to elicit student preferences for the class environment, and the "actual" version of the SLEI and the Class Life Instrument at the end of the semester to determine what actually occurred during the semester. The students' interactions were recorded using an observational instrument developed specifically for this project. The students' responses to surveys, interactions, grades, and time in lab were analyzed for differences between the two sections. The results of this study will be discussed.

  15. HELIOS—A laboratory based on high-order harmonic generation of extreme ultraviolet photons for time-resolved spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plogmaker, S., E-mail: Stefan.Plogmaker@physics.uu.se, E-mail: Joachim.Terschluesen@physics.uu.se, E-mail: Johan.Soderstrom@physics.uu.se; Terschlüsen, J. A., E-mail: Stefan.Plogmaker@physics.uu.se, E-mail: Joachim.Terschluesen@physics.uu.se, E-mail: Johan.Soderstrom@physics.uu.se; Krebs, N.; Svanqvist, M.; Forsberg, J.; Cappel, U. B.; Rubensson, J.-E.; Siegbahn, H.; Söderström, J., E-mail: Stefan.Plogmaker@physics.uu.se, E-mail: Joachim.Terschluesen@physics.uu.se, E-mail: Johan.Soderstrom@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 516, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, we present the HELIOS (High Energy Laser Induced Overtone Source) laboratory, an in-house high-order harmonic generation facility which generates extreme ultraviolet (XUV) photon pulses in the range of 15-70 eV with monochromatized XUV pulse lengths below 35 fs. HELIOS is a source for time-resolved pump-probe/two-color spectroscopy in the sub-50 fs range, which can be operated at 5 kHz or 10 kHz. An optical parametric amplifier is available for pump-probe experiments with wavelengths ranging from 240 nm to 20 000 nm. The produced XUV radiation is monochromatized by a grating in the so-called off-plane mount. Together with overall design parameters, first monochromatized spectra are shown with an intensity of 2 ⋅ 10{sup 10} photons/s (at 5 kHz) in the 29th harmonic, after the monochromator. The XUV pulse duration is measured to be <25 fs after monochromatization.

  16. Laboratory Experiments of Roughness Effects on the Lateral Surface Transient Storage Mean Residence Time in Small Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, T. R.; Haggerty, R.; Apte, S. V.; Budwig, R.; Tonina, D.

    2012-12-01

    Lateral surface transient storage (LSTS) zones are common in riverine systems. The higher mean residence times (MRTs) associated with LSTS recirculation impact water quality and solute transport. We are working to develop a predictive model of LSTS MRT based on parameters easily measured in the field. We investigated the effect of streambed roughness and LSTS shape (a lateral roughness) on MRT. We performed 9 laboratory experiments spanning roughness conditions and LSTS shapes that are based on shapes observed in natural streams. The three streambed roughness conditions were: (1) a smooth flume with a 15-cm depth; (2) a uniformly rough flume with 5-cm gravels 1-particle thick in the main channel and finer sand in the LSTS at 15-cm depth; and (3) a uniformly rough flume at 30-cm depth. We collected data on: (1) entrainment velocities at the LSTS entrance using stereo particle image velocimetry; (2) velocity and turbulence quantities along a horizontal plane in the LSTS with an acoustic Doppler velocimeter; and (3) MRT with salt injection experiments and electrical conductivity probes. Preliminary results from the experiments will be presented, and resulting insights into the predictive relationship.

  17. HELIOS—A laboratory based on high-order harmonic generation of extreme ultraviolet photons for time-resolved spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plogmaker, S.; Terschlüsen, J. A.; Krebs, N.; Svanqvist, M.; Forsberg, J.; Cappel, U. B.; Rubensson, J.-E.; Siegbahn, H.; Söderström, J.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present the HELIOS (High Energy Laser Induced Overtone Source) laboratory, an in-house high-order harmonic generation facility which generates extreme ultraviolet (XUV) photon pulses in the range of 15-70 eV with monochromatized XUV pulse lengths below 35 fs. HELIOS is a source for time-resolved pump-probe/two-color spectroscopy in the sub-50 fs range, which can be operated at 5 kHz or 10 kHz. An optical parametric amplifier is available for pump-probe experiments with wavelengths ranging from 240 nm to 20 000 nm. The produced XUV radiation is monochromatized by a grating in the so-called off-plane mount. Together with overall design parameters, first monochromatized spectra are shown with an intensity of 2 ṡ 1010 photons/s (at 5 kHz) in the 29th harmonic, after the monochromator. The XUV pulse duration is measured to be <25 fs after monochromatization.

  18. HELIOS--A laboratory based on high-order harmonic generation of extreme ultraviolet photons for time-resolved spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plogmaker, S; Terschlüsen, J A; Krebs, N; Svanqvist, M; Forsberg, J; Cappel, U B; Rubensson, J-E; Siegbahn, H; Söderström, J

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present the HELIOS (High Energy Laser Induced Overtone Source) laboratory, an in-house high-order harmonic generation facility which generates extreme ultraviolet (XUV) photon pulses in the range of 15-70 eV with monochromatized XUV pulse lengths below 35 fs. HELIOS is a source for time-resolved pump-probe/two-color spectroscopy in the sub-50 fs range, which can be operated at 5 kHz or 10 kHz. An optical parametric amplifier is available for pump-probe experiments with wavelengths ranging from 240 nm to 20,000 nm. The produced XUV radiation is monochromatized by a grating in the so-called off-plane mount. Together with overall design parameters, first monochromatized spectra are shown with an intensity of 2 ⋅ 10(10) photons/s (at 5 kHz) in the 29th harmonic, after the monochromator. The XUV pulse duration is measured to be <25 fs after monochromatization.

  19. Real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RealAmp) for the species-specific identification of Plasmodium vivax

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patel, Jaymin C; Oberstaller, Jenna; Xayavong, Maniphet; Narayanan, Jothikumar; DeBarry, Jeremy D; Srinivasamoorthy, Ganesh; Villegas, Leopoldo; Escalante, Ananias A; DaSilva, Alexandre; Peterson, David S; Barnwell, John W; Kissinger, Jessica C; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Lucchi, Naomi W

    2013-01-01

    .... Conventional molecular diagnostic methods provide accurate results but are often resource-intensive, expensive, have a long turnaround time and are beyond the capacity of most malaria-endemic countries...

  20. Bayesian Framework based Damage Segmentation (BFDS) with Time-Reversal Tomography (TRT) for Damage Characterization in Complex Aircraft Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To meet the NASA's need for innovative technologies that decrease turn-around time for inspections and assessments for safe operations of aircraft and spacecraft,...

  1. An Architecture for Real-Time Interpretation and Visualization of Structural Sensor Data in a Laboratory Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, William; Vazquez, Sixto

    2000-01-01

    A visualization system is being developed out of the need to monitor, interpret, and make decisions based on the information from several thousand sensors during experimental testing to facilitate development and validation of structural health monitoring algorithms. As an added benefit the system will enable complete real-time sensor assessment of complex test specimens. Complex structural specimens are routinely tested that have hundreds or thousands of sensors. During a test, it is impossible for a single researcher to effectively monitor all the sensors and subsequently interesting phenomena occur that are not recognized until post-test analysis. The ability to detect and alert the researcher to these unexpected phenomena as the test progresses will significantly enhance the understanding and utilization of complex test articles. Utilization is increased by the ability to halt a test when the health monitoring algorithm response is not satisfactory or when an unexpected phenomenon occurs, enabling focused investigation potentially through the installation of additional sensors. Often if the test continues, structural changes make it impossible to reproduce the conditions that exhibited the phenomena. The prohibitive time and costs associated with fabrication, sensoring, and subsequent testing of additional test articles generally makes it impossible to further investigate the phenomena. A scalable architecture is described to address the complex computational demands of structural health monitoring algorithm development and laboratory experimental test monitoring. The researcher monitors the test using a photographic quality 3D graphical model with actual sensor locations identified. In addition, researchers can quickly activate plots displaying time or load versus selected sensor response along with the expected values and predefined limits. The architecture has several key features. First, distributed dissimilar computers may be seamlessly integrated into the

  2. Clinical and laboratory diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuker, Adam

    2014-02-01

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a clinicopathologic disorder that predisposes to thrombosis. Diagnosis rests on a compatible clinical picture and laboratory evidence of antiplatelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin antibodies that activate platelets in a heparin-dependent manner. Rapid and accurate diagnosis is paramount to avoid the perils of misdiagnosis. Clinical evaluation may be guided by scoring systems such as the 4Ts and HIT Expert Probability (HEP) score. Laboratory tests include immunoassays, such as the PF4/heparin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and functional tests such as the 14C-serotonin release assay and heparin-induced platelet activation assay. Clinical scoring systems and commercially available immunoassays have high sensitivity but modest specificity. Functional assays are more specific, but they are technically demanding. Novel laboratory assays with faster turnaround times, greater specificity, and lesser technical complexity are in development. A Bayesian approach that combines the 4T score and the PF4/heparin ELISA result may be used to estimate the probability of HIT and guide clinical decision making. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Perceptions of a medical microbiology service: a survey of laboratory users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, M S

    1995-10-01

    To ascertain the perception of laboratory users regarding the quality of the medical microbiology services in a district general hospital. Detailed questionnaires were circulated to all clinicians in the locality, with headings covering the quality of medical advice provided, the availability of information on specimen collection, format of request forms, specimen transport arrangements, turnaround times, the quality and need for interpretative advice, and the overall impression of the quality of the services provided. Two hundred and thirty five replies were received, giving a response rate of 69%. Transportation of specimens and communication of reports were identified as priority areas for improvement. The overall quality of the service was perceived as satisfactory, although areas were identified where substantial improvements could be made, some at little or no cost to the laboratory. The survey focused clinicians' attention on the service, raised the profile of the laboratory, and resulted in improved communications and a better understanding of customer needs. Overall, the exercise was felt to be extremely useful, and worthwhile repeating to gauge the effect of the changes instituted as a result.

  4. Perceptions of a medical microbiology service: a survey of laboratory users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, M S

    1995-01-01

    AIM--To ascertain the perception of laboratory users regarding the quality of the medical microbiology services in a district general hospital. METHODS--Detailed questionnaires were circulated to all clinicians in the locality, with headings covering the quality of medical advice provided, the availability of information on specimen collection, format of request forms, specimen transport arrangements, turnaround times, the quality and need for interpretative advice, and the overall impression of the quality of the services provided. RESULTS--Two hundred and thirty five replies were received, giving a response rate of 69%. Transportation of specimens and communication of reports were identified as priority areas for improvement. The overall quality of the service was perceived as satisfactory, although areas were identified where substantial improvements could be made, some at little or no cost to the laboratory. CONCLUSIONS--The survey focused clinicians' attention on the service, raised the profile of the laboratory, and resulted in improved communications and a better understanding of customer needs. Overall, the exercise was felt to be extremely useful, and worthwhile repeating to gauge the effect of the changes instituted as a result. PMID:8537489

  5. Effect of cadence selection on peak power and time of power production in elite BMX riders: A laboratory based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylands, Lee P; Roberts, Simon J; Hurst, Howard T; Bentley, Ian

    2017-07-01

    The aims of this study were to analyse the optimal cadence for peak power production and time to peak power in bicycle motocross (BMX) riders. Six male elite BMX riders volunteered for the study. Each rider completed 3 maximal sprints at a cadence of 80, 100, 120 and 140 revs · min(-1) on a laboratory Schoberer Rad Messtechnik (SRM) cycle ergometer in isokinetic mode. The riders' mean values for peak power and time of power production in all 3 tests were recorded. The BMX riders produced peak power (1105 ± 139 W) at 100 revs · min(-1) with lower peak power produced at 80 revs · min(-1) (1060 ± 69 W, (F(2,15) = 3.162; P = .266; η(2) = 0.960), 120 revs · min(-1) (1077 ± 141 W, (F(2,15) = 4.348; P = .203; η(2) = 0.970) and 140 revs · min(-1) (1046 ± 175 W, (F(2,15) = 12.350; P = 0.077; η(2) = 0.989). The shortest time to power production was attained at 120 revs · min(-1) in 2.5 ± 1.07 s. Whilst a cadence of 80 revs · min(-1) (3.5 ± 0.8 s, (F(2,15) = 2.667; P = .284; η(2) = 0.800) 100 revs · min(-1) (3.00 ± 1.13 s, (F(2,15) = 24.832; P = .039; η(2) = 0.974) and 140 revs · min(-1) (3.50 ± 0.88 s, (F(2,15) = 44.167; P = .006; η(2) = 0.967)) all recorded a longer time to peak power production. The results indicate that the optimal cadence for producing peak power output and reducing the time to peak power output are attained at comparatively low cadences for sprint cycling events. These findings could potentially inform strength and conditioning training to maximise dynamic force production and enable coaches to select optimal gear ratios.

  6. Use of a United States-based laboratory as a hematopathology reference center for a developing country: logistics and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetz, C O; Scott, M G; Ladenson, J H; Seyoum, M; Hassan, A; Kreisel, F H; Nguyen, T T; Frater, J L

    2013-02-01

    With proper logistical support and sponsorship, a laboratory in an industrialized nation might be able to act as a reference laboratory for clinicians based in a developing country. We built on previous experience in the clinical laboratory to see whether a specialized histopathology service (hematopathology) could be provided to a developing country without the expertise or experience to do it in country. Over an 13-year period, 582 cases from 579 individuals were analyzed. Principal pathologic findings included acute leukemia in 84 cases (14%), dyspoiesis in one or more of the hematopoietic lineages in 65 cases (11%, including three cases with high-grade myelodysplasia), 23 cases (4%) with findings suspicious for a chronic myeloproliferative disorder, 35 cases (6%) with findings suspicious for a lymphoproliferative disorder, and infectious organisms (presumably Leishmania in most instances) in 9 (1%) of cases. Specimens from 45 cases (8%) were unsatisfactory owing to extreme hemodilution and/or specimen degeneration. With proper support, a medical laboratory in an industrialized nation may serve as a reference facility for a developing nation. The use of existing infrastructure may be remarkably effective to achieve optimal turnaround time. Although the lack of ancillary studies and follow-up biopsies limit the ability to achieve a definitive diagnosis in many cases, this must be viewed in the context of the limited ability to diagnose or manage hematopoietic neoplasia in developing nations. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Performance of an in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction for identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in laboratory routine diagnosis from a high burden setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Juliana Failde; Pinhata, Juliana Maira Watanabe; Chimara, Erica; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Fukasawa, Lucila Okuyama; Oliveira, Rosangela Siqueira de

    2016-09-01

    Brazil is one of the high burden countries for tuberculosis, and a rapid diagnosis is essential for effective control of the disease. In the present study, an in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting the mpt64 gene for identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates was evaluated under routine diagnosis conditions in a reference laboratory. From May 2011 to July 2012, 1,520 isolates of mycobacteria were prospectively submitted for phenotypic and/or PRA-hsp65 identification and to real-time PCR. The mpt64 real-time PCR showed 99.7% sensitivity and 96% specificity and detected 79.4% of the cases missed by phenotypic and PRA-hsp65 identification. The in-house real-time PCR assay showed high sensitivity and specificity and was successfully implemented in the routine diagnosis of tuberculosis in a reference laboratory from a high burden setting.

  8. Performance of an in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction for identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in laboratory routine diagnosis from a high burden setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Juliana Failde; Pinhata, Juliana Maira Watanabe; Chimara, Erica; Gonçalves, Maria Gisele; Fukasawa, Lucila Okuyama; de Oliveira, Rosangela Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Brazil is one of the high burden countries for tuberculosis, and a rapid diagnosis is essential for effective control of the disease. In the present study, an in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting the mpt64 gene for identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates was evaluated under routine diagnosis conditions in a reference laboratory. From May 2011 to July 2012, 1,520 isolates of mycobacteria were prospectively submitted for phenotypic and/or PRA-hsp65 identification and to real-time PCR. The mpt64 real-time PCR showed 99.7% sensitivity and 96% specificity and detected 79.4% of the cases missed by phenotypic and PRA-hsp65 identification. The in-house real-time PCR assay showed high sensitivity and specificity and was successfully implemented in the routine diagnosis of tuberculosis in a reference laboratory from a high burden setting. PMID:27598243

  9. An inter-laboratory validation of a real time PCR assay to measure host excretion of bacterial pathogens, particularly of Mycobacterium bovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma R Travis

    Full Text Available Advances in the diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in wildlife hosts may benefit the development of sustainable approaches to the management of bovine tuberculosis in cattle. In the present study, three laboratories from two different countries participated in a validation trial to evaluate the reliability and reproducibility of a real time PCR assay in the detection and quantification of M. bovis from environmental samples. The sample panels consisted of negative badger faeces spiked with a dilution series of M. bovis BCG Pasteur and of field samples of faeces from badgers of unknown infection status taken from badger latrines in areas with high and low incidence of bovine TB (bTB in cattle. Samples were tested with a previously optimised methodology. The experimental design involved rigorous testing which highlighted a number of potential pitfalls in the analysis of environmental samples using real time PCR. Despite minor variation between operators and laboratories, the validation study demonstrated good concordance between the three laboratories: on the spiked panels, the test showed high levels of agreement in terms of positive/negative detection, with high specificity (100% and high sensitivity (97% at levels of 10(5 cells g(-1 and above. Quantitative analysis of the data revealed low variability in recovery of BCG cells between laboratories and operators. On the field samples, the test showed high reproducibility both in terms of positive/negative detection and in the number of cells detected, despite low numbers of samples identified as positive by any laboratory. Use of a parallel PCR inhibition control assay revealed negligible PCR-interfering chemicals co-extracted with the DNA. This is the first example of a multi-laboratory validation of a real time PCR assay for the detection of mycobacteria in environmental samples. Field studies are now required to determine how best to apply the assay for population-level b

  10. Assaying Organochlorines in archived serum for a large, long-term cohort: Implications of combining assay results from multiple laboratories over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholtz, Robert I.; McLaughlin, Katherine R.; Cirillo, Piera M.; Petreas, Myrto; Park, June-Soo; Wolff, Mary S.; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Eskenazi, Brenda; Krigbaum, Nickilou; Cohn, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    Conserving irreplaceable, archived serum samples may sometimes conflict with the objective of minimizing measurement error due to laboratory effects. We sought to determine whether we could successfully combine assay results for DDT-related compounds and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in serum from the same birth cohort obtained from different laboratories over time. Using the Child Health and Development Studies (CHDS) serum archive, we compared variability for assays of a quality control pool to variability for assays of subject serum. The quality control pool was created from native archived serum samples that were pooled, then aliquoted, blinded and inserted pair-wise into assay batches along with the subject serum for 5 studies using CHDS samples conducted over a 13 year period by three different laboratories. We found that the variability between laboratory and over time within laboratory was small relative to inter-individual variability for p,p′-DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane), p,p′-DDE (1,1′-dichloro-2,2′-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene) and o,p′-DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-ethane). Results were also consistent for most PCB congeners which were detectable in 85% or more of samples. Our results suggest that it is possible to combine assays for DDT and PCB congeners measured at positive levels as they are accumulated for cohort subjects without risking meaningful misclassification due to variation stemming from laboratory or time period. This has significant implications for future study costs, conservation of irreplaceable archived samples and for leveraging past investments for future research. For PCB congeners with very low levels, findings caution against pooling of assays without further exploration. PMID:21333355

  11. Laboratory Load Model Based on 150 kVA Power Frequency Converter and Simulink Real-Time – Concept, Implementation, Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Małkowski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available First section of the paper provides technical specification of laboratory load model basing on 150 kVA power frequency converter and Simulink Real-Time platform. Assumptions, as well as control algorithm structure is presented. Theoretical considerations based on criteria which load types may be simulated using discussed laboratory setup, are described. As described model contains transformer with thyristor-controlled tap changer, wider scope of device capabilities is presented. Paper lists and describes tunable parameters, both: tunable during device operation and changed only before starting the experiment. Implementation details are given in second section of paper. Hardware structure is presented and described. Information about used communication interface, data maintenance and storage solution, as well as used Simulink real-time features are presented. List and description of all measurements is provided. Potential of laboratory setup modifications is evaluated. Third section describes performed laboratory tests. Different load configurations are described and experimental results are presented. This includes simulation of under frequency load shedding, frequency and voltage dependent characteristics of groups of load units, time characteristics of group of different load units in a chosen area and arbitrary active and reactive power regulation basing on defined schedule. Different operation modes of control algorithm are described: apparent power control, active and reactive power control, active and reactive current RMS value control.

  12. Variability in Laboratory vs. Field Testing of Peak Power, Torque, and Time of Peak Power Production Among Elite Bicycle Motocross Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylands, Lee P; Roberts, Simon J; Hurst, Howard T

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the variation in elite male bicycle motocross (BMX) cyclists' peak power, torque, and time of power production during laboratory and field-based testing. Eight elite male BMX riders volunteered for the study, and each rider completed 3 maximal sprints using both a Schoberer Rad Messtechnik (SRM) ergometer in the laboratory and a portable SRM power meter on an Olympic standard indoor BMX track. The results revealed a significantly higher peak power (p ≤ 0.001, 34 ± 9%) and reduced time of power production (p ≤ 0.001, 105 ± 24%) in the field tests when compared with laboratory-derived values. Torque was also reported to be lower in the laboratory tests but not to an accepted level of significance (p = 0.182, 6 ± 8%). These results suggest that field-based testing may be a more effective and accurate measure of a BMX rider's peak power, torque, and time of power production.

  13. An intra-laboratory cultural and real-time PCR method comparison and evaluation for the detection of subclinical paratuberculosis in dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuvelink, Annet; Hassan, Abdulwahed Ahmed; van Weering, Hilmar; van Engelen, Erik; Bülte, Michael; Akineden, Ömer

    2016-12-17

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is a vigorous microorganism which causes incurable chronic enteritis, Johne's disease (JD) in cattle. A target of control programmes for JD is to accurately detect MAP-infected cattle early to reduce disease transmission. The present study evaluated the efficacy of two different cultural procedures and a TaqMan real-time PCR assay for detection of subclinical paratuberculosis in dairy herds. Therefore, sixty-one faecal samples were collected from two Dutch dairy herds (n = 40 and n = 21, respectively) which were known to be MAP-ELISA positive. All individual samples were assessed using two different cultural protocols in two different laboratories. The first cultural protocol (first laboratory) included a decontamination step with 0.75% hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HPC) followed by inoculation on Herrold's egg yolk media (HEYM). The second protocol (second laboratory) comprised of a decontamination step using 4% NaOH and malachite green-oxalic acid followed by inoculation on two media, HEYM and in parallel on modified Löwenstein-Jensen media (mLJ). For the TaqMan real-time PCR assay, all faecal samples were tested in two different laboratories using TaqMan® MAP (Johne's) reagents (Life Technologies). The cultural procedures revealed positive reactions in 1.64% of the samples for cultivation protocol 1 and 6.56 and 8.20% of the samples for cultivation protocol 2, respectively. The results of the TaqMan real-time PCR performed in two different laboratories yielded 13.11 and 19.76% positive reaction. The kappa test showed proportional agreement 0.54 between the mLJ media (second laboratory) and TaqMan® real-time PCR method (second laboratory). In conclusion, the TaqMan real-time PCR could be a strongly useful and efficient assay for the detection of subclinical paratuberculosis in dairy cattle leading to an improvement in the efficiency of MAP control strategies.

  14. Development and comparison of a real-time PCR assay for detection of Dichelobacter nodosus with culturing and conventional PCR: harmonisation between three laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosth, Sara; Slettemeås, Jannice S.; Jørgensen, Hannah J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ovine footrot is a contagious disease with worldwide occurrence in sheep. The main causative agent is the fastidious bacterium Dichelobacter nodosus. In Scandinavia, footrot was first diagnosed in Sweden in 2004 and later also in Norway and Denmark. Clinical examination of sheep feet...... a TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay for detection of D. nodosus and to compare its performance with culturing and conventional PCR. METHODS: A D. nodosus-specific TaqMan based real-time PCR assay targeting the 16S rRNA gene was designed. The inclusivity and exclusivity (specificity) of the assay...... was tested using 55 bacterial and two fungal strains. To evaluate the sensitivity and harmonisation of results between different laboratories, aliquots of a single DNA preparation were analysed at three Scandinavian laboratories. The developed real-time PCR assay was compared to culturing by analysing 126...

  15. Bioassay Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Bioassay Laboratory is an accredited laboratory capable of conducting standardized and innovative environmental testing in the area of aquatic ecotoxicology. The...

  16. HYDROMECHANICS LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory The Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory (NAHL) began operations in Rickover Hall in September 1976. The primary purpose...

  17. HYDROMECHANICS LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Naval Academy Hydromechanics LaboratoryThe Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory (NAHL) began operations in Rickover Hall in September 1976. The primary purpose of...

  18. Real-Time Rocket/Vehicle System Integrated Health Management Laboratory For Development and Testing of Health Monitoring/Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, R.

    2006-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne has developed a real-time engine/vehicle system integrated health management laboratory, or testbed, for developing and testing health management system concepts. This laboratory simulates components of an integrated system such as the rocket engine, rocket engine controller, vehicle or test controller, as well as a health management computer on separate general purpose computers. These general purpose computers can be replaced with more realistic components such as actual electronic controllers and valve actuators for hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Various engine configurations and propellant combinations are available. Fault or failure insertion capability on-the-fly using direct memory insertion from a user console is used to test system detection and response. The laboratory is currently capable of simulating the flow-path of a single rocket engine but work is underway to include structural and multiengine simulation capability as well as a dedicated data acquisition system. The ultimate goal is to simulate as accurately and realistically as possible the environment in which the health management system will operate including noise, dynamic response of the engine/engine controller, sensor time delays, and asynchronous operation of the various components. The rationale for the laboratory is also discussed including limited alternatives for demonstrating the effectiveness and safety of a flight system.

  19. Mould routine identification in the clinical laboratory by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Cassagne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MALDI-TOF MS recently emerged as a valuable identification tool for bacteria and yeasts and revolutionized the daily clinical laboratory routine. But it has not been established for routine mould identification. This study aimed to validate a standardized procedure for MALDI-TOF MS-based mould identification in clinical laboratory. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, pre-extraction and extraction procedures were optimized. With this standardized procedure, a 143 mould strains reference spectra library was built. Then, the mould isolates cultured from sequential clinical samples were prospectively subjected to this MALDI-TOF MS based-identification assay. MALDI-TOF MS-based identification was considered correct if it was concordant with the phenotypic identification; otherwise, the gold standard was DNA sequence comparison-based identification. RESULTS: The optimized procedure comprised a culture on sabouraud-gentamicin-chloramphenicol agar followed by a chemical extraction of the fungal colonies with formic acid and acetonitril. The identification was done using a reference database built with references from at least four culture replicates. For five months, 197 clinical isolates were analyzed; 20 were excluded because they were not identified at the species level. MALDI-TOF MS-based approach correctly identified 87% (154/177 of the isolates analyzed in a routine clinical laboratory activity. It failed in 12% (21/177, whose species were not represented in the reference library. MALDI-TOF MS-based identification was correct in 154 out of the remaining 156 isolates. One Beauveria bassiana was not identified and one Rhizopus oryzae was misidentified as Mucor circinelloides. CONCLUSIONS: This work's seminal finding is that a standardized procedure can also be used for MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of a wide array of clinically relevant mould species. It thus makes it possible to identify moulds in the routine clinical laboratory setting

  20. Proceedings of the Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Planning Meeting (6th). Held at U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, December 3-5, 1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    laboratories where no weighting procedure is ap- plied, in fact, they do apply a procedure. When the clock stops, it receives the 25 weight zero . And...adjusted around the zero level until switching the polarity selector from positive to negative yields a 5*0 microsecond difference. The positive...Coordination," Proc. IEEE, May 1972. 6. Silva, I. M., Silva, P. M., "Coordena^lfo da Hora no Brazil," Publica9äo n? 2 do Servi^ da Hora do Observatorio

  1. Artificial Neural Network for Total Laboratory Automation to Improve the Management of Sample Dilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ialongo, Cristiano; Pieri, Massimo; Bernardini, Sergio

    2017-02-01

    Diluting a sample to obtain a measure within the analytical range is a common task in clinical laboratories. However, for urgent samples, it can cause delays in test reporting, which can put patients' safety at risk. The aim of this work is to show a simple artificial neural network that can be used to make it unnecessary to predilute a sample using the information available through the laboratory information system. Particularly, the Multilayer Perceptron neural network built on a data set of 16,106 cardiac troponin I test records produced a correct inference rate of 100% for samples not requiring predilution and 86.2% for those requiring predilution. With respect to the inference reliability, the most relevant inputs were the presence of a cardiac event or surgery and the result of the previous assay. Therefore, such an artificial neural network can be easily implemented into a total automation framework to sensibly reduce the turnaround time of critical orders delayed by the operation required to retrieve, dilute, and retest the sample.

  2. Impact of new Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin susceptibility testing breakpoints on reported resistance changes over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera, Robertino M; Miller, Linda A; Amrine-Madsen, Heather; Sahm, Daniel F

    2011-03-01

    The analysis comprised a total of 97,843 U.S. isolates from the Surveillance Network(®) database for the period 1996-2008. Penicillin resistance, when defined using the old Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoint (≥2 μg/ml), had an initial rise that started in 1996, peaked in 2000, declined until 2003, and rebounded through 2008 (15.6%, 23.2%, 15.4%, and 16.9%, respectively). Using the new Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute criteria and applying a breakpoint of ≥8 μg/ml to blood and bronchial isolates, resistance was unchanged (0.24% in 2003) but rose to 1.52% in 2008. Using the new meningitis criteria (≥0.12 μg/ml), resistance prevalence was 34.8% in 2008, whereas it was 12.3% using the old criteria (≥2 μg/ml) for cerebrospinal fluid isolates. The rise, fall, and subsequent rebound of penicillin resistance in the United States, presumably influenced by the introduction of the conjugate pneumococcal vaccine, is clearly seen with the old definition, but only the rebound is seen when the new criteria are applied. In the postvaccine period, isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 1 and 2 μg/ml decline, whereas those with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.12-0.5 increase, which may signal the loss of resistant vaccine serotypes and the acquisition of resistance by nonvaccine serotypes.

  3. Building Connecticut's clinical biodosimetry laboratory surge capacity to mitigate the health consequences of radiological and nuclear disasters: A collaborative approach between the state biodosimetry laboratory and Connecticut's medical infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albanese, Joseph [Yale New Haven Health Center for Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Response, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States)], E-mail: Joseph.Albanese@ynhh.org; Martens, Kelly [Yale New Haven Health Center for Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Response, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Emergency Department, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT (United States); Arnold, Jeffrey L. [Emergency Department, Natividad Medical Center, Salinas, CA (United States); Kelley, Katherine [Connecticut Department of Public Health, Hartford, CT (United States); Kristie, Virginia [Hartford Hospital, Hartford, CT (United States); Forte, Elaine; Schneider, Mark [Yale New Haven Health Center for Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Response, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Dainiak, Nicholas [Yale New Haven Health Center for Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Response, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Department of Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital, Bridgeport, CT (United States); Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Biodosimetry, based on the analysis of dicentric chromosomes in circulating mononuclear cells, is considered the 'gold standard' for estimating radiation dose and is used to make informed decisions regarding the medical management of irradiated persons. This paper describes the development of biodosimetry laboratory surge capacity for the health consequences of radiological and nuclear disasters in Connecticut, including: (1) establishment of the Biodosimetry Laboratory for the timely assessment of radiation dosage in biodosimetry specimens; (2) identification of clinical laboratories qualified and willing to process biodosimetry specimens from a large number of victims; (3) training of clinical laboratorians in initial biodosimetry specimen processing; and (4) conducting a functional drill that evaluated the effectiveness of these elements. Descriptive information was obtained from: (1) personal observations; (2) a needs assessment of clinical laboratories in Connecticut; (3) records from a training program of clinical laboratorians in biodosimetry specimen processing that was developed and provided by the Yale New Haven Center for Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Response; and (4) records from a statewide functional drill in biodosimetry specimen processing that was developed and conducted by the State of Connecticut Biodosimetry Laboratory. A needs assessment of clinical laboratories in Connecticut identified 30 of 32 clinical laboratories qualified and willing to perform initial biodosimetry specimen processing. Currently, 79 clinical laboratorians in 19 of these qualified clinical laboratories have been trained in biodosimetry specimen processing. A functional exercise was conducted involving 37 of these trained clinical laboratorians in 18 qualified laboratories as well as the Biodosimetry Laboratory. The average turnaround time for biodosimetry specimen processing in this drill was 199 min. Exercise participants provided feedback which will be

  4. Photoacoustic optical properties at UV, VIS, and near IR wavelengths for laboratory generated and winter time ambient urban aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gyawali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the first laboratory and ambient photoacoustic (PA measurement of aerosol light absorption coefficients at ultraviolet (UV wavelength (i.e. 355 nm and compare with measurements at 405, 532, 870, and 1047 nm. Simultaneous measurements of aerosol light scattering coefficients were achieved by the integrating reciprocal nephelometer within the PA's acoustic resonator. Absorption and scattering measurements were carried out for various laboratory-generated aerosols, including salt, incense, and kerosene soot to evaluate the instrument calibration and gain insight on the spectral dependence of aerosol light absorption and scattering. Exact T-matrix method calculations were used to model the absorption and scattering characteristics of fractal-like agglomerates of different compactness and varying number of monomers. With these calculations, we attempted to estimate the number of monomers and fractal dimension of laboratory generated kerosene soot. Ambient measurements were obtained in Reno, Nevada, between 18 December 2009, and 18 January 2010. The measurement period included days with and without strong ground level temperature inversions, corresponding to highly polluted (freshly emitted aerosols and relatively clean (aged aerosols conditions. Particulate matter (PM concentrations were measured and analyzed with other tracers of traffic emissions. The temperature inversion episodes caused very high concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 μm and 10 μm, respectively and gaseous pollutants: carbon monoxide (CO, nitric oxide (NO, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2. The diurnal change of absorption and scattering coefficients during the polluted (inversion days increased approximately by a factor of two for all wavelengths compared to the clean days. The spectral variation in aerosol absorption coefficients indicated a significant amount of absorbing aerosol from

  5. Photoacoustic Optical Properties at UV, VIS, and near IR Wavelengths for Laboratory Generated and Winter Time Ambient Urban Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, M.; Arnott, W. P.; Zaveri, R. A.; Song, C.; Moosmuller, H.; Liu, L.; Mishchenko, M. I.; Chen, L.-W.A.; Green, M. C.; Watson, J. G.; Chow, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    We present the laboratory and ambient photoacoustic (PA) measurement of aerosol light absorption coefficients at ultraviolet wavelength (i.e., 355 nm) and compare with measurements at 405, 532, 870, and 1047 nm. Simultaneous measurements of aerosol light scattering coefficients were achieved by the integrating reciprocal nephelometer within the PA's acoustic resonator. Absorption and scattering measurements were carried out for various laboratory generated aerosols, including salt, incense, and kerosene soot to evaluate the instrument calibration and gain insight on the spectral dependence of aerosol light absorption and scattering. Ambient measurements were obtained in Reno, Nevada, between 18 December 2009 and 18 January 2010. The measurement period included days with and without strong ground level temperature inversions, corresponding to highly polluted (freshly emitted aerosols) and relatively clean (aged aerosols) conditions. Particulate matter (PM) concentrations were measured and analyzed with other tracers of traffic emissions. The temperature inversion episodes caused very high concentration of PM (sub 2.5) and PM( sub 10) (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 micrometers and 10 micrometers, respectively) and gaseous pollutants: carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The diurnal change of absorption and scattering coefficients during the polluted (inversion) days increased approximately by a factor of two for all wavelengths compared to the clean days. The spectral variation in aerosol absorption coefficients indicated a significant amount of absorbing aerosol from traffic emissions and residential wood burning. The analysis of single scattering albedo (SSA), Angstrom exponent of absorption (AEA), and Angstrom exponent of scattering (AES) for clean and polluted days provides evidences that the aerosol aging and coating process is suppressed by strong temperature inversion under cloudy conditions. In

  6. Photoacoustic optical properties at UV, VIS, and near IR wavelengths for laboratory generated and winter time ambient urban aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gyawali

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the laboratory and ambient photoacoustic (PA measurement of aerosol light absorption coefficients at ultraviolet wavelength (i.e., 355 nm and compare with measurements at 405, 532, 870, and 1047 nm. Simultaneous measurements of aerosol light scattering coefficients were achieved by the integrating reciprocal nephelometer within the PA's acoustic resonator. Absorption and scattering measurements were carried out for various laboratory-generated aerosols, including salt, incense, and kerosene soot to evaluate the instrument calibration and gain insight on the spectral dependence of aerosol light absorption and scattering. Ambient measurements were obtained in Reno, Nevada, between 18 December 2009 and 18 January 2010. The measurement period included days with and without strong ground level temperature inversions, corresponding to highly polluted (freshly emitted aerosols and relatively clean (aged aerosols conditions. Particulate matter (PM concentrations were measured and analyzed with other tracers of traffic emissions. The temperature inversion episodes caused very high concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 μm and 10 μm, respectively and gaseous pollutants: carbon monoxide (CO, nitric oxide (NO, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2. The diurnal change of absorption and scattering coefficients during the polluted (inversion days increased approximately by a factor of two for all wavelengths compared to the clean days. The spectral variation in aerosol absorption coefficients indicated a significant amount of absorbing aerosol from traffic emissions and residential wood burning. The analysis of single scattering albedo (SSA, Ångström exponent of absorption (AEA, and Ångström exponent of scattering (AES for clean and polluted days provides evidences that the aerosol aging and coating process is suppressed by strong temperature inversion under cloudy

  7. Photoacoustic optical properties at UV, VIS, and near IR wavelengths for laboratory generated and winter time ambient urban aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyawali, Madhu S.; Arnott, W. Patrick; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Song, Chen; Moosmuller, H.; Liu, Li; Mishchenko, M.; Chen, L-W A.; Green, M.; Watson, J. G.; Chow, J. C.

    2012-03-08

    We present the laboratory and ambient photoacoustic (PA) measurement of aerosol light absorption coefficients at ultraviolet wavelength (i.e., 355 nm) and compare with measurements at 405, 532, 870, and 1047 nm. Simultaneous measurements of aerosol light scattering coefficients were achieved by the integrating reciprocal nephelometer within the PA's acoustic resonator. Absorption and scattering measurements were carried out for various laboratory generated aerosols, including salt, incense, and kerosene soot to evaluate the instrument calibration and gain insight on the spectral dependence of aerosol light absorption and scattering. Ambient measurements were obtained in Reno, Nevada, between 18 December 2009 and 18 January 2010. The measurement period included days with and without strong ground level temperature inversions, corresponding to highly polluted (freshly emitted aerosols) and relatively clean (aged aerosols) conditions. Particulate matter (PM) concentrations were measured and analyzed with other tracers of traffic emissions. The temperature inversion episodes caused very high concentration of PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 {mu}m and 10 {mu}m, respectively) and gaseous pollutants: carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}). The diurnal change of absorption and scattering coefficients during the polluted (inversion) days increased approximately by a factor of two for all wavelengths compared to the clean days. The spectral variation in aerosol absorption coefficients indicated a significant amount of absorbing aerosol from traffic emissions and residential wood burning. The analysis of single scattering albedo (SSA), Angstrom exponent of absorption (AEA), and Angstrom exponent of scattering (AES) for clean and polluted days provides evidences that the aerosol aging and coating process is suppressed by strong temperature inversion under cloudy conditions. In

  8. Interoperability in self-organizing systems of multiple enterprises - A case on improving turnaround time prediction at logistics hubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, W.; Rajagopal, M.

    2015-01-01

    Besides supporting bilateral transactions, enterprise interoperability can also be applied to coordinate operational processes of stakeholders. With today's technology, each of these stakeholders can be equipped with actuators like applications on smart devices. Where applications support interactio

  9. Short-term annoyance reactions to stationary and time-varying wind turbine and road traffic noise: A laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäffer, Beat; Schlittmeier, Sabine J; Pieren, Reto; Heutschi, Kurt; Brink, Mark; Graf, Ralf; Hellbrück, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Current literature suggests that wind turbine noise is more annoying than transportation noise. To date, however, it is not known which acoustic characteristics of wind turbines alone, i.e., without effect modifiers such as visibility, are associated with annoyance. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate and compare the short-term noise annoyance reactions to wind turbines and road traffic in controlled laboratory listening tests. A set of acoustic scenarios was created which, combined with the factorial design of the listening tests, allowed separating the individual associations of three acoustic characteristics with annoyance, namely, source type (wind turbine, road traffic), A-weighted sound pressure level, and amplitude modulation (without, periodic, random). Sixty participants rated their annoyance to the sounds. At the same A-weighted sound pressure level, wind turbine noise was found to be associated with higher annoyance than road traffic noise, particularly with amplitude modulation. The increased annoyance to amplitude modulation of wind turbines is not related to its periodicity, but seems to depend on the modulation frequency range. The study discloses a direct link of different acoustic characteristics to annoyance, yet the generalizability to long-term exposure in the field still needs to be verified.

  10. P-wave velocity changes in freezing hard low-porosity rocks: a laboratory-based time-average model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Draebing

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available P-wave refraction seismics is a key method in permafrost research but its applicability to low-porosity rocks, that constitute alpine rock walls, has been denied in prior studies. These explain p-wave velocity changes in freezing rocks exclusively due to changing velocities of pore infill, i.e. water, air and ice. In existing models, no velocity increase is expected for low-porosity bedrock. We postulate, that mixing laws apply for high-porosity rocks, but freezing in confined space in low-porosity bedrock also alters physical rock matrix properties. In the laboratory, we measured p-wave velocities of 22 decimeter-large low-porosity (<6 % metamorphic, magmatic and sedimentary permafrost rock samples with a natural texture (>100 micro-fissures from 25 °C to –15 °C in 0.3 °C increments close to the freezing point. P-wave velocity increases by 7–78 % when freezing parallel to cleavage/bedding and matrix velocity increases from 5–59 % coincident to an anisotropy decrease in most samples. The expansion of rigid bedrock upon freezing is restricted and ice pressure will increase matrix velocity and decrease anisotropy while changing velocities of the pore infill are insignificant. Here, we present a modified Timur's 2-phase equation implementing changes in matrix velocity dependent on lithology and demonstrate the physical basis for refraction seismics in low-porosity bedrock.

  11. P-wave velocity changes in freezing hard low-porosity rocks: a laboratory-based time-average model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Draebing

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available P-wave refraction seismics is a key method in permafrost research but its applicability to low-porosity rocks, which constitute alpine rock walls, has been denied in prior studies. These studies explain p-wave velocity changes in freezing rocks exclusively due to changing velocities of pore infill, i.e. water, air and ice. In existing models, no significant velocity increase is expected for low-porosity bedrock. We postulate, that mixing laws apply for high-porosity rocks, but freezing in confined space in low-porosity bedrock also alters physical rock matrix properties. In the laboratory, we measured p-wave velocities of 22 decimetre-large low-porosity (< 10% metamorphic, magmatic and sedimentary rock samples from permafrost sites with a natural texture (> 100 micro-fissures from 25 °C to −15 °C in 0.3 °C increments close to the freezing point. When freezing, p-wave velocity increases by 11–166% perpendicular to cleavage/bedding and equivalent to a matrix velocity increase from 11–200% coincident to an anisotropy decrease in most samples. The expansion of rigid bedrock upon freezing is restricted and ice pressure will increase matrix velocity and decrease anisotropy while changing velocities of the pore infill are insignificant. Here, we present a modified Timur's two-phase-equation implementing changes in matrix velocity dependent on lithology and demonstrate the general applicability of refraction seismics to differentiate frozen and unfrozen low-porosity bedrock.

  12. LabPush: a pilot study of providing remote clinics with laboratory results via short message service (SMS in Swaziland, Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Shan Jian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Turnaround time (TAT is an important indicator of laboratory performance. It is often difficult to achieve fast TAT for blood tests conducted at clinics in developing countries. This is because clinics where the patient is treated are often far away from the laboratory, and transporting blood samples and test results between the two locations creates significant delay. Recent efforts have sought to mitigate this problem by using Short Message Service (SMS to reduce TAT. Studies reporting the impact of this technique have not been published in scientific literature however. In this paper we present a study of LabPush, a system developed to test whether SMS delivery of HIV related laboratory results to clinics could shorten TAT time significantly. METHOD: LapPush was implemented in six clinics of the Kingdom of Swaziland. SMS results were sent out from the laboratory as a supplement to normal transport of paper results. Each clinic was equipped with a mobile phone to receive SMS results. The laboratory that processes the blood tests was equipped with a system for digital input of results, and transmission of results via SMS to the clinics. RESULTS: Laboratory results were received for 1041 different clinical cases. The total number of SMS records received (1032 was higher than that of paper records (965, indicating a higher loss rate for paper records. A statistical comparison of TAT for SMS and paper reports indicates a statistically significant improvement for SMS. Results were more positive for more rural clinics, and an urban clinic with high workload. CONCLUSION: SMS can be used to reduce TAT for blood tests taken at clinics in developing countries. Benefits are likely to be greater at clinics that are further away from laboratories, due to the difficulties this imposes on transport of paper records.

  13. LabPush: A Pilot Study of Providing Remote Clinics with Laboratory Results via Short Message Service (SMS) in Swaziland, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Wen-Shan; Hsu, Min-Huei; Sukati, Hosea; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Scholl, Jeremiah; Dube, Nduduzo; Hsu, Chun-Kung; Wu, Tai-jung; Lin, Vera; Chi, Tex; Chang, Peter; Li, Yu-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    Background Turnaround time (TAT) is an important indicator of laboratory performance. It is often difficult to achieve fast TAT for blood tests conducted at clinics in developing countries. This is because clinics where the patient is treated are often far away from the laboratory, and transporting blood samples and test results between the two locations creates significant delay. Recent efforts have sought to mitigate this problem by using Short Message Service (SMS) to reduce TAT. Studies reporting the impact of this technique have not been published in scientific literature however. In this paper we present a study of LabPush, a system developed to test whether SMS delivery of HIV related laboratory results to clinics could shorten TAT time significantly. Method LapPush was implemented in six clinics of the Kingdom of Swaziland. SMS results were sent out from the laboratory as a supplement to normal transport of paper results. Each clinic was equipped with a mobile phone to receive SMS results. The laboratory that processes the blood tests was equipped with a system for digital input of results, and transmission of results via SMS to the clinics. Results Laboratory results were received for 1041 different clinical cases. The total number of SMS records received (1032) was higher than that of paper records (965), indicating a higher loss rate for paper records. A statistical comparison of TAT for SMS and paper reports indicates a statistically significant improvement for SMS. Results were more positive for more rural clinics, and an urban clinic with high workload. Conclusion SMS can be used to reduce TAT for blood tests taken at clinics in developing countries. Benefits are likely to be greater at clinics that are further away from laboratories, due to the difficulties this imposes on transport of paper records. PMID:23028543

  14. A fluid response: alpha-amylase reactions to acute laboratory stress are related to sample timing and saliva flow rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagy, T.; van Lien, R.; Willemsen, G.; Proctor, G.; Effting, M.; Fülöp, M.; Bárdos, G.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Bosch, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) is used as a sympathetic (SNS) stress marker, though its release is likely co-determined by SNS and parasympathetic (PNS) activation. The SNS and PNS show asynchronous changes during acute stressors, and sAA responses may thus vary with sample timing. Thirty-four

  15. Photometrics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Photometrics Laboratory provides the capability to measure, analyze and characterize radiometric and photometric properties of light sources and filters,...

  16. Blackroom Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR).DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...

  17. Target Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  18. Target Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  19. Blackroom Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR). DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...

  20. Laboratory-Scale Simulation and Real-Time Tracking of a Microbial Contamination Event and Subsequent Shock-Chlorination in Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Besmer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid contamination of drinking water in distribution and storage systems can occur due to pressure drop, backflow, cross-connections, accidents, and bio-terrorism. Small volumes of a concentrated contaminant (e.g., wastewater can contaminate large volumes of water in a very short time with potentially severe negative health impacts. The technical limitations of conventional, cultivation-based microbial detection methods neither allow for timely detection of such contaminations, nor for the real-time monitoring of subsequent emergency remediation measures (e.g., shock-chlorination. Here we applied a newly developed continuous, ultra high-frequency flow cytometry approach to track a rapid pollution event and subsequent disinfection of drinking water in an 80-min laboratory scale simulation. We quantified total (TCC and intact (ICC cell concentrations as well as flow cytometric fingerprints in parallel in real-time with two different staining methods. The ingress of wastewater was detectable almost immediately (i.e., after 0.6% volume change, significantly changing TCC, ICC, and the flow cytometric fingerprint. Shock chlorination was rapid and detected in real time, causing membrane damage in the vast majority of bacteria (i.e., drop of ICC from more than 380 cells μl-1 to less than 30 cells μl-1 within 4 min. Both of these effects as well as the final wash-in of fresh tap water followed calculated predictions well. Detailed and highly quantitative tracking of microbial dynamics at very short time scales and for different characteristics (e.g., concentration, membrane integrity is feasible. This opens up multiple possibilities for targeted investigation of a myriad of bacterial short-term dynamics (e.g., disinfection, growth, detachment, operational changes both in laboratory-scale research and full-scale system investigations in practice.

  1. Real Time On-line Space Research Laboratory Environment Monitoring with Off-line Trend and Prediction Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Kenol; Lin, Paul P.

    2006-01-01

    One of the responsibilities of the NASA Glenn Principal Investigator Microgravity Services is to support NASA sponsored investigators in the area of reduced-gravity acceleration data analysis, interpretation and the monitoring of the reduced-gravity environment on-board various carriers. With the International Space Station currently operational, a significant amount of acceleration data is being down-linked and processed on ground for both the space station onboard environment characterization (and verification) and scientific experiments. Therefore, to help principal investigator teams monitor the acceleration level on-board the International Space Station to avoid undesirable impact on their experiment, when possible, the NASA Glenn Principal Investigator Microgravity Services developed an artificial intelligence monitoring system, which detects in near real time any change in the environment susceptible to affect onboard experiments. The main objective of the monitoring system is to help research teams identify the vibratory disturbances that are active at any instant of time onboard the International Space Station that might impact the environment in which their experiment is being conducted. The monitoring system allows any space research scientist, at any location and at any time, to see the current acceleration level on-board the Space Station via the World Wide Web. From the NASA Glenn s Exploration Systems Division web site, research scientists can see in near real time the active disturbances, such as pumps, fans, compressor, crew exercise, re-boost, extra-vehicular activity, etc., and decide whether or not to continue operating or stopping (or making note of such activity for later correlation with science results) their experiments based on the g-level associated with that specific event. A dynamic graphical display accessible via the World Wide Web shows the status of all the vibratory disturbance activities with their degree of confidence as well as

  2. Timing and modality of the sclerosing agents binding to the human proteins: laboratory analysis and clinical evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Tessari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sclerosing agents (SA are blood inactivated. Nevertheless, investigations concerning the interaction among SA and blood components have never been deeply investigated. Aim of the study is to precisely identify SA blood ligands, to determine their binding time and to highlight the clinical consequences. Thirty-one blood samples were collected from chronic venous disease patients and tested by capillary and agarose gel (AGE electrophoresis before and after adding polidocanol (POL and sodiumtetradecylsulphate (STS. The two different types of electrophoresis allowed an evaluation of the blood proteins binding with the sclerosing agents, with a reaction time lower than 8 seconds for the AGE. Subsequently six patients underwent foam sclerotherapy and then were subdivided in group A (4 patients and B (2 patients. In group A blood sample was obtained from the ipsilateral brachial vein immediately before (T0 and repeated 1, 3, 5, and 10 minutes after injection of STS 3% injection into the GSV. In group B, the same procedure was performed with the same timing from the ipsilateral femoral vein. Free STS (fSTS and total proteinbound STS (bSTS were measured. POL mainly binds to β-globulins (11%, while STS to albumin and α-globulins (62.6% and 30.7% on the protidogram, respectively. Both in the brachial and in the femoral vein, the average fSTS was always 0. STS binds to albumin (62.6% and α-globulins (30.7%, while POL is bound mainly by the b-globulins (11%. The present paper demonstrates how the vast majority of the sclerosing agent is bound to the blood proteins, suggesting the need to look for possible sclerotherapy complications factors also in the used gas and/or in the subsequent cathabolites release.

  3. A real-time dashboard for managing pathology processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawaz Halwani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The Eastern Ontario Regional Laboratory Association (EORLA is a newly established association of all the laboratory and pathology departments of Eastern Ontario that currently includes facilities from eight hospitals. All surgical specimens for EORLA are processed in one central location, the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine (DPLM at The Ottawa Hospital (TOH, where the rapid growth and influx of surgical and cytology specimens has created many challenges in ensuring the timely processing of cases and reports. Although the entire process is maintained and tracked in a clinical information system, this system lacks pre-emptive warnings that can help management address issues as they arise. Aims: Dashboard technology provides automated, real-time visual clues that could be used to alert management when a case or specimen is not being processed within predefined time frames. We describe the development of a dashboard helping pathology clinical management to make informed decisions on specimen allocation and tracking. Methods: The dashboard was designed and developed in two phases, following a prototyping approach. The first prototype of the dashboard helped monitor and manage pathology processes at the DPLM. Results: The use of this dashboard helped to uncover operational inefficiencies and contributed to an improvement of turn-around time within The Ottawa Hospital′s DPML. It also allowed the discovery of additional requirements, leading to a second prototype that provides finer-grained, real-time information about individual cases and specimens. Conclusion: We successfully developed a dashboard that enables managers to address delays and bottlenecks in specimen allocation and tracking. This support ensures that pathology reports are provided within time frame standards required for high-quality patient care. Given the importance of rapid diagnostics for a number of diseases, the use of real-time dashboards within

  4. Impact of the New Abbott mPLUS Feature on Clinical Laboratory Efficiencies of Abbott RealTime Assays for Detection of HIV-1, Hepatitis C Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    OpenAIRE

    Lucic, Danijela; Jones, Sara; Wiesneth, Russ; Barry, Cathy; Webb, Erika; Belova, Larissa; Dolan, Peggy; Ho, Shiaolan; Abravaya, Klara; Cloherty, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostic laboratories are under increasing pressure to improve and expand their services. Greater flexibility in sample processing is a critical factor that can improve the time to results while reducing reagent waste, making laboratories more efficient and cost-effective. The introduction of the Abbott mPLUS feature, with the capacity for extended use of amplification reagents, significantly increases the flexibility of the m2000 platform and enables laboratories to customize their workflo...

  5. Laboratory investigations of the effects of geologic heterogeneity on groundwater salinization and flush-out times from a tsunami-like event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithanage, M; Engesgaard, P; Jensen, K H; Illangasekare, T H; Obeysekera, J

    2012-08-01

    This intermediate scale laboratory experimental study was designed to improve the conceptual understanding of aquifer flushing time associated with diffuse saltwater contamination of coastal aquifers due to a tsunami-like event. The motivation comes from field observations made after the tsunami in December, 2004 in South Asia. The focus is on the role and effects of heterogeneity on flushing effectiveness. A scheme that combines experimentation in a 4.8m long laboratory tank and numerical modeling was used. To demonstrate the effects of geologic heterogeneity, plume migration and flushing times were analyzed in both homogeneous and layered media and under different boundary conditions (ambient flow, saltwater infiltration rate, freshwater recharge). Saltwater and freshwater infiltrations imitate the results of the groundwater salinization from the tsunami and freshening from the monsoon rainfall. The saltwater plume behavior was monitored both through visual observations (digital photography) of the dyed salt water and using measurements taken from several electrical conductivity sensors installed through the tank walls. The variable-density, three dimensional code HST3D was used to simulate the tank experiments and understand the fate and movement of the saltwater plume under field conditions. The results from the tank experiments and modeling demonstrated that macro-scale heterogeneity significantly influenced the migration patterns and flushing times of diffuse saltwater contamination. Ambient flow had a direct influence on total flush-out time, and heterogeneity impacted flush-out times for the top part of the tank and total flush-out times. The presence of a continuous low-permeability layer caused a 40% increase in complete flush-out time due to the slower flow of salt water in the low-permeability layer. When a relatively small opening was introduced in the low-permeability layer, salt water migrated quickly into a higher-permeable layer below causing a

  6. Digital signal processing laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, B Preetham

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING Brief Theory of DSP ConceptsProblem SolvingComputer Laboratory: Introduction to MATLAB®/SIMULINK®Hardware Laboratory: Working with Oscilloscopes, Spectrum Analyzers, Signal SourcesDigital Signal Processors (DSPs)ReferencesDISCRETE-TIME LTI SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS Brief Theory of Discrete-Time Signals and SystemsProblem SolvingComputer Laboratory: Simulation of Continuous Time and Discrete-Time Signals and Systems ReferencesTIME AND FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF COMMUNICATION SIGNALS Brief Theory of Discrete-Time Fourier Transform (DTFT), Discrete Fourier Transform

  7. Requirements analysis notebook for the flight data systems definition in the Real-Time Systems Engineering Laboratory (RSEL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    A hybrid requirements analysis methodology was developed, based on the practices actually used in developing a Space Generic Open Avionics Architecture. During the development of this avionics architecture, a method of analysis able to effectively define the requirements for this space avionics architecture was developed. In this methodology, external interfaces and relationships are defined, a static analysis resulting in a static avionics model was developed, operating concepts for simulating the requirements were put together, and a dynamic analysis of the execution needs for the dynamic model operation was planned. The systems engineering approach was used to perform a top down modified structured analysis of a generic space avionics system and to convert actual program results into generic requirements. CASE tools were used to model the analyzed system and automatically generate specifications describing the model's requirements. Lessons learned in the use of CASE tools, the architecture, and the design of the Space Generic Avionics model were established, and a methodology notebook was prepared for NASA. The weaknesses of standard real-time methodologies for practicing systems engineering, such as Structured Analysis and Object Oriented Analysis, were identified.

  8. Highly Sensitive GMO Detection Using Real-Time PCR with a Large Amount of DNA Template: Single-Laboratory Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Junichi; Hatano, Shuko; Nagatomi, Yasuaki; Futo, Satoshi; Takabatake, Reona; Kitta, Kazumi

    2017-08-28

    Current genetically modified organism (GMO) detection methods allow for sensitive detection. However, a further increase in sensitivity will enable more efficient testing for large grain samples and reliable testing for processed foods. In this study, we investigated real-time PCR-based GMO detection methods using a large amount of DNA template. We selected target sequences that are commonly introduced into many kinds of GM crops, i.e., 35S promoter and nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator. This makes the newly developed method applicable to a wide range of GMOs, including some unauthorized ones. The estimated LOD of the new method was 0.005% of GM maize events; to the best of our knowledge, this method is the most sensitive among the GM maize detection methods for which the LOD was evaluated in terms of GMO content. A 10-fold increase in the DNA amount as compared with the amount used under common testing conditions gave an approximately 10-fold reduction in the LOD without PCR inhibition. Our method is applicable to various analytical samples, including processed foods. The use of other primers and fluorescence probes would permit highly sensitive detection of various recombinant DNA sequences besides the 35S promoter and NOS terminator.

  9. Impact of the new Beckman Coulter Cytomics FC 500 5-color flow cytometer on a regional flow cytometry clinical laboratory service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luider, J; Cyfra, M; Johnson, P; Auer, I

    2004-01-01

    Calgary Laboratory Services (CLS) in Alberta, Canada, is the regional reference laboratory providing flow cytometry services for southern Alberta and southeastern British Columbia. As a busy reference flow laboratory we provide flow cytometry immunophenotyping for investigation and diagnosis of acute and chronic leukemias, lymphomas, immunodeficiencies, neuroblastoma, platelet disorders, and interstitial lung disease (ILD). Because of increasing workload and the continual effort to improve the service to our health care providers, CLS invested in the new Beckman Coulter Cytomics FC 500 5-color flow cytometer. In addition to time and labor savings due to reduced maintenance and operating system design, this new flow cytometer automates many of the previous manual steps involved in quality control and flow cytometric analysis. It also incorporates 2 lasers and is capable of measuring 5-color antibody combinations in a single tube, enabling us to reduce the number of tubes and overall costs, giving us better gating options for minimal residual disease analysis. We present the first published evaluation, an assessment of the overall productivity and cost impact of the new state-of-the-art Cytomics FC 500 flow cytometer. Implementation of the Cytomics FC 500 has resulted in a 20% reduction in reagent costs and shorter turnaround time for analysis and diagnosis. This instrument has allowed us to reduce our acute leukemia panel from 17 to 13 tubes, our lymphoma panel from 13 to 7 tubes, and our ILD panel from 4 to 2 tubes. The availability of 2 lasers provides more flexibility in choosing antibodies and conjugates to customize immunophenotyping panels. It also allows us to use the DRAQ5 dye and simultaneously analyze the immunophenotype and DNA content of cells with very little compensation. Many of the arduous, time-consuming flow operator tasks often associated with previous generation flow cytometry instruments, such as color compensation, list mode analysis, sample

  10. UniScan technology for innovative laboratory at a university for acquisition data from space in real-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershenzon, V.; Gershenzon, O.; Sergeeva, M.; Ippolitov, V.; Targulyan, O.

    2012-04-01

    Keywords: Remote Sensing, UniScan ground station, Education, Monitoring. Remote Sensing Centers allowing real-time imagery acquisition from Earth observing satellites within the structure of Universities provides proper environment for innovative education. It delivers the efficient training for scientific and academic and teaching personnel, secure the role of the young professionals in science, education and hi-tech, and maintain the continuity of generations in science and education. Article is based on experience for creation such centers in more than 20 higher education institutions in Russia, Kazakhstan, and Spain on the base of UniScan ground station by R&D Center ScanEx. These stations serve as the basis for Earth monitoring from space providing the training and advanced training to produce the specialists having the state-of-the-art knowledge in Earth Remote Sensing and GIS, as well as the land-use monitoring and geo-data service for the economic operators in such diverse areas as the nature resource management, agriculture, land property management, disasters monitoring, etc. Currently our proposal of UniScan for universities all over the world allows to receive low resolution free of charge MODIS data from Terra and Aqua satellites, VIIRS from the NPP mission, and also high resolution optical images from EROS A and radar images from Radarsat-1 satellites, including the telemetry for the first year of operation, within the footprint of up to 2,500 kilometers in radius. Creation remote sensing centers at universities will lead to a new quality level for education and scientific studies and will enable to make education system in such innovation institutions open to modern research work and economy.

  11. How much time do drivers need to obtain situation awareness? A laboratory-based study of automated driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenji; Coster, Xander; de Winter, Joost

    2017-04-01

    Drivers of automated cars may occasionally need to take back manual control after a period of inattentiveness. At present, it is unknown how long it takes to build up situation awareness of a traffic situation. In this study, 34 participants were presented with animated video clips of traffic situations on a three-lane road, from an egocentric viewpoint on a monitor equipped with eye tracker. Each participant viewed 24 videos of different durations (1, 3, 7, 9, 12, or 20 s). After each video, participants reproduced the end of the video by placing cars in a top-down view, and indicated the relative speeds of the placed cars with respect to the ego-vehicle. Results showed that the longer the video length, the lower the absolute error of the number of placed cars, the lower the total distance error between the placed cars and actual cars, and the lower the geometric difference between the placed cars and the actual cars. These effects appeared to be saturated at video lengths of 7-12 s. The total speed error between placed and actual cars also reduced with video length, but showed no saturation up to 20 s. Glance frequencies to the mirrors decreased with observation time, which is consistent with the notion that participants first estimated the spatial pattern of cars after which they directed their attention to individual cars. In conclusion, observers are able to reproduce the layout of a situation quickly, but the assessment of relative speeds takes 20 s or more.

  12. Rapid laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Bhirud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis (TB ranks as the second leading cause of death from an infectious disease worldwide. Early diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples becomes important in the control of TB both for the treatment of patients and for curbing of disease transmission to the others in the community. The study objective was to perform Ziehl–Neelsen (ZN staining, fluorochrome staining, line probe assay (LPA, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay for rapid detection of pulmonary TB (PTB and to compare the results of LPA and LAMP in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and turnaround time. Methods: A total of 891 sputum samples from clinically diagnosed/suspected cases of TB were subjected to ZN and fluorochrome staining. Smear positive samples were subjected to LPA, and smear negative were cultured on Lowenstein–Jensen media. A total of 177 samples were subjected to liquid culture and LAMP. Conventional culture was considered as “gold standard” for calculation of parameters. Results: Light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy had the same sensitivity as ZN with similar high specificity. LPA was performed on 548 sputum samples which includes 520 smear positive and 28 smear negative culture positive samples and multidrug-resistant TB was detected in 32.64%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV of TB-LAMP on direct sputum samples was found to be 98.96%, 95%, 96%, and 98.70%, respectively, when compared with ZN smear microscopy. By considering culture as “gold standard,” LAMP showed a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of 98.94%, 96.34%, 96.90%, and 98.75%, respectively. The sensitivity and PPV of TB-LAMP were 98.97% and 96%, respectively, when compared with LPA. Conclusions: A successful rapid laboratory diagnosis of PTB is possible when one combines the available methodology of microscopy, culture as well as molecular techniques. The LAMP

  13. Energy policy turnaround in distress. Why should the energy policy put on success certificates; Energiewende in Not. Warum die Energiepolitik auf Erfolgsnachweise setzen sollte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengstenberg, Johannes D. [Gemeinnuetzige Beratungsgesellschaft co2online mbH, Berlin (Germany); Wolff, Dieter [Ostfalia-Hochschule Wolfenbuettel (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieoptimierte Systeme - EOS

    2013-05-15

    In spite of all the promotional programs, regulations and laws, in spite of all activities of producers and suppliers with multi-million dollar advertising revenues, marketing revenues and training usually only half of the possible based on the predicted prognoses for the energy policy turnaround is achieved in practice. The authors of the contribution under consideration analyze the reasons for this and demonstrate methods of solution.

  14. O-5S quantitative real-time PCR: a new diagnostic tool for laboratory confirmation of human onchocerciasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Solomon A; Beissner, Marcus; Saar, Malkin; Ali, Solomon; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Tesfaye, Kassahun; Adbaru, Mulatu G; Battke, Florian; Poppert, Sven; Hoelscher, Michael; Löscher, Thomas; Bretzel, Gisela; Herbinger, Karl-Heinz

    2017-10-02

    Onchocerciasis is a parasitic disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. In endemic areas, the diagnosis is commonly confirmed by microscopic examination of skin snip samples, though this technique is considered to have low sensitivity. The available melting-curve based quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) using degenerated primers targeting the O-150 repeat of O. volvulus was considered insufficient for confirming the individual diagnosis, especially in elimination studies. This study aimed to improve detection of O. volvulus DNA in clinical samples through the development of a highly sensitive qPCR assay. A novel hydrolysis probe based qPCR assay was designed targeting the specific sequence of the O. volvulus O-5S rRNA gene. A total of 200 clinically suspected onchocerciasis cases were included from Goma district in South-west Ethiopia, from October 2012 through May 2013. Skin snip samples were collected and subjected to microscopy, O-150 qPCR, and the novel O-5S qPCR. Among the 200 individuals, 133 patients tested positive (positivity rate of 66.5%) and 67 negative by O-5S qPCR, 74 tested positive by microscopy (37.0%) and 78 tested positive by O-150 qPCR (39.0%). Among the 133 O-5S qPCR positive individuals, microscopy and O-150 qPCR detected 55.6 and 59.4% patients, respectively, implying a higher sensitivity of O-5S qPCR than microscopy and O-150 qPCR. None of the 67 individuals who tested negative by O-5S qPCR tested positive by microscopy or O-150 qPCR, implying 100% specificity of the newly designed O-5S qPCR assay. The novel O-5S qPCR assay is more sensitive than both microscopic examination and the existing O-150 qPCR for the detection of O. volvulus from skin snip samples. The newly designed assay is an important step towards appropriate individual diagnosis and control of onchocerciasis.

  15. End of the nuclear energy era? From Fukushima to the energy policy turnaround; Ende des Atomzeitalters? Von Fukushima in die Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepenbrink, Johannes (comp.)

    2012-07-01

    Due to a violent earthquake and the resulting tsunami, a core melt down resulted at the nuclear power plant Fukushima Daiichi in Japan. Thus, at 30th June, 2011, the Federal Government decided to complete the utilization of the nuclear power in Germany. Is this the end of the atomic age? Under this aspect, the booklet under consideration consists of the following nine contributions: (1) Why is the ''energy policy turnaround'' a social question? (Harald Welzer); (2) Tsunami in the living room: Catastrophes facilitated by the media (Joerg R. Bergmann); (3) Learning from the catastrophe (Manfred Buerger); (4) Perspectives of the nuclear power in Europe and globally (Lutz Mez); (5) Outsider or leader? The 'model Germany' and the European energy policy (Severin Fischer); (6) 'Energy policy turnaround': Quo vadis? (Hardo Bruhns); (7) Energy policy turnarounds in Germany: Motifs and impacts for the European electricity market (Hans-Jochen Luhmann); (8) A short story of the German anti-nuclear movement (Joachim Radkau); (9) Popularity of the apocalypse: Reflections on the cultural history of the fear against nuclear accidents since 1945 (Philipp Gassert).

  16. IgG/anti-IgG immunoassay based on a turn-around point long period grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavaioli, F.; Biswas, P.; Trono, C.; Giannetti, A.; Tombelli, S.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Basumallick, N.; Dasgupta, K.; Baldini, F.

    2014-02-01

    Long period fiber gratings (LPFGs) have been proposed as label-free optical biosensor for a few years. Refractive index changes, which modify the fiber transmission spectrum, are still used for evaluating a biochemical interaction that occurs along the grating region. A turn-around point (TAP) LPFG was manufactured for enhancing the refractive index sensitivity of these devices. Considering the simplicity and the fast process with respect to the silanization procedure, the functionalization of the fiber was carried out by Eudragit L100 copolymer. An IgG/anti-IgG immunoassay was implemented for studying the antigen/antibody interaction. A limit of detection lower than 100 μg L-1 was achieved. Based on the same model assay, we compared the resonance wavelength shifts during the injection of 10 mg L-1 anti-IgG antigen between the TAP LPFG and a standard non-TAP one, in which the coupling occurs with a lower order cladding mode, as performance improvement of the LPFG-based biosensors.

  17. Beetroot Juice Improves On-Water 500 M Time-Trial Performance, and Laboratory-Based Paddling Economy in National and International-Level Kayak Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling, Peter; Cox, Gregory R; Bullock, Nicola; Burke, Louise M

    2015-06-01

    We assessed the ingestion of a beetroot juice supplement (BR) on 4-min laboratory-based kayak performance in national level male (n = 6) athletes (Study A), and on 500 m on-water kayak time-trial (TT) performance in international level female (n = 5) athletes (Study B). In Study A, participants completed three laboratory-based sessions on a kayak ergometer, including a 7 × 4 min step test, and two 4 min maximal effort performance trials. Two and a half hours before the warm-up of each 4 min performance trial, athletes received either a 70 ml BR shot containing ~4.8 mmol of nitrate, or a placebo equivalent (BRPLA). The distance covered over the 4 min TT was not different between conditions; however, the average VO2 over the 4 min period was significantly lower in BR (p = .04), resulting in an improved exercise economy (p = .05). In Study B, participants completed two field-based 500 m TTs, separated by 4 days. Two hours before each trial, athletes received either two 70 ml BR shots containing ~9.6 mmol of nitrate, or a placebo equivalent (BRPLA). BR supplementation significantly enhanced TT performance by 1.7% (p = .01). Our results show that in national-level male kayak athletes, commercially available BR shots (70 ml) containing ~4.8 mmol of nitrate improved exercise economy during laboratory-based tasks predominantly reliant on the aerobic energy system. Furthermore, greater volumes of BR (140 ml; ~9.6 mmol nitrate) provided to international-level female kayak athletes resulted in enhancements to TT performance in the field.

  18. Rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by real-time PCR in sputum samples and its use in the routine diagnosis in a reference laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe Pinhata, Juliana Maira; Cergole-Novella, Maria Cecilia; Moreira dos Santos Carmo, Andreia; Ruivo Ferro e Silva, Regina; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine; Tavares Sacchi, Claudio; Siqueira de Oliveira, Rosangela

    2015-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease of global distribution, constituting a serious public health problem in Brazil. São Paulo State, located in the south-east of Brazil, notified 16,580 new TB cases in 2013. The Instituto Adolfo Lutz is a public health reference laboratory for TB diagnosis for all the State. Considering that rapid and accurate diagnosis is essential for TB control, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of an in-house real-time (RT)-PCR assay targeting the mpt64 gene in the routine diagnosis of TB, and to compare this technique with smear microscopy and culture. From August 2012 to October 2013, 715 sputum samples from 657 patients were included in the study. Smear microscopy, culture, phenotypic and PRA-hsp65 identification of mycobacteria, and mpt64 RT-PCR were performed. With respect to confirmed TB cases (n = 62/657; 9.4%), smear microscopy had a sensitivity of 82.3%. Culture and RT-PCR showed the same sensitivity, i.e. 90.3%. Specificity was 99.7, 99.4 and 98.6% for smear microscopy, culture and RT-PCR, respectively. mpt64 RT-PCR showed high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in sputum samples. This technique can be deployed in laboratories that do not have a rapid test for TB available, enabling the performance of TB diagnosis in up to 5 h.

  19. Effects of night time road traffic noise—an overview of laboratory and field studies on noise dose and subjective noise sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhrström, E.; Rylander, R.; Björkman, M.

    1988-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of research on sleep and noise at the Department of Environmental Hygiene, University of Gothenburg. Different methods were developed to study primary and after effects of night time road traffic noise on sleep. Three one-week laboratory experiments were undertaken to study the relevance of different noise descriptors— Leq, maximum peak noise level and number of events with high peak noise levels—for sleep disturbance effects. The noise exposure was either single noise evenys or a continuous, even road traffic noise. It was concluded that Leq was not related to sleep disturbance effects. Peak noise levels were significantly related to subjective sleep quality and body movements. Results from a third continuing study showed that there is a threshold for effects of the number of single noise events on sleep quality. Habituation to noise among subjects with differing noise sensitivity was studied in a two-week experiment. A significant noise effect on subjective sleep quality was found among sensitive subjects only. No habituation was seen for the negative influence of noise on sleep quality, mood and performance. Long-term effects of road traffic noise were also investigated in a field survey among 106 individuals. This study revealed the presence of a decrease in sleep quality as well as psycho-social effects on tiredness and mood, together with increased reports of headaches and nervous stomach. As in the laboratory study, sensitive individuals were more affected by noise than less sensitive individuals.

  20. Computational Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains a number of commercial off-the-shelf and in-house software packages allowing for both statistical analysis as well as mathematical modeling...

  1. Analytical Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s analytical laboratories in Pittsburgh, PA, and Albany, OR, give researchers access to the equipment they need to thoroughly study the properties of materials...

  2. Geomechanics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Geomechanics Laboratory allows its users to measure rock properties under a wide range of simulated service conditions up to very high pressures and complex load...

  3. Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  4. Building Turnaround Capacity for Urban School Improvement: The Role of Adaptive Leadership and Defined Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Jill K.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the levels of and relationships between technical leadership, adaptive leadership, and defined autonomy among Denver school leaders along with their combined effects on school growth gains over time. Thirty principals provided complete responses to an online survey that included existing scales for technical leadership,…

  5. LABORATORY EVOLUTION OF LIFE-HISTORY TRAITS IN THE BEAN WEEVIL (ACANTHOSCELIDES OBTECTUS): THE EFFECTS OF SELECTION ON DEVELOPMENTAL TIME IN POPULATIONS WITH DIFFERENT PREVIOUS HISTORY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucrć, N; Gliksman, I; Šešlija, D; Stojković, O; Milanović, D

    1998-12-01

    In this study we examined the direct and correlated responses for fast and slow preadult development time in three laboratory populations of the bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus). The first population ("base," B) has experienced laboratory conditions for more than 10 years; the second ("young," Y) and the third ("old," O) populations were selected for early and late reproduction, respectively, before the onset of the present experiments. All three populations are successfully selected for both fast and slow preadult development. The realized heritabilities are very similar in all populations, suggesting a similar level of the additive genetic variance for preadult development. We studied the correlated responses on the following life-history traits: egg-to-adult viability, wet body weight, early fecundity, late fecundity, total realized female fecundity, and adult longevity. All life-history traits examined here, except for the egg-to-adult viability, are affected by selection for preadult development in at least in one of the studied populations. In all three populations, beetles selected for slow preadult development are heavier and live longer than those from the fast-selected lines. The findings with respect to adult longevity are unexpected, because the control Y and O populations, selected for short- and long-lived beetles, respectively, do not show significant differences in preadult development. Thus, our results indicate that some kind of asymmetrical correlated responses occur for preadult development and adult longevity each time that direct selection has been imposed on one or the other of these two traits. In contrast to studies with Drosophila, it appears that for insect species that are aphagous as adults, selection for preadult development entails selection for alleles that also change the adult longevity, but that age-specific selection (applied in the Y and O populations) mostly affects the alleles that have no significant influence on the

  6. Identification of rare pathogenic bacteria in a clinical microbiology laboratory: impact of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Piseth; Abat, Cedric; Rolain, Jean Marc; Colson, Philippe; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Gouriet, Frédérique; Fournier, Pierre Edouard; Drancourt, Michel; La Scola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier

    2013-07-01

    During the past 5 years, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful tool for routine identification in many clinical laboratories. We analyzed our 11-year experience in routine identification of clinical isolates (40 months using MALDI-TOF MS and 91 months using conventional phenotypic identification [CPI]). Among the 286,842 clonal isolates, 284,899 isolates of 459 species were identified. The remaining 1,951 isolates were misidentified and required confirmation using a second phenotypic identification for 670 isolates and using a molecular technique for 1,273 isolates of 339 species. MALDI-TOF MS annually identified 112 species, i.e., 36 species/10,000 isolates, compared to 44 species, i.e., 19 species/10,000 isolates, for CPI. Only 50 isolates required second phenotypic identifications during the MALDI-TOF MS period (i.e., 4.5 reidentifications/10,000 isolates) compared with 620 isolates during the CPI period (i.e., 35.2/10,000 isolates). We identified 128 bacterial species rarely reported as human pathogens, including 48 using phenotypic techniques (22 using CPI and 37 using MALDI-TOF MS). Another 75 rare species were identified using molecular methods. MALDI-TOF MS reduced the time required for identification by 55-fold and 169-fold and the cost by 5-fold and 96-fold compared with CPI and gene sequencing, respectively. MALDI-TOF MS was a powerful tool not only for routine bacterial identification but also for identification of rare bacterial species implicated in human infectious diseases. The ability to rapidly identify bacterial species rarely described as pathogens in specific clinical specimens will help us to study the clinical burden resulting from the emergence of these species as human pathogens, and MALDI-TOF MS may be considered an alternative to molecular methods in clinical laboratories.

  7. Improvement in laboratory diagnosis of wound botulism and tetanus among injecting illicit-drug users by use of real-time PCR assays for neurotoxin gene fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, D; Grant, K A; McLauchlin, J

    2005-09-01

    An upsurge in wound infections due to Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium tetani among users of illegal injected drugs (IDUs) occurred in the United Kingdom during 2003 and 2004. A real-time PCR assay was developed to detect a fragment of the neurotoxin gene of C. tetani (TeNT) and was used in conjunction with previously described assays for C. botulinum neurotoxin types A, B, and E (BoNTA, -B, and -E). The assays were sensitive, specific, rapid to perform, and applicable to investigating infections among IDUs using DNA extracted directly from wound tissue, as well as bacteria growing among mixed microflora in enrichment cultures and in pure culture on solid media. A combination of bioassay and PCR test results confirmed the clinical diagnosis in 10 of 25 cases of suspected botulism and two of five suspected cases of tetanus among IDUs. The PCR assays were in almost complete agreement with the conventional bioassays when considering results from different samples collected from the same patient. The replacement of bioassays by real-time PCR for the isolation and identification of both C. botulinum and C. tetani demonstrates a sensitivity and specificity similar to those of conventional approaches. However, the real-time PCR assays substantially improves the diagnostic process in terms of the speed of results and by the replacement of experimental animals. Recommendations are given for an improved strategy for the laboratory investigation of suspected wound botulism and tetanus among IDUs.

  8. Executive summary: a guide to utilization of the microbiology laboratory for diagnosis of infectious diseases: 2013 recommendations by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the American Society for Microbiology (ASM)(a).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ellen Jo; Miller, J Michael; Weinstein, Melvin P; Richter, Sandra S; Gilligan, Peter H; Thomson, Richard B; Bourbeau, Paul; Carroll, Karen C; Kehl, Sue C; Dunne, W Michael; Robinson-Dunn, Barbara; Schwartzman, Joseph D; Chapin, Kimberle C; Snyder, James W; Forbes, Betty A; Patel, Robin; Rosenblatt, Jon E; Pritt, Bobbi S

    2013-08-01

    The critical role of the microbiology laboratory in infectious disease diagnosis calls for a close, positive working relationship between the physician and the microbiologists who provide enormous value to the health care team. This document, developed by both laboratory and clinical experts, provides information on which tests are valuable and in which contexts, and on tests that add little or no value for diagnostic decisions. Sections are divided into anatomic systems, including Bloodstream Infections and Infections of the Cardiovascular System, Central Nervous System Infections, Ocular Infections, Soft Tissue Infections of the Head and Neck, Upper Respiratory Infections, Lower Respiratory Tract infections, Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Intraabdominal Infections, Bone and Joint Infections, Urinary Tract Infections, Genital Infections, and Skin and Soft Tissue Infections; or into etiologic agent groups, including Tickborne Infections, Viral Syndromes, and Blood and Tissue Parasite Infections. Each section contains introductory concepts, a summary of key points, and detailed tables that list suspected agents; the most reliable tests to order; the samples (and volumes) to collect in order of preference; specimen transport devices, procedures, times, and temperatures; and detailed notes on specific issues regarding the test methods, such as when tests are likely to require a specialized laboratory or have prolonged turnaround times. There is redundancy among the tables and sections, as many agents and assay choices overlap. The document is intended to serve as a reference to guide physicians in choosing tests that will aid them to diagnose infectious diseases in their patients.

  9. A guide to utilization of the microbiology laboratory for diagnosis of infectious diseases: 2013 recommendations by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the American Society for Microbiology (ASM)(a).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ellen Jo; Miller, J Michael; Weinstein, Melvin P; Richter, Sandra S; Gilligan, Peter H; Thomson, Richard B; Bourbeau, Paul; Carroll, Karen C; Kehl, Sue C; Dunne, W Michael; Robinson-Dunn, Barbara; Schwartzman, Joseph D; Chapin, Kimberle C; Snyder, James W; Forbes, Betty A; Patel, Robin; Rosenblatt, Jon E; Pritt, Bobbi S

    2013-08-01

    The critical role of the microbiology laboratory in infectious disease diagnosis calls for a close, positive working relationship between the physician and the microbiologists who provide enormous value to the health care team. This document, developed by both laboratory and clinical experts, provides information on which tests are valuable and in which contexts, and on tests that add little or no value for diagnostic decisions. Sections are divided into anatomic systems, including Bloodstream Infections and Infections of the Cardiovascular System, Central Nervous System Infections, Ocular Infections, Soft Tissue Infections of the Head and Neck, Upper Respiratory Infections, Lower Respiratory Tract infections, Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Intraabdominal Infections, Bone and Joint Infections, Urinary Tract Infections, Genital Infections, and Skin and Soft Tissue Infections; or into etiologic agent groups, including Tickborne Infections, Viral Syndromes, and Blood and Tissue Parasite Infections. Each section contains introductory concepts, a summary of key points, and detailed tables that list suspected agents; the most reliable tests to order; the samples (and volumes) to collect in order of preference; specimen transport devices, procedures, times, and temperatures; and detailed notes on specific issues regarding the test methods, such as when tests are likely to require a specialized laboratory or have prolonged turnaround times. There is redundancy among the tables and sections, as many agents and assay choices overlap. The document is intended to serve as a reference to guide physicians in choosing tests that will aid them to diagnose infectious diseases in their patients.

  10. Monopolies, liberalization, energy turnaround. (Dis)continuities in the electricity market design; Monopole, Liberalisierung, Energiewende. (Dis-)Kontinuitaeten im Strommarktdesign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grashof, Katherina; Zipp, Alexander [Institut fuer ZukunftsEnergieSysteme (IZES), Saarbruecken (Germany); Jachmann, Henning [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany); Wille-Haussmann, Bernhard [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Lechtenboehmer, Stefan [Wuppertal Institut fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    After a long period of stability, the electricity industry is in the past 15 years, in a major state of flux. First, the switching of state-monitored and regulated regional monopolies to liberalized producer and consumer markets. At the moment we are in a similar change from conventional to renewable energy production. Below the main question will be addressed whether the paradigms of the individual phases are compatible, which still have their place and which should be modified. Moreover, it is shown that the current market design of the future cannot be designed on a blank sheet, but existing structures have to be considered. Given the stage of monopolies, the liberalization and the started energy turnaround respectively in terms of their sector structure, dominant generation technologies, the interaction between production and load and characteristic elements of market design and regulation are presented. Subsequently, a preliminary answer is given to the question raised. [German] Nach einer langen Phase der Stabilitaet ist die Stromwirtschaft in den vergangenen 15 Jahren stark in Bewegung geraten. Zunaechst stand der Wechsel von staatlich ueberwachten und regulierten Gebietsmonopolen hin zu liberalisierten Erzeuger und Verbrauchermaerkten an. Im Moment befinden wir uns in einem aehnlichen Umbruch, weg von konventioneller hin zu erneuerbarer Energieerzeugung. Im Folgenden soll der Leitfrage nachgegangen werden, ob die Paradigmen der einzelnen Phasen miteinander vereinbar sind, welche noch immer ihre Daseinsberechtigung haben und welche modifiziert werden sollten. Darueber hinaus wird gezeigt, dass das Strommarktdesign der Zukunft nicht auf einem leeren Blatt entworfen werden kann, sondern bestehende Strukturen zu beruecksichtigen sind. Dazu werden die Phase der Monopolwirtschaft, der Liberalisierung sowie der begonnenen Energiewende jeweils hinsichtlich ihrer Sektor Struktur, dominierenden Erzeugungstechnologien, des Zusammenspiels zwischen Erzeugung und Last

  11. Summary of Adsorption Capacity and Adsorption Kinetics of Uranium and Other Elements on Amidoxime-based Adsorbents from Time Series Marine Testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, Gary A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Strivens, Jonathan E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Wood, Jordana R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Schlafer, Nicholas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Sequim, WA (United States). Marine Sciences Lab.; Janke, Christopher J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Das, Sadananda [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayes, Richard [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Saito, Tomonori [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Suree S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tsouris, Constantinos [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tsouris, Costas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wai, Chien M. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); LCW Supercritical Technologies, Seattle, WA (United States); Pan, Horng-Bin [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

    2016-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been conducting marine testing of uranium adsorbent materials for the Fuel Resources Program, Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) beginning in FY 2012. The marine testing program is being conducted at PNNL’s Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL), located at Sequim Bay, along the coast of Washington. One of the main efforts of the marine testing program is the determination of adsorption capacity and adsorption kinetics for uranium and selected other elements (e.g. vanadium, iron, copper, nickel, and zinc) for adsorbent materials provided primarily by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), but also includes other Fuel Resources Program participants. This report summarizes the major marine testing results that have been obtained to date using time series sampling for 42 to 56 days using either flow-through column or recirculating flume exposures. The major results are highlighted in this report, and the full data sets are appended as a series of Excel spreadsheet files. Over the four year period (2012-2016) that marine testing of amidoxime-based polymeric adsorbents was conducted at PNNL’s Marine Science Laboratory, there has been a steady progression of improvement in the 56-day adsorbent capacity from 3.30 g U/kg adsorbent for the ORNL 38H adsorbent to the current best performing adsorbent prepared by a collaboration between the University of Tennessee and ORNL to produce the adsorbent SB12-8, which has an adsorption capacity of 6.56 g U/kg adsorbent. This nearly doubling of the adsorption capacity in four years is a significant advancement in amidoxime-based adsorbent technology and a significant achievement for the Uranium from Seawater program. The achievements are evident when compared to the several decades of work conducted by the Japanese scientists beginning in the 1980’s (Kim et al., 2013). The best adsorbent capacity reported by the Japanese scientists was 3.2 g U/kg adsorbent for a

  12. Characterizing the Laboratory Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehabi, Arman; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; DeMates, Lauren; Mathew, Paul; Sartor, Dale

    2017-04-11

    Laboratories are estimated to be 3-5 times more energy intensive than typical office buildings and offer significant opportunities for energy use reductions. Although energy intensity varies widely, laboratories are generally energy intensive due to ventilation requirements, the research instruments used, and other health and safety concerns. Because the requirements of laboratory facilities differ so dramatically from those of other buildings, a clear need exists for an initiative exclusively targeting these facilities. The building stock of laboratories in the United States span different economic sectors, include governmental and academic institution, and are often defined differently by different groups. Information on laboratory buildings is often limited to a small subsection of the total building stock making aggregate estimates of the total U.S. laboratories and their energy use challenging. Previous estimates of U.S. laboratory space vary widely owing to differences in how laboratories are defined and categorized. A 2006 report on fume hoods provided an estimate of 150,000 laboratories populating the U.S. based in part on interviews of industry experts, however, a 2009 analysis of the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) generated an estimate of only 9,000 laboratory buildings. This report draws on multiple data sources that have been evaluated to construct an understanding of U.S. laboratories across different sizes and markets segments. This 2016 analysis is an update to draft reports released in October and December 2016.

  13. High-Throughput Identification of Bacteria and Yeast by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry in Conventional Medical Microbiology Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, S. Q.; Claas, E. C. J.; Kuijper, Ed J.

    2010-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is suitable for high-throughput and rapid diagnostics at low costs and can be considered an alternative for conventional biochemical and molecular identification systems in a conventional microbiological laboratory. First, we evaluated MALDI-TOF MS using 327 clinical isolates previously cultured from patient materials and identified by conventional techniques (Vitek-II, API, and biochemical tests). Discrepancies were analyzed by molecular analysis of the 16S genes. Of 327 isolates, 95.1% were identified correctly to genus level, and 85.6% were identified to species level by MALDI-TOF MS. Second, we performed a prospective validation study, including 980 clinical isolates of bacteria and yeasts. Overall performance of MALDI-TOF MS was significantly better than conventional biochemical systems for correct species identification (92.2% and 83.1%, respectively) and produced fewer incorrect genus identifications (0.1% and 1.6%, respectively). Correct species identification by MALDI-TOF MS was observed in 97.7% of Enterobacteriaceae, 92% of nonfermentative Gram-negative bacteria, 94.3% of staphylococci, 84.8% of streptococci, 84% of a miscellaneous group (mainly Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, and Kingella [HACEK]), and 85.2% of yeasts. MALDI-TOF MS had significantly better performance than conventional methods for species identification of staphylococci and genus identification of bacteria belonging to HACEK group. Misidentifications by MALDI-TOF MS were clearly associated with an absence of sufficient spectra from suitable reference strains in the MALDI-TOF MS database. We conclude that MALDI-TOF MS can be implemented easily for routine identification of bacteria (except for pneumococci and viridans streptococci) and yeasts in a medical microbiological laboratory. PMID:20053859

  14. High-throughput identification of bacteria and yeast by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry in conventional medical microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, S Q; Claas, E C J; Kuijper, Ed J

    2010-03-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is suitable for high-throughput and rapid diagnostics at low costs and can be considered an alternative for conventional biochemical and molecular identification systems in a conventional microbiological laboratory. First, we evaluated MALDI-TOF MS using 327 clinical isolates previously cultured from patient materials and identified by conventional techniques (Vitek-II, API, and biochemical tests). Discrepancies were analyzed by molecular analysis of the 16S genes. Of 327 isolates, 95.1% were identified correctly to genus level, and 85.6% were identified to species level by MALDI-TOF MS. Second, we performed a prospective validation study, including 980 clinical isolates of bacteria and yeasts. Overall performance of MALDI-TOF MS was significantly better than conventional biochemical systems for correct species identification (92.2% and 83.1%, respectively) and produced fewer incorrect genus identifications (0.1% and 1.6%, respectively). Correct species identification by MALDI-TOF MS was observed in 97.7% of Enterobacteriaceae, 92% of nonfermentative Gram-negative bacteria, 94.3% of staphylococci, 84.8% of streptococci, 84% of a miscellaneous group (mainly Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, and Kingella [HACEK]), and 85.2% of yeasts. MALDI-TOF MS had significantly better performance than conventional methods for species identification of staphylococci and genus identification of bacteria belonging to HACEK group. Misidentifications by MALDI-TOF MS were clearly associated with an absence of sufficient spectra from suitable reference strains in the MALDI-TOF MS database. We conclude that MALDI-TOF MS can be implemented easily for routine identification of bacteria (except for pneumococci and viridans streptococci) and yeasts in a medical microbiological laboratory.

  15. A Rapid Turn-around, Scalable Big Data Processing Capability for the JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattmann, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) is an integrated LIDAR and Spectrometer measuring snow depth and rate of snow melt in the Sierra Nevadas, specifically, the Tuolumne River Basin, Sierra Nevada, California above the O'Shaughnessy Dam of the Hetch Hetchy reservoir, and the Uncompahgre Basin, Colorado, amongst other sites. The ASO data was delivered to water resource managers from the California Department of Water Resources in under 24 hours from the time that the Twin Otter aircraft landed in Mammoth Lakes, CA to the time disks were plugged in to the ASO Mobile Compute System (MCS) deployed at the Sierra Nevada Aquatic Research Laboratory (SNARL) near the airport. ASO performed weekly flights and each flight took between 500GB to 1 Terabyte of raw data, which was then processed from level 0 data products all the way to full level 4 maps of Snow Water Equivalent, albedo mosaics, and snow depth from LIDAR. These data were produced by Interactive Data analysis Language (IDL) algorithms which were then unobtrusively and automatically integrated into an Apache OODT and Apache Tika based Big Data processing system. Data movement was both electronic and physical including novel uses of LaCie 1 and 2 TeraByte (TB) data bricks and deployment in rugged terrain. The MCS was controlled remotely from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL) in Pasadena, California on behalf of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Communication was aided through the use of novel Internet Relay Chat (IRC) command and control mechanisms and through the use of the Notifico open source communication tools. This talk will describe the high powered, and light-weight Big Data processing system that we developed for ASO and its implications more broadly for airborne missions at NASA and throughout the government. The lessons learned from ASO show the potential to have a large impact in the development of Big Data processing systems in the years

  16. Governance Practices in an Era of Healthcare Transformation: Achieving a Successful Turnaround.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondheim, Samuel E; Patel, Dipesh M; Chin, Nicole; Barwis, Kurt; Werner, Julie; Barclay, Alexus; Mattie, Angela

    This article illustrates the successful application of principles established by the American Hospital Association (AHA) to foster hospital transformations (). We examined a small community hospital's successful transition from one emergency care center (ECC) physician group to another and the methods by which significant improvements in outcomes were achieved. The foundation of this transformation included a generative governance style at the board level, a shared governance model at the employee level, a renewed sense of employee and physician engagement, and a sense of individual accountability. Outcomes included improved communication, a more unified vision throughout the ECC (which led to improved efficiency and accountability among staff), improved metrics, and a positive impact on the community's perception of care. Press Ganey scores and ECC operational metrics demonstrated significant increases in patient satisfaction and decreases in wait times for seven operational metrics. These data serve as a proxy for the transformation's success. Structured interviews revealed an increase in employee satisfaction associated with the transition. The positive outcomes demonstrate the importance of the AHA-articulated governance principles. The AHA recommendations for a superior value-based care model closely align with the methods illustrated through Bristol Hospital's successful transformation. Other institutions can apply the lessons from this case study to drive positive change and improve patient care.

  17. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  18. Laboratory Building.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  19. Visualization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...

  20. Dynamics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Dynamics Lab replicates vibration environments for every Navy platform. Testing performed includes: Flight Clearance, Component Improvement, Qualification, Life...

  1. Psychology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides testing stations for computer-based assessment of cognitive and behavioral Warfighter performance. This 500 square foot configurable space can...

  2. Propulsion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Propulsion Lab simulates field test conditions in a controlled environment, using standardized or customized test procedures. The Propulsion Lab's 11 cells can...

  3. Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: To conduct fundamental studies of highway materials aimed at understanding both failure mechanisms and superior performance. New standard test methods are...

  4. Analytical Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Analytical Labspecializes in Oil and Hydraulic Fluid Analysis, Identification of Unknown Materials, Engineering Investigations, Qualification Testing (to support...

  5. Larval food quantity affects development time, survival and adult biological traits that influence the vectorial capacity of Anopheles darlingi under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo Maisa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of malaria in the Amazon is seasonal and mosquito vectorial capacity parameters, including abundance and longevity, depend on quantitative and qualitative aspects of the larval diet. Anopheles darlingi is a major malaria vector in the Amazon, representing >95% of total Anopheles population present in the Porto Velho region. Despite its importance in the transmission of the Plasmodium parasite, knowledge of the larval biology and ecology is limited. Studies regarding aspects of adult population ecology are more common than studies on larval ecology. However, in order develop effective control strategies and laboratory breeding conditions for this species, more data on the factors affecting vector biology is needed. The aim of the present study is to assess the effects of larval food quantity on the vectorial capacity of An. darling under laboratory conditions. Methods Anopheles darlingi was maintained at 28°C, 80% humidity and exposed to a daily photoperiod of 12 h. Larvae were divided into three experimental groups that were fed either a low, medium, or high food supply (based on the food amounts consumed by other species of culicids. Each experiment was replicated for six times. A cohort of adults were also exposed to each type of diet and assessed for several biological characteristics (e.g. longevity, bite frequency and survivorship, which were used to estimate the vectorial capacity of each experimental group. Results The group supplied with higher food amounts observed a reduction in development time while larval survival increased. In addition to enhanced longevity, increasing larval food quantity was positively correlated with increasing frequency of bites, longer blood meal duration and wing length, resulting in greater vectorial capacity. However, females had greater longevity than males despite having smaller wings. Conclusions Overall, several larval and adult biological traits were significantly

  6. Energy resolution methods efficiency depending on beam source position of potassium clusters in time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ş Şentürk; F Demiray; O Özsoy

    2007-09-01

    Energy resolution of the time-of-flight mass spectrometer was considered. The estimations indicate that the time-lag energy focusing method provides better resolution for the parallel case while the turnaround time is more convenient for the perpendicular position. Hence the applicability of the methods used for the energy resolution depends on beam source arrangement.

  7. A comparison of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment commencement times in MDRTBPlus line probe assay and Xpert® MTB/RIF-based algorithms in a routine operational setting in Cape Town.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pren Naidoo

    Full Text Available Xpert MTB/RIF was introduced as a screening test for all presumptive tuberculosis cases in primary health services in Cape Town, South Africa.To compare multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB treatment commencement times in MDRTBPlus Line Probe Assay and Xpert MTB/RIF-based algorithms in a routine operational setting.The study was undertaken in 10 of 29 high tuberculosis burden primary health facilities, selected through stratified random sampling. An observational study was undertaken as facilities transitioned to the Xpert MTB/RIF-based algorithm. MDR-TB diagnostic data were collected from electronic laboratory records and treatment data from clinical records and registers. Kaplan Meier time-to-event analysis was used to compare treatment commencement time, laboratory turnaround time and action delay between algorithms. A facility-level paired analysis was done: the median time-to-event was estimated per facility in each algorithm and mean differences between algorithms compared using a paired t-test. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess the effect of patient-level variables on treatment commencement time. The difference between algorithms was compared using the hazard ratio.The median treatment commencement time in the Xpert MTB/RIF-based algorithm was 17 days (95% CI 13 to 22 days, with a median laboratory turnaround time (to result available in the laboratory of <1 day (95% CI<1 to 1 day. There was a decrease of 25 days (95% CI 17 to 32 days, p<0.001 in median MDR-TB treatment commencement time in the Xpert MTB/RIF-based algorithm. We found no significant effect on treatment commencement times for the patient-level variables assessed.MDR-TB treatment commencement time was significantly reduced in the Xpert MTB/RIF-based algorithm. Changes in the health system may have contributed. However, an unacceptable level of delay remains. Health system and patient factors contributing to delay need to be evaluated and addressed to

  8. Assessment of the MSF triage system, separating patients into different wards pending Ebola virus laboratory confirmation, Kailahun, Sierra Leone, July to September 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Florian; Fitzpatrick, Gabriel; Patten, Gabriela; van den Bergh, Rafael; Stinson, Kathryn; Pandolfi, Luigi; Squire, James; Decroo, Tom; Declerck, Hilde; Van Herp, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of nosocomial Ebola virus (EBOV) infection among patients admitted to an Ebola management centre (EMC) is paramount. Current Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) guidelines recommend classifying admitted patients at triage into suspect and highly-suspect categories pending laboratory confirmation. We investigated the performance of the MSF triage system to separate patients with subsequent EBOV-positive laboratory test (true-positive admissions) from patients who were initially admitted on clinical grounds but subsequently tested EBOV-negative (false-positive admissions). We calculated standard diagnostic test statistics for triage allocation into suspect or highly-suspect wards (index test) and subsequent positive or negative laboratory results (reference test) among 433 patients admitted into the MSF EMC Kailahun, Sierra Leone, between 1 July and 30 September 2014. 254 (59%) of admissions were classified as highly-suspect, the remaining 179 (41%) as suspect. 276 (64%) were true-positive admissions, leaving 157 (36.3%) false-positive admissions exposed to the risk of nosocomial EBOV infection. The positive predictive value for receiving a positive laboratory result after being allocated to the highly-suspect ward was 76%. The corresponding negative predictive value was 54%. Sensitivity and specificity were 70% and 61%, respectively. Results for accurate patient classification were unconvincing. The current triage system should be changed. Whenever possible, patients should be accommodated in single compartments pending laboratory confirmation. Furthermore, the initial triage step on whether or not to admit a patient in the first place must be improved. What is ultimately needed is a point-of-care EBOV diagnostic test that is reliable, accurate, robust, mobile, affordable, easy to use outside strict biosafety protocols, providing results with quick turnaround time.

  9. Challenges of a negative work load and implications on morale, productivity and quality of service delivered in NHS laboratories in England

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erhabor Osaro; Njemanze Chima

    2014-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) is a term used to describe the publicly funded healthcare delivery system providing quality healthcare services in the United Kingdom. There are several challenges militating against the effective laboratory service delivery in the NHS in England. Biomedical scientists work in healthcare to diagnose disease and evaluate the effectiveness of treatment through the analysis of body fluids and tissue samples from patients. They provide the “engine room” of modern medicine with 70% of diagnosis based on the laboratory results generated by them. This review involved the search of literature for information on working condition of biomedical scientist in the NHS in England. Laboratory service delivery in the NHS in England faces numerous daunting challenges;staffing levels in the last few years have become dangerously low, less remunerated, relatively less experienced and predominantly band 5’s, multidisciplinary rather than specialty based, associated with working more unsocial hours without adequate recovery time, de-banding of staff, high staff turnaround, profit and cost driven rather than quality. These factors has resulted in burn out, low morale, high sickness absences, increased error rate, poor team spirit, diminished productivity and suboptimal laboratory service delivery. There is the urgent need to retract our steps on unpopular policies to ensure that patient care is not compromised by ensuring adequate staffing level and mix, ensuring adequate remuneration of laboratory staff, implementing evidenced-based specialty oriented service, determining the root cause/s for the high staff turnover and implementing corrective action, identifying other potential sources of waste in the system rather than pruning the already dangerously low staffing levels and promoting a quality delivery side by side cost effectiveness.

  10. Point of care testing: diagnosis outside the virology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Christopher C; Booy, Robert; Dwyer, Dominic E

    2011-01-01

    Numerous point-of-care tests (POCTs) are available to diagnose viral infections in both hospital and community settings. The ideal POCT is rapid, sensitive, specific, and simple to perform. This chapter will describe the benefits of POCTs, factors that can influence the accuracy of POCTs and highlight some limitations of POCT strategies. The sensitivity, specificity, and turn-around time of available POCTs are included for common conditions including respiratory viral infections (e.g. influenza, RSV) and blood-borne viral infections (e.g. HIV).

  11. Circadian period and the timing of melatonin onset in men and women: predictors of sleep during the weekend and in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Alpar S; Santhi, Nayantara; Hasan, Sibah; Lo, June C-Y; Johnston, Jonathan D; Von Schantz, Malcolm; Archer, Simon N; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2013-04-01

    Sleep complaints and irregular sleep patterns, such as curtailed sleep during workdays and longer and later sleep during weekends, are common. It is often implied that differences in circadian period and in entrained phase contribute to these patterns, but few data are available. We assessed parameters of the circadian rhythm of melatonin at baseline and in a forced desynchrony protocol in 35 participants (18 women) with no sleep disorders. Circadian period varied between 23 h 50 min and 24 h 31 min, and correlated positively (n = 31, rs  = 0.43, P = 0.017) with the timing of the melatonin rhythm relative to habitual bedtime. The phase of the melatonin rhythm correlated with the Insomnia Severity Index (n = 35, rs  = 0.47, P = 0.004). Self-reported time in bed during free days also correlated with the timing of the melatonin rhythm (n = 35, rs  = 0.43, P = 0.01) as well as with the circadian period (n = 31, rs  = 0.47, P = 0.007), such that individuals with a more delayed melatonin rhythm or a longer circadian period reported longer sleep during the weekend. The increase in time in bed during the free days correlated positively with circadian period (n = 31, rs  = 0.54, P = 0.002). Polysomnographically assessed latency to persistent sleep (n = 34, rs  = 0.48, P = 0.004) correlated with the timing of the melatonin rhythm when participants were sleeping at their habitual bedtimes in the laboratory. This correlation was significantly stronger in women than in men (Z = 2.38, P = 0.017). The findings show that individual differences in circadian period and phase of the melatonin rhythm associate with differences in sleep, and suggest that individuals with a long circadian period may be at risk of developing sleep problems.

  12. Which grid reconstruction is required by the energy policy turnaround? Under consideration of the network development plan 2012; Welchen Netzumbau erfordert die Energiewende? Unter Beruecksichtigung des Netzentwicklungsplans 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarass, Lorenz [Hochschule RheinMain Wiesbaden (Germany); Obermair, G.M.

    2012-07-01

    A structural and technical restructuring of the total electricity supply system is necessary as a part of the energy policy turnaround. That means a restructuring of the production, transfer and distribution of electrical energy. The authors of the book under consideration describe the fundamentals and measures for an efficient and cost-effective reconstruction of the power distribution system. The term ''reconstruction of the power distribution system'' shall include all the measures necessary for the enhancement of the maximal performance of power transfer by means of optimization and amplification of existing electric lines as well as by restructuring of the electric lines.

  13. TIWAG-Tiroler Wasserkraft AG reconstruction and new construction projects for the energy turnaround; Um- und Neubauprojekte der Tiroler Wasserkraft AG fuer die Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroppa, Wolfgang [TIWAG-Tiroler Wasserkraft AG, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2016-07-01

    The whole of Europe is facing the challenge of transforming its energy management system into a more sustainable, more economical and decentralised system with a lower CO{sub 2} footprint. The Province of the Tyrol must contribute to the energy turnaround at a regional level. Hydropower's energy efficiency ratio is more than 90 % so it is the most important renewable energy in terms of volume and cost efficiency. It is for this reason that the use and expansion of hydropower facilities are key components of a sustainable energy and climate policy in the Alpine region.

  14. Live Cells as Dynamic Laboratories: Time Lapse Raman Spectral Microscopy of Nanoparticles with Both IgE Targeting and pH-Sensing Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak-Lovato, Kristy L.; Rector, Kirk D.

    2012-01-01

    This review captures the use of live cells as dynamic microlaboratories through implementation of labeled nanoparticles (nanosensors) that have both sensing and targeting functions. The addition of 2,4-ε-dinitrophenol-L-lysine (DNP) as a FcεRI targeting ligand and 4-mercaptopyridine (4-MPy) as a pH-sensing ligand enables spatial and temporal monitoring of FcεRI receptors and their pH environment within the endocytic pathway. To ensure reliability, the sensor is calibrated in vivo using the ionophore nigericin and standard buffer solutions to equilibrate the external [H+] concentration with that of the cell compartments. This review highlights the nanosensors, ability to traffic and respond to pH of receptor-bound nanosensors (1) at physiological temperature (37°C) versus room temperature (25°C), (2) after pharmacological treatment with bafilomycin, an H+ ATPase pump inhibitor, or amiloride, an inhibitor of Na+/H+ exchange, and (3) in response to both temperature and pharmacological treatment. Whole-cell, time lapse images are demonstrated to show the ability to transform live cells into dynamic laboratories to monitor temporal and spatial endosomal pH. The versatility of these probes shows promise for future applications relevant to intracellular trafficking and intelligent drug design. PMID:22778738

  15. Learning Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Lyn; Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Considers the school library media center as an information learning laboratory. Topics include information literacy; Kuhlthau's Information Search Process model; inquiry theory and approach; discovery learning; process skills of laboratory science; the information scientist; attitudes of media specialists, teachers, and students; displays and Web…

  16. An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment for Upper-Level Forensic Science, Biochemistry, or Molecular Biology Courses: Human DNA Amplification Using STR Single Locus Primers by Real-Time PCR with SYBR Green Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Kelly M.; Kadunc, Raelynn E.

    2012-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) was conducted using published human TPOX single-locus DNA primers for validation and various student-designed short tandem repeat (STR) primers for Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) loci. SYBR Green was used to detect the amplification of the expected amplicons. The…

  17. An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment for Upper-Level Forensic Science, Biochemistry, or Molecular Biology Courses: Human DNA Amplification Using STR Single Locus Primers by Real-Time PCR with SYBR Green Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Kelly M.; Kadunc, Raelynn E.

    2012-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) was conducted using published human TPOX single-locus DNA primers for validation and various student-designed short tandem repeat (STR) primers for Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) loci. SYBR Green was used to detect the amplification of the expected amplicons. The…

  18. Development of new punch shape to replicate scale-up issues in laboratory tablet press II: a new design of punch head to emulate consolidation and dwell times in commercial tablet press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Shigeru; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Ito, Manabu

    2014-06-01

    Differences between laboratory and commercial tablet presses are frequently observed during scale-up of tableting process. These scale-up issues result from the differences in total compression time that is the sum of consolidation and dwell times. When a lubricated blend is compressed into tablets, the tablet thickness produced by the commercial tablet press is often thicker than that by a laboratory tablet press. A new punch shape design, designated as shape adjusted for scale-up (SAS), was developed and used to demonstrate the ability to replicate scale-up issues in commercial-scale tableting processes. It was found that the consolidation time can be slightly shortened by changing the vertical curvature of the conventional punch head rim. However, this approach is not enough to replicate the consolidation time. A secondary two-stage SAS punch design and an embossed punch head was designed to replicate the consolidation and dwell times on a laboratory tablet press to match those of a commercial tablet press. The resulting tablet thickness using this second SAS punch on a laboratory tablet press was thicker than when using a conventional punch in the same laboratory tablet press. The secondary SAS punches are more useful tools for replicating and understanding potential scale-up issues. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  19. Clinical virology in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesters, Hubert G M

    2002-12-01

    The ability to detect nucleic acids has had and still has a major impact on diagnostics in clinical virology. Both quantitative and qualitative techniques, whether signal or target amplification based systems, are currently used routinely in most if not all virology laboratories. Technological improvements, from automated sample isolation to real time amplification technology, have given the ability to develop and introduce systems for most viruses of clinical interest, and to obtain clinical relevant information needed for optimal antiviral treatment options. Both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) can currently be used together with real time detection to generate results in a short turn-around time and to determine whether variants relevant for antiviral resistance are present. These new technologies enable the introduction of an individual patient disease management concept. Within our clinical setting, we have introduced this e.g. for quantitative detection of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) in T-dell depleted allogeneic stem cell transplant patients. This enabled us to develop models for pre-emptive anti B-cell immunotherapy for EBV reactivation, thereby effectively reducing not the incidence of EBV-lymphoproliferative disease but the virus related mortality. Furthermore, additional clinically relevant viruses can now easily be detected simultaneously. It also becomes more feasible to introduce molecular testing for those viruses that can easily be detected using classical virological methods, like culture techniques or antigen detection. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the clinical importance of the additional positive samples detected. It should however be made clear that a complete exchange of technologies is unlikely to occur, and that some complementary technologies should stay operational enabling the discovery of new viruses. The implementation of these molecular diagnostic technologies furthermore

  20. Silicon Valley's Turnaround

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2006-01-01

    @@ During Silicon Valley's dramatic economic growth fueled by the Internet boom and business investment in information technology, employment in the region's high-tech sec tor tripled between 1995 and 2000. The economic boom gave rise to many new firms,drawing em ployees into high-tech jobs from other regions and other industries.

  1. The Real Turnaround

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purinton, Ted; Azcoitia, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Chilean educator and poet Gabriela Mistral warned that children's needs are immediate and comprise more than just academic concerns. Implementing comprehensive community schools is an increasingly successful approach to taking her warning to heart, particularly in neighborhoods with large immigrant populations. The reason is simple: education does…

  2. Reinterpreting Libya's WMD Turnaround

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2012-01-01

    this by developing and deploying a theoretical framework that integrates these three instruments into a more coherent and convincing explanation of the case. It highlights that analysts and policy-makers would do well to focus more on how different policy tools can be used in combination to achieve desired outcomes...... than on how individual tools can be employed with decisive effects. It also demonstrates that the Libya success will be hard to replicate....

  3. Comparative Performance Analysis of Best Performance Round Robin Scheduling Algorithm (BPRR) using Dynamic Time Quantum with Priority Based Round Robin (PBRR) CPU Scheduling Algorithm in Real Time Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pallab Banerjee; Talat Zabin; ShwetaKumai; Pushpa Kumari

    2015-01-01

    Round Robin Scheduling algorithm is designed especially for Real Time Operating system (RTOS). It is a preemptive CPU scheduling algorithm which switches between the processes when static time Quantum expires .Existing Round Robin CPU scheduling algorithm cannot be implemented in real time operating system due to their high context switch rates, large waiting time, large response time, large turnaround time and less throughput . In this paper a new algorithm is presented called Best Performan...

  4. It Takes a City to Raise a Systemic Reform: Early Outcomes from the Say Yes City-wide Turnaround Strategy in Syracuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Ross

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is a systemic educational reform, “The Say Yes City-wide Turnaround Strategy,” designed to involve diverse city-wide partners in improving education and revitalizing the community and city. As an incentive and catalyst for change, college scholarships are offered to every high school graduate in the city. However, the major goal of the partnership is prepare all students for postsecondary education through improved classroom teaching, extended-learning opportunities, and adaptive supports in the academic, social-emotional, and health domains. Specific implementation components, such as the Student Monitoring and Intervention System, after-school and summer programs, communications with stakeholders and public, and pathways to postsecondary and careers, are described in reference to the recent initiation of the City-wide Turnaround Strategy in Syracuse, NY. Expected and early educational outcomes are also examined based on the Say Yes Theory of Change. Keywords: Systemic reform, systemic educational reform, tournaround strategy, social emotional.

  5. Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory is a research laboratory which complements the Optical Measurements Laboratory. The laboratory provides for Hall...

  6. Audio Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides an environment and facilities for auditory display research. A primary focus is the performance use of binaurally rendered 3D sound in conjunction...

  7. Elastomers Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Primary capabilities include: elastomer compounding in various sizes (micro, 3x5, 8x12, 8x15 rubber mills); elastomer curing and post curing (two 50-ton presses, one...

  8. Boring of full scale deposition holes at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Operational experiences including boring performance and a work time analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Christer [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Johansson, Aasa [SWECO, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    Thirteen experimental deposition holes similar to those in the present KBS-3 design have been bored at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, Oskarshamn, Sweden. The objective with the boring program was to test and demonstrate the current technique for boring of large vertical holes in granitic rock. Conclusions and results from this project is used in the planning process for the deposition holes that will be bored in the real repository for spent nuclear fuel. The boreholes are also important for three major projects. The Prototype Repository, the Canister Retrieval Test and the Demonstration project will all need full-scale deposition holes for their commissioning. The holes are bored in full scale and have a radius of 1.75 m and a depth of 8.5 m. To bore the holes an existing TBM design was modified to produce a novel type Shaft Boring Machine (SBM) suitable for boring 1.75 m diameter holes from a relatively small tunnel. The cutter head was equipped with two types of roller cutters: two row carbide button cutters and disc cutters. Removal of the cuttings was made with a vacuum suction system. The boring was monitored and boring parameters recorded by a computerised system for the evaluation of the boring performance. During boring of four of the holes temperature, stress and strain measurements were performed. Acoustic emission measurements were also performed during boring of these four holes. The results of these activities will not be discussed in this report since they are reported separately. Criteria regarding nominal borehole diameter, deviation of start and end centre point, surface roughness and performance of the machine were set up according to the KBS-3 design and were fulfilled with a fair margin. The average total time for boring one deposition hole during this project was 105 hours.

  9. The effect of redox conditions and adaptation time on organic micropollutant removal during river bank filtration: A laboratory-scale column study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelkamp, C; Verliefde, A R D; Schoutteten, K; Vanhaecke, L; Vanden Bussche, J; Singhal, N; van der Hoek, J P

    2016-02-15

    This study investigated the redox dependent removal and adaptive behaviour of a mixture of 15 organic micropollutants (OMPs) in laboratory-scale soil columns fed with river water. Three separate pilot systems were used consisting of: (1) two columns, (2) ten columns and (3) twenty two columns to create oxic, suboxic (partial nitrate removal) and anoxic (complete nitrate removal). The pilot set-up has some unique features--it can simulate fairly long residence times (e.g., 45 days using the 22 column system) and reduced conditions developed naturally within the system. Dimethoate, diuron, and metoprolol showed redox dependent removal behaviour with higher biodegradation rates in the oxic zone compared to the suboxic/anoxic zone. The redox dependent behaviour of these three OMPs could not be explained based on their physico-chemical properties (hydrophobicity, charge and molecular weight) or functional groups present in the molecular structure. OMPs that showed persistent behaviour in the oxic zone (atrazine, carbamazepine, hydrochlorothiazide and simazine) were also not removed under more reduced conditions. Adaptive behaviour was observed for five OMPs: dimethoate, chloridazon, lincomycin, sulfamethoxazole and phenazone. However, the adaptive behaviour could not be explained by the physico-chemical properties (hydrophobicity, charge and molecular weight) investigated in this study and only rough trends were observed with specific functional groups (e.g. ethers, sulphur, primary and secondary amines). Finally, the adaptive behaviour of OMPs was found to be an important factor that should be incorporated in predictive models for OMP removal during river bank filtration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Transforming Schools through Expanded Learning Time: Orchard Gardens K-8 Pilot School. Update 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Roy

    2013-01-01

    For years, Orchard Gardens K-8 Pilot School was plagued by low student achievement and high staff turnover. Then, in 2010, with an expanded school schedule made possible through federal funding, Orchard Gardens began a remarkable turnaround. Today, the school is demonstrating how increased learning time, combined with other key turnaround…

  11. Is real-time PCR-based diagnosis similar in performance to routine parasitological examination for the identification of Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium parvum/Cryptosporidium hominis and Entamoeba histolytica from stool samples? Evaluation of a new commercial multiplex PCR assay and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laude, A; Valot, S; Desoubeaux, G; Argy, N; Nourrisson, C; Pomares, C; Machouart, M; Le Govic, Y; Dalle, F; Botterel, F; Bourgeois, N; Cateau, E; Leterrier, M; Le Pape, P; Morio, F

    2016-02-01

    Microscopy is the reference standard for routine laboratory diagnosis in faecal parasitology but there is growing interest in alternative methods to overcome the limitations of microscopic examination, which is time-consuming and highly dependent on an operator's skills and expertise. Compared with microscopy, DNA detection by PCR is simple and can offer a better turnaround time. However, PCR performances remain difficult to assess as most studies have been conducted on a limited number of positive clinical samples and used in-house PCR methods. Our aim was to evaluate a new multiplex PCR assay (G-DiaParaTrio; Diagenode Diagnostics), targeting Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium parvum/Cryptosporidium hominis and Entamoeba histolytica. To minimize the turnaround time, PCR was coupled with automated DNA extraction (QiaSymphony; Qiagen). The PCR assay was evaluated using a reference panel of 185 samples established by routine microscopic examination using a standardized protocol including Ziehl-Neelsen staining and adhesin detection by ELISA (E. histolytica II; TechLab). This panel, collected from 12 French parasitology laboratories, included 135 positive samples for G. intestinalis (n = 38), C. parvum/C. hominis (n = 26), E. histolytica (n = 5), 21 other gastrointestinal parasites, together with 50 negative samples. In all, the G-DiaParaTrio multiplex PCR assay identified 38 G. intestinalis, 25 C. parvum/C. hominis and five E. histolytica leading to sensitivity/specificity of 92%/100%, 96%/100% and 100%/100% for G. intestinalis, C. parvum/C. hominis and E. histolytica, respectively. This new multiplex PCR assay offers fast and reliable results, similar to microscopy-driven diagnosis for the detection of these gastrointestinal protozoa, allowing its implementation in routine clinical practice.

  12. Effect of harvest time on fermentation profiles of maize ensiled in laboratory silos and determination of drying losses at 60°C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2007-01-01

    The objectives were to investigate the effect of premature ensiling of maize on alcohol fermentation in laboratory silos and the loss of fermentation products and glucose in silage following drying at 60°C for 48 h. During four consecutive weeks maize was harvested and ensiled for 60 days in vacuum......-sealed laboratory silos. The content of DM in silage increased (p...-glucose content was reduced by approximately 45% after drying. Alcohols and esters were completely lost in drying. We conclude that ensiling of pre-mature maize does not lead to extensive alcohol fermentation in laboratory silos following 60 days of ensiling, and that dry matter correction based on fermentation...

  13. Calgary Laboratory Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Wright MD, PhD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Calgary Laboratory Services provides global hospital and community laboratory services for Calgary and surrounding areas (population 1.4 million and global academic support for the University of Calgary Cumming School of Medicine. It developed rapidly after the Alberta Provincial Government implemented an austerity program to address rising health care costs and to address Alberta’s debt and deficit in 1994. Over roughly the next year, all hospital and community laboratory test funding within the province was put into a single budget, fee codes for fee-for-service test billing were closed, roughly 40% of the provincial laboratory budget was cut, and roughly 40% of the pathologists left the province of Alberta. In Calgary, in the face of these abrupt changes in the laboratory environment, private laboratories, publicly funded hospital laboratories and the medical school department precipitously and reluctantly merged in 1996. The origin of Calgary Laboratory Services was likened to an “unhappy shotgun marriage” by all parties. Although such a structure could save money by eliminating duplicated services and excess capacity and could provide excellent city-wide clinical service by increasing standardization, it was less clear whether it could provide strong academic support for a medical school. Over the past decade, iterations of the Calgary Laboratory Services model have been implemented or are being considered in other Canadian jurisdictions. This case study analyzes the evolution of Calgary Laboratory Services, provides a metric-based review of academic performance over time, and demonstrates that this model, essentially arising as an unplanned experiment, has merit within a Canadian health care context.

  14. Carbapenemase Activity Detection by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabák, Jaroslav; Walková, Radka; Študentová, Vendula; Chudáčková, Eva; Bergerová, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry is used for the determination of molecular weights of different chemical compounds. We describe here the use of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to detect a carbapenem antibiotic, meropenem, and its degradation products. Buffered meropenem solution (0.1 mM Tris-HCl, pH 6.8) was mixed with an overnight culture of bacteria. After 3-h incubation, the reaction mixture was centrifuged, and the supernatant was analyzed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The presence or absence of peaks representing meropenem and its sodium salts was crucial. The average turnaround time of this test, considering the use of overnight culture, is 4 h. We validated this method for the detection of resistance to carbapenems in Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated by carbapenemase production. A total of 124 strains, including 30 carbapenemase-producing strains, were used in the study. The sensitivity of this method is 96.67%, with a specificity of 97.87%. Our results demonstrate the ability of this method to routinely detect carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp. in laboratories. This assay is comparable with a labor-intensive imipenem-hydrolyzing spectrophotometric assay that is a reference method for the detection of carbapenemase. As demonstrated here, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry may be used in microbiological laboratories not only for microbial identification but also for other applications, such as studies of mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. PMID:21775535

  15. Inter-laboratory ring trial to evaluate real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction methods used for detection of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tapia

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Overall, the ring trial showed high values of sensitivity and specificity, with some problems of repeatability and inter-laboratory variability. This last issue needs to be addressed in order to allow harmonized diagnostic of IPNV within the country. We recommend the use of the NRL methods as validated and reliable qRT-PCR protocols for the detection of IPNV.

  16. Impact factors and publication times for plastic surgery journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labanaris, Apostolos P; Vassiliadu, Agapi P; Polykandriotis, Elias; Tjiawi, Jimmy; Arkudas, Andreas; Horch, Raymund E

    2007-12-01

    The purposes of the authors' analysis were to assess the values that plastic surgical journals demonstrate in terms of the standardized measures created by the Institute for Scientific Information's Journal Citation Report, and to assess the relationship between these values and the turnaround time of these journals. The overall indexes of surgical journals were compared with those of journals in other fields of medicine using the following parameters: highest impact factor, average impact factor, cited half-life, immediacy index, and number of journals. Similarly, plastic surgery journals were compared with the highest ranking journals from various fields of surgery. In addition, an evaluation of all original articles published in 2005, assessing the time intervals from submission to publication, submission to acceptance, and acceptance to publication, was conducted for all plastic surgical journals and the highest ranking journals from various surgical fields listed in the Journal Citation Report. Plastic surgical journals demonstrated low overall index values and a greater elongation of their turnaround time in comparison to journals in other fields of surgery and medicine. The fact that the field of plastic surgery targets a rather specific and limited medical audience, and that plastic surgical articles usually get quoted by this audience, partly explains these values. Furthermore, the elongated turnaround time contributes to their endurance. Since plastic surgical journals cannot attract a broader medical audience, journals should speed up their publication times to help these values rise.

  17. Households under the impression of the energy turnaround. Development of electricity demand and load profiles; Die Haushalte im Zeichen der Energiewende. Entwicklung der Stromnachfrage und Lastprofile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsland, Rainer; Bossmann, Tobias; Gnann, Till; Wietschel, Martin [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Hartel, Rupert; Fichtner, Wolf [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Industriebetriebslehre und Industrielle Produktion (IIP)

    2013-01-15

    One of the central components of the energy turnaround is the improvement of energy efficiency. Households play a key role in this connection, not only due to their high potentials for saving energy and shifting loads, but also because of the growing importance of electricity as an energy carrier. This makes it interesting to explore how the continuing dissemination of efficient energy applications, electromobility and decentralised electricity production through photovoltaics will impact on load and electricity production profiles in the German household sector until the year 2040. The results show that with ambitious energy policy goals it will be possible to lower the electricity demand of households by 30%. However, this decrease could be more than undone by electromobility.

  18. Amid Focus on Affordability, A Call to See HEIs as "Laboratories" Where Getting It Right the First Time Matters Less than Learning from Mistakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCiccio, Albert

    2014-01-01

    People are familiar with the Greek concept of "chronos", or chronological time, of which there is not enough. Perhaps everyone should embrace the other Greek concept of time: "kairos," or the "right time," the time when something remarkable is about to happen. The author believes that now is the right time for higher…

  19. Amid Focus on Affordability, A Call to See HEIs as "Laboratories" Where Getting It Right the First Time Matters Less than Learning from Mistakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCiccio, Albert

    2014-01-01

    People are familiar with the Greek concept of "chronos", or chronological time, of which there is not enough. Perhaps everyone should embrace the other Greek concept of time: "kairos," or the "right time," the time when something remarkable is about to happen. The author believes that now is the right time for higher…

  20. Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (Saxton Laboratory) is a state-of-the-art facility for conducting transportation operations research. The laboratory...

  1. The reliability of point-of-care prothrombin time testing. A comparison of CoaguChek S and XS INR measurements with hospital laboratory monitoring.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, F

    2010-02-01

    The development of point-of-care (POC) testing devices enables patients to test their own international normalized ratio (INR) at home. However, previous studies have shown that when compared with clinical laboratory values, statistically significant differences may occur between the two methods of INR measurement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the CoaguChek S and XS POC meters relative to clinical laboratory measurements. As part of a randomized, crossover patient self-testing (PST) study at Cork University Hospital, patients were randomized to 6 months PST or 6 months routine care by the anticoagulation management service. During the PST arm of the study, patients measured their INR at home using the CoaguChek S or XS POC meter. External quality control was performed at enrollment, 2 months and 4 months by comparing the POC measured INR with the laboratory determined value. One hundred and fifty-one patients provided 673 paired samples. Good correlation was shown between the two methods of determination (r = 0.91), however, statistically significant differences did occur. A Bland-Altman plot illustrated good agreement of INR values between 2.0 and 3.5 INR units but there was increasing disagreement as the INR rose above 3.5. Eighty-seven per cent of all dual measurements were within the recommended 0.5 INR units of each other. This study adds to the growing evidence that POC testing is a reliable and safe alternative to hospital laboratory monitoring but highlights the importance of external quality control when these devices are used for monitoring oral anticoagulation.

  2. Lunar laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  3. Virtual Laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Hut, P

    2006-01-01

    At the frontier of most areas in science, computer simulations play a central role. The traditional division of natural science into experimental and theoretical investigations is now completely outdated. Instead, theory, simulation, and experimentation form three equally essential aspects, each with its own unique flavor and challenges. Yet, education in computational science is still lagging far behind, and the number of text books in this area is minuscule compared to the many text books on theoretical and experimental science. As a result, many researchers still carry out simulations in a haphazard way, without properly setting up the computational equivalent of a well equipped laboratory. The art of creating such a virtual laboratory, while providing proper extensibility and documentation, is still in its infancy. A new approach is described here, Open Knowledge, as an extension of the notion of Open Source software. Besides open source code, manuals, and primers, an open knowledge project provides simul...

  4. Improvised double-embedding technique of minute biopsies: A mega boon to histopathology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokendra Yadav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Optimal orientation of minute mucosal biopsies is essential for a definite diagnosis in gastrointestinal pathology or to visualize neural plexuses in Hirschsprung disease. The problem of minute size of the biopsy and its orientation gets compounded when they are from neonates and mandates exhaustive strip cuts, thus delaying reporting. Aim: A modified agar-paraffin technique is aimed to make tissue embedding efficient and user-friendly by inking mapping biopsies (one or more either fresh or fixed with surgical coloring inks followed by embedding first in agar after orientation and followed thereafter by processing, re-embedding in paraffin wax, sectioning and staining. Results: The tissues in agar paraffin block were found to be well processed, firm, held secure and well preserved. The blocks were easy to cut, with serial sections of thickness 2-3 μ and easy to spread. The colored inks remained permanently on the tissues both in the block as well as on the sections which helped in easy identification of tissues. Agar did not interfere with any stain such as Hematoxylin and Eosin or with histochemical stains, enzyme histochemistry or immunohistochemistry. Inking biopsies and pooling them in a block when obtained from the same patient reduced the number of tissue blocks. Conclusion: The modified agar-paraffin embedding technique is a simple reliable user friendly method that can greatly improve the quality of diagnostic information from minute biopsies by optimal orientation, better quality of sections, faster turnaround time and cost-effectiveness by economizing on the number of paraffin blocks, manpower, chemical reagents and laboratory infrastructure.

  5. Inter-laboratory reproducibility of fast gas chromatography–electron impact–time of flight mass spectrometry (GC–EI–TOF/MS) based plant metabolomics

    OpenAIRE

    Allwood, J W; Erban, A.; de Koning, S.; Dun, W.B.; Luedemann, A.; Lommen, A; Kay, L.; Löscher, R.; Kopka, J.; Goodacre, R

    2009-01-01

    The application of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) to the ‘global’ analysis of metabolites in complex samples (i.e. metabolomics) has now become routine. The generation of these data-rich profiles demands new strategies in data mining and standardisation of experimental and reporting aspects across laboratories. As part of the META-PHOR project’s (METAbolomics for Plants Health and OutReach: http://www.meta-phor.eu/) priorities towards robust technology development, a GC–MS ring ...

  6. NREL’s Controllable Grid Interface Saves Time and Resources, Improves Reliability of Renewable Energy Technologies; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) controllable grid interface (CGI) test system at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) is one of two user facilities at NREL capable of testing and analyzing the integration of megawatt-scale renewable energy systems. The CGI specializes in testing of multimegawatt-scale wind and photovoltaic (PV) technologies as well as energy storage devices, transformers, control and protection equipment at medium-voltage levels, allowing the determination of the grid impacts of the tested technology.

  7. In situ and laboratory investigations of fluid flow through an argillaceous formation at different scales of space and time, Tournemire tunnel, southern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisson, Jean-Yves; Bertrand, Lucien; Heitz, Jean-François; Golvan, Yann Moreau-Le

    2001-01-01

    In the context of a research and development program on waste disposal, an experimental site (Tournemire tunnel, Aveyron, France) was selected by the French Institute for Nuclear Protection and Safety (IPSN) in order to undertake studies on potential fluid flow at different scales of space and time within a 250-m-thick argillaceous formation. The argillite has a low natural water content ( 3-5%) and very low radii access porosity. Diffusion (tritiated water) coefficients (1×10-12 to 2×10-11 m2/s) and hydraulic conductivities derived from different types of laboratory tests (10-14 to 10-13 m/s) are characteristics of a very low-permeable rock. In situ hydraulic tests (including long-term hydraulic-head measurements) were used to obtain values for hydraulic head and hydraulic conductivity at a scale of 1-10 m (10-13 to 10-11 m/s). Despite uncertainties on these data (due to a scale factor, presence of fissures, and possible artefacts due to hydro-chemo-mechanical coupling), it is expected that fluid flow is essentially governed by diffusion processes. Identification of possible natural flows at larger scales of time and space was investigated using natural isotopic tracers from interstitial fluids. Modelling, based on the deuterium profile along the clay formation and assuming pure diffusion processes, provides estimations of possible flow times. However, lack of knowledge concerning the past geological evolution of the site and the possible role of a fracture network do not permit reduction of uncertainties on these estimations at this stage. Résumé. Dans le cadre de son programme de recherche et développement sur les stockages de déchets, un site expérimental (tunnel de Tournemire, Aveyron, France) a été sélectionné par l'Institut de Protection et Sûreté Nucléaire (IPSN) pour conduire des études sur les possibilités de transferts de fluides à différentes échelles de temps et d'espace au sein d'une formation argileuse de 250 m d'épaisseur. L

  8. Proficiency Program for Real-Time PCR Diagnosis of Bordetella pertussis Infections in French Hospital Laboratories and at the French National Reference Center for Whooping Cough and other Bordetelloses▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Valérie; Guiso, Nicole; Alberti, Corinne; Liguori, Sandrine; Burucoa, Christophe; Couetdic, Gérard; Doucet-Populaire, Florence; Ferroni, Agnès; Papin-Gibaud, Sophie; Grattard, Florence; Réglier-Poupet, Hélène; Raymond, Josette; Soler, Catherine; Bouchet, Sylvie; Charreau, Sandrine; Couzon, Brigitte; Leymarie, Isabelle; Tavares, Nicole; Choux, Mathilde; Bingen, Edouard; Bonacorsi, Stéphane

    2009-01-01

    With the support of a ministerial program for innovative and expensive technologies, dedicated to the economic evaluation of laboratory diagnosis of pertussis by real-time PCR, external quality assessment for real-time IS481 PCR was carried out. Coordinated by the National Centre of Reference of Pertussis and other Bordetelloses (NCR), this study aimed to harmonize and to assess the performances of eight participating microbiology hospital laboratories throughout the French territory. Between January 2006 and February 2007, 10 proficiency panels were sent by the NCR (ascending proficiency program), representing a total of 49 samples and including eight panels to analyze and evaluate the global sensitivity and specificity of real-time PCR, one to assess the limit of detection, and one to evaluate nucleic acid extraction methods. As part of the descending proficiency program, extracted DNA from clinical samples was sent by the eight participating laboratories in different panels and analyzed by the NCR. In the ascending proficiency analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of the real-time PCR methods were 92.2% and 94.3%, respectively. The limit of detection of the different methods ranged between 0.1 and 1 fg/μl (0.2 to 2 CFU/μl). The nucleic acid extraction methods showed similar performances. During the descending proficiency analysis, performed with 126 samples, the result of the NCR for 15 samples (11.9%) was discordant with the result obtained by the source laboratory. Despite several initial differences, harmonization was easy and performances were homogeneous. However, the risk of false-positive results remains quite high, and we strongly recommend establishment of uniform quality control procedures performed regularly. PMID:19692562

  9. Virtual Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, P.

    At the frontier of most areas in science, computer simulations playa central role. The traditional division of natural science into experimental and theoretical investigations is now completely outdated. Instead, theory, simulation, and experimentation form three equally essential aspects, each with its own unique flavor and challenges. Yet, education in computational science is still lagging far behind, and the number of text books in this area is minuscule compared to the many text books on theoretical and experimental science. As a result, many researchers still carry out simulations in a haphazard way, without properly setting up the computational equivalent of a well equipped laboratory. The art of creating such a virtual laboratory, while providing proper extensibility and documentation, is still in its infancy. A new approach is described here, Open Knowledge, as an extension of the notion of Open Source software. Besides open source code, manuals, and primers, an open knowledge project provides simulated dialogues between code developers, thus sharing not only the code, but also the motivations behind the code.

  10. Evaluation of a reduced centrifugation time and higher centrifugal force on various general chemistry and immunochemistry analytes in plasma and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Mette F; Søndergaard, Tove R; Kristensen, Helle T; Münster, Anna-Marie B

    2017-09-01

    Background Centrifugation of blood samples is an essential preanalytical step in the clinical biochemistry laboratory. Centrifugation settings are often altered to optimize sample flow and turnaround time. Few studies have addressed the effect of altering centrifugation settings on analytical quality, and almost all studies have been done using collection tubes with gel separator. Methods In this study, we compared a centrifugation time of 5 min at 3000 ×  g to a standard protocol of 10 min at 2200 ×  g. Nine selected general chemistry and immunochemistry analytes and interference indices were studied in lithium heparin plasma tubes and serum tubes without gel separator. Results were evaluated using mean bias, difference plots and coefficient of variation, compared with maximum allowable bias and coefficient of variation used in laboratory routine quality control. Results For all analytes except lactate dehydrogenase, the results were within the predefined acceptance criteria, indicating that the analytical quality was not compromised. Lactate dehydrogenase showed higher values after centrifugation for 5 min at 3000 ×  g, mean bias was 6.3 ± 2.2% and the coefficient of variation was 5%. Conclusions We found that a centrifugation protocol of 5 min at 3000 ×  g can be used for the general chemistry and immunochemistry analytes studied, with the possible exception of lactate dehydrogenase, which requires further assessment.

  11. Inappropriate emergency laboratory test ordering: defensive or peer evidence shared based medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Descovich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The laboratory overuse is widely prevalent in hospital practice, mostly in the emergency care. Reasons for excessive and inappropriate test-ordering include defensive behaviour and fear or uncertainty, lack of experience, the misuse of protocols and guidelines, “routine” and local attitudes, inadequate educational feedback and clinician’s unawareness about the cost of examinations and their related implications. AIM OF THE STUDY AND METHODS The primary target of our working group was to reduce inappropriate ordering on a urgent basis test, implementing further examinations not yet previewed in the hospital panel of the available urgencies, according to the evidence based diagnosis concept. The secondary goal was to indicate strategies of re-engineering of the processes, improving turnaround time in the laboratory management of emergencies. After evaluating, as first intervention, the more reliable sources for practice guidelines, systematic reviews and RCTs, the committee further discussed main topics with in-hospital stakeholders, selected from Emergency, Internal Medicine and Surgery Depts. The working group, in many subsequent audits, tried to obtain a systematic feed back with all involved professionals. RESULTS After reviewing literature’s evidence, the board constrained testing options by defining the basic emergency laboratory panel tests (blood type, hemogram, blood urea nitrogen, plasma creatinine, glucose, sodium, potassium, chloride, osmolarity, CRP, bicarbonate, CPK, creatine phosphokinase-MB, myoglobin, troponin, BNP and NT-proBNP, PT-INR, PTT, D-dimer, beta- HCG, biochemical urinalysis etc.. As final result, the proposed tests reduced the overall number of inappropriate investigations and increased, with newer and updated tests, the available panel for critical patients. DISCUSSION A collegiate review of data reporting, in-hospital deepening of problems and the inter- professional discussion of the evidences

  12. Laboratory Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the laboratory activities performed by PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project in support of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Program, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. The results of these studies are contained in numerous reports (Lindenmeier et al. 2002; Serne et al. 2002a, 2002b, 2002c, 2002d, 2002e; Lindenmeier et al. 2003; Serne et al. 2004a, 2004b; Brown et al. 2005, 2006a, 2007; Serne et al. 2007) and have generated much of the data reported in Chapter 22 (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), Appendix G (Geochemistry-Contaminant Movement), and Cantrell et al. (2007, SST WMA Geochemistry Data Package – in preparation). Sediment samples and characterization results from PNNL’s Vadose Zone Characterization Project are also shared with other science and technology (S&T) research projects, such as those summarized in Chapter 12 (Associated Science Activities).

  13. Real-time PCR for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in human stool samples from Côte d'Ivoire: diagnostic accuracy, inter-laboratory comparison and patterns of hookworm co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sören L; Piraisoody, Nivetha; Kramme, Stefanie; Marti, Hanspeter; Silué, Kigbafori D; Panning, Marcus; Nickel, Beatrice; Kern, Winfried V; Herrmann, Mathias; Hatz, Christoph F; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg; von Müller, Lutz

    2015-10-01

    Human infections with the helminth species Strongyloides stercoralis encompass a wide clinical spectrum, ranging from asymptomatic carriage to life-threatening disease. The diagnosis of S. stercoralis is cumbersome and the sensitivity of conventional stool microscopy is low. New molecular tools have been developed to increase sensitivity. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of real-time PCR with microscopy for the detection of S. stercoralis and hookworm in human stool samples, and investigated the inter-laboratory agreement of S. stercoralis-specific real-time PCR in two European laboratories. Stool specimens from 256 randomly selected individuals in rural Côte d'Ivoire were examined using three microscopic techniques (i.e. Kato-Katz, Koga agar plate (KAP) and Baermann (BM)). Additionally, ethanol-fixed stool aliquots were subjected to molecular diagnosis. The prevalence of S. stercoralis and hookworm infection was 21.9% and 52.0%, respectively, whilst co-infections were detected in 35 (13.7%) participants. The diagnostic agreement between real-time PCR and microscopy was excellent when both KAP and BM tested positive for S. stercoralis, but was considerably lower when only one microscopic technique was positive. The sensitivity of KAP, BM and real-time PCR for detection of S. stercoralis as compared to a combination of all diagnostic techniques was 21.4%, 37.5% and 76.8%, respectively. The inter-laboratory agreement of S. stercoralis-specific PCR was substantial (κ=0.63, preal-time PCR and stool microscopy shows high accuracy for S. stercoralis diagnosis. Besides high sensitivity, PCR may also enhance specificity by reducing microscopic misdiagnosis of morphologically similar helminth larvae (i.e. hookworm and S. stercoralis) in settings where both helminth species co-exist.

  14. Dating minerals by ID-TIMS geochronology at times of in situ analysis: selected case studies from the CPGeo-IGc-USP laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia R. Passarelli

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 1964, the Center for Geochronological Research - CPGeo, one of the interdepartmental centers of the Instituto de Geociências (IG of São Paulo University, has developed studies related to several geological processes associated with different rock types. Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry Isotopic Dilution (ID-TIMS has been the technique widely used in the CPGeo U-Pb Laboratory. It provides reliable and accurate results in age determination of superposed events. However, the open-system behavior such as Pb-loss, the inheritance problem and metamictization processes allow and impel us to a much richer understanding of the power and limitations of U-Pb geochronology and thermochronology. In this article, we present the current methodology used at the CPGeo-IGc-USP U-Pb laboratory, the improvements on ID-TIMS method, and report high-precision U-Pb data from zircon, monazite, epidote, titanite, baddeleyite and rutile from different rock types of several domains of the Brazilian south-southeast area, Argentina and Uruguay.O Centro de Pesquisas Geocronológicas (CPGeo, um dos centros interdepartamentais do Instituto de Geociências (IG da Universidade de São Paulo (USP, desde 1964 desenvolve estudos relacionados a diversos processos geológicos que se associam a diferentes tipos de rochas. A técnica amplamente utilizada no Laboratório U-Pb é a diluição isotópica por espectrometria de massa termo ionizada (ID-TIMS. Esta sistemática proporciona resultados bastante confiáveis e precisos na determinação das idades de eventos geológicos superpostos. Entretanto, o comportamento de sistema aberto como perda de Pb, problemas de herança isotópica e processos de metamictização, nos permite o entendimento do poder e limitação da geocronologia e termocronologia U-Pb. Neste artigo apresentamos a metodologia atualmente utilizada no Laboratório U-Pb do CPGeo-IGc-USP, as melhorias atingidas na técnica ID-TIMS e alguns dados obtidos em

  15. Rapid identification of microorganisms from positive blood cultures by testing early growth on solid media using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Mark D; Weber, Carol J; Burnham, Carey-Ann D

    2016-06-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of a simple modification to MALDI-TOF MS for microorganism identification to accurately improve the turnaround time (TAT) for identification of Enterobacteriaceae recovered in blood cultures. Relative to standard MALDI-TOF MS procedures, we reduced TAT from 28.3 (n=90) to 21.2h (n=107).

  16. Growing a Science Internship One Year at a Time: Updates to the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship Program D. Ortiz-Arias, A. Dominguez, A. Zwicker, S. Greco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Deedee; Dominguez, Arturo; Zwicker, Andrew; Greco, Shannon

    2016-10-01

    Between 1993-2014, the National Undergraduate Fellowship (NUF) program, sponsored by the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, provided summer research internships for outstanding undergraduate students from around the country. Since then, the NUF program was merged into the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program, sponsored by the DOE Office of Workforce Development for Teachers and Students. While there were many similarities between the two programs, the SULI program did not include the one-week introductory course in plasma physics or the opportunity for participants to present their summer research results at this meeting. In the past two years, working with representatives from both OFES and WDTS, we have again implemented some of the most important components of the NUF program. The week-long, introductory course in plasma physics is included and streamed live- especially important since most undergraduate physics students have not taken a plasma physics course before they begin their research. Students are again able to present their research to our community, a critical component of a full research experience and plans are underway to obtain additional funding to once again include universities as eligible host sites.

  17. Distributed Energy Technology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) is an extension of the power electronics testing capabilities of the Photovoltaic System Evaluation Laboratory...

  18. Bio Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratories The Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...

  19. Advanced Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratory The Advanced Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) is a unique facility designed for working with the most super toxic compounds known...

  20. Bio Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratoriesThe Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...

  1. FOOTWEAR PERFORMANCE LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory provides biomechanical and physical analyses for both military and commercial footwear. The laboratory contains equipment that is integral to the us...

  2. Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PNNL's Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL) houses 22 research laboratories for conducting a wide-range of research including catalyst formulation, chemical analysis,...

  3. Federal laboratories for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gover, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huray, P.G. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

  4. An Optimum Time Quantum Using Linguistic Synthesis for Round Robin Scheduling Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Raheja, Supriya; Rajpal, Smita

    2012-01-01

    In Round Robin CPU scheduling algorithm the main concern is with the size of time quantum and the increased waiting and turnaround time. Decision for these is usually based on parameters which are assumed to be precise. However, in many cases the values of these parameters are vague and imprecise. The performance of fuzzy logic depends upon the ability to deal with Linguistic variables. With this intent, this paper attempts to generate an Optimal Time Quantum dynamically based on the parameters which are treated as Linguistic variables. This paper also includes Mamdani Fuzzy Inference System using Trapezoidal membership function, results in LRRTQ Fuzzy Inference System. In this paper, we present an algorithm to improve the performance of round robin scheduling algorithm. Numerical analysis based on LRRTQ results on proposed algorithm show the improvement in the performance of the system by reducing unnecessary context switches and also by providing reasonable turnaround time.

  5. Simulated Laboratory in Digital Logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaver, Thomas G.

    Design of computer circuits used to be a pencil and paper task followed by laboratory tests, but logic circuit design can now be done in half the time as the engineer accesses a program which simulates the behavior of real digital circuits, and does all the wiring and testing on his computer screen. A simulated laboratory in digital logic has been…

  6. A formative evaluation of problem-based learning as an instructional strategy in a medical laboratory technician course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Diane Patricia

    2002-09-01

    This study is a formative evaluation of problem-based learning as an effective course delivery strategy in a second year introductory Medical Laboratory Technician discipline-specific hematology course. This strategy can serve two purposes in this type of course: discipline specific content knowledge and process skills learning. A needs study identified that students required additional workplace skills as they entered the clinical internship. Students tested well on the national registry examinations, discipline-specific content knowledge, but group process skills needed improvement in the areas of collaboration, communication, and critical reasoning. Problem-based learning was identified as an change intervention to help provide these skills. A search of the literature revealed that the Baker College cultural and physical environment would support this intervention. Twelve cases were written, situated in a clinical laboratory environment, addressing learning issues identified in a modified Delphi survey of laboratory personnel e.g. fiscal responsibility, turn-around time, invasiveness of laboratory techniques, and holistic view of healthcare environment. A hematology class of 13 students received the intervention. The cases were structured to proceed from instructor-centered (guided) learning issues to learner-centered learning issues. Observations of the in-group collaboration processes were documented, as well as oral presentations and critical reasoning, with students given periodic feedback on these skills. Student surveys provided data about satisfaction, attitude to PBL process, and self-efficacy. Multiple choice discipline-specific content examinations were given and compared with classes from the previous four years. The study found that students receiving the PBL treatment scored as well as or better than students from previous years on traditional multiple choice exams. Recall questions showed positive significance and application/analysis questions

  7. Analysis of Phospholipid Mixtures from Biological Tissues by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption and Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS): A Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibisch, Mandy; Fuchs, Beate; Schiller, Jurgen; Sub, Rosmarie; Teuber, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is increasingly used to investigate the phospholipid (PL) compositions of tissues and body fluids, often without previous separation of the total mixture into the individual PL classes. Therefore, the questions of whether all PL classes are detectable…

  8. Analysis of Phospholipid Mixtures from Biological Tissues by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption and Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS): A Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibisch, Mandy; Fuchs, Beate; Schiller, Jurgen; Sub, Rosmarie; Teuber, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is increasingly used to investigate the phospholipid (PL) compositions of tissues and body fluids, often without previous separation of the total mixture into the individual PL classes. Therefore, the questions of whether all PL classes are detectable…

  9. Laboratory diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ruffatti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of antiphosholipid syndrome (APS is based on laboratory detection of antiphospholipid (aPL antibodies in patients with documented thrombosis or in women with pregnancy morbidity. Recently, both clinical and laboratory criteria were revised on the basis of an international consensus conference held in Sydney (1. The previous international consensus statement of one clinical and one laboratory criterion to diagnose APS was maintained (2 but time-lapse between the previous thromboembolism and laboratory diagnosis should not exceed 5 years. Moreover, laboratory tests should not be performed in the 12 weeks following the event to avoid any interference of the acute phase of the disease. Thus, laboratory evaluation of venous thromboembolism (VTE should not be requested during the hospital stay as tests may be false-positive with no influence on the treatment regimen...

  10. Theme: Laboratory Facilities Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Glen M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Laboratory Facilities Improvement" (Miller); "Remodeling Laboratories for Agriscience Instruction" (Newman, Johnson); "Planning for Change" (Mulcahy); "Laboratory Facilities Improvement for Technology Transfer" (Harper); "Facilities for Agriscience Instruction" (Agnew et al.); "Laboratory Facility Improvement" (Boren, Dwyer); and…

  11. Analytical laboratory quality audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, William D.

    2001-06-11

    Analytical Laboratory Quality Audits are designed to improve laboratory performance. The success of the audit, as for many activities, is based on adequate preparation, precise performance, well documented and insightful reporting, and productive follow-up. Adequate preparation starts with definition of the purpose, scope, and authority for the audit and the primary standards against which the laboratory quality program will be tested. The scope and technical processes involved lead to determining the needed audit team resources. Contact is made with the auditee and a formal audit plan is developed, approved and sent to the auditee laboratory management. Review of the auditee's quality manual, key procedures and historical information during preparation leads to better checklist development and more efficient and effective use of the limited time for data gathering during the audit itself. The audit begins with the opening meeting that sets the stage for the interactions between the audit team and the laboratory staff. Arrangements are worked out for the necessary interviews and examination of processes and records. The information developed during the audit is recorded on the checklists. Laboratory management is kept informed of issues during the audit so there are no surprises at the closing meeting. The audit report documents whether the management control systems are effective. In addition to findings of nonconformance, positive reinforcement of exemplary practices provides balance and fairness. Audit closure begins with receipt and evaluation of proposed corrective actions from the nonconformances identified in the audit report. After corrective actions are accepted, their implementation is verified. Upon closure of the corrective actions, the audit is officially closed.

  12. Clinical laboratory experience of blood CRIM testing in infantile Pompe disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeksha S. Bali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cross-reactive immunological material (CRIM status is an important prognostic factor in patients with infantile Pompe disease (IPD being treated with enzyme replacement therapy. Western blot analysis of cultured skin fibroblast lysates has been the gold standard for determining CRIM status. Here, we evaluated CRIM status using peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC protein. For 6 of 33 patients (18% CRIM status determination using PBMC was either indeterminate or discordant with GAA genotype or fibroblast CRIM analysis results. While the use of PBMCs for CRIM determination has the advantage of a faster turnaround time, further evaluation is needed to ensure the accuracy of CRIM results.

  13. Estimating implementation and operational costs of an integrated tiered CD4 service including laboratory and point of care testing in a remote health district in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem Cassim

    Full Text Available An integrated tiered service delivery model (ITSDM has been proposed to provide 'full-coverage' of CD4 services throughout South Africa. Five tiers are described, defined by testing volumes and number of referring health-facilities. These include: (1 Tier-1/decentralized point-of-care service (POC in a single site; Tier-2/POC-hub servicing processing 600 samples/day and serving > 100 or > 200 health-clinics, respectively. The objective of this study was to establish costs of existing and ITSDM-tiers 1, 2 and 3 in a remote, under-serviced district in South Africa.Historical health-facility workload volumes from the Pixley-ka-Seme district, and the total volumes of CD4 tests performed by the adjacent district referral CD4 laboratories, linked to locations of all referring clinics and related laboratory-to-result turn-around time (LTR-TAT data, were extracted from the NHLS Corporate-Data-Warehouse for the period April-2012 to March-2013. Tiers were costed separately (as a cost-per-result including equipment, staffing, reagents and test consumable costs. A one-way sensitivity analyses provided for changes in reagent price, test volumes and personnel time.The lowest cost-per-result was noted for the existing laboratory-based Tiers- 4 and 5 ($6.24 and $5.37 respectively, but with related increased LTR-TAT of > 24-48 hours. Full service coverage with TAT < 6-hours could be achieved with placement of twenty-seven Tier-1/POC or eight Tier-2/POC-hubs, at a cost-per-result of $32.32 and $15.88 respectively. A single district Tier-3 laboratory also ensured 'full service coverage' and < 24 hour LTR-TAT for the district at $7.42 per-test.Implementing a single Tier-3/community laboratory to extend and improve delivery of services in Pixley-ka-Seme, with an estimated local ∼ 12-24-hour LTR-TAT, is ∼ $2 more than existing referred services per-test, but 2-4 fold cheaper than implementing eight Tier-2/POC-hubs or providing twenty-seven Tier-1/POCT CD4

  14. Applications of real-time PCR in the screening of platelet concentrates for bacterial contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Tamimount; Savelkoul, Paul H M; Pietersz, Ruby N I; Reesink, Henk W

    2006-11-01

    Although there have been major improvements over the past few decades in detection methods for blood-borne infectious agents, platelet concentrates are still responsible for most cases of transfusion-transmitted bacterial infections. To date, real-time PCR is an indispensable tool in diagnostic laboratories to detect pathogens in a variety of biological samples. In this article, the applications of this powerful technique in the screening of platelet concentrates for bacterial contamination are discussed. Next to pathogen-specific (real-time) PCR assays, particular attention is directed to the recently developed 16S rDNA real-time PCR. This assay has been proven as a convenient way to detect bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates. The assay is sensitive and enables rapid detection of low initial numbers of bacteria in platelet concentrates. The short turnaround time of this assay allows high-throughput screening and reduction of the risk of transfusion of bacterially contaminated units. As with every method, real-time PCR has its advantages and disadvantages. These and especially limitations inherent to generation of false-positive or -negative results are emphasized. The universal nature of detection of the assay may be suitable for generalized bacterial screening of other blood components, such as red blood cells and plasma. Therefore, it is necessary to adapt and optimize detection in red blood cells and plasma with real-time PCR. Further sophistication, miniaturization and standardization of extraction and amplification methods should improve the total performance and robustness of the assay. Hence, real-time PCR is an attractive method in development as a more rapid screening test than currently used culture methods to detect bacterial contamination in blood components.

  15. Improving Laboratory Efficiency by Automation of Preanalytic Processing of ThinPrep Specimens for Real-Time PCR High-Risk HPV Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Daniela; Venturoli, Simona; Costa, Silvano; Landini, Maria Paola

    2016-06-01

    Cervical specimens collected in liquid-based cytology (LBC) media are the most common sample type used for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. Since preanalytic steps such as vortexing and decapping vials, liquid transfer to a sample input tube with matching unique identifier, and recapping the original vials are required for processing LBC samples prior to running the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV assay (Abbott, Wiesbaden, Germany), a full manual execution can be complicated, especially in high-throughput diagnostic contexts. Here, a custom-configured worktable setup for the Tecan Freedom EVO (Tecan, Männedorf, Switzerland) designed to automate and control preanalytic steps for ThinPrep (Hologic, Marlborough, MA) samples was used to evaluate the impact of automated versus manual preanalytics. Archival results for manual processing of 226 samples were compared with those obtained with the Tecan protocol, observing a very good overall concordance for final assay interpretation (95.6%). High overall agreement (100%) resulted also from retesting 99 samples by both the preanalytical protocols. High reproducibility was observed analyzing 23 randomly selected samples by automated preprocessing in triplicate. Hence, the new configuration of the Tecan platform translates the manual steps required to process ThinPrep specimens into automated operations, controls sample identification, and allows for saving hands-on time, while maintaining assay reproducibility and ensuring reliability of results, making it suitable for screening settings.

  16. A Minimal Fragmentation Approach to Real Time Aerosol Mass Spectrometry: A New Tool for Detailed Laboratory Studies of Organic Aerosol Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campuzano-Jost, P.; Hanna, S.; Simpson, E.; Robb, D.; Blades, M. W.; Hepburn, J. W.; Bertram, A. K.

    2005-12-01

    The study of the atmospheric distribution and chemical processing of both biogenic and anthropogenic organics is one of the oldest and still most enduring challenges in atmospheric chemistry. The large number and structural complexity of many of the compounds as well as the high reactivity of many intermediates makes it hard to design analytical tools that are at the same time sensitive enough as well as being reasonably broad in scope. Despite big advances in techniques to characterize the gaseous phase component, there is still a dearth of instruments capable of doing the same for the organic aerosol component. This is due in part to the type of the compounds present in the aerosol phase, which in general lend themselves less to classical analytical methods such as GC/MS, as well as the inherent problems of any aerosol analysis, namely to transfer the aerosol to a suitable phase for analysis without altering it and while keeping track, at the same time, of the physical properties of the aerosol. Although impaction methods coupled to conventional analysis techniques have some specific advantages, the most widely used approach is the aerosol mass spectrometer. Unlike their predecessors, current aerosol mass spectrometer designs do a reasonably good job of delivering a representative sample of the aerosol phase to the detector while keeping track of the physical properties of the aerosol. However, the ionization step (either multitphoton absorption or electron impact in most cases) still leads to massive fragmentation of all but the most stable organics, making it very difficult to characterize individual compounds beyond establishing their functional groups(Allan et al. 2003; Su et al. 2004). Single photon near threshold ionization has been proposed and used recently (Oktem et al. 2004; Nash et al. 2005), but the challenges of producing coherent VUV radiation has led to a high detection threshold and a still significant amount of fragmentation, since these studies

  17. Commissioning of the ArDM experiment at the Canfranc underground laboratory: first steps towards a tonne-scale liquid argon time projection chamber for Dark Matter searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, J.; Cantini, C.; Crivelli, P.; Daniel, M.; Di Luise, S.; Gendotti, A.; Horikawa, S.; Montes, B.; Mu, W.; Murphy, S.; Natterer, G.; Nguyen, K.; Periale, L.; Quan, Y.; Radics, B.; Regenfus, C.; Romero, L.; Rubbia, A.; Santorelli, R.; Sergiampietri, F.; Viant, T.; Wu, S.

    2017-03-01

    The Argon Dark Matter (ArDM) experiment consists of a liquid argon (LAr) time projection chamber (TPC) sensitive to nuclear recoils, resulting from scattering of hypothetical Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) on argon targets. With an active target mass of 850 kg ArDM represents an important milestone towards developments for large LAr Dark Matter detectors. Here we present the experimental apparatus currently installed underground at the Laboratorio Subterráneo de Canfranc (LSC), Spain. We show data on gaseous or liquid argon targets recorded in 2015 during the commissioning of ArDM in single phase at zero E-field (ArDM Run I). The data confirms the overall good and stable performance of the ArDM tonne-scale LAr detector.

  18. Comparative evaluation of a laboratory developed real-time PCR assay and the RealStar(®) HHV-6 PCR Kit for quantitative detection of human herpesvirus 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Cyril C Y; Sridhar, Siddharth; Cheng, Andrew K W; Fung, Ami M Y; Cheng, Vincent C C; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2017-08-01

    HHV-6 reactivation in immunocompromised patients is common and may be associated with serious morbidity and mortality; therefore, early detection and initiation of therapy might be of benefit. Real-time PCR assays allow for early identification of HHV-6 reactivation to assist in providing a timely response. Thus, we compared the performance of an in-house developed HHV-6 quantitative PCR assay with a commercially available kit, the RealStar(®) HHV-6 PCR Kit. The analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, linearity, precision and accuracy of the in-house developed HHV-6 qPCR assay were evaluated. The diagnostic performance of the in-house HHV-6 qPCR assay was compared with the RealStar(®) HHV-6 PCR Kit, using 72 clinical specimens and 17 proficiency testing samples. Linear regression analysis of the quantitative results showed a dynamic range from 2 to 10 log10 copies/ml and a coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.999 for the in-house assay. A dilution series demonstrated a limit of detection and a limit of quantification of 1.7 log10 and 2 log10 copies/ml, respectively. The precision of the assay was highly reproducible among runs with coefficients of variance (CV) ranging from 0.27% to 4.37%. A comparison of 27 matched samples showed an excellent correlation between the quantitative viral loads measured by the in-house HHV-6 qPCR assay and the RealStar(®) HHV-6 PCR Kit (R(2)=0.926; PPCR Kit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Real-time and Label-free Bio-sensing of Molecular Interactions by Surface Plasmon Resonance: A Laboratory Medicine Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmerhorst, Erik; Chandler, David J; Nussio, Matt; Mamotte, Cyril D

    2012-11-01

    Radioactive, chromogenic, fluorescent and other labels have long provided the basis of detection systems for biomolecular interactions including immunoassays and receptor binding studies. However there has been unprecedented growth in a number of powerful label free biosensor technologies over the last decade. While largely at the proof-of-concept stage in terms of clinical applications, the development of more accessible platforms may see surface plasmon resonance (SPR) emerge as one of the most powerful optical detection platforms for the real-time monitoring of biomolecular interactions in a label-free environment.In this review, we provide an overview of SPR principles and current and future capabilities in a diagnostic context, including its application for monitoring a wide range of molecular markers of disease. The advantages and pitfalls of using SPR to study biomolecular interactions are discussed, with particular emphasis on its potential to differentiate subspecies of analytes and the inherent ability for quantitation through calibration-free concentration analysis (CFCA). In addition, recent advances in multiplex applications, high throughput arrays, miniaturisation, and enhancements using noble metal nanoparticles that promise unprecedented sensitivity to the level of single molecule detection, are discussed.In summary, while SPR is not a new technique, technological advances may see SPR quickly emerge as a highly powerful technology, enabling rapid and routine analysis of molecular interactions for a diverse range of targets, including those with clinical applicability. As the technology produces data quickly, in real-time and in a label-free environment, it may well have a significant presence in future developments in lab-on-a-chip technologies including point-of-care devices and personalised medicine.

  20. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry as a tool for rapid diagnosis of potentially toxigenic Corynebacterium species in the laboratory management of diphtheria-associated bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, R; Berger, A; Huber, I; Boschert, V; Hörmansdorfer, S; Busch, U; Hogardt, M; Schubert, S; Sing, A

    2010-10-28

    The rapid identification of the potentially toxigenic Corynebacterium species, C. diphtheriae, C. ulcerans and C. pseudotuberculosis is essential for diagnosis and treatment of diphtheria and diphtheria-like diseases. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDIT-OF MS) in comparison with classical microbiological and molecular methods on 116 Corynebacterium strains. All 90 potentially toxigenic Corynebacterium strains collected by the German National Consiliary Laboratory on Diphtheria in a period of more than ten years were correctly identified by MALDI-TOF MS. We propose an algorithm for fast and reliable diagnosis of diphtheria incorporating MALDI-TOF MS, real-time tox PCR and Elek testing.

  1. Development and laboratory evaluation of a real-time PCR assay for detecting viruses and bacteria of relevance for community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edin, Alicia; Granholm, Susanne; Koskiniemi, Satu; Allard, Annika; Sjöstedt, Anders; Johansson, Anders

    2015-05-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia may present with similar clinical symptoms, regardless of viral or bacterial cause. Diagnostic assays are needed to rapidly discriminate between causes, because this will guide decisions on appropriate treatment. Therefore, a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay with duplex reactions targeting eight bacteria and six viruses was developed. Technical performance was examined with linear plasmids. Upper and lower respiratory tract specimens were used to compare the qPCR assay with standard microbiological methods. The limit of detection was 5 to 20 DNA template copies with approximately 1000-fold differences in concentrations of the two competing templates. SDs for positive controls were 95% for M. pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza A virus; whereas it was only 56% for Haemophilus influenzae. Multiple microbial agents were identified in 19 of 44 sputum and 19 of 50 nasopharynx specimens. We conclude that in parallel qPCR detection of the targeted respiratory bacteria and viruses is feasible. The results indicate good technical performance of the assay in clinical specimens.

  2. Space Environment Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, William J.

    1984-04-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Space Environment Laboratory (SEL), along with several other NOAA programs, is slated for a major budget reduction in FY 1985, a reduction which would have a serious impact upon the space environment services now provided by the laboratory.SEL, jointly with the U.S. Air Force's Air Weather Service, operates the Space Environment Services Center (SESC) in Boulder, Colorado. SESC acquires, in near real-time, world-wide data on solar activity, on the terrestrial magnetic field, and on energetic particles at geostationary and polar orbiting satellite altitudes. Data are available to SESC from solar observatories operated by both the Air Force and a number of nongovernment organizations, the NOAA geostationary and polar orbiting satellites, and a U.S.-Canadian magnetometer network.

  3. Concept and laboratory experiments for a new lost circulation material pulser (LCM-Pulser) for real time data transmission in boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namuq, M.A.; Reich, M.; Kirsten, U.; Sohmer, M.; Lehmann, F. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bohrtechnik und Fluidbergbau; Mueller, T. [Adensis GmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    It would not be possible to drill through the planned paths to reach targets and optimize the drilling process while drilling without transmitting the geological and directional information to the surface. The most commonly used method for transmitting data is by coded pressure pulses (known as mud pulse telemetry), which propagate to the surface, where they are detected, decoded and displayed for making real time decisions. Mud pulse telemetry systems are using positive, negative or continuous wave pulsers. Mud pulsers are the most critical components of the bottom-hole-assembly with regards to plugging by lost circulation materials. Therefore increasing the tolerance of mud pulse telemetry systems for lost circulation material applications is desired. The plugging of the pulser by lost circulation materials leads to blind drilling, thereby necessitating a trip out of the borehole, consequently increasing the costs of the well. Moreover, one of the contributors to downhole tool failures is the mechanical components associated with mud pulse telemetry. The damage of those components leads to the same previously mentioned problems. All available mud pulse telemetry systems can only generate higher pressure pulse amplitudes by further restricting the flow area. This is necessary in deep wells, where pressure pulses are significantly attenuated on their way to the surface, but leads also to further restrictions when using lost circulation materials. The concept for developing an innovative pulser (named LCM-pulser) and a brief introduction to the experimental setup for evaluating the performance of the pulser will be presented in this paper. The LCM-pulser prototype has been constructed and series of initial experiments have been carried out. The test facilities consist of a flow loop with a pipe line, the new LCM-pulser and a pressure sensor. The fluid used in the experiments is water. With this novel pulser, it is not necessary to restrict the flow area anymore, so

  4. Direct ambulance transport to catheterization laboratory reduces door-to-balloon time in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention: the DIRECT-STEMI study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Jian-ping; ZHANG Qi; LU Ji-de; WANG Hai-rong; LIN Jie; GE Zhi-ru; ZHANG Rui-yan; SHEN Wei-feng

    2011-01-01

    Background Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been clearly identified as the first therapeutic option for patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The importance of reducing door-to-balloon (D2B) time has gained increased recognition. This study aimed to assess the feasibility, safety and efficacy of the strategy of direct ambulance transportation of patients with acute STEMI to catheterization lab to receive primary PCI.Methods The study population included 141 consecutive patients with chest pain and ST-segment elevation who were admitted to the catheterization laboratory directly by the ambulance and underwent primary PCI (DIRECT group).Another 145 patients with STEMI randomly selected from the PCI database, were served as control group (conventional group); they were transported to catheterization laboratory from emergency room (ER). The primary endpoint of D2B time,and secondary endpoint of in-hospital and 30-day major adverse cardiac events (MACE, including death, non-fatal reinfarction, and target vessel revascularization) were compared.Results Baseline and procedural characteristics between the two groups were comparable, except more patients in the DIRECT group presented TIMI 0-1 flow in culprit vessel at initial angiogram (80.1% and 73.8%, P=0.04). Comparing to conventional group, the primary endpoint of D2B time was reduced ((54±18) minutes and (112±55) minutes, P <0.0001)and the percentage of patients with D2B <90 minutes was increased in the DIRECT group (96.9% and 27.0%, P<0.0001).The success rate of primary PCI with stent implantation with final Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 3 flow was significantly higher in the DIRECT group (93.8% and 85.2%, P=0.03). Although no significant difference was found at 30-day MACE free survival rate between the two groups (95.0% and 89.0%, P=0.06), a trend in improving survival status in the DIRECT group was demonstrated by Kaplan-Meier analysis

  5. Sharing the skies: the Gemini Observatory international time allocation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margheim, Steven J.

    2016-07-01

    Gemini Observatory serves a diverse community of four partner countries (United States, Canada, Brazil, and Argentina), two hosts (Chile and University of Hawaii), and limited-term partnerships (currently Australia and the Republic of Korea). Observing time is available via multiple opportunities including Large and Long Pro- grams, Fast-turnaround programs, and regular semester queue programs. The slate of programs for observation each semester must be created by merging programs from these multiple, conflicting sources. This paper de- scribes the time allocation process used to schedule the overall science program for the semester, with emphasis on the International Time Allocation Committee and the software applications used.

  6. Energy transition in Asia. China and India are making a turnaround; Energiewende in Asien. China und Indien steuern um

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiefer, Thomas

    2015-07-15

    The economic ascent of China and India demonstrates how the model of economic development based on fossil fuels has reached its limits. Between them these two Asian countries have a population of more than 2.6 inhabitants, whose per capita energy consumption is still far below that in industrial countries. Given the low standard of living still prevailing among most of their population it is understandable that these emerging countries object to being told how they should develop. At the same time, however, they are increasingly developing an own interest in limiting their emissions and participating in global responsibility. And they expect the countries of the industrial world to provide them with the latest in technology to enable them to achieve their goals.

  7. Comparative evaluation of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry and conventional phenotypic-based methods for identification of clinically important yeasts in a UK-based medical microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatania, Nita; Fraser, Mark; Savage, Mike; Hart, Jason; Abdolrasouli, Alireza

    2015-12-01

    Performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was compared in a side-by side-analysis with conventional phenotypic methods currently in use in our laboratory for identification of yeasts in a routine diagnostic setting. A diverse collection of 200 clinically important yeasts (19 species, five genera) were identified by both methods using standard protocols. Discordant or unreliable identifications were resolved by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of the rRNA gene. MALDI-TOF and conventional methods were in agreement for 182 isolates (91%) with correct identification to species level. Eighteen discordant results (9%) were due to rarely encountered species, hence the difficulty in their identification using traditional phenotypic methods. MALDI-TOF MS enabled rapid, reliable and accurate identification of clinically important yeasts in a routine diagnostic microbiology laboratory. Isolates with rare, unusual or low probability identifications should be confirmed using robust molecular methods. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Denver District Laboratory (DEN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program CapabilitiesDEN-DO Laboratory is a multi-functional laboratory capable of analyzing most chemical analytes and pathogenic/non-pathogenic microorganisms found...

  9. NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a NASA funded facility, delivering heavy ion beams to a target area where scientists...

  10. Lincoln Laboratory Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Lincoln Laboratory Grid (LLGrid) is an interactive, on-demand parallel computing system that uses a large computing cluster to enable Laboratory researchers to...

  11. Gun Dynamics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Gun Dynamics Laboratory is a research multi-task facility, which includes two firing bays, a high bay area and a second floor laboratory space. The high bay area...

  12. Advanced Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratoryThe Advanced Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) is a unique facility designed for working with the most super toxic compounds known...

  13. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, C.; Knudsen, J.D.; Lebech, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9......Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  14. Alchemy: A web 2.0 real-time quality assurance platform for human immunodeficiency Virus, hepatitis C Virus, and BK Virus quantitation assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Agosto-Arroyo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The molecular diagnostics laboratory faces the challenge of improving test turnaround time (TAT. Low and consistent TATs are of great clinical and regulatory importance, especially for molecular virology tests. Laboratory information systems (LISs contain all the data elements necessary to do accurate quality assurance (QA reporting of TAT and other measures, but these reports are in most cases still performed manually: a time-consuming and error-prone task. The aim of this study was to develop a web-based real-time QA platform that would automate QA reporting in the molecular diagnostics laboratory at our institution, and minimize the time expended in preparing these reports. Methods: Using a standard Linux, Nginx, MariaDB, PHP stack virtual machine running atop a Dell Precision 5810, we designed and built a web-based QA platform, code-named Alchemy. Data files pulled periodically from the LIS in comma-separated value format were used to autogenerate QA reports for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV quantitation, hepatitis C virus (HCV quantitation, and BK virus (BKV quantitation. Alchemy allowed the user to select a specific timeframe to be analyzed and calculated key QA statistics in real-time, including the average TAT in days, tests falling outside the expected TAT ranges, and test result ranges. Results: Before implementing Alchemy, reporting QA for the HIV, HCV, and BKV quantitation assays took 45–60 min of personnel time per test every month. With Alchemy, that time has decreased to 15 min total per month. Alchemy allowed the user to select specific periods of time and analyzed the TAT data in-depth without the need of extensive manual calculations. Conclusions: Alchemy has significantly decreased the time and the human error associated with QA report generation in our molecular diagnostics laboratory. Other tests will be added to this web-based platform in future updates. This effort shows the utility of informatician

  15. Smart Grid Integration Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troxell, Wade [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2011-12-22

    The initial federal funding for the Colorado State University Smart Grid Integration Laboratory is through a Congressionally Directed Project (CDP), DE-OE0000070 Smart Grid Integration Laboratory. The original program requested in three one-year increments for staff acquisition, curriculum development, and instrumentation all which will benefit the Laboratory. This report focuses on the initial phase of staff acquisition which was directed and administered by DOE NETL/ West Virginia under Project Officer Tom George. Using this CDP funding, we have developed the leadership and intellectual capacity for the SGIC. This was accomplished by investing (hiring) a core team of Smart Grid Systems engineering faculty focused on education, research, and innovation of a secure and smart grid infrastructure. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory will be housed with the separately funded Integrid Laboratory as part of CSU's overall Smart Grid Integration Center (SGIC). The period of performance of this grant was 10/1/2009 to 9/30/2011 which included one no cost extension due to time delays in faculty hiring. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory's focus is to build foundations to help graduate and undergraduates acquire systems engineering knowledge; conduct innovative research; and team externally with grid smart organizations. Using the results of the separately funded Smart Grid Workforce Education Workshop (May 2009) sponsored by the City of Fort Collins, Northern Colorado Clean Energy Cluster, Colorado State University Continuing Education, Spirae, and Siemens has been used to guide the hiring of faculty, program curriculum and education plan. This project develops faculty leaders with the intellectual capacity to inspire its students to become leaders that substantially contribute to the development and maintenance of Smart Grid infrastructure through topics such as: (1) Distributed energy systems modeling and control; (2) Energy and power conversion; (3

  16. Tactical Systems Integration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Tactical Systems Integration Laboratory is used to design and integrate computer hardware and software and related electronic subsystems for tactical vehicles....

  17. Combustion Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Combustion Research Laboratory facilitates the development of new combustion systems or improves the operation of existing systems to meet the Army's mission for...

  18. Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory is equipped to investigate and characterize the lasing properties of semiconductor diode lasers. Lasing features such...

  19. Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL) develops aerospace propulsion technology by performing tests on propulsion components and materials. Altitudes up to 137,000...

  20. Central Laboratories Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The TVA Central Laboratories Services is a comprehensive technical support center, offering you a complete range of scientific, engineering, and technical services....

  1. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  2. Wind Structural Testing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides office space for industry researchers, experimental laboratories, computer facilities for analytical work, and space for assembling components...

  3. Vehicle Development Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems.DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  4. Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory at the University of Maryland provides the state of the art facilities for realizing next generation products and educating the...

  5. Intelligent Optics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Intelligent Optics Laboratory supports sophisticated investigations on adaptive and nonlinear optics; advancedimaging and image processing; ground-to-ground and...

  6. Geospatial Services Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: To process, store, and disseminate geospatial data to the Department of Defense and other Federal agencies.DESCRIPTION: The Geospatial Services Laboratory...

  7. Wind Structural Testing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides office space for industry researchers, experimental laboratories, computer facilities for analytical work, and space for assembling components...

  8. Sandia National Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — For more than 60 years, Sandia has delivered essential science and technology to resolve the nation's most challenging security issues.Sandia National Laboratories...

  9. Fuels Processing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Fuels Processing Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, provides researchers with the equipment they need to thoroughly explore the catalytic issues associated with...

  10. Thermogravimetric Analysis Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Thermogravimetric Analysis Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, researchers study how chemical looping combustion (CLC) can be applied to fossil energy systems....

  11. Acoustic Technology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains an electro-magnetic worldwide data collection and field measurement capability in the area of acoustic technology. Outfitted by NASA Langley...

  12. Vehicle Development Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems. DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  13. Laboratory of Chemical Physics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Current research in the Laboratory of Chemical Physics is primarily concerned with experimental, theoretical, and computational problems in the structure, dynamics,...

  14. Space Weather Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Weather Computational Laboratory is a Unix and PC based modeling and simulation facility devoted to research analysis of naturally occurring electrically...

  15. ANALYTICAL MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment that performs a broad array of microbiological analyses for pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. It performs challenge studies...

  16. Engineered Natural Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — With its pressure vessels that simulate the pressures and temperatures found deep underground, NETL’s Engineered Natural Systems Laboratory in Pittsburgh, PA, gives...

  17. Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of innovative coatings test procedures while evaluating the...

  18. Environmental Microbiology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Microbiology Laboratory, located in Bldg. 644 provides a dual-gas respirometer for measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide evolution...

  19. Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Research Combustion Laboratory (RCL) develops aerospace propulsion technology by performing tests on propulsion components and materials. Altitudes up to 137,000...

  20. Composites Characterization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose of the Composites Characterization Laboratory is to investigate new and/or modified matrix materials and fibers for advanced composite applications both...

  1. Embedded Processor Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Embedded Processor Laboratory provides the means to design, develop, fabricate, and test embedded computers for missile guidance electronics systems in support...

  2. Photovoltaic Characterization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST's PV characterization laboratory is used to measure the electrical performance and opto-electronic properties of solar cells and modules. This facility consists...

  3. Wireless Emulation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Wireless Emulation Laboratory (WEL) is a researchtest bed used to investigate fundamental issues in networkscience. It is a research infrastructure that emulates...

  4. Geospatial Services Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: To process, store, and disseminate geospatial data to the Department of Defense and other Federal agencies. DESCRIPTION: The Geospatial Services Laboratory...

  5. Neural Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As part of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department and The Institute for System Research, the Neural Systems Laboratory studies the functionality of the...

  6. Microgravity Emissions Laboratory (MEL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Microgravity Emissions Laboratory (MEL) utilizes a low-frequency acceleration measurement system for the characterization of rigid body inertial forces generated...

  7. Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory deploys rugged, cutting-edge electro-optical instrumentation for the collection of various event signatures, with expertise in...

  8. COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory conducts basic and applied human research studies to characterize cognitive performance as influenced by militarily-relevant contextual and physical...

  9. Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML) is one of the nation's leading research facilities for understanding aerosols, clouds, and their interactions. The AML...

  10. FOOD SAFETY TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory develops screening assays, tests and modifies biosensor equipment, and optimizes food safety testing protocols for the military and civilian sector...

  11. Virtual Training Devices Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Virtual Training Devices (VTD) Laboratory at the Life Cycle Software Engineering Center, Picatinny Arsenal, provides a software testing and support environment...

  12. NOAA Laboratory for Satellite Altimetry Sea Level Rise Products: Global and regional sea level time series and trend maps for the major ocean basins and marginal seas, based on measurements from satellite radar altimeters, from 1992-12-17 to 2016-09-15 (NCEI Accession 0125535)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains global and regional mean sea level time series and trend maps calculated on a continual basis since December 1992 by Laboratory for...

  13. Priority Based Dynamic Round Robin (PBDRR) Algorithm with Intelligent Time Slice for Soft Real Time Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, Rakesh; Patwari, Khusbu; Dash, Monisha; Prasanna, M Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new variant of Round Robin (RR) algorithm is proposed which is suitable for soft real time systems. RR algorithm performs optimally in timeshared systems, but it is not suitable for soft real time systems. Because it gives more number of context switches, larger waiting time and larger response time. We have proposed a novel algorithm, known as Priority Based Dynamic Round Robin Algorithm(PBDRR),which calculates intelligent time slice for individual processes and changes after every round of execution. The proposed scheduling algorithm is developed by taking dynamic time quantum concept into account. Our experimental results show that our proposed algorithm performs better than algorithm in [8] in terms of reducing the number of context switches, average waiting time and average turnaround time.

  14. We need an EEG 2.0. A law for the success of the energy policy turnaround; Wir brauchen ein EEG 2.0. Ein Gesetz fuer den Erfolg der Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmaier, Peter [Bundeskanzleramt, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The contribution is discussing the development of renewable energies as a consequence of the energy policy turnaround in Germany. In the long term the cost of renewable will be lower than that of conventional energy sources. The challenges and chances of new technologies based on renewable energy and energy saving are identified, the new technologies could induce a new industrial revolution. The author clarifies the need for an advanced renewable energy law (EEG 2.0), including the necessity of a national consensus for an adequate extension of the national grid. The contribution includes recommendations with respect to the electricity prices and the requirement of a political framework.

  15. MRTD (Multi Resolution Time Domain) Method in Electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Bushyager, Nathan; Balanis, Constantine

    2006-01-01

    Modern RF devices are built on a variety of technologies for a wide array of functionalities (cellular telephony, wireless data systems, radar, and many others). Design turnaround and performance gains found in the semiconductor device market are now expected in the RF circuit arena. Such work generally requires a full-wave electromagnetic simulator, and time domain techniques are particularly well suited to these devices.This lecture presents techniques that can be used to model complex microwave structures in multiresolution time domain method (MRTD). The authors' purpose is to present the M

  16. Laboratory Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henricks, Walter H

    2015-06-01

    Laboratory information systems (LISs) supply mission-critical capabilities for the vast array of information-processing needs of modern laboratories. LIS architectures include mainframe, client-server, and thin client configurations. The LIS database software manages a laboratory's data. LIS dictionaries are database tables that a laboratory uses to tailor an LIS to the unique needs of that laboratory. Anatomic pathology LIS (APLIS) functions play key roles throughout the pathology workflow, and laboratories rely on LIS management reports to monitor operations. This article describes the structure and functions of APLISs, with emphasis on their roles in laboratory operations and their relevance to pathologists.

  17. Improving Waiting Time of Tasks Scheduled Under Preemptive Round Robin Using Changeable Time Quantum

    CERN Document Server

    Mostafa, Samih Mohemmed

    2010-01-01

    Minimizing waiting time for tasks waiting in the queue for execution is one of the important scheduling cri-teria which took a wide area in scheduling preemptive tasks. In this paper we present Changeable Time Quan-tum (CTQ) approach combined with the round-robin algorithm, we try to adjust the time quantum according to the burst times of the tasks in the ready queue. There are two important benefits of using (CTQ) approach: minimizing the average waiting time of the tasks, consequently minimizing the average turnaround time, and keeping the number of context switches as low as possible, consequently minimizing the scheduling overhead. In this paper, we consider the scheduling problem for preemptive tasks, where the time costs of these tasks are known a priori. Our experimental results demonstrate that CTQ can provide much lower scheduling overhead and better scheduling criteria.

  18. Comparative performance analysis of multi dynamic time quantum Round Robin(MDTQRR) algorithm with arrival time

    CERN Document Server

    Behera, H S; Sahu, Sabyasachi; Bhoi, Sourav Kumar

    2011-01-01

    CPU being considered a primary computer resource, its scheduling is central to operating-system design. A thorough performance evaluation of various scheduling algorithms manifests that Round Robin Algorithm is considered as optimal in time shared environment because the static time is equally shared among the processes. We have proposed an efficient technique in the process scheduling algorithm by using dynamic time quantum in Round Robin. Our approach is based on the calculation of time quantum twice in single round robin cycle. Taking into consideration the arrival time, we implement the algorithm. Experimental analysis shows better performance of this improved algorithm over the Round Robin algorithm and the Shortest Remaining Burst Round Robin algorithm. It minimizes the overall number of context switches, average waiting time and average turn-around time. Consequently the throughput and CPU utilization is better.

  19. Energy Materials Research Laboratory (EMRL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energy Materials Research Laboratory at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) creates a cross-disciplinary laboratory facility that lends itself to the...

  20. Oral fluid for workplace drug testing: laboratory implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Christine

    2012-02-01

    As oral fluid increases in popularity for workplace testing, due to its easy and observed collection, the ability to adapt existing laboratory instrumentation without further capital investment will allow more facilities to test oral fluid. The European Workplace Drug Testing Society (EWDTS) guidelines for oral fluid testing outline the maximum cut-off concentrations acceptable under the workplace drug testing programme. The recommended cut-off values may be subject to change as advances in technology or other considerations warrant identification of these substances at different concentrations; however, the instrumentation currently exists for routine screening using immunoassay and confirmation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectral detection (LC-MS/MS) so laboratories can easily implement oral fluid analysis in their current systems. Immunoassays for the detection of the drug classes at recommended levels have been developed using various collection devices and different formats: liquid reagent chemistries and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) platforms. Immunoassays provide faster turnaround than mass spectral methods particularly when the number of specimens increases. Since the guidelines state that positive immunoassay results should not be reported without confirmation, fully validated methods using LC-MS/MS and/or GC-MS for all drugs are also widely available. All proposed concentrations are easily achievable using MS instruments currently in testing laboratories; however, the likelihood of a low number of positive specimens in workplace populations allows the test facility to screen specimens in a cost-effective manner using immunoassay, while ensuring scientific credibility and defensibility by confirming the positive results with a second test. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Prospective evaluation of a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry system in a hospital clinical microbiology laboratory for identification of bacteria and yeasts: a bench-by-bench study for assessing the impact on time to identification and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K E; Ellis, B C; Lee, R; Stamper, P D; Zhang, S X; Carroll, K C

    2012-10-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been found to be an accurate, rapid, and inexpensive method for the identification of bacteria and yeasts. Previous evaluations have compared the accuracy, time to identification, and costs of the MALDI-TOF MS method against standard identification systems or commercial panels. In this prospective study, we compared a protocol incorporating MALDI-TOF MS (MALDI protocol) with the current standard identification protocols (standard protocol) to determine the performance in actual practice using a specimen-based, bench-by-bench approach. The potential impact on time to identification (TTI) and costs had MALDI-TOF MS been the first-line identification method was quantitated. The MALDI protocol includes supplementary tests, notably for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Shigella, and indications for repeat MALDI-TOF MS attempts, often not measured in previous studies. A total of 952 isolates (824 bacterial isolates and 128 yeast isolates) recovered from 2,214 specimens were assessed using the MALDI protocol. Compared with standard protocols, the MALDI protocol provided identifications 1.45 days earlier on average (P < 0.001). In our laboratory, we anticipate that the incorporation of the MALDI protocol can reduce reagent and labor costs of identification by $102,424 or 56.9% within 12 months. The model included the fixed annual costs of the MALDI-TOF MS, such as the cost of protein standards and instrument maintenance, and the annual prevalence of organisms encountered in our laboratory. This comprehensive cost analysis model can be generalized to other moderate- to high-volume laboratories.

  2. Prospective Evaluation of a Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry System in a Hospital Clinical Microbiology Laboratory for Identification of Bacteria and Yeasts: a Bench-by-Bench Study for Assessing the Impact on Time to Identification and Cost-Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K. E.; Ellis, B. C.; Lee, R.; Stamper, P. D.; Zhang, S. X.

    2012-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been found to be an accurate, rapid, and inexpensive method for the identification of bacteria and yeasts. Previous evaluations have compared the accuracy, time to identification, and costs of the MALDI-TOF MS method against standard identification systems or commercial panels. In this prospective study, we compared a protocol incorporating MALDI-TOF MS (MALDI protocol) with the current standard identification protocols (standard protocol) to determine the performance in actual practice using a specimen-based, bench-by-bench approach. The potential impact on time to identification (TTI) and costs had MALDI-TOF MS been the first-line identification method was quantitated. The MALDI protocol includes supplementary tests, notably for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Shigella, and indications for repeat MALDI-TOF MS attempts, often not measured in previous studies. A total of 952 isolates (824 bacterial isolates and 128 yeast isolates) recovered from 2,214 specimens were assessed using the MALDI protocol. Compared with standard protocols, the MALDI protocol provided identifications 1.45 days earlier on average (P < 0.001). In our laboratory, we anticipate that the incorporation of the MALDI protocol can reduce reagent and labor costs of identification by $102,424 or 56.9% within 12 months. The model included the fixed annual costs of the MALDI-TOF MS, such as the cost of protein standards and instrument maintenance, and the annual prevalence of organisms encountered in our laboratory. This comprehensive cost analysis model can be generalized to other moderate- to high-volume laboratories. PMID:22855510

  3. CRCPD`S laboratory accrediation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukes, P.M. [South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, or CRCPD, first became involved in a calibration laboratory accreditation program about 17 years ago. Since that time, the CRCPD has formed a Committee on Ionizing Measurements which writes criteria for the accreditation of laboratories, and performs the accreditation review process. To become accredited, a laboratory must agree to an administrative review, and an onsite review, and participate in measurement quality assurance (MQA) testing with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The CRCPD currently has four accredited laboratories. All the laboratories are working with the Conference in promoting the improvement of MQA in radiation control programs.

  4. The mass spectrometry technology MALDI-TOF (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time- Of-Flight for a more rapid and economic workflow in the clinical microbiology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Barnini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to improve the outcome of patients, reduce length of stay, costs and resources engaged in diagnostics, more rapid reports are requested to the clinical microbiologists.The purpose of this study is to assess the impact on workflow of MALDI-TOF technology, recently made available for use in routine diagnostics. Methods:The work list by the management information system is sent to the instrument MALDI-TOF, where are held at least three successive analytic sessions: the first includes bacteria isolated from CSF, blood cultures, and cases already reported as serious/urgent, the second includes all other germs isolated, the third, microorganisms that require extraction with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA or formic acid (FA for identification.The results of each session direct to the execution of different types of susceptibility testing. Results:The times of microbial identifications are reduced by 24 or 48 hours and made available to the clinician for the rational empirical therapy.The reagent costs are reduced by 40%.The subcultures were reduced by 80%, and microscopic examinations by 50%.The antibiotic susceptibility tests were immediately performed with the most appropriate method, based on the knowledge of local epidemiology and microbial species. Conclusion:The bacteriology is the less automated discipline among the clinical laboratory activities and results of diagnostic tests are poorly well-timed. The new interpretative algorithms of MALDI-TOF spectra, now available, allow the correct identification of bacteria in near real time, completely eliminating the wait is necessary for biochemical identification and guiding the operator in selecting the most appropriate antibiotic susceptibility tests. This technology makes work more rapid, economic and efficient, eliminating errors and, together with effective computerization of data, transforms the information content of the microbiological report, making it much more effective

  5. Laboratory and Field Characterizations of a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) Collector Module for a Chemical Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (CI-TOFMS) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, J. B.; Vogel, A.; Massoli, P.; Lambe, A. T.; Stark, H.; Kimmel, J.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Kroll, J. H.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Worsnop, D. R.; Jayne, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    The Aerodyne Research, Inc. (ARI) Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) collector module is an add-on for Chemical Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (CI-TOFMS) instruments. The FIGAERO enables simultaneous real-time chemical analysis of trace gases and particles in ambient air. The collector module described here is modelled after the University of Washington (UW) design of Lopez-Hilfikeret al., 2014. The collector module mounts directly to the front of the CI-TOFMS ion molecule reactor, replacing the standard gas phase inlet. Automated operation follows a two-step sequence alternating between gas and particle sampling. Gas and particle flows are sampled through separate inlet lines. Software provides automated control of the ARI FIGAERO and determines which inlet line is sampled into ion molecule reaction region. While in the gas phase measuring position particles are separately collected on a filter. After sufficient particle collection, heated clean nitrogen is passed over the filter to desorb the particles on the filter. The thermally desorbed material is then measured with the CI-TOFMS. Though conceptually similar, the ARI FIGAERO is mechanically different enough from the UW design that it requires its own performance assessment. Presented here is the characterization of the ARI FIGAERO collector module. The FIGAERO performance is assessed by using laboratory, chamber, and field data collected using iodide as the reagent ion to examine detection sensitivity, quantification limits, and time response. Lopez-Hilfiker et al., "A novel method for online analysis of gas and particle composition: description and evaluation of a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO)", Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 983-1001 (2014)

  6. The potential role of incorporating real-time PCR and DNA sequencing for amplification and detection of 16S rRNA gene signatures in neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midan, Dina A; Abo El Fotoh, Wafaa Moustafa M; El Shalakany, Abeer H

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to explore whether 16S rRNA gene amplification by real time PCR and sequencing could serve as genetic-based methods in rapid and accurate diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. This case control study was conducted on 40 neonates suffering from sepsis like manifestations recruited from the neonatal intensive care unit of Menoufia university hospital over a period of 6 months. Their blood samples were used for paired analysis of bacterial growth using BACTEC 9050 instrument and real time PCR assay with subsequent DNA sequencing for bacterial species identification. The detection rate of culture proven sepsis was 70%. By using real time 16S r RNA PCR amplification method, the detection of bacteria was improved to 80%. Real time PCR revealed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of [100%, 66.7%, 87.5% and 100%] respectively. Compared to culture, the 16S rRNA real time PCR demonstrated a high negative value for ruling out neonatal sepsis. There was significant statistical difference between the PCR positive and negative cases as regards the hematological sepsis score. The results demonstrated the ability of DNA sequencing to recognize 4 pathogens which were negative by blood culture. The time consumed to detect sepsis using blood culture was up to 5 days while it took up to 16 h only by PCR and sequencing methods. 16S rRNA gene amplification by real time PCR and sequence analysis could be served as ideal and reliable genetic-based methods to diagnose and rule out sepsis with provision of additional data that cannot be obtained by routine laboratory tests with a shorter turnaround time than those with culture-based protocols.

  7. Preparation of the soil for the energy policy turnaround. With bio-energy for more climate protection and sustainability. Collection of essays with contributions from science, practice and policy; Den Boden bereiten fuer die Energiewende. Mit Bioenergie fuer mehr Klimaschutz und Nachhaltigkeit. Aufsatzsammlung mit Beitraegen aus Wissenschaft, Praxis und Politik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    In order to create acceptance by understanding and in order to support the energy policy turnaround, the Agency for Renewable Energies (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) supplies several contributions to the following topics: (1) Bio-energy and the energy policy turnaround; (2) Sustainability by means of bio-energy, but how?; (3) How can energy crops modify the region?; (4) Bio-Energy and the landscape of the future; (5) Isles with green energy: Bio-Energy for decentralized solutions; (6) Bio-energy and organic agriculture; (7) Forest and field in the climate protection.

  8. Mobile Energy Laboratory Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Batishko, C.R.; Dittmer, A.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Stoops, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been tasked to plan and implement a framework for measuring and analyzing the efficiency of on-site energy conversion, distribution, and end-use application on federal facilities as part of its overall technical support to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) Procedures establish guidelines for specific activities performed by PNL staff. PNL provided sophisticated energy monitoring, auditing, and analysis equipment for on-site evaluation of energy use efficiency. Specially trained engineers and technicians were provided to conduct tests in a safe and efficient manner with the assistance of host facility staff and contractors. Reports were produced to describe test procedures, results, and suggested courses of action. These reports may be used to justify changes in operating procedures, maintenance efforts, system designs, or energy-using equipment. The MEL capabilities can subsequently be used to assess the results of energy conservation projects. These procedures recognize the need for centralized NM administration, test procedure development, operator training, and technical oversight. This need is evidenced by increasing requests fbr MEL use and the economies available by having trained, full-time MEL operators and near continuous MEL operation. DOE will assign new equipment and upgrade existing equipment as new capabilities are developed. The equipment and trained technicians will be made available to federal agencies that provide funding for the direct costs associated with MEL use.

  9. Technological advances in the hemostasis laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Plebani, Mario; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2014-03-01

    Automation is conventionally defined as the use of machines, control systems, and information technologies to optimize productivity. Although automation is now commonplace in several areas of diagnostic testing, especially in clinical chemistry and immunochemistry, the concept of extending this process to hemostasis testing has only recently been advanced. The leading drawbacks are still represented by the almost unique biological matrix because citrated plasma can only be used for clotting assays and few other notable exceptions, and by the highly specific pretreatment of samples, which is particularly distinct to other test systems. Despite these important limitations, a certain degree of automation is also now embracing hemostasis testing. The more relevant developments include the growing integration of routine hemostasis analyzers with track line systems and workcells, the development of specific instrumentation tools to enhance reliability of testing (i.e., signal detection with different technologies to increase test panels, plasma indices for preanalytical check of interfering substances, failure patterns sensors for identifying insufficient volume, clots or bubbles, cap-piercing for enhancing operator safety, automatic reflex testing, automatic redilution of samples, and laser barcode readers), preanalytical features (e.g., positive identification, automatic systems for tube(s) labeling, transillumination devices), and postphlebotomy tools (pneumatic tube systems for reducing turnaround time, sample transport boxes for ensuring stability of specimens, monitoring systems for identifying unsuitable conditions of transport). Regardless of these important innovations, coagulation/hemostasis testing still requires specific technical and clinical expertise, not only in terms of measurement procedures but also for interpreting and then appropriately utilizing the derived information. Thus, additional and special caution has to be used when designing projects of

  10. Development of Candida-Specific Real-Time PCR Assays for the Detection and Identification of Eight Medically Important Candida Species

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Zhang; Guo-Chiuan Hung; Kenjiro Nagamine; Bingjie Li; Shien Tsai; Shyh-Ching Lo

    2016-01-01

    Culture-based identification methods have been the gold standard for the diagnosis of fungal infection. Currently, molecular technologies such as real-time PCR assays with short turnaround time can provide desirable alternatives for the rapid detection of Candida microbes. However, most of the published PCR primer sets are not Candida specific and likely to amplify DNA from common environmental contaminants, such as Aspergillus microbes. In this study, we designed pan-Candida primer sets base...

  11. Worldwide CO{sub 2} emissions 2014. Shimmer of hope to turnaround reinforce - but no all-clear signal; Weltweite CO{sub 2}-Emissionen 2014. Hoffnungsschimmer auf Trendwende verstaerken sich - aber noch keine Entwarnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziesing, Hans-Joachim

    2015-09-15

    In 2014, global CO{sub 2} emissions increase according to initial calculations by 0.5%. Apart from the two crisis years 2008/2009 was the weakest increase since the beginning of the century. As a result, CO{sub 2} emissions reached about 32.6 billion tonnes a new climax. A turnaround this is not yet, but the CO{sub 2} emissions in many countries, particularly in industrialized countries declined. Thus, the CO{sub 2} emissions have declined in the Annex I countries overall by 1.8%. For this particular contributed the development in the EU, in almost without exception, all Member States have experienced an emission reduction. Of the major countries, this also applies to the Ukraine, Japan, Russia and Australia. In contrast, there was an increase in the US, although this turned out very moderate with an increase of just under 1%. If the global CO{sub 2} emissions have increased despite the decline in the group of Annex I countries again, this is primarily a result of the increase in developing countries. Here, CO{sub 2} emissions were by around the year 2014 415 million tons or 2.4% higher than 2013. Since 2008, China occupied top position ahead of the US in 2014 was not expanded because for many years here was the increase for the first time below 1%. By contrast, CO{sub 2} emissions increased significantly in India by approx. 8% and in Brazil as in the Middle East by about 4%. [German] Im Jahr 2014 stiegen die weltweiten CO{sub 2}-Emissionen nach ersten Berechnungen um 0,5 %. Abgesehen von den beiden Krisenjahren 2008/2009 war dies der schwaechste Anstieg seit Beginn des Jahrhunderts. Im Ergebnis erreichten die CO{sub 2}-Emissionen mit etwa 32,6 Mrd. t einen neuen Hoehepunkt. Eine Trendwende ist dies noch nicht, doch sind die CO{sub 2}-Emissionen in zahlreichen Laendern, insbesondere in Industriestaaten, gesunken. So sind die CO{sub 2}-Emissionen in den Annex I-Laendern gesamthaft um 1,8 % zurueckgegangen. Dazu trug insbesondere die Entwicklung in der EU bei, in der

  12. Detroit District Laboratory (DET)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program Capabilities DET-DO Laboratory is equipped with the usual instrumentation necessary to perform a wide range of analyses of food, drugs and cosmetics. Program...

  13. Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Columbia River and groundwater well water sources are delivered to the Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL), where these resources are used to conduct research on fish...

  14. Product Evaluation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory offers the services of highly trained and experienced specialists that have a full complement of measuring equipment. It is equipped with two optical...

  15. Protective Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory is a 40 by 28 by 9 foot facility that is equipped with tools for the development of various items of control technology related to the transmission...

  16. Laboratory Demographics Lookup Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This website provides demographic information about laboratories, including CLIA number, facility name and address, where the laboratory testing is performed, the...

  17. Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) is an astronaut training facility and neutral buoyancy pool operated by NASA and located at the Sonny Carter Training Facility,...

  18. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems. The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  19. Geometric Design Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Geometric Design Laboratory (GDL) is to support the Office of Safety Research and Development in research related to the geometric design...

  20. Laboratory of Biological Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Biological Modeling is defined by both its methodologies and its areas of application. We use mathematical modeling in many forms and apply it to...

  1. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  2. Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL)�is a scientific facility funded by DOE to create and implement innovative processes for environmental clean-up and...

  3. Mechanical Testing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s Mechanical Testing Laboratory in Albany, OR, helps researchers investigate materials that can withstand the heat and pressure commonly found in fossil energy...

  4. Laboratory of Biological Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Biological Modeling is defined by both its methodologies and its areas of application. We use mathematical modeling in many forms and apply it to a...

  5. High Bay Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory is a specially constructed facility with elevated (37 feet) ceilings and an overhead catwalk, and which is dedicated to research efforts in reducing...

  6. FLEXIBLE FOOD PACKAGING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment to fabricate and test prototype packages of many types and sizes (e.g., bags, pouches, trays, cartons, etc.). This equipment can...

  7. Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Lab has a proud history and heritage of almost 70 years of science and innovation. The people at the Laboratory work on advanced technologies to provide the best...

  8. Geological Services Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Researchers use computed tomography (CT) scanners at NETL’s Geological Services Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, to peer into geologic core samples to determine how...

  9. Clinical Laboratory Fee Schedule

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Outpatient clinical laboratory services are paid based on a fee schedule in accordance with Section 1833(h) of the Social Security Act. The clinical laboratory fee...

  10. Philadelphia District Laboratory (PHI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program Capabilities PHI-DO Pharmaceutical Laboratory specializes in the analyses of all forms and types of drug products.Its work involves nearly all phases of drug...

  11. Energetics Laboratory Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — These energetic materials laboratories are equipped with explosion proof hoods with blow out walls for added safety, that are certified for safe handling of primary...

  12. Human Factors Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The purpose of the Human Factors Laboratory is to further the understanding of highway user needs so that those needs can be incorporated in roadway design,...

  13. Space Systems Laboratory (SSL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Systems Laboratory (SSL) is part of the Aerospace Engineering Department and A. James Clark School of Engineering at the University of Maryland in College...

  14. Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Columbia River and groundwater well water sources are delivered to the Aquatic Research Laboratory (ARL), where these resources are used to conduct research on fish...

  15. Philadelphia District Laboratory (PHI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program CapabilitiesPHI-DO Pharmaceutical Laboratory specializes in the analyses of all forms and types of drug products.Its work involves nearly all phases of drug...

  16. Moriah Wind System Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Moriah Wind System Laboratory provides in-service support for the more than 50 U.S. Navy, U.S. Coast Guard and Military Sealift Command ships on which...

  17. Detroit District Laboratory (DET)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program CapabilitiesDET-DO Laboratory is equipped with the usual instrumentation necessary to perform a wide range of analyses of food, drugs and cosmetics. Program...

  18. The Case for Laboratory Developed Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, Linda M.; Tsongalis, Gregory J.; Caliendo, Angela M.; Olsen, Randall J.; Ashwood, Edward R.; Bale, Sherri; Benirschke, Robert; Carlow, Dean; Funke, Birgit H.; Grody, Wayne W.; Hayden, Randall T.; Hegde, Madhuri; Lyon, Elaine; Pessin, Melissa; Press, Richard D.; Thomson, Richard B.

    2017-01-01

    An explosion of knowledge and technology is revolutionizing medicine and patient care. Novel testing must be brought to the clinic with safety and accuracy, but also in a timely and cost-effective manner, so that patients can benefit and laboratories can offer testing consistent with current guidelines. Under the oversight provided by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments, laboratories have been able to develop and optimize laboratory procedures for use in-house. Quality improvement programs, interlaboratory comparisons, and the ability of laboratories to adjust assays as needed to improve results, utilize new sample types, or incorporate new mutations, information, or technologies are positive aspects of Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments oversight of laboratory-developed procedures. Laboratories have a long history of successful service to patients operating under Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments. A series of detailed clinical examples illustrating the quality and positive impact of laboratory-developed procedures on patient care is provided. These examples also demonstrate how Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments oversight ensures accurate, reliable, and reproducible testing in clinical laboratories. PMID:28815200

  19. The Case for Laboratory Developed Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Kaul MD, PhD

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An explosion of knowledge and technology is revolutionizing medicine and patient care. Novel testing must be brought to the clinic with safety and accuracy, but also in a timely and cost-effective manner, so that patients can benefit and laboratories can offer testing consistent with current guidelines. Under the oversight provided by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments, laboratories have been able to develop and optimize laboratory procedures for use in-house. Quality improvement programs, interlaboratory comparisons, and the ability of laboratories to adjust assays as needed to improve results, utilize new sample types, or incorporate new mutations, information, or technologies are positive aspects of Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments oversight of laboratory-developed procedures. Laboratories have a long history of successful service to patients operating under Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments. A series of detailed clinical examples illustrating the quality and positive impact of laboratory-developed procedures on patient care is provided. These examples also demonstrate how Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments oversight ensures accurate, reliable, and reproducible testing in clinical laboratories.

  20. Translation of a laboratory-validated equine herpesvirus-1 specific real-time PCR assay into an insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (iiPCR) assay for point-of-need diagnosis using POCKIT™ nucleic acid analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasuriya, Udeni B R; Lee, Pei-Yu Alison; Tsai, Yun-Long; Tsai, Chuan-Fu; Shen, Yu-Han; Chang, Hsiao-Fen Grace; Skillman, Ashley; Wang, Hwa-Tang Thomas; Pronost, Stéphane; Zhang, Yan

    2017-03-01

    Equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM), a major problem for the equine industry in the United States, is caused by equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1). In addition, EHV-1 is associated with upper respiratory disease, abortion, and chorioretinal lesions in horses. Here we describe the development and evaluation of an inexpensive, user-friendly insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR) method targeting open reading 30 (ORF30) to detect both neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic strains on the field-deployable POCKIT™ device for point-of-need detection of EHV-1. The analytical sensitivity of the EHV-1 iiPCR assay was 13 genome equivalents per reaction. The assay did not cross react with ten non-target equine viral pathogens. Performance of the EHV-1 iiPCR assay was compared to two previously described real-time PCR (qPCR) assays in two laboratories by using 104 archived clinical samples. All 53 qPCR-positive and 46 of the 51 qPCR-negative samples tested positive and negative, respectively, by the iiPCR. The agreement between the two assays was 95.19% (confidence interval 90.48-99.90%) with a kappa value of 0.90. In conclusion, the newly developed EHV-1 iiPCR assay is robust to provide specificity and sensitivity comparable to qPCR assays for the detection of EHV-1 nucleic acid in clinical specimens.