WorldWideScience

Sample records for laboratory scale studies

  1. LABORATORY SCALE STEAM INJECTION TREATABILITY STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory scale steam injection treatability studies were first developed at The University of California-Berkeley. A comparable testing facility has been developed at USEPA's Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center. Experience has already shown that many volatile organic...

  2. A comprehensive field and laboratory study of scale control and scale squeezes in Sumatra, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oddo, J.E.; Reizer, J.M.; Sitz, C.D. [Champion Technologies, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Setia, D.E.A. [FMT Production Duri P.T. Caltex Pacific Indonesia (Indonesia); Hinrichsen, C.J. [Texaco Panama, Bellaire, TX (United States); Sujana, W. [P.T. Champion Kumia Djaja Technologies, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1999-11-01

    Scale squeezes were performed on thirteen wells in the Duri Field, Sumatra. At the time the squeezes were completed, seven were designed to be `Acid Squeezes` and six were designed to be `Neutral Squeezes.` In the course of preparing for the scale squeezes, produced waters were collected and analyzed. In addition, scale inhibitor evaluations, and inhibitor compatibility studies were completed. Simulated squeezes were done in the laboratory to predict field performance. The methodologies and results of the background work are reported. In addition, the relative effectiveness of the two sets of squeezes is discussed. The inhibitor flowback concentrations alter the squeezes, in all cases, can be explained using speciation chemistry and the amorphous and crystalline phase solubilities of the inhibitor used. The wells squeezed with a more acidic inhibitor have more predictable and uniform inhibitor return concentration curves than the wells squeezed with a more neutral scale inhibitor.

  3. Laboratory scale studies on removal of chromium from industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, M A; Mir, Mohsin; Murtaza, Shazad; Bhatti, Zafar I

    2003-05-01

    Chromium being one of the major toxic pollutants is discharged from electroplating and chrome tanning processes and is also found in the effluents of dyes, paint pigments, manufacturing units etc. Chromium exists in aqueous systems in both trivalent (Cr(3+)) and hexavalent (Cr(6+)) forms. The hexavalent form is carcinogenic and toxic to aquatic life, whereas Cr(3+) is however comparatively less toxic. This study was undertaken to investigate the total chromium removal from industrial effluents by chemical means in order to achieve the Pakistan NEQS level of 1 mg/L by the methods of reduction and precipitation. The study was conducted in four phases. In phase I, the optimum pH and cost effective reducing agent among the four popular commercial chemicals was selected. As a result, pH of 2 was found to be most suitable and sodium meta bisulfate was found to be the most cost effective reducing agent respectively. Phase II showed that lower dose of sodium meta bisulfate was sufficient to obtain 100% efficiency in reducing Cr(6+) to Cr(3+), and it was noted that reaction time had no significance in the whole process. A design curve for reduction process was established which can act as a tool for treatment of industrial effluents. Phase III studies indicated the best pH was 8.5 for precipitation of Cr(3+) to chromium hydroxide by using lime. An efficiency of 100% was achievable and a settling time of 30 minutes produced clear effluent. Finally in Phase IV actual waste samples from chrome tanning and electroplating industries, when precipitated at pH of 12 gave 100% efficiency at a settling time of 30 minutes and confined that chemical means of reduction and precipitation is a feasible and viable solution for treating chromium wastes from industries.

  4. WGS-Adsorbent Reaction Studies at Laboratory Scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marano, M.; Torreiro, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This document reports the most significant results obtained during the experimental work performed under task WGS adsorbent experimental studies within CAPHIGAS project (National Research Plan 2008-2011, ref: ENE2009-08002). The behavior of the binary adsorbent-catalyst system which will be used in the hybrid system is described in this document. Main results reported here were used during the design and development of the hybrid system adsorbent catalyst- membrane proposed in the CAPHIGAS project. The influence of main operating parameters and the optimized volume ratio adsorbent-catalyst are also presented in this report. (Author)

  5. Cometabolic biotreatment of TCE-contaminated groundwater: Laboratory and bench-scale development studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Jennings, H.L.; Lucero, A.J.; Strandberg, G.W.; Morris, M.I.; Palumbo, A.V.; Boerman, P.A.; Tyndall, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a demonstration of two cometabolic technologies for biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and other organics. Technologies based on methanotrophic (methane-utilizing) and toluene-degrading microorganisms will be compared side-by-side on the same groundwater stream. Laboratory and bench-scale bioreactor studies have been conducted to guide selection of microbial cultures and operating conditions for the field demonstration. This report presents the results of the laboratory and bench-scale studies for the methanotrophic system

  6. Cometabolic biotreatment of TCE-contaminated groundwater - Laboratory and bench-scale development studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, T L; Palumbo, A V; Boerman, P A; Jennings, H L; Lucero, A J; Tyndall, R L; Strandberg, G W; Morris, M I [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a demonstration of two cometabolic technologies for biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and other organics. Technologies based on methanotrophic (methane-utilizing) and toluene-degrading microorganisms will be compared side-by-side on the same groundwater stream. Laboratory and bench-scale bioreactor studies have been conducted to guide selection of microbial cultures and operating conditions for the field demonstration. This report presents the results of the laboratory and bench-scale studies for the methanotrophic system. (author)

  7. Experimental Study of Drag Resistance using a Laboratory Scale Rotary Set-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erik Weinell, Claus; Olsen, Kenneth N.; Christoffersen, Martin W.

    2003-01-01

    This work covers an experimental study of the drag resistance of different painted surfaces and simulated large-scale irregularities, viz. dry spraying, weld seams, barnacle fouling and paint remains. A laboratory scale rotary set-up was used to determine the drag resistance, and the surface...

  8. Laboratory studies of 2H evaporator scale dissolution in dilute nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oji, L.

    2014-01-01

    The rate of 2H evaporator scale solids dissolution in dilute nitric acid has been experimentally evaluated under laboratory conditions in the SRNL shielded cells. The 2H scale sample used for the dissolution study came from the bottom of the evaporator cone section and the wall section of the evaporator cone. The accumulation rate of aluminum and silicon, assumed to be the two principal elemental constituents of the 2H evaporator scale aluminosilicate mineral, were monitored in solution. Aluminum and silicon concentration changes, with heating time at a constant oven temperature of 90 deg C, were used to ascertain the extent of dissolution of the 2H evaporator scale mineral. The 2H evaporator scale solids, assumed to be composed of mostly aluminosilicate mineral, readily dissolves in 1.5 and 1.25 M dilute nitric acid solutions yielding principal elemental components of aluminum and silicon in solution. The 2H scale dissolution rate constant, based on aluminum accumulation in 1.5 and 1.25 M dilute nitric acid solution are, respectively, 9.21E-04 ± 6.39E-04 min -1 and 1.07E-03 ± 7.51E-05 min -1 . Silicon accumulation rate in solution does track the aluminum accumulation profile during the first few minutes of scale dissolution. It however diverges towards the end of the scale dissolution. This divergence therefore means the aluminum-to-silicon ratio in the first phase of the scale dissolution (non-steady state conditions) is different from the ratio towards the end of the scale dissolution. Possible causes of this change in silicon accumulation in solution as the scale dissolution progresses may include silicon precipitation from solution or the 2H evaporator scale is a heterogeneous mixture of aluminosilicate minerals with several impurities. The average half-life for the decomposition of the 2H evaporator scale mineral in 1.5 M nitric acid is 12.5 hours, while the half-life for the decomposition of the 2H evaporator scale in 1.25 M nitric acid is 10.8 hours

  9. Laboratory and pilot plant scale study on the electrochemical oxidation of landfill leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anglada, Angela; Urtiaga, Ana M.; Ortiz, Inmaculada

    2010-01-01

    Kinetic data regarding COD oxidation were measured in a laboratory scale cell and used to scale-up an electro-oxidation process for landfill leachate treatment by means of boron-doped diamond anodes. A pilot-scale reactor with a total BDD anode area of 1.05 m 2 was designed. Different electrode gaps in the laboratory and pilot plant cells resulted in dissimilar reactor hydrodynamics. Consequently, generalised dimensionless correlations concerning mass transfer were developed in order to define the mass transfer conditions in both electrochemical systems. These correlations were then used in the design equations to validate the scale-up procedure. A series of experiments with biologically pre-treated landfill leachate were done to accomplish this goal. The evolution of ammonia and COD concentration could be well predicted.

  10. Comparative Study of Laboratory-Scale and Prototypic Production-Scale Fuel Fabrication Processes and Product Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    An objective of the High Temperature Gas Reactor fuel development and qualification program for the United States Department of Energy has been to qualify fuel fabricated in prototypic production-scale equipment. The quality and characteristics of the tristructural isotropic coatings on fuel kernels are influenced by the equipment scale and processing parameters. Some characteristics affecting product quality were suppressed while others have become more significant in the larger equipment. Changes to the composition and method of producing resinated graphite matrix material has eliminated the use of hazardous, flammable liquids and enabled it to be procured as a vendor-supplied feed stock. A new method of overcoating TRISO particles with the resinated graphite matrix eliminates the use of hazardous, flammable liquids, produces highly spherical particles with a narrow size distribution, and attains product yields in excess of 99%. Compact fabrication processes have been scaled-up and automated with relatively minor changes to compact quality to manual laboratory-scale processes. The impact on statistical variability of the processes and the products as equipment was scaled are discussed. The prototypic production-scale processes produce test fuels that meet fuel quality specifications.

  11. Preliminary Laboratory-scale Study Temperature Shape Memory Alloy for Sensor Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tippayakul, C.; Petchrak, A.; Wetchagarun, S.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most widespread uses of radiotracers in the industrial applications is the leak detection of the systems. This technique can be applied, for example, to detect leak in heat exchangers or along buried industrial pipelines. Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT) is currently conducting R&D on this technique aiming to promote the radiotracer use in Thailand. In this paper, a preliminary study of the leak detection using radiotracer on laboratory-scale was presented. Br-82 was selected for this work due to its chemical property, its suitable half-life and its on-site availability. The radiotracer in form of NH4Br powder was irradiated in Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1) to produce Br-82. The irradiated target was subsequently prepared in the form of aqueous solution in a hot cell ready for injection into the experimental system as the radiotracer. A relatively simplified experimental setup was used with three NaI detectors being placed along the pipelines to measure system flow rate and to detect the leakage from the piping system. The results obtained from the radiotracer technique were compared to those measured by other methods. It is found that the flow rate obtained from the radiotracer technique agreed well with the one obtained from the flow meter. The leak rate result, however, showed discrepancy between results obtained from two different measuring methods indicating that the simplified experimental setup was not adequate for the leak rate study. Hence, further study with more elaborate experimental setup was required before applying this technique in the actual industrial system.

  12. Cross-flow turbines: progress report on physical and numerical model studies at large laboratory scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosnik, Martin; Bachant, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Cross-flow turbines show potential in marine hydrokinetic (MHK) applications. A research focus is on accurately predicting device performance and wake evolution to improve turbine array layouts for maximizing overall power output, i.e., minimizing wake interference, or taking advantage of constructive wake interaction. Experiments were carried with large laboratory-scale cross-flow turbines D O (1 m) using a turbine test bed in a large cross-section tow tank, designed to achieve sufficiently high Reynolds numbers for the results to be Reynolds number independent with respect to turbine performance and wake statistics, such that they can be reliably extrapolated to full scale and used for model validation. Several turbines of varying solidity were employed, including the UNH Reference Vertical Axis Turbine (RVAT) and a 1:6 scale model of the DOE-Sandia Reference Model 2 (RM2) turbine. To improve parameterization in array simulations, an actuator line model (ALM) was developed to provide a computationally feasible method for simulating full turbine arrays inside Navier-Stokes models. Results are presented for the simulation of performance and wake dynamics of cross-flow turbines and compared with experiments and body-fitted mesh, blade-resolving CFD. Supported by NSF-CBET Grant 1150797, Sandia National Laboratories.

  13. Electrokinetic soil decontamination - summary of results of various studies in laboratory, bench-scale and field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutschan, B.; Wutzler, R.; Goldmann, T. [INTUS Inst. fuer Technologie und Umweltschutz e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    In electroremediation, contaminants are removed form soil and groundwater by the action of an electric potential applied across electrodes embedded in the contaminated medium. Driving the remediation are the electrokinetic phenomena of electro-osmosis, ion migration and electrophoresis. Other common physicochemical phenomena that are also present are diffusion, chemical reactions, hydrolysis (change of pH-value), ion exchange, complexation and others. The complex interactions between all these phenomena determine the processes. Important process parameters are transition rates, bulk liquid velocity, {zeta}-potential (Helmholtz-Smoluchowski-equation) and others. Some parameters are determined at laboratory-, bench- and field scale. (orig.)

  14. Scaling law in laboratory astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Jiangfan; Zhang Jie

    2001-01-01

    The use of state-of-the-art lasers makes it possible to produce, in the laboratory, the extreme conditions similar to those in astrophysical processes. The introduction of astrophysics-relevant ideas in laser-plasma interaction experiments is propitious to the understanding of astrophysical phenomena. However, the great difference between laser-produced plasma and astrophysical objects makes it awkward to model the latter by laser-plasma experiments. The author presents the physical reasons for modeling astrophysical plasmas by laser plasmas, connecting these two kinds of plasmas by scaling laws. This allows the creation of experimental test beds where observation and models can be quantitatively compared with laboratory data

  15. Laboratory studies on tropospheric iodine chemistry: bridging the atomic, molecular and particle scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Martin, J.; Saunders, R. W.; Blitz, M. A.; Mahajan, A. S.; Plane, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    High mixing ratios of the iodine oxides IO and OIO have been observed in the polar, mid-latitude and tropical marine boundary layer (MBL). The impact of the iodine chemistry on the oxidizing capacity of the MBL is well documented. Moreover, there is evidence showing that the bursts of new particles measured in coastal regions are produced by the biogenic emission of iodine containing precursors, followed by the photochemical production and condensation of iodine oxide vapours. Airborne measurements of particle growth rates show that these particles can reach significant sizes where they can contribute to the regional aerosol loading, thus suggesting a potential impact on climate on a regional or global scale. Within the frame of the INSPECT project (INorganic Secondary Particle Evolution, Chemistry and Transport) we wish to understand at a fundamental level the tendency for the iodine oxides formed from IO and OIO recombination to condense into particles. Elemental analysis of iodine oxide particles (IOP) made in the laboratory shows that they have the empirical formula I2O5. The major question is how this happens: through formation of I2O5 in the gas phase, followed by polymerization, or by condensation of various IxOy to form amorphous iodine oxides, which subsequently rearrange to I2O5. We are studying the gas phase photochemistry leading to nucleation of IOP, their growth kinetics, aspects of their heterogeneous chemistry, and their properties as ice condensation nuclei. In order to bridge the molecular and the particle scales, a wide variety of techniques are being used, including CRDS, ARAS, LIF, UV-VIS spectroscopy, PI-TOF-MS and mobility particle size scanning. The results obtained so far provide new and interesting insights to the problem. From the gas phase point of view, a unit iodine atom quantum yield from OIO photolysis has been now established across its strong visible spectral bands. This result implies a short lifetime of OIO and explains why in

  16. Source Code Analysis Laboratory (SCALe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    products (including services) and processes. The agency has also published ISO / IEC 17025 :2005 General Requirements for the Competence of Testing...SCALe undertakes. Testing and calibration laboratories that comply with ISO / IEC 17025 also operate in accordance with ISO 9001. • NIST National...assessed by the accreditation body against all of the requirements of ISO / IEC 17025 : 2005 General requirements for the competence of testing and

  17. Mechanisms of mineral scaling in oil and geothermal wells studied in laboratory experiments by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernstad, T.; Stamatakis, E.

    2006-01-01

    Two independent nuclear methods have been developed and tested for studies of mineral scaling mechanisms and kinetics related to the oil and geothermal industry. The first is a gamma transmission method to measure mass increase with a 30 MBq source of 133 Ba. The other method applies radioactive tracers of one or more of the scaling components. CaCO 3 -precipitation has been used as an example here where the main tracer has been 47 Ca 2+ . While the transmission method is an indirect method, the latter is a direct method where the reactions of specific components may be studied. Both methods are on-line, continuous and non-destructive, and capable to study scaling of liquids with saturation ratios approaching the solubility product. A lower limit for detection of CaCO 3 with the transmission method in sand-packed columns with otherwise reasonable experimental parameters is estimated to be < 1 mg in a 1 cm section of the tube packed with silica sand while the lower limit of detection for the tracer method with reasonable experimental parameters is estimated to < 1 μg in the same tube section. (author)

  18. A laboratory scale fundamental time?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, R.V.

    2012-01-01

    The existence of a fundamental time (or fundamental length) has been conjectured in many contexts. However, the ''stability of physical theories principle'' seems to be the one that provides, through the tools of algebraic deformation theory, an unambiguous derivation of the stable structures that Nature might have chosen for its algebraic framework. It is well-known that c and ℎ are the deformation parameters that stabilize the Galilean and the Poisson algebra. When the stability principle is applied to the Poincare-Heisenberg algebra, two deformation parameters emerge which define two time (or length) scales. In addition there are, for each of them, a plus or minus sign possibility in the relevant commutators. One of the deformation length scales, related to non-commutativity of momenta, is probably related to the Planck length scale but the other might be much larger and already detectable in laboratory experiments. In this paper, this is used as a working hypothesis to look for physical effects that might settle this question. Phase-space modifications, resonances, interference, electron spin resonance and non-commutative QED are considered. (orig.)

  19. Comparative Study of Laboratory-Scale and Prototypic Production-Scale Fuel Fabrication Processes and Product Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Douglas W.

    2014-01-01

    An objective of the High Temperature Gas Reactor fuel development and qualification program for the United States Department of Energy has been to qualify fuel fabricated in prototypic production-scale equipment. The quality and characteristics of the tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coatings on fuel kernels are influenced by the equipment scale and processing parameters. The standard deviations of some TRISO layer characteristics were diminished while others have become more significant in the larger processing equipment. The impact on statistical variability of the processes and the products, as equipment was scaled, are discussed. The prototypic production-scale processes produce test fuels meeting all fuel quality specifications. (author)

  20. Large-scale laboratory study of breaking wave hydrodynamics over a fixed bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der A, Dominic A.; van der Zanden, Joep; O'Donoghue, Tom; Hurther, David; Cáceres, Iván.; McLelland, Stuart J.; Ribberink, Jan S.

    2017-04-01

    A large-scale wave flume experiment has been carried out involving a T = 4 s regular wave with H = 0.85 m wave height plunging over a fixed barred beach profile. Velocity profiles were measured at 12 locations along the breaker bar using LDA and ADV. A strong undertow is generated reaching magnitudes of 0.8 m/s on the shoreward side of the breaker bar. A circulation pattern occurs between the breaking area and the inner surf zone. Time-averaged turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) is largest in the breaking area on the shoreward side of the bar where the plunging jet penetrates the water column. At this location, and on the bar crest, TKE generated at the water surface in the breaking process reaches the bottom boundary layer. In the breaking area, TKE does not reduce to zero within a wave cycle which leads to a high level of "residual" turbulence and therefore lower temporal variation in TKE compared to previous studies of breaking waves on plane beach slopes. It is argued that this residual turbulence results from the breaker bar-trough geometry, which enables larger length scales and time scales of breaking-generated vortices and which enhances turbulence production within the water column compared to plane beaches. Transport of TKE is dominated by the undertow-related flux, whereas the wave-related and turbulent fluxes are approximately an order of magnitude smaller. Turbulence production and dissipation are largest in the breaker zone and of similar magnitude, but in the shoaling zone and inner surf zone production is negligible and dissipation dominates.

  1. Small scale model and underground laboratory study of engineered barrier thermal behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dardaine, M.; Beziat, A.; Gatabin, C.; Lefevre, I.; Plas, F.; Fontan, N.; Moyne, C.

    1991-01-01

    This is the final report of the contract CCE FI1W/0061, which had the objective of studying the thermal behaviour of the engineered barrier having the selected French clay Fo-Ca (natural calcic smectite) as its major constituent. After being installed this barrier was subjected simultaneously to the heat flux dissipated by the container and to a possible rehydration by contact with the host medium. It consists of three parts. The first part is devoted to R and D studies concerning detectors suitable for the point measurement of the water concentration. Among the techniques that can be envisaged, capacitor methods, which are very temperature sensitive, would require a great deal of effort to be satisfactory. On the other hand, the water concentration can, in principle, be derived from the measurement of the thermal conductivity in the transient regime. Although the carrying out of this measurement is somewhat critical, it can give good results under certain conditions. The second part reports experiments carried out in the laboratory concerning both the study of heat transfer during the so-called dry phase of the disposal (without any water being supplied externally) and the study of the phenomenon of fissuration. Finally, the third part describes the in situ experiment BACCHUS, carried out in the underground test facility at Mol (Belgium), in collaboration with the CEN/SCK. In the course of the five months of the thermal phase of this experiment a large variation in the amplitude of the temperature gradients was recorded, which may be explained, on one hand, by the convergence of the medium and, on the other hand, by a much more rapid rehydration than that predicted

  2. Limestone and Zeolite as Alternative Media in Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands: Laboratory-Scale Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizama, K.; Jaque, I.; Ayala, J.

    2016-12-01

    Arsenic is well known for its chronic toxicity. Millions of people around the world are currently at risk, drinking water with As concentrations above 10 ppb, the WHO drinking water guideline. Although different treatment options exist, they are often limited by elevated costs and maintenance requirements. Constructed wetlands are a natural water treatment system, capable to remove metals and metalloids -including As- via different physical, chemical and biological processes. The use of alternative supporting media to enhance As removal in subsurface flow wetlands has been recommended, but not sufficiently studied. Limestone and zeolite have been identified as effective supporting media in subsurface flow wetlands aiming As removal. However, there are still key aspects to be addressed, such as the implications of using these media, the speciation in the solid phase, the role of vegetation, etc. This study investigated the performance of limestone and zeolite in three types of experiments: batch, column and as main supporting media in a bench scale horizontal subsurface flow wetland system. Synthetic water resembling a contaminated river in Chile (As concentration=3 mg/L, Fe concentration= 100 mg/L, pH=2) was used in all experiments. In the batch experiments, the As concentration, the mass of media and the contact time were varied. The column system consisted of three limestone columns and three zeolite columns, operated under a hydraulic loading of 20 mm/d. The wetland system consisted of twelve PVC cells: six filled with zeolite and six with limestone. Phragmites australis were planted in three cells of each media type, as control cells. From the batch experiments, maximum As sorption capacities as indicated by Langmuir model were 1.3 mg/g for limestone and 0.17 mg/g for zeolite, at 18 h contact time and 6.3 g/L medium concentration. EDS and XPS analyses revealed that As and Fe were retained in zeolite at the end of the batch experiments. Zeolite and limestone

  3. A novel laboratory scale method for studying heat treatment of cake flour

    OpenAIRE

    Chesterton, AKS; Wilson, David Ian; Sadd, PI; Moggridge, Geoffrey Dillwyn

    2014-01-01

    A lab-scale method for replicating the time–temperature history experienced by cake flours undergoing heat treatment was developed based on a packed bed configuration. The performance of heat-treated flours was compared with untreated and commercially heat-treated flour by test baking a high ratio cake formulation. Both cake volume and AACC shape measures were optimal after 15 min treatment at 130 °C, though their values varied between harvests. Separate oscillatory rheometry tests of cake ba...

  4. Bromate reduction by iron(II) during managed aquifer recharge : A laboratory-scale study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, F.; Salgado Ismodes, V.A.; van der Hoek, J.P.; van Halem, D.

    2018-01-01

    The removal of bromate (BrO3 -) as a byproduct of ozonation in subsequent managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems has so far gained little attention. This preliminary study with anoxic batch experiments was executed to explore the feasibility of chemical BrO3

  5. Laboratory-scale study of possible use of residual sludge from glass sand beneficiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikryl, Richard; Weishauptova, Zuzana; Zach, Jaroslav; Kozlovcev, Petr

    2016-04-01

    Beneficiation of quartz sand from sedimentary deposits for glass sands results in significant amounts of under-size fraction, a sludge rich in clay minerals. This sludge is considered as a waste and is returned in mined-out spaces for a simple rehabilitation, which is also the case of one of the largest glass sand production areas in the Czech Republic. The amount of produced waste sludge in the studied area (glass sand works in Provodín area, Bohemian Cretaceous Basin) is about 20 kt per year. In the recent study, we have focused on possible employment of this waste material for three applications: (1) a clay component in a raw material mixture for making of hydraulic lime, (2) a kaolinite absorbent, and (3) a geotechnical material. The sampled sludge was primarily analysed for mineralogical and chemical composition, mechanical and physical properties, the specific surface area, and parameters of pore space. X-ray analysis proved the presence of kaolinite, illite (both WCI and PCI), quartz, and accessory microcline. According to silicate analysis, the material is composed of SiO2 (80.52 wt. %), Al2O3 (11.36 wt. %), and K2O (2.14 wt. %). For its potential use as an artificial admixture for hydraulic lime production, the studied material was mixed with pure limestone in ratio of 10, 15, 20, and/or 25 wt. %. The experimental mixtures were burnt in the temperature range from 850 to 1,200°C. XRD was employed for the detection of newly formed phases showing formation of hydraulic phase such as C2S, C3A, C4AF starting from the 1050°C burning temperature. Peak burning temperature significantly influenced amount of individual phases in the burnt product. Second possible mode of use of the investigated waste material focused on its application as a sorbent. Pore space and specific surface area characteristics (SBET 7.4 sq. m/g) range this material to the group of low grade kaolinite-dominated adsorbents. Thermal treatment (burning of raw waste material at temperatures of

  6. Laboratory scale studies on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of cheese whey in different digester configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, K.V.; Liao, P.H.

    1988-02-01

    A two-phase system consisting of two reactors in series was used to study the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of cheese whey. A completely-mixed reactor and an anaerobic rotating biological contact reactor were used in series. The results indicated that ethanol and volatile fatty acids were the major products in the first reactor. Acidogenic pretreatment prior to the methanogenic phase resulted in an increase in methane production in the second reactor over that in one-stage digestion. High treatment efficiency in terms of reduction of chemical oxygen demand was also obtained for the two-phase digestion than that of the one-stage digestion. When comparing the system's performance in terms of methane production rate, the two-phase digestion had no advantage over the one-stage digestion.

  7. Alkali chloride induced corrosion of superheaters under biomass firing conditions: Improved insights from laboratory scale studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi; Montgomery, Melanie; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    One of the major operational challenges experienced by power plants firing biomass is the high corrosion rate of superheaters. This limits the outlet steam temperature of the superheaters and consequently, the efficiency of the power plants. The high corrosion rates have been attributed to the fo......One of the major operational challenges experienced by power plants firing biomass is the high corrosion rate of superheaters. This limits the outlet steam temperature of the superheaters and consequently, the efficiency of the power plants. The high corrosion rates have been attributed......, [1–3]). However, complete understanding of the corrosion mechanism under biomass-firing conditions has not yet been achieved. This is attributed partly to the complex nature of the corrosion process since there are many species produced from fuel combustion which can interact with one another...... and the steel surface. Many studies have focused on specific parameters such as, deposit composition (KCl, K2SO4, K2CO3, etc.) or gas species such as HCl, SO2, H2O [4–6], however, more research is necessary to understand the interaction of deposits and gas mixtures with each other and metallic superheater...

  8. Co-pyrolysis of swine manure with agricultural plastic waste: laboratory-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Kyoung S; Hunt, Patrick G; Jackson, Michael A; Compton, David L; Yates, Scott R; Cantrell, Keri; Chang, SeChin

    2014-08-01

    Manure-derived biochar is the solid product resulting from pyrolysis of animal manures. It has considerable potential both to improve soil quality with high levels of nutrients and to reduce contaminants in water and soil. However, the combustible gas produced from manure pyrolysis generally does not provide enough energy to sustain the pyrolysis process. Supplementing this process may be achieved with spent agricultural plastic films; these feedstocks have large amounts of available energy. Plastic films are often used in soil fumigation. They are usually disposed in landfills, which is wasteful, expensive, and environmentally unsustainable. The objective of this work was to investigate both the energetics of co-pyrolyzing swine solids with spent plastic mulch films (SPM) and the characteristics of its gas, liquid, and solid byproducts. The heating value of the product gas from co-pyrolysis was found to be much higher than that of natural gas; furthermore, the gas had no detectable toxic fumigants. Energetically, sustaining pyrolysis of the swine solids through the energy of the product gas could be achieved by co-pyrolyzing dewatered swine solids (25%m/m) with just 10% SPM. If more than 10% SPM is used, the co-pyrolysis would generate surplus energy which could be used for power generation. Biochars produced from co-pyrolyzing SPM and swine solid were similar to swine solid alone based on the surface area and the (1)H NMR spectra. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of using pyrolysis technology to manage two prominent agricultural waste streams (SPM and swine solids) while producing value-added biochar and a power source that could be used for local farm operations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Bromate Reduction by Iron(II during Managed Aquifer Recharge: A Laboratory-Scale Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The removal of bromate (BrO3− as a byproduct of ozonation in subsequent managed aquifer recharge (MAR systems has so far gained little attention. This preliminary study with anoxic batch experiments was executed to explore the feasibility of chemical BrO3− reduction in Fe-reducing zones of MAR systems and to estimate potential inhibition by NO3−. Results show that the reaction rate was affected by initial Fe2+/BrO3− ratios and by pH. The pH dropped significantly due to the hydrolysis of Fe3+ to hydrous ferric oxide (HFO flocs. These HFO flocs were found to adsorb Fe2+, especially at high Fe2+/BrO3− ratios, whereas at low Fe2+/BrO3− ratios, the mass sum loss of BrO3− and Br− indicated intermediate species formation. Under MAR conditions with relatively low BrO3− and Fe2+ concentrations, BrO3− can be reduced by naturally occurring Fe2+, as the extensive retention time in MAR systems will compensate for the slow reaction kinetics of low BrO3− and Fe2+ concentrations. Under specific flow conditions, Fe2+ and NO3− may co-occur during MAR, but NO3− hardly competes with BrO3−, since Fe2+ prefers BrO3− over NO3−. However, it was found that when NO3− concentration exceeds BrO3− concentration by multiple orders of magnitude, NO3− may slightly inhibit BrO3− reduction by Fe2+.

  10. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process: Laboratory scale studies modelling and technical assessment. Final report, [October 1, 1988--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Lee, L.K.; Popper, G.A.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-06-01

    Reported herein are the details and results of Laboratory-Scale experiments using sub-bituminous and bituminous coal concluded at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE Contract No. AC22-88PCB8818 during the period October 1, 1988 to June 30, 1993. The work described in this report is primarily concerned with tests on a Laboratory Scale primarily using microautoclaves. Experiments were conducted evaluating coal, solvents, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatments, C0{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects. Other microautoclave tests are included in the companion topical reports for this contract, DE-88818-TOP-01 & 02 on Sub-Bituminous and Bituminous Bench-Scale and PDU activities. In addition to the Laboratory Scale Studies, kinetic data and modelling results from Bench-Scale and Microautoclave tests are interpreted and presented along with some economic updates and sensitivity studies.

  11. Laboratory-scale thyristor controlled series capacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuki, J.; Ikeda, K.; Abe, M. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1996-10-20

    This paper describes the results of an experimental study on the characteristics of a thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC). At present, there are two major thyristor controlled series compensation projects in the U.S.: the Kayenta ASC and the Slatt TCSC. However, there has been little operating experience and thus further understanding of the characteristics of TCSC is still to be sought. Therefore, a laboratory-scale TCSC was produced and installed in a laboratory power system. The impedance characteristics, waveshapes of voltages and currents in the TCSC circuit, and harmonics, for various thyristor firing angles, and insertion responses were measured and analyzed. In particular, effects of the size of the circuit components, i.e., parasitic resistance, additional damping resistance and series reactor, on the overall TCSC performances were investigated. The results were compared with EMTP simulations. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Heap leach studies on the removal of uranium from soil. Report of laboratory-scale test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turney, W.R.J.R.; York, D.A.; Mason, C.F.V.; Chisholm-Brause, C.J.; Dander, D.C.; Longmire, P.A.; Morris, D.E.; Strait, R.K.; Brewer, J.S.

    1994-05-01

    This report details the initial results of laboratory-scale testing of heap leach that is being developed as a method for removing uranium from uranium-contaminated soil. The soil used was obtained from the site of the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) near the village of Fernald in Ohio. The testing is being conducted on a laboratory scale, but it is intended that this methodology will eventually be enlarged to field scale where, millions of cubic meters of uranium-contaminated soil can be remediated. The laboratory scale experiments show that, using carbonate/bicarbonate solutions, uranium can be effectively removed from the soil from initial values of around 600 ppM down to 100 ppM or less. The goal of this research is to selectively remove uranium from the contaminated soil, without causing serious changes in the characteristics of the soil. It is also hoped that the new technologies developed for soil remediation at FEMP will be transferred to other sites that also have uranium-contaminated soil.

  13. Effect of Non Submerged Vanes on Separation Zone at Strongly-curved Channel Bends, a Laboratory Scale Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Akhtari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Bends along open channels always pose difficulties for water transfer systems. One undesirable effect of bends in such channels, i.e. separation of water from inner banks, was studied. For the purposes of this study, the literature on the subject was first reviewed, and a strongly-curved open channel was designed and constructed on the laboratory scale. Several tests were performed to evaluate the accuracy of the lab model, data homogeneity, and systematic errors. The model was then calibrated and the influence of curvature on flow pattern past the curve was investigated. Also, for the first time, the influence of separation walls on flow pattern was investigated. Experimental results on three strongly-curved open channels with a curvature radius to channel width ratio of 1.5 and curvature angles of 30°, 60°, and 90° showed that, in all the cases studied, the effect of flow separation could be observed immediately after the curve. In addition, the greatest effect of flow separation was seen at a distance equal to channel width from the bend end. In the presence of middle walls and flow separation, the effect of water separation reduced at the bend, especially for a curvature of 90°.

  14. In situ vitrification laboratory-scale test work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, P.K.; Smith, N.L.

    1991-05-01

    The Buried Waste Program was established in October 1987 to accelerate the studies needed to develop a long-term management plan for the buried mixed waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at Idaho Engineering Laboratory. The In Situ Vitrification Project is being conducted in a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act feasibility study format to identify methods for the long-term management of mixed buried waste. To support the overall feasibility study, the situ vitrification treatability investigations are proceeding along the three parallel paths: laboratory-scale tests, intermediate field tests, and field tests. Laboratory-scale tests are being performed to provide data to mathematical modeling efforts, which, in turn, will support design of the field tests and to the health and safety risk assessment. This laboratory-scale test work plan provides overall testing program direction to meet the current goals and objectives of the in situ vitrification treatability investigation. 12 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  15. Study on technology for laboratory scale production of Zirconium Chloride (ZrCl4) by chlorinating Zirconium dioxide (ZrO2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Sinh

    2007-01-01

    ZrCl 4 is used as a main material for producing metallic zirconium. There are four methods for obtaining ZrCl 4 . The method of chlorination of ZrO 2 was selected and some instruments have been made for the study (to produce ZrCl 4 in laboratory scale). A procedure of preparing ZrCl 4 on the obtained instruments was set up and a small amount of ZrCl 4 was successfully obtained. (author)

  16. Hollow Fiber Membrane Contactors for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture: A Scale-Up Study from Laboratory to Pilot Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chabanon E.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Membrane contactors have been proposed for decades as a way to achieve intensified mass transfer processes. Post-combustion CO2 capture by absorption into a chemical solvent is one of the currently most intensively investigated topics in this area. Numerous studies have already been reported, unfortunately almost systematically on small, laboratory scale, modules. Given the level of flue gas flow rates which have to be treated for carbon capture applications, a consistent scale-up methodology is obviously needed for a rigorous engineering design. In this study, the possibilities and limitations of scale-up strategies for membrane contactors have been explored and will be discussed. Experiments (CO2 absorption from a gas mixture in a 30%wt MEA aqueous solution have been performed both on mini-modules and at pilot scale (10 m2 membrane contactor module based on PTFE hollow fibers. The results have been modelled utilizing a resistance in series approach. The only adjustable parameter is in fitting the simulations to experimental data is the membrane mass transfer coefficient (km, which logically plays a key role. The difficulties and uncertainties associated with scaleup computations from lab scale to pilot scale modules, with a particular emphasis on the km value, are presented and critically discussed.

  17. Laboratory microfusion capability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the issues involved in developing a Laboratory Microfusion Capability (LMC) which is the major objective of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program within the purview of the Department of Energy's Defense Programs. The study was initiated to support a number of DOE management needs: to provide insight for the evolution of the ICF program; to afford guidance to the ICF laboratories in planning their research and development programs; to inform Congress and others of the details and implications of the LMC; to identify criteria for selection of a concept for the Laboratory Microfusion Facility and to develop a coordinated plan for the realization of an LMC. As originally proposed, the LMC study was divided into two phases. The first phase identifies the purpose and potential utility of the LMC, the regime of its performance parameters, driver independent design issues and requirements, its development goals and requirements, and associated technical, management, staffing, environmental, and other developmental and operational issues. The second phase addresses driver-dependent issues such as specific design, range of performance capabilities, and cost. The study includes four driver options; the neodymium-glass solid state laser, the krypton fluoride excimer gas laser, the light-ion accelerator, and the heavy-ion induction linear accelerator. The results of the Phase II study are described in the present report

  18. Radiation carcinogenesis, laboratory studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shellabarger, C.J.

    1974-01-01

    Laboratory studies on radioinduced carcinogenesis are reviewed. Some topics discussed are: radioinduced neoplasia in relation to life shortening; dose-response relationships; induction of skin tumors in rats by alpha particles and electrons; effects of hormones on tumor response; effects of low LET radiations delivered at low dose-rates; effects of fractionated neutron radiation; interaction of RBE and dose rate effects; and estimates of risks for humans from animal data. (U.S.)

  19. Source Code Analysis Laboratory (SCALe) for Energy Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    technical competence for the type of tests and calibrations SCALe undertakes. Testing and calibration laboratories that comply with ISO / IEC 17025 ...and exec t [ ISO / IEC 2005]. f a software system indicates that the SCALe analysis di by a CERT secure coding standard. Successful conforma antees that...to be more secure than non- systems. However, no study has yet been performed to p t ssment in accordance with ISO / IEC 17000: “a demonstr g to a

  20. Pesticide Environmental Fate Research for the 21st Century: Building Bridges Between Laboratory and Field Studies at Varying Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate determination of predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) is a continuing and often elusive goal of pesticide risk assessment. PECs are typically derived using simulation models that depend on laboratory generated data for key input parameters (t1/2, Koc, etc.). Model flexibility in ...

  1. Predicting bioremediation of hydrocarbons: Laboratory to field scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diplock, E.E.; Mardlin, D.P.; Killham, K.S.; Paton, G.I.

    2009-01-01

    There are strong drivers to increasingly adopt bioremediation as an effective technique for risk reduction of hydrocarbon impacted soils. Researchers often rely solely on chemical data to assess bioremediation efficiently, without making use of the numerous biological techniques for assessing microbial performance. Where used, laboratory experiments must be effectively extrapolated to the field scale. The aim of this research was to test laboratory derived data and move to the field scale. In this research, the remediation of over thirty hydrocarbon sites was studied in the laboratory using a range of analytical techniques. At elevated concentrations, the rate of degradation was best described by respiration and the total hydrocarbon concentration in soil. The number of bacterial degraders and heterotrophs as well as quantification of the bioavailable fraction allowed an estimation of how bioremediation would progress. The response of microbial biosensors proved a useful predictor of bioremediation in the absence of other microbial data. Field-scale trials on average took three times as long to reach the same endpoint as the laboratory trial. It is essential that practitioners justify the nature and frequency of sampling when managing remediation projects and estimations can be made using laboratory derived data. The value of bioremediation will be realised when those that practice the technology can offer transparent lines of evidence to explain their decisions. - Detailed biological, chemical and physical characterisation reduces uncertainty in predicting bioremediation.

  2. Laboratory scale tests of electrical impedence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binley, A; Daily, W; LaBredcque, D; Ramirez, A.

    1998-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomographs (magnitude and phase) of known, laboratory-scale targets are reported. Three methods are used to invert electrical impedance data and their tomographs compared. The first method uses an electrical resistance tomography (ERT) algonthm (designed for DC resistivity inversion) to perform impedance magnitude inversion and a linearized perturbation approach (PA) to invert the imaginary part. The second approximate method compares ERT magnitude inversions at two frequencies and uses the frequency effect (FE) to compute phase tomographs. The third approach, electrrcal impedance tomography (EIT), employs fully complex algebra to account for the real and imaginary components of electrical impedance data. The EIT approach provided useful magnitude and phase images for the frequency range of 0.0625 to 64 Hz; images for higher frequencies were not reliable. Comparisons of the ERT and EIT magnitude images show that both methods provided equivalent results for the water blank, copper rod and PVC rod targets. The EIT magnitude images showed better spatial resolutron for a sand-lead mixture target. Phase images located anomalies of both high and low contrast IP and provided better spatial resolution than the magnitude images. When IP was absent from the data, the EIT algorithm reconstructed phase values consistent with the data noise levels

  3. Final Technical Report. Origins of subsurface microorganisms: Relating laboratory microcosm studies to a geologic time scale; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieft, Thomas; Amy, Penny S.; Phillips, Fred M.

    1998-01-01

    This project was conducted as part of the Department of Energy's Deep Subsurface Science Program. It was part of a larger effort to determine the origins of subsurface microorganisms. Two hypotheses have been suggested for the origins of subsurface microorganisms: (1) microorganisms were deposited at the time of (or shortly after) geologic deposition of rocks and sediments (the in situ survival hypothesis), and (2) microorganisms have been transported from surface environments to subsurface rocks and sediments since the time of geologic deposition (transport hypothesis). These two hypotheses are not mutually exclusive. Depending on the geological setting, either one or both of these hypotheses may best explain microbial origins. Our project focused on the in situ survival hypothesis. We tested the hypothesis that microorganisms (individuals populations and communities) can survive long-term sequestration within subsurface sediments. Other objectives were to identify geologic conditions that favor long-term survival, identify physiological traits of microorganisms that favor long-term survival, and determine which groups of microorganisms are most likely to survive long-term sequestration in subsurface sediments. We tested this hypothesis using a combination of pure culture techniques in laboratory microcosms under controlled conditions and field experiments with buried subsurface sediments

  4. Small scale laboratory studies of flow and transport phenomena in pores and fractures: Phase II. Progress report, 3rd year continuation proposal, and work plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    Small scale laboratory experiments, equipped with an ability to actually observe behavior on the pore level using microscopy, provide an economical and easily understood scientific tool to help us validate concepts and assumptions about the transport of contaminants, and offers the propensity to discover heretofore unrecognized phenomena or behavior. The main technique employs etched glass micromodels, composed of two etched glass plates, sintered together, to form a two dimensional network of three dimensional pores. Flow and transport behavior is observed on a pore or pore network level, and recorder on film and video tape. This technique is coupled with related column studies. These techniques have been used to study multiphase flow, colloid transport and most recently bacteria transport. The project has recently moved to the Bacteria Transport Subprogram, and efforts have been redirected to support that Subprogram and its collaborative field experiment. We proposed to study bacteria transport factors of relevance to the field experiment, using micromodels and other laboratory techniques. Factors that may be addressed include bacteria characteristics (eg, hydrophobicity), pore size and shape, permeability heterogeneity, surface chemistry (eg, iron oxide coatings), surface chemistry heterogeneity, active versus resting cell bacteria, and mixed bacteria populations. In other work we will continue to examine the effects of fluid-fluid interfaces on bacteria transport, and develop a new assay for bacteria hydrophobicity. Finally we will collaborate on characterization of the field site, and the design, operation, and interpretation of the field experiment.

  5. Co-firing Bosnian coals with woody biomass: Experimental studies on a laboratory-scale furnace and 110 MWe power unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajevic Izet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of research into cofiring two Bosnian cola types, brown coal and lignite, with woody biomass, in this case spruce sawdust. The aim of the research was to find the optimal blend of coal and sawdust that may be substituted for 100% coal in large coal-fired power stations in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Two groups of experimental tests were performed in this study: laboratory testing of co-firing and trial runs on a large-scale plant based on the laboratory research results. A laboratory experiment was carried out in an electrically heated and entrained pulverized-fuel flow furnace. Coal-sawdust blends of 93:7% by weight and 80:20% by weight were tested. Co-firing trials were conducted over a range of the following process variables: process temperature, excess air ratio and air distribution. Neither of the two coal-sawdust blends used produced any significant ash-related problems provided the blend volume was 7% by weight sawdust and the process temperature did not exceed 1250ºC. It was observed that in addition to the nitrogen content in the co-fired blend, the volatile content and particle size distribution of the mixture also influenced the level of NOx emissions. The brown coal-sawdust blend generated a further reduction of SO2 due to the higher sulphur capture rate than for coal alone. Based on and following the laboratory research findings, a trial run was carried out in a large-scale utility - the Kakanj power station, Unit 5 (110 MWe, using two mixtures; one in which 5%/wt and one in which 7%/wt of brown coal was replaced with sawdust. Compared to a reference firing process with 100% coal, these co-firing trials produced a more intensive redistribution of the alkaline components in the slag in the melting chamber, with a consequential beneficial effect on the deposition of ash on the superheater surfaces of the boiler. The outcome of the tests confirms the feasibility of using 7%wt of sawdust in combination

  6. Parameters examination of a biosurfactant production at laboratory scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosero, Neira Gladys; Pimienta, Astrid Lorely; Dugarte, Fanny; Carvajal, Fredy Gonzalo

    2003-01-01

    This work presents the results obtained from the laboratory-scale experimentation for the optimization of production of rhamnolipid type biosurfactant in a batch process, through the calculation and analysis of yield parameters. Different carbon/nitrogen ratios were studied, for which the production rates of rhamnolipid under nitrogen limitation was defined. Bacterial growth yield parameters Y X/N and Y X/C , were also calculated

  7. WGS-Adsorbent Reaction Studies at Laboratory Scale; Estudios de la Reaccion WGS-Adsorbente a Escala de Laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, M.; Torreiro, Y.

    2014-02-01

    This document reports the most significant results obtained during the experimental work performed under task WGS-adsorbent experimental studies within CAPHIGAS project (National Research Plan 2008-2011, ref: ENE2009-08002). The behavior of the binary adsorbent-catalyst system which will be used in the hybrid system is described in this document. Main results reported here were used during the design and development of the hybrid system adsorbent catalyst- membrane proposed in the CAPHIGAS project. The influence of main operating parameters and the optimized volume ratio adsorbent-catalyst are also presented in this report. (Author)

  8. Assessment of the mechanisms involved in the removal of emerging contaminants by microalgae from wastewater: a laboratory scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros, Víctor; Uggetti, Enrica; García, Joan; Bayona, Josep M

    2016-01-15

    Aerated batch reactors (2.5L) fed either with urban or synthetic wastewater were inoculated with microalgae (dominated by Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp.) to remove caffeine, ibuprofen, galaxolide, tributyl phosphate, 4-octylphenol, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate and carbamazepine for 10 incubation days. Non-aerated and darkness reactors were used as controls. Microalgae grew at a rate of 0.25 d(-1) with the complete removal of N-NH4 during the course of the experiment. After 10 incubation days, up to 99% of the microcontaminants with a Henry's law constant higher than 3 10(-1) Pa m(3) mol(-1) (i.e., 4-octylphenol, galaxolide, and tributyl phosphate) were removed by volatilization due to the effect of air stripping. Whereas biodegradation was effective for removing ibuprofen and caffeine, carbamazepine and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate behaved as recalcitrant compounds. The use of microalgae was proved to be relevant for increasing the biodegradation removal efficiency of ibuprofen by 40% and reducing the lag phase of caffeine by 3 days. Moreover, the enantioselective biodegradation of S-ibuprofen suggested a biotic prevalent removal process, which was supported by the identification of carboxy-ibuprofen and hydroxy-ibuprofen. The results from microalgae reactors fed with synthetic wastewater showed no clear evidences of microalgae uptake of any of the studied microcontaminants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of the mechanisms involved in the removal of emerging contaminants by microalgae from wastewater: a laboratory scale study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matamoros, Víctor; Uggetti, Enrica; García, Joan; Bayona, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of microalage on the removal of emerging contaminants has been evaluated. • Volatilization was relevant for compounds with a moderate Henry’s law constant. • Biodegradation was the main factor for the removal of caffeine and ibuprofen. • Ibuprofen enantioselective biodegradation was observed. • CA-ibuprofen and OH-ibuprofen followed the concentration decline of ibuprofen. - Abstract: Aerated batch reactors (2.5 L) fed either with urban or synthetic wastewater were inoculated with microalgae (dominated by Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp.) to remove caffeine, ibuprofen, galaxolide, tributyl phosphate, 4-octylphenol, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate and carbamazepine for 10 incubation days. Non-aerated and darkness reactors were used as controls. Microalgae grew at a rate of 0.25 d −1 with the complete removal of N-NH 4 during the course of the experiment. After 10 incubation days, up to 99% of the microcontaminants with a Henry’s law constant higher than 3 10 −1 Pa m 3 mol −1 (i.e., 4-octylphenol, galaxolide, and tributyl phosphate) were removed by volatilization due to the effect of air stripping. Whereas biodegradation was effective for removing ibuprofen and caffeine, carbamazepine and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate behaved as recalcitrant compounds. The use of microalgae was proved to be relevant for increasing the biodegradation removal efficiency of ibuprofen by 40% and reducing the lag phase of caffeine by 3 days. Moreover, the enantioselective biodegradation of S-ibuprofen suggested a biotic prevalent removal process, which was supported by the identification of carboxy-ibuprofen and hydroxy-ibuprofen. The results from microalgae reactors fed with synthetic wastewater showed no clear evidences of microalgae uptake of any of the studied microcontaminants.

  10. Assessment of the mechanisms involved in the removal of emerging contaminants by microalgae from wastewater: a laboratory scale study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matamoros, Víctor, E-mail: victor.matamoros@idaea.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA–CSIC, c/Jordi Girona, 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Uggetti, Enrica; García, Joan [GEMMA—Group of Environmental Engineering and Microbiology, Department of Hydraulic, Maritime and Environmental Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya BarcelonaTech, c/Jordi Girona, 1-3, Building D1, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Bayona, Josep M. [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA–CSIC, c/Jordi Girona, 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • The effect of microalage on the removal of emerging contaminants has been evaluated. • Volatilization was relevant for compounds with a moderate Henry’s law constant. • Biodegradation was the main factor for the removal of caffeine and ibuprofen. • Ibuprofen enantioselective biodegradation was observed. • CA-ibuprofen and OH-ibuprofen followed the concentration decline of ibuprofen. - Abstract: Aerated batch reactors (2.5 L) fed either with urban or synthetic wastewater were inoculated with microalgae (dominated by Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp.) to remove caffeine, ibuprofen, galaxolide, tributyl phosphate, 4-octylphenol, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate and carbamazepine for 10 incubation days. Non-aerated and darkness reactors were used as controls. Microalgae grew at a rate of 0.25 d{sup −1} with the complete removal of N-NH{sub 4} during the course of the experiment. After 10 incubation days, up to 99% of the microcontaminants with a Henry’s law constant higher than 3 10{sup −1} Pa m{sup 3} mol{sup −1} (i.e., 4-octylphenol, galaxolide, and tributyl phosphate) were removed by volatilization due to the effect of air stripping. Whereas biodegradation was effective for removing ibuprofen and caffeine, carbamazepine and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate behaved as recalcitrant compounds. The use of microalgae was proved to be relevant for increasing the biodegradation removal efficiency of ibuprofen by 40% and reducing the lag phase of caffeine by 3 days. Moreover, the enantioselective biodegradation of S-ibuprofen suggested a biotic prevalent removal process, which was supported by the identification of carboxy-ibuprofen and hydroxy-ibuprofen. The results from microalgae reactors fed with synthetic wastewater showed no clear evidences of microalgae uptake of any of the studied microcontaminants.

  11. Scaling up Effects in the Organic Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Anna; Lindstrom, Ulf M.

    2004-01-01

    A simple and effective way of exposing chemistry students to some of the effects of scaling up an organic reaction is described. It gives the student an experience that may encounter in an industrial setting.

  12. Bentonite erosion. Laboratory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Mats (Div. of Nuclear Chemistry, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden), School of Chemical Science and Engineering)

    2009-11-15

    This report covers the laboratory studies that have been performed at Nuclear Chemistry, KTH in the project 'Bentonite Erosion'. Many of the experiments in this report were performed to support the work of the modelling group and were often relatively simple. One of the experiment series was performed to see the impact of gravity and concentration of mono- and di-valent cations. A clay suspension was prepared in a test tube. A net was placed in contact with the suspension, the test tube was filled with solutions of different concentrations and the system was left overnight to settle. The tube was then turned upside down and the behaviour was visually observed. Either the clay suspension fell through the net or stayed on top. By using this method surprisingly sharp determinations of the Critical Coagulation (Flocculation) Concentration (CCC/CFC) could be made. The CCC/CFC of Ca2+ was for sodium montmorillonite determined to be between 1 and 2 mM. An artificial fracture was manufactured in order to simulate the real case scenario. The set-up was two Plexiglas slabs separated by 1 mm thick spacers with a bentonite container at one side of the fracture. Water was pumped with a very low flow rate perpendicular to bentonite container and the water exiting the fracture was sampled and analyzed for colloid content. The bentonite used was treated in different ways. In the first experiment a relatively montmorillonite rich clay was used while in the second bentonite where only the readily soluble minerals had been removed was used. Since Plexiglas was used it was possible to visually observe the bentonite dispersing into the fracture. After the compacted bentonite (1,000 kg/m3) had been water saturated the clay had expanded some 12 mm out into the fracture. As the experiment progressed the clay expanded more out into the fracture and seemed to fractionate in two different phases with less material in the outmost phase. A dark rim which was later analyzed to contain

  13. Measuring ignitability for in situ burning of oil spills weathered under Arctic conditions: From laboratory studies to large-scale field experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Brandvik, Per Johan

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares the ignitability of Troll B crude oil weathered under simulated Arctic conditions (0%, 50% and 90% ice cover). The experiments were performed in different scales at SINTEF’s laboratories in Trondheim, field research station on Svalbard and in broken ice (70–90% ice cover......) in the Barents Sea. Samples from the weathering experiments were tested for ignitability using the same laboratory burning cell. The measured ignitability from the experiments in these different scales showed a good agreement for samples with similar weathering. The ice conditions clearly affected the weathering...... process, and 70% ice or more reduces the weathering and allows a longer time window for in situ burning. The results from the Barents Sea revealed that weathering and ignitability can vary within an oil slick. This field use of the burning cell demonstrated that it can be used as an operational tool...

  14. Laboratory-scale column study for remediation of TCE-contaminated aquifers using three-section controlled-release potassium permanganate barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Baoling; Li, Fei; Chen, Yanmei; Fu, Ming-Lai

    2013-05-01

    A laboratory-scale study with a sand column was designed to simulate trichloroethylene (TCE) pollution in the aquifer environment with three-section controlled-release potassium permanganate (CRP) barriers. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of CRP barriers in remediation of TCE in aquifers in a long-term and controlled manner. CRP particles with a 1:3 molar ratio of KMnO4 to stearic acid showed the best controlled-release properties in pure water, and the theoretical release time was 138.5 days. The results of TCE removal in the test column indicated that complete removal efficiency of TCE in a sand column by three-section CRP barriers could be reached within 15 days. The molar ratio of KMnO4 to TCE in the three-section CRP barriers was 16:1, which was much lower than 82:1 as required when KMnO4 solution is used directly to achieve complete destruction of TCE. This result revealed that the efficiency of CRP for remediation of TCE was highly improved after encapsulation.

  15. A quality by design (QbD case study on enteric-coated pellets: Screening of critical variables and establishment of design space at laboratory scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuling Kan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to prepare naproxen enteric-coated pellets (NAP-ECPs by fluid-bed coating using QbD principle. Risk assessment was firstly performed by using failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA methodology. A Plackett–Burman design was then used for assessment of the most important variables affecting enteric-coated pellets characteristics. A Box–Behnken design was subsequently used for investigating the main, interactive, and quadratic effects of these variables on the response. By FMEA we discovered that eight factors should be considered to be high/important risk variables as compared with others. The responses of acid resistance and cumulative drug release were taken as critical quality attributes (CQAs. Pareto ranking analyses indicated that the coating weight gain (X7, triethyl citrate percentage (X1 and glycerol monostearate percentage (X2 were the most significant factors affecting the selected responses out of the eight high-risk variables. Optimization with response surface method (RSM further fully clarified the relationship between X7, X1, X2 and CQAs, and design space was established based on the constraints set on the responses. Due to the extreme coincidence of the predicted value generated by model with the observed value, the accuracy and robustness of the model were confirmed. It could be concluded that a promising NAP-ECPs was successfully designed using QbD approach in a laboratory scale.

  16. Laboratory scale production of glucose syrup by the enzymatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jen

    Laboratory scale production of glucose syrup by the enzymatic ... The industrial processing of starch to glucose, maltose and dextrin involves gelatinization, ... due to non-availability of appropriate technology and industry to harness these into.

  17. Unification and extension of the similarity scaling criteria and mixing transition for studying astrophysics using high energy density laboratory experiments or numerial simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y

    2006-08-21

    The Euler similarity criteria for laboratory experiments and time-dependent mixing transition are important concepts introduced recently for application to prediction and analysis of astrophysical phenomena. However Euler scaling by itself provides no information on the distinctive spectral range of high Reynolds number turbulent flows found in astrophysics situations. On the other hand, time-dependent mixing transition gives no indication on whether a flow that just passed the mixing transition is sufficient to capture all of the significant dynamics of the complete astrophysical spectral range. In this paper, a new approach, based on additional insight gained from review of Navier-Stokes turbulence theory, is developed. It allows for revelations about the distinctive spectral scale dynamics associated with high Reynolds number astrophysical flows. From this perspective, we caution that the energy containing range of the turbulent flow measured in a laboratory setting must not be unintentionally contaminated in such a way that the interactive influences of this spectral scale range in the corresponding astrophysical situation cannot be faithfully represented. In this paper we introduce the concept of a minimum state as the lowest Reynolds number turbulent flow that a time-dependent mixing transition must achieve to fulfill this objective. Later in the paper we show that the Reynolds number of the minimum state may be determined as 1.6 x 10{sup 5}. Our efforts here can be viewed as a unification and extension of the concepts of both similarity scaling and transient mixing transition concepts. At the last the implications of our approach in planning future intensive laser experiments or massively parallel numerical simulations are discussed. A systematic procedure is outlined so that as the capabilities of the laser interaction experiments and supporting results from detailed numerical simulations performed in recently advanced supercomputing facilities increase

  18. Unification and extension of the similarity scaling criteria and mixing transition for studying astrophysics using high energy density laboratory experiments or numerical simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ye

    2007-01-01

    The Euler similarity criteria for laboratory experiments and time-dependent mixing transition are important concepts introduced recently for application to prediction and analysis of astrophysical phenomena. However, Euler scaling by itself provides no information on the distinctive spectral range of high Reynolds number turbulent flows found in astrophysics situations. On the other hand, time-dependent mixing transition gives no indication on whether a flow that just passed the mixing transition is sufficient to capture all of the significant dynamics of the complete astrophysical spectral range. In this paper, a new approach, based on additional insight gained from review of Navier-Stokes turbulence theory, is developed. It allows for revelations about the distinctive spectral scale dynamics associated with high Reynolds number astrophysical flows. From this perspective, the energy-containing range of the turbulent flow measured in a laboratory setting must not be unintentionally contaminated in such a way that the interactive influences of this spectral scale range in the corresponding astrophysical situation cannot be faithfully represented. In this paper, the concept of a minimum state is introduced as the lowest Reynolds number turbulent flow that a time-dependent mixing transition must achieve to fulfill this objective. Later in the paper, the Reynolds number of the minimum state is determined as 1.6x10 5 . The temporal criterion for the minimum state is also obtained. The efforts here can be viewed as a unification and extension of the concepts of both similarity scaling and transient mixing transition concepts. Finally, the implications of our approach in planning future intensive laser experiments or massively parallel numerical simulations are discussed. A systematic procedure is outlined so that as the capabilities of the laser interaction experiments and supporting results from detailed numerical simulations performed in recently advanced

  19. Centrifugal contractors for laboratory-scale solvent extraction tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, R.A.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.

    1995-01-01

    A 2-cm contactor (minicontactor) was developed and used at Argonne National Laboratory for laboratory-scale testing of solvent extraction flowsheets. This new contactor requires only 1 L of simulated waste feed, which is significantly less than the 10 L required for the 4-cm unit that had previously been used. In addition, the volume requirements for the other aqueous and organic feeds are reduced correspondingly. This paper (1) discusses the design of the minicontactor, (2) describes results from having applied the minicontactor to testing various solvent extraction flowsheets, and (3) compares the minicontactor with the 4-cm contactor as a device for testing solvent extraction flowsheets on a laboratory scale

  20. The effect of redox conditions and adaptation time on organic micropollutant removal during river bank filtration: A laboratory-scale column study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelkamp, C; Verliefde, A R D; Schoutteten, K; Vanhaecke, L; Vanden Bussche, J; Singhal, N; van der Hoek, J P

    2016-02-15

    This study investigated the redox dependent removal and adaptive behaviour of a mixture of 15 organic micropollutants (OMPs) in laboratory-scale soil columns fed with river water. Three separate pilot systems were used consisting of: (1) two columns, (2) ten columns and (3) twenty two columns to create oxic, suboxic (partial nitrate removal) and anoxic (complete nitrate removal). The pilot set-up has some unique features--it can simulate fairly long residence times (e.g., 45 days using the 22 column system) and reduced conditions developed naturally within the system. Dimethoate, diuron, and metoprolol showed redox dependent removal behaviour with higher biodegradation rates in the oxic zone compared to the suboxic/anoxic zone. The redox dependent behaviour of these three OMPs could not be explained based on their physico-chemical properties (hydrophobicity, charge and molecular weight) or functional groups present in the molecular structure. OMPs that showed persistent behaviour in the oxic zone (atrazine, carbamazepine, hydrochlorothiazide and simazine) were also not removed under more reduced conditions. Adaptive behaviour was observed for five OMPs: dimethoate, chloridazon, lincomycin, sulfamethoxazole and phenazone. However, the adaptive behaviour could not be explained by the physico-chemical properties (hydrophobicity, charge and molecular weight) investigated in this study and only rough trends were observed with specific functional groups (e.g. ethers, sulphur, primary and secondary amines). Finally, the adaptive behaviour of OMPs was found to be an important factor that should be incorporated in predictive models for OMP removal during river bank filtration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 75 FR 80011 - Good Laboratory Practice for Nonclinical Laboratory Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    .... FDA-2010-N-0548] Good Laboratory Practice for Nonclinical Laboratory Studies AGENCY: Food and Drug... (FDA) is seeking comment on whether to amend the regulations governing good laboratory practices (GLPs..., 1978 (43 FR 60013). As stated in its scope (Sec. 58.1), this regulation prescribes good laboratory...

  2. Microscale Immune Studies Laboratory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poschet, Jens Fredrich; Carroll-Portillo, Amanda; Wu, Meiye; Manginell, Ronald Paul; Herr, Amy Elizabeth; Martino, Anthony A.; Perroud, Thomas D.; Branda, Catherine; Srivastava, Nimisha; Sinclair, Michael B.; Moorman, Matthew Wallace; Apblett, Christopher Alan; Sale, Kenneth L.; James, Conrad D.; Carles, Elizabeth L.; Lidke, Diane S. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Rebeil, Roberto; Kaiser, Julie; Seaman, William (University of California, San Francisco, CA); Rempe, Susan; Brozik, Susan Marie; Jones, Howland D. T.; Gemperline, Paul (East Carolina University, Greenville, NC); Throckmorton, Daniel J.; Misra, Milind; Murton, Jaclyn K.; Carson, Bryan D.; Zhang, Zhaoduo; Plimpton, Steven James; Renzi, Ronald F.; Lane, Todd W.; Ndiaye-Dulac, Elsa; Singh, Anup K.; Haaland, David Michael; Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Davis, Ryan W.; Ricken, James Bryce; Branda, Steven S.; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Joo, Jaewook; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Brennan, James S.; Martin, Shawn Bryan; Brasier, Allan (University of Texas Mecial Branch, Galveston, TX)

    2009-01-01

    The overarching goal is to develop novel technologies to elucidate molecular mechanisms of the innate immune response in host cells to pathogens such as bacteria and viruses including the mechanisms used by pathogens to subvert/suppress/obfuscate the immune response to cause their harmful effects. Innate immunity is our first line of defense against a pathogenic bacteria or virus. A comprehensive 'system-level' understanding of innate immunity pathways such as toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways is the key to deciphering mechanisms of pathogenesis and can lead to improvements in early diagnosis or developing improved therapeutics. Current methods for studying signaling focus on measurements of a limited number of components in a pathway and hence, fail to provide a systems-level understanding. We have developed a systems biology approach to decipher TLR4 pathways in macrophage cell lines in response to exposure to pathogenic bacteria and their lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our approach integrates biological reagents, a microfluidic cell handling and analysis platform, high-resolution imaging and computational modeling to provide spatially- and temporally-resolved measurement of TLR-network components. The Integrated microfluidic platform is capable of imaging single cells to obtain dynamic translocation data as well as high-throughput acquisition of quantitative protein expression and phosphorylation information of selected cell populations. The platform consists of multiple modules such as single-cell array, cell sorter, and phosphoflow chip to provide confocal imaging, cell sorting, flow cytomtery and phosphorylation assays. The single-cell array module contains fluidic constrictions designed to trap and hold single host cells. Up to 100 single cells can be trapped and monitored for hours, enabling detailed statistically-significant measurements. The module was used to analyze translocation behavior of transcription factor NF-kB in macrophages upon activation

  3. Bentonite erosion - Laboratory studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Mats

    2010-01-01

    observations made in the experiment with the artificial fracture was that - As the clay expanded out into the fracture it seemed to form zones with different densities (clay content). At the border between the zones a dark rim was observed. Post-mortem XRD-studies of the rim revealed that it contained mostly feldspars. - The fracture was tilted some 2 degrees with the lower end at the inlet in order to avoid formation of gas bubbles. With time clay started to accumulate at the lowest end of the fracture. The released bentonite travelled towards the flow, implying that gravity plays an important role in this system. - There was no correlation between time and colloid content in the outlet solutions. Furthermore, there was no correlation between from where the outlet was collected; far away from of close to the bentonite container. - The outlet solutions contained smaller particles than a suspension prepared by dispersing bentonite. (authors)

  4. Study of the Effect of SRT on Microbial Diversity in Laboratory-scale Sequencing Batch Reactors Using Acclimated and Non-Acclimated Seed

    KAUST Repository

    Tellez, Berenice

    2011-01-01

    Solids Retention Time (SRT) is an important design parameter in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems. In this study, the effect of SRT on the bacterial community structure and diversity was examined in replicate lab-scale activated sludge

  5. Test Production of Anti-Corrosive Paint in Laboratory Scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thein Thein Win, Daw; Khin Aye Tint, Daw; Wai Min Than, Daw

    2003-02-01

    The main purpose of this project is to produce the anti-corrosive paint in laboratory scale. In these experiments, local raw materials, natural resin (shellac), pine oil, turpentine and ethyl alcohol wer applied basically. Laboratory trials were undrtaken to determine the suitablity of raw materials ane their composition for anti-corrosive paint manufacture.The results obtained show that the anti-corrosive paint from experiment No.(30) is suitable for steel plate and this is also considered commercially economics

  6. Large scale laboratory diffusion experiments in clay rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Missana, T.; Mingarro, M.; Martin, P.L.; Cormenzana, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Clay formations are potential host rocks for high-level radioactive waste repositories. In clay materials the radionuclide diffusion is the main transport mechanism. Thus, the understanding of the diffusion processes and the determination of diffusion parameters in conditions as similar as possible to the real ones, are critical for the performance assessment of deep geological repository. Diffusion coefficients are mainly measured in the laboratory using small samples, after a preparation to fit into the diffusion cell. In addition, a few field tests are usually performed for confirming laboratory results, and analyse scale effects. In field or 'in situ' tests the experimental set-up usually includes the injection of a tracer diluted in reconstituted formation water into a packed off section of a borehole. Both experimental systems may produce artefacts in the determination of diffusion coefficients. In laboratory the preparation of the sample can generate structural change mainly if the consolidated clay have a layered fabric, and in field test the introduction of water could modify the properties of the saturated clay in the first few centimeters, just where radionuclide diffusion is expected to take place. In this work, a large scale laboratory diffusion experiment is proposed, using a large cylindrical sample of consolidated clay that can overcome the above mentioned problems. The tracers used were mixed with clay obtained by drilling a central hole, re-compacted into the hole at approximately the same density as the consolidated block and finally sealed. Neither additional treatment of the sample nor external monitoring are needed. After the experimental time needed for diffusion to take place (estimated by scoping calculations) the block was sampled to obtain a 3D distribution of the tracer concentration and the results were modelled. An additional advantage of the proposed configuration is that it could be used in 'in situ

  7. Sludge combustion in fluidized bed reactors at laboratory scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirone, R.; Cammarota, A.

    2001-01-01

    The combustion of a dried sewage sludge in laboratory scale fluidized bed has been studied in Naples by the Istituto di ricerche sulla combustione (Irc) in the framework of a National project named Thermal Process with Energy Recovery to be used in laboratory and pre-pilot scale apparatus. The attention has been focused on emissions of unreacted carbon as elutriated fines, on the emissions of pollutant gases and on the assessment of the inventory of fly- and bottom ashes. The combustion behaviour of sewage sludge has been compared with those of a market available Tyre Derived Fuel (TDF) and a biomass from Mediterranean area (Robinia Pseudoacacia) and with that of a South African bituminous coal. Stationary combustion tests were carried out at 850 0 C by feeding particles in the size range 0-1 mm into a bed of silica sand without any sorbent addition. The fluidized bed combustor has been operated, at a superficial gas velocity of 0.4 m/s and different excesses of air ranging between 14 and 98%. Relatively high combustion efficiency, larger than 98.9% has been obtained in experiments carried out with sewage sludge and excess of air larger than 20%. These values, are comparable with those obtained in previously experimental activity carried out under similar operative conditions with a South Africa Bituminous coal (97-98%). It is larger than those obtained by using a Tyre Derived Fuel (89-90%) and the Robinia Pseudoacacia Biomass (93-93%). The relative importance of carbon fines elutriation, CO emissions and volatile bypassing the bed in determining the loss of combustion efficiency has been evaluated for the different fuels tested [it

  8. Experimental methods for laboratory-scale ensilage of lignocellulosic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanjore, Deepti; Richard, Tom L.; Marshall, Megan N.

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic fermentation is a potential storage method for lignocellulosic biomass in biofuel production processes. Since biomass is seasonally harvested, stocks are often dried or frozen at laboratory scale prior to fermentation experiments. Such treatments prior to fermentation studies cause irreversible changes in the plant cells, influencing the initial state of biomass and thereby the progression of the fermentation processes itself. This study investigated the effects of drying, refrigeration, and freezing relative to freshly harvested corn stover in lab-scale ensilage studies. Particle sizes, as well as post-ensilage drying temperatures for compositional analysis, were tested to identify the appropriate sample processing methods. After 21 days of ensilage the lowest pH value (3.73 ± 0.03), lowest dry matter loss (4.28 ± 0.26 g. 100 g-1DM), and highest water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) concentrations (7.73 ± 0.26 g. 100 g-1DM) were observed in control biomass (stover ensiled within 12 h of harvest without any treatments). WSC concentration was significantly reduced in samples refrigerated for 7 days prior to ensilage (3.86 ± 0.49 g. 100 g −1 DM). However, biomass frozen prior to ensilage produced statistically similar results to the fresh biomass control, especially in treatments with cell wall degrading enzymes. Grinding to decrease particle size reduced the variance amongst replicates for pH values of individual reactors to a minor extent. Drying biomass prior to extraction of WSCs resulted in degradation of the carbohydrates and a reduced estimate of their concentrations. The methods developed in this study can be used to improve ensilage experiments and thereby help in developing ensilage as a storage method for biofuel production. -- Highlights: ► Laboratory-scale methods to assess the influence of ensilage biofuel production. ► Drying, freezing, and refrigeration of biomass influenced microbial fermentation. ► Freshly ensiled stover exhibited

  9. Laboratory-scale simulations with hydrated lime and organic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory-scale simulations with hydrated lime and organic polymer to evaluate the effect of pre-chlorination on motile Ceratium hirundinella cells during ... When organic material is released from algal cells as a result of physical-chemical impacts on the cells, it may result in tasteand odour-related problems or the ...

  10. Fate of estrone in laboratory-scale constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    A horizontal, subsurface, laboratory-scale constructed wetland (CW) consisting of four cells in series was used to determine the attenuation of the steroid hormone estrone (E1) present in animal wastewater. Liquid swine manure diluted 1:80 with farm pond water and dosed with [14C]E1 flowed through ...

  11. Optimization of laboratory scale production and purification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microcystin content is however highly variable and optimised culture conditions are essential to produce viable yields of microcystin for purification. We describe the optimization of culture conditions and evaluation of various purification methods to enhance the yield of microcystin from laboratory scale culture.

  12. Design of the Laboratory-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meier, David E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tingey, Joel M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Casella, Amanda J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Edwards, Matthew K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Orton, Robert D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rapko, Brian M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smart, John E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report describes a design for a laboratory-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide (PuO2) for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production, as well as for use as exercise and reference materials. This capability will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including PuO2 dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and re-conversion to PuO2 by calcination.

  13. Laboratory studies of radionuclide migration in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundberg, R.S.; Mitchell, A.J.; Ott, M.A.; Thompson, J.L.; Triay, I.R.

    1989-01-01

    The movement of selected radionuclides has been observed in crushed tuff, intact tuff, and fractured tuff columns. Retardation factors and dispersivities were determined from the elution profiles. Retardation factors have been compared with those predicted on the basis of batch sorption studies. This comparison forms a basis for either validating distribution coefficients or providing evidence of speciation, including colloid formation. Dispersivities measured as a function of velocity provide a means of determining the effect of sorption kinetics or mass transfer on radionuclide migration. Dispersion is also being studied in the context of scaling symmetry to develop a basis for extrapolating from the laboratory scale to the field. 21 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Industrial versus Laboratory Clinker Processing Using Grinding Aids (Scale Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Jean Assaad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of grinding aid (GA effect on clinker processing in laboratory grinding mills is relatively simple. Yet, the results obtained cannot be directly transposed to industrial mills, given the fundamentally different operational modes and grinding parameters. This paper seeks to evaluate the scale effect by comparing the results obtained from a closed-circuit tube mill operating at 90 ton/hr to those determined using a 50-liter laboratory mill. Tests results have shown that the decrease in specific energy consumption (Ec due to glycol or amine-based GA can be evaluated under laboratory conditions. However, such tests underestimate the actual performance that could be achieved in real-scale mills; the Ec reduction due to GA is around twofold higher when grinding is performed in real-scale mill. Compared to industrial tests, the cement particle size distribution curves widened and shifted towards higher diameters when grinding was performed under laboratory conditions, particularly with GA additions. This led to remarkable changes in water demand, setting time, and 1- and 28-day compressive strengths.

  15. Beyond-laboratory-scale prediction for channeling flows through subsurface rock fractures with heterogeneous aperture distributions revealed by laboratory evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Takuya; Watanabe, Noriaki; Hirano, Nobuo; Okamoto, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluates aperture distributions and fluid flow characteristics for variously sized laboratory-scale granite fractures under confining stress. As a significant result of the laboratory investigation, the contact area in fracture plane was found to be virtually independent of scale. By combining this characteristic with the self-affine fractal nature of fracture surfaces, a novel method for predicting fracture aperture distributions beyond laboratory scale is developed. Validity of this method is revealed through reproduction of the results of laboratory investigation and the maximum aperture-fracture length relations, which are reported in the literature, for natural fractures. The present study finally predicts conceivable scale dependencies of fluid flows through joints (fractures without shear displacement) and faults (fractures with shear displacement). Both joint and fault aperture distributions are characterized by a scale-independent contact area, a scale-dependent geometric mean, and a scale-independent geometric standard deviation of aperture. The contact areas for joints and faults are approximately 60% and 40%. Changes in the geometric means of joint and fault apertures (µm), em, joint and em, fault, with fracture length (m), l, are approximated by em, joint = 1 × 102 l0.1 and em, fault = 1 × 103 l0.7, whereas the geometric standard deviations of both joint and fault apertures are approximately 3. Fluid flows through both joints and faults are characterized by formations of preferential flow paths (i.e., channeling flows) with scale-independent flow areas of approximately 10%, whereas the joint and fault permeabilities (m2), kjoint and kfault, are scale dependent and are approximated as kjoint = 1 × 10-12 l0.2 and kfault = 1 × 10-8 l1.1.

  16. Alpha-contained laboratory scale pulse column facility for SRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, D.J.; Cadieux, J.R.; Fauth, D.J.; Thompson, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    For studying solvent extraction processes, a laboratory-sized pulse column facility was constructed at the Savannah River Laboratory. This facility, in conjunction with existing miniature mixer-settler equipment and the centrifugal contactor facility currently under construction at SRL, provides capability for cross comparison of solvent extraction technology. This presentation describes the design and applications of the Pulse Column Facility at SRL

  17. Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svingor, E.; Molnar, M.; Palcsu, L.; Futo, I.; Rinyu, L.; Mogyorosi, M.; Major, Z.; Bihari, A.; Vodila, G.; Janovics, R.; Papp, L.; Major, I.

    2010-01-01

    1. Introduction. The Hertelendi Laboratory for Environmental Studies (HEKAL) belongs to the Section of Environmental and Earth Sciences. It is a multidisciplinary laboratory dedicated to environmental research, to the development of nuclear analytical methods and to systems technology. During its existence of more than 15 years it has gained some reputation as a prime laboratory of analytical techniques, working with both radio- and stable isotopes. It has considerable expertise in isotope concentration measurements, radiocarbon dating, tritium measurements, in monitoring radioactivity around nuclear facilities and in modelling the movement of radionuclides in the environment. Many of its projects are within the scope of interest of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant. Our research activity is mainly concerned with the so-called environmental isotopes. This term denotes isotopes, both stable and radioactive, that are present in the natural environment either as a result of natural processes or of human activities. In environmental research isotopes are generally applied either as tracers or as age indicators. An ideal tracer is defined as a substance that behaves in the system studied exactly as the material to be traced as far as the examined parameters are concerned, but has at least one property that distinguishes it from the traced material. The mass number of an isotope is such an ideal indicator. In 2007 the laboratory assumed the name of Dr. Ede Hertelendi to honour the memory of the reputed environmental physicist who founded the group and headed it for many years. The current core of the laboratory staff is made up of his pupils and coworkers. This team was like a family to him. The group owes it to his fatherly figure that it did not fall apart after his death, but advanced with intense work and tenacity during the last decade. One of his first pupils, Mihaly Veres returned to the laboratory as a private entrepreneur and investor in 2005, and in the framework of

  18. Principles, equipment, and operation of two laboratory scale biodigesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, R.C.

    1979-10-01

    The major factors influencing the rate and efficiency of biogas production, which include type of substrate, carbon to nitrogen ratio, temperature, pH, agitation, influent solids concentration, and organic loading rate, are briefly discussed. Two laboratory scale biodigesters are described in detail. One system is a simple, batch biodigester with a water displacement gas collector. The second system uses an anaerobic filter technique which can reduce the overall digestion time of fresh plant material up to 75%.

  19. Frictional sliding in layered rock: laboratory-scale experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buescher, B.J.; Perry, K.E. Jr.; Epstein, J.S.

    1996-09-01

    The work is part of the rock mechanics effort for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program. The laboratory-scale experiments are intended to provide high quality data on the mechanical behavior of jointed structures that can be used to validate complex numerical models for rock-mass behavior. Frictional sliding between simulated rock joints was studied using phase shifting moire interferometry. A model, constructed from stacks of machined and sandblasted granite plates, contained a central hole bore normal to the place so that frictional slip would be induced between the plates near the hole under compressive loading. Results show a clear evolution of slip with increasing load. Since the rock was not cycled through loading- unloading, the quantitative differences between the three data sets are probably due to a ''wearing-in'' effect. The highly variable spatial frequency of the data is probably due to the large grain size of the granite and the stochastic frictional processes. An unusual feature of the evolution of slip with increasing load is that as the load gets larger, some plates seem to return to a null position. Figs, 6 refs

  20. Laboratory, semi-pilot and room scale study of nitrite and molybdate mediated control of H(2)S emission from swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Lyman; Predicala, Bernardo; Nemati, Mehdi

    2010-04-01

    The effects of manure age on emission of H(2)S and required level of nitrite or molybdate to control these emissions were investigated in the present work. Molybdate mediated control of H(2)S emission was also studied in semi-pilot scale open systems, and in specifically designed chambers which simulated swine production rooms. With fresh 1-, 3- and 6-month old manures average H(2)S concentration in the headspace gas of the closed systems were 4856+/-460, 3431+/-208, 1037+/-98 ppm and non-detectable, respectively. Moreover, the level of nitrite or molybdate required to control the emission of H(2)S decreased as manure age increased. In the semi-pilot scale open system and chambers, average H(2)S concentration at the surface of agitated fresh manure were 831+/-26 and 88.4+/-5.7 ppm, respectively. Furthermore, 0.1-0.25 mM molybdate was sufficient to control the emission of H(2)S. A cost study for an average size swine operation showed that the cost of treatment with molybdate was less than 1% of the overall production cost for each market hog. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Laboratory Approaches to Studying Occupants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Andreas; Andersen, Rune; Zhang, Hui

    2018-01-01

    is high and a large number of physical, physiological, and psychological quantities can be monitored. This chapter gives an overview of various types of test facilities in the world and their main features in terms of experimental opportunities. It then presents typical technical equipment and sensor......Laboratories offer the possibility to study occupant behavior in a very detailed manner. A wide range of indoor environmental scenarios can be simulated under precisely controlled conditions, and human subjects can be selected based on pre-defined criteria. The degree of control over experiments...

  2. CFD analysis of laboratory scale phase equilibrium cell operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jama, Mohamed Ali; Nikiforow, Kaj; Qureshi, Muhammad Saad; Alopaeus, Ville

    2017-10-01

    For the modeling of multiphase chemical reactors or separation processes, it is essential to predict accurately chemical equilibrium data, such as vapor-liquid or liquid-liquid equilibria [M. Šoóš et al., Chem. Eng. Process.: Process Intensif. 42(4), 273-284 (2003)]. The instruments used in these experiments are typically designed based on previous experiences, and their operation verified based on known equilibria of standard components. However, mass transfer limitations with different chemical systems may be very different, potentially falsifying the measured equilibrium compositions. In this work, computational fluid dynamics is utilized to design and analyze laboratory scale experimental gas-liquid equilibrium cell for the first time to augment the traditional analysis based on plug flow assumption. Two-phase dilutor cell, used for measuring limiting activity coefficients at infinite dilution, is used as a test case for the analysis. The Lagrangian discrete model is used to track each bubble and to study the residence time distribution of the carrier gas bubbles in the dilutor cell. This analysis is necessary to assess whether the gas leaving the cell is in equilibrium with the liquid, as required in traditional analysis of such apparatus. Mass transfer for six different bio-oil compounds is calculated to determine the approach equilibrium concentration. Also, residence times assuming plug flow and ideal mixing are used as reference cases to evaluate the influence of mixing on the approach to equilibrium in the dilutor. Results show that the model can be used to predict the dilutor operating conditions for which each of the studied gas-liquid systems reaches equilibrium.

  3. CFD analysis of laboratory scale phase equilibrium cell operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jama, Mohamed Ali; Nikiforow, Kaj; Qureshi, Muhammad Saad; Alopaeus, Ville

    2017-10-01

    For the modeling of multiphase chemical reactors or separation processes, it is essential to predict accurately chemical equilibrium data, such as vapor-liquid or liquid-liquid equilibria [M. Šoóš et al., Chem. Eng. Process Intensif. 42(4), 273-284 (2003)]. The instruments used in these experiments are typically designed based on previous experiences, and their operation verified based on known equilibria of standard components. However, mass transfer limitations with different chemical systems may be very different, potentially falsifying the measured equilibrium compositions. In this work, computational fluid dynamics is utilized to design and analyze laboratory scale experimental gas-liquid equilibrium cell for the first time to augment the traditional analysis based on plug flow assumption. Two-phase dilutor cell, used for measuring limiting activity coefficients at infinite dilution, is used as a test case for the analysis. The Lagrangian discrete model is used to track each bubble and to study the residence time distribution of the carrier gas bubbles in the dilutor cell. This analysis is necessary to assess whether the gas leaving the cell is in equilibrium with the liquid, as required in traditional analysis of such apparatus. Mass transfer for six different bio-oil compounds is calculated to determine the approach equilibrium concentration. Also, residence times assuming plug flow and ideal mixing are used as reference cases to evaluate the influence of mixing on the approach to equilibrium in the dilutor. Results show that the model can be used to predict the dilutor operating conditions for which each of the studied gas-liquid systems reaches equilibrium.

  4. Note: Measurement system for the radiative forcing of greenhouse gases in a laboratory scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Yoshiyuki [Department of Intelligent Mechanical Engineering, Fukuoka Institute of Technology, 3-30-1 Wajirohigashi, Higashiku, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    The radiative forcing of the greenhouse gases has been studied being based on computational simulations or the observation of the real atmosphere meteorologically. In order to know the greenhouse effect more deeply and to study it from various viewpoints, the study on it in a laboratory scale is important. We have developed a direct measurement system for the infrared back radiation from the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) gas. The system configuration is similar with that of the practical earth-atmosphere-space system. Using this system, the back radiation from the CO{sub 2} gas was directly measured in a laboratory scale, which roughly coincides with meteorologically predicted value.

  5. Note: Measurement system for the radiative forcing of greenhouse gases in a laboratory scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The radiative forcing of the greenhouse gases has been studied being based on computational simulations or the observation of the real atmosphere meteorologically. In order to know the greenhouse effect more deeply and to study it from various viewpoints, the study on it in a laboratory scale is important. We have developed a direct measurement system for the infrared back radiation from the carbon dioxide (CO2) gas. The system configuration is similar with that of the practical earth-atmosphere-space system. Using this system, the back radiation from the CO2 gas was directly measured in a laboratory scale, which roughly coincides with meteorologically predicted value.

  6. Potential for improved radiation thermometry measurement uncertainty through implementing a primary scale in an industrial laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmott, Jon R.; Lowe, David; Broughton, Mick; White, Ben S.; Machin, Graham

    2016-09-01

    A primary temperature scale requires realising a unit in terms of its definition. For high temperature radiation thermometry in terms of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 this means extrapolating from the signal measured at the freezing temperature of gold, silver or copper using Planck’s radiation law. The difficulty in doing this means that primary scales above 1000 °C require specialist equipment and careful characterisation in order to achieve the extrapolation with sufficient accuracy. As such, maintenance of the scale at high temperatures is usually only practicable for National Metrology Institutes, and calibration laboratories have to rely on a scale calibrated against transfer standards. At lower temperatures it is practicable for an industrial calibration laboratory to have its own primary temperature scale, which reduces the number of steps between the primary scale and end user. Proposed changes to the SI that will introduce internationally accepted high temperature reference standards might make it practicable to have a primary high temperature scale in a calibration laboratory. In this study such a scale was established by calibrating radiation thermometers directly to high temperature reference standards. The possible reduction in uncertainty to an end user as a result of the reduced calibration chain was evaluated.

  7. Study of the Effect of SRT on Microbial Diversity in Laboratory-scale Sequencing Batch Reactors Using Acclimated and Non-Acclimated Seed

    KAUST Repository

    Tellez, Berenice

    2011-07-07

    Solids Retention Time (SRT) is an important design parameter in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems. In this study, the effect of SRT on the bacterial community structure and diversity was examined in replicate lab-scale activated sludge sequencing batch reactors were operated for a period of 8 weeks and seeded with acclimated or non-acclimated sludge. Four SBRs (acclimated) were set up as duplicates and operated at an SRT of 2 days, and another set of four SBRs (non-acclimated) were operated at an SRT of 10 days. To characterize the microbial community in the SBRs, 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was used to measure biodiversity and to assess the reproducibility and stability of the bacterial community structure in replicate reactors. Diversity results showed that SBRs operated at an SRT of 10 days are more diverse than SBRs operated at an SRT of 2 days. This suggests that engineering decision could enhance diversity in activated sludge systems. Cluster analysis based on phylogenetic information revealed that the bacterial community structure was not stable and replicated SBRs evolved differently.

  8. Vermicomposting of winery wastes: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogales, Rogelio; Cifuentes, Celia; Benítez, Emilio

    2005-01-01

    In Mediterranean countries, millions of tons of wastes from viticulture and winery industries are produced every year. This study describes the ability of the earthworm Eisenia andrei to compost different winery wastes (spent grape marc, vinasse biosolids, lees cakes, and vine shoots) into valuable agricultural products. The evolution of earthworm biomass and enzyme activities was tracked for 16 weeks of vermicomposting, on a laboratory scale. Increases in earthworm biomass for all winery wastes proved lower than in manure. Changes in hydrolytic enzymes and overall microbial activities during the vermicomposting process indicated the biodegradation of the winery wastes. Vermicomposting improved the agronomic value of the winery wastes by reducing the C:N ratio, conductivity and phytotoxicity, while increasing the humic materials, nutrient contents, and pH in all cases. Thus, winery wastes show potential as raw substrates in vermicomposting, although further research is needed to evaluate the feasibility of such wastes in large-scale vermicomposting systems.

  9. Laboratory and field scale demonstration of reactive barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, B.P.; Marozas, D.C.; Cantrell, K.; Stewart, W.

    1996-10-01

    In an effort to devise a cost efficient technology for remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater, the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (DOE-UMTRA) Program through Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) fabricated a pilot scale research project utilizing reactive subsurface barriers at an UMTRA site in Durango, Colorado. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by placing a reactant material (in this experiment, metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. The reactive media then removes and/or transforms the contaminant(s) to regulatory acceptable levels. Experimental design and results are discussed with regard to other potential applications of reactive barrier remediation strategies at other sites with contaminated groundwater problems

  10. Criteria for Scaled Laboratory Simulations of Astrophysical MHD Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryutov, D. D.; Drake, R. P.; Remington, B. A.

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate that two systems described by the equations of the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) evolve similarly, if the initial conditions are geometrically similar and certain scaling relations hold. The thermodynamic properties of the gas must be such that the internal energy density is proportional to the pressure. The presence of the shocks is allowed. We discuss the applicability conditions of the ideal MHD and demonstrate that they are satisfied with a large margin both in a number of astrophysical objects, and in properly designed simulation experiments with high-power lasers. This allows one to perform laboratory experiments whose results can be used for quantitative interpretation of various effects of astrophysical MHD. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society

  11. Replicating the microbial community and water quality performance of full-scale slow sand filters in laboratory-scale filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Sarah-Jane; Quince, Christopher; Davies, Robert L; Dorea, Caetano C; Collins, Gavin

    2014-09-15

    Previous laboratory-scale studies to characterise the functional microbial ecology of slow sand filters have suffered from methodological limitations that could compromise their relevance to full-scale systems. Therefore, to ascertain if laboratory-scale slow sand filters (L-SSFs) can replicate the microbial community and water quality production of industrially operated full-scale slow sand filters (I-SSFs), eight cylindrical L-SSFs were constructed and were used to treat water from the same source as the I-SSFs. Half of the L-SSFs sand beds were composed of sterilized sand (sterile) from the industrial filters and the other half with sand taken directly from the same industrial filter (non-sterile). All filters were operated for 10 weeks, with the microbial community and water quality parameters sampled and analysed weekly. To characterize the microbial community phyla-specific qPCR assays and 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were used in conjunction with an array of statistical techniques. The results demonstrate that it is possible to mimic both the water quality production and the structure of the microbial community of full-scale filters in the laboratory - at all levels of taxonomic classification except OTU - thus allowing comparison of LSSF experiments with full-scale units. Further, it was found that the sand type composing the filter bed (non-sterile or sterile), the water quality produced, the age of the filters and the depth of sand samples were all significant factors in explaining observed differences in the structure of the microbial consortia. This study is the first to the authors' knowledge that demonstrates that scaled-down slow sand filters can accurately reproduce the water quality and microbial consortia of full-scale slow sand filters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The laboratories of geological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This educational document comprises 4 booklets in a folder devoted to the presentation of the ANDRA's activities in geological research laboratories. The first booklet gives a presentation of the missions of the ANDRA (the French agency for the management of radioactive wastes) in the management of long life radioactive wastes. The second booklet describes the approach of waste disposal facilities implantation. The third booklet gives a brief presentation of the scientific program concerning the underground geologic laboratories. The last booklet is a compilation of questions and answers about long-life radioactive wastes, the research and works carried out in geologic laboratories, the public information and the local socio-economic impact, and the storage of radioactive wastes in deep geological formations. (J.S.)

  13. Veterinary Laboratory Services Study - 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-01

    years. Many tests , such as ;uman pregnancy testing , Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolation and :iers have been converted to in—vitro procedures. Sheep...assignment in laboratories and worked in chemistry , mic robiology , or diagnostic areas can be directly uti l ized with little additional orientation. They...Chorionic Gonadotropin 475 730 17 1,222 UCG or Human Pregnancy 147 42 189 Tularemia 332 332 OX—19 211 211 Salmonella 219 219 Trichinella 17 17 Venipuncture

  14. Slurry spray distribution within a simulated laboratory scale spray dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, P.C.

    1979-01-01

    It was found that the distribution of liquid striking the sides of a simulated room temperature spray dryer was not significantly altered by the choice of nozles, nor by a variation in nozzle operating conditions. Instead, it was found to be a function of the spray dryer's configuration. A cocurrent flow of air down the drying cylinder, not possible with PNL's closed top, favorably altered the spray distribution by both decreasing the amount of liquid striking the interior of the cylinder from 72 to 26% of the feed supplied, and by shifting the zone of maximum impact from 1.0 to 1.7 feet from the nozzle. These findings led to the redesign of the laboratory scale spray dryer to be tested at the Savannah River Plant. The diameter of the drying chamber was increased from 5 to 8 inches, and a cocurrent flow of air was established with a closed recycle. Finally, this investigation suggested a drying scheme which offers all the advantages of spray drying without many of its limitations

  15. Laboratory-scale sodium-carbonate aggregate concrete interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westrich, H.R.; Stockman, H.W.; Suo-Anttila, A.

    1983-09-01

    A series of laboratory-scale experiments was made at 600 0 C to identify the important heat-producing chemical reactions between sodium and carbonate aggregate concretes. Reactions between sodium and carbonate aggregate were found to be responsible for the bulk of heat production in sodium-concrete tests. Exothermic reactions were initiated at 580+-30 0 C for limestone and dolostone aggregates as well as for hydrated limestone concrete, and at 540+-10 0 C for dehydrated limestone concrete, but were ill-defined for dolostone concrete. Major reaction products included CaO, MgO, Na 2 CO 3 , Na 2 O, NaOH, and elemental carbon. Sodium hydroxide, which forms when water is released from cement phases, causes slow erosion of the concrete with little heat production. The time-temperature profiles of these experiments have been modeled with a simplified version of the SLAM computer code, which has allowed derivation of chemical reaction rate coefficients

  16. COMPILATION OF LABORATORY SCALE ALUMINUM WASH AND LEACH REPORT RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    This report compiles and analyzes all known wash and caustic leach laboratory studies. As further data is produced, this report will be updated. Included are aluminum mineralogical analysis results as well as a summation of the wash and leach procedures and results. Of the 177 underground storage tanks at Hanford, information was only available for five individual double-shell tanks, forty-one individual single-shell tanks (e.g. thirty-nine 100 series and two 200 series tanks), and twelve grouped tank wastes. Seven of the individual single-shell tank studies provided data for the percent of aluminum removal as a function of time for various caustic concentrations and leaching temperatures. It was determined that in most cases increased leaching temperature, caustic concentration, and leaching time leads to increased dissolution of leachable aluminum solids.

  17. COMPILATION OF LABORATORY SCALE ALUMINUM WASH AND LEACH REPORT RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HARRINGTON SJ

    2011-01-06

    This report compiles and analyzes all known wash and caustic leach laboratory studies. As further data is produced, this report will be updated. Included are aluminum mineralogical analysis results as well as a summation of the wash and leach procedures and results. Of the 177 underground storage tanks at Hanford, information was only available for five individual double-shell tanks, forty-one individual single-shell tanks (e.g. thirty-nine 100 series and two 200 series tanks), and twelve grouped tank wastes. Seven of the individual single-shell tank studies provided data for the percent of aluminum removal as a function of time for various caustic concentrations and leaching temperatures. It was determined that in most cases increased leaching temperature, caustic concentration, and leaching time leads to increased dissolution of leachable aluminum solids.

  18. Batch vs continuous-feeding operational mode for the removal of pesticides from agricultural run-off by microalgae systems: A laboratory scale study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matamoros, Víctor, E-mail: victor.matamoros@idaea.csic.es; Rodríguez, Yolanda

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The effect of microalgae on the removal of pesticides has been evaluated. • Continuous feeding operational mode is more efficient for removing pesticides. • Microalgae increased the removal of some pesticides. • Pesticide TPs confirmed that biodegradation was relevant. - Abstract: Microalgae-based water treatment technologies have been used in recent years to treat different water effluents, but their effectiveness for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off has not yet been addressed. This paper assesses the effect of microalgae in pesticide removal, as well as the influence of different operation strategies (continuous vs batch feeding). The following pesticides were studied: mecoprop, atrazine, simazine, diazinone, alachlor, chlorfenvinphos, lindane, malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and clofibric acid (tracer). 2 L batch reactors and 5 L continuous reactors were spiked to 10 μg L{sup −1} of each pesticide. Additionally, three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were assessed (2, 4 and 8 days) in the continuous feeding reactors. The batch-feeding experiments demonstrated that the presence of microalgae increased the efficiency of lindane, alachlor and chlorpyrifos by 50%. The continuous feeding reactors had higher removal efficiencies than the batch reactors for pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos and lindane. Whilst longer HRTs increased the technology’s effectiveness, a low HRT of 2 days was capable of removing malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, and endosulfan by up to 70%. This study suggests that microalgae-based treatment technologies can be an effective alternative for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off.

  19. Batch vs continuous-feeding operational mode for the removal of pesticides from agricultural run-off by microalgae systems: A laboratory scale study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matamoros, Víctor; Rodríguez, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of microalgae on the removal of pesticides has been evaluated. • Continuous feeding operational mode is more efficient for removing pesticides. • Microalgae increased the removal of some pesticides. • Pesticide TPs confirmed that biodegradation was relevant. - Abstract: Microalgae-based water treatment technologies have been used in recent years to treat different water effluents, but their effectiveness for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off has not yet been addressed. This paper assesses the effect of microalgae in pesticide removal, as well as the influence of different operation strategies (continuous vs batch feeding). The following pesticides were studied: mecoprop, atrazine, simazine, diazinone, alachlor, chlorfenvinphos, lindane, malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and clofibric acid (tracer). 2 L batch reactors and 5 L continuous reactors were spiked to 10 μg L"−"1 of each pesticide. Additionally, three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were assessed (2, 4 and 8 days) in the continuous feeding reactors. The batch-feeding experiments demonstrated that the presence of microalgae increased the efficiency of lindane, alachlor and chlorpyrifos by 50%. The continuous feeding reactors had higher removal efficiencies than the batch reactors for pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos and lindane. Whilst longer HRTs increased the technology’s effectiveness, a low HRT of 2 days was capable of removing malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, and endosulfan by up to 70%. This study suggests that microalgae-based treatment technologies can be an effective alternative for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off.

  20. Examination of the behaviour of escherichia coli in biofilms established in laboratory- scale units receiving chlorinated and chloraminated water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Momba, MNB

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater was treated with chlorine and chloramine to study the incorporation and survival of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in developing biofilms in laboratory-scale units. Membrane filter and standard spread plate procedure were used to enumerate...

  1. A laboratory scale model of abrupt ice-shelf disintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macayeal, D. R.; Boghosian, A.; Styron, D. D.; Burton, J. C.; Amundson, J. M.; Cathles, L. M.; Abbot, D. S.

    2010-12-01

    An important mode of Earth’s disappearing cryosphere is the abrupt disintegration of ice shelves along the Peninsula of Antarctica. This disintegration process may be triggered by climate change, however the work needed to produce the spectacular, explosive results witnessed with the Larsen B and Wilkins ice-shelf events of the last decade comes from the large potential energy release associated with iceberg capsize and fragmentation. To gain further insight into the underlying exchanges of energy involved in massed iceberg movements, we have constructed a laboratory-scale model designed to explore the physical and hydrodynamic interactions between icebergs in a confined channel of water. The experimental apparatus consists of a 2-meter water tank that is 30 cm wide. Within the tank, we introduce fresh water and approximately 20-100 rectangular plastic ‘icebergs’ having the appropriate density contrast with water to mimic ice. The blocks are initially deployed in a tight pack, with all blocks arranged in a manner to represent the initial state of an integrated ice shelf or ice tongue. The system is allowed to evolve through time under the driving forces associated with iceberg hydrodynamics. Digitized videography is used to quantify how the system of plastic icebergs evolves between states of quiescence to states of mobilization. Initial experiments show that, after a single ‘agitator’ iceberg begins to capsize, an ‘avalanche’ of capsizing icebergs ensues which drives horizontal expansion of the massed icebergs across the water surface, and which stimulates other icebergs to capsize. A surprise initially evident in the experiments is the fact that the kinetic energy of the expanding mass of icebergs is only a small fraction of the net potential energy released by the rearrangement of mass via capsize. Approximately 85 - 90 % of the energy released by the system goes into water motion modes, including a pervasive, easily observed seich mode of the tank

  2. Synthetic Spider Silk Production on a Laboratory Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Yang; Gnesa, Eric; Pacheco, Ryan; Kohler, Kristin; Jeffery, Felicia; Vierra, Craig

    2012-01-01

    As society progresses and resources become scarcer, it is becoming increasingly important to cultivate new technologies that engineer next generation biomaterials with high performance properties. The development of these new structural materials must be rapid, cost-efficient and involve processing methodologies and products that are environmentally friendly and sustainable. Spiders spin a multitude of different fiber types with diverse mechanical properties, offering a rich source of next generation engineering materials for biomimicry that rival the best manmade and natural materials. Since the collection of large quantities of natural spider silk is impractical, synthetic silk production has the ability to provide scientists with access to an unlimited supply of threads. Therefore, if the spinning process can be streamlined and perfected, artificial spider fibers have the potential use for a broad range of applications ranging from body armor, surgical sutures, ropes and cables, tires, strings for musical instruments, and composites for aviation and aerospace technology. In order to advance the synthetic silk production process and to yield fibers that display low variance in their material properties from spin to spin, we developed a wet-spinning protocol that integrates expression of recombinant spider silk proteins in bacteria, purification and concentration of the proteins, followed by fiber extrusion and a mechanical post-spin treatment. This is the first visual representation that reveals a step-by-step process to spin and analyze artificial silk fibers on a laboratory scale. It also provides details to minimize the introduction of variability among fibers spun from the same spinning dope. Collectively, these methods will propel the process of artificial silk production, leading to higher quality fibers that surpass natural spider silks. PMID:22847722

  3. Direct geoelectrical evidence of mass transfer at the laboratory scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Ryan D.; Singha, Kamini; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Binley, Andrew; Keating, Kristina; Haggerty, Roy

    2012-10-01

    Previous field-scale experimental data and numerical modeling suggest that the dual-domain mass transfer (DDMT) of electrolytic tracers has an observable geoelectrical signature. Here we present controlled laboratory experiments confirming the electrical signature of DDMT and demonstrate the use of time-lapse electrical measurements in conjunction with concentration measurements to estimate the parameters controlling DDMT, i.e., the mobile and immobile porosity and rate at which solute exchanges between mobile and immobile domains. We conducted column tracer tests on unconsolidated quartz sand and a material with a high secondary porosity: the zeolite clinoptilolite. During NaCl tracer tests we collected nearly colocated bulk direct-current electrical conductivity (σb) and fluid conductivity (σf) measurements. Our results for the zeolite show (1) extensive tailing and (2) a hysteretic relation between σf and σb, thus providing evidence of mass transfer not observed within the quartz sand. To identify best-fit parameters and evaluate parameter sensitivity, we performed over 2700 simulations of σf, varying the immobile and mobile domain and mass transfer rate. We emphasized the fit to late-time tailing by minimizing the Box-Cox power transformed root-mean square error between the observed and simulated σf. Low-field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements provide an independent quantification of the volumes of the mobile and immobile domains. The best-fit parameters based on σf match the NMR measurements of the immobile and mobile domain porosities and provide the first direct electrical evidence for DDMT. Our results underscore the potential of using electrical measurements for DDMT parameter inference.

  4. Combustion of biodiesel in a large-scale laboratory furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Caio; Wang, Gongliang; Costa, Mário

    2014-01-01

    Combustion tests in a large-scale laboratory furnace were carried out to assess the feasibility of using biodiesel as a fuel in industrial furnaces. For comparison purposes, petroleum-based diesel was also used as a fuel. Initially, the performance of the commercial air-assisted atomizer used in the combustion tests was scrutinized under non-reacting conditions. Subsequently, flue gas data, including PM (particulate matter), were obtained for various flame conditions to quantify the effects of the atomization quality and excess air on combustion performance. The combustion data was complemented with in-flame temperature measurements for two representative furnace operating conditions. The results reveal that (i) CO emissions from biodiesel and diesel combustion are rather similar and not affected by the atomization quality; (ii) NO x emissions increase slightly as spray quality improves for both liquid fuels, but NO x emissions from biodiesel combustion are always lower than those from diesel combustion; (iii) CO emissions decrease rapidly for both liquid fuels as the excess air level increases up to an O 2 concentration in the flue gas of 2%, beyond which they remain unchanged; (iv) NO x emissions increase with an increase in the excess air level for both liquid fuels; (v) the quality of the atomization has a significant impact on PM emissions, with the diesel combustion yielding significantly higher PM emissions than biodiesel combustion; and (vi) diesel combustion originates PM with elements such as Cr, Na, Ni and Pb, while biodiesel combustion produces PM with elements such as Ca, Mg and Fe. - Highlights: • CO emissions from biodiesel and diesel tested are similar. • NO x emissions from biodiesel tested are lower than those from diesel tested. • Diesel tested yields significantly higher PM (particulate matter) emissions than biodiesel tested. • Diesel tested originates PM with Cr, Na, Ni and Pb, while biodiesel tested produces PM with Ca, Mg and Fe

  5. Design and installation of a laboratory-scale system for radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, D.N.; Knox, C.A.; Siemens, D.H.

    1980-05-01

    Described are the mechanical design features and remote installation of a laboratory-scale radiochemical immobilization system which is to provide a means at Pacific Northwest Laboratory of studying effluents generated during solidification of high-level liquid radioactive waste. Detailed are the hot cell, instrumentation, two 4-in. and 12-in. service racks, the immobilization system modules - waste feed, spray calciner unit, and effluent - and a gamma emission monitor system for viewing calcine powder buildup in the spray calciner/in-can melter

  6. A Simple Laboratory Scale Model of Iceberg Dynamics and its Role in Undergraduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, J. C.; MacAyeal, D. R.; Nakamura, N.

    2011-12-01

    Lab-scale models of geophysical phenomena have a long history in research and education. For example, at the University of Chicago, Dave Fultz developed laboratory-scale models of atmospheric flows. The results from his laboratory were so stimulating that similar laboratories were subsequently established at a number of other institutions. Today, the Dave Fultz Memorial Laboratory for Hydrodynamics (http://geosci.uchicago.edu/~nnn/LAB/) teaches general circulation of the atmosphere and oceans to hundreds of students each year. Following this tradition, we have constructed a lab model of iceberg-capsize dynamics for use in the Fultz Laboratory, which focuses on the interface between glaciology and physical oceanography. The experiment consists of a 2.5 meter long wave tank containing water and plastic "icebergs". The motion of the icebergs is tracked using digital video. Movies can be found at: http://geosci.uchicago.edu/research/glaciology_files/tsunamigenesis_research.shtml. We have had 3 successful undergraduate interns with backgrounds in mathematics, engineering, and geosciences perform experiments, analyze data, and interpret results. In addition to iceberg dynamics, the wave-tank has served as a teaching tool in undergraduate classes studying dam-breaking and tsunami run-up. Motivated by the relatively inexpensive cost of our apparatus (~1K-2K dollars) and positive experiences of undergraduate students, we hope to serve as a model for undergraduate research and education that other universities may follow.

  7. Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS): A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Karen S.; Auping, Judith V.; Megargle, Robert G.

    1987-01-01

    In the late 70's, a refurbishment of the analytical laboratories serving the Materials Division at NASA Lewis Research Center was undertaken. As part of the modernization efforts, a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) was to be included. Preliminary studies indicated a custom-designed system as the best choice in order to satisfy all of the requirements. A scaled down version of the original design has been in operation since 1984. The LIMS, a combination of computer hardware, provides the chemical characterization laboratory with an information data base, a report generator, a user interface, and networking capabilities. This paper is an account of the processes involved in designing and implementing that LIMS.

  8. Large-Scale Laboratory Facility For Sediment Transport Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Effective design and maintenance of inlet navigation and shore protection projects require accurate estimates of the quantity of sand that moves along the beach. The...

  9. Laboratory-scale shielded cell for 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.; Cargo, C.H.

    1979-01-01

    A shielded-cell facility for storing and handling remotely up to 2 milligram quantities of unencapsulated 252 Cf has been built in a radiochemistry laboratory at the Test Reactor Area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Unique features of this facility are its compact bulk radiation shield of borated gypsum and transfer lines which permit the transport of fission product activity from 252 Cf fission sources within the cell to a mass separator and to a fast radiochemistry system in nearby rooms

  10. Virtual reality studies outside the laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mottelson, Aske; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    virtual reality (VR) studies outside laboratories remains unclear because these studies often use expensive equipment, depend critically on the physical context, and sometimes study delicate phenomena concerning body awareness and immersion. To investigate, we explore pointing, 3D tracing, and body......Many user studies are now conducted outside laboratories to increase the number and heterogeneity of participants. These studies are conducted in diverse settings, with the potential to give research greater external validity and statistical power at a lower cost. The feasibility of conducting......-illusions both in-lab and out-of-lab. The in-lab study was carried out as a traditional experiment with state-of-the-art VR equipment; 31 completed the study in our laboratory. The out-of-lab study was conducted by distributing commodity cardboard VR glasses to participants; 57 completed the study anywhere...

  11. Full-scale and laboratory-scale anaerobic treatment of citric acid production wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleran, E; Pender, S; Philpott, U; O'Flaherty, V; Leahy, B

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the operation of a full-scale, fixed-bed digester treating a citric acid production wastewater with a COD:sulphate ratio of 3-4:1. Support matrix pieces were removed from the digester at intervals during the first 5 years of operation in order to quantify the vertical distribution of biomass within the digester. Detailed analysis of the digester biomass after 5 years of operation indicated that H2 and propionate-utilising SRB had outcompeted hydrogenophilic methanogens and propionate syntrophs. Acetoclastic methanogens were shown to play the dominant role in acetate conversion. Butyrate and ethanol-degrading syntrophs also remained active in the digester after 5 years of operation. Laboratory-scale hybrid reactor treatment at 55 degrees C of a diluted molasses influent, with and without sulphate supplementation, showed that the reactors could be operated with high stability at volumetric loading rates of 24 kgCOD.m-3.d-1 (12 h HRT). In the presence of sulphate (2 g/l-1; COD/sulphate ratio of 6:1), acetate conversion was severely inhibited, resulting in effluent acetate concentrations of up to 4000 mg.l-1.

  12. Full-scale leaching study of commercial reactor waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a full-scale leaching experiment which has been conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to study the release of radionuclides from actual commercial reactor waste forms. While many studies characterizing the leaching behavior of simulated laboratory-scale waste forms have been performed, this program represents one of the first attempts in the United States to quantify activity releases for real, full-scale waste forms. 5 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  13. Noise study in laboratories with exhaust fans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, G.H.; Hashmi, R.; Shareef, A.

    2005-01-01

    Noise study has been carried out in 25 laboratories fitted with exhaust fans. We have studied A- Weighted equivalent sound pressure levels (dB(A) LAeJ and equivalent octave band sound pressure levels (dB L/sub eq/ in each of the laboratories surveyed. The data collected has been analyzed for Preferred Speech Interference Levels (PSIL). The results show that the interior noise levels in these laboratories vary from 59.6 to 72.2 dB(A) L/sub Aeq/, which are very high and much beyond the interior noise limits recommended for laboratories. Some ways and means to limit emission of high-level noise from exhaust fans are also discussed. (author)

  14. Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments to Study Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rachel

    As a thesis project, I devised and implemented a scaled accretion shock experiment on the OMEGA laser (Laboratory for Laser Energetics). This effort marked the first foray into the growing field of laser-created magnetized flowing plasmas for the Center for Laser Experimental Astrophysical Research (CLEAR) here at the University of Michigan. Accretion shocks form when streams of accreting material fall to the surface of a young, growing star along magnetic field lines and, due to their supersonic flow, create shocks. As I was concerned with what was happening immediately on the surface of the star where the shock forms, I scaled the system by launching a plasma jet (the "accreting flow") and driving it into a solid surface (the "stellar surface") in the presence of an imposed magnetic field parallel to the jet flow (locally analogous to the dipole field of the star). Early work for this thesis project was dedicated to building a magnetized flowing plasma platform at CLEAR. I investigated a method for launching collimated plasma jets and studied them using Thomson scattering, a method which measures parameters such as temperature and density by scattering a probe beam off the experimental plasma. Although the data were corrupted with probe heating effects, I overcame this problem by finding the mass density of the jets and using it to determine they were isothermal rarefactions with a temperature of 6 eV. Scaling an astrophysical phenomenon to the laboratory requires tailoring the parameters of the experiment to preserve its physics, rather than creating an experiment that merely superficially resembles it. I ensured this by distilling the driving physical processes of the astrophysical system--accretion shocks--into a list of dimensionless number constraints and mapping these into plasma parameter space. Due to this project being the first magnetized flowing plasma effort at CLEAR, it suffered the growing pains typical of a young research program. Of my two primary

  15. Fine scale monitoring of ice ablation following convective heat transfer: case study based on ice-wedge thermo-erosion on Bylot Island (Canadian High Arctic) and laboratory observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, E.; Fortier, D.

    2011-12-01

    Thermo-erosion gullies often develop in ice-wedge polygons terrace and contribute to the dynamic evolution of the periglacial landscape. When snowmelt surface run-off concentrated into streams and water tracks infiltrate frost cracks, advective heat flow and convective thermal transfer from water to the ice-wedge ice enable the rapid development of tunnels and gullies in the permafrost (Fortier et al. 2007). Fine scale monitoring of the physical interaction between flowing water and ice rich permafrost had already been studied in a context of thermal erosion of a large river banks in Russia (Costard et al. 2003). Ice wedge polygons thermo-erosion process leading to gullying remains to be physically modelled and quantified. The present paper focus on the fine scale monitoring of thermo-erosion physical parameters both in the field and in laboratory. The physical model in laboratory was elaborated using a fixed block of ice monitored by a linear voltage differential transducer (LVDT) and temperature sensors connected to a logger. A water container with controlled discharge and temperature provided the fluid which flowed over the ice through a hose. Water discharge (Q), water temperature (Tw), ice melting temperature (Ti) and ice ablation rate (Ar) were measured. In laboratory, water at 281 Kelvin (K) flowing on the ice (Ti 273 K) made the ice melt at a rate Ar of 0.002 m min-1, under a continuous discharge of ≈ 8 x 10-7 m3 s-1. In the field, a small channel was dug between a stream and an exposed ice-wedge in a pre-existing active gully, where in 2010 large quantities of near zero snowmelt run-off water contributed to several meters of ice wedge ablation and gully development. Screws were fastened into the ice and a ruler was used to measure the ablation rate every minute. The surface temperature of the ice wedge was monitored with thermocouples connected to a logger to obtain the condition of the ice boundary layer. Discharge and water temperature were measured in

  16. Building a Laboratory-Scale Biogas Plant and Verifying its Functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boleman, Tomáš; Fiala, Jozef; Blinová, Lenka; Gerulová, Kristína

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the process of building a laboratory-scale biogas plant and verifying its functionality. The laboratory-scale prototype was constructed in the Department of Safety and Environmental Engineering at the Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava, of the Slovak University of Technology. The Department has already built a solar laboratory to promote and utilise solar energy, and designed SETUR hydro engine. The laboratory is the next step in the Department's activities in the field of renewable energy sources and biomass. The Department is also involved in the European Union project, where the goal is to upgrade all existed renewable energy sources used in the Department.

  17. Comparison of organic emissions from laboratory and full-scale thermal degradation of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirey, D.A.; Striebich, R.C.; Dellinger, B.; Bostian, H.E.

    1991-01-01

    Samples of sewage sludge burned at one fluidized-bed and three multiple-hearth incinerators were subjected to laboratory flow reactor thermal decomposition testing in both pyrolytic and oxidative atmospheres. The time/temperature conditions of the laboratory testing were established to simulate as closely as possible full-scale incineration conditions so that a direct comparison of results could be made. The laboratory test results indicated that biomass decomposition products, not toxic industrial contaminants, comprised the majority of the emissions. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, acrylonitrile, and acetonitrile were consistently the most environmentally significant products of thermal degradation. Comparison of the results from this study with those obtained in field tests was complicated by an apparent loss of volatile chlorocarbons from the sludge samples received for laboratory testing. However, qualitative comparison of emission factors derived from lab and field results for those compounds observed in both studies, showed reasonably good correlation for the pyrolysis testing. Results suggested that the upper stages of multiple-hearth units may vaporize many volatile components of the sludge before they enter the combustion stages of the incinerator and thus represent a direct source of introduction of pollutants into the atmosphere

  18. Diffusion Experiments in Opalinus Clay: Laboratory, Large-Scale Diffusion Experiments and Microscale Analysis by RBS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Alonso de los Rios, U.; Missana, T.; Cormenzana, J.L.; Mingarro, M.; Morejon, J.; Gil, P.

    2008-08-06

    The Opalinus Clay (OPA) formation in the Zurcher Weiland (Switzerland) is a potential host rock for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. Samples collected in the Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory (URL), where the OPA formation is located at a depth between -200 and -300 m below the surface, were used to study the radionuclide diffusion in clay materials. Classical laboratory essays and a novel experimental set-up for large-scale diffusion experiments were performed together to a novel application of the nuclear ion beam technique Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), to understand the transport properties of the OPA and to enhance the methodologies used for in situ diffusion experiments. Through-Diffusion and In-Diffusion conventional laboratory diffusion experiments were carried out with HTO, 36{sup C}l-, I-, 22{sup N}a, 75{sup S}e, 85{sup S}r, 233{sup U}, 137{sup C}s, 60{sup C}o and 152{sup E}u. Large-scale diffusion experiments were performed with HTO, 36{sup C}l, and 85{sup S}r, and new experiments with 60{sup C}o, 137{sup C}s and 152{sup E}u are ongoing. Diffusion experiments with RBS technique were done with Sr, Re, U and Eu. (Author) 38 refs.

  19. Scaling of Sediment Dynamics in a Reach-Scale Laboratory Model of a Sand-Bed Stream with Riparian Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrick, S.; Rodriguez, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    A movable bed physical model was designed in a laboratory flume to simulate both bed and suspended load transport in a mildly sinuous sand-bed stream. Model simulations investigated the impact of different vegetation arrangements along the outer bank to evaluate rehabilitation options. Preserving similitude in the 1:16 laboratory model was very important. In this presentation the scaling approach, as well as the successes and challenges of the strategy are outlined. Firstly a near-bankfull flow event was chosen for laboratory simulation. In nature, bankfull events at the field site deposit new in-channel features but cause only small amounts of bank erosion. Thus the fixed banks in the model were not a drastic simplification. Next, and as in other studies, the flow velocity and turbulence measurements were collected in separate fixed bed experiments. The scaling of flow in these experiments was simply maintained by matching the Froude number and roughness levels. The subsequent movable bed experiments were then conducted under similar hydrodynamic conditions. In nature, the sand-bed stream is fairly typical; in high flows most sediment transport occurs in suspension and migrating dunes cover the bed. To achieve similar dynamics in the model equivalent values of the dimensionless bed shear stress and the particle Reynolds number were important. Close values of the two dimensionless numbers were achieved with lightweight sediments (R=0.3) including coal and apricot pips with a particle size distribution similar to that of the field site. Overall the moveable bed experiments were able to replicate the dominant sediment dynamics present in the stream during a bankfull flow and yielded relevant information for the analysis of the effects of riparian vegetation. There was a potential conflict in the strategy, in that grain roughness was exaggerated with respect to nature. The advantage of this strategy is that although grain roughness is exaggerated, the similarity of

  20. Scaling studies - PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonneck, G.

    1983-05-01

    A RELAP 4/MOD 6 study was made based on the blowdown phase of the intermediate break experiment LOFT L5-1. The method was to set up a base model and to vary parametrically some areas where it is known or suspected that LOFT differs from a commercial PWR. The aim was not to simulate LOFT or a PWR exactly but to understand the influence of the following parameters on the thermohydraulic behaviour of the system and the clad temperature: stored heat in the downcomer (LOFT has rather large filler blocks in this part of the pressure vessel); bypass between downcomer and upper plenum; and core length. The results show that LOFT is prototypical for all calculated blowdowns. As the clad temperatures decrease with decreasing stored energy in the downcomer, increased bypass and increased core length, LOFT results seem to be realistic as long as realistic bypass sizes are considered; they are conservative in the two other areas. (author)

  1. Computer aided heat transfer analysis in a laboratory scaled heat exchanger unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunes, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this study. an explanation of a laboratory scaled heat exchanger unit and a software which is developed to analyze heat transfer. especially to use it in heat transfer courses, are represented. Analyses carried out in the software through sample values measured in the heat exchanger are: (l) Determination of heat transfer rate, logarithmic mean temperature difference and overall heat transfer coefficient; (2)Determination of convection heat transfer coefficient inside and outside the tube and the effect of fluid velocity on these; (3)Investigation of the relationship between Nusselt Number. Reynolds Number and Prandtl Number by using multiple non-linear regression analysis. Results are displayed on the screen graphically

  2. Design of a multipurpose laboratory scale analytical combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Fairus Abdul Farid; Sivapalan Kathiravale; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Mohamad Puad Abu; Norasalwa Zakaria; Khaironie Mohd Takip; Rohyiza Ba'an; Mohamad Azman Che Mat Isa

    2005-01-01

    The current method of digestion in order to determine the content of heavy metals and other elements in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is either too long or dangerous due to the usage of concentrated acids. As such, a Multi Purpose Portable Lab Scale Combustor was developed. It could also be used as a test rig under the various combustion conditions i.e. excess air combustion, gasification and pyrolysis. Another future of this rig, is to trap and analyse the combustion gasses produced from the different types of combustion processes. The rig can also be used to monitor weight loss against time during a combustion process. (Author)

  3. Pilot scale, alpha disassembly and decontamination facility at the Savannah River Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadieux, J.R.; Becker, G.W. Jr.; Richardson, G.W.; Coogler, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    An alpha-contained pilot facility is being built at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) for research into the disassembly and dcontamination of noncombustible, Transuranic (TRU) waste. The design and program objectives for the facility are presented along with the initial test results from laboratory scale decontamination experiments with Pu-238 and Cm-244

  4. Scale-up and optimization of biohydrogen production reactor from laboratory-scale to industrial-scale on the basis of computational fluid dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xu; Ding, Jie; Guo, Wan-Qian; Ren, Nan-Qi [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, 202 Haihe Road, Nangang District, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150090 (China)

    2010-10-15

    The objective of conducting experiments in a laboratory is to gain data that helps in designing and operating large-scale biological processes. However, the scale-up and design of industrial-scale biohydrogen production reactors is still uncertain. In this paper, an established and proven Eulerian-Eulerian computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was employed to perform hydrodynamics assessments of an industrial-scale continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) for biohydrogen production. The merits of the laboratory-scale CSTR and industrial-scale CSTR were compared and analyzed on the basis of CFD simulation. The outcomes demonstrated that there are many parameters that need to be optimized in the industrial-scale reactor, such as the velocity field and stagnation zone. According to the results of hydrodynamics evaluation, the structure of industrial-scale CSTR was optimized and the results are positive in terms of advancing the industrialization of biohydrogen production. (author)

  5. Monitoring of biogas plants - experiences in laboratory and full scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Habermann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To control and regulate the biogas process there are online process parameters and offline process parameters, which basically don’t differ between pilot biogas plants and industrial biogas plants. Generally, temperature, pH-value, volume flow rate and sometimes redox potential are measured online. An online-measurement of the dissolved volatile fatty acids and an online-detection of dissolved hydrogen both directly in the liquid phase as well as near-infrared spectroscopy are under development. FOS/TAC-analysis is the most common offline-analysis of the biogas process and normally it is carried out by the plant operator directly at the biogas plant. For example dry matter, organic dry matter, nitrogen and fatty acids are other analyses, which are carried out but by a laboratory. Microbiological analyses of biogas plants are very expensive and time-consuming and are therefore in Germany very rare. Microbiological analyses are mainly for research purposes. For example the Fluorescence in situ Hybridiation (FISH is used for characterization of the populations. Electric-optical measurement should be established as a new method to investigate the vitality of the methane producing microorganisms. In a cooperation project, which is promoted by the German ministry for technology, between IASP and Chair of Bioprocess Engineering at TU Berlin, this method is proper investigated using a device from the firm EloSystems. The microorganisms are brought in an electrical field of different frequencies. In this field the microorganisms direct themselves differently according to their physiological state. At the end of this project an early detection of process disturbance will be possible with the help of this method. In this presentation the result of the first tests are presented.

  6. Integrated laboratory scale demonstration experiment of the hybrid sulphur cycle and preliminary scale-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leybros, J.; Rivalier, P.; Saturnin, A.; Charton, S.

    2010-01-01

    The hybrid sulphur cycle is today one of the most promising processes to produce hydrogen on a massive scale within the scope of high temperature nuclear reactors development. Thus, the Fuel Cycle Technology Department at CEA Marcoule is involved in studying the hybrid sulphur process from a technical and economical performance standpoint. Based on mass and energy balance calculations, a ProsimPlus TM flow sheet and a commercial plant design were prepared. This work includes a study on sizing of the main equipment. The capital cost has been estimated using the major characteristics of main equipment based upon formulae and charts published in literature. A specific approach has been developed for electrolysers. Operational costs are also proposed for a plant producing 1000 mol/s H 2 . Bench scale and pilot experiments must focus on the electrochemical step due to limited experimental data. Thus, a pilot plant with a hydrogen capacity of 100 NL/h was built with the aim of acquiring technical and technological data for electrolysis. This pilot plant was designed to cover a wide range of operating conditions: sulphuric acid concentrations up to 60 wt.%, temperatures up to 100 deg. C and pressures up to 10 bar. New materials and structures recently developed for fuel cells, which are expected to yield significant performance improvements when applied to classical electrochemical processes, will be tested. All experiments will be coupled with phenomenological simulation tools developed jointly with the experimental programme. (authors)

  7. Indomethacin nanocrystals prepared by different laboratory scale methods: effect on crystalline form and dissolution behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martena, Valentina; Censi, Roberta [University of Camerino, School of Pharmacy (Italy); Hoti, Ela; Malaj, Ledjan [University of Tirana, Department of Pharmacy (Albania); Di Martino, Piera, E-mail: piera.dimartino@unicam.it [University of Camerino, School of Pharmacy (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    The objective of this study is to select very simple and well-known laboratory scale methods able to reduce particle size of indomethacin until the nanometric scale. The effect on the crystalline form and the dissolution behavior of the different samples was deliberately evaluated in absence of any surfactants as stabilizers. Nanocrystals of indomethacin (native crystals are in the {gamma} form) (IDM) were obtained by three laboratory scale methods: A (Batch A: crystallization by solvent evaporation in a nano-spray dryer), B (Batch B-15 and B-30: wet milling and lyophilization), and C (Batch C-20-N and C-40-N: Cryo-milling in the presence of liquid nitrogen). Nanocrystals obtained by the method A (Batch A) crystallized into a mixture of {alpha} and {gamma} polymorphic forms. IDM obtained by the two other methods remained in the {gamma} form and a different attitude to the crystallinity decrease were observed, with a more considerable decrease in crystalline degree for IDM milled for 40 min in the presence of liquid nitrogen. The intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) revealed a higher dissolution rate for Batches A and C-40-N, due to the higher IDR of {alpha} form than {gamma} form for the Batch A, and the lower crystallinity degree for both the Batches A and C-40-N. These factors, as well as the decrease in particle size, influenced the IDM dissolution rate from the particle samples. Modifications in the solid physical state that may occur using different particle size reduction treatments have to be taken into consideration during the scale up and industrial development of new solid dosage forms.

  8. EPOS-WP16: A Platform for European Multi-scale Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, Chris; Drury, Martyn; Kan-Parker, Mirjam; Lange, Otto; Willingshofer, Ernst; Funiciello, Francesca; Rosenau, Matthias; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Sagnotti, Leonardo; W16 Participants

    2016-04-01

    The participant countries in EPOS embody a wide range of world-class laboratory infrastructures ranging from high temperature and pressure experimental facilities, to electron microscopy, micro-beam analysis, analogue modeling and paleomagnetic laboratories. Most data produced by the various laboratory centres and networks are presently available only in limited "final form" in publications. As such many data remain inaccessible and/or poorly preserved. However, the data produced at the participating laboratories are crucial to serving society's need for geo-resources exploration and for protection against geo-hazards. Indeed, to model resource formation and system behaviour during exploitation, we need an understanding from the molecular to the continental scale, based on experimental data. This contribution will describe the work plans that the laboratories community in Europe is making, in the context of EPOS. The main objectives are: - To collect and harmonize available and emerging laboratory data on the properties and processes controlling rock system behaviour at multiple scales, in order to generate products accessible and interoperable through services for supporting research activities. - To co-ordinate the development, integration and trans-national usage of the major solid Earth Science laboratory centres and specialist networks. The length scales encompassed by the infrastructures included range from the nano- and micrometer levels (electron microscopy and micro-beam analysis) to the scale of experiments on centimetre sized samples, and to analogue model experiments simulating the reservoir scale, the basin scale and the plate scale. - To provide products and services supporting research into Geo-resources and Geo-storage, Geo-hazards and Earth System Evolution.

  9. Translating laboratory compaction test results to field scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roholl, J.A.; Thienen-Visser, K. van; Breunese, J.N.

    2016-01-01

    In recent studies on the surface subsidence caused by hydrocarbon recovery of the Groningen gas field, the predicted subsidence is overestimated if results of compaction experiments are not corrected by an empirical `upscaling factor'. In order to find an explanation for this `upscaling factor', an

  10. In-situ active/passive bioreclamation of vadose zone soils contaminated with gasoline and waste oil using soil vapor extraction/bioventing: Laboratory pilot study to full scale site operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachary, S.P.; Everett, L.G.

    1993-01-01

    The use of soil venting to supply oxygen and remove metabolites from the biodegradation of light hydrocarbons is a cost effective in-situ remediation approach. To date, little data exists on the effective in-situ bioreclamation of vadose zone soil contaminated with waste/hydraulic oil without excavation or the addition of water or nutrients to degrade the heavy petroleum contaminants. Gasoline and waste/hydraulic oil contaminated soils below an active commercial building required an in-situ non-disruptive remediation approach. Initial soil vapor samples collected from the vadose zone revealed CO 2 concentrations in excess of 16% and O 2 concentrations of less than 1% by volume. Soil samples were collected from below the building within the contaminated vadose zone for laboratory chemical and physical analysis as well as to conduct a laboratory biotreatability study. The laboratory biotreatability study was conducted for 30 days to simulate vadose zone bioventing conditions using soil taken from the contaminated vadose zone. Results of the biotreatability study revealed that the waste oil concentrations had been reduced from 960 mg/Kg to non-detectable concentrations within 30 days and the volatile hydrocarbon content had decreased exponentially to less than 0.1% of the original concentration. Post treatability study biological enumeration revealed an increase in the microbial population of two orders of magnitude

  11. Simulating flow in karst aquifers at laboratory and sub-regional scales using MODFLOW-CFP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Josue Jacob; Hu, Bill X.; Davis, Hal

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater flow in a well-developed karst aquifer dominantly occurs through bedding planes, fractures, conduits, and caves created by and/or enlarged by dissolution. Conventional groundwater modeling methods assume that groundwater flow is described by Darcian principles where primary porosity (i.e. matrix porosity) and laminar flow are dominant. However, in well-developed karst aquifers, the assumption of Darcian flow can be questionable. While Darcian flow generally occurs in the matrix portion of the karst aquifer, flow through conduits can be non-laminar where the relation between specific discharge and hydraulic gradient is non-linear. MODFLOW-CFP is a relatively new modeling program that accounts for non-laminar and laminar flow in pipes, like karst caves, within an aquifer. In this study, results from MODFLOW-CFP are compared to those from MODFLOW-2000/2005, a numerical code based on Darcy's law, to evaluate the accuracy that CFP can achieve when modeling flows in karst aquifers at laboratory and sub-regional (Woodville Karst Plain, Florida, USA) scales. In comparison with laboratory experiments, simulation results by MODFLOW-CFP are more accurate than MODFLOW 2005. At the sub-regional scale, MODFLOW-CFP was more accurate than MODFLOW-2000 for simulating field measurements of peak flow at one spring and total discharges at two springs for an observed storm event.

  12. On the dominant noise components of tactical aircraft: Laboratory to full scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Aubert, Allan C.; Spyropoulos, John T.; Powers, Russell W.

    2018-05-01

    This paper investigates the dominant noise components of a full-scale high performance tactical aircraft. The present study uses acoustic measurements of the exhaust jet from a single General Electric F414-400 turbofan engine installed in a Boeing F/A-18E Super Hornet aircraft operating from flight idle to maximum afterburner. The full-scale measurements are to the ANSI S12.75-2012 standard employing about 200 microphones. By comparing measured noise spectra with those from hot supersonic jets observed in the laboratory, the dominant noise components specific to the F/A-18E aircraft at different operating power levels are identified. At intermediate power, it is found that the dominant noise components of an F/A-18E aircraft are essentially the same as those of high temperature supersonic laboratory jets. However, at military and afterburner powers, there are new dominant noise components. Their characteristics are then documented and analyzed. This is followed by an investigation of their origin and noise generation mechanisms.

  13. Characterization of a High-Level Waste Cold Cap in a Laboratory-Scale Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixona, Derek R; Schweiger, Michael J; Hrma, Pavel [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland (United States)

    2013-05-15

    The feed, slurry or calcine, is charged to the melter from above. The conversion of the melter feed to molten glass occurs within the cold cap, a several centimeters thin layer of the reacting material blanketing the surface of the melt. Between the cold-cap top, which is covered by boiling slurry, and its bottom, where bubbles separate it from molten glass, the temperature changes by ∼900 .deg. C. The heat is delivered to the cold cap from the melt that is stirred mainly by bubbling. The feed contains oxides, hydroxides, acids, inorganic salts and organic materials. On heating, these components react, releasing copious amounts of gases, while molten salts decompose, glass-forming melt is generated, and crystalline phases precipitate and dissolve in the melt. Most of these processes have been studied in detail and became sufficiently understood for a mathematical model to represent the heat and mass transfer within the cold cap. This allows US to relate the rate of melting to the feed properties. While the melting reactions can be studied, and feed properties, such as heat conductivity and density, measured in the laboratory, the actual cold-cap dynamics, as it evolves in the waste glass melter, is not accessible to direct investigation. Therefore, to bridge the gap between the laboratory crucible and the waste glass melter, we explored the cold cap formation in a laboratory-scale melter (LSM) and studied the structure of quenched cold caps. The LSM is a suitable tool for investigating the cold cap. The cold cap that formed in the LSM experiments exhibited macroscopic features observed in scaled melters, as well as microscopic features accessible through laboratory studies and mathematical modeling. The cold cap consists of two main layers. The top layer contains solid particles dissolving in the glass-forming melt and open shafts through which gases are escaping. The bottom layer contains bubbly melt or foam where bubbles coalesce into larger cavities that move

  14. Partitioning dynamics of unsaturated flows in fractured porous media: Laboratory studies and three-dimensional multi-scale smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of gravity-driven flow in fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordilla, J.; Bresinsky, L. T.; Shigorina, E.; Noffz, T.; Dentz, M.; Sauter, M.; Tartakovsky, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Preferential flow dynamics in unsaturated fractures remain a challenging topic on various scales. On pore- and fracture-scales the highly erratic gravity-driven flow dynamics often provoke a strong deviation from classical volume-effective approaches. Against the common notion that flow in fractures (or macropores) can only occur under equilibrium conditions, i.e., if the surrounding porous matrix is fully saturated and capillary pressures are high enough to allow filling of the fracture void space, arrival times suggest the existence of rapid preferential flow along fractures, fracture networks, and fault zones, even if the matrix is not fully saturated. Modeling such flows requires efficient numerical techniques to cover various flow-relevant physics, such as surface tension, static and dynamic contact angles, free-surface (multi-phase) interface dynamics, and formation of singularities. Here we demonstrate the importance of such flow modes on the partitioning dynamics at simple fracture intersections, with a combination of laboratory experiments, analytical solutions and numerical simulations using our newly developed massively parallel smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code. Flow modes heavily influence the "bypass" behavior of water flowing along a fracture junction. Flows favoring the formation of droplets exhibit a much stronger bypass capacity compared to rivulet flows, where nearly the whole fluid mass is initially stored within the horizontal fracture. This behavior is demonstrated for a multi-inlet laboratory setup where the inlet-specific flow rate is chosen so that either a droplet or rivulet flow persists. The effect of fluid buffering within the horizontal fracture is presented in terms of dimensionless fracture inflow so that characteristic scaling regimes can be recovered. For both cases (rivulets and droplets), flow within the horizontal fracture transitions into a Washburn regime until a critical threshold is reached and the bypass efficiency

  15. Laboratory-scale measurements of effective relative permeability for layered sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butts, M.G.; Korsgaard, S.

    1996-12-31

    Predictions of the impact of remediation or the extent of contamination resulting from spills of gasoline, solvents and other petroleum products, must often be made in complex geological environments. Such problems can be treated by introducing the concept of effective parameters that incorporate the effects of soil layering or other heterogeneities into a large-scale flow description. Studies that derive effective multiphase parameters are few, and approximations are required to treat the non-linear multiphase flow equations. The purpose of this study is to measure effective relative permeabilities for well-defined multi-layered soils at the laboratory scale. Relative permeabilities were determined for homogeneous and layered, unconsolidated sands using the method of Jones and Roszelle (1978). The experimental data show that endpoint relative permeabilities are important in defining the shape of the relative permeability curves, but these cannot be predicted by estimation methods base on capillary pressure data. The most significant feature of the measured effective relative permeability curves is that the entrapped (residual) oil saturation is significantly larger than the residual saturation of the individual layers. This observation agrees with previous theoretical predictions of large-scale entrapment Butts, 1993 and (1995). Enhanced entrapment in heterogeneous soils has several important implications for spill remediation, for example, the reduced efficiency of direct recovery. (au) 17 refs.

  16. Laboratory-scale measurements of effective relative permeability for layered sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butts, M.G.; Korsgaard, S.

    1996-01-01

    Predictions of the impact of remediation or the extent of contamination resulting from spills of gasoline, solvents and other petroleum products, must often be made in complex geological environments. Such problems can be treated by introducing the concept of effective parameters that incorporate the effects of soil layering or other heterogeneities into a large-scale flow description. Studies that derive effective multiphase parameters are few, and approximations are required to treat the non-linear multiphase flow equations. The purpose of this study is to measure effective relative permeabilities for well-defined multi-layered soils at the laboratory scale. Relative permeabilities were determined for homogeneous and layered, unconsolidated sands using the method of Jones and Roszelle (1978). The experimental data show that endpoint relative permeabilities are important in defining the shape of the relative permeability curves, but these cannot be predicted by estimation methods base on capillary pressure data. The most significant feature of the measured effective relative permeability curves is that the entrapped (residual) oil saturation is significantly larger than the residual saturation of the individual layers. This observation agrees with previous theoretical predictions of large-scale entrapment Butts, 1993 and (1995). Enhanced entrapment in heterogeneous soils has several important implications for spill remediation, for example, the reduced efficiency of direct recovery. (au) 17 refs

  17. Partial gasification of coal in a fluidized bed reactor: Comparison of a laboratory and pilot scale reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, R.; Shen, L.H.; Zhang, M.Y.; Jin, B.S.; Xiong, Y.Q.; Duan, Y.F.; Zhong, Z.P.; Zhou, H.C.; Chen, X.P.; Huang, Y.J. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China)

    2007-01-15

    A 0.1 MWth lab-scale and 2 MWth pilot-scale experimental rigs were constructed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of a new process. The aim of the lab-scale study is to optimize coal partial gasification reactions operating conditions, which were applied in the pilot-scale tests. A comparison between the laboratory and pilot scale experimental results is presented in this paper in order to provide valuable information for scaling-up of the PFB coal partial reactor to industrial applications. The results show that trends and phenomena obtained in the laboratory reactor are confirmed in a pilot plant operating at similar conditions. However, many differences are observed in the two reactors. The higher heat loss in the lab-scale reactor is responsible for higher equivalence ratio (ER) and lower gas heating value at the similar reactor temperature. With respect to the pilot-scale reactor, mass transfer limitation between bubbles and emulsion phase may become important. Hence, longer contact time is required to achieve the same conversions as in the lab-scale reactor. This difference is explained by a significant change of the hydrodynamic conditions due to the formation of larger bubbles.

  18. Evaluation of Surface Runoff Generation Processes Using a Rainfall Simulator: A Small Scale Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danáčová, Michaela; Valent, Peter; Výleta, Roman

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, rainfall simulators are being used by many researchers in field or laboratory experiments. The main objective of most of these experiments is to better understand the underlying runoff generation processes, and to use the results in the process of calibration and validation of hydrological models. Many research groups have assembled their own rainfall simulators, which comply with their understanding of rainfall processes, and the requirements of their experiments. Most often, the existing rainfall simulators differ mainly in the size of the irrigated area, and the way they generate rain drops. They can be characterized by the accuracy, with which they produce a rainfall of a given intensity, the size of the irrigated area, and the rain drop generating mechanism. Rainfall simulation experiments can provide valuable information about the genesis of surface runoff, infiltration of water into soil and rainfall erodibility. Apart from the impact of physical properties of soil, its moisture and compaction on the generation of surface runoff and the amount of eroded particles, some studies also investigate the impact of vegetation cover of the whole area of interest. In this study, the rainfall simulator was used to simulate the impact of the slope gradient of the irrigated area on the amount of generated runoff and sediment yield. In order to eliminate the impact of external factors and to improve the reproducibility of the initial conditions, the experiments were conducted in laboratory conditions. The laboratory experiments were carried out using a commercial rainfall simulator, which was connected to an external peristaltic pump. The pump maintained a constant and adjustable inflow of water, which enabled to overcome the maximum volume of simulated precipitation of 2.3 l, given by the construction of the rainfall simulator, while maintaining constant characteristics of the simulated precipitation. In this study a 12-minute rainfall with a constant intensity

  19. Effects of cadmium on the performance and microbiology of laboratory-scale lagoons treating domestic sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, J L; Bohatier, J; Pépin, D

    1999-06-01

    Two experiments were performed to assess the impact of cadmium on the sewage lagoon wastewater treatment process. For each one, three laboratory-scale pilot plants with one tank receiving the same raw effluent were used; one plant served as control and the other two were contaminated once only with cadmium. In the first study, the effects of a shock load of two concentrations of cadmium chloride (60 and 300 micrograms/l) on the plant performance, microbial populations (protists and bacteria) and enzyme activities were determined. Initially, most of the performance parameters were affected concentration-dependently. A reduction in the protist population density and some influence on the total bacterial population were observed, and the potential enzymatic activities were also modified. A second experiment with a lower cadmium concentration (30 micrograms/l), supplied as chloride or sulphate, still perturbed most of the parameters studied, and the effects of the two cadmium salts were identical.

  20. Preparation of glibenclamide nanocrystals by a simple laboratory scale ultra cryo-milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martena, Valentina; Censi, Roberta [University of Camerino, School of Pharmacy (Italy); Hoti, Ela; Malaj, Ledjan [University of Tirana, Department of Pharmacy (Albania); Martino, Piera Di, E-mail: piera.dimartino@unicam.it [University of Camerino, School of Pharmacy (Italy)

    2013-06-15

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the ability to reduce the particle size of glibenclamide (GBC) to the nanometric scale through a very simple and well-known laboratory scale method, the laboratory scale ultra cryo-milling. The effect of milling on GBC crystalline properties and dissolution behaviour was deliberately evaluated in the absence of any surfactants as stabilizers. The milling procedure consisted in adding particles to liquid nitrogen and milling them by hand in a mortar with a pestle for different time intervals (15, 30, 40 min). For comparison, the same milling procedure was also applied without liquid nitrogen. The particle size reduction was evaluated for the coarsest samples (>3 {mu}m) by measuring the particle Ferret's diameter through scanning electron microscopy, while for the smallest one (<3 {mu}m) by dynamic light scattering. A time grinding of 40 min in the presence of liquid nitrogen was revealed highly efficacious to obtain particles of nanodimensions, with a geometric mean particle size of 0.55 {+-} 0.23 {mu}m and more than the 80 % of particles lower than 1,000 nm. Interestingly, non-agglomerated particles were obtained. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffractometry allowed to assess that under mechanical treatment no polymorphic transitions were observed, while a decrease in crystallinity degree occurred depending on the milling procedure (presence or absence of liquid nitrogen) and the milling time (crystallinity decreases at increasing milling time from 15 to 40 min). A comparison of the intrinsic dissolution rate and the dissolution from particles revealed an interesting improvement of particle dissolution particularly for particles milled in the presence of liquid nitrogen due to an increase in particle surface area and concentration gradient, according to the Noyes-Whitney equation.

  1. Emissions from waste combustion. An application of statistical experimental design in a laboratory-scale boiler and an investigation from large-scale incineration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaojing, Zhang

    1997-05-01

    The aim of this thesis is a study of the emissions from the combustion of household refuse. The experiments were both on a laboratory-scale boiler and on full-scale incineration plants. In the laboratory, an artificial household refuse with known composition was fed into a pilot boiler with a stationary grate. Combustion was under non-optimum conditions. Direct sampling with a Tenax adsorbent was used to measure a range of VOCs. Measurements were also made of incompletely burnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen and flue gas temperature. Combustion and emission parameters were recorded continuously by a multi-point data logger. VOCs were analysed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The full-scale tests were on seven Swedish incineration plants. The data were used to evaluate the emissions from large-scale incineration plants with various type of fuels and incinerators, and were also compared with the laboratory results. The response surface model developed from the laboratory experiments was also validated. This thesis also includes studies on the gasification of household refuse pellets, estimations of particulate and soot emissions, and a thermodynamic analysis of PAHs from combustion flue gas. For pellet gasification, experiments were performed on single, well characterised refuse pellets under carefully controlled conditions. The aim was to see if the effects of pellets were different from those of untreated household refuse. The results from both laboratory and full-scale tests showed that the main contributions to emissions from household refuse are plastics and moisture. 142 refs, 82 figs, 51 tabs

  2. Laboratory and field scale bioremediation of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) contaminated soils by means of bioaugmentation and biostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Nidhi; Lata, Pushp; Jit, Simran; Sangwan, Naseer; Singh, Amit Kumar; Dwivedi, Vatsala; Niharika, Neha; Kaur, Jasvinder; Saxena, Anjali; Dua, Ankita; Nayyar, Namita; Kohli, Puneet; Geueke, Birgit; Kunz, Petra; Rentsch, Daniel; Holliger, Christof; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Lal, Rup

    2016-06-01

    Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) contaminated soils were treated for a period of up to 64 days in situ (HCH dumpsite, Lucknow) and ex situ (University of Delhi) in line with three bioremediation approaches. The first approach, biostimulation, involved addition of ammonium phosphate and molasses, while the second approach, bioaugmentation, involved addition of a microbial consortium consisting of a group of HCH-degrading sphingomonads that were isolated from HCH contaminated sites. The third approach involved a combination of biostimulation and bioaugmentation. The efficiency of the consortium was investigated in laboratory scale experiments, in a pot scale study, and in a full-scale field trial. It turned out that the approach of combining biostimulation and bioaugmentation was most effective in achieving reduction in the levels of α- and β-HCH and that the application of a bacterial consortium as compared to the action of a single HCH-degrading bacterial strain was more successful. Although further degradation of β- and δ-tetrachlorocyclohexane-1,4-diol, the terminal metabolites of β- and δ-HCH, respectively, did not occur by the strains comprising the consortium, these metabolites turned out to be less toxic than the parental HCH isomers.

  3. Introducing sequential managed aquifer recharge technology (SMART) - From laboratory to full-scale application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnery, Julia; Wing, Alexandre D; Kautz, Jessica; Drewes, Jörg E

    2016-07-01

    Previous lab-scale studies demonstrated that stimulating the indigenous soil microbial community of groundwater recharge systems by manipulating the availability of biodegradable organic carbon (BDOC) and establishing sequential redox conditions in the subsurface resulted in enhanced removal of compounds with redox-dependent removal behavior such as trace organic chemicals. The aim of this study is to advance this concept from laboratory to full-scale application by introducing sequential managed aquifer recharge technology (SMART). To validate the concept of SMART, a full-scale managed aquifer recharge (MAR) facility in Colorado was studied for three years that featured the proposed sequential configuration: A short riverbank filtration passage followed by subsequent re-aeration and artificial recharge and recovery. Our findings demonstrate that sequential subsurface treatment zones characterized by carbon-rich (>3 mg/L BDOC) to carbon-depleted (≤1 mg/L BDOC) and predominant oxic redox conditions can be established at full-scale MAR facilities adopting the SMART concept. The sequential configuration resulted in substantially improved trace organic chemical removal (i.e. higher biodegradation rate coefficients) for moderately biodegradable compounds compared to conventional MAR systems with extended travel times in an anoxic aquifer. Furthermore, sorption batch experiments with clay materials dispersed in the subsurface implied that sorptive processes might also play a role in the attenuation and retardation of chlorinated flame retardants during MAR. Hence, understanding key factors controlling trace organic chemical removal performance during SMART allows for systems to be engineered for optimal efficiency, resulting in improved removal of constituents at shorter subsurface travel times and a potentially reduced physical footprint of MAR installations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Conceptual Design for the Pilot-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jones, Susan A.; Rapko, Brian M.

    2014-08-05

    This report describes a conceptual design for a pilot-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide for use as exercise and reference materials, and for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. This capability is referred to as the Pilot-scale Plutonium oxide Processing Unit (P3U), and it will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including plutonium dioxide (PuO2) dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and conversion to oxide by calcination.

  5. Laboratory and pilot field-scale testing of surfactants for environmental restoration of chlorinated solvent DNAPLs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, R.E.; Fountain, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    This project is composed of two phases and has the objective of demonstrating surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) as a practical remediation technology at DOE sites with ground water contaminated by dense, non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), in particular, chlorinated solvents. The first phase of this project, Laboratory and Pilot Field Scale Testing, which is the subject of the work so far, involves (1) laboratory experiments to examine the solubilization of multiple component DNAPLs, e.g., solvents such as perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), by dilute surfactant solutions, and (2) a field test to demonstrate SEAR technology on a small scale and in an existing well

  6. Coupled numerical modeling of gas hydrates bearing sediments from laboratory to field-scale conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, M. J.; Santamarina, C.; Gai, X., Sr.; Teymouri, M., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    Stability and behavior of Hydrate Bearing Sediments (HBS) are characterized by the metastable character of the gas hydrate structure which strongly depends on thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical (THCM) actions. Hydrate formation, dissociation and methane production from hydrate bearing sediments are coupled THCM processes that involve, amongst other, exothermic formation and endothermic dissociation of hydrate and ice phases, mixed fluid flow and large changes in fluid pressure. The analysis of available data from past field and laboratory experiments, and the optimization of future field production studies require a formal and robust numerical framework able to capture the very complex behavior of this type of soil. A comprehensive fully coupled THCM formulation has been developed and implemented into a finite element code to tackle problems involving gas hydrates sediments. Special attention is paid to the geomechanical behavior of HBS, and particularly to their response upon hydrate dissociation under loading. The numerical framework has been validated against recent experiments conducted under controlled conditions in the laboratory that challenge the proposed approach and highlight the complex interaction among THCM processes in HBS. The performance of the models in these case studies is highly satisfactory. Finally, the numerical code is applied to analyze the behavior of gas hydrate soils under field-scale conditions exploring different features of material behavior under possible reservoir conditions.

  7. Laboratory scale electron beam system for treatment of flue gases from diesel combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Aiasah Hashim; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Khomsaton Abu Bakar; Ayub Muhammad

    2004-01-01

    Laboratory scale test rig to treat simulated flue gas using electron beam technology was installed at the Alurtron EB-Irradiation Center, MINT. The experiment test rig was proposed as a result of feasibility studies conducted jointly by IAEA, MINT and TNB Research in 1997. The test rig system consists of several components, among other, diesel generator sets, pipe ducts, spray cooler, ammonia dosage system, irradiation vessel, bag filter and gas analyzers. The installation was completed and commissioned in October 2001. results from the commissioning test runs and subsequent experimental work showed that the efficiency of flue gas treatment is high. It was proven that electron beam technology might be applied in the treatment of air pollutants. This paper describes the design and work function of the individual major components as well as the full system function. Results from the initial experimental works are also presented. (Author)

  8. Installation of laboratory scale flue gas treatment system at ALURTRON, MINT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti A'iasah Hashim; Khairul Zaman Dahlan; Zulkafli Ghazali; Khomsaton Abu Bakar, Ayub Muhamad

    2002-01-01

    A laboratory scale test rig to treat simulated flue gas using electron beam technology was installed at the Alurtron EB-irradiation center, MINT. The experiment test rig was proposed as a result of a feasibility studies conducted jointly by IAEA, MINT and TNB Research in 1997. The test rig system consisted of several components, among other, diesel generator, gas analyzers and spray cooler. The installation was completed and commissioned in October 2001. Results from the commissioning test runs and subsequent experimental work showed that the efficiency of the gas treatment is high. It was proven that electron beam technology might be applied in the treatment of air pollutants. This paper describes the design and work function of the individual major components as well as the full system function. Results from the initial experimental works are also presented. (Author)

  9. Development of volumetric methane measurement instrument for laboratory scale anaerobic reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, A.R.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a newly developed VMMI (volumetric Methane-Measuring Instrument) for laboratory scale anaerobic reactors is presented. The VMMI is a reliable, inexpensive, easy to construct, easy to use, corrosion resistant device that does not need maintenance, can measure a wide flow range of gas at varying pressure and temperature. As per the results of the error analysis, the accuracy of the VMMI is unilateral, i.e. -6.91 %. The calibration of VMMI was investigated and a linear variation was found; hence, in situ calibration is recommended for this type of instrument. As per chromatographic analysis, it absorbs almost 100% of the carbon dioxide present in the biogas, results only the methane, and thus eliminates the need of cost intensive composition analysis of biogas through gas chromatograph. (author)

  10. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    The experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies on the zero G cloud physics laboratory are reported. This program involves the definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineations of a set of candidate experiments that must utilize the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity.

  11. Laboratory Studies Of Circumstellar Carbonaceous Grain Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Cesar; Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Salama, Farid

    2014-06-01

    The study of the formation processes of dust is essential to understand the budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. Although dust with all its components plays an important role in the evolution of interstellar (IS) chemistry and in the formation of organic molecules, little is known on the formation processes of carbonaceous dust. We report the progress that was recently achieved in this domain using NASA Ames’ COSmIC facility (Contreras & Salama 2013, ApJS, 208, 6). PAHs are important chemical building blocks of IS dust. They are detected in IDPs and in meteoritic samples. Additionally, observational, laboratory, and theoretical studies have shown that PAHs are an important, ubiquitous component of the ISM. The formation of PAHs from smaller molecules has not been extensively studied. Therefore, we have performed laboratory experiments to study the dynamic processes of carbon grain formation, starting from the smallest hydrocarbon molecules into the formation of larger PAH and further into nanograins. Studies of IS dust analogs formed from a variety of PAH and hydrocarbon precursors as well as species that include the atoms O, N, and S, have recently been performed in our laboratory using the COSmIC facility to provide conditions that simulate IS and circumstellar environments. The species formed in the COSmiC chamber through a pulsed discharge nozzle plasma source are detected and characterized with a cavity ringdown spectrometer coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, thus providing both spectroscopic and ion mass information in-situ. Analysis of solid soot particles was also conducted using scanning electron microscopy at the UCSC/NASA Ames’ MACS facility. The SEM analysis of the deposition of soot from methane and acetylene precursors seeded in argon plasmas provide examples on the types of nanoparticles and micrograins that are produced in these gas mixtures under our experimental conditions. From these measurements, we derive information on

  12. EPOS-WP16: A coherent and collaborative network of Solid Earth Multi-scale laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calignano, Elisa; Rosenau, Matthias; Lange, Otto; Spiers, Chris; Willingshofer, Ernst; Drury, Martyn; van Kan-Parker, Mirjam; Elger, Kirsten; Ulbricht, Damian; Funiciello, Francesca; Trippanera, Daniele; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Tesei, Telemaco; Winkler, Aldo

    2017-04-01

    Laboratory facilities are an integral part of Earth Science research. The diversity of methods employed in such infrastructures reflects the multi-scale nature of the Earth system and is essential for the understanding of its evolution, for the assessment of geo-hazards and for the sustainable exploitation of geo-resources. In the frame of EPOS (European Plate Observing System), the Working Package 16 represents a developing community of European Geoscience Multi-scale laboratories. The participant and collaborating institutions (Utrecht University, GFZ, RomaTre University, INGV, NERC, CSIC-ICTJA, CNRS, LMU, C4G-UBI, ETH, CNR*) embody several types of laboratory infrastructures, engaged in different fields of interest of Earth Science: from high temperature and pressure experimental facilities, to electron microscopy, micro-beam analysis, analogue tectonic and geodynamic modelling and paleomagnetic laboratories. The length scales encompassed by these infrastructures range from the nano- and micrometre levels (electron microscopy and micro-beam analysis) to the scale of experiments on centimetres-sized samples, and to analogue model experiments simulating the reservoir scale, the basin scale and the plate scale. The aim of WP16 is to provide two services by the year 2019: first, providing virtual access to data from laboratories (data service) and, second, providing physical access to laboratories (transnational access, TNA). Regarding the development of a data service, the current status is such that most data produced by the various laboratory centres and networks are available only in limited "final form" in publications, many data remain inaccessible and/or poorly preserved. Within EPOS the TCS Multi-scale laboratories is collecting and harmonizing available and emerging laboratory data on the properties and process controlling rock system behaviour at all relevant scales, in order to generate products accessible and interoperable through services for supporting

  13. Atmospheric cloud physics laboratory project study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, W. E.; Stephen, L. A.; Usher, L. H.

    1976-01-01

    Engineering studies were performed for the Zero-G Cloud Physics Experiment liquid cooling and air pressure control systems. A total of four concepts for the liquid cooling system was evaluated, two of which were found to closely approach the systems requirements. Thermal insulation requirements, system hardware, and control sensor locations were established. The reservoir sizes and initial temperatures were defined as well as system power requirements. In the study of the pressure control system, fluid analyses by the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory were performed to determine flow characteristics of various orifice sizes, vacuum pump adequacy, and control systems performance. System parameters predicted in these analyses as a function of time include the following for various orifice sizes: (1) chamber and vacuum pump mass flow rates, (2) the number of valve openings or closures, (3) the maximum cloud chamber pressure deviation from the allowable, and (4) cloud chamber and accumulator pressure.

  14. Proteotyping of laboratory-scale biogas plants reveals multiple steady-states in community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrs, F; Heyer, R; Bissinger, T; Kottler, R; Schallert, K; Püttker, S; Behne, A; Rapp, E; Benndorf, D; Reichl, U

    2017-08-01

    Complex microbial communities are the functional core of anaerobic digestion processes taking place in biogas plants (BGP). So far, however, a comprehensive characterization of the microbiomes involved in methane formation is technically challenging. As an alternative, enriched communities from laboratory-scale experiments can be investigated that have a reduced number of organisms and are easier to characterize by state of the art mass spectrometric-based (MS) metaproteomic workflows. Six parallel laboratory digesters were inoculated with sludge from a full-scale BGP to study the development of enriched microbial communities under defined conditions. During the first three month of cultivation, all reactors (R1-R6) were functionally comparable regarding biogas productions (375-625 NL L reactor volume -1 d -1 ), methane yields (50-60%), pH values (7.1-7.3), and volatile fatty acids (VFA, 1 gNH 3 L -1 ) showed an increase to pH 7.5-8.0, accumulation of acetate (>10 mM), and decreasing biogas production (<125 NL L reactor volume -1 d -1 ). Tandem MS (MS/MS)-based proteotyping allowed the identification of taxonomic abundances and biological processes. Although all reactors showed similar performances, proteotyping and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) fingerprinting revealed significant differences in the composition of individual microbial communities, indicating multiple steady-states. Furthermore, cellulolytic enzymes and cellulosomal proteins of Clostridium thermocellum were identified to be specific markers for the thermophilic reactors (R3, R4). Metaproteins found in R3 indicated hydrogenothrophic methanogenesis, whereas metaproteins of acetoclastic methanogenesis were identified in R4. This suggests not only an individual evolution of microbial communities even for the case that BGPs are started at the same initial conditions under well controlled environmental conditions, but also a high compositional variance of microbiomes under

  15. Database of full-scale laboratory experiments on wave-driven sand transport processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, Jebbe J.; Schretlen, Johanna Lidwina Maria; Ribberink, Jan S.; O'Donoghue, Tom

    2009-01-01

    A new database of laboratory experiments involving sand transport processes over horizontal, mobile sand beds under full-scale non-breaking wave and non-breaking wave-plus-current conditions is described. The database contains details of the flow and bed conditions, information on which quantities

  16. Large-scale laboratory observations of beach morphodynamics and turbulence beneath shoaling and breaking waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, W. de; Wesselman, D.; Grasso, F.R.; Ruessink, B.G.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, large-scale laboratory experiments were carried out in the Deltagoot in the framework of the Hydralab IV-funded BARDEXII project. The overall project aims were to examine the effect of swash/groundwater interactions to sand transport and morphological development in the swash zone and,

  17. Electrolytic production of light lanthanides from molten chloride alloys on a large laboratory scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szklarski, W.; Bogacz, A.; Strzyzewska, M.

    1979-01-01

    Literature data relating to electrolytic production of rare earth metals are presented. Conditions and results are given of own investigations into the electrolytic process of light lanthanide chloride solutions (LA-Nd) in molten potassium and sodium chlorides conducted on a large laboratory scale using molybdenic, iron, cobaltic and zinc cathodes. Design schemes of employed electrolysers are enclosed. (author)

  18. Initial Laboratory-Scale Melter Test Results for Combined Fission Product Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Buchmiller, William C.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Vienna, John D.

    2009-10-01

    This report describes the methods and results used to vitrify a baseline glass, CSLNTM-C-2.5 in support of the AFCI (Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative) using a Quartz Crucible Scale Melter at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Document number AFCI-WAST-PMO-MI-DV-2009-000184.

  19. Fluid dynamics structures in a fire environment observed in laboratory-scale experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Lozano; W. Tachajapong; D.R. Weise; S. Mahalingam; M. Princevac

    2010-01-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements were performed in laboratory-scale experimental fires spreading across horizontal fuel beds composed of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx) excelsior. The continuous flame, intermittent flame, and thermal plume regions of a fire were investigated. Utilizing a PIV system, instantaneous velocity fields for...

  20. Preparing laboratory and real-world EEG data for large-scale analysis: A containerized approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima eBigdely-Shamlo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale analysis of EEG and other physiological measures promises new insights into brain processes and more accurate and robust brain-computer interface (BCI models.. However, the absence of standard-ized vocabularies for annotating events in a machine understandable manner, the welter of collection-specific data organizations, the diffi-culty in moving data across processing platforms, and the unavailability of agreed-upon standards for preprocessing have prevented large-scale analyses of EEG. Here we describe a containerized approach and freely available tools we have developed to facilitate the process of an-notating, packaging, and preprocessing EEG data collections to enable data sharing, archiving, large-scale machine learning/data mining and (meta-analysis. The EEG Study Schema (ESS comprises three data Levels, each with its own XML-document schema and file/folder convention, plus a standardized (PREP pipeline to move raw (Data Level 1 data to a basic preprocessed state (Data Level 2 suitable for application of a large class of EEG analysis methods. Researchers can ship a study as a single unit and operate on its data using a standardized interface. ESS does not require a central database and provides all the metadata data necessary to execute a wide variety of EEG processing pipelines. The primary focus of ESS is automated in-depth analysis and meta-analysis EEG studies. However, ESS can also encapsulate meta-information for the other modalities such as eye tracking, that are in-creasingly used in both laboratory and real-world neuroimaging. ESS schema and tools are freely available at eegstudy.org, and a central cata-log of over 850 GB of existing data in ESS format is available at study-catalog.org. These tools and resources are part of a larger effort to ena-ble data sharing at sufficient scale for researchers to engage in truly large-scale EEG analysis and data mining (BigEEG.org.

  1. Laboratory Studies of Atmospheric Heterogeneous Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, L. F.; Leu, M-T.

    1993-01-01

    In the laboratory, ice films formed by freezing from the liquid or more frequently by deposition from the vapor phase have been used to simulate stratospheric cloud surfaces for measurements of reaction and uptake rates. To obtain intrinsic surface reaction probabilities that can be used in atmospheric models, the area of the film surface that actually takes part in the reaction must be known. It is important to know not only the total surface area but also the film morphology in order to determine where and how the surface is situated and, thus, what fraction of it is available for reaction. Information on the structure of these ice films has been obtained by using several experimental methods. In the sections that follow, these methods will be discussed, then the results will be used to construct a working model of the ice films, and finally the model will be applied to an experimental study of HC1 uptake by H_2O ice.

  2. Predicting the performance uncertainty of a 1-MW pilot-scale carbon capture system after hierarchical laboratory-scale calibration and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhijie; Lai, Canhai; Marcy, Peter William; Dietiker, Jean-François; Li, Tingwen; Sarkar, Avik; Sun, Xin

    2017-05-01

    A challenging problem in designing pilot-scale carbon capture systems is to predict, with uncertainty, the adsorber performance and capture efficiency under various operating conditions where no direct experimental data exist. Motivated by this challenge, we previously proposed a hierarchical framework in which relevant parameters of physical models were sequentially calibrated from different laboratory-scale carbon capture unit (C2U) experiments. Specifically, three models of increasing complexity were identified based on the fundamental physical and chemical processes of the sorbent-based carbon capture technology. Results from the corresponding laboratory experiments were used to statistically calibrate the physical model parameters while quantifying some of their inherent uncertainty. The parameter distributions obtained from laboratory-scale C2U calibration runs are used in this study to facilitate prediction at a larger scale where no corresponding experimental results are available. In this paper, we first describe the multiphase reactive flow model for a sorbent-based 1-MW carbon capture system then analyze results from an ensemble of simulations with the upscaled model. The simulation results are used to quantify uncertainty regarding the design’s predicted efficiency in carbon capture. In particular, we determine the minimum gas flow rate necessary to achieve 90% capture efficiency with 95% confidence.

  3. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbot, Yann Nicolas; Thomsen, Claudia; Thomsen, Laurenz; Benz, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW) in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC), as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS) did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g−1 volatile solids (VS) were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g−1 VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH4 recovery of 189 L kg−1 VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH4 and 38% CO2 was recorded. PMID:26393620

  4. Fermentative lactic acid production from coffee pulp hydrolysate using Bacillus coagulans at laboratory and pilot scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleissner, Daniel; Neu, Anna-Katrin; Mehlmann, Kerstin; Schneider, Roland; Puerta-Quintero, Gloria Inés; Venus, Joachim

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the lignocellulosic residue coffee pulp was used as carbon source in fermentative l(+)-lactic acid production using Bacillus coagulans. After thermo-chemical treatment at 121°C for 30min in presence of 0.18molL(-1) H2SO4 and following an enzymatic digestion using Accellerase 1500 carbon-rich hydrolysates were obtained. Two different coffee pulp materials with comparable biomass composition were used, but sugar concentrations in hydrolysates showed variations. The primary sugars were (gL(-1)) glucose (20-30), xylose (15-25), sucrose (5-11) and arabinose (0.7-10). Fermentations were carried out at laboratory (2L) and pilot (50L) scales in presence of 10gL(-1) yeast extract. At pilot scale carbon utilization and lactic acid yield per gram of sugar consumed were 94.65% and 0.78gg(-1), respectively. The productivity was 4.02gL(-1)h(-1). Downstream processing resulted in a pure formulation containing 937gL(-1)l(+)-lactic acid with an optical purity of 99.7%. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Laboratory-scale method for enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass at high-solids loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibble Clare J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening new lignocellulosic biomass pretreatments and advanced enzyme systems at process relevant conditions is a key factor in the development of economically viable lignocellulosic ethanol. Shake flasks, the reaction vessel commonly used for screening enzymatic saccharifications of cellulosic biomass, do not provide adequate mixing at high-solids concentrations when shaking is not supplemented with hand mixing. Results We identified roller bottle reactors (RBRs as laboratory-scale reaction vessels that can provide adequate mixing for enzymatic saccharifications at high-solids biomass loadings without any additional hand mixing. Using the RBRs, we developed a method for screening both pretreated biomass and enzyme systems at process-relevant conditions. RBRs were shown to be scalable between 125 mL and 2 L. Results from enzymatic saccharifications of five biomass pretreatments of different severities and two enzyme preparations suggest that this system will work well for a variety of biomass substrates and enzyme systems. A study of intermittent mixing regimes suggests that mass transfer limitations of enzymatic saccharifications at high-solids loadings are significant but can be mitigated with a relatively low amount of mixing input. Conclusion Effective initial mixing to promote good enzyme distribution and continued, but not necessarily continuous, mixing is necessary in order to facilitate high biomass conversion rates. The simplicity and robustness of the bench-scale RBR system, combined with its ability to accommodate numerous reaction vessels, will be useful in screening new biomass pretreatments and advanced enzyme systems at high-solids loadings.

  6. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Nicolas Barbot

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC, as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g−1 volatile solids (VS were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g−1 VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH4 recovery of 189 L kg−1 VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH4 and 38% CO2 was recorded.

  7. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbot, Yann Nicolas; Thomsen, Claudia; Thomsen, Laurenz; Benz, Roland

    2015-09-18

    The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW) in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC), as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS) did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g(-1) volatile solids (VS) were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g(-1) VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH₄ recovery of 189 L kg(-1) VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH₄ and 38% CO₂ was recorded.

  8. Laboratory scale vitrification of low-level radioactive nitrate salts and soils from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P.; Anderson, B.

    1993-07-01

    INEL has radiologically contaminated nitrate salt and soil waste stored above and below ground in Pad A and the Acid Pit at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Pad A contain uranium and transuranic contaminated potassium and sodium nitrate salts generated from dewatered waste solutions at the Rocky Flats Plant. The Acid Pit was used to dispose of liquids containing waste mineral acids, uranium, nitrate, chlorinated solvents, and some mercury. Ex situ vitrification is a high temperature destruction of nitrates and organics and immobilizes hazardous and radioactive metals. Laboratory scale melting of actual radionuclides containing INEL Pad A nitrate salts and Acid Pit soils was performed. The salt/soil/additive ratios were varied to determine the range of glass compositions (resulted from melting different wastes); maximize mass and volume reduction, durability, and immobilization of hazardous and radioactive metals; and minimize viscosity and offgas generation for wastes prevalent at INEL and other DOE sites. Some mixtures were spiked with additional hazardous and radioactive metals. Representative glasses were leach tested and showed none. Samples spiked with transuranic showed low nuclide leaching. Wasteforms were two to three times bulk densities of the salt and soil. Thermally co-processing soils and salts is an effective remediation method for destroying nitrate salts while stabilizing the radiological and hazardous metals they contain. The measured durability of these low-level waste glasses approached those of high-level waste glasses. Lab scale vitrification of actual INEL contaminated salts and soils was performed at General Atomics Laboratory as part of the INEL Waste Technology Development and Environmental Restoration within the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program

  9. A laboratory scale analysis of groundwater flow and salinity distribution in the Aespoe area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Urban

    1999-12-01

    This report concerns a study which was conducted for SKB. The conclusions and viewpoints presented in the report are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily coincide with those of the client. The objective of the study is to develop, calibrate and apply a numerical simulation model of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL). An area of 800 x 600 centred around the HRL, gives the horizontal extent of the model. In the vertical direction the model covers the depth interval from 200 to 560 metres. The model is based on a mathematical model that includes equations for the Darcy velocities, mass conservation and salinity distribution. Gravitational effects are thus fully accounted for. A site scale groundwater model was used to generate boundary conditions for all boundaries. Transmissivities of major fracture zones are based on field data. Fractures and fracture zones with a length scale between 5 and 320 metres are accounted for by a novel method that is based on a discrete fracture network. A small background conductivity is added to account for fractures smaller than the grid size, which is metres. A calibration of the model is carried out, using field data from the Aespoe HRL. A satisfactory agreement with field data is obtained. Main results from the model include vertical and horizontal sections of flow, salinity and hydraulic head distributions for completed tunnel. A sensitivity study, where the properties of the conductivity field are modified, is also carried out. The general conclusion of the study is that the model developed can simulate the conditions at the Aespoe HRL in a realistic manner

  10. Fully predictive simulation of real-scale cable tray fire based on small-scale laboratory experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beji, Tarek; Merci, Bart [Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics; Bonte, Frederick [Bel V, Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-12-15

    This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based modelling strategy for real-scale cable tray fires. The challenge was to perform fully predictive simulations (that could be called 'blind' simulations) using solely information from laboratory-scale experiments, in addition to the geometrical arrangement of the cables. The results of the latter experiments were used (1) to construct the fuel molecule and the chemical reaction for combustion, and (2) to estimate the overall pyrolysis and burning behaviour. More particularly, the strategy regarding the second point consists of adopting a surface-based pyrolysis model. Since the burning behaviour of each cable could not be tracked individually (due to computational constraints), 'groups' of cables were modelled with an overall cable surface area equal to the actual value. The results obtained for one large-scale test (a stack of five horizontal trays) are quite encouraging, especially for the peak Heat Release Rate (HRR) that was predicted with a relative deviation of 3 %. The time to reach the peak is however overestimated by 4.7 min (i.e. 94 %). Also, the fire duration is overestimated by 5 min (i.e. 24 %). These discrepancies are mainly attributed to differences in the HRRPUA (heat release rate per unit area) profiles between the small-scale and large-scale. The latter was calculated by estimating the burning area of cables using video fire analysis (VFA).

  11. Scale-up of Escherichia coli growth and recombinant protein expression conditions from microwell to laboratory and pilot scale based on matched k(L)a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, R S; Tisi, D; Levy, M S; Lye, G J

    2008-04-01

    Fermentation optimization experiments are ideally performed at small scale to reduce time, cost and resource requirements. Currently microwell plates (MWPs) are under investigation for this purpose as the format is ideally suited to automated high-throughput experimentation. In order to translate an optimized small-scale fermentation process to laboratory and pilot scale stirred-tank reactors (STRs) it is necessary to characterize key engineering parameters at both scales given the differences in geometry and the mechanisms of aeration and agitation. In this study oxygen mass transfer coefficients are determined in three MWP formats and in 7.5 L and 75 L STRs. k(L)a values were determined in cell-free media using the dynamic gassing-out technique over a range of agitation conditions. Previously optimized culture conditions at the MWP scale were then scaled up to the larger STR scales on the basis of matched k(L)a values. The accurate reproduction of MWP (3 mL) E. coli BL21 (DE3) culture kinetics at the two larger scales was shown in terms of cell growth, protein expression, and substrate utilization for k(L)a values that provided effective mixing and gas-liquid distribution at each scale. This work suggests that k(L)a provides a useful initial scale-up criterion for MWP culture conditions which enabled a 15,000-fold scale translation in this particular case. This work complements our earlier studies on the application of DoE techniques to MWP fermentation optimization and in so doing provides a generic framework for the generation of large quantities of soluble protein in a rapid and cost-effective manner.

  12. Large scale nuclear structure studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faessler, A.

    1985-01-01

    Results of large scale nuclear structure studies are reported. The starting point is the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov solution with angular momentum and proton and neutron number projection after variation. This model for number and spin projected two-quasiparticle excitations with realistic forces yields in sd-shell nuclei similar good results as the 'exact' shell-model calculations. Here the authors present results for a pf-shell nucleus 46 Ti and results for the A=130 mass region where they studied 58 different nuclei with the same single-particle energies and the same effective force derived from a meson exchange potential. They carried out a Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov variation after mean field projection in realistic model spaces. In this way, they determine for each yrast state the optimal mean Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov field. They apply this method to 130 Ce and 128 Ba using the same effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. (Auth.)

  13. Flow-sediment-large woody debris interplay: Introducing an appropriately scaled laboratory experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, H.; Spreitzer, G.; Tunnicliffe, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    The morphology of steep (>0.01 m/m) forested streams is governed not only by water-sediment interplay, but also by accumulations of coarse and fine organic debris. In this project we look at the jamming dynamics (formation, persistence and hydraulic feedbacks) of large woody debris with the help of scaled laboratory experiments. In New Zealand, the recruitment of wood from both natural tree-fall and forest harvesting has led to obstruction of culverts, bridges and other river constrictions. Understanding the dynamics of jam formation and persistence is important for harvest practice guidelines, management of sediment accumulation, as well as establishing impacts to habitat and infrastructure. In this study, we provide the context of our work, present our experimental setup for studying the complex flow-sediment-wood interactions and present some initial results. In our experimental setup, we varied feed rates of sediment and organic fine material in order to establish concentration thresholds for jam formation, and development of sediment retention capacity upstream of the jam. Large woody debris accumulation is studied for different blocking scenarios, and the effect on sediment transport is measured. Sediment quantities and changes in channel bed morphology upstream of the critical cross section are evaluated, together with resulting backwater effects, and associated energy losses. In the long term, our results will inform our understanding of the processes that take place from the mobilization of woody debris to accumulation.

  14. Laboratory scale development of coating for improving characteristics of candidate materials for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwala, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    Application of coatings of refractory low atomic number materials on to different components of Tokamak type controlled thermonuclear reactor are expected to provide a degree of design flexibility. The project envisages to deal with the challenging problem on laboratory scale. Coatings investigated include carbon, beryllium, boron, titanium carbide and alumina and substrates chosen have been 304, 316 stainless steels, monel-400, molybdenum, copper, graphite, etc. For their deposition, different techniques (e.g. evaporation, sputtering and their different variants) have been tried, appropriate ones chosen and their parameters optimized. The coating composition has been analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Rutherford backscattering analysis (RBS) and secondary ions mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Surface morphology has been studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Sebastian coating adherence tester has been used for adhesion measurement and Wilson's Tukon microhardness tester for their microhardness measurement. The coatings have been subjected to pulses from YAG laser to evaluate their thermal cycling behaviour. Deuterium ion bombardment (Energy: 20-120 keV; doses: 10 19 -9.3x10 20 ions/cm 2 ) behaviour has also been studied. In general, adherent and hard coatings capable of withstanding thermal cycling could be deposited. Out of the coatings studied, titanium carbide shows best results. The following pages are reprints and not mircrofiched: p. 25-32, 39-41, 57-81. Bibliographic description is on page 13

  15. A family of E. coli expression vectors for laboratory scale and high throughput soluble protein production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottomley Stephen P

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past few years, both automated and manual high-throughput protein expression and purification has become an accessible means to rapidly screen and produce soluble proteins for structural and functional studies. However, many of the commercial vectors encoding different solubility tags require different cloning and purification steps for each vector, considerably slowing down expression screening. We have developed a set of E. coli expression vectors with different solubility tags that allow for parallel cloning from a single PCR product and can be purified using the same protocol. Results The set of E. coli expression vectors, encode for either a hexa-histidine tag or the three most commonly used solubility tags (GST, MBP, NusA and all with an N-terminal hexa-histidine sequence. The result is two-fold: the His-tag facilitates purification by immobilised metal affinity chromatography, whilst the fusion domains act primarily as solubility aids during expression, in addition to providing an optional purification step. We have also incorporated a TEV recognition sequence following the solubility tag domain, which allows for highly specific cleavage (using TEV protease of the fusion protein to yield native protein. These vectors are also designed for ligation-independent cloning and they possess a high-level expressing T7 promoter, which is suitable for auto-induction. To validate our vector system, we have cloned four different genes and also one gene into all four vectors and used small-scale expression and purification techniques. We demonstrate that the vectors are capable of high levels of expression and that efficient screening of new proteins can be readily achieved at the laboratory level. Conclusion The result is a set of four rationally designed vectors, which can be used for streamlined cloning, expression and purification of target proteins in the laboratory and have the potential for being adaptable to a high

  16. Development of indigenous laboratory scale gas atomizer for producing metal powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, K.K.; Qasim, A.M.; Ahmed, P.

    2011-01-01

    Gas atomization is one of the methods for production of clean metal powders at relatively moderate cost. A laboratory scale gas atomizer was designed and fabricated indigenously to produce metal powders with a batch capacity of 500 g of copper (Cu). The design includes several features regarding fabrication and operation to provide optimum conditions for atomization. The inner diameter of atomizing chamber is 440 mm and its height is 1200 mm. The atomizing nozzle is of annular confined convergent type with an angle of 25 degree. Argon gas at desired pressure has been used for atomizing the metals to produce relatively clean powders. A provision has also been made to view the atomization process. The indigenous laboratory scale gas atomizer was used to produce tin (Sn) and copper (Cu) powders with different atomizing gas pressures ranging from 2 to 10 bar. The particle size of different powders produced ranges from 40 to 400 im. (author)

  17. Experiment using laboratory scale extruder. Fluid behavior in twin-screw extruder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Miura, Akihiko

    1999-09-01

    All evidences and chemical data suggest non-chemical heating mechanism raised the filling temperature of the bituminized product. But they indicate the filling temperature was higher than before at the incident. We estimated the physical heat mechanism in the extruder. It is well known that the viscous-heating occurs in mixing process in extruders. In order to confirm the behavior of the torque and temperature, some experiment using laboratory scale extruder were performed. The result of the experiment using laboratory scale extruder showed that the phenomena of salt enrichment and salt accumulation were observed and they raised mixture temperature at the decreased feed rate. These phenomena depend on the feed rate. It is considered that they have large contribution to heat transportation and operational torque due to the friction between screw and mixture. In this report, all experiment result are explained. (author)

  18. Validation of mathematical model for CZ process using small-scale laboratory crystal growth furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfelds, Kristaps; Sabanskis, Andrejs; Virbulis, Janis

    2018-05-01

    The present material is focused on the modelling of small-scale laboratory NaCl-RbCl crystal growth furnace. First steps towards fully transient simulations are taken in the form of stationary simulations that deal with the optimization of material properties to match the model to experimental conditions. For this purpose, simulation software primarily used for the modelling of industrial-scale silicon crystal growth process was successfully applied. Finally, transient simulations of the crystal growth are presented, giving a sufficient agreement to experimental results.

  19. Laboratory Scale Coal And Biomass To Drop-In Fuels (CBDF) Production And Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lux, Kenneth [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Imam, Tahmina [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Chevanan, Nehru [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Namazian, Mehdi [Altex Technologies Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Song, Chunshan [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2016-06-29

    This Final Technical Report describes the work and accomplishments of the project entitled, “Laboratory Scale Coal and Biomass to Drop-In Fuels (CBDF) Production and Assessment.” The main objective of the project was to fabricate and test a lab-scale liquid-fuel production system using coal containing different percentages of biomass such as corn stover and switchgrass at a rate of 2 liters per day. The system utilizes the patented Altex fuel-production technology, which incorporates advanced catalysts developed by Pennsylvania State University. The system was designed, fabricated, tested, and assessed for economic and environmental feasibility relative to competing technologies.

  20. Electrical processes for the treatment of medium active liquid wastes: a laboratory-scale evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, A.D.; Bowen, W.R.; Bridger, N.J.; Harrison, K.T.

    1983-10-01

    A wide range of electrochemical separation processes has been evaluated through literature and experimental studies for potential application to the treatment of medium-active liquid wastes. Of the ten processes considered, electro-osmosis and electrochemical ion-exchange show the most promise for immediate further development to a larger scale, while the faradaic deposition of PuO 2 , Tc, RuO 2 require further laboratory study before judgement can be passed on these. Electro-osmosis has an exceptionally high solids retention (99.99%) and is capable of dewatering suspensions to 35% - suitable for direct incorporation in concrete. Electrochemical ion-exchange has the attractions of a conventional ion-exchange process but with the added features of enhanced kinetics and pH operating range, as well as elution into demineralized water merely by polarity reversal. All electrical processes have the advantage of the added process variable of externally applied potential, which can enable remote, automatic control. (author)

  1. Electrical processes for the treatment of medium-active liquid wastes: a laboratory-scale evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, A.D.; Bowen, W.R.; Bridger, N.J.; Harrison, K.T.

    1984-01-01

    A wide range of electrochemical separation processes have been evaluated through the literature and experimental studies for potential application to the treatment of medium-active liquid wastes. Of the 10 processes considered, electro-osmosis and electrochemical ion-exchange show the most promise for immediate further development to a larger scale, while the faradic deposition of PuO 2 , Tc, RuO 2 require further laboratory study before judgment can be passed on these. Electro-osmosis has an exceptionally high solids retention (99.99%) and is capable of dewatering suspensions to 35% - suitable for direct incorporation in concrete. Electrochemical ion-exchange has the attractions of a conventional ion-exchange process but with the added features of enhanced kinetics and pH operating range, as well as elution into demineralized water merely by polarity reversal. All electrical processes have the advantage of the added process variable of externally applied potential, which can enable remote, automatic control

  2. Decomposition and carbon storage of selected paper products in laboratory-scale landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; De la Cruz, Florentino B; Ximenes, Fabiano; Barlaz, Morton A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the anaerobic biodegradation of different types of paper products in laboratory-scale landfill reactors. The study included (a) measurement of the loss of cellulose, hemicellulose, organic carbon, and (b) measurement of the methane yields for each paper product. The test materials included two samples each of newsprint (NP), copy paper (CP), and magazine paper (MG), and one sample of diaper (DP). The methane yields, carbon storage factors and the extent of cellulose and hemicellulose decomposition all consistently show that papers made from mechanical pulps (e.g., NPs) are less degradable than those made from chemical pulps where essentially all lignin was chemically removed (e.g., CPs). The diaper, which is not only made from chemical pulp but also contains some gel and plastic, exhibited limited biodegradability. The extent of biogenic carbon conversion varied from 21 to 96% among papers, which contrasts with the uniform assumption of 50% by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for all degradable materials discarded in landfills. Biochemical methane potential tests also showed that the solids to liquid ratio used in the test can influence the results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Decomposition and carbon storage of selected paper products in laboratory-scale landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaoming; De la Cruz, Florentino B.; Ximenes, Fabiano; Barlaz, Morton A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the anaerobic biodegradation of different types of paper products in laboratory-scale landfill reactors. The study included (a) measurement of the loss of cellulose, hemicellulose, organic carbon, and (b) measurement of the methane yields for each paper product. The test materials included two samples each of newsprint (NP), copy paper (CP), and magazine paper (MG), and one sample of diaper (DP). The methane yields, carbon storage factors and the extent of cellulose and hemicellulose decomposition all consistently show that papers made from mechanical pulps (e.g., NPs) are less degradable than those made from chemical pulps where essentially all lignin was chemically removed (e.g., CPs). The diaper, which is not only made from chemical pulp but also contains some gel and plastic, exhibited limited biodegradability. The extent of biogenic carbon conversion varied from 21 to 96% among papers, which contrasts with the uniform assumption of 50% by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for all degradable materials discarded in landfills. Biochemical methane potential tests also showed that the solids to liquid ratio used in the test can influence the results. - Highlights: • Decomposition of major paper products measured under simulated landfill conditions • Varied decomposition behaviors across paper types governed by pulp types • A copy paper made from eucalyptus exhibited inhibited decomposition

  4. Effects of process parameters on solid self-microemulsifying particles in a laboratory scale fluid bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Tusharmouli; Plakogiannis, Fotios M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to select the critical process parameters of the fluid bed processes impacting the quality attribute of a solid self-microemulsifying (SME) system of albendazole (ABZ). A fractional factorial design (2(4-1)) with four parameters (spray rate, inlet air temperature, inlet air flow, and atomization air pressure) was created by MINITAB software. Batches were manufactured in a laboratory top-spray fluid bed at 625-g scale. Loss on drying (LOD) samples were taken throughout each batch to build the entire moisture profiles. All dried granulation were sieved using mesh 20 and analyzed for particle size distribution (PSD), morphology, density, and flow. It was found that as spray rate increased, sauter-mean diameter (D(s)) also increased. The effect of inlet air temperature on the peak moisture which is directly related to the mean particle size was found to be significant. There were two-way interactions between studied process parameters. The main effects of inlet air flow rate and atomization air pressure could not be found as the data were inconclusive. The partial least square (PLS) regression model was found significant (P SME manufacturing process.

  5. Decomposition and carbon storage of selected paper products in laboratory-scale landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoming, E-mail: wangxiaoming_cqu@163.com [Key Laboratory of Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment, Ministry of Education, National Center for International Research of Low-Carbon and Green Buildings, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China); Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); De la Cruz, Florentino B. [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Ximenes, Fabiano [Department of Primary Industries, New South Wales (Australia); Barlaz, Morton A. [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the anaerobic biodegradation of different types of paper products in laboratory-scale landfill reactors. The study included (a) measurement of the loss of cellulose, hemicellulose, organic carbon, and (b) measurement of the methane yields for each paper product. The test materials included two samples each of newsprint (NP), copy paper (CP), and magazine paper (MG), and one sample of diaper (DP). The methane yields, carbon storage factors and the extent of cellulose and hemicellulose decomposition all consistently show that papers made from mechanical pulps (e.g., NPs) are less degradable than those made from chemical pulps where essentially all lignin was chemically removed (e.g., CPs). The diaper, which is not only made from chemical pulp but also contains some gel and plastic, exhibited limited biodegradability. The extent of biogenic carbon conversion varied from 21 to 96% among papers, which contrasts with the uniform assumption of 50% by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for all degradable materials discarded in landfills. Biochemical methane potential tests also showed that the solids to liquid ratio used in the test can influence the results. - Highlights: • Decomposition of major paper products measured under simulated landfill conditions • Varied decomposition behaviors across paper types governed by pulp types • A copy paper made from eucalyptus exhibited inhibited decomposition.

  6. Towards very large scale laboratory simulation of structure-foundation-soil interaction (SFSI) problems

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Colin A.; Crewe, Adam J.; Mylonakis, George

    2016-01-01

    We are at the maturity convergence point of a set of actuation, control, instrumentation and data analysis technologies that make it feasible to construct laboratory experimental rigs that will allow us to address key controlling uncertainties in SFS I assessment and design, which can only be addressed by testing at, or near to, prototype scale. This paper will explore the process of innovation that must be established in order to integrate these enabling technologies and thereby create novel...

  7. Large scale gas injection test (Lasgit) performed at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Summary report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuss, R.J.; Harrington, J.F.; Noy, D.J.

    2010-02-01

    This report describes the set-up, operation and observations from the first 1,385 days (3.8 years) of the large scale gas injection test (Lasgit) experiment conducted at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. During this time the bentonite buffer has been artificially hydrated and has given new insight into the evolution of the buffer. After 2 years (849 days) of artificial hydration a canister filter was identified to perform a series of hydraulic and gas tests, a period that lasted 268 days. The results from the gas test showed that the full-scale bentonite buffer behaved in a similar way to previous laboratory experiments. This confirms the up-scaling of laboratory observations with the addition of considerable information on the stress responses throughout the deposition hole. During the gas testing stage, the buffer was continued to artificially hydrate. Hydraulic results, from controlled and uncontrolled events, show that the buffer continues to mature and has yet to reach full maturation. Lasgit has yielded high quality data relating to the hydration of the bentonite and the evolution in hydrogeological properties adjacent to the deposition hole. The initial hydraulic and gas injection tests confirm the correct working of all control and data acquisition systems. Lasgit has been in successful operation for in excess of 1,385 days

  8. Large scale gas injection test (Lasgit) performed at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Summary report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuss, R.J.; Harrington, J.F.; Noy, D.J. (British Geological Survey (United Kingdom))

    2010-02-15

    This report describes the set-up, operation and observations from the first 1,385 days (3.8 years) of the large scale gas injection test (Lasgit) experiment conducted at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. During this time the bentonite buffer has been artificially hydrated and has given new insight into the evolution of the buffer. After 2 years (849 days) of artificial hydration a canister filter was identified to perform a series of hydraulic and gas tests, a period that lasted 268 days. The results from the gas test showed that the full-scale bentonite buffer behaved in a similar way to previous laboratory experiments. This confirms the up-scaling of laboratory observations with the addition of considerable information on the stress responses throughout the deposition hole. During the gas testing stage, the buffer was continued to artificially hydrate. Hydraulic results, from controlled and uncontrolled events, show that the buffer continues to mature and has yet to reach full maturation. Lasgit has yielded high quality data relating to the hydration of the bentonite and the evolution in hydrogeological properties adjacent to the deposition hole. The initial hydraulic and gas injection tests confirm the correct working of all control and data acquisition systems. Lasgit has been in successful operation for in excess of 1,385 days

  9. 222-S LABORATORY FUME HOOD TESTING STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RUELAS, B.H.

    2007-01-01

    The 222-S Laboratory contains 155 active fume hoods that are used to support analytical work with radioactive and/or toxic materials. The performance of a fume hood was brought into question after employees detected odors in the work area while mixing chemicals within the subject fume hood. Following the event, testing of the fume hood was conducted to assess the performance of the fume hood. Based on observations from the testing, it was deemed appropriate to conduct performance evaluations of other fume hoods within the laboratory

  10. Case Studies in Sustainability Used in an Introductory Laboratory Course to Enhance Laboratory Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luster-Teasley, Stephanie; Hargrove-Leak, Sirena; Gibson, Willietta; Leak, Roland

    2017-01-01

    This educational research seeks to develop novel laboratory modules by using Case Studies in the Science Teaching method to introduce sustainability and environmental engineering laboratory concepts to 21st century learners. The increased interest in "going green" has led to a surge in the number of engineering students studying…

  11. Laboratory-scale trials of electrolytic treatment on industrial wastewaters: microbiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardini, E; Valle, A; Gigliotti, C; Papagno, G; Ranalli, G; Sorlini, C

    2002-09-01

    Animal, civil and industrial waste matter is a source of potential chemical, microbiological and air pollutants. In populated areas the presence of faecal bacteria and the production of malodorous compounds during waste storage and in the tanks of wastewater treatment plants, can cause concern. The general aim of the work was to study electrolytic waste treatment (recently applied on animal slurry) using low electric current across graphite and copper electrodes, determining its effect on the microflora of sludge, collected from the equalisation basin of an industrial aerobic wastewater treatment plant, and on odour emission abatement. Biochemical and enzymatic indicators like ATP content and a pool of 19 enzymatic activities were tested, comparing them with viable cell counts by traditional microbiological methods, to verify the validity of such indicators in monitoring the electrolytic treatment and to assess their correlation with odour reduction. The preliminary results of our laboratory-scale trials showed that in the presence of inert electrodes, such as graphite, metabolic activity is stimulated, whereas with copper electrodes the ATP content and some enzymatic activities are inhibited quite considerably after only four days, this being accompanied by a marked reduction in odour. Consideration was also given to the total copper released from the electrodes and its recovery using iron electrodes.

  12. Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis Spores during Laboratory-Scale Composting of Feedlot Cattle Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shanwei; Harvey, Amanda; Barbieri, Ruth; Reuter, Tim; Stanford, Kim; Amoako, Kingsley K.; Selinger, Leonard B.; McAllister, Tim A.

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax outbreaks in livestock have social, economic and health implications, altering farmer’s livelihoods, impacting trade and posing a zoonotic risk. Our study investigated the survival of Bacillus thuringiensis and B. anthracis spores sporulated at 15, 20, or 37°C, over 33 days of composting. Spores (∼7.5 log10 CFU g-1) were mixed with manure and composted in laboratory scale composters. After 15 days, the compost was mixed and returned to the composter for a second cycle. Temperatures peaked at 71°C on day 2 and remained ≥55°C for an average of 7 days in the first cycle, but did not exceed 55°C in the second. For B. thuringiensis, spores generated at 15 and 21°C exhibited reduced (P composting for spores generated at 15, 21, and 37°C, respectively. For both species, spore viability declined more rapidly (P composting cycle. Our findings suggest that the duration of thermophilic exposure (≥55°C) is the main factor influencing survival of B. anthracis spores in compost. As sporulation temperature did not influence survival of B. anthracis, composting may lower the viability of spores associated with carcasses infected with B. anthracis over a range of sporulation temperatures. PMID:27303388

  13. Laboratory-scale bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil of Kuwait with soil amendment materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, B H; Chino, H; Tsuji, H; Kunito, T; Nagaoka, K; Otsuka, S; Yamashita, K; Matsumoto, S; Oyaizu, H

    1997-10-01

    A huge amount of oil-contaminated soil remains unremediated in the Kuwait desert. The contaminated oil has the potentiality to cause pollution of underground water and to effect the health of people in the neighborhood. In this study, laboratory scale bioremediation experiments were carried out. Hyponex (Hyponex, Inc.) and bark manure were added as basic nutrients for microorganisms, and twelve kinds of materials (baked diatomite, microporous glass, coconut charcoal, an oil-decomposing bacterial mixture (Formula X from Oppenheimer, Inc.), and eight kinds of surfactants) were applied to accelerate the biodegradation of oil hydrocarbons. 15% to 33% of the contaminated oil was decomposed during 43 weeks' incubation. Among the materials tested, coconut charcoal enhanced the biodegradation. On the contrary, the addition of an oil-decomposing bacterial mixture impeded the biodegradation. The effects of the other materials were very slight. The toxicity of the biodegraded compounds was estimated by the Ames test and the tea pollen tube growth test. Both of the hydrophobic (dichloromethane extracts) and hydrophilic (methanol extracts) fractions showed a very slight toxicity in the Ames test. In the tea pollen tube growth test, the hydrophobic fraction was not toxic and enhanced the growth of pollen tubes.

  14. Modelling high Reynolds number wall-turbulence interactions in laboratory experiments using large-scale free-stream turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Eda; Hearst, R Jason; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram

    2017-03-13

    A turbulent boundary layer subjected to free-stream turbulence is investigated in order to ascertain the scale interactions that dominate the near-wall region. The results are discussed in relation to a canonical high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer because previous studies have reported considerable similarities between these two flows. Measurements were acquired simultaneously from four hot wires mounted to a rake which was traversed through the boundary layer. Particular focus is given to two main features of both canonical high Reynolds number boundary layers and boundary layers subjected to free-stream turbulence: (i) the footprint of the large scales in the logarithmic region on the near-wall small scales, specifically the modulating interaction between these scales, and (ii) the phase difference in amplitude modulation. The potential for a turbulent boundary layer subjected to free-stream turbulence to 'simulate' high Reynolds number wall-turbulence interactions is discussed. The results of this study have encouraging implications for future investigations of the fundamental scale interactions that take place in high Reynolds number flows as it demonstrates that these can be achieved at typical laboratory scales.This article is part of the themed issue 'Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. EPOS Multi-Scale Laboratory platform: a long-term reference tool for experimental Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippanera, Daniele; Tesei, Telemaco; Funiciello, Francesca; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Rosenau, Matthias; Elger, Kirsten; Ulbricht, Damian; Lange, Otto; Calignano, Elisa; Spiers, Chris; Drury, Martin; Willingshofer, Ernst; Winkler, Aldo

    2017-04-01

    With continuous progress on scientific research, a large amount of datasets has been and will be produced. The data access and sharing along with their storage and homogenization within a unique and coherent framework is a new challenge for the whole scientific community. This is particularly emphasized for geo-scientific laboratories, encompassing the most diverse Earth Science disciplines and typology of data. To this aim the "Multiscale Laboratories" Work Package (WP16), operating in the framework of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS), is developing a virtual platform of geo-scientific data and services for the worldwide community of laboratories. This long-term project aims at merging the top class multidisciplinary laboratories in Geoscience into a coherent and collaborative network, facilitating the standardization of virtual access to data, data products and software. This will help our community to evolve beyond the stage in which most of data produced by the different laboratories are available only within the related scholarly publications (often as print-version only) or they remain unpublished and inaccessible on local devices. The EPOS multi-scale laboratory platform will provide the possibility to easily share and discover data by means of open access, DOI-referenced, online data publication including long-term storage, managing and curation services and to set up a cohesive community of laboratories. The WP16 is starting with three pilot cases laboratories: (1) rock physics, (2) palaeomagnetic, and (3) analogue modelling. As a proof of concept, first analogue modelling datasets have been published via GFZ Data Services (http://doidb.wdc-terra.org/search/public/ui?&sort=updated+desc&q=epos). The datasets include rock analogue material properties (e.g. friction data, rheology data, SEM imagery), as well as supplementary figures, images and movies from experiments on tectonic processes. A metadata catalogue tailored to the specific communities

  16. Biodegradation of formaldehyde from contaminated air using a laboratory scale static-bed bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghoub Hajizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the performance of an aerobic fixed-bed bioreactor (FBR enriched with microorganisms of sewage sludge in biodegradation of formaldehyde in air stream with various retention times and airflow rates in laboratory scale. Materials and Methods: An aerobic biofilter 60 cm in height and 14 cm internal diameter made of steel was constructed and packed with a mixture of pumice and compost as a medium and utilized in this study. The microorganism′s growth, which is derived from the sludge of a municipal wastewater treatment plant, was initiated by adding nutrient. During the first few days of run, the airflow containing different concentrations of formaldehyde (from 24 ± 3 to 224 ± 5 mg/m 3 was introduced to the reactor to ensure biological adaptation. Sampling was performed through a series of two impingers containing adsorbent, and analyzed by chromotropic acid assay using DR-5000. Results: The maximum removal and elimination capacity of formaldehyde was yielded at 0.48 ± 0.06 g/m 3 /h inlet loading rate and 180 s of empty bed retention time (EBRT. These values for stabilized days were almost 88% and 0.42 g/m 3 /h, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that by increasing the inlet concentration of formaldehyde and reducing the EBRT, the formaldehyde removal capacity of the system decreases. Aerobic bioreactor with appropriate bed volume and compatible with inlet pollutant mass flow rate in optimum retention time will admissibly degrade and reduce the formaldehyde concentration from contaminated gas phase, such as gases produced in municipal wastewater treatment facilities.

  17. Improving laboratory efficiencies to scale-up HIV viral load testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemnji, George; Onyebujoh, Philip; Nkengasong, John N

    2017-03-01

    Viral load measurement is a key indicator that determines patients' response to treatment and risk for disease progression. Efforts are ongoing in different countries to scale-up access to viral load testing to meet the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS target of achieving 90% viral suppression among HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. However, the impact of these initiatives may be challenged by increased inefficiencies along the viral load testing spectrum. This will translate to increased costs and ineffectiveness of scale-up approaches. This review describes different parameters that could be addressed across the viral load testing spectrum aimed at improving efficiencies and utilizing test results for patient management. Though progress is being made in some countries to scale-up viral load, many others still face numerous challenges that may affect scale-up efficiencies: weak demand creation, ineffective supply chain management systems; poor specimen referral systems; inadequate data and quality management systems; and weak laboratory-clinical interface leading to diminished uptake of test results. In scaling up access to viral load testing, there should be a renewed focus to address efficiencies across the entire spectrum, including factors related to access, uptake, and impact of test results.

  18. Laboratory investigation of constitutive property up-scaling in volcanic tuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tidwell, V.C.

    1996-08-01

    One of the critical issues facing the Yucca Mountain site characterization and performance assessment programs is the manner in which property up-scaling is addressed. Property up-scaling becomes an issue whenever heterogeneous media properties are measured at one scale but applied at another. A research program has been established to challenge current understanding of property up-scaling with the aim of developing and testing improved models that describe up-scaling behavior in a quantitative manner. Up-scaling of constitutive rock properties is investigated through physical experimentation involving the collection of suites of gas-permeability data measured over a range of discrete scales. To date, up-scaling studies have been performed on a series of tuff and sandstone (used as experimental controls) blocks. Samples include a welded, anisotropic tuff (Tiva Canyon Member of the Paintbrush Tuff, upper cliff microstratigraphic unit), and a moderately welded tuff (Tiva Canyon Member of the Paintbrush Tuff, Caprock microstratigraphic unit). A massive fluvial sandstone (Berea Sandstone) was also investigated as a means of evaluating the experimental program and to provide a point of comparison for the tuff data. Because unsaturated flow is of prime interest to the Yucca Mountain Program, scoping studies aimed at investigating the up-scaling of hydraulic properties under various saturated conditions were performed to compliment these studies of intrinsic permeability. These studies focused on matrix sorptivity, a constitutive property quantifying the capillarity of a porous medium. 113 refs

  19. Multi-scale data visualization for computational astrophysics and climate dynamics at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahern, Sean; Daniel, Jamison R; Gao, Jinzhu; Ostrouchov, George; Toedte, Ross J; Wang, Chaoli

    2006-01-01

    Computational astrophysics and climate dynamics are two principal application foci at the Center for Computational Sciences (CCS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). We identify a dataset frontier that is shared by several SciDAC computational science domains and present an exploration of traditional production visualization techniques enhanced with new enabling research technologies such as advanced parallel occlusion culling and high resolution small multiples statistical analysis. In collaboration with our research partners, these techniques will allow the visual exploration of a new generation of peta-scale datasets that cross this data frontier along all axes

  20. Studies and researches in the underground laboratory at Pasquasia mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassoni, E.; Cautilli, F.; Polizzano, C.; Zarlenga, F.

    1989-01-01

    The reliability of the geological disposal of radioactive wastes has to be verified both by laboratory and on site researches, under both surface and underground conditions. The tests carried out under high lithostatic stress can allow extrapolations to be made having absolute value at the depths planned for the construction of the repository. An underground laboratory was excavated at the Pasquasia mine (Enna-Sicilia). On the selected area a detailed geological survey (1:5000 scale) was carried out; for the purpose of studying the effects induced by the advancement of the excavation's face into the clayey mass and over the cross section of the transversal tunnel, several geotechnical measurement stations were installed. Structural observations were made on both the fronts and the walls of the tunnel for the purpose of characterizing the mechanical behaviour of the clayey mass. The 37 cubic blocks and the 72 samples collected during the excavation were analyzed from different point of view (sedimentological, mineralogical, geotechnical, etc.). After the excavation of the tunnel and the installation of the geotechnical stations, the measurements were carried out up to March 1987. At this date the work programme was unfortunately stopped by local authorities, unfoundly suspecting Pasquasia mine would be used as waste repository

  1. The effect of impeller type on silica sol formation in laboratory scale agitated tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurtono, Tantular; Suprana, Yayang Ade; Latif, Abdul; Dewa, Restu Mulya; Machmudah, Siti; Widiyastuti, Winardi, Sugeng

    2016-02-01

    The multiphase polymerization reaction of the silica sol formation produced from silicic acid and potassium hydroxide solutions in laboratory scale agitated tank was studied. The reactor is equipped with four segmental baffle and top entering impeller. The inside diameter of reactor is 9 cm, the baffle width is 0.9 cm, and the impeller position is 3 cm from tank bottom. The diameter of standard six blades Rushton and three blades marine propeller impellers are 5 cm. The silicic acid solution was made from 0.2 volume fraction of water glass (sodium silicate) solution in which the sodium ion was exchanged by hydrogen ion from cation resin. The reactor initially filled with 286 ml silicic acid solution was operated in semi batch mode and the temperature was kept constant in 60 °C. The 3 ml/minute of 1 M potassium hydroxide solution was added into stirred tank and the solution was stirred. The impeller rotational speed was varied from 100 until 700 rpm. This titration was stopped if the solution in stirred tank had reached the pH of 10-The morphology of the silica particles in the silica sol product was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The size of silica particles in silica sol was measured based on the SEM image. The silica particle obtained in this research was amorphous particle and the shape was roughly cylinder. The flow field generated by different impeller gave significant effect on particle size and shape. The smallest geometric mean of length and diameter of particle (4.92 µm and 2.42 µm, respectively) was generated in reactor with marine propeller at 600 rpm. The reactor with Rushton impeller produced particle which the geometric mean of length and diameter of particle was 4.85 µm and 2.36 µm, respectively, at 150 rpm.

  2. Slow Slip and Earthquake Nucleation in Meter-Scale Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaskey, G.

    2017-12-01

    The initiation of dynamic rupture is thought to be preceded by a quasistatic nucleation phase. Observations of recent earthquakes sometimes support this by illuminating slow slip and foreshocks in the vicinity of the eventual hypocenter. I describe laboratory earthquake experiments conducted on two large-scale loading machines at Cornell University that provide insight into the way earthquake nucleation varies with normal stress, healing time, and loading rate. The larger of the two machines accommodates a 3 m long granite sample, and when loaded to 7 MPa stress levels, we observe dynamic rupture events that are preceded by a measureable nucleation zone with dimensions on the order of 1 m. The smaller machine accommodates a 0.76 m sample that is roughly the same size as the nucleation zone. On this machine, small variations in nucleation properties result in measurable differences in slip events, and we generate both dynamic rupture events (> 0.1 m/s slip rates) and slow slip events ( 0.001 to 30 mm/s slip rates). Slow events occur when instability cannot fully nucleate before reaching the sample ends. Dynamic events occur after long healing times or abrupt increases in loading rate which suggests that these factors shrink the spatial and temporal extents of the nucleation zone. Arrays of slip, strain, and ground motion sensors installed on the sample allow us to quantify seismic coupling and study details of premonitory slip and afterslip. The slow slip events we observe are primarily aseismic (less than 1% of the seismic coupling of faster events) and produce swarms of very small M -6 to M -8 events. These mechanical and seismic interactions suggest that faults with transitional behavior—where creep, small earthquakes, and tremor are often observed—could become seismically coupled if loaded rapidly, either by a slow slip front or dynamic rupture of an earthquake that nucleated elsewhere.

  3. Laboratory-scale model of carbon dioxide deposition for soil stabilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hamed Fasihnikoutalab

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Olivine sand is a natural mineral, which, when added to soil, can improve the soil's mechanical properties while also sequester carbon dioxide (CO2 from the surrounding environment. The originality of this paper stems from the novel two-stage approach. In the first stage, natural carbonation of olivine and carbonation of olivine treated soil under different CO2 pressures and times were investigated. In this stage, the unconfined compression test was used as a tool to evaluate the strength performance. In the second stage, details of the installation and performance of carbonated olivine columns using a laboratory-scale model were investigated. In this respect, olivine was mixed with the natural soil using the auger and the columns were then carbonated with gaseous CO2. The unconfined compressive strengths of soil in the first stage increased by up to 120% compared to those of the natural untreated soil. The strength development was found to be proportional to the CO2 pressure and carbonation period. Microstructural analyses indicated the presence of magnesite on the surface of carbonated olivine-treated soil, demonstrating that modified physical properties provided a stronger and stiffer matrix. The performance of the carbonated olivine-soil columns, in terms of ultimate bearing capacity, showed that the carbonation procedure occurred rapidly and yielded a bearing capacity value of 120 kPa. Results of this study are of significance to the construction industry as the feasibility of carbonated olivine for strengthening and stabilizing soil is validated. Its applicability lies in a range of different geotechnical applications whilst also mitigates the global warming through the sequestration of CO2.

  4. A laboratory study of the composition and fermentation of various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grain sorghum, forage sorghum, sunflower and maize were ensiled on laboratory scale. Sunflowers, harvested at the milky seed stage of maturity, resulted in silage containing only 13,54% dry matter (DM). Maize, grain sorghum and forage sorghum silages, contained approximately 30% DM. Both maize and sunflower ...

  5. Composting clam processing wastes in a laboratory- and pilot-scale in-vessel system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhenhu; Lane, Robert; Wen, Zhiyou

    2009-01-01

    Waste materials from the clam processing industry (offal, shells) have several special characteristics such as a high salinity level, a high nitrogen content, and a low C/N ratio. The traditional disposal of clam waste through landfilling is facing the challenges of limited land available, increasing tipping fees, and strict environmental and regulatory scrutiny. The aim of this work is to investigate the performance of in-vessel composting as an alternative for landfill application of these materials. Experiments were performed in both laboratory-scale (5L) and pilot-scale (120L) reactors, with woodchips as the bulking agent. In the laboratory-scale composting test, the clam waste and woodchips were mixed in ratios from 1:0.5 to 1:3 (w/w, wet weight). The high ratios resulted in a better temperature performance, a higher electrical conductivity, and a higher ash content than the low-ratio composting. The C/N ratio of the composts was in the range of 9:1-18:1. In the pilot-scale composting test, a 1:1 ratio of clam waste to woodchips was used. The temperature profile during the composting process met the US Environmental Protection Agency sanitary requirement. The final cured compost had a C/N ratio of 14.6, with an ash content of 167.0+/-14.1g/kg dry matter. In addition to the major nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, and sodium), the compost also contained trace amounts of zinc, manganese, copper, and boron, indicating that the material can be used as a good resource for plant nutrients.

  6. Flow and transport properties of a 200 meters multi scale fractured block at the Aespoe (Sweden) underground laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, C.; Bernard-Michel, G.; Fourno, A.; Benaderrahmane, H.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Within the framework of nuclear spent fuel storage, special care is put on experimentation and modelling work to improve the modelling capabilities for the transfers of radionuclides within a natural fractured media. Several aspects make it a challenging task, among which the heterogeneity of the system, the scarcity of the available information, the strong contrasts in the parameter values between mobile and immobile zones. In addition to these difficulties relative to the system, the assessment of storage capacity of a repository involves predictions at very large time scales (typically 100.000 years) which are not accessible to experimentation. We provide here with some of the results obtained within the SKB Task Force (Task6) related with the Aespoe granitic underground laboratory in Sweden. The purpose of this task, involving several other modelling teams, is to provide a bridge between detailed SC (Site Characterization) models operating at experimental and local time scale and more simple PA (Performance Assessment) models operating at large spatial and time scales used for sensitivity analysis to different scenarios. The present step involves a study of a 200 meters complex and realistic fractured system considering several scales of fracturing or heterogeneity according to the in situ observations: deterministic features identified from the Block Scale project, synthetic background fractures simulated based on in situ measurements of smaller scale fracturing and finally complexity of the fractures at different scales (fault zones with several channels along Cataclasite to simple joints with fracture coating). Tracer tests conducted within local portions of the system during Block Scale project are provided as well as laboratory measurements of the properties of the system. We present an overview of our modelling strategy and transport results as well as associated studies highlighting the role played by the different sub

  7. Data Services and Transnational Access for European Geosciences Multi-Scale Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funiciello, Francesca; Rosenau, Matthias; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Tesei, Telemaco; Trippanera, Daniele; Spires, Chris; Drury, Martyn; Kan-Parker, Mirjam; Lange, Otto; Willingshofer, Ernst

    2016-04-01

    The EC policy for research in the new millennium supports the development of european-scale research infrastructures. In this perspective, the existing research infrastructures are going to be integrated with the objective to increase their accessibility and to enhance the usability of their multidisciplinary data. Building up integrating Earth Sciences infrastructures in Europe is the mission of the Implementation Phase (IP) of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) project (2015-2019). The integration of european multiscale laboratories - analytical, experimental petrology and volcanology, magnetic and analogue laboratories - plays a key role in this context and represents a specific task of EPOS IP. In the frame of the WP16 of EPOS IP working package 16, European geosciences multiscale laboratories aims to be linked, merging local infrastructures into a coherent and collaborative network. In particular, the EPOS IP WP16-task 4 "Data services" aims at standardize data and data products, already existing and newly produced by the participating laboratories, and made them available through a new digital platform. The following data and repositories have been selected for the purpose: 1) analytical and properties data a) on volcanic ash from explosive eruptions, of interest to the aviation industry, meteorological and government institutes, b) on magmas in the context of eruption and lava flow hazard evaluation, and c) on rock systems of key importance in mineral exploration and mining operations; 2) experimental data describing: a) rock and fault properties of importance for modelling and forecasting natural and induced subsidence, seismicity and associated hazards, b) rock and fault properties relevant for modelling the containment capacity of rock systems for CO2, energy sources and wastes, c) crustal and upper mantle rheology as needed for modelling sedimentary basin formation and crustal stress distributions, d) the composition, porosity, permeability, and

  8. Anaerobic treatment of animal byproducts from slaughterhouses at laboratory and pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edström, Mats; Nordberg, Ake; Thyselius, Lennart

    2003-01-01

    Different mixtures of animal byproducts, other slaughterhouse waste (i.e., rumen, stomach and intestinal content), food waste, and liquid manure were codigested at mesophilic conditions (37 degrees C) at laboratory and pilot scale. Animal byproducts, including blood, represent 70-80% of the total biogas potential from waste generated during slaughter of animals. The total biogas potential from waste generated during slaughter is about 1300 MJ/cattle and about 140 MJ/pig. Fed-batch digestion of pasteurized (70 degrees C, 1 h) animal byproducts resulted in a fourfold increase in biogas yield (1.14 L/g of volatile solids [VS]) compared with nonpasteurized animal byproducts (0.31 L/g of VS). Mixtures with animal byproducts representing 19-38% of the total dry matter were digested in continuous-flow stirred tank reactors at laboratory and pilot scale. Stable processes at organic loading rates (OLRs) exceeding 2.5 g of VS/(L.d) and hydraulic retention times (HRTs) less than 40 d could be obtained with total ammonia nitrogen concentrations (NH4-N + NH3-N) in the range of 4.0-5.0 g/L. After operating one process for more than 1.5 yr at total ammonia nitrogen concentrations >4 g/L, an increase in OLR to 5 g of VS/(L.d) and a decrease in HRT to 22 d was possible without accumulation of volatile fatty acids.

  9. Applicability of laboratory data to large scale tests under dynamic loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.; Klenk, A.

    1993-01-01

    The analysis of dynamic loading and subsequent fracture must be based on reliable data for loading and deformation history. This paper describes an investigation to examine the applicability of parameters which are determined by means of small-scale laboratory tests to large-scale tests. The following steps were carried out: (1) Determination of crack initiation by means of strain gauges applied in the crack tip field of compact tension specimens. (2) Determination of dynamic crack resistance curves of CT-specimens using a modified key-curve technique. The key curves are determined by dynamic finite element analyses. (3) Determination of strain-rate-dependent stress-strain relationships for the finite element simulation of small-scale and large-scale tests. (4) Analysis of the loading history for small-scale tests with the aid of experimental data and finite element calculations. (5) Testing of dynamically loaded tensile specimens taken as strips from ferritic steel pipes with a thickness of 13 mm resp. 18 mm. The strips contained slits and surface cracks. (6) Fracture mechanics analyses of the above mentioned tests and of wide plate tests. The wide plates (960x608x40 mm 3 ) had been tested in a propellant-driven 12 MN dynamic testing facility. For calculating the fracture mechanics parameters of both tests, a dynamic finite element simulation considering the dynamic material behaviour was employed. The finite element analyses showed a good agreement with the simulated tests. This prerequisite allowed to gain critical J-integral values. Generally the results of the large-scale tests were conservative. 19 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Evaluation of scaling records for TASA access tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ittner, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the result of a project accomplished during the summer 2009. It introduces a method to estimate the magnitude, mass distribution and cause of scaled blocks by tunnel mapping and evaluation of scaling data records. These issues are important for understanding the impact of the excavation method on the surrounding rock mass during excavation of the planned underground repository for spent nuclear fuel. The project includes mapping of the 3120 m drill and blast excavated part of the TASA access tunnel in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL). In addition it includes development of a method for evaluation of the collected material together with scaling data records from the Site Characterization Database (SICADA). An interview has also been held with Erik Gabrielsson, who has been in charge of tunnel maintenance at Aespoe for many years. The mapping focused on to identify size and cause of areas with significant overbreaks in the tunnel roof. By distributing documented scaled volume in a tunnel section on several mapped overbreak areas in the same section it is possible to reconstruct the size of scaled blocks. The observed overbreak areas have been categorized in five different area types, depending on the cause of scaling: two geologically induced, one blast induced, one induced from a combination of geology and blasting and one unable to place in any category. For the calculated mass distribution the number of observations is declining with increasing block mass. 11% of the total blocks exceeding 400 Kg and 75% of the scaled blocks weights under 200 Kg. Most of the blocks are however lighter with 34% weighting 50 Kg or less. There is a relation between the mapped area type and the size distribution among the mapped overbreak areas. For example the areas caused by the end of blasting rounds are more frequently appearing then the other types but most of them are small in relation to the others The impression achieved from the tunnel mapping is

  11. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Evaluation of scaling records for TASA access tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ittner, Henrik (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2009-07-01

    This report presents the result of a project accomplished during the summer 2009. It introduces a method to estimate the magnitude, mass distribution and cause of scaled blocks by tunnel mapping and evaluation of scaling data records. These issues are important for understanding the impact of the excavation method on the surrounding rock mass during excavation of the planned underground repository for spent nuclear fuel. The project includes mapping of the 3120 m drill and blast excavated part of the TASA access tunnel in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL). In addition it includes development of a method for evaluation of the collected material together with scaling data records from the Site Characterization Database (SICADA). An interview has also been held with Erik Gabrielsson, who has been in charge of tunnel maintenance at Aespoe for many years. The mapping focused on to identify size and cause of areas with significant overbreaks in the tunnel roof. By distributing documented scaled volume in a tunnel section on several mapped overbreak areas in the same section it is possible to reconstruct the size of scaled blocks. The observed overbreak areas have been categorized in five different area types, depending on the cause of scaling: two geologically induced, one blast induced, one induced from a combination of geology and blasting and one unable to place in any category. For the calculated mass distribution the number of observations is declining with increasing block mass. 11% of the total blocks exceeding 400 Kg and 75% of the scaled blocks weights under 200 Kg. Most of the blocks are however lighter with 34% weighting 50 Kg or less. There is a relation between the mapped area type and the size distribution among the mapped overbreak areas. For example the areas caused by the end of blasting rounds are more frequently appearing then the other types but most of them are small in relation to the others The impression achieved from the tunnel mapping is

  12. Resiliency Scale (RS): Scale Development, Reliability and Validity Study

    OpenAIRE

    GÜRGAN, Uğur

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new Resiliency Scale (RS) for Turkish samples. Various items from some major resiliency scales, most of them with some partial change, were collected and a pool of 228 items containing almost all possible resilience areas were obtained. This item-pool was administered to a college sample of 419. Resulting of analysis 50 item RS were obtained and administered to a new college sample of 112 participants. This second sample has also received the Rosenba...

  13. Development and Implementation of a Scaled Saltstone Facility at Savannah River National Laboratory - 13346

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reigel, Marissa M.; Fowley, Mark D.; Hansen, Erich K.; Hera, Kevin R.; Marzolf, Athneal D.; Cozzi, Alex D.

    2013-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has supported the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) since its conception. However, bench scaled tests have not always provided process or performance data related to the mixing, transfer, and other operations utilized in the SPF. A need was identified to better understand the SPF processes and to have the capabilities at SRNL to simulate the SPF unit operations to support an active low-level radioactive waste (LLW) processing facility. At the SPF, the dry premix is weighed, mixed and transferred to the Readco '10-inch' continuous mixer where it is mixed with the LLW salt solution from the Salt Feed Tank (SFT) to produce fresh Saltstone slurry. The slurry is discharged from the mixer into a hopper. The hopper feeds the grout pump that transfers the slurry through at least 457.2 meters of piping and discharges it into the Saltstone Disposal Units (SDU) for permanent disposal. In conjunction with testing individual SPF processes over several years, SRNL has designed and fabricated a scaled Saltstone Facility. Scaling of the system is primarily based on the volume capacity of the mixer and maintaining the same shear rate and total shear at the wall of the transfer line. At present, SRNL is utilizing the modular capabilities of the scaled Saltstone Facility to investigate the erosion issues related to the augers and paddles inside the SPF mixer. Full implementation of the scaled Saltstone Facility is still ongoing, but it is proving to be a valuable resource for testing alternate Saltstone formulations, cleaning sequences, the effect of pumping Saltstone to farther SDU's, optimization of the SPF mixer, and other operational variables before they are implemented in the SPF. (authors)

  14. Terrain And Laboratory Conductivity Studies Of Flood Plains Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A shallow electromagnetic study (electrical conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements) and laboratory conductivity sampling of the flood plains of Oluwatuyi/Oshinle area of Akure have been undertaken. This is with the aim of correlating the terrain conductivity mapping with laboratory measurements to establish ...

  15. Laboratory scale characterizations of the mixing zone for reactive transport in a carbonate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassab, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    We have performed laboratory-scale percolation experiments combining hydrodynamic and geochemical reaction processes in a unique setup to study the evolution of permeability induced by dissolution reactions in a natural Carbonate system. First, the key parameters controlling Calcite dissolution due to mixing of two end member solutions representing fresh and sea waters are assessed through typical geochemical modeling. Both solutions are at equilibrium with Calcite and are associated with different values of partial pressure of CO 2 and salinity. Mixing of the two selected end members provides a sub saturated solution with low and moderate ionic strength, high pCO 2 , and high salinity. Modeling results reveal that the maximum sub saturation is expected to occur for mixing ratios of about 15%. The expected dissolved Calcite until equilibrium attains its maximum at a mixing ratio of about 45%. Experimental results indicate that the calcite dissolution rate at a 15% mixing ratio is higher than that observed at 45% mixing ratio. The outlet solution from the sample reactor is always under saturated with respect to Calcite. Permeability of the tested sample displays a rapid decrease during the beginning of injection. It then shows a stable behavior until the end of percolation when the porosity of the sample increases due to dissolution. To understand permeability and porosity evolution obtained from the mixing experiments we perform dissolution experiments under different dissolution regimes by injection of deionized water (DW) and/or DW enriched with CO 2 . It is observed that permeability decreases when DW is injected whereas it increases following injection of DW enriched with CO 2 . The observed global dissolution rate of Calcite is larger for the experiments with DW enriched with CO 2 than for those performed with DW. The observed permeability reduction is due to the clogging of connected pore caused by migration of micro particles detaching from the host porous

  16. Performance assessment of laboratory and field-scale multi-step passive treatment of iron-rich acid mine drainage for design improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotonimaro, Tsiverihasina V; Neculita, Carmen Mihaela; Bussière, Bruno; Genty, Thomas; Zagury, Gérald J

    2018-04-17

    Multi-step passive systems for the treatment of iron-rich acid mine drainage (Fe-rich AMD) perform satisfactorily at the laboratory scale. However, their field-scale application has revealed dissimilarities in performance, particularly with respect to hydraulic parameters. In this study, the assessment of factors potentially responsible for the variations in performance of laboratory and field-scale multi-step systems was undertaken. Three laboratory multi-step treatment scenarios, involving a combination of dispersed alkaline substrate (DAS) units, anoxic dolomitic drains, and passive biochemical reactors (PBRs), were set up in 10.7-L columns. The field-scale treatment consisted of two PBRs separated by a wood ash (WA) reactor. The parameters identified as possibly influencing the performances of the laboratory and field-scale experiments were the following: AMD chemistry (electrical conductivity and Fe and SO 4 2- concentrations), flow rate (Q), and saturated hydraulic conductivity (k sat ). Based on these findings, the design of an efficient passive multi-step treatment system is suggested to consider the following: (1) Fe pretreatment, using materials with high k sat and low HRT. If a PBR is to be used, the Fe load should be PBR/DAS filled with a mixture with at least 20% of neutralizing agent; (3) include Q and k sat (> 10 -3  cm/s) in the long-term prediction. Finally, mesocosm testing is strongly recommended prior to construction of full-scale systems for the treatment of Fe-rich AMD.

  17. The effect of impeller type on silica sol formation in laboratory scale agitated tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurtono, Tantular; Suprana, Yayang Ade; Latif, Abdul; Dewa, Restu Mulya; Machmudah, Siti; Widiyastuti,, E-mail: widi@chem-eng.its.ac.id; Winardi, Sugeng [Chemical Engineering Department, Institute of Technology Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    The multiphase polymerization reaction of the silica sol formation produced from silicic acid and potassium hydroxide solutions in laboratory scale agitated tank was studied. The reactor is equipped with four segmental baffle and top entering impeller. The inside diameter of reactor is 9 cm, the baffle width is 0.9 cm, and the impeller position is 3 cm from tank bottom. The diameter of standard six blades Rushton and three blades marine propeller impellers are 5 cm. The silicic acid solution was made from 0.2 volume fraction of water glass (sodium silicate) solution in which the sodium ion was exchanged by hydrogen ion from cation resin. The reactor initially filled with 286 ml silicic acid solution was operated in semi batch mode and the temperature was kept constant in 60 °C. The 3 ml/minute of 1 M potassium hydroxide solution was added into stirred tank and the solution was stirred. The impeller rotational speed was varied from 100 until 700 rpm. This titration was stopped if the solution in stirred tank had reached the pH of 10-The morphology of the silica particles in the silica sol product was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The size of silica particles in silica sol was measured based on the SEM image. The silica particle obtained in this research was amorphous particle and the shape was roughly cylinder. The flow field generated by different impeller gave significant effect on particle size and shape. The smallest geometric mean of length and diameter of particle (4.92 µm and 2.42 µm, respectively) was generated in reactor with marine propeller at 600 rpm. The reactor with Rushton impeller produced particle which the geometric mean of length and diameter of particle was 4.85 µm and 2.36 µm, respectively, at 150 rpm.

  18. Scaled laboratory experiments explain the kink behaviour of the Crab Nebula jet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C K; Tzeferacos, P; Lamb, D; Gregori, G; Norreys, P A; Rosenberg, M J; Follett, R K; Froula, D H; Koenig, M; Seguin, F H; Frenje, J A; Rinderknecht, H G; Sio, H; Zylstra, A B; Petrasso, R D; Amendt, P A; Park, H S; Remington, B A; Ryutov, D D; Wilks, S C; Betti, R; Frank, A; Hu, S X; Sangster, T C; Hartigan, P; Drake, R P; Kuranz, C C; Lebedev, S V; Woolsey, N C

    2016-10-07

    The remarkable discovery by the Chandra X-ray observatory that the Crab nebula's jet periodically changes direction provides a challenge to our understanding of astrophysical jet dynamics. It has been suggested that this phenomenon may be the consequence of magnetic fields and magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, but experimental demonstration in a controlled laboratory environment has remained elusive. Here we report experiments that use high-power lasers to create a plasma jet that can be directly compared with the Crab jet through well-defined physical scaling laws. The jet generates its own embedded toroidal magnetic fields; as it moves, plasma instabilities result in multiple deflections of the propagation direction, mimicking the kink behaviour of the Crab jet. The experiment is modelled with three-dimensional numerical simulations that show exactly how the instability develops and results in changes of direction of the jet.

  19. Potential Electrokinetic Remediation Technologies of Laboratory Scale into Field Application- Methodology Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuni Suied, Anis; Tajudin, Saiful Azhar Ahmad; Nizam Zakaria, Muhammad; Madun, Aziman

    2018-04-01

    Heavy metal in soil possesses high contribution towards soil contamination which causes to unbalance ecosystem. There are many ways and procedures to make the electrokinetic remediation (EKR) method to be efficient, effective, and potential as a low cost soil treatment. Electrode compartment for electrolyte is expected to treat the contaminated soil through electromigration and enhance metal ions movement. The electrokinetic is applicable for many approaches such as electrokinetic remediation (EKR), electrokinetic stabilization (EKS), electrokinetic bioremediation and many more. This paper presents a critical review on comparison of laboratory scale between EKR, EKS and EK bioremediation treatment by removing the heavy metal contaminants. It is expected to propose one framework of contaminated soil mapping. Electrical Resistivity Method (ERM) is one of famous indirect geophysical tools for surface mapping and subsurface profiling. Hence, ERM is used to mapping the migration of heavy metal ions by electrokinetic.

  20. Geomechanical behaviour of Opalinus Clay at multiple scales: results from Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amann, F.; Wild, K.M.; Loew, S. [Institute of Geology, Engineering Geology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland); Yong, S. [Knight Piesold Ltd, Vancouver (Canada); Thoeny, R. [Grundwasserschutz und Entsorgung, AF-Consult Switzerland AG, Baden (Switzerland); Frank, E. [Sektion Geologie (GEOL), Eidgenössisches Nuklear-Sicherheitsinspektorat (ENSI), Brugg (Switzerland)

    2017-04-15

    The paper represents a summary about our research projects conducted between 2003 and 2015 related to the mechanical behaviour of Opalinus Clay at Mont Terri. The research summarized covers a series of laboratory and field tests that address the brittle failure behaviour of Opalinus Clay, its undrained and effective strength, the dependency of petro-physical and mechanical properties on total suction, hydro-mechanically coupled phenomena and the development of a damage zone around excavations. On the laboratory scale, even simple laboratory tests are difficult to interpret and uncertainties remain regarding the representativeness of the results. We show that suction may develop rapidly after core extraction and substantially modifies the strength, stiffness, and petro-physical properties of Opalinus Clay. Consolidated undrained tests performed on fully saturated specimens revealed a relatively small true cohesion and confirmed the strong hydro-mechanically coupled behaviour of this material. Strong hydro-mechanically coupled processes may explain the stability of cores and tunnel excavations in the short term. Pore-pressure effects may cause effective stress states that favour stability in the short term but may cause longer-term deformations and damage as the pore-pressure dissipates. In-situ observations show that macroscopic fracturing is strongly influenced by bedding planes and faults planes. In tunnel sections where opening or shearing along bedding planes or faults planes is kinematically free, the induced fracture type is strongly dependent on the fault plane frequency and orientation. A transition from extensional macroscopic failure to shearing can be observed with increasing fault plane frequency. In zones around the excavation where bedding plane shearing/shearing along tectonic fault planes is kinematically restrained, primary extensional type fractures develop. In addition, heterogeneities such as single tectonic fault planes or fault zones

  1. Diffusion Experiments with Opalinus and Callovo-Oxfordian Clays: Laboratory, Large-Scale Experiments and Microscale Analysis by RBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Alonso, U.; Missana, T.; Cormenzana, J.L.; Mingarro, M.; Morejon, J.; Gil, P.

    2009-01-01

    Consolidated clays are potential host rocks for deep geological repositories for high-level radioactive waste. Diffusion is the main transport process for radionuclides (RN) in these clays. Radionuclide (RN) diffusion coefficients are the most important parameters for Performance Assessment (PA) calculations of clay barriers. Different diffusion methodologies were applied at a laboratory scale to analyse the diffusion behaviour of a wide range of RN. Main aims were to understand the transport properties of different RNs in two different clays and to contribute with feasible methodologies to improve in-situ diffusion experiments, using samples of larger scale. Classical laboratory essays and a novel experimental set-up for large-scale diffusion experiments were performed, together to a novel application of the nuclear ion beam technique Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), for diffusion analyses at the micrometer scale. The main experimental and theoretical characteristics of the different methodologies, and their advantages and limitations are here discussed. Experiments were performed with the Opalinus and the Callovo-Oxfordian clays. Both clays are studied as potential host rock for a repository. Effective diffusion coefficients ranged between 1.10 - 10 to 1.10 - 12 m 2 /s for neutral, low sorbing cations (as Na and Sr) and anions. Apparent diffusion coefficients for strongly sorbing elements, as Cs and Co, are in the order of 1.10-13 m 2 /s; europium present the lowest diffusion coefficient (5.10 - 15 m 2 /s). The results obtained by the different approaches gave a comprehensive database of diffusion coefficients for RN with different transport behaviour within both clays. (Author) 42 refs

  2. Diffusion Experiments with Opalinus and Callovo-Oxfordian Clays: Laboratory, Large-Scale Experiments and Microscale Analysis by RBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Alonso, U.; Missana, T.; Cormenzana, J.L.; Mingarro, M.; Morejon, J.; Gil, P.

    2009-09-25

    Consolidated clays are potential host rocks for deep geological repositories for high-level radioactive waste. Diffusion is the main transport process for radionuclides (RN) in these clays. Radionuclide (RN) diffusion coefficients are the most important parameters for Performance Assessment (PA) calculations of clay barriers. Different diffusion methodologies were applied at a laboratory scale to analyse the diffusion behaviour of a wide range of RN. Main aims were to understand the transport properties of different RNs in two different clays and to contribute with feasible methodologies to improve in-situ diffusion experiments, using samples of larger scale. Classical laboratory essays and a novel experimental set-up for large-scale diffusion experiments were performed, together to a novel application of the nuclear ion beam technique Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), for diffusion analyses at the micrometer scale. The main experimental and theoretical characteristics of the different methodologies, and their advantages and limitations are here discussed. Experiments were performed with the Opalinus and the Callovo-Oxfordian clays. Both clays are studied as potential host rock for a repository. Effective diffusion coefficients ranged between 1.10{sup -}10 to 1.10{sup -}12 m{sup 2}/s for neutral, low sorbing cations (as Na and Sr) and anions. Apparent diffusion coefficients for strongly sorbing elements, as Cs and Co, are in the order of 1.10-13 m{sup 2}/s; europium present the lowest diffusion coefficient (5.10{sup -}15 m{sup 2}/s). The results obtained by the different approaches gave a comprehensive database of diffusion coefficients for RN with different transport behaviour within both clays. (Author) 42 refs.

  3. Some relevant parameters for assessing fire hazards of combustible mine materials using laboratory scale experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litton, Charles D; Perera, Inoka E; Harteis, Samuel P; Teacoach, Kara A; DeRosa, Maria I; Thomas, Richard A; Smith, Alex C

    2018-04-15

    When combustible materials ignite and burn, the potential for fire growth and flame spread represents an obvious hazard, but during these processes of ignition and flaming, other life hazards present themselves and should be included to ensure an effective overall analysis of the relevant fire hazards. In particular, the gases and smoke produced both during the smoldering stages of fires leading to ignition and during the advanced flaming stages of a developing fire serve to contaminate the surrounding atmosphere, potentially producing elevated levels of toxicity and high levels of smoke obscuration that render the environment untenable. In underground mines, these hazards may be exacerbated by the existing forced ventilation that can carry the gases and smoke to locations far-removed from the fire location. Clearly, materials that require high temperatures (above 1400 K) and that exhibit low mass loss during thermal decomposition, or that require high heat fluxes or heat transfer rates to ignite represent less of a hazard than materials that decompose at low temperatures or ignite at low levels of heat flux. In order to define and quantify some possible parameters that can be used to assess these hazards, small-scale laboratory experiments were conducted in a number of configurations to measure: 1) the toxic gases and smoke produced both during non-flaming and flaming combustion; 2) mass loss rates as a function of temperature to determine ease of thermal decomposition; and 3) mass loss rates and times to ignition as a function of incident heat flux. This paper describes the experiments that were conducted, their results, and the development of a set of parameters that could possibly be used to assess the overall fire hazard of combustible materials using small scale laboratory experiments.

  4. Leaching of wood ash - Laboratory and field studies; Lakning av vedaska - Laboratorie- och faeltstudier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Per-Erik

    2012-02-15

    High forest production leads to diminishing amounts of base cations and micro nutrients in forest soils. This is due to uptake in, and harvest of, the trees. Losses can be compensated for by spreading stabilized wood ash on the forest ground, which means recycling of base cations and micro nutrients. Chemical composition of wood ash can easily be described by standard methods in the laboratory. However, this does not include the process of leaching in nature, such as which components and leaching rate for different compounds. During field conditions several factors are added, which are not available in the laboratory. After almost 10 years in the forest soils there still remains large quantities of the original product. Only 10-30 % of the wood ash products and 5 % of the lime product has been leached. In the laboratory study the leached amount was slightly larger, at the most 35 % for wood ash and 20 % for lime. Both studies indicate long time for weathering of the products in forest soils. Slower leaching rate from pellets of wood ash compared to leaching rate from crushed wood ash in the laboratory study is not verified by the field study. This indicates limited possibilities to control rates of leaching in the environment

  5. Laboratory studies of refractory metal oxide smokes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuth, J.A.; Nelson, R.N.; Donn, B.

    1989-01-01

    Studies of the properties of refractory metal oxide smokes condensed from a gas containing various combinations of SiH4, Fe(CO)5, Al(CH3)3, TiCl4, O2 and N2O in a hydrogen carrier stream at 500 K greater than T greater than 1500 K were performed. Ultraviolet, visible and infrared spectra of pure, amorphous SiO(x), FeO(x), AlO(x) and TiO(x) smokes are discussed, as well as the spectra of various co-condensed amorphous oxides, such as FE(x)SiO(y) or Fe(x)AlO(y). Preliminary studies of the changes induced in the infrared spectra of iron-containing oxide smokes by vacuum thermal annealing suggest that such materials become increasingly opaque in the near infrared with increased processing: hydration may have the opposite effect. More work on the processing of these materials is required to confirm such a trend: this work is currently in progress. Preliminary studies of the ultraviolet spectra of amorphous Si2O3 and MgSiO(x) smokes revealed no interesting features in the region from 200 to 300 nm. Studies of the ultraviolet spectra of both amorphous, hydrated and annealed SiO(x), TiO(x), AlO(x) and FeO(x) smokes are currently in progress. Finally, data on the oxygen isotopic composition of the smokes produced in the experiments are presented, which indicate that the oxygen becomes isotopically fractionated during grain condensation. Oxygen in the grains is as much as 3 percent per amu lighter than the oxygen in the original gas stream. The authors are currently conducting experiments to understand the mechanism by which fractionation occurs

  6. Laboratory Studies of Hydrocarbon Oxidation Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, J. J.; Tyndall, G. S.; Wallington, T. J.; Burkholder, J. B.; Bertman, S. B.; Chen, W.

    2001-12-01

    The oxidation of hydrocarbon species (alkanes, alkenes, halogenated species, and oxygenates of both natural and anthropogenic origin) in the troposphere leads to the generation of numerous potentially harmful secondary pollutants, such as ozone, organic nitrates and acids, and aerosols. These oxidations proceed via the formation of alkoxy radicals, whose complex chemistry controls the ultimate product distributions obtained. Studies of hydrocarbon oxidation mechanisms are ongoing at NCAR and Ford, using environmental chamber / FTIR absorption systems. The focus of these studies is often on the product distributions obtained at low temperature; these studies not only provide data of direct relevance to the free/upper troposphere, but also allow for a more fundamental understanding of the alkoxy radical chemistry (eg., from the determination of the Arrhenius parameters for unimolecular processes, and the quantification of the extent of the involvement of chemical activation in the alkoxy radical chemistry). In this paper, data will be presented on some or all of the following topics: kinetics/mechanisms for the reactions of OH with the unsaturated species MPAN, acrolein, and crotonaldehyde; the mechanism for the oxidation of ethyl chloride and ethyl bromide; and the mechanism for the reaction of OH with acetone and acetaldehyde at low temperature. The relevance of the data to various aspects of tropospheric chemistry will be discussed.

  7. Laboratory study of the Flandres clay swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaddaj, Said

    1992-01-01

    The first chapter contains a survey about the swelling of soils, and about the experimental methods used to characterize this phenomenon. A classification of soils in function of their swelling potential is proposed. The second chapter deals with the properties of Flandres clay. Chemical and mineralogical compositions, mechanical properties and free swell index are given. The third chapter contains a presentation of the study of the swelling potential of Flandres clay using the oedometer. Four methods are described and used (free-swell, different pressures, pre-swell and direct-swell). A numerical simulation of free-swell tests is also given. The fourth chapter includes a presentation of the study of the swelling behaviour of Flandres clay using a triaxial cell. Three methods are used: free-swell, pre-swell and different-pressures. The last chapter contains a parametric study of the swelling behaviour of Flandres clay. The influence of some parameters such as sample thickness, initial water content, vertical load and load history is presented. (author) [fr

  8. Transitioning glass-ceramic scintillators for diagnostic x-ray imaging from the laboratory to commercial scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckert, M. Brooke; Gallego, Sabrina; Elder, Eric; Nadler, Jason

    2016-10-01

    This study sought to mitigate risk in transitioning newly developed glass-ceramic scintillator technology from a laboratory concept to commercial product by identifying the most significant hurdles to increased scale. These included selection of cost effective raw material sources, investigation of process parameters with the most significant impact on performance, and synthesis steps that could see the greatest benefit from participation of an industry partner that specializes in glass or optical component manufacturing. Efforts focused on enhancing the performance of glass-ceramic nanocomposite scintillators developed specifically for medical imaging via composition and process modifications that ensured efficient capture of incident X-ray energy and emission of scintillation light. The use of cost effective raw materials and existing manufacturing methods demonstrated proof-of-concept for economical viable alternatives to existing benchmark materials, as well as possible disruptive applications afforded by novel geometries and comparatively lower cost per volume. The authors now seek the expertise of industry to effectively navigate the transition from laboratory demonstrations to pilot scale production and testing to evince the industry of the viability and usefulness of composite-based scintillators.

  9. COLAB: A Laboratory Environment for Studying Analyst Sensemaking and Collaboration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Clayton T; Cohen, Paul R

    2005-01-01

    COLAB is a laboratory for studying tools that facilitate collaboration and sensemaking among groups of human analysts as they build interpretations of unfolding situations based on accruing intelligence data...

  10. Malaria Laboratory Diagnostic Performance: Case studies of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advantages of rapid diagnostic tests when compared with microscopy are simple to perform, fast, low ... The study was conducted to establish the performance of laboratory diagnosis of malaria in local Malawi .... Government of Malawi.

  11. An automated laboratory-scale methodology for the generation of sheared mammalian cell culture samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Adrian; Goldrick, Stephen; Mollet, Michael; Turner, Richard; Bender, Jean; Gruber, David; Farid, Suzanne S; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel

    2017-05-01

    Continuous disk-stack centrifugation is typically used for the removal of cells and cellular debris from mammalian cell culture broths at manufacturing-scale. The use of scale-down methods to characterise disk-stack centrifugation performance enables substantial reductions in material requirements and allows a much wider design space to be tested than is currently possible at pilot-scale. The process of scaling down centrifugation has historically been challenging due to the difficulties in mimicking the Energy Dissipation Rates (EDRs) in typical machines. This paper describes an alternative and easy-to-assemble automated capillary-based methodology to generate levels of EDRs consistent with those found in a continuous disk-stack centrifuge. Variations in EDR were achieved through changes in capillary internal diameter and the flow rate of operation through the capillary. The EDRs found to match the levels of shear in the feed zone of a pilot-scale centrifuge using the experimental method developed in this paper (2.4×10 5 W/Kg) are consistent with those obtained through previously published computational fluid dynamic (CFD) studies (2.0×10 5 W/Kg). Furthermore, this methodology can be incorporated into existing scale-down methods to model the process performance of continuous disk-stack centrifuges. This was demonstrated through the characterisation of culture hold time, culture temperature and EDRs on centrate quality. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Hydrologic control on the root growth of Salix cuttings at the laboratory scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bau', Valentina; Calliari, Baptiste; Perona, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Riparian plant roots contribute to the ecosystem functioning and, to a certain extent, also directly affect fluvial morphodynamics, e.g. by influencing sediment transport via mechanical stabilization and trapping. There is much both scientific and engineering interest in understanding the complex interactions among riparian vegetation and river processes. For example, to investigate plant resilience to uprooting by flow, one should quantify the probability that riparian plants may be uprooted during specific flooding event. Laboratory flume experiments are of some help to this regard, but are often limited to use grass (e.g., Avena and Medicago sativa) as vegetation replicate with a number of limitations due to fundamental scaling problems. Hence, the use of small-scale real plants grown undisturbed in the actual sediment and within a reasonable time frame would be particularly helpful to obtain more realistic flume experiments. The aim of this work is to develop and tune an experimental technique to control the growth of the root vertical density distribution of small-scale Salix cuttings of different sizes and lengths. This is obtained by controlling the position of the saturated water table in the sedimentary bed according to the sediment size distribution and the cutting length. Measurements in the rhizosphere are performed by scanning and analysing the whole below-ground biomass by means of the root analysis software WinRhizo, from which root morphology statistics and the empirical vertical density distribution are obtained. The model of Tron et al. (2015) for the vertical density distribution of the below-ground biomass is used to show that experimental conditions that allow to develop the desired root density distribution can be fairly well predicted. This augments enormously the flexibility and the applicability of the proposed methodology in view of using such plants for novel flow erosion experiments. Tron, S., Perona, P., Gorla, L., Schwarz, M., Laio, F

  13. Laboratory scale stabilization of N-springs groundwater strontium-90 using phosphatic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, T.E.; Petersen, S.W.; Torne, E.G.; Vlcakova, J.; Higginbotham, J.F.

    1996-09-01

    This document presents the results of a laboratory study designed to evaluate the ability of phosphatic materials to sorb strontium-90 from soil and groundwater. This study was initiated to investigate the potential use of phosphatic materials as permeable geochemical barriers for groundwater contaminated with strontium-90. Groundwater discharges to the Columbia River create potential human food chain hazards; therefore, it is imperative to immobilize the contamination before it reaches the river. Phosphate materials have been proven by various researchers to be chemical compounds that combine with contaminant metals forming into insoluble metal-phosphate minerals. These minerals are stable and insoluble under normal soil conditions

  14. Critical Causes of Degradation in Integrated Laboratory Scale Cells during High Temperature Electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.S. Sohal; J.E. O' Brien; C.M. Stoots; J. J. Hartvigsen; D. Larsen; S. Elangovan; J.S. Herring; J.D. Carter; V.I. Sharma; B. Yildiz

    2009-05-01

    An ongoing project at Idaho National Laboratory involves generating hydrogen from steam using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC). This report describes background information about SOECs, the Integrated Laboratory Scale (ILS) testing of solid-oxide electrolysis stacks, ILS performance degradation, and post-test examination of SOECs by various researchers. The ILS test was a 720- cell, three-module test comprised of 12 stacks of 60 cells each. A peak H2 production rate of 5.7 Nm3/hr was achieved. Initially, the module area-specific resistance ranged from 1.25 Ocm2 to just over 2 Ocm2. Total H2 production rate decreased from 5.7 Nm3/hr to a steady state value of 0.7 Nm3/hr. The decrease was primarily due to cell degradation. Post test examination by Ceramatec showed that the hydrogen electrode appeared to be in good condition. The oxygen evolution electrode does show delamination in operation and an apparent foreign layer deposited at the electrolyte interface. Post test examination by Argonne National Laboratory showed that the O2-electrode delaminated from the electrolyte near the edge. One possible reason for this delamination is excessive pressure buildup with high O2 flow in the over-sintered region. According to post test examination at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the electrochemical reactions have been recognized as one of the prevalent causes of their degradation. Specifically, two important degradation mechanisms were examined: (1) transport of Crcontaining species from steel interconnects into the oxygen electrode and LSC bond layers in SOECs, and (2) cation segregation and phase separation in the bond layer. INL conducted a workshop October 27, 2008 to discuss possible causes of degradation in a SOEC stack. Generally, it was agreed that the following are major degradation issues relating to SOECs: • Delamination of the O2-electrode and bond layer on the steam/O2-electrode side • Contaminants (Ni, Cr, Si, etc.) on reaction sites

  15. Sediment transport via needle ice: a new method for diffusive transport on laboratory-scale hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, K. E.; Roering, J. J.; Rempel, A. W.

    2012-12-01

    Convex hilltops formed by diffusive sediment transport are a fundamental feature of soil-mantled landscapes worldwide. Additionally, the competition and interaction between hillslopes and valleys control basic topographic metrics, such as relief, drainage density, and breaks in slope-area scaling. Despite recent progress in erosive landscape experiments, no published work has explored the competition of hillslope diffusion and channel advection experimentally. Here, we present preliminary findings on the plausibility of needle ice driven frost creep as a mechanism for laboratory hillslope transport of wet sediment. In nature, needle ice is a diurnal form of ice segregation, whereby liquid water held in sediment pore space is driven upward toward a near-surface freezing front by a temperature-controlled liquid pressure gradient. As needles grow perpendicular to the surface, sediment is incorporated in the growing needle ice by temperature perturbations and associated downward shifts in the freezing front. Sediment then moves downslope due to melting or sublimation of the ice needles. We constructed a slope of saturated sediment in a freezer to constrain the temperature, grain size, and soil moisture limits on laboratory needle ice growth and sediment transport. Surficial sediment transport is measured during experimentation by tracking the movement of colored grains. Additionally, at the end of each run we measure depth-dependent sediment transport by taking slices of the experimental slope and observing the displacement of buried columns of colored grains. In agreement with past work, we find that with temperatures just below freezing, soil moisture above 35%, and silt-sized sediment, the moisture migration induced by freezing releases enough latent heat to maintain the location of the freezing front and encourage needle ice growth. Our experiments demonstrate that the amount of sediment incorporated during needle growth, i.e., the transport efficiency, can be

  16. Design study of underground facility of the Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibiya, Keisuke; Akiyoshi, Kenji; Ishizuka, Mineo; Anezaki, Susumu

    1998-03-01

    Geoscientific research program to study deep geological environment has been performed by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). This research is supported by 'Long-Term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy'. An Underground Research Laboratory is planned to be constructed at Shoma-sama Hora in the research area belonging to PNC. A wide range of geoscientific research and development activities which have been previously studied at the Tono Area is planned in the laboratory. The Underground Research Laboratory is consisted of Surface Laboratory and Underground Research Facility located from the surface down to depth between several hundreds and 1,000 meters. Based on the results of design study in last year, the design study performed in this year is to investigate the followings in advance of studies for basic design and practical design: concept, design procedure, design flow and total layout. As a study for the concept of the underground facility, items required for the facility are investigated and factors to design the primary form of the underground facility are extracted. Continuously, design methods for the vault and the underground facility are summarized. Furthermore, design procedures of the extracted factors are summarized and total layout is studied considering the results to be obtained from the laboratory. (author)

  17. BENCH SCALE SALTSTONE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT MIXING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A.; Hansen, E.

    2011-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop a bench scale test facility, using a mixer, transfer pump, and transfer line to determine the impact of conveying the grout through the transfer lines to the vault on grout properties. Bench scale testing focused on the effect the transfer line has on the rheological property of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Rheological and other physical properties of grout samples were obtained prior to and after pumping through a transfer line. The Bench Scale Mixing Rig (BSMR) consisted of two mixing tanks, grout feed tank, transfer pump and transfer hose. The mixing tanks were used to batch the grout which was then transferred into the grout feed tank. The contents of the feed tank were then pumped through the transfer line (hose) using a progressive cavity pump. The grout flow rate and pump discharge pressure were monitored. Four sampling stations were located along the length of the transfer line at the 5, 105 and 205 feet past the transfer pump and at 305 feet, the discharge of the hose. Scaling between the full scale piping at Saltstone to bench scale testing at SRNL was performed by maintaining the same shear rate and total shear at the wall of the transfer line. The results of scaling down resulted in a shorter transfer line, a lower average velocity, the same transfer time and similar pressure drops. The condition of flow in the bench scale transfer line is laminar. The flow in the full scale pipe is in the transition region, but is more laminar than turbulent. The resulting plug in laminar flow in the bench scale results in a region of no-mixing. Hence mixing, or shearing, at the bench scale should be less than that observed in the full scale, where this plug is non existent due to the turbulent flow. The bench scale tests should be considered to be conservative due to the highly laminar condition of flow that exists. Two BSMR runs were performed. In both cases, wall

  18. Design of laboratory radiotracer studies in marine radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, E.H.

    1997-01-01

    A condensed description of methods used in laboratory radiotracer studies in marine radioecology is presented showing also the difficulties which may be encountered in order to obtain realistic and comparable information on the general behaviour of radionuclides in marine organisms. Practical guidance on the choice of the biological material and how to setup laboratory experiments and to control properly important experimental conditions are given. Key parameters like concentration factors and biological half-lives are defined and the theoretical estimation and practical determination of input, uptake, accumulation and loss of radionuclides in marine biota are formulated by the aid of mathematical equations. Examples of uptake and loss curves obtained in the laboratory are shown. The importance of some environmental factors (temperature, food, growth) on uptake and loss of radionuclides are demonstrated. Comparison of experimental and field data of concentration factors is reported to show the difficulty in extrapolating from laboratory experiments to nature. (author)

  19. Process performance of the pilot-scale in situ vitrification of a simulated waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, J.G.; Koegler, S.S.; Bates, S.O.

    1988-06-01

    Process feasibility studies have been successfully performed on three developmental scales to determine the potential for applying in situ vitrification to intermediate-level (low-level) waste placed in seepage pits and trenches at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In the laboratory, testing was performed in crucibles containing a mixture of 50% ORNL soil and 50% limestone. In an engineering-scale test at Pacific Northwest Laboratory a /1/12/-scale simulation of an ORNL waste trench was constructed and vitrified, resulting in a waste product containing soil and limestone concentrations of 68 wt % and 32 wt %, respectively. In the pilot-scale test a /3/8/-scale simulation of the same trench was constructed and vitrified at ORNL, resulting in soil and limestone concentrations of 80% and 20%, respectively, in the waste product. Results of the three scales of testing indicate that the ORNL intermediate-level (low-level) waste sites can be successfully processed by in situ vitrification; the waste form will retain significant quantities of the cesium and strontium. Because cesium-137 and strontium-90 are the major components of the radionuclide inventory in the ORNL seepage pits and trenches, final field process decontamination factors (i.e., losses to the off-gas system relative to the waste inventory) of 1.0 E + 4 are desired to minimize activity buildup in the off-gas system. 17 refs., 34 figs., 13 tabs

  20. Implementation of the full-scale emplacement (FE) experiment at the Mont Terri rock laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, H.R.; Garitte, B.; Vogt, T.; and others

    2017-04-15

    Opalinus Clay is currently being assessed as the host rock for a deep geological repository for high-level and low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Switzerland. Within this framework, the 'Full-Scale Emplacement' (FE) experiment was initiated at the Mont Terri rock laboratory close to the small town of St-Ursanne in Switzerland. The FE experiment simulates, as realistically as possible, the construction, waste emplacement, backfilling and early post-closure evolution of a spent fuel/vitrified high-level waste disposal tunnel according to the Swiss repository concept. The main aim of this multiple heater test is the investigation of repository-induced thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) coupled effects on the host rock at this scale and the validation of existing coupled THM models. For this, several hundred sensors were installed in the rock, the tunnel lining, the bentonite buffer, the heaters and the plug. This paper is structured according to the implementation timeline of the FE experiment. It documents relevant details about the instrumentation, the tunnel construction, the production of the bentonite blocks and the highly compacted 'granulated bentonite mixture' (GBM), the development and construction of the prototype 'backfilling machine' (BFM) and its testing for horizontal GBM emplacement. Finally, the plug construction and the start of all 3 heaters (with a thermal output of 1350 Watt each) in February 2015 are briefly described. In this paper, measurement results representative of the different experimental steps are also presented. Tunnel construction aspects are discussed on the basis of tunnel wall displacements, permeability testing and relative humidity measurements around the tunnel. GBM densities achieved with the BFM in the different off-site mock-up tests and, finally, in the FE tunnel are presented. Finally, in situ thermal conductivity and temperature measurements recorded during the first heating months

  1. A laboratory-scale pretreatment and hydrolysis assay for determination of reactivity in cellulosic biomass feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfrum, Edward J; Ness, Ryan M; Nagle, Nicholas J; Peterson, Darren J; Scarlata, Christopher J

    2013-11-14

    The rapid determination of the release of structural sugars from biomass feedstocks is an important enabling technology for the development of cellulosic biofuels. An assay that is used to determine sugar release for large numbers of samples must be robust, rapid, and easy to perform, and must use modest amounts of the samples to be tested.In this work we present a laboratory-scale combined pretreatment and saccharification assay that can be used as a biomass feedstock screening tool. The assay uses a commercially available automated solvent extraction system for pretreatment followed by a small-scale enzymatic hydrolysis step. The assay allows multiple samples to be screened simultaneously, and uses only ~3 g of biomass per sample. If the composition of the biomass sample is known, the results of the assay can be expressed as reactivity (fraction of structural carbohydrate present in the biomass sample released as monomeric sugars). We first present pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis experiments on a set of representative biomass feedstock samples (corn stover, poplar, sorghum, switchgrass) in order to put the assay in context, and then show the results of the assay applied to approximately 150 different feedstock samples covering 5 different materials. From the compositional analysis data we identify a positive correlation between lignin and structural carbohydrates, and from the reactivity data we identify a negative correlation between both carbohydrate and lignin content and total reactivity. The negative correlation between lignin content and total reactivity suggests that lignin may interfere with sugar release, or that more mature samples (with higher structural sugars) may have more recalcitrant lignin. The assay presented in this work provides a robust and straightforward method to measure the sugar release after pretreatment and saccharification that can be used as a biomass feedstock screening tool. We demonstrated the utility of the assay by

  2. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Caustic Leach Rate Constants from PEP and Laboratory-Scale Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Hanson, Brady D.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2009-08-14

    Testing Summary Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed and constructed and is to be operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.” The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP; vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF). In both scenarios, 19-M sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH, caustic) is added to the waste slurry in the vessels to leach solid aluminum compounds (e.g., gibbsite, boehmite). Caustic addition is followed by a heating step that uses direct injection of steam to accelerate the leaching process. Following the caustic leach, the vessel contents are cooled using vessel cooling jackets and/or external heat exchangers. The main difference between the two scenarios is that for leaching in UFP-1, the 19-M NaOH is added to un-concentrated waste slurry (3 to 8 wt% solids), while for leaching in UFP-2, the slurry is

  3. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Caustic Leach Rate Constants from PEP and Laboratory-Scale Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Hanson, Brady D.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2009-01-01

    Testing Summary Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed and constructed and is to be operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, 'Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.' The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. Two operating scenarios are currently being evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-2 ultrafiltration feed vessels (i.e., vessel UFP-VSL-T02A in the PEP and vessels UFP-VSL-00002A and B in the WTP PTF). The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-1 ultrafiltration feed preparation vessels (i.e., vessels UFP-VSL-T01A and B in the PEP; vessels UFP-VSL-00001A and B in the WTP PTF). In both scenarios, 19-M sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH, caustic) is added to the waste slurry in the vessels to leach solid aluminum compounds (e.g., gibbsite, boehmite). Caustic addition is followed by a heating step that uses direct injection of steam to accelerate the leaching process. Following the caustic leach, the vessel contents are cooled using vessel cooling jackets and/or external heat exchangers. The main difference between the two scenarios is that for leaching in UFP-1, the 19-M NaOH is added to un-concentrated waste slurry (3 to 8 wt% solids), while for leaching in UFP-2, the slurry is concentrated

  4. Full-scale laboratory drilling tests on sandstone and dolomite. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, A. D.; Green, S. J.; Rogers, L. A.

    1977-08-01

    Full-scale laboratory drilling experiments were performed under simulated downhole conditions to determine what effect changing various drilling parameters has on penetration rate. The two rock types, typical of deep oil and gas reservoirs, used for the tests were Colton Sandstone and Bonne Terre Dolomite. Drilling was performed with standard 7/sup 7///sub 8/ inch rotary insert bits and water base mud. The results showed the penetration rate to be strongly dependent on bit weight, rotary speed and borehole mud pressure. There was only a small dependence on mud flow rate. The drilling rate decreased rapidly with increasing borehole mud pressure for borehole pressures up to about 2,000 psi. Above this pressure, the borehole pressure and rotary speeds had a smaller effect on penetration rate. The penetration rate was then dependent mostly on the bit weight. Penetration rate per horsepower input was also shown to decrease at higher mud pressures and bit weights. The ratio of horizontal confining stress to axial overburden stress was maintained at 0.7 for simulated overburden stresses between 0 and 12,800 psi. For this simulated downhole stress state, the undrilled rock sample was within the elastic response range and the confining pressures were found to have only a small or negligible effect on the penetration rate. Visual examination of the bottomhole pattern of the rocks after simulated downhole drilling, however, revealed ductile chipping of the Sandstone, but more brittle behavior in the Dolomite.

  5. Startup of the remote laboratory-scale waste-treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, C.A.; Siemens, D.H.; Berger, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    The Remote Laboratory-Scale Waste-Treatment Facility was designed as a system to solidify small volumes of radioactive liquid wastes. The objectives in operating this facility are to evaluate solidification processes, determine the effluents generated, test methods for decontaminating the effluents, and provide radioactive solidified waste products for evaluation. The facility consists of a feed-preparation module, a waste-solidification module and an effluent-treatment module. The system was designed for remote installation and operation. Several special features for remotely handling radioactive materials were incorporated into the design. The equipment was initially assembled outside of a radiochemical cell to size and fabricate the connecting jumpers between the modules and to complete some preliminary design-verification tests. The equipment was then disassembled and installed in the radiochemical cell. When installation was completed the entire system was checked out with water and then with a nonradioactive simulated waste solution. The purpose of these operations was to start up the facility, find and solve operational problems, verify operating procedures and train personnel. The major problems experienced during these nonradioactive runs were plugging of the spray calciner nozzle and feed tank pumping failures. When these problems were solved, radioactive operations were started. This report describes the installation of this facility, its special remote design feature and the startup operations

  6. Numerical Simulation of a Laboratory-Scale Turbulent SlotFlame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, John B.; Day, Marcus S.; Grcar, Joseph F.; Lijewski,Michael J.; Driscoll, James F.; Filatyev, Sergei A.

    2006-04-20

    We present three-dimensional, time-dependent simulations ofthe flowfield of a laboratory-scale slot burner. The simulations areperformed using an adaptive time-dependent low Mach number combustionalgorithm based on a second-order projection formulation that conservesboth species mass and total enthalpy. The methodology incorporatesdetailed chemical kinetics and a mixture model for differential speciesdiffusion. Methane chemistry and transport are modeled using the DRM-19mechanism along with its associated thermodynamics and transportdatabases. Adaptive mesh refinementdynamically resolves the flame andturbulent structures. Detailedcomparisons with experimental measurementsshow that the computational results provide a good prediction of theflame height, the shape of the time-averaged parabolic flame surfacearea, and the global consumption speed (the volume per second ofreactants consumed divided by the area of the time-averaged flame). Thethickness of the computed flamebrush increases in the streamwisedirection, and the flamesurface density profiles display the same generalshapes as the experiment. The structure of the simulated flame alsomatches the experiment; reaction layers are thin (typically thinner than1 mm) and the wavelengths of large wrinkles are 5--10 mm. Wrinklesamplify to become long fingers of reactants which burn through at a neckregion, forming isolated pockets of reactants. Thus both the simulatedflame and the experiment are in the "corrugated flameletregime."

  7. Evaluation of malodor for automobile air conditioner evaporator by using laboratory-scale test cooling bench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Sun Hwa; Jung, Young Rim; Kim, Man Goo

    2008-09-12

    As one of the measures to improve the environment in an automobile, malodor caused by the automobile air-conditioning system evaporator was evaluated and analyzed using laboratory-scale test cooling bench. The odor was simulated with an evaporator test cooling bench equipped with an airflow controller, air temperature and relative humidity controller. To simulate the same odor characteristics that occur from automobiles, one previously used automobile air conditioner evaporator associated with unpleasant odors was selected. The odor was evaluated by trained panels and collected with aluminum polyester bags. Collected samples were analyzed by thermal desorption into a cryotrap and subsequent gas chromatographic separation, followed by simultaneous olfactometry, flame ionization detector and identified by atomic emission detection and mass spectrometry. Compounds such as alcohols, aldehydes, and organic acids were identified as responsible odor-active compounds. Gas chromatography/flame ionization detection/olfactometry combined sensory method with instrumental analysis was very effective as an odor evaluation method in an automobile air-conditioning system evaporator.

  8. Trajectory Reconstruction and Uncertainty Analysis Using Mars Science Laboratory Pre-Flight Scale Model Aeroballistic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Rafael A.; Tolson, Robert H.; Schoenenberger, Mark

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) trajectory reconstruction effort at NASA Langley Research Center, free-flight aeroballistic experiments of instrumented MSL scale models was conducted at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland. The models carried an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a flush air data system (FADS) similar to the MSL Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS) that provided data types similar to those from the MSL entry. Multiple sources of redundant data were available, including tracking radar and on-board magnetometers. These experimental data enabled the testing and validation of the various tools and methodologies that will be used for MSL trajectory reconstruction. The aerodynamic parameters Mach number, angle of attack, and sideslip angle were estimated using minimum variance with a priori to combine the pressure data and pre-flight computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data. Both linear and non-linear pressure model terms were also estimated for each pressure transducer as a measure of the errors introduced by CFD and transducer calibration. Parameter uncertainties were estimated using a "consider parameters" approach.

  9. Characteristic Of Induction Magnetic Field On The Laboratory Scale Superconducting Fault Current Limiter Circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adi, Wisnu Ari; Sukirman, E.; Didin, S.W.; Yustinus, P.M.; Siregar, Riswal H.

    2004-01-01

    Model construction of the laboratory scale superconducting fault current limiter circuit (SFCL) has been performed. The SFCL is fault current limiter and used as electric network security. It mainly consists of a copper coil, a superconducting ring and an iron core that are concentrically arranged. The SFCL circuit is essentially a transformer where the secondary windings are being replaced by the ring of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x superconductor (HTS). The ring has critical transition temperature Tc = 92 K and critical current Ic = 3.61 A. Characterization of the SFCL circuit is simulated by ANSYS version 5.4 software. The SFCL circuit consists of load and transformer impedances. The results show that the inductions of magnet field flux in the iron core of primer windings and ring disappear to one other before fault state. It means that impedance of the transformer is zero. After the condition a superconductivity behavior of the ring is disappear so that the impedance of the transformer becomes very high. From this experiment, we concluded that the SFCL circuit could work normally if the resultant of induction magnetic in the iron core (transformer) is zero

  10. Laboratory Scale X-ray Fluorescence Tomography: Instrument Characterization and Application in Earth and Environmental Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforce, Brecht; Vermeulen, Bram; Garrevoet, Jan; Vekemans, Bart; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Janssen, Colin; Vincze, Laszlo

    2016-03-15

    A new laboratory scale X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging instrument, based on an X-ray microfocus tube equipped with a monocapillary optic, has been developed to perform XRF computed tomography experiments with both higher spatial resolution (20 μm) and a better energy resolution (130 eV @Mn-K(α)) than has been achieved up-to-now. This instrument opens a new range of possible applications for XRF-CT. Next to the analytical characterization of the setup by using well-defined model/reference samples, demonstrating its capabilities for tomographic imaging, the XRF-CT microprobe has been used to image the interior of an ecotoxicological model organism, Americamysis bahia. This had been exposed to elevated metal (Cu and Ni) concentrations. The technique allowed the visualization of the accumulation sites of copper, clearly indicating the affected organs, i.e. either the gastric system or the hepatopancreas. As another illustrative application, the scanner has been employed to investigate goethite spherules from the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, revealing the internal elemental distribution of these valuable distal ejecta layer particles.

  11. LABORATORY-SCALE PRODUCTION OF ADU GELS BY EXTERNAL GELATION FOR AN INTERMEDIATE HTGR NUCLEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Simbolon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available LABORATORY-SCALE PRODUCTION OF ADU GELS BY EXTERNAL GELATION FOR AN INTERMEDIATE HTGR NUCLEAR. The The aim of this research is to produce thousands of microsphere ADU (Ammonium Diuranate gels by using external gelation for an intermediate HTGR (High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor nuclear fuel in laboratory-scale. Microsphere ADU gels were based on sol-solution which was made from a homogeneous mixture of ADUN (Acid Deficient Uranyl Nitrate which was containing uranyl ion in high concentration, a water soluble organic compound PVA (Polyvinyl Alcohol and THFA (Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol. The simple unified home made laboratory experimental machine was developed to replace test tube experiment method which was once used due to a tiny amount of microsphere ADU gels produced. It consists of four main parts: tank filled sol-solution connecting to peristaltic pump and vibrating nozzle, preliminary gelation and gelation column. The machine has successfully converted 150 mL sol-solution into thousands of drops which produced 120 - 130 drops in each minute in steady state in ammonia gas free sector. Preliminary gelation reaction was carried out in ammonia gas sector where drops react with ammonia gas in a bat an eye followed by gelation reaction in column containing ammonia solution 7 M. In ageing process, ADU gels were collected and submerged into a vessel containing ammonia solution which was shaken for 1 hour in a shaker device. Isopropyl alcohol (90% solution was used to wash ADU gels and a digital camera was used to measured spherical form of ADU gels. Diameters in spherical spheroid form were found between 1.8 mm until 2.2 mm. The spherical purity of ADU gels were 10% - 20% others were oblate, prolate spheroid and microsphere which have hugetiny of dimples on the surface.   PRODUKSI GEL ADU SKALA LABORATORIUM DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN GELASI EKSTERNAL UNTUK BAHAN BAKAR ANTARA HTGR. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat ribuan gel bulat ADU (Ammonium

  12. Laboratory-scale evaluation of various sampling and analytical methods for determining mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agbede, R.O.; Bochan, A.J.; Clements, J.L. [Advanced Technology Systems, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Comparative bench-scale mercury sampling method tests were performed at the Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) laboratories for EPA Method 101A, EPA Method 29 and the Ontario Hydro Method. Both blank and impinger spiking experiments were performed. The experimental results show that the ambient level of mercury in the ATS laboratory is at or below the detection limit (10 ng Hg) as measured by a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer (CVAAS) which was used to analyze the mercury samples. From the mercury spike studies, the following observations and findings were made. (a) The recovery of mercury spikes using EPA Method 101A was 104%. (b) The Ontario Hydro Method retains about 90% of mercury spikes in the first absorbing solution but has a total spike retention of 106%. As a result, the test data shows possible migration of spiked mercury from the first impinger solution (KCI) to the permanganate impingers. (c) For the EPA Method 29 solutions, when only the peroxide impingers were spiked, mercury recoveries were 65.6% for the peroxide impingers, 0.1% for the knockout impinger and 32.8% for the permanganate impingers with an average total mercury recovery of 98.4%. At press time, data was still being obtained for both the peroxide and permanganate impinger solution spikes. This and other data will be available at the presentation.

  13. Investigating the dynamics of Vulcanian explosions: scaled laboratory experiments of particle-laden puffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, A. B.; Phillips, J. C.; Chojnicki, K. N.

    2006-12-01

    Scaled laboratory experiments analogous to Vulcanian eruptions were conducted, producing particle-laden jets and plumes. A reservoir of a mixture of water and isopropanol plus solid particles (kaolin or Ballotini glass spheres) was pressurized and suddenly released via a rapid-release valve into a 2 ft by 2 ft by 4 ft plexiglass tank containing fresh water. The duration of the subsequent flow was limited by the potential energy associated with the pressurized fluid rather than by the available volume of fluid or by the duration of the valve opening. Particle size (4 &45 microns) and concentration (0 to 10 vol%) were varied in order to change particle settling characteristics and control bulk mixture density (960 kg m-3 to 1060 kg m-3). Water and isopropanol in varying proportions created a light interstitial fluid to simulate buoyant volcanic gases in erupted mixtures. Variations in reservoir pressure and vent size allowed exploration of controlling source parameters; total momentum injected (M) and total buoyancy injected (B). Mass flux at the vent was measured by an in-line Coriolis flowmeter sampling at 100 Hz, allowing rapidly varying M and B to be recorded. The velocity-height relationship of each experiment was measured from high-speed video footage, permitting classification into the following groups: long continuously accelerating jets; accelerating jets transitioning to plumes; and collapsing fountains which generated density currents. Field-documented Vulcanian explosions exhibit this same wide range of behavior, demonstrating that regimes obtained in the laboratory are relevant to natural systems. A generalized framework of results was defined as follows. Increasing M/B for small particles (4 microns; settling time>>experiment duration) pushes the system from collapsing fountains to low-energy plumes to high-energy, continuously accelerating jets; increasing M/B for large particles (45 microns; settling time non-dimensional groups were combined to

  14. Laboratory Oxidation Stability Study on B10 Biodiesel Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelen, B. [and others

    2013-11-15

    A laboratory oxidation stability study has been completed jointly by CONCAWE and DGMK on three biodiesel blends containing 10% v/v (B10) Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME). The results of the study are compared to measurements from an in-vehicle storage stability study on similar B10 diesel fuels that had been conducted previously in a Joint Industry Study. This laboratory study monitored the oxidation stability of the three B10 blends during six weeks of laboratory storage under ambient (25C) and elevated temperature (43C) conditions. Various test methods were used to monitor oxidation stability changes in the B10 diesel fuel blends including electrical conductivity, viscosity, Rancimat oxidation stability (EN 15751), PetroOxy oxidation stability (EN 16091), acid number (EN 14104), Delta Total Acid Number (Delta TAN), and peroxide number (ISO 3960). Elemental analyses by ICP were also completed on the FAME and B10 blends at the start and end of the laboratory study. The concentrations of dissolved metals were very low in all cases except for silicon which was found to be between about 600-700 ppb in the B10 blends. A limited study was also conducted on one neat FAME sample (B100) to investigate the effect of air/oxygen exposure on the rate of decrease in oxidation stability.

  15. Deicer scaling resistance of concrete mixtures containing slag cement. Phase 2 : evaluation of different laboratory scaling test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    With the use of supplementary cementing materials (SCMs) in concrete mixtures, salt scaling tests such as ASTM C672 have been found to be overly aggressive and do correlate well with field scaling performance. The reasons for this are thought to be b...

  16. Laboratory-scale dry/wet-milling process for the extraction of starch and gluten from wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneken, P.A.M.; Helmens, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory-scale process is presented for the manufacture of starch and gluten from wheat. Main feature of this process is that whole wheat kernels are crushed dry between smooth rolls prior to wet disintegration in excess water in such way that gluten formation is prevented and fibres can be

  17. A new laboratory-scale experimental facility for detailed aerothermal characterizations of volumetric absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Garcia, Fabrisio; Santiago, Sergio; Luque, Salvador; Romero, Manuel; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Jose

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes a new modular laboratory-scale experimental facility that was designed to conduct detailed aerothermal characterizations of volumetric absorbers for use in concentrating solar power plants. Absorbers are generally considered to be the element with the highest potential for efficiency gains in solar thermal energy systems. The configu-ration of volumetric absorbers enables concentrated solar radiation to penetrate deep into their solid structure, where it is progressively absorbed, prior to being transferred by convection to a working fluid flowing through the structure. Current design trends towards higher absorber outlet temperatures have led to the use of complex intricate geometries in novel ceramic and metallic elements to maximize the temperature deep inside the structure (thus reducing thermal emission losses at the front surface and increasing efficiency). Although numerical models simulate the conjugate heat transfer mechanisms along volumetric absorbers, they lack, in many cases, the accuracy that is required for precise aerothermal validations. The present work aims to aid this objective by the design, development, commissioning and operation of a new experimental facility which consists of a 7 kWe (1.2 kWth) high flux solar simulator, a radiation homogenizer, inlet and outlet collector modules and a working section that can accommodate volumetric absorbers up to 80 mm × 80 mm in cross-sectional area. Experimental measurements conducted in the facility include absorber solid temperature distributions along its depth, inlet and outlet air temperatures, air mass flow rate and pressure drop, incident radiative heat flux, and overall thermal efficiency. In addition, two windows allow for the direct visualization of the front and rear absorber surfaces, thus enabling full-coverage surface temperature measurements by thermal imaging cameras. This paper presents the results from the aerothermal characterization of a siliconized silicon

  18. Impact Load Behavior between Different Charge and Lifter in a Laboratory-Scale Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zixin; Peng, Yuxing; Zhu, Zhencai; Yu, Zhangfa; Li, Tongqing

    2017-07-31

    The impact behavior between the charge and lifter has significant effect to address the mill processing, and is affected by various factors including mill speed, mill filling, lifter height and media shape. To investigate the multi-body impact load behavior, a series of experiments and Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations were performed on a laboratory-scale mill, in order to improve the grinding efficiency and prolong the life of the lifter. DEM simulation hitherto has been extensively applied as a leading tool to describe diverse issues in granular processes. The research results shown as follows: The semi-empirical power draw of Bond model in this paper does not apply very satisfactorily for the ball mills, while the power draw determined by DEM simulation show a good approximation for the measured power draw. Besides, the impact force on the lifter was affected by mill speed, grinding media filling, lifter height and iron ore particle. The maximum percent of the impact force between 600 and 1400 N is at 70-80% of critical speed. The impact force can be only above 1400 N at the grinding media filling of 20%, and the maximum percent of impact force between 200 and 1400 N is obtained at the grinding media filling of 20%. The percent of impact force ranging from 0 to 200 N decreases with the increase of lifter height. However, this perfect will increase above 200 N. The impact force will decrease when the iron ore particles are added. Additionally, for the 80% of critical speed, the measured power draw has a maximum value. Increasing the grinding media filling increases the power draw and increasing the lifter height does not lead to any variation in power draw.

  19. Large-scale demonstration and deployment project at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.; McFee, J.; Broom, C.; Dugger, H.; Stallings, E.

    1999-01-01

    Established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management program through its Office of Science and Technology, the Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area is developing answers to the technological problems that hinder Environmental Management's extensive cleanup efforts. The optimized application of technologies to ongoing nuclear facility decontamination and dismantlement is critical in meeting the challenge of decommissioning approximately 9,000 buildings and structures within the DOE complex. The significant technical and economic concerns in this area underscore a national imperative for the qualification and timely delivery of cost-reduction technologies and management approaches to meet federal and private needs. At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), a Large-Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project (LSDDP) has been established to facilitate demonstration and deployment of technologies for the characterization, decontamination, and volume reduction of oversized metallic waste, mostly in the form of gloveboxes contaminated with transuranic radionuclides. The LANL LSDDP is being managed by an integrated contractor team (ICT) consisting of IT Corporation, ICF Incorporated, and Florida International University and includes representation from LANL's Environmental Management Program Office. The ICT published in the Commerce Business Daily a solicitation for interest for innovative technologies capable of improving cost and performance of the baseline process. Each expression of interest response was evaluated and demonstration contract negotiations are under way for those technologies expected to be capable of meeting the project objectives. This paper discusses management organization and approach, the results of the technology search, the technology selection methodology, the results of the selection process, and future plans for the program

  20. Biological in situ treatment of soil contaminated with petroleum - Laboratory scale simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palvall, B.

    1997-06-01

    Laboratory scale simulations of biological in situ treatment of soil contaminated with petroleum compounds have been made in order to get a practical concept in the general case. The work was divided into seven distinct parts. Characterisation, leaching tests and introductory microbiological investigations were followed by experiments in suspended phases and in situ simulations of solid phase reactors. For the suspensions, ratios L/S 3/1 and shaking for a couple of hours were enough to detach organic compounds in colloid or dissolved form. When testing for a time of one month anaerobic environment and cold temperatures of 4 centigrade as well gave acceptable reductions of the actual pollution levels. The range of variation in the soil tests performed showed that at least triple samples are needed to get satisfactory statistical reliability. It was shown that adequate experimental controls demand very high concentrations of e.g. sodium azide when dealing with soil samples. For triple samples in suspended phase without inoculation the weight ratios of oxygen consumption/biological degradation of aliphatic compounds were 2.41 to 2.96. For the complex overall reduction no exact rate constants could be found. The reduction of hydrocarbons were in the interval 27 to 95 % in suspension tests. Solid phase simulations with maximum water saturation showed the highest degree of reduction of hydrocarbons when using dissolved peroxide of hydrogen as electron acceptor while the effect of an active sludge reactor in series was little - reductions of aliphatic compounds were between 21 and 33 % and of aromatic compounds between 32 and 65 %. The influence of different contents of water was greater than adding inoculum or shaking the soil at different intervals in the unsaturated cylinders. The starting level of hydrocarbons was 2400 mg/kg dry weight soil and the end analyses were made after 100 days. The reduction was between 32 and 80 %. 82 refs

  1. Non-Fickian dispersive transport of strontium in laboratory-scale columns: Modelling and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongxu; Jivkov, Andrey P.; Wang, Lichun; Si, Gaohua; Yu, Jing

    2017-06-01

    In the context of environmental remediation of contaminated sites and safety assessment of nuclear waste disposal in the near-surface zone, we investigate the leaching and non-Fickian dispersive migration with sorption of strontium (mocking strontium-90) through columns packed with sand and clay. Analysis is based on breakthrough curves (BTCs) from column experiments, which simulated rainfall infiltration and source term release scenario, rather than applying constant tracer solution at the inlet as commonly used. BTCs are re-evaluated and transport parameters are estimated by inverse modelling using two approaches: (1) equilibrium advection-dispersion equation (ADE); and (2) continuous time random walk (CTRW). Firstly, based on a method for calculating leach concentration, the inlet condition with an exponential decay input is identified. Secondly, the results show that approximately 39%-58% of Br- and 16%-49% of Sr2+ are eluted from the columns at the end of the breakthrough experiments. This suggests that trapping mechanisms, including diffusion into immobile zones and attachment of tracer on mineral surfaces, are more pronounced for Sr2+ than for Br-. Thirdly, we demonstrate robustness of CTRW-based truncated power-law (TPL) model in capturing non-Fickian reactive transport with 0 2. The non-Fickian dispersion observed experimentally is explained by variations of local flow field from preferential flow paths due to physical heterogeneities. Particularly, the additional sorption process of strontium on clay minerals contributes to the delay of the peak concentration and the tailing features, which leads to an enhanced non-Fickian transport for strontium. Finally, the ADE and CTRW approaches to environmental modelling are evaluated. It is shown that CTRW with a sorption term can describe non-Fickian dispersive transport of strontium at laboratory scale by identifying appropriate parameters, while the traditional ADE with a retardation factor fails to reproduce

  2. Experimental investigation of flow field in a laboratory-scale compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Ma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The inner flow environment of turbomachinery presents strong three-dimensional, rotational, and unsteady characteristics. Consequently, a deep understanding of these flow phenomena will be the prerequisite to establish a state-of-the-art design system of turbomachinery. Currently the development of more accurate turbulence models and CFD tools is in urgent need for a high-quality database for validation, especially the advanced CFD tools, such as large eddy simulation (LES. Under this circumstance, this paper presents a detailed experimental investigation on the 3D unsteady flow field inside a laboratory-scale isolated-rotor with multiple advanced measurement techniques, including traditional aerodynamic probes, hotwire probes, unsteady endwall static pressure measurement, and stereo particle image velocimetry (SPIV. The inlet boundary layer profile is measured with both hotwire probe and aerodynamic probe. The steady and unsteady flow fields at the outlet of the rotor are measured with a mini five-hole probe and a single-slanted hotwire probe. The instantaneous flow field in the rotor tip region inside the passage is captured with SPIV, and then a statistical analysis of the spatial distribution of the instantaneous tip leakage vortex/flow is performed to understand its dynamic characteristics. Besides these, the uncertainty analysis of each measurement technique is described. This database is quite sufficient to validate the advanced numerical simulation with LES. The identification process of the tip leakage vortex core in the instantaneous frames obtained from SPIV is performed deliberately. It is concluded that the ensemble-averaged flow field could not represent the tip leakage vortex strength and the trajectory trace. The development of the tip leakage vortex could be clearly cataloged into three phases according to their statistical spatial distribution. The streamwise velocity loss induced by the tip leakage flow increases until the

  3. Army agrees to new study of biowarfare laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R Jeffrey

    1985-02-08

    As a result of a lawsuit initiated by Washington activist Jeremy Rifkin and joined by the attorney general for the state of Utah, the U.S. Army has agreed to defer construction, pending a study of potential environmental hazards, of a new laboratory that was authorized by a small number of Congressmen under an unusual procedure in December 1984. The laboratory, intended for tests of highly infectious and lethal biological aerosols, has aroused controversy because of fears that the data gathered there might be used to develop offensive biological weapons.

  4. Developing Medicare Competitive Bidding: A Study of Clinical Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerger, Thomas J.; Meadow, Ann

    1997-01-01

    Competitive bidding to derive Medicare fees promises several advantages over administered fee systems. The authors show how incentives for cost savings, quality, and access can be incorporated into bidding schemes, and they report on a study of the clinical laboratory industry conducted in preparation for a bidding demonstration. The laboratory industry is marked by variable concentration across geographic markets and, among firms themselves, by social and economic heterogeneity. The authors conclude that these conditions can be accommodated by available bidding design options and by careful selection of bidding markets. PMID:10180003

  5. Beat-wave accelerator studies at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The study carried out in 1982-83 at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory to examine how one might use the beat-wave principle to construct a useful high energy accelerator is reviewed, and comments are made on later developments. A number of problems are evident to which solutions cannot at present be foreseen. (author)

  6. Field Research Studying Whales in an Undergraduate Animal Behavior Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, R. David; Schulte, Dianna; Kennedy, Jen

    2012-01-01

    This work describes a new field research laboratory in an undergraduate animal behavior course involving the study of whale behavior, ecology and conservation in partnership with a non-profit research organization--the Blue Ocean Society for Marine Conservation (BOS). The project involves two weeks of training and five weekend trips on whale watch…

  7. EPOS-WP16 : A coherent and collaborative network of Solid Earth Multi-scale laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calignano, E.; Rosenau, Matthias; Lange, Otto; Spiers, C.J.; Willingshofer, E.; Drury, M.R.; van Kan, M.; Elger, Kirsten; Ulbricht, Damian; Funiciello, F.; Trippanera, Daniele; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Tesei, Telemaco; winkler, Aldo

    2017-01-01

    infrastructures range from the nano- and micrometre levels (electron microscopy and micro-beam analysis) to the scale of experiments on centimetres-sized samples, and to analogue model experiments simulating the reservoir scale, the basin scale and the plate scale. The aim of WP16 is to provide two

  8. Chiral Lagrangian with broken scale: Testing the restoration of symmetries in astrophysics and in the laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonanno, Luca; Drago, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    We study matter at high density and temperature using a chiral Lagrangian in which the breaking of scale invariance is regulated by the value of a scalar field, called dilaton [E. K. Heide, S. Rudaz, and P. J. Ellis, Nucl. Phys. A571, 713 (1994); G. W. Carter, P. J. Ellis, and S. Rudaz, Nucl. Phys. A603, 367 (1996); G. W. Carter, P. J. Ellis, and S. Rudaz, Nucl. Phys. A618, 317 (1997); G. W. Carter and P. J. Ellis, Nucl. Phys. A628, 325 (1998)]. We provide a phase diagram describing the restoration of chiral and scale symmetries. We show that chiral symmetry is restored at large temperatures, but at low temperatures it remains broken at all densities. We also show that scale invariance is more easily restored at low rather than large baryon densities. The masses of vector-mesons scale with the value of the dilaton and their values initially slightly decrease with the density but then they increase again for densities larger than ∼3ρ 0 . The pion mass increases continuously with the density and at ρ 0 and T=0 its value is ∼30 MeV larger than in the vacuum. We show that the model is compatible with the bounds stemming from astrophysics, as, e.g., the one associated with the maximum mass of a neutron star. The most striking feature of the model is a very significant softening at large densities, which manifests also as a strong reduction of the adiabatic index. Although the softening has probably no consequence for supernova explosion via the direct mechanism, it could modify the signal in gravitational waves associated with the merging of two neutron stars.

  9. Target detection and localization in shallow water: an experimental demonstration of the acoustic barrier problem at the laboratory scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandet, Christian; Roux, Philippe; Nicolas, Barbara; Mars, Jérôme

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates experimentally at the laboratory scale the detection and localization of a wavelength-sized target in a shallow ultrasonic waveguide between two source-receiver arrays at 3 MHz. In the framework of the acoustic barrier problem, at the 1/1000 scale, the waveguide represents a 1.1-km-long, 52-m-deep ocean acoustic channel in the kilohertz frequency range. The two coplanar arrays record in the time-domain the transfer matrix of the waveguide between each pair of source-receiver transducers. Invoking the reciprocity principle, a time-domain double-beamforming algorithm is simultaneously performed on the source and receiver arrays. This array processing projects the multireverberated acoustic echoes into an equivalent set of eigenrays, which are defined by their launch and arrival angles. Comparison is made between the intensity of each eigenray without and with a target for detection in the waveguide. Localization is performed through tomography inversion of the acoustic impedance of the target, using all of the eigenrays extracted from double beamforming. The use of the diffraction-based sensitivity kernel for each eigenray provides both the localization and the signature of the target. Experimental results are shown in the presence of surface waves, and methodological issues are discussed for detection and localization.

  10. A Three-Year Feedback Study of a Remote Laboratory Used in Control Engineering Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Amélie; Copot, Cosmin; Ionescu, Clara; De Keyser, Robin

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a feedback study for a remote laboratory used in the education of control engineering students. The goal is to show the effectiveness of the remote laboratory on examination results. To provide an overview, the two applications of the remote laboratory are addressed: 1) the Stewart platform, and 2) the quadruple…

  11. Clinical Music Study Quality Assessment Scale (MUSIQUAS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaschke, A.C.; Eggermont, L.H.P.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Shippton, M.; Hiomonides, I.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS Quality assessment of studies is essential for the understanding and application of these in systematic reviews and meta analyses, the two “gold standards” of medical sciences. Publications in scientific journals have extensively used assessment scales to address poor methodological quality,

  12. Finite size scaling and spectral density studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, B.A.

    1991-01-01

    Finite size scaling (FSS) and spectral density (SD) studies are reported for the deconfining phase transition. This talk concentrates on Monte Carlo (MC) results for pure SU(3) gauge theory, obtained in collaboration with Alves and Sanielevici, but the methods are expected to be useful for full QCD as well. (orig.)

  13. Experience of Integrated Safeguards Approach for Large-scale Hot Cell Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaji, N.; Kawakami, Y.; Koizumi, A.; Otsuji, A.; Sasaki, K.

    2010-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been operating a large-scale hot cell laboratory, the Fuels Monitoring Facility (FMF), located near the experimental fast reactor Joyo at the Oarai Research and Development Center (JNC-2 site). The FMF conducts post irradiation examinations (PIE) of fuel assemblies irradiated in Joyo. The assemblies are disassembled and non-destructive examinations, such as X-ray computed tomography tests, are carried out. Some of the fuel pins are cut into specimens and destructive examinations, such as ceramography and X-ray micro analyses, are performed. Following PIE, the tested material, in the form of a pin or segments, is shipped back to a Joyo spent fuel pond. In some cases, after reassembly of the examined irradiated fuel pins is completed, the fuel assemblies are shipped back to Joyo for further irradiation. For the IAEA to apply the integrated safeguards approach (ISA) to the FMF, a new verification system on material shipping and receiving process between Joyo and the FMF has been established by the IAEA under technical collaboration among the Japan Safeguard Office (JSGO) of MEXT, the Nuclear Material Control Center (NMCC) and the JAEA. The main concept of receipt/shipment verification under the ISA for JNC-2 site is as follows: under the IS, the FMF is treated as a Joyo-associated facility in terms of its safeguards system because it deals with the same spent fuels. Verification of the material shipping and receiving process between Joyo and the FMF can only be applied to the declared transport routes and transport casks. The verification of the nuclear material contained in the cask is performed with the method of gross defect at the time of short notice random interim inspections (RIIs) by measuring the surface neutron dose rate of the cask, filled with water to reduce radiation. The JAEA performed a series of preliminary tests with the IAEA, the JSGO and the NMCC, and confirmed from the standpoint of the operator that this

  14. Laboratory scale micro-seismic monitoring of rock faulting and injection-induced fault reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarout, J.; Dautriat, J.; Esteban, L.; Lumley, D. E.; King, A.

    2017-12-01

    The South West Hub CCS project in Western Australia aims to evaluate the feasibility and impact of geosequestration of CO2 in the Lesueur sandstone formation. Part of this evaluation focuses on the feasibility and design of a robust passive seismic monitoring array. Micro-seismicity monitoring can be used to image the injected CO2plume, or any geomechanical fracture/fault activity; and thus serve as an early warning system by measuring low-level (unfelt) seismicity that may precede potentially larger (felt) earthquakes. This paper describes laboratory deformation experiments replicating typical field scenarios of fluid injection in faulted reservoirs. Two pairs of cylindrical core specimens were recovered from the Harvey-1 well at depths of 1924 m and 2508 m. In each specimen a fault is first generated at the in situ stress, pore pressure and temperature by increasing the vertical stress beyond the peak in a triaxial stress vessel at CSIRO's Geomechanics & Geophysics Lab. The faulted specimen is then stabilized by decreasing the vertical stress. The freshly formed fault is subsequently reactivated by brine injection and increase of the pore pressure until slip occurs again. This second slip event is then controlled in displacement and allowed to develop for a few millimeters. The micro-seismic (MS) response of the rock during the initial fracturing and subsequent reactivation is monitored using an array of 16 ultrasonic sensors attached to the specimen's surface. The recorded MS events are relocated in space and time, and correlate well with the 3D X-ray CT images of the specimen obtained post-mortem. The time evolution of the structural changes induced within the triaxial stress vessel is therefore reliably inferred. The recorded MS activity shows that, as expected, the increase of the vertical stress beyond the peak led to an inclined shear fault. The injection of fluid and the resulting increase in pore pressure led first to a reactivation of the pre

  15. Tracer studies of flotation in the laboratory and in mineral processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, A.J.; Thereska, J.; Plasari, E.; Kacaj, M.

    1993-01-01

    Radioisotope tracers have a proven application for the extraction of residence time distributions and the evaluation of flotation rates in industry. This paper shows how values of the rate factor k are scaled up on the basis of flotation in the laboratory and tracer tests in plant. The procedure is illustrated by a theoretical study and by experimental data. The information obtained can be introduced into models of larger flotation systems. (author)

  16. Effects of Cohesive Sediment on Estuarine Morphology in Laboratory Scale Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braat, L.; Leuven, J.; Lokhorst, I.; Kleinhans, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    Mud plays a major role in forming and filling of river estuaries. River estuaries are typically build of sand and flanked by mudflats, which affect channel-shoal dynamics on time scales of centuries to millennia. In our research we aim to study the effects of mud on the shape and evolution of estuaries and where the largest effects occur. Recently a 20 m by 3 m flume (the Metronome) was developed at Utrecht University for tidal experiments. Complete estuaries are simulated in the Metronome by driving tidal flow by periodically tilting of the flume to counteract scaling problems. To simulate the effects of cohesive mud we supply nutshell grains to the system together with the river discharge. Three scenarios were tested, one with only sand, one with a low supply concentration of nutshell and one with a high concentration (left to right in figure).Estuaries that developed from an initial convergent shape are self-formed through bank erosion, continuous channel-shoal migration and bar and mud flat sedimentation (figure shows development over 15000 tilting cycles). The cohesive sediment deposits occur mainly on bars, but also on the flanks of the estuary and in abandoned channels. Due to its different erosional and depositional characteristics, the nutshell increases the elevation of the bars, which reduces storage and ebb-dominance and causes reduction of bar mobility and short cuts. These results agree with numerical model results. The large-scale effect is less widening of the estuary in the presence of mud and a decrease in channel-shoal migration, suggesting that mud confines estuary width in a similar manner as river floodplains.

  17. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Caustic-Leach Rate Constants from PEP and Laboratory-Scale Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Hanson, Brady D.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing. The work described in this report addresses caustic leaching under WTP conditions, based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. Because gibbsite leaching kinetics are rapid (gibbsite is expected to be dissolved by the time the final leach temperature is reached), boehmite leach kinetics are the main focus of the caustic-leach tests. The tests were completed at the laboratory-scale and in the PEP, which is a 1/4.5-scale mock-up of key PTF process equipment. Two laboratory-scale caustic-leach tests were performed for each of the PEP runs. For each PEP run, unleached slurry was taken from the PEP caustic-leach vessel for one batch and used as feed for both of the corresponding laboratory-scale tests.

  18. Human risk relationships derived from epidemiology and laboratory studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuddihy, R.G.; Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; McClellan, R.O.

    1983-01-01

    Proven techniques are needed for incorporating the results of laboratory toxicology studies into human risk assessments. Two sample calculations of lung cancer risk factors for inhaled radioactive particles and diesel engine exhaust are given here to illustrate a toxicology information matrix approach. This approach combines the results of epidemiology and laboratory animal studies of the substance or agent of principal concern, along with similar information on other surrogate substances. Beyond the estimates of lung cancer risk factors derived by using this approach, an additional advantage is gained by having estimates of uncertainty that can be obtained by incorporating all available toxicology information into the analysis. This approach is recommended for both risk assessment and in designing follow-on toxicology studies to improve preliminary assessments for new potentially harmful agents entering our environment

  19. Application of laboratory microtomography to the study of mineralized tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliot, J.C.; Davis, G.R.; Anderson, P.; Wong, F.S.L.; Dowker, S.E.P.; Mercer, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    The principles of microtomography are briefly presented and recent studies of mineralized tissues using laboratory and synchrotron X-ray sources are reviewed. Results are given of investigations undertaken with laboratory systems using either a 1 st generation (single beam of 15 mu m and energy dispersive detector) or a novel 4 th generation system with 2-D detector that can provide 3-D images with vowels of 38x38x38 mu m ''3 of specimens with diameter up to 40 mm. Studies include mineral concentration distributions in cortical bone trabecular structure in a human vertebral body, cracking of bone under compression in situ and root canal obturation and Er: YAG laser application to enamel and dentine. Future applications of microtomography to the study of mineralized tissues and their interaction with biomaterials are discussed.(Author) 31 refs

  20. A study of 6S workplace improvement in Ergonomic Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, AD; Suryoputro, MR; Rahmillah, FI

    2017-12-01

    This article discusses 6S implementation in Ergonomic Laboratory, Department of Industrial Engineering, Islamic University of Indonesia. This research is improvement project of 5S implementation in Ergonomic laboratory. Referring to the 5S implementation of the previous year, there have been improvements from environmental conditions or a more organized workplace however there is still a lack of safety aspects. There are several safeties problems such as equipment arrangement, potential hazards of room dividers that cause injury several times, placement of fire extinguisher, no evacuation path and assembly point in case of fire, as well as expired hydrant condition and lack of awareness of stakeholders related to safety. Therefore, this study aims to apply the 6S kaizen method to the Ergonomic laboratory to facilitate the work process, reduce waste, improve work safety and improve staff performance. Based on the score 6S assessment increased audit results by 32 points, before implementation is 75 point while after implementation is 107 point. This has implications for better use for mitigate people in laboratory area, save time when looking for tools and materials, safe workplace, as well as improving the culture and spirit of ‘6S’ on staff due to better and safetier working environment.

  1. Semiconductor laser joint study program with Rome Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, William J.; Okeefe, Sean S.; Eastman, Lester F.

    1994-09-01

    A program to jointly study vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) for high speed vertical optical interconnects (VOI) has been conducted under an ES&E between Rome Laboratory and Cornell University. Lasers were designed, grown, and fabricated at Cornell University. A VCSEL measurement laboratory has been designed, built, and utilized at Rome Laboratory. High quality VCSEL material was grown and characterized by fabricating conventional lateral cavity lasers that emitted at the design wavelength of 1.04 microns. The VCSEL's emit at 1.06 microns. Threshold currents of 16 mA at 4.8 volts were obtained for 30 microns diameter devices. Output powers of 5 mW were measured. This is 500 times higher power than from the light emitting diodes employed previously for vertical optical interconnects. A new form of compositional grading using a cosinusoidal function has been developed and is very successful for reducing diode series resistance for high speed interconnection applications. A flip-chip diamond package compatible with high speed operation of 16 VCSEL elements has been designed and characterized. A flip-chip device binding effort at Rome Laboratory was also designed and initiated. This report presents details of the one-year effort, including process recipes and results.

  2. Large-scale laboratory observations of wave forces on a highway bridge superstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    The experimental setup and data are presented for a laboratory experiment conducted to examine realistic wave forcing on a highway bridge : superstructure. The experiments measure wave conditions along with the resulting forces, pressures, and struct...

  3. Using the Mouse Grimace Scale to Reevaluate the Efficacy of Postoperative Analgesics in Laboratory Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumiya, Lynn C; Sorge, Robert E; Sotocinal, Susana G; Tabaka, John M; Wieskopf, Jeffrey S; Zaloum, Austin; King, Oliver D; Mogil, Jeffrey S

    2012-01-01

    Postoperative pain management in animals is complicated greatly by the inability to recognize pain. As a result, the choice of analgesics and their doses has been based on extrapolation from greatly differing pain models or the use of measures with unclear relevance to pain. We recently developed the Mouse Grimace Scale (MGS), a facial-expression–based pain coding system adapted directly from scales used in nonverbal human populations. The MGS has shown to be a reliable, highly accurate measure of spontaneous pain of moderate duration, and therefore is particularly useful in the quantification of postoperative pain. In the present study, we quantified the relative intensity and duration of postoperative pain after a sham ventral ovariectomy (laparotomy) in outbred mice. In addition, we compiled dose–response data for 4 commonly used analgesics: buprenorphine, carprofen, ketoprofen, and acetaminophen. We found that postoperative pain in mice, as defined by facial grimacing, lasts for 36 to 48 h, and appears to show relative exacerbation during the early dark (active) photophase. We find that buprenorphine was highly effective in inhibiting postoperative pain-induced facial grimacing in mice at doses equal to or lower than current recommendations, that carprofen and ketoprofen are effective only at doses markedly higher than those currently recommended, and that acetaminophen was ineffective at any dose used. We suggest the revision of practices for postoperative pain management in mice in light of these findings. PMID:22330867

  4. Laboratory studies of fluid flow through borehole seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Boreholes in the vicinity of a nuclear waste repository must be reliably sealed to prevent rapid migration of radionuclide contaminated water from the vicinity of the repository to the accessible environment. Few data currently exist regarding the effectiveness of borehole sealing. The objective of this research was to assess the performance of borehole seals under laboratory conditions, particularly with regard to varying stress fields. The approach used to evaluate borehole seals was to compare flow through a sealed borehole with flow through intact rock. Granite, basalt, and tuff were tested, using either cement or bentonite as the seal material. The main conclusions reached as a result of the experiments is that currently existing materials are capable of forming high quality seals when placed under laboratory conditions. Variation of triaxial stress state about a borehole does not significantly affect seal performance if the rock is stiffer than the seal material. Temperature/moisture variations (drying) degraded the quality of cement seals significantly. Performance partially recovered upon resaturation. Significant remaining questions include field emplacement techniques; field vertification of plug quality; plug performance over long time periods, particularly with respect to temperature/moisture variations and chemical stability; and radionuclide sorption capabilities. Scale effects are also important, as shafts and drifts must be sealed as well as larger diameter boreholes

  5. Laboratory-Scale Bismuth Phosphate Extraction Process Simulation To Track Fate of Fission Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. JEFFREY; Lindberg, Michael J.; Jones, Thomas E.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Krupka, Kenneth M.

    2007-02-28

    Recent field investigation that collected and characterized vadose zone sediments from beneath inactive liquid disposal facilities at the Hanford 200 Areas show lower than expected concentrations of a long-term risk driver, Tc-99. Therefore laboratory studies were performed to re-create one of the three processes that were used to separate the plutonium from spent fuel and that created most of the wastes disposed or currently stored in tanks at Hanford. The laboratory simulations were used to compare with current estimates based mainly on flow sheet estimates and spotty historical data. Three simulations of the bismuth phosphate precipitation process show that less that 1% of the Tc-99, Cs-135/137, Sr-90, I-129 carry down with the Pu product and thus these isotopes should have remained within the metals waste streams that after neutralization were sent to single shell tanks. Conversely, these isotopes should not be expected to be found in the first and subsequent cycle waste streams that went to cribs. Measurable quantities (~20 to 30%) of the lanthanides, yttrium, and trivalent actinides (Am and Cm) do precipitate with the Pu product, which is higher than the 10% estimate made for current inventory projections. Surprisingly, Se (added as selenate form) also shows about 10% association with the Pu/bismuth phosphate solids. We speculate that the incorporation of some Se into the bismuth phosphate precipitate is caused by selenate substitution into crystal lattice sites for the phosphate. The bulk of the U daughter product Th-234 and Np-237 daughter product Pa-233 also associate with the solids. We suspect that the Pa daughter products of U (Pa-234 and Pa-231) would also co-precipitate with the bismuth phosphate induced solids. No more than 1 % of the Sr-90 and Sb-125 should carry down with the Pu product that ultimately was purified. Thus the current scheme used to estimate where fission products end up being disposed overestimates by one order of magnitude the

  6. Bioremediation of oily contamination by free and immobilized microorganisms on laboratory-scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, M.; Gong, Y.; Li, Y.; Jiang, G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper described a component immobilization system formed using sodium alginate and active carbon. Two oil-degrading bacterial strains were then isolated from oil-contaminated water samples from an oilfield in China. The Rhosococcus sp and Bacillus cereus sp bacterial strains were studied in order to determine their growth behaviour in the laboratory. Optimal growth conditions were 35 degrees C with a pH of 8 and salinity levels ranging from 2 to 4 per cent. Optimal degradation conditions were similar to optimal growth conditions. Oil degradation rates of the strains ranged between 34.6 and 45.3 per cent after a period of 5 days. A sodium alginate carrier containing active carbon was then used to optimize the microbial immobilization method. Additional experiments showed that the improved immobilization method degraded between 66.3 and 75 per cent of the standard oil samples after a period of 5 days. It was concluded that the immobilized bacteria acted as a bulking agent to facilitate the transfer of oxygen, nutrition, and metabolism needed for rapid hydrocarbon degradation, and increased biological stability. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  7. Laboratory studies of radionuclide transport in fractured Climax granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Failor, R.; Isherwood, D.; Raber, E.; Vandergraaf, T.

    1982-06-01

    This report documents our laboratory studies of radionuclide transport in fractured granite cores. To simulate natural conditions, our laboratory studies used naturally fractured cores and natural ground water from the Climax Granite Stock at the Nevada Test Site. For comparison, additional tests used artificially fractured granite cores or distilled water. Relative to the flow of tritiated water, 85 Sr and /sup 95m/Tc showed little or no retardation, whereas 137 Cs was retarded. After the transport runs the cores retained varying amounts of the injected radionuclides along the fracture. Autoradiography revealed some correlation between sorption and the fracture fill material. Strontium and cesium retention increased when the change was made from natural ground water to distilled water. Artificial fractures retained less 137 Cs than most natural fractures. Estimated fracture apertures from 18 to 60 μm and hydraulic conductivities from 1.7 to 26 x 10 -3 m/s were calculated from the core measurements

  8. Annual report of Laboratory of Nuclear Studies, Osaka University, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This is the progress report of the research activities in the Laboratory of Nuclear Studies during the period from April, 1980, to March, 1981. The activities were carried out by the OULNS staffs and also by outsiders at the OULNS. In this period, the X-ray astrophysics group, the radiation physics group and the high energy physics group joined the OULNS. The main accelerators in the OULNS are a 110 cm variable energy cyclotron and a 4.7 MeV Van de Graaff machine. The detailed experimental studies on inbeam e-gamma spectroscopy and beta-decay were carried out at two accelerator laboratories. The radiochemistry facility and a mass spectrometer were fully used. The research activities extended to high energy physics by utilizing national facilities, such as a 230 cm cyclotron in the Research Center for Nuclear Physics and a proton synchrotron in the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. The theoretical studies on elementary particles and nuclear physics were carried out also. It is important that the facilities in the OULNS were used by the outsiders in Osaka University, such as solid state physics group and particle-induced X-ray group. The activities of the divisions of cyclotron, Van de Graaff, high energy physics, accelerator development and nuclear instrumentation, mass spectroscopy, radioisotope, solid state and theoretical physics are reported. (Kako, I.)

  9. Full scale heavily reinforced concrete beam-column joints of NPP structures-quality assurance and construction in the laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thandavamoorthy, T.S.; Vimalanandam, V.; Anandavalli, N.; Reddy, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    Under the current design philosophy, reactor structures are to be designed to withstand large inelastic deformation caused by strong and severe ground motion. The design of the main structural elements and their connections are to be such that they always fail in ductile mode. This will ensure large energy absorption capacity of the structures under seismic excitation and avoid sudden and brittle failure of the structure. Over the years, a number of experimental investigations have been carried out on RC beam- column joints to study their behaviour and strength. However, these studies mostly pertain to small scale joints of moment resisting frame of residential buildings and commercial complexes. Information on full scale joints existing in NPP structures are scanty. Therefore, experimental programme was planned in the laboratory to construct identical large sized joints with the same reinforcement percentage and detail as that of the existing joints in NPP structures built in 1960's. The cross-sectional dimensions of the beam and column of the joint were 610 mm x 915 mm. The beam was reinforced with 24 numbers of 36 mm bars. Column was reinforced with 4 numbers of 36 mm diameter bars and various other sizes. M25 grade concrete was used for casting of the specimen. The mix proportion was 1:1.657:2.63. The slump achieved was 75 mm to 100 mm. The health of the specimen was monitored by conducting ultrasonic testing with TICO instrument. The paper presents details of the size of the specimen and reinforcement, testing of steel bars for the evaluation of their mechanical properties, procedure of casting of specimen and its health monitoring. (author)

  10. Laboratory Experiments and Instrument Intercomparison Studies of Carbonaceous Aerosol Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidovits, Paul [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)

    2015-10-20

    Aerosols containing black carbon (and some specific types of organic particulate matter) directly absorb incoming light, heating the atmosphere. In addition, all aerosol particles backscatter solar light, leading to a net-cooling effect. Indirect effects involve hydrophilic aerosols, which serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) that affect cloud cover and cloud stability, impacting both atmospheric radiation balance and precipitation patterns. At night, all clouds produce local warming, but overall clouds exert a net-cooling effect on the Earth. The effect of aerosol radiative forcing on climate may be as large as that of the greenhouse gases, but predominantly opposite in sign and much more uncertain. The uncertainties in the representation of aerosol interactions in climate models makes it problematic to use model projections to guide energy policy. The objective of our program is to reduce the uncertainties in the aerosol radiative forcing in the two areas highlighted in the ASR Science and Program Plan. That is, (1) addressing the direct effect by correlating particle chemistry and morphology with particle optical properties (i.e. absorption, scattering, extinction), and (2) addressing the indirect effect by correlating particle hygroscopicity and CCN activity with particle size, chemistry, and morphology. In this connection we are systematically studying particle formation, oxidation, and the effects of particle coating. The work is specifically focused on carbonaceous particles where the uncertainties in the climate relevant properties are the highest. The ongoing work consists of laboratory experiments and related instrument inter-comparison studies both coordinated with field and modeling studies, with the aim of providing reliable data to represent aerosol processes in climate models. The work is performed in the aerosol laboratory at Boston College. At the center of our laboratory setup are two main sources for the production of aerosol particles: (a

  11. NVN 5694 intra laboratory validation. Feasibility study for interlaboratory- validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voors, P.I.; Baard, J.H.

    1998-11-01

    Within the project NORMSTAR 2 a number of Dutch prenormative protocols have been defined for radioactivity measurements. Some of these protocols, e.g. the Dutch prenormative protocol NVN 5694, titled Methods for radiochemical determination of polonium-210 and lead-210, have not been validated, neither by intralaboratory nor interlaboratory studies. Validation studies are conducted within the framework of the programme 'Normalisatie and Validatie van Milieumethoden 1993-1997' (Standardization and Validation of test methods for environmental parameters) of the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and the Environment (VROM). The aims of this study were (a) a critical evaluation of the protocol, (b) investigation on the feasibility of an interlaboratory study, and (c) the interlaboratory validation of NVN 5694. The evaluation of the protocol resulted in a list of deficiencies varying from missing references to incorrect formulae. From the survey by interview it appeared that for each type of material, there are 4 to 7 laboratories willing to participate in a interlaboratory validation study. This reflects the situation in 1997. Consequently, if 4 or 6 (the minimal number) laboratories are participating and each laboratory analyses 3 subsamples, the uncertainty in the repeatability standard deviation is 49 or 40 %, respectively. If the ratio of reproducibility standard deviation to the repeatability standard deviation is equal to 1 or 2, then the uncertainty in the reproducibility standard deviation increases from 42 to 67 % and from 34 to 52 % for 4 or 6 laboratories, respectively. The intralaboratory validation was established on four different types of materials. Three types of materials (milkpowder condensate and filter) were prepared in the laboratory using the raw material and certified Pb-210 solutions, and one (sediment) was obtained from the IAEA. The ECN-prepared reference materials were used after testing on homogeneity. The pre-normative protocol can

  12. Comparative analysis of single-step and two-step biodiesel production using supercritical methanol on laboratory-scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micic, Radoslav D.; Tomić, Milan D.; Kiss, Ferenc E.; Martinovic, Ferenc L.; Simikić, Mirko Ð.; Molnar, Tibor T.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Single-step supercritical transesterification compared to the two-step process. • Two-step process: oil hydrolysis and subsequent supercritical methyl esterification. • Experiments were conducted in a laboratory-scale batch reactor. • Higher biodiesel yields in two-step process at milder reaction conditions. • Two-step process has potential to be cost-competitive with the single-step process. - Abstract: Single-step supercritical transesterification and two-step biodiesel production process consisting of oil hydrolysis and subsequent supercritical methyl esterification were studied and compared. For this purpose, comparative experiments were conducted in a laboratory-scale batch reactor and optimal reaction conditions (temperature, pressure, molar ratio and time) were determined. Results indicate that in comparison to a single-step transesterification, methyl esterification (second step of the two-step process) produces higher biodiesel yields (95 wt% vs. 91 wt%) at lower temperatures (270 °C vs. 350 °C), pressures (8 MPa vs. 12 MPa) and methanol to oil molar ratios (1:20 vs. 1:42). This can be explained by the fact that the reaction system consisting of free fatty acid (FFA) and methanol achieves supercritical condition at milder reaction conditions. Furthermore, the dissolved FFA increases the acidity of supercritical methanol and acts as an acid catalyst that increases the reaction rate. There is a direct correlation between FFA content of the product obtained in hydrolysis and biodiesel yields in methyl esterification. Therefore, the reaction parameters of hydrolysis were optimized to yield the highest FFA content at 12 MPa, 250 °C and 1:20 oil to water molar ratio. Results of direct material and energy costs comparison suggest that the process based on the two-step reaction has the potential to be cost-competitive with the process based on single-step supercritical transesterification. Higher biodiesel yields, similar or lower energy

  13. The application of acoustic emission measurements on laboratory testpieces to large scale pressure vessel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingham, T.; Dawson, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    A test pressure vessel containing 4 artificial defects was monitored for emission whilst pressure cycling to failure. Testpieces cut from both the failed vessel and from as-rolled plate material were tested in the laboratory. A marked difference in emission characteristics was observed between plate and vessel testpieces. Activity from vessel material was virtually constant after general yield and emission amplitudes were low. Plate testpieces showed maximum activity at general yield and more frequent high amplitude emissions. An attempt has been made to compare the system sensitivities between the pressure vessel test and laboratory tests. In the absence of an absolute calibration device, system sensitivities were estimated using dummy signals generated by the excitation of an emission sensor. The measurements have shown an overall difference in sensitivity between vessel and laboratory tests of approximately 25db. The reduced sensitivity in the vessel test is attributed to a combination of differences in sensors, acoustic couplant, attenuation, and dispersion relative to laboratory tests and the relative significance of these factors is discussed. Signal amplitude analysis of the emissions monitored from laboratory testpieces showed that, whith losses of the order of 25 to 30db, few emissions would be detected from the pressure vessel test. It is concluded that no reliable prediction of acoustic behaviour of a structure may be made from laboratory test unless testpieces of the actual structural material are used. A considerable improvement in detection sensitivity, is also required for reliable detection of defects in low strength ductile materials and an absolute method of system calibration is required between tests

  14. Medium-scale Laboratory Installation of Suction Bucket Foundation in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koteras, Aleksandra Katarzyna; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    This report contains a short description of the laboratory set-up followed by a description of the test procedure. Next, tests results are described. In the main part of the report one of each kind of tests is described in detailed. The rests of tests’ detailed descriptions are collected in appen......This report contains a short description of the laboratory set-up followed by a description of the test procedure. Next, tests results are described. In the main part of the report one of each kind of tests is described in detailed. The rests of tests’ detailed descriptions are collected...

  15. Plant management tools tested with a small-scale distributed generation laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, Mario L.; Traverso, Alberto; Pascenti, Matteo; Massardo, Aristide F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal grid innovative layouts. • Experimental rig for distributed generation. • Real-time management tool. • Experimental results for plant management. • Comparison with results from an optimization complete software. - Abstract: Optimization of power generation with smart grids is an important issue for extensive sustainable development of distributed generation. Since an experimental approach is essential for implementing validated optimization software, the TPG research team of the University of Genoa has installed a laboratory facility for carrying out studies on polygeneration grids. The facility consists of two co-generation prime movers based on conventional technology: a 100 kWe gas turbine (mGT) and a 20 kWe internal combustion engine (ICE). The rig high flexibility allows the possibility of integration with renewable-source based devices, such as biomass-fed boilers and solar panels. Special attention was devoted to thermal distribution grid design. To ensure the possibility of application in medium-large districts, composed of several buildings including energy users, generators or both, an innovative layout based on two ring pipes was examined. Thermal storage devices were also included in order to have a complete hardware platform suitable for assessing the performance of different management tools. The test presented in this paper was carried out with both the mGT and the ICE connected to this innovative thermal grid, while users were emulated by means of fan coolers controlled by inverters. During this test the plant is controlled by a real-time model capable of calculating a machine performance ranking, which is necessary in order to split power demands between the prime movers (marginal cost decrease objective). A complete optimization tool devised by TPG (ECoMP program) was also used in order to obtain theoretical results considering the same machines and load values. The data obtained with ECoMP were compared with the

  16. Methane production from food waste leachate in laboratory-scale simulated landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Shishir Kumar; Park, Jun Mo; Kim, Kyeong Ho; Park, Hung-Suck

    2010-01-01

    Due to the prohibition of food waste landfilling in Korea from 2005 and the subsequent ban on the marine disposal of organic sludge, including leachate generated from food waste recycling facilities from 2012, it is urgent to develop an innovative and sustainable disposal strategy that is eco-friendly, yet economically beneficial. In this study, methane production from food waste leachate (FWL) in landfill sites with landfill gas recovery facilities was evaluated in simulated landfill reactors (lysimeters) for a period of 90 d with four different inoculum-substrate ratios (ISRs) on volatile solid (VS) basis. Simultaneous biochemical methane potential batch experiments were also conducted at the same ISRs for 30 d to compare CH(4) yield obtained from lysimeter studies. Under the experimental conditions, a maximum CH(4) yield of 0.272 and 0.294 L/g VS was obtained in the batch and lysimeter studies, respectively, at ISR of 1:1. The biodegradability of FWL in batch and lysimeter experiments at ISR of 1:1 was 64% and 69%, respectively. The calculated data using the modified Gompertz equation for the cumulative CH(4) production showed good agreement with the experimental result obtained from lysimeter study. Based on the results obtained from this study, field-scale pilot test is required to re-evaluate the existing sanitary landfills with efficient leachate collection and gas recovery facilities as engineered bioreactors to treat non-hazardous liquid organic wastes for energy recovery with optimum utilization of facilities. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of chlorine and sulphur on particle formation in wood combustion performed in a laboratory scale reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olli Sippula; Terttaliisa Lind; Jorma Jokiniemi [University of Kuopio, Kuopio (Finland). Fine Particle and Aerosol Technology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences

    2008-09-15

    Fine particle formation in wood combustion was studied in a laboratory scale laminar flow reactor at various flue gas chlorine and sulphur concentrations. Aerosol samples were quenched at around 850{sup o}C using a porous tube diluter. Fine particle number concentrations, mass concentrations, size distributions and chemical compositions were measured. In addition, flue gas composition, including SO{sub 2} and HCl, was monitored. Experimental results were interpreted by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. Addition of HCl clearly raised fine particle mass concentration (PM1.0) which was because of increased release of ash-forming material to fine particles. Especially the release of K, Na, Zn and Cd to fine particles increased. These species form chlorides which apparently increases their volatilization from the fuel. When a sufficient amount of SO{sub 2} was supplied in a chlorine rich combustion (S/Cl molar ratio from 4.7 to 7.5), most of the HCl stayed in the gas phase, release of ash-forming elements decreased and also fine particle concentrations dropped significantly. The sulphation of alkali metals is suggested to play a key role in the observed decrease in the fine particle concentration. It seems that the formation of sulphates leads to alkali metal retention in the coarse particle fraction. 27 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Lead Biosorption by Self-Immobilized Rhizopus nigricans Pellets in a Laboratory Scale Packed Bed Column: Mathematical Model and Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Kogej

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The biosorption of lead ions from aqueous solution on a self-immobilized Rhizopus nigricans biomass has been studied. Experiments were performed in a laboratory scale packed bed column at different liquid flow rates and biosorbent bed heights. Recorded experimental breakthrough curves were compared to those predicted by a mathematical model, which was developed to simulate a packed bed biosorption process by a soft, self-immobilized fungal biosorbent. In the range of examined experimental conditions, the biomass characteristics such as pellet porosity and biosorption capacity substantially affected the predicted response curve. General correlations for the estimation of the intra-pellet effective diffusivity, the external mass transfer coefficient, as well as axial dispersion were successfully applied in this biological system with specific mechanical properties. Under the experimental conditions, mass transfer is controlled by the external film resistance, while the intra-pellet mass transfer resistance, as well as the effect of axial dispersion, can be neglected. A new parameter α, the fraction of active biomass, with an average value of α=0.7, was introduced to take into account the specific biomass characteristics, and consequently the observed non-ideal liquid flow through the bed of fungal pellets.

  19. Passive flux meter measurement of water and nutrient flux in saturated porous media: bench-scale laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jaehyun; Annable, Michael D; Jawitz, James W; Hatfield, Kirk

    2007-01-01

    The passive nutrient flux meter (PNFM) is introduced for simultaneous measurement of both water and nutrient flux through saturated porous media. The PNFM comprises a porous sorbent pre-equilibrated with a suite of alcohol tracers, which have different partitioning coefficients. Water flux was estimated based on the loss of loaded resident tracers during deployment, while nutrient flux was quantified based on the nutrient solute mass captured on the sorbent. An anionic resin, Lewatit 6328 A, was used as a permeable sorbent and phosphate (PO4(3-)) was the nutrient studied. The phosphate sorption capacity of the resin was measured in batch equilibration tests as 56 mg PO4(3-) g(-1), which was determined to be adequate capacity to retain PO4(3-) loads intercepted over typical PNFM deployment periods in most natural systems. The PNFM design was validated with bench-scale laboratory tests for a range of 9.8 to 28.3 cm d(-1) Darcy velocities and 6 to 43 h deployment durations. Nutrient and water fluxes measured by the PNFM averaged within 6 and 12% of the applied values, respectively, indicating that the PNFM shows promise as a tool for simultaneous measurement of water and nutrient fluxes.

  20. Molecular microbial and chemical investigation of the bioremediation of two-phase olive mill waste using laboratory-scale bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillo, J A; Aguilera, M; Antízar-Ladislao, B; Fuentes, S; Ramos-Cormenzana, A; Russell, N J; Monteoliva-Sánchez, M

    2008-05-01

    Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) is a semisolid effluent that is rich in contaminating polyphenols and is produced in large amounts by the industry of olive oil production. Laboratory-scale bioreactors were used to investigate the biodegradation of TPOMW by its indigenous microbiota. The effect of nutrient addition (inorganic N and P) and aeration of the bioreactors was studied. Microbial changes were investigated by PCR-temperature time gradient electrophoresis (TTGE) and following the dynamics of polar lipid fatty acids (PLFA). The greatest decrease in the polyphenolic and organic matter contents of bioreactors was concomitant with an increase in the PLFA fungal/bacterial ratio. Amplicon sequences of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and 16S rDNA allowed identification of fungal and bacterial types, respectively, by comparative DNA sequence analyses. Predominant fungi identified included members of the genera Penicillium, Candida, Geotrichum, Pichia, Cladosporium, and Aschochyta. A total of 14 bacterial genera were detected, with a dominance of organisms that have previously been associated with plant material. Overall, this work highlights that indigenous microbiota within the bioreactors through stimulation of the fungal fraction, is able to degrade the polyphenolic content without the inoculation of specific microorganisms.

  1. Transformation of pristine and citrate-functionalized CeO2 nanoparticles in a laboratory-scale activated sludge reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Lauren E; Auffan, Melanie; Bertrand, Marie; Barakat, Mohamed; Santaella, Catherine; Masion, Armand; Borschneck, Daniel; Olivi, Luca; Roche, Nicolas; Wiesner, Mark R; Bottero, Jean-Yves

    2014-07-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are used to enhance the properties of many manufactured products and technologies. Increased use of ENMs will inevitably lead to their release into the environment. An important route of exposure is through the waste stream, where ENMs will enter wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), undergo transformations, and be discharged with treated effluent or biosolids. To better understand the fate of a common ENM in WWTPs, experiments with laboratory-scale activated sludge reactors and pristine and citrate-functionalized CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were conducted. Greater than 90% of the CeO2 introduced was observed to associate with biosolids. This association was accompanied by reduction of the Ce(IV) NPs to Ce(III). After 5 weeks in the reactor, 44 ± 4% reduction was observed for the pristine NPs and 31 ± 3% for the citrate-functionalized NPs, illustrating surface functionality dependence. Thermodynamic arguments suggest that the likely Ce(III) phase generated would be Ce2S3. This study indicates that the majority of CeO2 NPs (>90% by mass) entering WWTPs will be associated with the solid phase, and a significant portion will be present as Ce(III). At maximum, 10% of the CeO2 will remain in the effluent and be discharged as a Ce(IV) phase, governed by cerianite (CeO2).

  2. Planetary Simulation Chambers bring Mars to laboratory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateo-Marti, E.

    2016-07-01

    Although space missions provide fundamental and unique knowledge for planetary exploration, they are always costly and extremely time-consuming. Due to the obvious technical and economical limitations of in-situ planetary exploration, laboratory simulations are among the most feasible research options for making advances in planetary exploration. Therefore, laboratory simulations of planetary environments are a necessary and complementary option to expensive space missions. Simulation chambers are economical, more versatile, and allow for a higher number of experiments than space missions. Laboratory-based facilities are able to mimic the conditions found in the atmospheres and on the surfaces of a majority of planetary objects. Number of relevant applications in Mars planetary exploration will be described in order to provide an understanding about the potential and flexibility of planetary simulation chambers systems: mainly, stability and presence of certain minerals on Mars surface; and microorganisms potential habitability under planetary environmental conditions would be studied. Therefore, simulation chambers will be a promising tools and necessary platform to design future planetary space mission and to validate in-situ measurements from orbital or rover observations. (Author)

  3. Comparative study of bedside and laboratory measurements of hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenzischek, D A; Tanseco, F V

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of variations in technique on measurements of hemoglobin level done at the bedside and to compare these results with laboratory measurements of hemoglobin. In accordance with hospital policy, procedure, and protocol, various techniques were used to obtain samples of capillary and venous blood and of blood from arterial and central venous catheters. Levels of hemoglobin were measured at the bedside and in the laboratory, and the results were compared. The Johns Hopkins Hospital adult postanesthesia care unit. A total of 187 blood samples were obtained from 62 adults who had undergone general surgery. Group I comprised 20 subjects with capillary and venous blood samples. Group II comprised 21 subjects with arterial blood samples. Group III comprised 21 subjects with central venous blood samples. The results showed that the amount of blood to be discarded before obtaining samples of arterial and central venous blood need not be any larger than double the dead space of the catheter, and that shaking the blood sample for 10 seconds was sufficient to mix the sample before measurement of hemoglobin levels. Results of bedside and laboratory measurements of hemoglobin level were comparable. Bedside measurement of hemoglobin increases efficiency in patient care, decreases risk of blood-transmitted infection for staff, and decreases cost to the patient. However, the persons who perform the assay must be responsible in adhering to the standard of practice to minimize errors in the measurements.

  4. Field studies of radionuclide transport at the Chalk River Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champ, D.R.; Killey, R.W.D.; Moltyaner, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the authors summarize the results of: in situ field column experiments to study the transport behaviour of several long-lived radionuclides, 4 natural gradient non-reactive radiotracer injection experiments at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) Twin Lake Tracer Test Site, and a model validation study that used data for 90 Sr from two well-defined contaminated groundwater flow systems at CRL. The paper also describes a current re-evaluation of radionuclide release and transport from a 1960 experimental burial (in a CRL sand aquifer) of glass blocks containing fission and activation products. (J.P.N.)

  5. Bioremediation of endosulfan contaminated soil and water-Optimization of operating conditions in laboratory scale reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mathava; Philip, Ligy

    2006-01-01

    A mixed bacterial culture consisted of Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus circulans-I and -II has been enriched from contaminated soil collected from the vicinity of an endosulfan processing industry. The degradation of endosulfan by mixed bacterial culture was studied in aerobic and facultative anaerobic conditions via batch experiments with an initial endosulfan concentration of 50 mg/L. After 3 weeks of incubation, mixed bacterial culture was able to degrade 71.58 ± 0.2% and 75.88 ± 0.2% of endosulfan in aerobic and facultative anaerobic conditions, respectively. The addition of external carbon (dextrose) increased the endosulfan degradation in both the conditions. The optimal dextrose concentration and inoculum size was estimated as 1 g/L and 75 mg/L, respectively. The pH of the system has significant effect on endosulfan degradation. The degradation of alpha endosulfan was more compared to beta endosulfan in all the experiments. Endosulfan biodegradation in soil was evaluated by miniature and bench scale soil reactors. The soils used for the biodegradation experiments were identified as clayey soil (CL, lean clay with sand), red soil (GM, silty gravel with sand), sandy soil (SM, silty sand with gravel) and composted soil (PT, peat) as per ASTM (American society for testing and materials) standards. Endosulfan degradation efficiency in miniature soil reactors were in the order of sandy soil followed by red soil, composted soil and clayey soil in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In bench scale soil reactors, endosulfan degradation was observed more in the bottom layers. After 4 weeks, maximum endosulfan degradation efficiency of 95.48 ± 0.17% was observed in red soil reactor where as in composted soil-I (moisture 38 ± 1%) and composted soil-II (moisture 45 ± 1%) it was 96.03 ± 0.23% and 94.84 ± 0.19%, respectively. The high moisture content in compost soil reactor-II increased the endosulfan concentration in the leachate. Known intermediate metabolites of

  6. Saltstone studies using the scaled continuous processing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowley, M. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hansen, E. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has supported the Saltstone Facility since its conception with bench-scale laboratory experiments, mid-scale testing at vendor facilities, and consultations and testing at the Saltstone Facility. There have been minimal opportunities for the measurement of rheological properties of the grout slurry at the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF); thus, the Scaled Continuous Processing Facility (SCPF), constructed to provide processing data related to mixing, transfer, and other operations conducted in the SPF, is the most representative process data for determining the expected rheological properties in the SPF. These results can be used to verify the laboratory scale experiments that support the SPF using conventional mixing processes that appropriately represent the shear imparted to the slurry in the SPF.

  7. Service Quality and Patient Satisfaction: An Exploratory Study of Pathology Laboratories in Jaipur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Anuradha; Singh, Maithili R P

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important parts of healthcare system is diagnostics. Nowadays, Indians have become more aware of their health, due to improved and better availability of health related information, increase in medical tourism, and expanding health insurance. The demand for better diagnostic facilities have increased with the increase in lifestyle related diseases, excesses use of chemicals in agriculture practices and change in food habits. It is expected that the Indian diagnostic market will grow from USD $5 billion in the year 2012 to USD $32 billion by the year 2020 with 20% CAGR (India Brand Equity Foundation 2015 ). Today patients have easy access of information regarding the health services and they have become more concerned about it as they look forward to receiving the maximum value for their money. To win the confidence of the patients and to maintain that trust, it is required to deliver the right services to the right person at the right time. The purpose of this study was to develop a scale to measure the service quality at pathology laboratory. A thorough review of literature revealed that there are studies related to healthcare service quality but there is no such established scale to measure service quality of pathology laboratory. Thus, the authors strived to develop a reliable and valid instrument to measure the patients' perception toward pathology laboratory service quality. For this exploratory study was conducted on the sample of 80 patients of the laboratories in Jaipur city. The reliability and factor structures were tested to purify the scale. The findings revealed 13 items, comprising of three dimensions of service quality: responsiveness, tangibility, and reliability.

  8. Self-Potential Monitoring of Landslides on Field and Laboratory Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, T.; Limbrock, J. K.; Weigand, M.; Wagner, F. M.; Kemna, A.

    2017-12-01

    Among several other geophysical methods used to observe water movement in the ground, the electrical self-potential method has been applied to a broad range of monitoring studies, especially focusing on volcanism and dam leakage but also during hydraulic fracturing. Electrical self-potential signals may be caused by various mechanisms. Though, the most relevant source of the self-potential field in the given context of landslides is the streaming potential, caused by a flowing electrolyte through porous media with electrically charged internal surfaces. So far, existing models focus on monitoring water flow in non-deformable porous media. However, as the self-potential is sensitive to hydraulic parameters of the soil, any change in these parameters will cause an alteration of the electric signal. Mass movement will significantly influence the hydraulic parameters of the solid as well as the pressure field, assuming that fluid movement is faster than pressure diffusion. We present self-potential measurements from over a year of continuous monitoring at an old landslide site. Using a three-dimensional electric-resistivity underground model, the self-potential signal is analyzed with respect to precipitation and the resulting flow in the ground. Additional data from electrical measurements and conventional sensors are included to assess saturation. The field observations are supplemented by laboratory experiments in which we study the behavior of the self-potential during failure of a piled land slope. For the undrained scenarios, we observe a clear correlation between the mass movements and signals in the electric potential, which clearly differ from the underlying potential variations due to increased saturation and fluid flow. In the drained experiments, we do not observe any measurable change in the electric potential. We therefore assume that change in fluid properties and release of the load causes disturbances in flow and streaming potential. Our results

  9. Preparation and characterization of a laboratory scale selenomethionine-enriched bread. Selenium bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martínez, María; Pérez-Corona, Teresa; Caímara, Carmen; Madrid, Yolanda

    2015-01-14

    This study focuses on the preparation at lab scale of selenomethionine-enriched white and wholemeal bread. Selenium was supplemented either by adding selenite directly to the dough or by using lab-made selenium-enriched yeast. The best results were obtained when using fresh selenium-enriched yeast. The optimum incubation time for selenomethionine-enriched yeast preparation, while keeping formation of selenium byproducts to a minimum, was 96 h. Selenium content measured by isotope dilution analysis (IDA)-ICP-MS in Se-white and Se-wholemeal bread was 1.28 ± 0.02 μg g–1 and 1.16 ± 0.02 μg g–1 (expressed as mean ± SE, 3 replicates), respectively. HPLC postcolumn IDA-ICP-MS measurements revealed that selenomethionine was the main Se species found in Se-enriched bread, which accounted for ca. 80% of total selenium. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion assay provided selenium bioaccessibility values of 100 ± 3% and 40 ± 1% for white and wholemeal Se-enriched bread, respectively, being selenomethionine the main bioaccessible Se species in white bread, while in wholemeal bread this compound was undetectable.

  10. Residual strain, scale effects, and time-dependent behaviour at the 240-m level of the underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Two subhorizontal, orthogonal boreholes were monitored continuously during concentric overcoring at the 240-m level of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL). The magnitude and orientation of principal residual strain components in the near-field stress regime were determined assuming linear elastic behaviour of the rock mass and isotropic conditions. In terms of magnitude, results compared favourably with those from previous tests at the 240-m level. However, orientation results were inconclusive. The effects of scale and borehole orientation relative to the principal stress direction on the results from a modified CSIR triaxial cell overcore test were also investigated; no scale effects were apparent in the experiment, but borehole orientation did affect results. Finally, time-dependent behaviour was detected in the Lac du Bonnet granite, and was monitored between successive overcore tests in one of the boreholes. Results on residual strain, scale effects, and time-dependent behaviour are presented, along with limitations and possible modifications to the testing procedure

  11. Environmental data from laboratory- and bench-scale Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Roberts, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a 3-year program to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) Process for Eastern oil shales, IGT conducted tests in laboratory-scale batch and continuous units as well as a 45-kg/h bench-scale unit to generate a data base for 6 Eastern shales. Data were collected during PFH processing of raw Alabama and Indiana shales and a beneficiated Indiana shale for environmental mitigation analyses. The data generated include trace element analyses of the raw feeds and spent shales, product oils, and sour waters. The sulfur compounds present in the product gas and trace components in the sour water were also determined. In addition, the leaching characteristics of the feed and residue solids were determined. The data obtained were used to evaluate the environmental impact of a shale processing plant based on the PFH process. This paper presents the environmental data obtained from bench-scale tests conducted during the program.

  12. Environmental data from laboratory- and bench-scale Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Roberts, M.J.

    1991-12-31

    As part of a 3-year program to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) Process for Eastern oil shales, IGT conducted tests in laboratory-scale batch and continuous units as well as a 45-kg/h bench-scale unit to generate a data base for 6 Eastern shales. Data were collected during PFH processing of raw Alabama and Indiana shales and a beneficiated Indiana shale for environmental mitigation analyses. The data generated include trace element analyses of the raw feeds and spent shales, product oils, and sour waters. The sulfur compounds present in the product gas and trace components in the sour water were also determined. In addition, the leaching characteristics of the feed and residue solids were determined. The data obtained were used to evaluate the environmental impact of a shale processing plant based on the PFH process. This paper presents the environmental data obtained from bench-scale tests conducted during the program.

  13. Wellbore Completion Systems Containment Breach Solution Experiments at a Large Scale Underground Research Laboratory : Sealant placement & scale-up from Lab to Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, H.

    2017-12-01

    This investigation seeks to develop sealant technology that can restore containment to completed wells that suffer CO2 gas leakages currently untreatable using conventional technologies. Experimentation is performed at the Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory (MT-URL) located in NW Switzerland. The laboratory affords investigators an intermediate-scale test site that bridges the gap between the laboratory bench and full field-scale conditions. Project focus is the development of CO2 leakage remediation capability using sealant technology. The experimental concept includes design and installation of a field scale completion package designed to mimic well systems heating-cooling conditions that may result in the development of micro-annuli detachments between the casing-cement-formation boundaries (Figure 1). Of particular interest is to test novel sealants that can be injected in to relatively narrow micro-annuli flow-paths of less than 120 microns aperture. Per a special report on CO2 storage submitted to the IPCC[1], active injection wells, along with inactive wells that have been abandoned, are identified as one of the most probable sources of leakage pathways for CO2 escape to the surface. Origins of pressure leakage common to injection well and completions architecture often occur due to tensile cracking from temperature cycles, micro-annulus by casing contraction (differential casing to cement sheath movement) and cement sheath channel development. This discussion summarizes the experiment capability and sealant testing results. The experiment concludes with overcoring of the entire mock-completion test site to assess sealant performance in 2018. [1] IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (September 2005), section 5.7.2 Processes and pathways for release of CO2 from geological storage sites, page 244

  14. Using the raindrop size distribution to quantify the soil detachment rate at the laboratory scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, S.; Jaffrain, J.; Barry, D. A.; Berne, A.; Sander, G. C.

    2010-05-01

    Rainfall simulators are beneficial tools for studying soil erosion processes and sediment transport for different circumstances and scales. They are useful to better understand soil erosion mechanisms and, therefore, to develop and validate process-based erosion models. Simulators permit experimental replicates for both simple and complex configurations. The 2 m × 6 m EPFL erosion flume is equipped with a hydraulic slope control and a sprinkling system located on oscillating bars 3 m above the surface. It provides a near-uniform spatial rainfall distribution. The intensity of the precipitation can be adjusted by changing the oscillation interval. The flume is filled to a depth of 0.32 m with an agricultural loamy soil. Raindrop detachment is an important process in interrill erosion, the latter varying with the soil properties as well as the raindrop size distribution and drop velocity. Since the soil detachment varies with the kinetic energy of raindrops, an accurate characterization of drop size distribution (DSD, measured, e.g., using a laser disdrometer) can potentially support erosion calculations. Here, a laser disdrometer was used at different rainfall intensities in the EPFL flume to quantify the rainfall event in terms of number of drops, diameter and velocity. At the same time, soil particle motion was measured locally using splash cups. These cups measured the detached material rates into upslope and downslope compartments. In contrast to previously reported splash cup experiments, the cups used in this study were equipped at the top with upside-down funnels, the upper part having the same diameter as the soil sampled at the bottom. This ensured that the soil detached and captured by the device was not re-exposed to rainfall. The experimental data were used to quantify the relationship between the raindrop distribution and the splash-driven sediment transport.

  15. Laboratory studies of oil spill bioremediation; toward understanding field behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, R.C.; Hinton, S.M.; Elmendorf, D.L.; Lute, J.R.; Grossman, M.J.; Robbins, W.K.; Hsu, Chang S.; Richard, B.E.; Haith, C.E.; Senius, J.D.; Minak-Bernero, V.; Chianelli, R.R.; Bragg, J.R.; Douglas, G.S.

    1993-01-01

    Oil spill remediation aims to enhance the natural process of microbial hydrocarbon biodegradation. The microbial foundations have been studied throughout this century, but the focus of most of this work has been on the degradation of well defined compounds by well defined microbial species. This paper addresses laboratory studies on crude oil biodegradation by microbial consortia obtained from oiled beaches in Prince William Sound, Alaska following the spill from the Exxon Valdez. It demonstrates that oil degradation is indeed likely to be nitrogen-limited in Prince William Sound, the different molecular classes in crude oil that are subjected to biodegradation, the identification of conserved species in the oil that can be used for assessing biodegradation and bioremediation in the field, the effectiveness of fertilizers in stimulating sub-surface biodegradation, the role of the olephilic fertilizer Inipol EAP22, and the identification of the oil-degrading microorganisms in Prince William Sound. Together, these laboratory studies provided guidance and important insights into the microbial phenomena underlying the successful bioremediation of the oiled shorelines

  16. OSPW contamination transport through peat soils : laboratory and greenhouse study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezanezhad, F.; Price, J.S. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Rochefort, L.; Pouliot, R. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Phytology; Andersen, R. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Phytology; Macaulay Land Use Research Inst., Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Daly, C. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Large portions of northern Canada are covered by peatlands, and the majority of post-mined landscapes have increased salinity, heavy metals and naphthenic acids (NA). This PowerPoint presentation discussed laboratory and greenhouse studies conducted to determine oil sands process water (OSPW) contamination transport through peat soils. Peat is a highly complex porous media. The presence of sodium and NA has a toxic effect on aquatic life. Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the changes caused by OSPW in the microbial community of a peat matrix over 2 growing seasons. The study showed that peat has an exceptional ability to absorb the contaminants in OSPW water. NA and sodium transport through peat was significantly delayed by sorption, and by diffusion into immobile water contained in the peat matrix. The vegetation in the study was healthy and tolerant to the contaminants in the OSPW. tabs., figs.

  17. Scaling studies of solar pumped lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, W. H.; Chang, J.

    1985-01-01

    A progress report of scaling studies of solar pumped lasers is presented. Conversion of blackbody radiation into laser light has been demonstrated in this study. Parametric studies of the variation of laser mixture composition and laser gas temperature were carried out for CO2 and N2O gases. Theoretical analysis and modeling of the system have been performed. Reasonable agreement between predictions in the parameter variation and the experimental results have been obtained. Almost 200 mW of laser output at 10.6 micron was achieved by placing a small sapphire laser tube inside an oven at 1500 K the tube was filled with CO2 laser gas mixture and cooled by longitudinal nitrogen gas flow.

  18. Pre-test simulations of laboratory-scale heater experiments in tuff. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Clifford K.

    1995-09-01

    Laboratory-scale heater experiments are Proposed to observe thermohydrologic Processes in tuffaceous rock using existing equipment and x-ray imaging techniques. The purpose of the experiments is to gain understanding of the near-field behavior and thermodynamic environment surrounding a heat source. As a prelude to these experiments, numerical simulations are performed to determine design-related parameters such as optimal heating power and heating duration. In addition, the simulations aid in identifying and understanding thermal processes and mechanisms that may occur under a variety of experimental conditions. Results of the simulations show that convection may play an important role in the heat transfer and thermodynamic environment of the heater if the Rayleigh-Darcy number exceeds a critical value (= 10 for the laboratory experiments) depending on the type of backfill material within the annulus (or drift)

  19. Supplementing the Braden scale for pressure ulcer risk among medical inpatients: the contribution of self-reported symptoms and standard laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogestad, Ingrid Johansen; Martinsen, Liv; Børsting, Tove Elisabet; Granheim, Tove Irene; Ludvigsen, Eirin Sigurdssøn; Gay, Caryl L; Lerdal, Anners

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate medical inpatients' symptom experience and selected laboratory blood results as indicators of their pressure ulcer risk as measured by the Braden scale. Pressure ulcers reduce quality of life and increase treatment costs. The prevalence of pressure ulcers is 6-23% in hospital populations, but literature suggests that most pressure ulcers are avoidable. Prospective, cross-sectional survey. Three hundred and twenty-eight patients admitted to medical wards in an acute hospital in Oslo, Norway consented to participate. Data were collected on 10 days between 2012-2014 by registered nurses and nursing students. Pressure ulcer risk was assessed using the Braden scale, and scores indicated pressure ulcer risk. Skin examinations were categorised as normal or stages I-IV using established definitions. Comorbidities were collected by self-report. Self-reported symptom occurrence and distress were measured with 15 items from the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, and pain was assessed using two numeric rating scales. Admission laboratory data were collected from medical records. Prevalence of pressure ulcers was 11·9, and 20·4% of patients were identified as being at risk for developing pressure ulcers. Multivariable analysis showed that pressure ulcer risk was positively associated with age ≥80 years, vomiting, severe pain at rest, urination problems, shortness of breath and low albumin and was negatively associated with nervousness. Our study indicates that using patient-reported symptoms and standard laboratory results as supplemental indicators of pressure ulcer risk may improve identification of vulnerable patients, but replication of these findings in other study samples is needed. Nurses play a key role in preventing pressure ulcers during hospitalisation. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms may improve the quality of care. Knowledge about symptoms associated with pressure ulcer risk may contribute to a faster clinical judgment of

  20. Recovery of uranium from sea water - a laboratory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayawant, D.V.; Iyer, N.S.; Koppiker, K.S.

    1991-01-01

    Sea water contains traces of uranium, but the volume of sea water being enormous, the total quantity of uranium available from the sources is very large. From time to time, claims have been made elsewhere that a breakthrough has been made in developing a technology to recovery this uranium at an economic cost. Studies have been carried out at Uranium Extraction Division over a few years to develop a suitable technique to separate the uranium from sea water. Studies were primarily directed towards preparation of suitable inorganic ion exchangers and studying their properties. In this paper preparation of ion exchangers based on hydrous titanium oxide and the data collected in laboratory trials on their application for uranium adsorption from sea water are presented. (author). 11 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Numerical modeling of laboratory-scale surface-to-crown fire transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Drew Clayton

    Understanding the conditions leading to the transition of fire spread from a surface fuel to an elevated (crown) fuel is critical to effective fire risk assessment and management. Surface fires that successfully transition to crown fires can be very difficult to suppress, potentially leading to damages in the natural and built environments. This is relevant to chaparral shrub lands which are common throughout parts of the Southwest U.S. and represent a significant part of the wildland urban interface. The ability of the Wildland-Urban Interface Fire Dynamic Simulator (WFDS) to model surface-to-crown fire transition was evaluated through comparison to laboratory experiments. The WFDS model is being developed by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The experiments were conducted at the USFS Forest Fire Laboratory in Riverside, California. The experiments measured the ignition of chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum) crown fuel held above a surface fire spreading through excelsior fuel. Cases with different crown fuel bulk densities, crown fuel base heights, and imposed wind speeds were considered. Cold-flow simulations yielded wind speed profiles that closely matched the experimental measurements. Next, fire simulations with only the surface fuel were conducted to verify the rate of spread while factors such as substrate properties were varied. Finally, simulations with both a surface fuel and a crown fuel were completed. Examination of specific surface fire characteristics (rate of spread, flame angle, etc.) and the corresponding experimental surface fire behavior provided a basis for comparison of the factors most responsible for transition from a surface fire to the raised fuel ignition. The rate of spread was determined by tracking the flame in the Smokeview animations using a tool developed for tracking an actual flame in a video. WFDS simulations produced results in both surface fire spread and raised fuel bed

  2. Engineering-scale in situ vitrification tests of simulated Oak Ridge National Laboratory buried wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    As part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act process for remediation of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a public meeting was held on the proposed plan. It was recognized that contaminant releases from WAG 6 posed minimal potential risk to the public and environment. The US Department of Energy (DOE) in conjunction with the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation agreed to defer remedial action at WAG 6 until higher risk release sites were first remediated

  3. Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of 'teaching laboratory' technicians towards laboratory safety and waste management: a pilot interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gilany, A-H; El-Shaer, S; Khashaba, E; El-Dakroory, S A; Omar, N

    2017-06-01

    A quasi-experimental study was performed on 20 technicians working in the Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt. The knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of laboratory technicians was measured before and two months after enrolling them in an intervention programme about laboratory best practice procedures. The programme addressed laboratory safety and medical waste management. The assessment was performed using a validated Arabic self-administered questionnaire. Pre- and post-intervention scores were compared using non-parametric tests. There are significant increases in the scores of KAP after implementation of the training programme. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. New Medium-Scale Laboratory Testing of Bucket Foundation Capacity in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a new testing rig for axially loaded bucket foundations. The medium-scale physical model gives the ability to examine the influence of axial tensile, compressive as well as cyclic loading on bucket foundations subjected to various levels of overburden stress. The properties...

  5. Respirometric oxygen demand determinations of laboratory- and field-scale biofilters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, D.; Mercier, P.; Jette, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    A biofiltration experiment operated at three inlet concentrations (425, 830, and 1,450 mg m -3 ), showed that the specific oxygen consumption rate was highly correlated (R = 0.938, n = 23) with the toluene elimination capacity. A radiorespirometric test was found to be more sensitive and appropriate for the field-scale biofilter treating gasoline vapors

  6. Bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil with fungi - from laboratory to field scale

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Winquist, E.; Björklöf, K.; Schultz, E.; Räsänen, M.; Salonen, K.; Anasonye, F.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Steffen, K.; Jorgensen, K.S.; Tuomela, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 2 (2014), s. 238-247 ISSN 0964-8305 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020218 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : bioremediation * contaminated soil * PAH * field scale Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.131, year: 2014

  7. Assembly and maintenance of full scale NIF amplifiers in the amplifier module prototype laboratory (AMPLAB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Mechanical assembly and maintenance of the prototype National Ignition Facility amplifiers in the Amplifier Module Prototype Laboratory (AMPLAB) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory requires specialized equipment designed to manipulate large and delicate amplifier components in a safe and clean manner. Observations made during the operation of this assembly and maintenance equipment in AMPLAB provide design guidance for similar tools being built for the National Ignition Facility. Fixtures used for amplifier frame installation, laser slab and flashlamp cassette assembly, transport, and installation, and in-situ blastshield exchange are presented. Examples include a vacuum slab gripper, slab handling clean crane, slab cassette assembly fixture, sealed transport vehicle for slab cassette movement between the cleanroom and amplifier, slab cassette transfer fixture between the cleanroom and transport vehicle, and equipment needed for frame assembly unit, blastshield, an d flashlamp cassette installation and removal. The use of these tools for amplifier assembly, system reconfiguration, reflector replacement, and recovery from an abnormal occurrence such as a flashlamp explosion is described. Observations are made on the design and operation of these tools and their contribution to the final design

  8. Laboratory scale electroplating and processing of long lengths of an in situ Cu-Nb3Sn superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeHuy, H.; Germain, L.; Roberge, R.; Foner, S.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1984-01-01

    A laboratory scale continuous tin electroplating system is described and used to evaluate the effect of various parameters of the alkaline and acid baths plating process. Tin electroplating is shown to be simple and reliable. With an 8 m immersion length production speeds of the order of 1 m min -1 are possible in an alkaline bath at 80degC. An acid bath gives satisfactory tinning deposits with a production speed of up to 3 m min -1 at room temperature. (author)

  9. Large-Scale Testing and High-Fidelity Simulation Capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories to Support Space Power and Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobranich, Dean; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2008-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, as a Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Agency, has major responsibility to ensure the safety and security needs of nuclear weapons. As such, with an experienced research staff, Sandia maintains a spectrum of modeling and simulation capabilities integrated with experimental and large-scale test capabilities. This expertise and these capabilities offer considerable resources for addressing issues of interest to the space power and propulsion communities. This paper presents Sandia's capability to perform thermal qualification (analysis, test, modeling and simulation) using a representative weapon system as an example demonstrating the potential to support NASA's Lunar Reactor System

  10. Full Scale Earth Fault Experiments on 10 kV laboratory network with comparative Measurements on Conventional CT's and VT's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Stefan; Nielsen, Hans Ove; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a result of a full scale earth fault carried out on the 10 kV research/laboratory distribution network at Kyndbyvaerket Denmark in May 2001. The network is compensated through a Petersen-Coil and current and voltage measurements were measured on conventional current....... The necessity of high bandwidth measurement equipment for earth fault measurements on compensated distribution networks can be undermined, since it will be shown that the transient signal transfer through conventional CT?s and VT?s for further signal analysis is sufficient. Caused the inadequacy three phase...

  11. A leprosy clinical severity scale for erythema nodosum leprosum: An international, multicentre validation study of the ENLIST ENL Severity Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Stephen L; Sales, Anna M; Butlin, C Ruth; Shah, Mahesh; Maghanoy, Armi; Lambert, Saba M; Darlong, Joydeepa; Rozario, Benjamin Jewel; Pai, Vivek V; Balagon, Marivic; Doni, Shimelis N; Hagge, Deanna A; Nery, José A C; Neupane, Kapil D; Baral, Suwash; Sangma, Biliom A; Alembo, Digafe T; Yetaye, Abeba M; Hassan, Belaynesh A; Shelemo, Mohammed B; Nicholls, Peter G; Lockwood, Diana N J

    2017-07-01

    We wished to validate our recently devised 16-item ENLIST ENL Severity Scale, a clinical tool for measuring the severity of the serious leprosy associated complication of erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). We also wished to assess the responsiveness of the ENLIST ENL Severity Scale in detecting clinical change in patients with ENL. Participants, recruited from seven centres in six leprosy endemic countries, were assessed using the ENLIST ENL Severity Scale by two researchers, one of whom categorised the severity of ENL. At a subsequent visit a further assessment using the scale was made and both participant and physician rated the change in ENL using the subjective categories of "Much better", "somewhat better", "somewhat worse" and "much worse" compared with "No change" or "about the same". 447 participants were assessed with the ENLIST ENL Severity Scale. The Cronbach alpha of the scale and each item was calculated to determine the internal consistency of the scale. The ENLIST ENL Severity Scale had good internal consistency and this improved following removal of six items to give a Cronbach's alpha of 0.77. The cut off between mild ENL and more severe disease was 9 determined using ROC curves. The minimal important difference of the scale was determined to be 5 using both participant and physician ratings of change. The 10-item ENLIST ENL Severity Scale is the first valid, reliable and responsive measure of ENL severity and improves our ability to assess and compare patients and their treatments in this severe and difficult to manage complication of leprosy. The ENLIST ENL Severity Scale will assist physicians in the monitoring and treatment of patients with ENL. The ENLIST ENL Severity Scale is easy to apply and will be useful as an outcome measure in treatment studies and enable the standardisation of other clinical and laboratory ENL research.

  12. Emotional Presence in Online Learning Scale: A Scale Development Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsar, Firat; Kisla, Tarik

    2016-01-01

    Although emotions are not a new topic in learning environments, the emerging technologies have changed not only the type of learning environments but also the perspectives of emotions in learning environments. This study designed to develop a survey to assist online instructors to understand students' emotional statement in online learning…

  13. Feasibility study of medical isotope production at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massey, C.D.; Miller, D.L.; Carson, S.D.

    1995-12-01

    In late 1994, Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, (SNL/NM), was instructed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Isotope Production and Distribution Program (IPDP) to examine the feasibility of producing medically useful radioisotopes using the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) and the Hot Cell Facility (HCF). Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) would be expected to supply the targets to be irradiated in the ACRR. The intent of DOE would be to provide a capability to satisfy the North American health care system demand for 99 Mo, the parent of 99m Tc, in the event of an interruption in the current Canadian supply. 99m Tc is used in 70 to 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures in the US. The goal of the SNL/NM study effort is to determine the physical plant capability, infrastructure, and staffing necessary to meet the North American need for 99 Mo and to identify and examine all issues with potential for environmental impact

  14. Laboratory study of carbonaceous dust and molecules of astrochemical interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldo, F; Garcia-Hernandez, D A; Manchado, A; Kwok, S

    2016-01-01

    In this paper are reviewed some research works dedicated to the study of carbonaceous dust and molecules of astrochemical interest. First of all it is discussed the carbon arc through which it is possible to produce carbon soot and fullerenes under helium but also many other different products just changing the arcing conditions. For example, when the carbon arc is struck in an hydrocarbon solvent it is possible to produce and trap polyynes in the solvent. Monocyanopolyynes and dicyanopolyynes can be produced as well by selecting the appropriate conditions. Amorphous carbon soot or partially graphitized carbon black can be produced with the carbon arc. Fullerenes were found in space thanks to the reference infrared spectra and the absorption cross sections which were determined in laboratory. Fullerenes are readily reactive with hydrogen yielding fulleranes the hydrogenated fullerenes. Furthermore fullerenes react with PAHs and with iron carbonyl yielding adducts. All these fullerene derivatives were synthesized and their reference spectra recorded in laboratory. It was proposed that petroleum fractions can be used as model substrates in the explanation of the carriers of the AIB (Aromatic Infrared Bands) observed in protoplanetary and planetary nebulae and the UIE (Unidentified Infrared Bands) found in the interstellar medium. (paper)

  15. Laboratory Studies Of Astrophysically-interesting Phosphorus-bearing Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziurys, Lucy M.; Halfen, D. T.; Sun, M.; Clouthier, D. J.

    2009-05-01

    Over the past year, there has been a renewed interest in the presence of phosphorus-containing molecules in the interstellar medium. Recent observations have increased the number of known interstellar phosphorus-bearing species from two (PN, CP) to six with the identification of HCP, CCP, and PH3 in the carbon-rich circumstellar shell of IRC+10216 and PO in the oxygen-rich envelope of VY Canis Majoris. More species of this type may be present in the ISM, but laboratory rest frequencies, necessary for such detections, are not generally known for many potential molecules. To fill in this gap, we have been conducting measurements of the pure rotational spectra of phosphorus-containing molecules of astrophysical interest, using both millimeter/submm direct absorption and Fourier transform microwave (FTMW) spectroscopy. We have developed a new phosphorus source for this purpose. These methods cover the frequency ranges 65-850 GHz and 4-40 GHz, respectively. Our recent study of the CCP radical (X2Πr) using both of these techniques has resulted in its identification in IRC+10216. Rotational spectra of other molecules such as PCN, HPS, and CH3PH2 have been recorded. We will report on these species and additional new laboratory developments

  16. How compliant are technicians with universal safety measures in medical laboratories in Croatia?--A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukic, Kristina; Zoric, Matea; Pozaic, Petra; Starcic, Jelena; Culjak, Marija; Saracevic, Andrea; Miler, Marijana

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study aimed to investigate the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and compliance to the code of conduct (rules defined in institutional, governmental and professional guidelines) among laboratory technicians in Croatian medical laboratories. In addition, we explored the differences in compliance between participants of different age groups, laboratory ownership and accreditation status. An anonymous and voluntary survey with 15 questions was conducted among Croatian medical laboratory technicians (N=217). The questions were divided into two groups: demographic characteristics and the use of PPE. The questions of the second part were graded according to the Likert scale (1-4) and an overall score, shown as median and range (min-max), was calculated for each participant. Differences between the overall scores were tested for each group of participants. The majority of participants always wear protective clothes at work, 38.7% of them always wear gloves in daily routine, more than 30.0% consume food and almost half of them drink beverages at workplace. A significantly lower overall score was found for participants working in public compared to private laboratories (36 (16-40) vs. 40 (31-40), Plaboratory accreditation status (P=0.081). A considerable percentage of laboratory technicians in Croatian medical laboratories do not comply with safety measures. Lack of compliance is observed in all personnel regardless laboratory accreditation and participants' age. However, those working in private laboratories adhere more to the code of conduct.

  17. Technetium behaviour in Boom Clay - a laboratory and field study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baston, G.M.N.; Ilett, D.J.; Cowper, M.M.; Pilkington, N.J.; Tweed, C.J.; Williams, S.J. [AEA Technology plc, Harwell, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Canniere, P.R. de; Wang, L. [SCK.CEN, Waste and Disposal Project, Boeretang, Mol (Belgium)

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes a study of technetium solubility and migration under chemical conditions representative of those prevailing in a Boom Clay environment. Laboratory and in situ measurements yielded similar aqueous concentrations of technetium, of about 1 x 10{sup -8} mol dm{sup -3}, close to the concentrations measured for hydrated technetium(IV) oxide TcO{sub 2}.1.6H{sub 2}O in the solubility studies. From fitting the curves of the Tc concentrations as function of time, distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) values were estimated to lie between 0.8 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1} and 1.8 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1}. Exposure of the system at 80 C and to {gamma}-radiation dose rates of several hundred Gy h{sup -1} resulted in only minor differences in behaviour. (orig.)

  18. Technetium behaviour in Boom Clay - a laboratory and field study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baston, G.M.N.; Ilett, D.J.; Cowper, M.M.; Pilkington, N.J.; Tweed, C.J.; Williams, S.J.; Canniere, P.R. de; Wang, L.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a study of technetium solubility and migration under chemical conditions representative of those prevailing in a Boom Clay environment. Laboratory and in situ measurements yielded similar aqueous concentrations of technetium, of about 1 x 10 -8 mol dm -3 , close to the concentrations measured for hydrated technetium(IV) oxide TcO 2 .1.6H 2 O in the solubility studies. From fitting the curves of the Tc concentrations as function of time, distribution coefficient (K d ) values were estimated to lie between 0.8 cm 3 g -1 and 1.8 cm 3 g -1 . Exposure of the system at 80 C and to γ-radiation dose rates of several hundred Gy h -1 resulted in only minor differences in behaviour. (orig.)

  19. Inter-laboratory comparison study of gamma cameras in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.A.; Mumtaz-ul-Haq

    1988-01-01

    The evaluation of the performance of both instrument and the physician are important in any quality assurance programme in nuclear medicine imaging. The IAEA launched a similar program in 1984 under its Regional Cooperation Agreement program in South Asian Countries. The first part of the study consisted of the evaluation of imaging equipment by imaging IAEA-WHO Simulated Anatomic Liver Phantom (SALP) and its interpretation by the physician. From Pakistan, 8 gamma cameras from 7 laboratories were used for the study and 16 physician interpreted in the SALP images. This paper reports the results of SALP images from Pakistan and shows the efficacy of 80 to 100% as regards the quality of image obtained and the interpretation done by the physicians. (author)

  20. Intermediate Scale Laboratory Testing to Understand Mechanisms of Capillary and Dissolution Trapping during Injection and Post-Injection of CO2 in Heterogeneous Geological Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illangasekare, Tissa [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Trevisan, Luca [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Agartan, Elif [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Mori, Hiroko [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Vargas-Johnson, Javier [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Gonzalez-Nicolas, Ana [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Cihan, Abdullah [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Quanlin [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) represents a technology aimed to reduce atmospheric loading of CO2 from power plants and heavy industries by injecting it into deep geological formations, such as saline aquifers. A number of trapping mechanisms contribute to effective and secure storage of the injected CO2 in supercritical fluid phase (scCO2) in the formation over the long term. The primary trapping mechanisms are structural, residual, dissolution and mineralization. Knowledge gaps exist on how the heterogeneity of the formation manifested at all scales from the pore to the site scales affects trapping and parameterization of contributing mechanisms in models. An experimental and modeling study was conducted to fill these knowledge gaps. Experimental investigation of fundamental processes and mechanisms in field settings is not possible as it is not feasible to fully characterize the geologic heterogeneity at all relevant scales and gathering data on migration, trapping and dissolution of scCO2. Laboratory experiments using scCO2 under ambient conditions are also not feasible as it is technically challenging and cost prohibitive to develop large, two- or three-dimensional test systems with controlled high pressures to keep the scCO2 as a liquid. Hence, an innovative approach that used surrogate fluids in place of scCO2 and formation brine in multi-scale, synthetic aquifers test systems ranging in scales from centimeter to meter scale developed used. New modeling algorithms were developed to capture the processes controlled by the formation heterogeneity, and they were tested using the data from the laboratory test systems. The results and findings are expected to contribute toward better conceptual models, future improvements to DOE numerical codes, more accurate assessment of storage capacities, and optimized placement strategies. This report presents the experimental and modeling methods

  1. Application of fundamental principles to mineral scale reduction : case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter W. Hart; Alan W. Rudie

    2005-01-01

    This paper will present several successful case studies where scale has been eliminated in mills including calcium carbonate scale in a white liquor strainer, calcium oxalate scale in the D0 stage, enzymatic treatment of brown stock to eliminate oxalate scale, and control of barium sulfate scale.

  2. Study of structural colour of Hebomoia glaucippe butterfly wing scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, V. Ya; Kuznetsov, D. K.; Pryakhina, V. I.; Kosobokov, M. S.; Zubarev, I. V.; Boymuradova, S. K.; Volchetskaya, K. V.

    2017-10-01

    Structural colours of Hebomoia glaucippe butterfly wing scales have been studied experimentally using high resolution scanning electron microscopy. Visualization of scales structures and computer simulation allowed distinguishing correlation between nanostructures on the scales and their colour.

  3. Scale dependence of acoustic velocities. An experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotusso, Angelamaria Pillitteri

    2001-06-01

    Reservoir and overburden data (e.g. seismic, sonic log and core data) are collected at different stages of field development, at different scales, and under different measurement conditions. A more precise reservoir characterization could be obtained by combining all the collected data. Reliable data may also be obtained from drill cuttings. This methodology can give data in quasi-real time, it is easily applicable, and cheap. It is then important, to understand the relationship between results obtained from measurements at different scales. In this Thesis acoustic velocities measured at several different laboratory scales are presented. This experimental study was made in order to give the base for the development of a model aiming to use/combine appropriately the data collected at different scales. The two main aspects analyzed are the experimental limitations due to the decrease in sample size and the significance of measurements in relation to material heterogeneities. Plexiglas, an isotropic, non-dispersive artificial material, with no expected scale effect, was used to evaluate the robustness of the measurement techniques. The results emphasize the importance of the wavelength used with respect to the sample length. If the sample length (L) is at least 5 time bigger than wavelength used ({lambda}), then the measured velocities do not depend on sample size. Leca stone, an artificial isotropic material containing spherical grains was used to evaluate the combined effects of technique, heterogeneities and sample length. The ratio between the scale of the heterogeneities and the sample length has to be taken in to account. In this case velocities increase with decreasing sample length when the ratio L/{lambda} is smaller than 10-15 and at the same time the ratio between sample length and grain size is greater than 10. Measurements on natural rocks demonstrate additional influence of grain mineralogy, shape and orientation. Firenzuola sandstone shows scale and

  4. Initial studies of a competition agressivity scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bartholomeu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of an aggressivity measure among athletes. Participants included 172 athletes, from five different sports, ranging in age from 14 to 58 years old (mean age 21 years, DP=5,99. The scale was composed of 54 items (on a three-point Likert scale that described various aggressive behaviors. The subjects were asked to indicate the frequency of the behaviors from “always” to “sometimes” and “never.”. The differential item functioning results by sex pointed to six items favoring one of the groups. The data were analyzed by means of principal components analysis with a varimax rotation and suggested a three factor structure explaining 44,31% of the variance. The dimensions were, Intimidation, External Aggression and Internal Aggression. Chronbach’s alphas ranged from 0,74 to 0,90. No significant differences of the dimensions were observed between the studied sports. These data enables the instrument to be used in future research.   Keywords: aggressivity; psychological assessment; sport psychology; factorial analysis; differential item functioning.

  5. Continuous microalgal cultivation in a laboratory-scale photobioreactor under seasonal day-night irradiation: experiments and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucco, Alberto; Beraldi, Mariaelena; Sforza, Eleonora

    2014-08-01

    In this work, the production of Scenedesmus obliquus in a continuous flat-plate laboratory-scale photobioreactor (PBR) under alternated day-night cycles was tested both experimentally and theoretically. Variation of light intensity according to the four seasons of the year were simulated experimentally by a tunable LED lamp, and effects on microalgal growth and productivity were measured to evaluate the conversion efficiency of light energy into biomass during the different seasons. These results were used to validate a mathematical model for algae growth that can be applied to simulate a large-scale production unit, carried out in a flat-plate PBR of similar geometry. The cellular concentration in the PBR was calculated in both steady-state and transient conditions, and the value of the maintenance kinetic term was correlated to experimental profiles. The relevance of this parameter was finally outlined.

  6. Evaluation of Large-Scale Wing Vortex Wakes from Multi-Camera PIV Measurements in Free-Flight Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmer, Carl F. v.; Heider, André; Schröder, Andreas; Konrath, Robert; Agocs, Janos; Gilliot, Anne; Monnier, Jean-Claude

    Multiple-vortex systems of aircraft wakes have been investigated experimentally in a unique large-scale laboratory facility, the free-flight B20 catapult bench, ONERA Lille. 2D/2C PIV measurements have been performed in a translating reference frame, which provided time-resolved crossvelocity observations of the vortex systems in a Lagrangian frame normal to the wake axis. A PIV setup using a moving multiple-camera array and a variable double-frame time delay has been employed successfully. The large-scale quasi-2D structures of the wake-vortex system have been identified using the QW criterion based on the 2D velocity gradient tensor ∇H u, thus illustrating the temporal development of unequal-strength corotating vortex pairs in aircraft wakes for nondimensional times tU0/b≲45.

  7. Large-scale laboratory testing of bedload-monitoring technologies: overview of the StreamLab06 Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Jeffrey D.G.; Gray, John R.; Davis, Broderick E.; Ellis, Chris; Johnson, Sara; Gray, John R.; Laronne, Jonathan B.; Marr, Jeffrey D.G.

    2010-01-01

    A 3-month-long, large-scale flume experiment involving research and testing of selected conventional and surrogate bedload-monitoring technologies was conducted in the Main Channel at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory under the auspices of the National Center for Earth-surface Dynamics. These experiments, dubbed StreamLab06, involved 25 researchers and volunteers from academia, government, and the private sector. The research channel was equipped with a sediment-recirculation system and a sediment-flux monitoring system that allowed continuous measurement of sediment flux in the flume and provided a data set by which samplers were evaluated. Selected bedload-measurement technologies were tested under a range of flow and sediment-transport conditions. The experiment was conducted in two phases. The bed material in phase I was well-sorted siliceous sand (0.6-1.8 mm median diameter). A gravel mixture (1-32 mm median diameter) composed the bed material in phase II. Four conventional bedload samplers – a standard Helley-Smith, Elwha, BLH-84, and Toutle River II (TR-2) sampler – were manually deployed as part of both experiment phases. Bedload traps were deployed in study Phase II. Two surrogate bedload samplers – stationarymounted down-looking 600 kHz and 1200 kHz acoustic Doppler current profilers – were deployed in experiment phase II. This paper presents an overview of the experiment including the specific data-collection technologies used and the ambient hydraulic, sediment-transport and environmental conditions measured as part of the experiment. All data collected as part of the StreamLab06 experiments are, or will be available to the research community.

  8. Large-scale automation of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory x-ray analytical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, P.L.; Shimamoto, F.Y.; Quick, T.M.

    1980-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) has undertaken an ambitious plan to automate its x-ray analytical equipment. This project ultimately will automate 15 x-ray diffraction and 3 x-ray spectrometric systems. All automation is being done by retrofitting existing equipment and combining it with minicomputers to produce smart instruments. Two types of smart instruments have been developed: one that controls an experiment and acquires data and another that analyzes data and communicates with LLL's large computer center. Three of the former type have been built and are operating; seven more will soon be put into service. Only two of the later type are needed, and both are currently in service. We describe the details of our overall plan, the smart instruments, the retrofitting, our current status, and our software

  9. Bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil at CFS Alert - Laboratory scale respirometry experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidar, S.; Bennett, J.; Jarrett, P.; Biggar, K.

    1998-01-01

    The feasibility of 'biopiling' was tested at Canadian Forces Station 'Alert', located in the high Arctic where the feasibility of bioremediation is yet to be proven. Laboratory respirometer experiments were conducted at 11 degrees C that examined the behaviour of indigenous microorganisms. Experiments were also carried out at one contaminated site. Various soil properties were analyzed, as well as total petroleum hydrocarbons. Results showed that the respirometer system functioned properly in monitoring the behaviour of microorganisms, that indigenous microorganisms were active at 11 degrees C, and that they functioned at a constant rate of oxygen consumption. These results suggest that biopiling may be feasible under the conditions existing at CFS 'Alert'. 12 refs., 5 tabs., 8 figs

  10. Software for large scale tracking studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederer, J.

    1984-05-01

    Over the past few years, Brookhaven accelerator physicists have been adapting particle tracking programs in planning local storage rings, and lately for SSC reference designs. In addition, the Laboratory is actively considering upgrades to its AGS capabilities aimed at higher proton intensity, polarized proton beams, and heavy ion acceleration. Further activity concerns heavy ion transfer, a proposed booster, and most recently design studies for a heavy ion collider to join to this complex. Circumstances have thus encouraged a search for common features among design and modeling programs and their data, and the corresponding controls efforts among present and tentative machines. Using a version of PATRICIA with nonlinear forces as a vehicle, we have experimented with formal ways to describe accelerator lattice problems to computers as well as to speed up the calculations for large storage ring models. Code treated by straightforward reorganization has served for SSC explorations. The representation work has led to a relational data base centered program, LILA, which has desirable properties for dealing with the many thousands of rapidly changing variables in tracking and other model programs. 13 references

  11. A specific alpha laboratory dedicated to structural and thermodynamic studies on actinide complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charbonnel, M-C.; Berthon, C.; Berthon, L.; Boubals, N.; Couston, L.; Auwer, C. den; Meyer, D.; Guillaneux, D

    2004-07-01

    The main scope of the LN1 laboratory in ATALANTE facility is the chemical and physico-chemical study of transuranic samples to understand the behavior of compounds of actinide with selective ligands at a molecular scale. The main techniques implemented in this laboratory are the following ones: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectrometer (400 MHz shielded magnetic field), a four circle X-ray diffractometer for single crystals, a microcalorimeter to the measurement of low heats of reactions, a Time Resolved Laser-induced spectro-fluorimeter, vibrational spectrometers: FTIR and Raman, an Electro-spray Ionisation Mass spectrometer. Specific glove boxes have been built for each technique to work on radio elements with safety conditions and allow the analysis of samples in different states (aqueous and organic liquids, gels, solids). (authors)

  12. Evaluating the potential for large-scale fracturing at a disposal vault: an example using the underground research laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C D; Chandler, N A; Brown, Anton

    1994-09-01

    The potential for large-scale fracturing (> 10 m{sup 2}) around a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault is investigated in this report. The disposal vault is assumed to be located at a depth of 500 m in the plutonic rocks of the Canadian Shield. The rock mass surrounding the disposal vault is considered to have similar mechanical properties and in situ stress conditions to that found at a depth of 420 m at the Underground Research Laboratory. Theoretical, experimental and field evidence shows that Mode I fractures propagate in a plane perpendicular to {sigma}{sub 3} and only if the tensile stress at the tip of the advancing crack is sufficient to overcome the tensile strength of the rock. Because the stress state at a depth of 500 m or more is compressive, and will very probably stay so during the 10,000 year life of the disposal vault, there does not appear to be any mechanism which could propagate large-scale Mode I fracturing in the rock mass surrounding the vault. In addition because {sigma}{sub 3} is near vertical any Mode I fracture propagation that might occur would be in a horizontal plane. The development of either Mode I or large-scale shear fractures would require a drastic change in the compressive in situ stress state at the depth of the disposal vault. The stresses developed as a result of both thermal and glacial loading do not appear sufficient to cause new fracturing. Glacial loading would reduce the shear stresses in the rock mass and hence improve the stability of the rock mass surrounding the vault. Thus, it is not feasible that large-scale fracturing would occur over the 10,000 year life of a disposal vault in the Canadian Shield, at depths of 500 m or greater, where the compressive stress state is similar to that found at the Underground Research Laboratory. 107 refs., 44 figs.

  13. Evaluating the potential for large-scale fracturing at a disposal vault: an example using the underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.D.; Chandler, N.A.; Brown, Anton.

    1994-09-01

    The potential for large-scale fracturing (> 10 m 2 ) around a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault is investigated in this report. The disposal vault is assumed to be located at a depth of 500 m in the plutonic rocks of the Canadian Shield. The rock mass surrounding the disposal vault is considered to have similar mechanical properties and in situ stress conditions to that found at a depth of 420 m at the Underground Research Laboratory. Theoretical, experimental and field evidence shows that Mode I fractures propagate in a plane perpendicular to σ 3 and only if the tensile stress at the tip of the advancing crack is sufficient to overcome the tensile strength of the rock. Because the stress state at a depth of 500 m or more is compressive, and will very probably stay so during the 10,000 year life of the disposal vault, there does not appear to be any mechanism which could propagate large-scale Mode I fracturing in the rock mass surrounding the vault. In addition because σ 3 is near vertical any Mode I fracture propagation that might occur would be in a horizontal plane. The development of either Mode I or large-scale shear fractures would require a drastic change in the compressive in situ stress state at the depth of the disposal vault. The stresses developed as a result of both thermal and glacial loading do not appear sufficient to cause new fracturing. Glacial loading would reduce the shear stresses in the rock mass and hence improve the stability of the rock mass surrounding the vault. Thus, it is not feasible that large-scale fracturing would occur over the 10,000 year life of a disposal vault in the Canadian Shield, at depths of 500 m or greater, where the compressive stress state is similar to that found at the Underground Research Laboratory. 107 refs., 44 figs

  14. Study of CSR Effects in the Jefferson Laboratory FEL Driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, C. C. [Colorado State U.; Biedron, S. [Colorado State U.; Burleson, Theodore A. [Colorado State U.; Milton, Stephen V. [Colorado State U.; Morin, Auralee L. [Colorado State U.; Benson, Stephen V. [JLAB; Douglas, David R. [JLAB; Evtushenko, Pavel E. [JLAB; Hannon, Fay E. [JLAB; Li, Rui [JLAB; Tennant, Christopher D. [JLAB; Zhang, Shukui [JLAB; Carlsten, Bruce E. [LANL; Lewellen, John W. [LANL

    2013-08-01

    In a recent experiment conducted on the Jefferson Laboratory IR FEL driver the effects of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) on beam quality were studied. The primary goal of this work was to explore CSR output and effect on the beam with variation of the bunch compression in the IR chicane. This experiment also provides a valuable opportunity to benchmark existing CSR models in a system that may not be fully represented by a 1-D CSR model. Here we present results from this experiment and compare to initial simulations of CSR in the magnetic compression chicane of the machine. Finally, we touch upon the possibility for CSR induced microbunching gain in the magnetic compression chicane, and show that parameters in the machine are such that it should be thoroughly damped.

  15. Laboratory testing and field implementation of scale inhibitor squeeze treatments to subsea and platform horizontal wells, North Sea Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, M. M.; Lewis, M. [Nalco/Exxon Energy Chemicals Ltd, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Tomlinson, C. J.; Pritchard, A. R. P. [Enterprise Oil Plc, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    Field results from a number of scale squeeze treatments carried out on subsea and platform horizontal wells in the Nelson Field of the North Sea are presented. Scale inhibitor chemicals are reviewed along with factors which influence inhibitor selection for both horizontal and highly deviated wells. Formation brine/inhibitor incompatibility, formation minerals/inhibitor incompatibility, and the potential for sand production and oil-in-water process as a result of these incompatibilities, are discussed. Practical difficulties in squeezing subsea horizontal wells, the use of chemical stabilizers to reduce formation brine/inhibitor incompatibility, variation of pump rates to encourage propagation of inhibitor along the wellbore, and the potential of fluid diversion are outlined, stressing the significance of production logging data (or good reservoir simulation data), to evaluate the location of water production prior to the squeeze treatment. Results of these treatments show that with the correct laboratory evaluation of both scale inhibitor and divertor agents, and with appropriate utilization of production logging or reservoir simulation data, it is possible to carry out scale inhibitor squeeze treatments of subsea and platform horizontal wells without having to resort to coiled tubing. 22 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs

  16. The Rat Grimace Scale: A partially automated method for quantifying pain in the laboratory rat via facial expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Shu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We recently demonstrated the utility of quantifying spontaneous pain in mice via the blinded coding of facial expressions. As the majority of preclinical pain research is in fact performed in the laboratory rat, we attempted to modify the scale for use in this species. We present herein the Rat Grimace Scale, and show its reliability, accuracy, and ability to quantify the time course of spontaneous pain in the intraplantar complete Freund's adjuvant, intraarticular kaolin-carrageenan, and laparotomy (post-operative pain assays. The scale's ability to demonstrate the dose-dependent analgesic efficacy of morphine is also shown. In addition, we have developed software, Rodent Face Finder®, which successfully automates the most labor-intensive step in the process. Given the known mechanistic dissociations between spontaneous and evoked pain, and the primacy of the former as a clinical problem, we believe that widespread adoption of spontaneous pain measures such as the Rat Grimace Scale might lead to more successful translation of basic science findings into clinical application.

  17. Laboratory Studies of Methane and Its Relationship to Prebiotic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kensei; Geppert, Wolf D; Carrasco, Nathalie; Holm, Nils G; Mousis, Olivier; Palumbo, Maria Elisabetta; Waite, J Hunter; Watanabe, Naoki; Ziurys, Lucy M

    2017-08-01

    To examine how prebiotic chemical evolution took place on Earth prior to the emergence of life, laboratory experiments have been conducted since the 1950s. Methane has been one of the key molecules in these investigations. In earlier studies, strongly reducing gas mixtures containing methane and ammonia were used to simulate possible reactions in the primitive atmosphere of Earth, producing amino acids and other organic compounds. Since Earth's early atmosphere is now considered to be less reducing, the contribution of extraterrestrial organics to chemical evolution has taken on an important role. Such organic molecules may have come from molecular clouds and regions of star formation that created protoplanetary disks, planets, asteroids, and comets. The interstellar origin of organics has been examined both experimentally and theoretically, including laboratory investigations that simulate interstellar molecular reactions. Endogenous and exogenous organics could also have been supplied to the primitive ocean, making submarine hydrothermal systems plausible sites of the generation of life. Experiments that simulate such hydrothermal systems where methane played an important role have consequently been conducted. Processes that occur in other Solar System bodies offer clues to the prebiotic chemistry of Earth. Titan and other icy bodies, where methane plays significant roles, are especially good targets. In the case of Titan, methane is both in the atmosphere and in liquidospheres that are composed of methane and other hydrocarbons, and these have been studied in simulation experiments. Here, we review the wide range of experimental work in which these various terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments have been modeled, and we examine the possible role of methane in chemical evolution. Key Words: Methane-Interstellar environments-Submarine hydrothermal systems-Titan-Origin of life. Astrobiology 17, 786-812.

  18. Laboratory Studies of Methane and Its Relationship to Prebiotic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kensei; Geppert, Wolf D.; Carrasco, Nathalie; Holm, Nils G.; Mousis, Olivier; Palumbo, Maria Elisabetta; Waite, J. Hunter; Watanabe, Naoki; Ziurys, Lucy M.

    2017-08-01

    To examine how prebiotic chemical evolution took place on Earth prior to the emergence of life, laboratory experiments have been conducted since the 1950s. Methane has been one of the key molecules in these investigations. In earlier studies, strongly reducing gas mixtures containing methane and ammonia were used to simulate possible reactions in the primitive atmosphere of Earth, producing amino acids and other organic compounds. Since Earth's early atmosphere is now considered to be less reducing, the contribution of extraterrestrial organics to chemical evolution has taken on an important role. Such organic molecules may have come from molecular clouds and regions of star formation that created protoplanetary disks, planets, asteroids, and comets. The interstellar origin of organics has been examined both experimentally and theoretically, including laboratory investigations that simulate interstellar molecular reactions. Endogenous and exogenous organics could also have been supplied to the primitive ocean, making submarine hydrothermal systems plausible sites of the generation of life. Experiments that simulate such hydrothermal systems where methane played an important role have consequently been conducted. Processes that occur in other Solar System bodies offer clues to the prebiotic chemistry of Earth. Titan and other icy bodies, where methane plays significant roles, are especially good targets. In the case of Titan, methane is both in the atmosphere and in liquidospheres that are composed of methane and other hydrocarbons, and these have been studied in simulation experiments. Here, we review the wide range of experimental work in which these various terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments have been modeled, and we examine the possible role of methane in chemical evolution.

  19. Assays at laboratory scale for anaerobic treatment of piggery farm wastewater; Depuracion anaerobia de aguas residuales de granjas porcinas. Ensayos a escala de laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran Barrantes, M. M.; Alvarez Mateos, P.; Carta Escobar, F.; Romero Guzman, F. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Fiestas Ros de Ursinos, J. A. [Instituto de la Grasa. Sevilla (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The viability of an integrated biological treatment for the swine waste-water purification in a piggery farm, was studied. Previously, at a laboratory scale, the anaerobic biodegradability of this wastewater was analysed, using different clayey supports to immobilize the microorganisms in batch regime, at 35 degree centigree, with an organic load ranged from 0,2 to 2,2, g COD/I. The highest methane production was achieved at the first 24 hours. The mean highest efficiency (%COD removal) was obtained in reactors with sepiolite, natural sepiolite and treated sepiolite. (Author) 10 refs.

  20. Munition Burial by Local Scour and Sandwaves: large-scale laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M. H.

    2017-12-01

    Our effort has been the direct observation and monitoring of the burial process of munitions induced by the combined action of waves, currents and pure oscillatory flows. The experimental conditions have made it possible to observe the burial process due to both local scour around model munitions as well as the passage of sandwaves. One experimental facility is the Large Oscillating Water Sediment Tunnel (LOWST) constructed with DURIP support. LOWST can reproduce field-like conditions near the sea bed. The second facility is a multipurpose wave-current flume which is 4 feet (1.20 m) deep, 6 feet (1.8 m) wide, and 161 feet (49.2 m) long. More than two hundred experiments were carried out in the wave-current flume. The main task completed within this effort has been the characterization of the burial process induced by local scour as well in the presence of dynamic sandwaves with superimposed ripples. It is found that the burial of a finite-length model munition (cylinder) is determined by local scour around the cylinder and by a more global process associated with the formation and evolution of sandwaves having superimposed ripples on them. Depending on the ratio of the amplitude of these features and the body's diameter (D), a model munition can progressively get partially or totally buried as such bedforms migrate. Analysis of the experimental data indicates that existing semi-empirical formulae for prediction of equilibrium-burial-depth, geometry of the scour hole around a cylinder, and time-scales developed for pipelines are not suitable for the case of a cylinder of finite length. Relative burial depth (Bd / D) is found to be mainly a function of two parameters. One is the Keulegan-Carpenter number, KC, and the Shields parameter, θ. Munition burial under either waves or combined flow, is influenced by two different processes. One is related to the local scour around the object, which takes place within the first few hundred minutes of flow action (i.e. short

  1. Numerical Investigation of Earthquake Nucleation on a Laboratory-Scale Heterogeneous Fault with Rate-and-State Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, N.; Lapusta, N.

    2014-12-01

    Many large earthquakes on natural faults are preceded by smaller events, often termed foreshocks, that occur close in time and space to the larger event that follows. Understanding the origin of such events is important for understanding earthquake physics. Unique laboratory experiments of earthquake nucleation in a meter-scale slab of granite (McLaskey and Kilgore, 2013; McLaskey et al., 2014) demonstrate that sample-scale nucleation processes are also accompanied by much smaller seismic events. One potential explanation for these foreshocks is that they occur on small asperities - or bumps - on the fault interface, which may also be the locations of smaller critical nucleation size. We explore this possibility through 3D numerical simulations of a heterogeneous 2D fault embedded in a homogeneous elastic half-space, in an attempt to qualitatively reproduce the laboratory observations of foreshocks. In our model, the simulated fault interface is governed by rate-and-state friction with laboratory-relevant frictional properties, fault loading, and fault size. To create favorable locations for foreshocks, the fault surface heterogeneity is represented as patches of increased normal stress, decreased characteristic slip distance L, or both. Our simulation results indicate that one can create a rate-and-state model of the experimental observations. Models with a combination of higher normal stress and lower L at the patches are closest to matching the laboratory observations of foreshocks in moment magnitude, source size, and stress drop. In particular, we find that, when the local compression is increased, foreshocks can occur on patches that are smaller than theoretical critical nucleation size estimates. The additional inclusion of lower L for these patches helps to keep stress drops within the range observed in experiments, and is compatible with the asperity model of foreshock sources, since one would expect more compressed spots to be smoother (and hence have

  2. Building laboratory infrastructure to support scale-up of HIV/AIDS treatment, care, and prevention: in-country experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abimiku, Alash'le G

    2009-06-01

    An unprecedented influx of funds and support through large programs such as the Global Fund for AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis and the World Health Organization's and President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has made it possible for more than 1 million persons in resource-limited settings to access AIDS treatment and several million more to be in care and prevention programs. Nevertheless, there remain major challenges that prevent AIDS drugs and care from reaching many more in need, especially in rural settings. The roll-out of a high-quality treatment, care, and prevention program depends on an effective and reliable laboratory infrastructure. This article presents a strategy used by the Institute of Human Virology (IHV)-University of Maryland and its affiliate IHV-Nigeria to establish a multifaceted, integrated tier laboratory program to support a PEPFAR-funded scale-up of its AIDS Care Treatment in Nigeria program, in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Nigerian government, as a possible model for overcoming a key challenge that faces several resource-limited countries trying to roll out and scale-up their HIV/AIDS treatment, care, and prevention program.

  3. Laboratory study of orographic cloud-like flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanwar Nain; Sreenivas, K. R.

    2013-11-01

    Clouds are one of the major sources of uncertainty in climate prediction, listed in ``the most urgent scientific problems requiring attention'' IPCC. Also, convective clouds are of utmost importance to study the dynamics of tropical meteorology and therefore, play a key role in understanding monsoons. The present work is to study the dynamics of orographic clouds. Parameterization of these clouds will help in forecasting the precipitation accurately. Also, one could validate laboratory results from our study by actually measuring cloud development along a sloping terrain. In this context a planar buoyant turbulent wall jet is considered as an appropriate low order fluid-dynamical model for studying the turbulence and entrainment in orographic-clouds. Flow is volumetrically heated to mimic the latent heat release due to condensation in an actual cloud. This is the first step in studying the entrainment dynamics of the evolving orographic cloud. We are going to present some results on the cloud development using techniques that allows us to construct a 3-dimensional flow field at each instance and its development over the time. By combining velocity field from PIV and flow volume from PLIF at successive instances, we estimate the entrainment coefficient. Since the life-cycle of a cloud is determined by the entrainment of ambient air, these results could be extremely helpful in understanding the dynamics of the clouds. Detailed results will be presented at the conference.

  4. Oxygenated fuel (M-85) behavior in the subsurface -- A Laboratory scale investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, C.R.; Barker, J.F.; Chatzis, I.

    1993-01-01

    M-85 is an oxygenated fuel consisting of 85% methanol and 15% gasoline. The complete miscibility of methanol with water may lead to a significantly different source behavior and contamination scenario for M-85 relative to a conventional gasoline. A laboratory investigation involving phase equilibria, cosolvency and column experiments was designed to assess the subsurface behavior of M-85 in comparison to API PS-6 gasoline. Liquid-liquid equilibrium determinations have indicated that unlike PS-6, which is essentially immiscible with water, M-85 would behave as a single miscible phase with groundwater under certain conditions. However, as mixing with groundwater proceeded, two distinct, immiscible phases would result. Column experiments involved the injection of a slug of M-85 or PS-6 onto a saturated, packed column of Borden sand. Aqueous BTEX and methanol breakthrough curves were prepared based on column effluent analyses. Subsequent soil sample analyses provided information regarding the residual gasoline phase distributions from each source. The results of the column experiments indicated that the groundwater contamination arising from an M-85 source would be more complex than from PS-6. The plume of dissolved organic compounds migrating from an M-85 source was characterized by a high methanol content front and associated enhanced BTEX concentrations relative to PS-6, due to methanol's cosolubility effects

  5. Scaling plant ultraviolet spectral responses from laboratory action spectra to field spectral weighting factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flint, S.D.; Caldwell, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    Biological spectral weighting functions (BSWF) play a key role in calculating the increase of biologically effective solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-BBE) due to ozone reduction, assessing current latitudinal gradients of UV-B BE . and comparing solar UV-B BE with that from lamps and filters in plant experiments. Plant UV action spectra (usually determined with monochromatic radiation in the laboratory with exposure periods on the order of hours) are often used as BSWF. The realism of such spectra for plants growing day after day in polychromatic solar radiation in the field is questionable. We tested the widely used generalized plant action spectrum since preliminary data from an action spectrum being developed with monochromatic radiation for a cultivated oat variety indicate reasonable agreement with the generalized spectrum. These tests involved exposing plants to polychromatic radiation either from a high-pressure xenon arc lamp in growth chambers or in the field under solar radiation with supplemental UV-B lamps. Different broad-spectrum combinations were achieved by truncating the spectrum at successively longer UV wavelengths with various filters. In the growth chamber experiments, the generalized plant spectrum appeared to predict plant growth responses at short (<310nm) wavelengths but not at longer wavelengths. The field experiment reinforced these conclusions, showing (in addition to the expected direct UV-B effects) both direct UV-A effects and UV-A mitigation of UV-B effects. (author)

  6. Portuguese Family Physicians' Awareness of Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Costs: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Sá

    Full Text Available Physicians' ability to make cost-effective decisions has been shown to be affected by their knowledge of health care costs. This study assessed whether Portuguese family physicians are aware of the costs of the most frequently prescribed diagnostic and laboratory tests.A cross-sectional study was conducted in a representative sample of Portuguese family physicians, using computer-assisted telephone interviews for data collection. A Likert scale was used to assess physician's level of agreement with four statements about health care costs. Family physicians were also asked to estimate the costs of diagnostic and laboratory tests. Each physician's cost estimate was compared with the true cost and the absolute error was calculated.One-quarter (24%; 95% confidence interval: 23%-25% of all cost estimates were accurate to within 25% of the true cost, with 55% (95% IC: 53-56 overestimating and 21% (95% IC: 20-22 underestimating the true actual cost. The majority (76% of family physicians thought they did not have or were uncertain as to whether they had adequate knowledge of diagnostic and laboratory test costs, and only 7% reported receiving adequate education. The majority of the family physicians (82% said that they had adequate access to information about the diagnostic and laboratory test costs. Thirty-three percent thought that costs did not influence their decision to order tests, while 27% were uncertain.Portuguese family physicians have limited awareness of diagnostic and laboratory test costs, and our results demonstrate a need for improved education in this area. Further research should focus on identifying whether interventions in cost knowledge actually change ordering behavior, in identifying optimal methods to disseminate cost information, and on improving the cost-effectiveness of care.

  7. Portuguese Family Physicians’ Awareness of Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Costs: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Luísa; Costa-Santos, Cristina; Teixeira, Andreia; Couto, Luciana; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro; Hespanhol, Alberto; Santos, Paulo; Martins, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background Physicians’ ability to make cost-effective decisions has been shown to be affected by their knowledge of health care costs. This study assessed whether Portuguese family physicians are aware of the costs of the most frequently prescribed diagnostic and laboratory tests. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a representative sample of Portuguese family physicians, using computer-assisted telephone interviews for data collection. A Likert scale was used to assess physician’s level of agreement with four statements about health care costs. Family physicians were also asked to estimate the costs of diagnostic and laboratory tests. Each physician’s cost estimate was compared with the true cost and the absolute error was calculated. Results One-quarter (24%; 95% confidence interval: 23%–25%) of all cost estimates were accurate to within 25% of the true cost, with 55% (95% IC: 53–56) overestimating and 21% (95% IC: 20–22) underestimating the true actual cost. The majority (76%) of family physicians thought they did not have or were uncertain as to whether they had adequate knowledge of diagnostic and laboratory test costs, and only 7% reported receiving adequate education. The majority of the family physicians (82%) said that they had adequate access to information about the diagnostic and laboratory test costs. Thirty-three percent thought that costs did not influence their decision to order tests, while 27% were uncertain. Conclusions Portuguese family physicians have limited awareness of diagnostic and laboratory test costs, and our results demonstrate a need for improved education in this area. Further research should focus on identifying whether interventions in cost knowledge actually change ordering behavior, in identifying optimal methods to disseminate cost information, and on improving the cost-effectiveness of care. PMID:26356625

  8. Economic impact of university veterinary diagnostic laboratories: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Lee L; Hayes, Dermot J; Holtkamp, Derald J; Swenson, David A

    2018-03-01

    Veterinary diagnostic laboratories (VDLs) play a significant role in the prevention and mitigation of endemic animal diseases and serve an important role in surveillance of, and the response to, outbreaks of transboundary and emerging animal diseases. They also allow for business continuity in livestock operations and help improve human health. Despite these critical societal roles, there is no academic literature on the economic impact of VDLs. We present a case study on the economic impact of the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (ISUVDL). We use economic contribution analysis coupled with a stakeholder survey to estimate the impact. Results suggest that the ISUVDL is responsible for $2,162.46 million in direct output, $2,832.45 million in total output, $1,158.19 million in total value added, and $31.79 million in state taxes in normal years. In an animal health emergency this increases to $8,446.21 million in direct output, $11,063.06 million in total output, $4,523.70 million in total value added, and $124.15 million in state taxes. The ISUVDL receives $4 million annually as a direct state government appropriation for operating purposes. The $31.79 million in state taxes in normal years and the $124.15 million in state taxes in an animal health emergency equates to a 795% and 3104% return on investment, respectively. Estimates of the economic impact of the ISUVDL provide information to scientists, administrators, and policymakers regarding the efficacy and return on investment of VDLs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Final report of the Multiprogram Laboratory Panel Energy Research Advisory Board. Volume II. Support studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiewak, I.; Guthrie, M.P.; Nichols, J.P.; Preston, E.L.; West, C.D.; Wilbanks, T.J.; Wilkes, B.Y.; Zerby, A.C.

    1982-09-01

    Volume II - support studies for nine national laboratories include: report of statistical data on the multiprogram laboratories; examples of national laboratory use in foreign countries; domestic models for national laboratory utilization; relationships of laboratories with industry and universities; uses of laboratories for training industrial R and D personnel; legal mandates and constraints on the national laboratories; with appendices on facts about Harwell, CEN-Saclay, TNO, Studsvik, and JAERI-Tokai; the Requirements Boards of the United Kingdom Department of Industry; impact of President's FY 1983 budget; and the PNL experiment

  10. Laboratory challenges in the scaling up of HIV, TB, and malaria programs: The interaction of health and laboratory systems, clinical research, and service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birx, Deborah; de Souza, Mark; Nkengasong, John N

    2009-06-01

    Strengthening national health laboratory systems in resource-poor countries is critical to meeting the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Despite strong commitment from the international community to fight major infectious diseases, weak laboratory infrastructure remains a huge rate-limiting step. Some major challenges facing laboratory systems in resource-poor settings include dilapidated infrastructure; lack of human capacity, laboratory policies, and strategic plans; and limited synergies between clinical and research laboratories. Together, these factors compromise the quality of test results and impact patient management. With increased funding, the target of laboratory strengthening efforts in resource-poor countries should be the integrating of laboratory services across major diseases to leverage resources with respect to physical infrastructure; types of assays; supply chain management of reagents and equipment; and maintenance of equipment.

  11. Field and Laboratory Studies of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggon, Matthew Mitchell

    This thesis is the culmination of field and laboratory studies aimed at assessing processes that affect the composition and distribution of atmospheric organic aerosol. An emphasis is placed on measurements conducted using compact and high-resolution Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (AMS). The first three chapters summarize results from aircraft campaigns designed to evaluate anthropogenic and biogenic impacts on marine aerosol and clouds off the coast of California. Subsequent chapters describe laboratory studies intended to evaluate gas and particle-phase mechanisms of organic aerosol oxidation. The 2013 Nucleation in California Experiment (NiCE) was a campaign designed to study environments impacted by nucleated and/or freshly formed aerosol particles. Terrestrial biogenic aerosol with > 85% organic mass was observed to reside in the free troposphere above marine stratocumulus. This biogenic organic aerosol (BOA) originated from the Northwestern United States and was transported to the marine atmosphere during periodic cloud-clearing events. Spectra recorded by a cloud condensation nuclei counter demonstrated that BOA is CCN active. BOA enhancements at latitudes north of San Francisco, CA coincided with enhanced cloud water concentrations of organic species such as acetate and formate. Airborne measurements conducted during the 2011 Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE) were aimed at evaluating the contribution of ship emissions to the properties of marine aerosol and clouds off the coast of central California. In one study, analysis of organic aerosol mass spectra during periods of enhanced shipping activity yielded unique tracers indicative of cloud-processed ship emissions (m/z 42 and 99). The variation of their organic fraction (f42 and f 99) was found to coincide with periods of heavy (f 42 > 0.15; f99 > 0.04), moderate (0.05 controlled organic plume emitted from the R/V Point Sur. Under sunny conditions, nucleated particles composed

  12. Laboratory astrophysics. Model experiments of astrophysics with large-scale lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takabe, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    I would like to review the model experiment of astrophysics with high-power, large-scale lasers constructed mainly for laser nuclear fusion research. The four research directions of this new field named 'Laser Astrophysics' are described with four examples mainly promoted in our institute. The description is of magazine style so as to be easily understood by non-specialists. A new theory and its model experiment on the collisionless shock and particle acceleration observed in supernova remnants (SNRs) are explained in detail and its result and coming research direction are clarified. In addition, the vacuum breakdown experiment to be realized with the near future ultra-intense laser is also introduced. (author)

  13. Specific features of kukersite processing in laboratory-scale and commercial retorts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yefimov, V.; Kundel, H.

    1991-01-01

    The yield and properties of shale oil produced by semi coking oil shale in retorts of different design depend to a great extent on the conditions of volatiles evacuation from the high temperature zone. In externally heated laboratory retorts, where oil vapours reside in the reaction zone for a relatively long period undergoing moderate cracking, no maximum oil yields are attained. The higher the organic matter content in the oil shale, the higher is the partial pressure of the oil vapours in the retort and hence the rate of their removal from the retorting zone, resulting in increased shale oil yields and lower specific yield of hydrogen in the retort off-gases. replacing the external heating mode with direct heating by a gaseous heat carrier (carbon dioxide, in particular) leads to a considerable moderation of the volatiles pyrolysis. As a result, the shale oil produced has a higher density and molecular mass, a lower calorific value and a higher content of phenols. The presence of water vapours in the heat carrier gas also has a positive effect upon the yield of shale oil and phenols. The properties of the oil and gas produced by semi coking kukersite in the presence of free calcium oxide are similar to those of cracked products. The presence of free calcium oxide has the same effect as higher temperatures or longer residence time of the volatiles in the retorting zone: it leads to reduced yields of shale oil and phenols, to a lower density of the oil and higher yields of hydrogen and gaseous hydrocarbons. This should be taken into consideration on evaluating the efficiency of semi coking oil shale in the retorts with solid heat carrier, which contains free calcium oxide

  14. [External quality assessment in clinical biochemistry laboratories: pilot study in 11 laboratories of Lomé (Togo)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouassi, Kafui; Fétéké, Lochina; Assignon, Selom; Dorkenoo, Ameyo; Napo-Koura, Gado

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the performance of a few biochemistry analysis and make recommendations to the place of the stakeholders. It is a cross-sectional study conducted between the October 1(st), 2012 and the July 31, 2013 bearing on the results of 5 common examinations of clinical biochemistry, provided by 11 laboratories volunteers opening in the public and private sectors. These laboratories have analysed during the 3 cycles, 2 levels (medium and high) of serum concentration of urea, glucose, creatinine and serum aminotransferases. The performance of laboratories have been determined from the acceptable limits corresponding to the limits of total errors, defined by the French Society of Clinical Biology (SFBC). A system of internal quality control is implemented by all laboratories and 45% of them participated in international programs of external quality assessment (EQA). The rate of acceptable results for the entire study was of 69%. There was a significant difference (plaboratories engaged in a quality approach and the group with default implementation of the quality approach. Also a significant difference was observed between the laboratories of the central level and those of the peripheral level of our health system (plaboratories remains relatively unsatisfactory. It is important that the Ministry of Health put in place a national program of EQA with mandatory participation.

  15. Evaluation of the analytic performance of laboratories: inter-laboratorial study of the spectroscopy of atomic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong Wong, S. M.

    1996-01-01

    The author made an inter-laboratorial study, with the participation of 18 national laboratories, that have spectrophotometer of atomic absorption. To evaluate the methods of analysis of lead, sodium, potasium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, manganese, and iron, in the ambit of mg/l. The samples, distributed in four rounds to the laboratories, were prepared from primary patterns, deionized and distilled water. The study evaluated the homogeneity and stability, and verified its concentration, using as a reference method, the spectrometry method of Inductively Coupled Plasma emission (1CP). To obtain the characteristics of analytic performance, it applied the norm ASTM E 691. To evaluated the analytic performance, it used harmonized protocol of the International Union of Pure and applied chemistry (IUPAC). The study obtained the 29% of the laboratories had a satisfactory analytic performance, 9% had a questionable performance and 62% made an unsatisfactory analytic performance, according to the IUPAC norm. The results of the values of the characteristic performance method, show that there is no intercomparability between the laboratories, which is attributed to the different methodologies of analysis. (S. Grainger)

  16. Dynamic axle and wheel loads identification: laboratory studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X. Q.; Law, S. S.

    2003-12-01

    Two methods have been reported by Zhu and Law to identify moving loads on the top of a bridge deck. One is based on the exact solution (ESM) and the other is based on the finite element formulation (FEM). Simulation studies on the effect of different influencing factors have been reported previously. This paper comparatively studies the performances of these two methods with experimental measurements obtained from a bridge/vehicle system in the laboratory. The strains of the bridge deck are measured when a model car moves across the bridge deck along different paths. The moving loads on the bridge deck are identified from the measured strains using these two methods, and the responses are reconstructed from the identified loads for comparison with the measured responses to verify the performances of these methods. Studies on the identification accuracy due to the effect of the number of vibration mode used, the number of measuring points and eccentricities of travelling paths are performed. Results show that the ESM could identify the moving loads individually or as axle loads when they are travelling at an eccentricity with the sensors located close to the travelling path of the forces. And the accuracy of the FEM is dependent on the amount of measured information used in the identification.

  17. Who are Sleeping in Sleep Laboratory? A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Ayşe Altun Emirza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study is to compare the results of gold standard in diagnosing sleep disorders polysomnography (PSG with the physician’s preliminary diagnosis and complaints of patients in our data of sleep laboratory. METHODS: 656 patients who made PSG were included in the study. All of the patients age, gender, comorbid chronic disease, complaints, preliminary diagnosis and PSG diagnosis were evaluated retrospectively. RESULTS: In our study, the average age of patients was 56 and 43% women 57% were male. Complaints of patients were snoring, fatigue, stopped breath during sleep, insomnia, headache, daytime sleepiness, restless legs and abnormal behaviors during sleep. According to preliminary diagnoses and PSG diagnoses; Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS, narcolepsy, REM behavior disorder (RBD reduced (p 0.05. Sleep disorders in patients was accompanied by chronic diseases, hypertension (34.3%, diabetes (12.8%, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD (1.2%, epilepsy (1.8%, Parkinson's disease (3.5%, dementia (3.2%, depression (18.4%, cardiovascular disease (13.3% and cerebrovascular disease (4.9%. 9%. CONCLUSION: We are offering a good clinical history and physical examination with the correct interpretation of PSG for the differential diagnosis can be made true, accurate diagnoses and appropriate treatment modalities in our patients

  18. Laboratory modeling, field study, and numerical simulation of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, R.J.; Islam, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Historical methods of cleaning up petroleum hydrocarbons from the vadose zone, the capillary zone, and the aquifers are not technically true cleanup technologies but rather transfer techniques. In addition, environmental engineers are realizing that the standard remediation techniques are not entirely effective in removing the hazardous material in a reasonable time frame. Long-chain hydrocarbons such as kerosene, diesel, and waste oil are particularly difficult to remediate using conventional techniques. The use of bioremediation as an alternative remediation technology is fast becoming the technique of choice among many environmental professionals. This method offers substantial benefits not found in other remediation processes. Bioremediation is very cost effective, nondestructive, relatively uncomplicated in implementing, requires non specialized equipment, and can be extremely effective in removing recalcitrant petroleum hydrocarbons. This study researched the availability of viable microbial populations in the arid climate in South Dakota. Exponential growth of the bacteria and the ability of bacteria to degrade long-chain hydrocarbons indicated that healthy populations do exist and could be used to mineralize organic hydrocarbons. Experimental results indicated that bioremediation can be effectively enhanced in landfills as well as in the subsurface using a supply of harmless nutrients. The biodegradation rate can be further enhanced with the use of edible surfactant that helped disperse the petroleum products. Also, the use of hydrogen peroxide enhanced the oxygen availability and increased the degradation rate. Interestingly, the bacterial growth rate is found to be high in difficult-to-biodegrade contaminants, such as waste oil. A numerical simulation program was also developed that describes the bacterial growth in the subsurface along with the reduction in substrate (contamination). Results from this program were found to be consistent with laboratory

  19. Vapor vacuum extraction treatability study at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herd, M.D.; Matthern, G.; Michael, D.L.; Spang, N.; Downs, W.; Weidner, J.; Cleary, P.

    1993-01-01

    During the 1960s and early 1970s, barreled mixed waste containing volatile organic compounds (VOCS) and radioactive waste was buried at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Over time, some of the barrels have deteriorated allowing, VOC vapors to be released into the vadose zone. The primary VOC contaminates of concern are CCl 4 and trichloroethylene; however, chloroform, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane have also been detected. Vapor Vacuum Extraction (VVE) is one alternative being considered for remediation of the RWMC SDA vadose zone. A proposed pilot-scale treatability study (TS) will provide operation and maintenance costs for the design of the potential scale-up of the system

  20. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Analysis of fracture networks based on the integration of structural and hydrogeological observations on different scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossart, P. [Geotechnical Inst. Ltd., Bern (Switzerland); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates, Stockholm (Sweden); Mazurek, M. [Univ. of Bern (Switzerland)

    2001-05-01

    Fracture networks at Aespoe have been studied for several rock types exhibiting different degrees of ductile and brittle deformation, as well as on different scales. Mesoscopic fault systems have been characterised and classified in an earlier report, this report focuses mainly on fracture networks derived on smaller scales, but also includes mesoscopic and larger scales. The TRUE-1 block has been selected for detailed structural analysis on a small scale due to the high density of relevant information. In addition to the data obtained from core materials, structural maps, BIP data and the results of hydro tests were synthesised to derive a conceptual structural model. The approach used to derive this conceptual model is based on the integration of deterministic structural evidence, probabilistic information and both upscaling and downscaling of observations and concepts derived on different scales. Twelve fracture networks mapped at different sites and scales and exhibiting various styles of tectonic deformation were analysed for fractal properties and structural and hydraulic interconnectedness. It was shown that these analysed fracture networks are not self-similar. An important result is the structural and hydraulic interconnectedness of fracture networks on all scales in the Aespoe rocks, which is further corroborated by geochemical evidence. Due to the structural and hydraulic interconnectedness of fracture systems on all scales at Aespoe, contaminants from waste canisters placed in tectonically low deformation environments would be transported - after having passed through the engineered barriers -from low-permeability fractures towards higher permeability fractures and may thus eventually reach high-permeability features.

  1. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Analysis of fracture networks based on the integration of structural and hydrogeological observations on different scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossart, P.; Hermanson, Jan; Mazurek, M.

    2001-05-01

    Fracture networks at Aespoe have been studied for several rock types exhibiting different degrees of ductile and brittle deformation, as well as on different scales. Mesoscopic fault systems have been characterised and classified in an earlier report, this report focuses mainly on fracture networks derived on smaller scales, but also includes mesoscopic and larger scales. The TRUE-1 block has been selected for detailed structural analysis on a small scale due to the high density of relevant information. In addition to the data obtained from core materials, structural maps, BIP data and the results of hydro tests were synthesised to derive a conceptual structural model. The approach used to derive this conceptual model is based on the integration of deterministic structural evidence, probabilistic information and both upscaling and downscaling of observations and concepts derived on different scales. Twelve fracture networks mapped at different sites and scales and exhibiting various styles of tectonic deformation were analysed for fractal properties and structural and hydraulic interconnectedness. It was shown that these analysed fracture networks are not self-similar. An important result is the structural and hydraulic interconnectedness of fracture networks on all scales in the Aespoe rocks, which is further corroborated by geochemical evidence. Due to the structural and hydraulic interconnectedness of fracture systems on all scales at Aespoe, contaminants from waste canisters placed in tectonically low deformation environments would be transported - after having passed through the engineered barriers -from low-permeability fractures towards higher permeability fractures and may thus eventually reach high-permeability features

  2. Chemical Reactor Automation as a way to Optimize a Laboratory Scale Polymerization Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Campa, Jose L.; Saenz de Buruaga, Isabel; Lopez, Raymundo

    2004-10-01

    The automation of the registration and control of variables involved in a chemical reactor improves the reaction process by making it faster, optimized and without the influence of human error. The objective of this work is to register and control the involved variables (temperatures, reactive fluxes, weights, etc) in an emulsion polymerization reaction. The programs and control algorithms were developed in the language G in LabVIEW®. The designed software is able to send and receive RS232 codified data from the devices (pumps, temperature sensors, mixer, balances, and so on) to and from a personal Computer. The transduction from digital information to movement or measurement actions of the devices is done by electronic components included in the devices. Once the programs were done and proved, chemical reactions of emulsion polymerization were made to validate the system. Moreover, some advanced heat-estimation algorithms were implemented in order to know the heat caused by the reaction and the estimation and control of chemical variables in-line. All the information gotten from the reaction is stored in the PC. The information is then available and ready to use in any commercial data processor software. This work is now being used in a Research Center in order to make emulsion polymerizations under efficient and controlled conditions with reproducible results. The experiences obtained from this project may be used in the implementation of chemical estimation algorithms at pilot plant or industrial scale.

  3. Debye-scale solitary structures measured in a beam-plasma laboratory experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lefebvre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Solitary electrostatic pulses have been observed in numerous places of the magnetosphere such as the vicinity of reconnection current sheets, shocks or auroral current systems, and are often thought to be generated by energetic electron beams. We present results of a series of experiments conducted at the UCLA large plasma device (LAPD where a suprathermal electron beam was injected parallel to a static magnetic field. Micro-probes with tips smaller than a Debye length enabled the detection of solitary pulses with positive electric potential and half-widths 4–25 Debye lengths (λDe, over a set of experiments with various beam energies, plasma densities and magnetic field strengths. The shape, scales and amplitudes of the structures are similar to those observed in space, and consistent with electron holes. The dependance of these properties on the experimental parameters is shown. The velocities of the solitary structures (1–3 background electron thermal velocities are found to be much lower than the beam velocities, suggesting an excitation mechanism driven by parallel currents associated to the electron beam.

  4. Laboratory studies and Pompe disease: from suspicion to therapy monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Savost’yanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pompe disease (PD is a rare, progressive, commonly fatal inherited autosomal recessive disease that is difficult to diagnose due to its obvious clinical heterogeneity and low awareness among physicians. Access to the laboratory diagnosis of rare diseases increases every year. In the past several years, Russian and foreign laboratories have achieved considerable success in accelerating and improving the diagnostic accuracy of PD. Unfortunately, the Russian-language literature contains scarce relevant information on the laboratory diagnosis of PD. This review is to fill up this gap. 

  5. Brunel mood scale: South African norm study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles H Van Wijk

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS has proved useful to assess mood states in a range of clinical settings. Its local utility is restricted by the lack of normative data from South Africa. This paper presents preliminary normative data for the use of the BRUMS in the South African health care setting. Method: Participants (N=2200, ranging from 18 to 59 years, employed in the public sector, and were recruited during routine occupational health surveillance, completed the 24-item self-report BRUMS. They came from all South African race and language groups, and from all nine provinces. Results: Significant differences were found between the scores of women and men, and their results are reported separately. Due to the language dependant nature of the BRUMS, results are also reported separately for respondents with English as first language, and those who have other South African languages as mother tongue. Norm tables with T-scores are presented for the full sample, and per gender X language groups. Conclusion: This study presents normative data for a sample of educated and employed South Africans from various backgrounds. Its brevity, and provisionally language friendly nature makes it a useful measure for screening psychological distress in the SA clinical health care context.

  6. On the random cascading model study of anomalous scaling in multiparticle production with continuously diminishing scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lianshou; Zhang Yang; Wu Yuanfang

    1996-01-01

    The anomalous scaling of factorial moments with continuously diminishing scale is studied using a random cascading model. It is shown that the model currently used have the property of anomalous scaling only for descrete values of elementary cell size. A revised model is proposed which can give good scaling property also for continuously varying scale. It turns out that the strip integral has good scaling property provided the integral regions are chosen correctly, and that this property is insensitive to the concrete way of self-similar subdivision of phase space in the models. (orig.)

  7. Prediction of desulfurization in torpedo gas from laboratory scale simulation; Previsao da dessulfuracao do gusa em carro-torpedo a partir de simulacoes em escala de laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Costa, Sergio L. de [USIMINAS, Ipatinga, MG (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento; Figueira, Renato M. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    1996-12-31

    A general criterion for laboratory scale data transposing to industrial practice, based on Navier-Stokes equation is developed. The criterion is a dimensional relation between the rate of energy dissipation, dimensions such as the height and diameter of the reactor and the inertial forces. The criterion was used to predict the evolution of the pig iron desulfurization reaction in torpedo car from results obtained in laboratory scale. The agreement between values predicted from laboratory experiments and data generated from actual industrial desulfurization operation is excellent. (author) 10 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Baccalaureate nursing students' perspectives of peer tutoring in simulation laboratory, a Q methodology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Petrini, Marcia A; Stone, Teresa E

    2018-02-01

    The study aim was to identify the perceived perspectives of baccalaureate nursing students toward the peer tutoring in the simulation laboratory. Insight into the nursing students' experiences and baseline data related to their perception of peer tutoring will assist to improve nursing education. Q methodology was applied to explore the students' perspectives of peer tutoring in the simulation laboratory. A convenience P-sample of 40 baccalaureate nursing students was used. Fifty-eight selected Q statements from each participant were classified into the shape of a normal distribution using an 11-point bipolar scale form with a range from -5 to +5. PQ Method software analyzed the collected data. Three discrete factors emerged: Factor I ("Facilitate or empower" knowledge acquisition), Factor II ("Safety Net" Support environment), and Factor III ("Mentoring" learn how to learn). The findings of this study support and indicate that peer tutoring is an effective supplementary strategy to promote baccalaureate students' knowledge acquisition, establishing a supportive safety net and facilitating their abilities to learn in the simulation laboratory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rupture preparation process controlled by surface roughness on meter-scale laboratory fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Futoshi; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Xu, Shiqing; Mizoguchi, Kazuo; Kawakata, Hironori; Takizawa, Shigeru

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the effect of fault surface roughness on rupture preparation characteristics using meter-scale metagabbro specimens. We repeatedly conducted the experiments with the same pair of rock specimens to make the fault surface rough. We obtained three experimental results under the same experimental conditions (6.7 MPa of normal stress and 0.01 mm/s of loading rate) but at different roughness conditions (smooth, moderately roughened, and heavily roughened). During each experiment, we observed many stick-slip events preceded by precursory slow slip. We investigated when and where slow slip initiated by using the strain gauge data processed by the Kalman filter algorithm. The observed rupture preparation processes on the smooth fault (i.e. the first experiment among the three) showed high repeatability of the spatiotemporal distributions of slow slip initiation. Local stress measurements revealed that slow slip initiated around the region where the ratio of shear to normal stress (τ/σ) was the highest as expected from finite element method (FEM) modeling. However, the exact location of slow slip initiation was where τ/σ became locally minimum, probably due to the frictional heterogeneity. In the experiment on the moderately roughened fault, some irregular events were observed, though the basic characteristics of other regular events were similar to those on the smooth fault. Local stress data revealed that the spatiotemporal characteristics of slow slip initiation and the resulting τ/σ drop for irregular events were different from those for regular ones even under similar stress conditions. On the heavily roughened fault, the location of slow slip initiation was not consistent with τ/σ anymore because of the highly heterogeneous static friction on the fault, which also decreased the repeatability of spatiotemporal distributions of slow slip initiation. These results suggest that fault surface roughness strongly controls the rupture preparation process

  10. Laboratory-scale in situ bioremediation in heterogeneous porous media: biokinetics-limited scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xin; Hong, Eunyoung; Seagren, Eric A

    2014-03-01

    Subsurface heterogeneities influence interfacial mass-transfer processes and affect the application of in situ bioremediation by impacting the availability of substrates to the microorganisms. However, for difficult-to-degrade compounds, and/or cases with inhibitory biodegradation conditions, slow biokinetics may also limit the overall bioremediation rate, or be as limiting as mass-transfer processes. In this work, a quantitative framework based on a set of dimensionless coefficients was used to capture the effects of the competing interfacial and biokinetic processes and define the overall rate-limiting process. An integrated numerical modeling and experimental approach was used to evaluate application of the quantitative framework for a scenario in which slow-biokinetics limited the overall bioremediation rate of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (naphthalene). Numerical modeling was conducted to simulate the groundwater flow and naphthalene transport and verify the system parameters, which were used in the quantitative framework application. The experiments examined the movement and biodegradation of naphthalene in a saturated, heterogeneous intermediate-scale flow cell with two layers of contrasting hydraulic conductivities. These experiments were conducted in two phases: Phase I, simulating an inhibited slow biodegradation; and Phase II, simulating an engineered bioremediation, with system perturbations selected to enhance the slow biodegradation rate. In Phase II, two engineered perturbations to the system were selected to examine their ability to enhance in situ biodegradation. In the first perturbation, nitrogen and phosphorus in excess of the required stoichiometric amounts were spiked into the influent solution to mimic a common remedial action taken in the field. The results showed that this perturbation had a moderate positive impact, consistent with slow biokinetics being the overall rate-limiting process. However, the second perturbation, which was to

  11. Comparative study of effects of table sugar, laboratory grade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    In the second phase of the experiment, the quantity of carbohydrates ... Key words: Banana, tissue culture, sugars, table sugar, laboratory grade sucrose, mannitol. ..... 9. TAIZ, L. & ZEIGER, E., 2006. Stress physiology. Plant Physiology, Taiz, L.

  12. COLLISIONAL DEBRIS AS LABORATORIES TO STUDY STAR FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boquien, M.; Duc, P.-A.; Wu, Y.; Charmandaris, V.; Lisenfeld, U.; Braine, J.; Brinks, E.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Xu, C. K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we address the question of whether star formation (SF) is driven by local processes or the large-scale environment. To do so, we investigate SF in collisional debris where the gravitational potential well and velocity gradients are shallower and compare our results with previous work on SF in noninteracting spiral and dwarf galaxies. We have performed multiwavelength spectroscopic and imaging observations (from the far-ultraviolet to the mid-infrared) of six interacting systems, identifying a total of 60 star-forming regions in their collision debris. Our analysis indicates that in these regions (1) the emission of the dust is at the expected level for their luminosity and metallicity, (2) the usual tracers of SFR display the typical trend and scatter found in classical star-forming regions, and (3) the extinction and metallicity are not the main parameters governing the scatter in the properties of intergalactic star-forming regions; age effects and variations in the number of stellar populations seem to play an important role. Our work suggests that local properties such as column density and dust content, rather than the large-scale environment seem to drive SF. This means that intergalactic star-forming regions can be used as a reliable tool to study SF.

  13. From laboratory manipulations to Earth system models: scaling calcification impacts of ocean acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Young

    2009-11-01

    -specific response, highlighting the importance of whole community manipulation experiments to models in the absence of a complete physiological understanding of the underlying calcification process. However, on a century time-scale, regardless of the parameterization adopted, the atmospheric pCO2 impact of ocean acidification is minor compared to other global carbon cycle feedbacks.

  14. Study of driven magnetic reconnection in a laboratory plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masaaki; Ji, H.; Hsu, S.; Carter, T.; Kulsrud, R.; Bretz, N.; Jobes, F.; Ono, Yasushi; Perkins, F.

    1998-01-01

    The Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) has been constructed to investigate the fundamental physics of magnetic reconnection in a well controlled laboratory setting. This device creates an environment satisfying the criteria for a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma (S much-gt 1, ρ i much-lt L). The boundary conditions can be controlled externally, and experiments with fully three-dimensional reconnection are now possible. In the initial experiments, the effects of the third vector component of reconnecting fields have been studied. Two distinctively different shapes of neutral sheet current layers, depending on the third component, are identified during driven magnetic reconnection. Without the third component (anti-parallel or null-helicity reconnection), a thin double-Y shaped diffusion region is identified. A neutral sheet current profile is measured accurately to be as narrow as order ion gyro-radius. In the presence of an appreciable third component (co-helicity reconnection), an O-shaped diffusion region appears and grows into a spheromak configuration

  15. A Laboratory Study of Vortical Structures in Rotating Convection Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hao; Sun, Shiwei; Wang, Yuan; Zhou, Bowen; Thermal Turbulence Research Team

    2015-11-01

    A laboratory study of the columnar vortex structure in rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection is conducted. A rectangular water tank is uniformly heated from below and cooled from above, with Ra = (6 . 35 +/- 0 . 77) ×107 , Ta = 9 . 84 ×107 , Pr = 7 . 34 . The columnar vortices are vertically aligned and quasi steady. Two 2D PIV systems were used to measure velocity field. One system performs horizontal scans at 9 different heights every 13.6s, covering 62% of the total depth. The other system scans vertically to obtain the vertical velocity profile. The measured vertical vorticity profiles of most vortices are quasi-linear with height while the vertical velocities are nearly uniform with only a small curvature. A simple model to deduce vertical velocity profile from vertical vorticity profile is proposed. Under quasi-steady and axisymmetric conditions, a ``vortex core'' assumption is introduced to simplify vertical vorticity equation. A linear ODE about vertical velocity is obtained whenever a vertical vorticity profile is given and solved with experimental data as input. The result is approximately in agreement with the measurement. This work was supported by Undergraduates Training Project (J1103410).

  16. Napping: A public health issue. From epidemiological to laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraut, Brice; Andrillon, Thomas; Vecchierini, Marie-Françoise; Leger, Damien

    2017-10-01

    Sleep specialists have proposed measures to counteract the negative short- and long-term consequences of sleep debt, and some have suggested the nap as a potential and powerful "public health tool". Here, we address this countermeasure aspect of napping viewed as an action against sleep deprivation rather than an action associated with poor health. We review the physiological functions that have been associated positively with napping in both public health and clinical settings (sleep-related accidents, work and school, and cardiovascular risk) and in laboratory-based studies with potential public health issues (cognitive performance, stress, immune function and pain sensitivity). We also discuss the circumstances in which napping-depending on several factors, including nap duration, frequency, and age-could be a potential public health tool and a countermeasure for sleep loss in terms of reducing accidents and cardiovascular events and improving sleep-restriction-sensitive working performance. However, the impact of napping and the nature of the sleep stage(s) involved still need to be evaluated, especially from the perspective of coping strategies in populations with chronic sleep debt, such as night and shift workers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mound Laboratory tritium environmental study: 1976--1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershner, C.J.; Rhinehammer, T.B.

    1978-01-01

    In the course of an extensive investigation of tritium in the aquifer underlying the Mound Facility site, an unusual behavior was noted for a beta-emitting radionuclide contaminant present in the environs of the abandoned Miami-Erie Canal adjacent to the laboratory site. The soil contaminant was determined to be tritium, of which 90% was in the form of a relatively stable or bound species that was not readily exchangeable with the free water in the soil. (Bound-to-exchangeable transfer half-time was found to be approximately 3 yr.) The contamination was found to be concentrated within two feet of the surface in the center of the canal channel and near the Facility site drainage ditch and canal confluence. In order to characterize the contaminant and to assess its potential for reaching the aquifer, an analysis program and study were initiated in September 1976. The results and findings from the first phase of this work which was completed in February 1977 are the subject of this report

  18. Asymmetry of wind waves studied in a laboratory tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Leykin

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetry of wind waves was studied in laboratory tank tinder varied wind and fetch conditions using both bispectral analysis of wave records and third-order statistics of the surface elevation. It is found skewness S (the normalized third-order moment of surface elevation describing the horizontal asymmetry waves varies only slightly with the inverse wave u*/Cm (where u* is the air friction velocity and Cm is phase speed of the dominant waves. At the same time asymmetry A, which is determined from the Hilbert transform of the wave record and characterizes the skewness of the rate of change of surface elevation, increase consistently in magnitude with the ratio u*/Cm. This suggests that nonlinear distortion of the wave profile determined by the degree of wind forcing and is a sensitive indicator of wind-wave interaction processes. It is shown that the asymmetric profile of waves can described within the frameworks of the nonlinear nonspectral concept (Plate, 1972; Lake and Yuen, 197 according to which the wind-wave field can be represented as a coherent bound-wave system consisting mainly of dominant component w. and its harmonics propagating with the same speed C. , as observed by Ramamonjiaris and Coantic (1976. The phase shift between o. harmonics is found and shown to increase with the asymmetry of the waves.

  19. Asymmetry of wind waves studied in a laboratory tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ileykin, L. A.; Donelan, M. A.; Mellen, R. H.; McLaughlin, D. J.

    1995-03-01

    Asymmetry of wind waves was studied in laboratory tank tinder varied wind and fetch conditions using both bispectral analysis of wave records and third-order statistics of the surface elevation. It is found skewness S (the normalized third-order moment of surface elevation describing the horizontal asymmetry waves) varies only slightly with the inverse wave u*/Cm (where u* is the air friction velocity and Cm is phase speed of the dominant waves). At the same time asymmetry A, which is determined from the Hilbert transform of the wave record and characterizes the skewness of the rate of change of surface elevation, increase consistently in magnitude with the ratio u*/Cm. This suggests that nonlinear distortion of the wave profile determined by the degree of wind forcing and is a sensitive indicator of wind-wave interaction processes. It is shown that the asymmetric profile of waves can described within the frameworks of the nonlinear nonspectral concept (Plate, 1972; Lake and Yuen, 197 according to which the wind-wave field can be represented as a coherent bound-wave system consisting mainly of dominant component w. and its harmonics propagating with the same speed C. , as observed by Ramamonjiaris and Coantic (1976). The phase shift between o). harmonics is found and shown to increase with the asymmetry of the waves.

  20. Oak Ridge National Laboratory remedial investigation/feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, R.D.; Hoffman, J.M.; Hyde, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study (RI/FS) began in June 1987 to evaluate 13 contaminated waste area groupings (WAGs) to determine the feasibility and benefits of potential remedial action. The RI/FS and any future remedial action at ORNL will be of national significance and will likely lead to developments that will become models for environmental investigations and cleanups. Bechtel National, Inc. and a team of subcontractors will be working with Martin Marietta Energy systems to conduct intensive field investigations to obtain data required to evaluate the WAGs. The RI/F project continued in FY 1988 with project planning and preparation for field activities. Remedial Investigation (RI) Plans were prepared for 10 of the 13 WAGs. These plans were developed with sufficient information to ensure compliance with regulatory requirements, with intensive attention given to environmental, safety, and health protection; waste management; data management; and quality assurance. This paper reports on the progress made during FY 1988 and discusses activities planned for FY 1989

  1. Laboratory studies of ion-molecule reactions and interstellar chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyano, Inosuke

    1989-01-01

    Several types of laboratory studies have been performed on ion-molecule reactions relevant to the formation of the interstellar molecules. Special emphasis is placed on the formation, structure, and reactivity of the C 3 H 3 + ions, which are believed to play a key role in interstellar chemistry. When these ions are produced by the reaction of C 3 H 4+ with C 3 H 4 in a beam-gas arrangement, their times-of-flight (TOF) show abnormally broad distributions regardless of the sources of the reactant C 3 H 4 + ion (photoionization of allene, propyne, the cyclopropene) and the nature of the neutral reactant, while all other product ions from the same reaction show sharp TOF distributions. On the other hand, all C 3 H 3 + ions produced by unimolecular decomposition of energetic C 3 H 4 + ions show sharp TOF distribution. The peculiarity of the C 3 H 3 + ions manifested in these and other experiments is discussed in conjunction with interstellar chemistry

  2. Production-scale LLW and RMW solidification system operational testing at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wescott, J.; Wagh, A.; Singh, D.; Nelson, R.; No, H.

    1997-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) has begun production-scale testing of a low-level waste and radioactive mixed waste solidification system. This system will be used to treat low-level and mixed radioactive waste to meet land burial requirements. The system can use any of several types of solidification media, including a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic developed by ANL-E scientists. The final waste product will consist of a solidified mass in a standard 208-liter drum. The system uses commercial equipment and incorporates several unique process control features to ensure proper treatment. This paper will discuss the waste types requiring treatment, the system configuration, and operation results for these waste streams

  3. Generation of low-Btu fuel gas from agricultural residues experiments with a laboratory scale gas producer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R O

    1977-01-01

    Two successive laboratory-scale, downdraft gas producers were fabricated and tested. Agricultural and food processing residues including walnut shells, corn cobs, tree prunings, and cotton gin waste, were converted to a low Btu producer gas. The performance of 2 spark ignition engines, when running on producer gas, was highly satisfactory. The ability of the producer to maintain a continuous supply of good quality gas was determined largely by firebox configuration. Fuel handling and fuel flow control problems tended to be specific to individual types of residues. During each test run, air input, firebox temperature, fuel consumption rate, and pressure differential across the producer were monitored. An overall conversion efficiency of 65% was achieved.

  4. A large-scale laboratory investigation into the movement of gas and water through clay barriers exposed to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report describes a large scale laboratory investigation into the movements of gas and water through clay barriers exposed to the environment. The test beds, each 3m square were constructed and filled with clay to a depth of 400 mm, after compaction. One test bed contained London Clay, the other Glacial Till. The clays were subjected to accelerated environmental cycling and tests carried out on samples of the clays at appropriate intervals. The tests included measurements of the mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the clays and their permeability to gas and water. Gas permeability emerged as the more appropriate for the clays being investigated. The report discusses the difficulties of measuring the permeability of partially saturated clays and the need to define the measuring techniques when specifying limiting acceptability values. 55 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs., 27 plates

  5. Aluminum Removal From Hanford Waste By Lithium Hydrotalcite Precipitation - Laboratory Scale Validation On Waste Simulants Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, T.; Hagerty, K.

    2011-01-01

    To reduce the additional sodium hydroxide and ease processing of aluminum bearing sludge, the lithium hydrotalcite (LiHT) process has been invented by AREV A and demonstrated on a laboratory scale to remove alumina and regenerate/recycle sodium hydroxide prior to processing in the WTP. The method uses lithium hydroxide (LiOH) to precipitate sodium aluminate (NaAI(OH) 4 ) as lithium hydrotalcite (Li 2 CO 3 .4Al(OH) 3 .3H 2 O) while generating sodium hydroxide (NaOH). In addition, phosphate substitutes in the reaction to a high degree, also as a filterable solid. The sodium hydroxide enriched leachate is depleted in aluminum and phosphate, and is recycled to double-shell tanks (DSTs) to leach aluminum bearing sludges. This method eliminates importing sodium hydroxide to leach alumina sludge and eliminates a large fraction of the total sludge mass to be treated by the WTP. Plugging of process equipment is reduced by removal of both aluminum and phosphate in the tank wastes. Laboratory tests were conducted to verify the efficacy of the process and confirm the results of previous tests. These tests used both single-shell tank (SST) and DST simulants.

  6. In situ and laboratory measurements of very low permeability in the Tournemine argilites (Aveyron). Comparison of methodologies and scale effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisson, J.Y.; Cabrera, J.

    1998-01-01

    At the request of the Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (IPSN - Institute of Nuclear Safety and Protection), ANTEA visited the Tournemire site (Aveyron) to carry out an hydraulic characterization of the 200 m-thick Toarcian and Domerian formations accessible by tunnel. Permeability measurements were made using the borehole pulse-test method either in the global hole or perpendicular to more permeable fractured zones. The tests yielded an approximate value for the hydraulic head and an order of magnitude for the permeability at 1 to 10 metre scale (10 -11 to 10 -13 m/s). A borehole was then equipped for a long-duration (6 months) measurement of the hydraulic head in the rock body. Laboratory measurements were made on 4 cm-diameter core samples taken from different boreholes. The tests, carried out under triaxial stress, required preliminary saturation-consolidation of the test samples. Through applying steady-state flow or hydraulic pulse, it was possible to measure a permeability in order of 10 -14 m/s for the matrix of the clayey material. The difference between laboratory and in situ values is explained by the presence of fractures in the rock body. Moreover, it seems that the hydraulic conditions of measurement in the field around the hole could have an influence on the final result. (authors)

  7. Field and laboratory procedures used in a soil chronosequence study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Michael J.; Janitzky, Peter

    1986-01-01

    In 1978, the late Denis Marchand initiated a research project entitled "Soil Correlation and Dating at the U.S. Geological Survey" to determine the usefulness of soils in solving geologic problems. Marchand proposed to establish soil chronosequences that could be dated independently of soil development by using radiometric and other numeric dating methods. In addition, by comparing dated chronosequences in different environments, rates of soil development could be studied and compared among varying climates and mineralogical conditions. The project was fundamental in documenting the value of soils in studies of mapping, correlating, and dating late Cenozoic deposits and in studying soil genesis. All published reports by members of the project are included in the bibliography.The project demanded that methods be adapted or developed to ensure comparability over a wide variation in soil types. Emphasis was placed on obtaining professional expertise and on establishing consistent techniques, especially for the field, laboratory, and data-compilation methods. Since 1978, twelve chronosequences have been sampled and analyzed by members of this project, and methods have been established and used consistently for analysis of the samples.The goals of this report are to:Document the methods used for the study on soil chronosequences,Present the results of tests that were run for precision, accuracy, and effectiveness, andDiscuss our modifications to standard procedures.Many of the methods presented herein are standard and have been reported elsewhere. However, we assume less prior analytical knowledge in our descriptions; thus, the manual should be easy to follow for the inexperienced analyst. Each chapter presents one or more references of the basic principle, an equipment and reagents list, and the detailed procedure. In some chapters this is followed by additional remarks or example calculations.The flow diagram in figure 1 outlines the step-by-step procedures used to

  8. Coagulation-flocculation studies of laboratory wastewater using different combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, M. T.; Khan, R. A.; Khokar, A.; Iqbal, K.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted on the wastewater of PCSIR Laboratories complex Lahore. Both single as well as blended form was used in order to achieve maximum results and to reduce the cost. These experiments were conducted in Hudson Jars of one liter capacity using the coagulation technique for the removal of total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity. The pH range was 6-8 and 4-10 for treatment. Four coagulants were used such as FeCl 3 , AlCl 3 . Alum and FeSO 4 , to remove the turbidity in single and blended form. Results of single coagulant are FeCl 3 from 39.7 to 11.51 NTU; AlCl 3 from 47.48 to 11.8 NTU. Alum 43 to 25.3NTU.FeSO 4 showed increasing trend in turbidity 53 to 120 NTU. The blended set of coagulants AlCl 3 +Alum turbidity from 45 to 18.55 NTU. The AlCl 3 and FeCl 3 showed almost similar results but after overnight settling results were excellent and alum showed also good results. The turbidity was removed from 54 to 27 NTU, 48 to 22 NTU, 44 to 17 NTU, and after overnight settling 33 to 4 NTU. The results of blended coagulants FeCl 3 +AlCl 3 after one, two and three hours settling were also studied and found best and blend AlCl3+Alum showed also similar trend and the blend of Alum+FeCl 3 after overnight settling was excellent. The same coagulants and its blended form were used for TSS removal and results are 278 to 7 mg/L, in blended form AlCl 3 +Alum show similar results but Alum + FeCl 3 showed excellent results. The TSS and turbidity removal was 87%, 97.5%. (author)

  9. Spatio-temporal evolution of volcano seismicity: A laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Philip M.; Vinciguerra, Sergio; Meredith, Philip G.; Young, R. Paul

    2010-08-01

    We report a laboratory and microstructural study of a suite of deformation experiments in which basalt from Mount Etna volcano is deformed and fractured at an effective confining pressure representative of conditions under a volcanic edifice (40 MPa). Particular attention was paid to the formation of a fracture and damage zone with which to stimulate coupled hydro-mechanical interactions that create the various types of seismicity recorded on volcanic edifices, and which usually precede eruption. Location of AE events through time shows the formation of a fault plane during which waveforms exhibit the typical high frequency characteristics of volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes. We found that these VT earthquakes were particularly pronounced when generated using dry samples, compared to samples saturated with a pore fluid (water). VT events generated during deformation of water saturated sample are characterised by a distinctive high frequency onset and a longer, low frequency coda exhibiting properties often seen in the field as hybrid events. We present evidence that hybrid events are, in fact, the common type of volcanic seismic event with either VT or low frequency (LF) events representing end members, and whose proportion depend on pore fluid being present in the rock type being deformed, as well as how close the rock is to failure. We find a notable trend of reducing instances of hybrid events leading up to the failure stage in our experiments, suggesting that during this stage, the pore fluid present in the rock moves sufficiently quickly to provide a resonance, seen as a LF coda. Our data supports recent modeling and field studies that postulate that hybrid events generated in volcanic areas are likely to be generated through the interaction of hydrothermal fluids moving through a combination of pre-existing microcrack networks and larger faults, such as those we observe in forensic (post-test) examination.

  10. In-situ, real time micro-CT imaging of pore scale processes, the next frontier for laboratory based micro-CT scanning

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, Marijn; Bultreys, Tom; Masschaele, Bert; Van Loo, Denis; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Cnudde, Veerle

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, laboratory based X-ray computed micro-tomography (micro-CT) has given unique insights in the internal structure of complex reservoir rocks, improving the understanding of pore scale processes and providing crucial information for pore scale modelling. Especially in-situ imaging using X-ray optimized Hassler type cells has enabled the direct visualization of fluid distributions at the pore scale under reservoir conditions. While sub-micrometre spatial resolutions are achi...

  11. Physician satisfaction with clinical laboratory services: a College of American Pathologists Q-probes study of 138 institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bruce A; Bekeris, Leonas G; Nakhleh, Raouf E; Walsh, Molly K; Valenstein, Paul N

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring customer satisfaction is a valuable component of a laboratory quality improvement program. To survey the level of physician satisfaction with hospital clinical laboratory services. Participating institutions provided demographic and practice information and survey results of physician satisfaction with defined aspects of clinical laboratory services, rated on a scale of 1 (poor) to 5 (excellent). One hundred thirty-eight institutions participated in this study and submitted a total of 4329 physician surveys. The overall satisfaction score for all institutions ranged from 2.9 to 5.0. The median overall score for all participants was 4.1 (10th percentile, 3.6; 90th percentile, 4.5). Physicians were most satisfied with the quality/reliability of results and staff courtesy, with median values of excellent or good ratings of 89.9%. Of the 5 service categories that received the lowest percentage values of excellent/good ratings (combined scores of 4 and 5), 4 were related to turnaround time for inpatient stat, outpatient stat, routine, and esoteric tests. Surveys from half of the participating laboratories reported that 96% to 100% of physicians would recommend the laboratory to other physicians. The category most frequently selected as the most important category of laboratory services was quality/reliability of results (31.7%). There continues to be a high level of physician satisfaction and loyalty with clinical laboratory services. Test turnaround times are persistent categories of dissatisfaction and present opportunities for improvement.

  12. Phytosterols elevation in bamboo shoot residue through laboratorial scale solid-state fermentation using isolated Aspergillus niger CTBU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X X; Chen, R S; Shen, Y; Yin, Z Y

    2014-04-01

    Aspergillus niger CTBU isolated from local decayed bamboo shoot residue was employed to solid-state fermentation (SSF) of bamboo shoot residue to elevate the content of phytosterols. Strain acclimatization was carried out under the fermentation condition using bamboo shoot as substrate for fermentation performance improvement. The optimal fermentation temperature and nitrogen level were investigated using acclimatized strain, and SSF was carried out in a 500-ml Erlenmeyer flask feeding 300-mg bamboo shoot residue chips under the optimal condition (33 °C and feeding 4 % urea), and 1,186 mg (100 g)(-1) of total phytosterol was attained after 5-day fermentation, in comparison, only 523 mg (100 g)(-1) of phytosterol was assayed in fresh shoots residue. HPLC analysis of the main composition of total phytosterols displays that the types of phytosterols and composition ratio of main sterols keep steady. This laboratorial scale SSF unit could be scaled up for raw phytosterols production from discarded bamboo shoot residue and could reduce its cost.

  13. Removal of radiocesium from low level radioactive effluents by hexacyanoferrate loaded synthetic zeolite. Laboratory to pilot plant scale demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Dayamoy; Rao, Manjula A.; Khot, Shantinath A.; Shah, Jayesh G.; Banerjee, Kalyan [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Nuclear Recycle Group; Pawaskar, Chandrahas S.; Gangadharan, Anand; Rao, Shankar N.; Jain, Savita [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2017-06-01

    Present paper reports removal of radiocesium from low level waste using a modified sorbent (13X-CFC) prepared by in-situ precipitation of potassium copper hexacyanoferrate(II) inside the macropores of a synthetic zeolite. The Cs exchange isotherm of the sorbent is established and it found to follow Fruendlich absorption isotherm equation. It is varified that presence of hexacyanoferrate on zeolite facilitates rapid Cs uptake performance. This is further confirmed in laboratory scale column tests, wherein excellent Cs removal performance from low level waste simulant was observed even at higher flow rates (40 bed volumes per hour). The utility of the sorbent is established through successful demonstration in a pilot scale (50 L) trial with almost complete removal of {sup 137}Cs from more than 14,000 bed volumes of actual low level waste. The sorbent, owing to its low cost and excellent {sup 137}Cs removal performance, is expected to find application in treatment of very low active waste streams.

  14. Determination of soil liquefaction characteristics by large-scale laboratory tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-05-01

    The testing program described in this report was carried out to study the liquefaction behavior of a clean, uniform, medium sand. Horizontal beds of this sand, 42 inches by 90 inches by 4 inches were prepared by pluviation with a special sand spreader, saturated, and tested in a shaking table system designed for this program, which applied a horizontal cyclic shear stress to the specimens. Specimen size was selected to reduce boundary effects as much as possible. Values of pore pressures and shear strains developed during the tests are presented for sand specimens at relative densities of 54, 68, 82, and 90 percent, and the results interpreted to determine the values of the stress ratio causing liquefaction at the various relative densities

  15. OPTIMIZATION OF VEGETABLE WASTES FOR LACTIC ACID PRODUCTION: A LABORATORY SCALE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailaja Daharbha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables wastes are organic materials which are not utilized as vegetables and are discarded at all stages of production, processing and marketing. These wastes form a major part of municipal solid wastes and are cause of foul smell and growth of microorganisms due to their high organic contents. The vegetable wastes can be utilized in many different ways to produces different products. We have shown that they can be utilized for production of lactic acid using anaerobic digestion. The 2nd day was the optimum day for recovery of lactic acid while 1:1 ratio of slurry and water was found to the best ratio for production of lactic acid from vegetable wastes. Effect of salts on lactic acid was also studied and it was found that the production decreased in all the concentrations of salts.

  16. Intervention of hydrogen analysis laboratory for radioactive materials study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, N.; Vinces, H.; Figueroa, S.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the practice was the measurement of the hydrogen concentration on structural material from the Central Nuclear Atucha I (CNA-I) cooling channels using a LECO gas analyser. Original samples were previously separated into fractions at the Laboratiorio para Ensayos de Post-Irradiacion (LAPEP), Centro Atomico Ezeiza. The practice and the preliminary conditions of the laboratory and equipment to reduce the occupational dose for personnel and the work area contamination are described in this paper. In addition to the training activity for workers, the radiological control performed during the intervention and procedure followed to decontaminate LECO and the laboratory are summarized here. (authors)

  17. Pinon Pine Tree Study, Los Alamos National Laboratory: Source document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, G.J.; Fresquez, P.R.; Mullen, M.A.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    2000-01-01

    One of the dominant tree species growing within and around Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM, lands is the pinon pine (Pinus edulis) tree. Pinon pine is used for firewood, fence posts, and building materials and is a source of nuts for food--the seeds are consumed by a wide variety of animals and are also gathered by people in the area and eaten raw or roasted. This study investigated the (1) concentration of 3 H, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, tot U, 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu, and 241 Am in soils (0- to 12-in. [31 cm] depth underneath the tree), pinon pine shoots (PPS), and pinon pine nuts (PPN) collected from LANL lands and regional background (BG) locations, (2) concentrations of radionuclides in PPN collected in 1977 to present data, (3) committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) from the ingestion of nuts, and (4) soil to PPS to PPN concentration ratios (CRs). Most radionuclides, with the exception of 3 H in soils, were not significantly higher (p < 0.10) in soils, PPS, and PPN collected from LANL as compared to BG locations, and concentrations of most radionuclides in PPN from LANL have decreased over time. The maximum net CEDE (the CEDE plus two sigma minus BG) at the most conservative ingestion rate (10 lb [4.5 kg]) was 0.0018 mrem (0.018 microSv). Soil-to-nut CRs for most radionuclides were within the range of default values in the literature for common fruits and vegetables

  18. Soil erosion-runoff relationships: insights from laboratory studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedov, Amrakh; Warrington, David; Levy, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the processes and mechanisms affecting runoff generation and subsequent soil erosion in semi-arid regions is essential for the development of improved soil and water conservation management practices. Using a drip type laboratory rain simulator, we studied runoff and soil erosion, and the relationships between them, in 60 semi-arid region soils varying in their intrinsic properties (e.g., texture, organic matter) under differing extrinsic conditions (e.g., rain properties, and conditions prevailing in the field soil). Both runoff and soil erosion were significantly affected by the intrinsic soil and rain properties, and soil conditions within agricultural fields or watersheds. The relationship between soil erosion and runoff was stronger when the rain kinetic energy was higher rather than lower, and could be expressed either as a linear or exponential function. Linear functions applied to certain limited cases associated with conditions that enhanced soil structure stability, (e.g., slow wetting, amending with soil stabilizers, minimum tillage in clay soils, and short duration exposure to rain). Exponential functions applied to most of the cases under conditions that tended to harm soil stability (e.g., fast wetting of soils, a wide range of antecedent soil water contents and rain kinetic energies, conventional tillage, following biosolid applications, irrigation with water of poor quality, consecutive rain simulations). The established relationships between runoff and soil erosion contributed to a better understanding of the mechanisms governing overland flow and soil loss, and could assist in (i) further development of soil erosion models and research techniques, and (ii) the design of more suitable management practices for soil and water conservation.

  19. The quality of microorganism on coal bed methane processing with various livestock waste in laboratory scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlina, E. T.; Kurnani, Tb. B. A.; Hidayati, Y. A.; Rahmah, K. N.; Joni, I. M.; Harlia, E.

    2018-02-01

    Coal-bed Methane (CBM) is a form of natural gas extracted from coal and has been developed as future energy source. Organic materials are required as nutrition source for methanogenic microbes. The addition of cattle waste in the formation of CBM on coal media can be utilized as organic materials as well as methanogenic microbe sources. This research covered study of total amount of anaerobic microbes, methane production, protozoa, fungi and endoparasites. Descriptive approach is conducted for this study. Media used for culturing methanogens is Nutrient Agar in powder form and Lactose Broth with the addition of rumen fluid. The technique for counting microbes is through Total Plate Count in anaerobic Hungate tube, methane was analyzed using Gas Chromatography (GC), while identification of protozoa, fungi and endoparasites based on its morphology is conducted before and after anaerobic fermentation process. Incubation period is 30 days. The results showed that growth of anaerobic microbes from dairy cattle waste i.e. biogas sludge is 3.57×103 CFU/ml and fresh feces is 3.38 × 104 CFU/ml, growth of anaerobic microbes from beef cattle waste i.e. biogas sludge is 7.0 × 105 CFU/ml; fresh feces is 7.5 x 104 CFU/ml; and rumen contents of about 1.33 × 108 CFU/ml. Methane production in dairy cattle waste in sludge and fresh feces amounted to 10.57% and 2.39%, respectively. Methane production in beef cattle waste in sludge accounted for 5.95%; in fresh feces it is about 0.41%; and rumen contents of 4.92%. Decreasing of protozoa during fermentation to 84.27%, dominated by Eimeria sp. Decreasing of fungi to 16%, dominated by A. Niger, A. Flavus, A. Fumigatus and Monilia sitophila. Decreasing of endoparasitic worms to 15%, dominated by Strongylus sp. and Fasciola sp. The growth of anaerobic microbes and methane production indicated that dairy cattle waste and beef cattle waste have potential as source of methanogenic microbes, meanwhile the decreasing amount of protozoa

  20. Enhanced Nutrients Removal Using Reeds Straw as Carbon Source in a Laboratory Scale Constructed Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The low carbon/nitrogen (C/N ratio and high nitrate content characteristics of agricultural runoff restricted the nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands (CWs. To resolve such problems, the economically- and easily-obtained Phragmites Australis (reeds litters were applied and packed in the surface layer of a surface flow CW as external carbon sources. The results demonstrated that the introduction of the reeds straw increased the C concentration as a result of their decomposition during the CW operation, which will help the denitrification in the ensuing operation of an entire 148 days. The total nitrogen (TN and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD ( in the effluent reached the peak level of 63.2 mg/L and 83 mg/L at the fourth and the second day, respectively. Subsequently, the pollutants in the CW that were filled with straw decreased rapidly and achieved a stable removal after 13 days of operation. Moreover, the present study showed that the N removal efficiency increased with the increase of the hydraulic retention time (HRT. Under the HRT of four days, the CW presented 74.1 ± 6%, 87.4 ± 6% and 56.0 ± 6% removal for TN, NO3-, and TP, respectively.

  1. Decomposition and carbon storage of hardwood and softwood branches in laboratory-scale landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoming, E-mail: wangxiaoming@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment under Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Barlaz, Morton A. [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Tree branches are an important component of yard waste disposed in U.S. municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The objective of this study was to characterize the anaerobic biodegradability of hardwood (HW) and softwood (SW) branches under simulated but optimized landfill conditions by measuring methane (CH{sub 4}) yields, decay rates, the decomposition of cellulose, hemicellulose and organic carbon, as well as carbon storage factors (CSFs). Carbon conversions to CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} ranged from zero to 9.5% for SWs and 17.1 to 28.5% for HWs. When lipophilic or hydrophilic compounds present in some of the HW and SW samples were extracted, some samples showed increased biochemical methane potentials (BMPs). The average CH{sub 4} yield, carbon conversion, and CSF measured here, 59.4 mL CH{sub 4} g{sup −1} dry material, 13.9%, and 0.39 g carbon stored g{sup −1} dry material, respectively, represent reasonable values for use in greenhouse gas inventories in the absence of detailed wood type/species data for landfilled yard waste. - Highlights: • Characterized biodegradation of branches under simulated but optimized landfill conditions • Observed varied biodegradation between HW and SW branches with different diameters • Inhibitory extractives were observed on boughs or twigs of some branch species. • CH{sub 4} yield and carbon storage factors presented for use in landfill related inventories.

  2. Petroleum residues degradation in laboratory-scale by rhizosphere bacteria isolated from the mangrove ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinanti, A.; Nainggolan, I. J.

    2018-01-01

    This research is about petroleum bioremediation experiment to obtain bacterial isolate from mangrove ecosystem which potentially degrade petroleum. It was conducted in an Erlenmeyer batch system filled with growth medium of Stone Mineral Salt Solution (SMSS) plus petroleum residue, placed in an incubator shaker with a rotation speed of 120 rpm, temperature 3000C, for 14 research days. Indigenous bacteria that have been isolated and identified from the roots of mangrove plants are Ochrobactrum anthropi and Bacillus sp., Ralstonia pickettii and Bacillus circulans. Those bacteriain both monoculture and consortium form (mixed culture) are incorporated into erlenmeyer as remediator agents. All bacteria can utilize hydrocarbon compounds, but Ralstonia pickettii and Bacillus circulans reached exponential phase faster with more cell count than other bacteria. Compared to single cultures, petroleum degradation by a bacterial consortium provides a higher TPH reduction efficiency, i.e. at 5%, 10%, and 15% of initial TPH of 94.4%, 72%, and 80.3%, respectively. This study proved that all bacteria could optimize hydrocarbon compounds up to 15% TPH load.

  3. Decomposition and carbon storage of hardwood and softwood branches in laboratory-scale landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Barlaz, Morton A.

    2016-01-01

    Tree branches are an important component of yard waste disposed in U.S. municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The objective of this study was to characterize the anaerobic biodegradability of hardwood (HW) and softwood (SW) branches under simulated but optimized landfill conditions by measuring methane (CH_4) yields, decay rates, the decomposition of cellulose, hemicellulose and organic carbon, as well as carbon storage factors (CSFs). Carbon conversions to CH_4 and CO_2 ranged from zero to 9.5% for SWs and 17.1 to 28.5% for HWs. When lipophilic or hydrophilic compounds present in some of the HW and SW samples were extracted, some samples showed increased biochemical methane potentials (BMPs). The average CH_4 yield, carbon conversion, and CSF measured here, 59.4 mL CH_4 g"−"1 dry material, 13.9%, and 0.39 g carbon stored g"−"1 dry material, respectively, represent reasonable values for use in greenhouse gas inventories in the absence of detailed wood type/species data for landfilled yard waste. - Highlights: • Characterized biodegradation of branches under simulated but optimized landfill conditions • Observed varied biodegradation between HW and SW branches with different diameters • Inhibitory extractives were observed on boughs or twigs of some branch species. • CH_4 yield and carbon storage factors presented for use in landfill related inventories.

  4. Observation of time dependent dispersion in laboratory scale experiments with intact tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundberg, R.S.; Triay, I.R.; Ott, M.A.; Mitchell, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    The migration of radionuclides through intact tuff was studied using tuff from Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The tuff samples were both highly zeolitized ash-fall tuff from the Calico Hills and densely welded devitrified tuff from the Topopah Springs member of the Paintbrush tuff. Tritiated water and pertechnetate were used as conservative tracers. The sorbing tracers 85 Sr, 137 Cs, and 133 Ba were used with the devitrified tuff only. Greater tailing in the elution curves of the densely welded tuff samples was observed that could be fit by adjusting the dispersion coefficient in the conventional Advection Dispersion Equation, ADE. The curves could be fit using time dependent dispersion as was previously observed for sediments and alluvium by Dieulin, Matheron, and de Marsily. The peak of strontium concentration was expected to arrive after 1.5 years based on the conventional ADE and assuming a linear K d of 26 ml/g. The observed elution had significant strontium in the first sample taken at 2 weeks after injection. The peak in the strontium elution occurred at 5 weeks. The correct arrival time for the strontium peak was achieved using a one dimensional analytic solution with time dependent dispersion. The dispersion coefficient as a function of time used to fit the conservative tracers was found to predict the peak arrival of the sorbing tracers. The K d used was the K d determined by the batch method on crushed tuff. 23 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Laboratory-Scale SuperLig 639 Column Tests With Hanford Waste Simulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, William D.; Spencer, William A.; Bussey, Myra Pettis

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the results of SuperLig 639 column tests conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) in support of the Hanford River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP). The RPP-WTP contract was awarded to Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) for the design, construction, and initial operation of a plant for the treatment and vitrification of millions of gallons of radioactive waste currently stored in tanks at Hanford, WA. Part of the current treatment process involves the removal of technetium from tank supernate solutions using columns containing SuperLig 639 resin. This report is part of a body of work intended to quantify and optimize the operation of the technetium removal columns with regard to various parameters (such as liquid flow rate, column aspect ratio, resin particle size, loading and elution temperature, etc.). The tests were conducted using nonradioactive simulants of the actual tank waste samples containing rhenium as a surrogate for the technetium in the actual waste. A previous report focused on the impacts of liquid flow rate and column aspect ratio upon performance. More recent studies have focused on the impacts of resin particle size, solution composition, and temperature. This report describes column loading experiments conducted varying temperature and solution composition. Each loading experiment was followed by high temperature elution of the sorbed rhenium. Results from limited testing are also described which were intended to evaluate the physical stability of SuperLig 639 resin during exposure to repeated temperature cycles covering the range of potential processing extremes

  6. Web Geometry Laboratory: Case Studies in Portugal and Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Vanda; Quaresma, Pedro; Maric, Milena; Campos, Helena

    2018-01-01

    The role of information and communication technologies (ICT) in education is well recognised--learning environments where the ICT features included are being proposed for many years now. The Web Geometry Laboratory (WGL) innovates in proposing a blended learning, collaborative and adaptive learning Web-environment for geometry. It integrates a…

  7. Waste management study: Process development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the present Toxic Waste Control Operations at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, evaluates the technologies most applicable to the treatment of toxic and hazardous wastes and presents conceptual designs of processes for the installation of a new decontamination and waste treatment facility (DWTF) for future treatment of these wastes

  8. Shining light on interstellar matter : a laboratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paardekooper, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years it has become clear that the space in between the stars, contains a remarkable amount of highly diverse molecules, ranging from simple diatomics to large complex species. Astronomical observations and dedicated laboratory experiments show that icy dust grains play a prominent role in

  9. Case study: improving efficiency in a large hospital laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Marilynn

    2004-01-01

    Saint Francis Health System (SFHS) consists of three hospitals and one clinic: Saint Francis Hospital (SFH); Broken Arrow Medical Center; Laureate Psychiatric Hospital; and Warren Clinic. SFHS has 670 physicians on staff and serves medical (oncology, orthopedic, neurology, and renal), surgical, cardiac, women and infant, pediatric, transplant, and trauma patients in Tulsa County, Oklahoma, which has a population of 660,000. SFH incorporates 706 staffed beds, including 126 pediatric beds and 119 critical care beds. Each year, the health system averages 38,000 admissions, 70,000 emergency department visits, 25,000 surgeries, and 3,500 births. Saint Francis Laboratory is located within the main hospital facility (SFH) and functions as a core lab for the health system. The lab also coordinates lab services with Saint Francis Heart Hospital, a physician-system joint venture. The Optimal Equipment Configuration (OEC) Project was designed by the Clinical Laboratory Services division of Premier, a group purchasing organization, with the goal of determining whether laboratories could improve efficiency and decrease unit cost by using a single-source vendor. Participants included seven business partners (Abbott, Bayer, Beckman/Coulter, Dade/Behring, J&J/ Ortho, Olympus, and Roche) and 21 laboratory sites (a small, mid-sized, and large site for each vendor). SFH laboratory staff embraced Premier's concept and viewed the OEC project as an opportunity to "energize" laboratory operations. SFH partnered with Abbott, their primary equipment vendor, for the project. Using resources and tools made available through the project, the laboratory was re-engineered to simplify workflow, increase productivity, and decrease costs by adding automation and changing to centralized specimen processing. Abbott and SFH shared a common vision for the project and enhanced their partnership through increased communication and problem solving. Abbott's area representatives provided for third

  10. SMR Re-Scaling and Modeling for Load Following Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, K.; Wu, Q.; Bragg-Sitton, S.

    2016-11-01

    This study investigates the creation of a new set of scaling parameters for the Oregon State University Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR) scaled thermal hydraulic test facility. As part of a study being undertaken by Idaho National Lab involving nuclear reactor load following characteristics, full power operations need to be simulated, and therefore properly scaled. Presented here is the scaling analysis and plans for RELAP5-3D simulation.

  11. Guidelines for the scale-up of an aqueous ceramic process: a case study of statistical process control

    OpenAIRE

    Mortara, L.; Alcock, Jeffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Process-scale up is the change from a feasibility study in a laboratory to a full-scale prototype production process. It is an important issue for the ceramics industry, but has been the subject of relatively little systematic research. This paper will show how certain manufacturing concepts used in a number of industries - can be applied to the scale up of a feasibility study level, aqueous tape casting process. In particular, it examines the elements of process standardisa...

  12. Toddler physical activity study: laboratory and community studies to evaluate accelerometer validity and correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin R. Hager

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toddlerhood is an important age for physical activity (PA promotion to prevent obesity and support a physically active lifestyle throughout childhood. Accurate assessment of PA is needed to determine trends/correlates of PA, time spent in sedentary, light, or moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA, and the effectiveness of PA promotion programs. Due to the limited availability of objective measures that have been validated and evaluated for feasibility in community studies, it is unclear which subgroups of toddlers are at the highest risk for inactivity. Using Actical ankle accelerometry, the objectives of this study are to develop valid thresholds, examine feasibility, and examine demographic/ anthropometric PA correlates of MVPA among toddlers from low-income families. Methods Two studies were conducted with toddlers (12–36 months. Laboratory Study (n = 24- Two Actical accelerometers were placed on the ankle. PA was observed using the Child Activity Rating Scale (CARS, prescribed activities. Analyses included device equivalence reliability (correlation: activity counts of two Acticals, criterion-related validity (correlation: activity counts and CARS ratings, and sensitivity/specificity for thresholds. Community Study (n = 277, low-income mother-toddler dyads recruited- An Actical was worn on the ankle for > 7 days (goal >5, 24-h days. Height/weight was measured. Mothers reported demographics. Analyses included frequencies (feasibility and stepwise multiple linear regression (sMLR. Results Laboratory Study- Acticals demonstrated reliability (r = 0.980 and validity (r = 0.75. Thresholds demonstrated sensitivity (86 % and specificity (88 %. Community Study- 86 % wore accelerometer, 69 % had valid data (mean = 5.2 days. Primary reasons for missing/invalid data: refusal (14 % and wear-time ≤2 days (11 %. The MVPA threshold (>2200 cpm yielded 54 min/day. In sMLR, MVPA was associated with age (older

  13. Prediction of required ozone dosage for pilot recirculating aquaculture systems based on laboratory studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Rojas-Tirado, Paula Andrea; Kaarsholm, Kamilla Marie Speht

    2017-01-01

    In recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), the water quality changes continuously. Organic and inorganic compounds accumulates creating toxic conditions for the farmed organisms. Ozone improves water quality diminishing significantly both bacteria load and dissolved organic matter. However......, in a non-meticulously designed system, residual ozone might reach the culture tanks causing significant harm to cultured species or excess costs. The aim of the study was to predict the suitable ozone dosage in pilot RAS, for water treatment purposes, based on laboratory studies. The ozone effect on water...... quality of freshwater RAS and system’s ozone demand was investigated. Bench-scale ozonation experiments revealed the ozone demand of the system to be 180 mg O3/h. Three different ozone dosages were applied to four replicated systems with fixed feed loading (1.56 kg feed/m3 make up water). Results...

  14. Laboratory Scale Prototype of a Low-Speed Electrodynamic Levitation System Based on a Halbach Magnet Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniguez, J.; Raposo, V.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the behaviour of a small-scale model of a magnetic levitation system based on the Inductrack concept. Drag and lift forces acting on our prototype, moving above a continuous copper track, are studied analytically following a simple low-speed approach. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical…

  15. Laboratory studies of imitation/field studies of tradition: towards a synthesis in animal social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galef, Bennett G

    2015-03-01

    Here I discuss: (1) historical precedents that have resulted in comparative psychologists accepting the two-action method as the "gold standard" in laboratory investigations of imitation learning, (2) evidence suggesting that the two-action procedure may not be adequate to answer questions concerning the role of imitation in the development of traditional behaviors of animals living in natural habitat, and (3) an alternative approach to the laboratory study of imitation that might increase the relevance of laboratory studies of imitation to the work of behavioral ecologists/primatologists interested in animal traditions and their relationship to human cumulative culture. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tribute to Tom Zentall. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by bacterial consortium from excess sludge fermentation liquid at laboratory and pilot scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qianqian; Xiong, Huilei; Wang, Hui; Shi, Hanchang; Sheng, Xinying; Sun, Run; Chen, Guoqiang

    2014-11-01

    The generation of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) from excess sludge fermentation liquid (SFL) was studied at lab and pilot scale. A PHA-accumulated bacterial consortium (S-150) was isolated from activated sludge using simulated SFL (S-SFL) contained high concentration volatile fatty acids (VFA) and nitrogen. The maximal PHA content accounted for 59.18% in S-SFL and dropped to 23.47% in actual SFL (L-SFL) of the dry cell weight (DCW) at lab scale. The pilot-scale integrated system comprised an anaerobic fermentation reactor (AFR), a ceramic membrane system (CMS) and a PHA production bio-reactor (PHAR). The PHA content from pilot-scale SFL (P-SFL) finally reached to 59.47% DCW with the maximal PHA yield coefficient (YP/S) of 0.17 g PHA/g COD. The results indicated that VFA-containing SFL was suitable for PHA production. The adverse impact of excess nitrogen and non-VFAs in SFL might be eliminated by pilot-scale domestication, which might resulted in community structure optimization and substrate selective ability improvement of S-150. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Atomic nuclei: a laboratory for the study of complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Y.; Suraud, E.

    1993-01-01

    The nucleus is a mandatory step in the understanding of nature, between elementary particles and atoms and molecules. To what extent might it be understood with the help of complexity viewpoints. Conversely, could the atomic nucleus provide a laboratory for understanding the behaviour of 'complex' systems. The purpose of this note is to capitalize on the fad for complexity and claim that nuclear physics is an excellent choice to do physics of complex systems...without getting lost

  18. Laboratory studies of photoionized plasma related to astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Peiqiang; Wang Feilu; Zhao Gang

    2011-01-01

    Photoionized plasma is universal in astronomy and has great importance on account of its close relation to compact astrophysical objects such as black holes. Recently, with the development of high energy density lasers and Z-pinch facilities, it has become possible to simulate astronomical photoionized plasma in the laboratory. These experiments help us to benchmark and modify the photoionization models, and to understand the photoionization processes to diagnose related astronomical plasma environments. (authors)

  19. Alternatives to Pyrotechnic Distress Signals; Laboratory and Field Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    distance for positive identity and location. The spectral characteristics (“color”) of the light are important, as daytime and nighttime vision are most...ambient illumination. Figure 10. Laboratory setup. 5.2.1 Projector Specifications The scene projector was a Panasonic PT-AE80000U home cinema ...three were identical to lab signals: 4Hz group/interrupt in white, red, and cyan. For the field testing, experimenters mounted the signal generator

  20. Design of laboratory and animal housing unit for radionuclide studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The design of a combined analytical laboratory and animal housing facility is discussed. By having sample processing facilities in close proximity to the experimental animals, the necessity for transporting biological specimens long distances has been curtailed. In addition, complete radionuclide counting equipment has been installed so that samples need not leave the animal housing site for analysis, a feature based on radiological health requirements. (U.S.)

  1. Perceived Coach Attitudes and Behaviors Scale: Development and Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üzüm, Hanifi; Karli, Ünal; Yildiz, Nuh Osman

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a scale, which will serve to determine how attitudes and behaviors of the coaches are perceived by the athletes. The scale, named as "Perceived Coach Attitudes and Behaviors Scale" (PCABS) was developed through various processes including exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Following the…

  2. Linking Aerosol Optical Properties Between Laboratory, Field, and Model Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, S. M.; Pokhrel, R. P.; Foster, K. A.; Brown, H.; Liu, X.

    2017-12-01

    The optical properties of aerosol emissions from biomass burning have a significant impact on the Earth's radiative balance. Based on measurements made during the Fourth Fire Lab in Missoula Experiment, our group published a series of parameterizations that related optical properties (single scattering albedo and absorption due to brown carbon at multiple wavelengths) to the elemental to total carbon ratio of aerosols emitted from biomass burning. In this presentation, the ability of these parameterizations to simulate the optical properties of ambient aerosol is assessed using observations collected in 2017 from our mobile laboratory chasing wildfires in the Western United States. The ambient data includes measurements of multi-wavelength absorption, scattering, and extinction, size distribution, chemical composition, and volatility. In addition to testing the laboratory parameterizations, this combination of measurements allows us to assess the ability of core-shell Mie Theory to replicate observations and to assess the impact of brown carbon and mixing state on optical properties. Finally, both laboratory and ambient data are compared to the optical properties generated by a prominent climate model (Community Earth System Model (CESM) coupled with the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 5)). The discrepancies between lab observations, ambient observations and model output will be discussed.

  3. Large scale study of tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodart, F.; Deconninck, G.; Martin, M.T.

    Human tooth enamel contains traces of foreign elements. The presence of these elements is related to the history and the environment of the human body and can be considered as the signature of perturbations which occur during the growth of a tooth. A map of the distribution of these traces on a large scale sample of the population will constitute a reference for further investigations of environmental effects. On hundred eighty samples of teeth were first analyzed using PIXE, backscattering and nuclear reaction techniques. The results were analyzed using statistical methods. Correlations between O, F, Na, P, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Sr were observed and cluster analysis was in progress. The techniques described in the present work have been developed in order to establish a method for the exploration of very large samples of the Belgian population. (author)

  4. A scaling study of the step scaling function of quenched QCD with improved gauge actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, S.; Aoki, S.; Fukugita, M.; Ishikawa, K-I.; Ishizuka, N.; Iwasaki, Y.; Kanaya, K.; Kaneko, T.; Kuramashi, Y.; Okawa, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Ukawa, A.; Yoshie, T.

    2005-01-01

    We study the scaling behavior of the step scaling function for SU(3) gauge theory, employing the Iwasaki gauge action and the Luescher-Weisz gauge action. In particular, we test the choice of boundary counter terms and apply a perturbative procedure for removal of lattice artifacts for the simulation results in the extrapolation procedure. We confirm the universality of the step scaling functions at both weak and strong coupling regions. We also measure the low energy scale ratio with the Iwasaki action, and confirm its universality

  5. Induction of mutation in Trichoderma viride and on laboratory-scale conversion of natural cellulose into fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahoun, M.K.; Khalil, A.; Helmi, S.; Khairy, A.H.

    1990-01-01

    Mutants of Trichoderma viride ATCC 32630 were obtained by uv-irradiation (2,400 erg/mm 2 (240 J/m 2 )) for 60 s of conidia suspension to 6% survivors. The mutants were selected on the basis of their capacity to convert cellulose into reducing sugars. Six of the selected mutants revealed higher avicelase activity 0.0365, 0.0375, 0.0385, 0.0475, 0.0565, and 0.0605 μmol reducing sugars/ml/min than the wild type 0.033 μmol reducing sugars/ml/min. While five mutants exhibited higher CMCase activity values 4.35, 4.58, 4.61, 4.91, and 5.74 μmol reducing sugars/ml/min as compared with the parent strain 3.76 μmol reducing sugars/ml/min. However, only one mutant gave 29.95 μmol P-nitrophenol/ml/min compared to the wild strain 21.0 μmol P-nitrophenol/ml/min. Hydrolysis of natural cellulose (rice straw) and cellulose powder on a laboratory scale by the cell-free extract of A. niger, T. viride, or the mixture of both, indicated the superiority of T. viride liquid culture filtrate and the mixture of the culture filtrate of the two fungi species, in the saccharification of the cellulosic materials tested

  6. Comparison of glassy slag waste forms produced in laboratory crucibles and in a bench-scale plasma furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Brown, N.R.; Gong, M.; Whitworth, C.; Filius, K.; Battleson, D.

    1994-01-01

    Vitrification is currently the best demonstrated available technology for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. An innovative vitrification approach known as minimum additive waste stabilization (MAWS) is being developed. Both homogeneous glass and glassy slags have been used in implementing MAWS. Glassy slags (vitro-ceramics) are glass-crystal composites, and they are composed of various metal oxide crystalline phases embedded in an aluminosilicate glass matrix. Glassy slags with compositions developed in crucible melts at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) were successfully produced in a bench-scale Retech plasma centrifugal furnace (PCF) by MSE, Inc. Detailed examinations of these materials showed that the crucible melts and the PCF produced similar glass and crystalline phases. The two sets of glassy slags exhibited similar chemical durability in terms of normalized releases of their major components. The slags produced in the PCF furnace using metals were usually less oxidized, although this had no effect on the corrosion behavior of the major components of the slags. However, the normalized release rate of cerium was initially lower for the PCF slags. This difference diminished with time as the redox sates of the metal oxides in slags began to be controlled by exposure to air in the tests. Thus, the deference in cerium release due to the differences in slag redox state may be transitory. The cerium solubility is a complex function of redox state and solution pH and Eh

  7. Cellular burning in lean premixed turbulent hydrogen-air flames: Coupling experimental and computational analysis at the laboratory scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, M S; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E; Lijewski, M J; Cheng, R K; Tachibana, S

    2009-01-01

    One strategy for reducing US dependence on petroleum is to develop new combustion technologies for burning the fuel-lean mixtures of hydrogen or hydrogen-rich syngas fuels obtained from the gasification of coal and biomass. Fuel-flexible combustion systems based on lean premixed combustion have the potential for dramatically reducing pollutant emissions in transportation systems, heat and stationary power generation. However, lean premixed flames are highly susceptible to fluid-dynamical combustion instabilities making robust and reliable systems difficult to design. Low swirl burners are emerging as an important technology for meeting design requirements in terms of both reliability and emissions for next generation combustion devices. In this paper, we present simulations of a lean, premixed hydrogen flame stabilized on a laboratory-scale low swirl burner. The simulations use detailed chemistry and transport without incorporating explicit models for turbulence or turbulence/chemistry interaction. Here we discuss the overall structure of the flame and compare with experimental data. We also use the simulation data to elucidate the characteristics of the turbulent flame interaction and how this impacts the analysis of experimental measurements.

  8. Fumigation of a laboratory-scale HVAC system with hydrogen peroxide for decontamination following a biological contamination incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K M; Calfee, M W; Wood, J P; Mickelsen, L; Attwood, B; Clayton, M; Touati, A; Delafield, R

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate hydrogen peroxide vapour (H2 O2 ) for its ability to inactivate Bacillus spores within a laboratory-scale heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) duct system. Experiments were conducted in a closed-loop duct system, constructed of either internally lined or unlined galvanized metal. Bacterial spores were aerosol-deposited onto 18-mm-diameter test material coupons and strategically placed at several locations within the duct environment. Various concentrations of H2 O2 and exposure times were evaluated to determine the sporicidal efficacy and minimum exposure needed for decontamination. For the unlined duct, high variability was observed in the recovery of spores between sample locations, likely due to complex, unpredictable flow patterns within the ducts. In comparison, the lined duct exhibited a significant desorption of the H2 O2 following the fumigant dwell period and thus resulted in complete decontamination at all sampling locations. These findings suggest that decontamination of Bacillus spore-contaminated unlined HVAC ducts by hydrogen peroxide fumigation may require more stringent conditions (higher concentrations, longer dwell duration) than internally insulated ductwork. These data may help emergency responders when developing remediation plans during building decontamination. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Sulphur transformation and deposition in the rhizosphere of Juncus effusus in a laboratory-scale constructed wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiessner, A.; Kuschk, P.; Jechorek, M.; Seidel, H.; Kaestner, M.

    2008-01-01

    Sulphur cycling and its correlation to removal processes under dynamic redox conditions in the rhizosphere of helophytes in treatment wetlands are poorly understood. Therefore, long-term experiments were performed in laboratory-scale constructed wetlands treating artificial domestic wastewater in order to investigate the dynamics of sulphur compounds, the responses of plants and nitrifying microorganisms under carbon surplus conditions, and the generation of methane. For carbon surplus conditions (carbon:sulphate of 2.8:1) sulphate reduction happened but was repressed, in contrast to unplanted filters mentioned in literature. Doubling the carbon load caused stable and efficient sulphate reduction, rising of pH, increasing enrichment of S 2- and S 0 in pore water, and finally plant death and inhibition of nitrification by sulphide toxicity. The data show a clear correlation of the occurrence of reduced S-species with decreasing C and N removal performance and plant viability in the experimental constructed wetlands. - In an experimental constructed wetland a clear correlation of the occurrence of reduced S-species with decreasing C and N removal performance and plant viability was observed

  10. Results of HWVP transuranic process waste treatment laboratory and pilot-scale filtration tests using specially ground zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakin, D.E.

    1996-03-01

    Process waste streams from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) may require treatment for cesium, strontium, and transuranic (TRU) element removal in order to meet criteria for incorporation in grout. The approach planned for cesium and strontium removal is ion exchange using a zeolite exchanger followed by filtration. Filtration using a pneumatic hydropulse filter is planned to remove TRU elements which are associated with process solids and to also remove zeolite bearing the cesium and strontium. The solids removed during filtration are recycled to the melter feed system to be incorporated into the HWVP glass product. Fluor Daniel, Inc., the architect-engineering firm for HWVP, recommended a Pneumatic Hydropulse (PHP) filter manufactured by Mott Metallurgical Corporation for use in the HWVP. The primary waste streams considered for application of zeolite contact and filtration are melter off-gas condensate from the submerged bed scrubber (SBS), and equipment decontamination solutions from the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT). Other waste streams could be treated depending on TRU element and radionuclide content. Laboratory and pilot-scale filtration tests were conducted to provide a preliminary assessment of the adequacy of the recommended filter for application to HWVP waste treatment

  11. Pilot-Scale Laboratory Instruction for Chemical Engineering: The Specific Case of the Pilot-Unit Leading Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billet, Anne-Marie; Camy, Severine; Coufort-Saudejaud, Carole

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an original approach for Chemical Engineering laboratory teaching that is currently applied at INP-ENSIACET (France). This approach, referred to as "pilot-unit leading group" is based on a partial management of the laboratories by the students themselves who become temporarily in charge of one specific laboratory. In…

  12. Concentration and solidification of liquid radioactive wastes. Laboratory studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuche Vazquez, F.; Lora Soria, F. de

    1969-01-01

    Bench scale runs on concentration of intermediate level radioactive wastes, and incorporation of the concentrates in asphalt, are described. The feasibility of the process has been demonstrated, with a maximum incorporation of 60 percent of salts into the asphaltic matrix and a volume reduction factor of 10. (Author) 14 refs

  13. Benchmarking numerical codes for tracer transport with the aid of laboratory-scale experiments in 2D heterogeneous porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Fadji Hassane; Ackerer, Philippe; Younes, Anis; Guadagnini, Alberto; Berkowitz, Brian

    2017-06-07

    We present a combined experimental and numerical modeling study that addresses two principal questions: (i) is any particular Eulerian-based method used to solve the classical advection-dispersion equation (ADE) clearly superior (relative to the others), in terms of yielding solutions that reproduce BTCs of the kind that are typically sampled at the outlet of a laboratory cell? and (ii) in the presence of matches of comparable quality against such BTCs, do any of these methods render different (or similar) numerical BTCs at locations within the domain? To address these questions, we obtained measurements from carefully controlled laboratory experiments, and employ them as a reference against which numerical results are benchmarked and compared. The experiments measure solute transport breakthrough curves (BTCs) through a square domain containing various configurations of coarse, medium, and fine quartz sand. The approaches to solve the ADE involve Eulerian-Lagrangian and Eulerian (finite volume, finite elements, mixed and discontinuous finite elements) numerical methods. Model calibration is not examined; permeability and porosity of each sand were determined previously through separate, standard laboratory tests, while dispersivities are assigned values proportional to mean grain size. We find that the spatial discretization of the flow field is of critical importance, due to the non-uniformity of the domain. Although simulated BTCs at the system outlet are observed to be very similar for these various numerical methods, computed local (point-wise, inside the domain) BTCs can be very different. We find that none of the numerical methods is able to fully reproduce the measured BTCs. The impact of model parameter uncertainty on the calculated BTCs is characterized through a set of numerical Monte Carlo simulations; in cases where the impact is significant, assessment of simulation matches to the experimental data can be ambiguous. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  14. Feed process studies: Research-Scale Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittington, K.F.; Seiler, D.K.; Luey, J.; Vienna, J.D.; Sliger, W.A.

    1996-09-01

    In support of a two-phase approach to privatizing the processing of hazardous and radioactive waste at Hanford, research-scale melter (RSM) experiments were conducted to determine feed processing characteristics of two potential privatization Phase 1 high-level waste glass formulations and to determine if increased Ag, Te, and noble metal amounts would have bad effects. Effects of feed compositions and process conditions were examined for processing rate, cold cap behavior, off-gas, and glass properties. The 2 glass formulations used were: NOM-2 with adjusted waste loading (all components except silica and soda) of 25 wt%, and NOM-3 (max waste loaded glass) with adjusted waste loading of 30 wt%. The 25 wt% figure is the minimum required in the privatization Request for Proposal. RSM operated for 19 days (5 runs). 1010 kg feed was processed, producing 362 kg glass. Parts of runs 2 and 3 were run at 10 to 30 degrees above the nominal temperature 1150 C, with the most significant processing rate increase in run 3. Processing observations led to the choice of NOM-3 for noble metal testing in runs 4 and 5. During noble metal testing, processing rates fell 50% from baseline. Destructive analysis showed that a layer of noble metals and noble metal oxides settled on the floor of the melter, leading to current ``channeling`` which allowed the top section to cool, reducing production rates.

  15. Feed process studies: Research-Scale Melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittington, K.F.; Seiler, D.K.; Luey, J.; Vienna, J.D.; Sliger, W.A.

    1996-09-01

    In support of a two-phase approach to privatizing the processing of hazardous and radioactive waste at Hanford, research-scale melter (RSM) experiments were conducted to determine feed processing characteristics of two potential privatization Phase 1 high-level waste glass formulations and to determine if increased Ag, Te, and noble metal amounts would have bad effects. Effects of feed compositions and process conditions were examined for processing rate, cold cap behavior, off-gas, and glass properties. The 2 glass formulations used were: NOM-2 with adjusted waste loading (all components except silica and soda) of 25 wt%, and NOM-3 (max waste loaded glass) with adjusted waste loading of 30 wt%. The 25 wt% figure is the minimum required in the privatization Request for Proposal. RSM operated for 19 days (5 runs). 1010 kg feed was processed, producing 362 kg glass. Parts of runs 2 and 3 were run at 10 to 30 degrees above the nominal temperature 1150 C, with the most significant processing rate increase in run 3. Processing observations led to the choice of NOM-3 for noble metal testing in runs 4 and 5. During noble metal testing, processing rates fell 50% from baseline. Destructive analysis showed that a layer of noble metals and noble metal oxides settled on the floor of the melter, leading to current ''channeling'' which allowed the top section to cool, reducing production rates

  16. Century Scale Evaporation Trend: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounoui, Lahouari

    2012-01-01

    Several climate models with different complexity indicate that under increased CO2 forcing, runoff would increase faster than precipitation overland. However, observations over large U.S watersheds indicate otherwise. This inconsistency between models and observations suggests that there may be important feedbacks between climate and land surface unaccounted for in the present generation of models. We have analyzed century-scale observed annual runoff and precipitation time-series over several United States Geological Survey hydrological units covering large forested regions of the Eastern United States not affected by irrigation. Both time-series exhibit a positive long-term trend; however, in contrast to model results, these historic data records show that the rate of precipitation increases at roughly double the rate of runoff increase. We considered several hydrological processes to close the water budget and found that none of these processes acting alone could account for the total water excess generated by the observed difference between precipitation and runoff. We conclude that evaporation has increased over the period of observations and show that the increasing trend in precipitation minus runoff is correlated to observed increase in vegetation density based on the longest available global satellite record. The increase in vegetation density has important implications for climate; it slows but does not alleviate the projected warming associated with greenhouse gases emission.

  17. Application of laboratory data from small-scale simulators to human performance issues in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spettell, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    Laboratory analogs of nuclear power plant tasks were simulated on personal computers in two experimental studies. Human performance data were collected during each experimental study. The goal of the first experiment was to validate a quantitative model of dependence among human errors during testing, calibration, and maintenance activities. This model, the Multiple Sequential Failure (MSF) model (NUREG/CR-2211) has been used to quantify dependent human error failure probabilities for human reliability analyses in Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs). The goal of the second experiment was to examine the relationship among psychological and behavioral characteristics of individuals and their performance at controlling a simulated nuclear power plant. These studies demonstrated the usefulness of the experimental psychology approach for validating models of human performance at nuclear power plant tasks

  18. Successful Sampling Strategy Advances Laboratory Studies of NMR Logging in Unconsolidated Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Ahmad A.; Knight, Rosemary; Müller-Petke, Mike; Auken, Esben; Barfod, Adrian A. S.; Ferré, Ty P. A.; Vilhelmsen, Troels N.; Johnson, Carole D.; Christiansen, Anders V.

    2017-11-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique has become popular in groundwater studies because it responds directly to the presence and mobility of water in a porous medium. There is a need to conduct laboratory experiments to aid in the development of NMR hydraulic conductivity models, as is typically done in the petroleum industry. However, the challenge has been obtaining high-quality laboratory samples from unconsolidated aquifers. At a study site in Denmark, we employed sonic drilling, which minimizes the disturbance of the surrounding material, and extracted twelve 7.6 cm diameter samples for laboratory measurements. We present a detailed comparison of the acquired laboratory and logging NMR data. The agreement observed between the laboratory and logging data suggests that the methodologies proposed in this study provide good conditions for studying NMR measurements of unconsolidated near-surface aquifers. Finally, we show how laboratory sample size and condition impact the NMR measurements.

  19. Laboratory scale prototype of a low-speed electrodynamic levitation system based on a Halbach magnet array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iniguez, J; Raposo, V

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the behaviour of a small-scale model of a magnetic levitation system based on the Inductrack concept. Drag and lift forces acting on our prototype, moving above a continuous copper track, are studied analytically following a simple low-speed approach. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculations. 3D-numerical simulations are also used to highlight the significance of the edge effects and to extrapolate the results to higher speeds

  20. Laboratory scale prototype of a low-speed electrodynamic levitation system based on a Halbach magnet array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iniguez, J; Raposo, V [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, E-37071 (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    In this paper we analyse the behaviour of a small-scale model of a magnetic levitation system based on the Inductrack concept. Drag and lift forces acting on our prototype, moving above a continuous copper track, are studied analytically following a simple low-speed approach. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculations. 3D-numerical simulations are also used to highlight the significance of the edge effects and to extrapolate the results to higher speeds.

  1. Study of polyelectrolytes for Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labonne, N.

    1994-11-01

    To assess the safety of a potential radioactive waste repository, analysis of the fluid solution containing low levels of activity need to be performed. In some cases, the radioactivity would be so weak (3--30 pCi/L) that the solution must be concentrated for measurement. For this purpose, Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists are synthesizing some water soluble polyelectrolytes, which, because they are strong complexing agents for inorganic cations, can concentrate the radioelements in solution. To assist in characterization of these polyelectrolytes, the author has performed experiments to determine physico-chemical constants, such as pKa values and stability constants. The complexation constants between both polyelectrolytes and europium were determined by two methods: solvent extraction and ion exchange. Results are presented

  2. Charged particle beam propagation studies at the Naval Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meger, R.A.; Hubbard, R.F.; Antoniades, J.A.; Fernsler, R.F.; Lampe, M.; Murphy, D.P.; Myers, M.C.; Pechacek, R.E.; Peyser, T.A.; Santos, J.; Slinker, S.P.

    1993-01-01

    The Plasma Physics Division of the Naval Research Laboratory has been performing research into the propagation of high current electron beams for 20 years. Recent efforts have focused on the stabilization of the resistive hose instability. Experiments have utilized the SuperIBEX e-beam generator (5-MeV, 100-kA, 40-ns pulse) and a 2-m diameter, 5-m long propagation chamber. Full density air propagation experiments have successfully demonstrated techniques to control the hose instability allowing stable 5-m transport of 1-2 cm radius, 10-20 kA total current beams. Analytic theory and particle simulations have been used to both guide and interpret the experimental results. This paper will provide background on the program and summarize the achievements of the NRL propagation program up to this point. Further details can be found in other papers presented in this conference

  3. Renewable Energy Laboratory Development for Biofuels Advanced Combustion Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soloiu, Valentin A. [Georgia Southern Univ., Statesboro, GA (United States)

    2012-03-31

    The research advanced fundamental science and applied engineering for increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines and meeting emissions regulations with biofuels. The project developed a laboratory with new experiments and allowed investigation of new fuels and their combustion and emissions. This project supports a sustainable domestic biofuels and automotive industry creating economic opportunities across the nation, reducing the dependence on foreign oil, and enhancing U.S. energy security. The one year period of research developed fundamental knowledge and applied technology in advanced combustion, emissions and biofuels formulation to increase vehicle's efficiency. Biofuels combustion was investigated in a Compression Ignition Direct Injection (DI) to develop idling strategies with biofuels and an Indirect Diesel Injection (IDI) intended for auxiliary power unit.

  4. Laboratory Studies of Anomalous Entrainment in Cumulus Cloud Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Sourabh S.; Narasimha, Roddam; Bhat, G. S.; Sreenivas, K. R.

    2011-12-01

    Entrainment in cumulus clouds has been a subject of investigation for the last sixty years, and continues to be a central issue in current research. The development of a laboratory facility that can simulate cumulus cloud evolution enables us to shed light on the problem. The apparatus for the purpose is based on a physical model of cloud flow as a plume with off-source diabatic heating that is dynamically similar to the effect of latent-heat release in natural clouds. We present a critical review of the experimental data so far obtained in such facilities on the variation of the entrainment coefficient in steady diabatic jets and plumes. Although there are some unexplained differences among different data sets, the dominant trend of the results compares favourably with recent numerical simulations on steady-state deep convection, and helps explain certain puzzles in the fluid dynamics of clouds.

  5. Laboratory Studies of Anomalous Entrainment in Cumulus Cloud Flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diwan, Sourabh S; Narasimha, Roddam; Sreenivas, K R; Bhat, G S

    2011-01-01

    Entrainment in cumulus clouds has been a subject of investigation for the last sixty years, and continues to be a central issue in current research. The development of a laboratory facility that can simulate cumulus cloud evolution enables us to shed light on the problem. The apparatus for the purpose is based on a physical model of cloud flow as a plume with off-source diabatic heating that is dynamically similar to the effect of latent-heat release in natural clouds. We present a critical review of the experimental data so far obtained in such facilities on the variation of the entrainment coefficient in steady diabatic jets and plumes. Although there are some unexplained differences among different data sets, the dominant trend of the results compares favourably with recent numerical simulations on steady-state deep convection, and helps explain certain puzzles in the fluid dynamics of clouds.

  6. Estimating porosity and solid dielectric permittivity in the Miami Limestone using high-frequency ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements at the laboratory scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Gregory J.; Comas, Xavier

    2014-10-01

    Subsurface water flow in South Florida is largely controlled by the heterogeneous nature of the karst limestone in the Biscayne aquifer and its upper formation, the Miami Limestone. These heterogeneities are amplified by dissolution structures that induce changes in the aquifer's material and physical properties (i.e., porosity and dielectric permittivity) and create preferential flow paths. Understanding such patterns are critical for the development of realistic groundwater flow models, particularly in the Everglades, where restoration of hydrological conditions is intended. In this work, we used noninvasive ground penetrating radar (GPR) to estimate the spatial variability in porosity and the dielectric permittivity of the solid phase of the limestone at centimeter-scale resolution to evaluate the potential for field-based GPR studies. A laboratory setup that included high-frequency GPR measurements under completely unsaturated and saturated conditions was used to estimate changes in electromagnetic wave velocity through Miami Limestone samples. The Complex Refractive Index Model was used to derive estimates of porosity and dielectric permittivity of the solid phase of the limestone. Porosity estimates of the samples ranged between 45.2 and 66.0% and showed good correspondence with estimates of porosity using analytical and digital image techniques. Solid dielectric permittivity values ranged between 7.0 and 13.0. This study shows the ability of GPR to image the spatial variability of porosity and dielectric permittivity in the Miami Limestone and shows potential for expanding these results to larger scales and other karst aquifers.

  7. A large-scale study of misophonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouw, R.; Erfanian, M.

    2018-01-01

    Objective We aim to elucidate misophonia, a condition in which particular sounds elicit disproportionally strong aversive reactions. Method A large online study extensively surveyed personal, developmental, and clinical characteristics of over 300 misophonics. Results Most participants indicated

  8. Study on high density multi-scale calculation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Nakada, H.; Nishikawa, T.; Yamamoto, N.; Yokokawa, M.

    2004-01-01

    To understand degradation of nuclear materials under irradiation, it is essential to know as much about each phenomenon observed from multi-scale points of view; they are micro-scale in atomic-level, macro-level in structural scale and intermediate level. In this study for application to meso-scale materials (100A ∼ 2μm), computer technology approaching from micro- and macro-scales was developed including modeling and computer application using computational science and technology method. And environmental condition of grid technology for multi-scale calculation was prepared. The software and MD (molecular dynamics) stencil for verifying the multi-scale calculation were improved and their movement was confirmed. (A. Hishinuma)

  9. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN HOMOLOGUE CONCENTRATIONS OF PCDD/FS AND TOXIC EQUIVALENCY VALUES IN LABORATORY-, PACKAGE BOILER-, AND FIELD-SCALE INCINERATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The toxic equivalency (TEQ) values of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are predicted with a model based on the homologue concentrations measured from a laboratory-scale reactor (124 data points), a package boiler (61 data points), and ...

  10. A SIMPLE METHOD TO CONTROL THE MOISTURE CONTENT OF THE FERMENTING MEDIUM DURING LABORATORY-SCALE SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. BORZANI

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available When the moisture content of the fermenting medium significantly decreases during laboratory-scale solid-state fermentation tests, the quantity of water to be periodically added to the medium in order to control its moisture content may be evaluated from the water evaporation rate of the non-inoculated medium.

  11. A reliability and utility study of the Care Dependency Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A.; Buist, G.; Moorer, P.; Dassen, T.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and utility of the Care Dependency Scale (CDS). This 15-item scale has been developed recently for assessing the care dependency of demented or menially handicapped inpatients. Data for this study were collected from 153 demented and 139

  12. A Factor Analytic Study of the Internet Usage Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monetti, David M.; Whatley, Mark A.; Hinkle, Kerry T.; Cunningham, Kerry T.; Breneiser, Jennifer E.; Kisling, Rhea

    2011-01-01

    This study developed an Internet Usage Scale (IUS) for use with adolescent populations. The IUS is a 26-item scale that measures participants' beliefs about how their Internet usage impacts their behavior. The sample for this study consisted of 947 middle school students. An exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation was conducted on the…

  13. Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  14. Radioactive waste incineration studies at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stretz, L.A.; Borduin, L.C.; Draper, W.E.; Koenig, R.A.; Newmyer, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    Development and demonstration of a transuranic (TRU) waste volume-reduction process is described. A controlled-air incinerator, based upon commercially available equipment and technology, was modified for radioactive service and was successfully tested and demonstrated with contaminated waste. Demonstration of the production-scale unit was completed in May 1980 with the incineration of 272 kg of waste with an average TRU content of about 20 nCi/g. Weight and volume reduction factors for the demonstration run were 40:1 and 120:1, respectively

  15. Recent H- diagnostics, plasma simulations, and 2X scaled Penning ion source developments at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrie, S. R.; Faircloth, D. C.; Smith, J. D.; Sarmento, T. M.; Whitehead, M. O.; Wood, T.; Perkins, M.; Macgregor, J.; Abel, R.

    2018-05-01

    A vessel for extraction and source plasma analyses is being used for Penning H- ion source development at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. A new set of optical elements including an einzel lens has been installed, which transports over 80 mA of H- beam successfully. Simultaneously, a 2X scaled Penning source has been developed to reduce cathode power density. The 2X source is now delivering a 65 mA H- ion beam at 10% duty factor, meeting its design criteria. The long-term viability of the einzel lens and 2X source is now being evaluated, so new diagnostic devices have been installed. A pair of electrostatic deflector plates is used to correct beam misalignment and perform fast chopping, with a voltage rise time of 24 ns. A suite of four quartz crystal microbalances has shown that the cesium flux in the vacuum vessel is only increased by a factor of two, despite the absence of a dedicated cold trap. Finally, an infrared camera has demonstrated good agreement with thermal simulations but has indicated unexpected heating due to beam loss on the downstream electrode. These types of diagnostics are suitable for monitoring all operational ion sources. In addition to experimental campaigns and new diagnostic tools, the high-performance VSim and COMSOL software packages are being used for plasma simulations of two novel ion thrusters for space propulsion applications. In parallel, a VSim framework has been established to include arbitrary temperature and cesium fields to allow the modeling of surface physics in H- ion sources.

  16. Methodological and reporting quality in laboratory studies of human eating behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, E.; Bevelander, K.E.; Field, M.; Jones, A.

    2018-01-01

    The methodological quality and reporting practices of laboratory studies of human eating behavior determine the validity and replicability of nutrition science. The aim of this research was to examine basic methodology and reporting practices in recent representative laboratory studies of human

  17. Scaling studies of spheromak formation and equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geddes, C.G.; Kornack, T.W.; Brown, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    Formation and equilibrium studies have been performed on the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX). Spheromaks are formed with a magnetized coaxial plasma gun and equilibrium is established in both small (d small =0.16 m) and large (d large =3d small =0.50 m) copper flux conservers. Using magnetic probe arrays it has been verified that spheromak formation is governed solely by gun physics (in particular the ratio of gun current to flux, μ 0 I gun /Φ gun ) and is independent of the flux conserver dimensions. It has also been verified that equilibrium is well described by the force free condition ∇xB=λB (λ=constant), particularly early in decay. Departures from the force-free state are due to current profile effects described by a quadratic function λ=λ(ψ). Force-free SSX spheromaks will be merged to study magnetic reconnection in simple magnetofluid structures. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  18. How do laboratory technicians perceive their role in the tuberculosis diagnostic process? A cross-sectional study among laboratory technicians in health centers of Central Java Province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjanarko, Bagoes; Widyastari, Dyah Anantalia; Martini, Martini; Ginandjar, Praba

    2016-01-01

    Detection of acid-fast bacilli in respiratory specimens serves as an initial pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis. Laboratories are the essential and fundamental part of all health systems. This study aimed to describe how laboratory technicians perceived their own self and work. This included perceived self-efficacy, perceived role, perceived equipment availability, perceived procedures, perceived reward and job, and perceived benefit of health education, as well as level of knowledge and attitudes related to work performance of laboratory technicians. This was a cross-sectional quantitative study involving 120 laboratory technicians conducted in Central Java. Interviews and observation were conducted to measure performance and work-related variables. Among 120 laboratory technicians, 43.3% showed fairly good performance. They complied with 50%-75% of all procedures, including sputum collection, laboratory tools utilization, sputum smearing, staining, smear examination, grading of results, and universal precaution practice. Perceived role, perceived self-efficacy, and knowledge of laboratory procedures were significantly correlated to performance, besides education and years of working as a laboratory technician. Perceived equipment availability was also significantly correlated to performance after the education variable was controlled. Most of the laboratory technicians believed that they have an important role in TB patients' treatment and should display proper self-efficacy in performing laboratory activities. The result may serve as a basic consideration to develop a policy for enhancing motivation of laboratory technicians in order to improve the TB control program.

  19. Laboratory Studies of Cometary Materials - Continuity Between Asteroid and Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, Scott; Walker, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory analysis of cometary samples have been enabled by collection of cometary dust in the stratosphere by high altitude aircraft and by the direct sampling of the comet Wild-2 coma by the NASA Stardust spacecraft. Cometary materials are composed of a complex assemblage of highly primitive, unprocessed interstellar and primordial solar system materials as well as a variety of high temperature phases that must have condensed in the inner regions of the protoplanetary disk. These findings support and contradict conclusions of comet properties based solely on astronomical observations. These sample return missions have instead shown that there is a continuity of properties between comets and asteroids, where both types of materials show evidence for primitive and processed materials. Furthermore, these findings underscore the importance and value of direct sample return. There will be great value in comparing the findings of the Stardust cometary coma sample return mission with those of future asteroid surface sample returns OSIRIS-REx and Hayabusa II as well as future comet nucleus sample returns.

  20. Coarse sediment oil persistence laboratory studies and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrey, B.; Harper, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    To gain understanding of the factors which affect the fate of stranded oil on coarse sediment beaches, a series of oil penetration and tidal flushing experiments was conducted in columns containing sediments of two grain sizes: granules and pebbles. The experiments included changing oil properties by weathering and by emulsification. Factors examined included permeability, effective porosity, and residual capacity of the sediment for oil. The laboratory data provided input to an oil persistence model for coarse sediment beaches, and the model was modified on the basis of the new data. The permeability measurements suggest that the permeability of pebble/granule mixtures is close to that of the smaller component. For low viscosity oils, the permeability in coarse sediments is rapid enough to match the fall and rise of tidal water. Effective porosity of the pebbles was ca 90% of the measured porosity, but for both the granules and a 50-50 pebble/granule mixture, the effective porosity was ca 75% of measured porosity. Results of tidal flushing simulation imply that flushing may be rapid but not efficient. The emulsion completely entered the sediment in the case of pebbles only. 2 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  1. SHELTER COMPETITION BETWEEN TWO INVASIVE CRAYFISH SPECIES: A LABORATORY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALONSO F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alien crayfishes represent a common threat to aquatic ecosystems. Their spread in Europe is leading to more frequent contacts between different invasive species populations. Shelter can be an important factor in the resulting interactions. A laboratory experiment was designed to analyse the competition for shelter in similarly sized males of two species that show an invasive behaviour in Spain, Pacifastacus leniusculus and Procambarus clarkii. We carried out 24 heterospecific, six-hour trials, with 30 min behavioural observations per hour. Most often, red swamp crayfish were both the first (70.8% and the long-term winner (62.5%. Usually, the long-term winner was the first winner. Whenever shelter was occupied, a passive behaviour by unsheltered individuals was more frequent in signal crayfish than in red swamp crayfish. When both were unsheltered, signal crayfish displayed more often a passive behaviour. Although the observed behaviour might be explained as the result of dominance by the red swamp crayfish over the signal crayfish, shelter availability and class, as well as different growth patterns and population size structures, could change the intensity and the outcome of the encounters in the wild, where signal crayfish usually reach larger sizes than red swamp crayfish.

  2. Durability of pellets made from different wood fuel assortments - The effect of moisture content, particle size and temperature development during storage. A laboratory-scale study; Haallfasthet hos braenslepellets tillverkade av olika traedbraenslesortiment - betydelsen av fukthalt, fraktionsstorlek och temperaturutveckling under lagringen. En laboratoriestudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtikangas, Paeivi [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Management and Products

    2001-02-01

    Durability of fuel pellets is one of the most important quality variables. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effect of moisture content and particle size distribution on the durability of pellets made out of sawdust, logging residues and bark from Norway spruce and Scots pine. Moreover, the durability of pellets made out of logging residues which were exposed to high temperature development was investigated. Pellets were manufactured using a laboratory press CPM Europe. The determined quality parameters were moisture content, percentage of accept-pellets (percentage of pellets of the total amount of raw material), temperature and density of individual pellets. The pelleting process was controlled by monitoring the raw material input to the press, vibration and power consumption. From the results of this study the following preliminary conclusions can be drawn: * Increase moisture content and temperature during pelleting had a positive correlation with the percentage of the accept-pellets, especially concerning the bark assortments, and * Pellets made out of particles smaller than 1 mm resulted in a significantly (Student's t-test) higher percentage of accept-pellets than pellets made out of particles of 1-2 mm. Moreover, the process temperature was probably too low (max. 86 deg C) to activate softening of the lignin. A lower press temperature was sufficient to produce the same percentage of accept-pellets of fresh bark than with other raw materials. A possible reason for that is the presence of high amounts of extractives in bark, which could develop an adhesive nature during thermal treatment.

  3. A Large-Scale Study of Misophonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouw, Romke; Erfanian, Mercede

    2018-03-01

    We aim to elucidate misophonia, a condition in which particular sounds elicit disproportionally strong aversive reactions. A large online study extensively surveyed personal, developmental, and clinical characteristics of over 300 misophonics. Most participants indicated that their symptoms started in childhood or early teenage years. Severity of misophonic responses increases over time. One third of participants reported having family members with similar symptoms. Half of our participants reported no comorbid clinical conditions, and the other half reported a variety of conditions. Only posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was related to the severity of the misophonic symptoms. Remarkably, half of the participants reported experiencing euphoric, relaxing, and tingling sensations with particular sounds or sights, a relatively unfamiliar phenomenon called autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR). It is unlikely that another "real" underlying clinical, psychiatric, or psychological disorder can explain away the misophonia. The possible relationship with PTSD and ASMR warrants further investigation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Fundamental Research on Percussion Drilling: Improved rock mechanics analysis, advanced simulation technology, and full-scale laboratory investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael S. Bruno

    2005-12-31

    This report summarizes the research efforts on the DOE supported research project Percussion Drilling (DE-FC26-03NT41999), which is to significantly advance the fundamental understandings of the physical mechanisms involved in combined percussion and rotary drilling, and thereby facilitate more efficient and lower cost drilling and exploration of hard-rock reservoirs. The project has been divided into multiple tasks: literature reviews, analytical and numerical modeling, full scale laboratory testing and model validation, and final report delivery. Literature reviews document the history, pros and cons, and rock failure physics of percussion drilling in oil and gas industries. Based on the current understandings, a conceptual drilling model is proposed for modeling efforts. Both analytical and numerical approaches are deployed to investigate drilling processes such as drillbit penetration with compression, rotation and percussion, rock response with stress propagation, damage accumulation and failure, and debris transportation inside the annulus after disintegrated from rock. For rock mechanics modeling, a dynamic numerical tool has been developed to describe rock damage and failure, including rock crushing by compressive bit load, rock fracturing by both shearing and tensile forces, and rock weakening by repetitive compression-tension loading. Besides multiple failure criteria, the tool also includes a damping algorithm to dissipate oscillation energy and a fatigue/damage algorithm to update rock properties during each impact. From the model, Rate of Penetration (ROP) and rock failure history can be estimated. For cuttings transport in annulus, a 3D numerical particle flowing model has been developed with aid of analytical approaches. The tool can simulate cuttings movement at particle scale under laminar or turbulent fluid flow conditions and evaluate the efficiency of cutting removal. To calibrate the modeling efforts, a series of full-scale fluid hammer

  5. A laboratory-scale comparison of rate of spread model predictions using chaparral fuel beds – preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.R. Weise; E. Koo; X. Zhou; S. Mahalingam

    2011-01-01

    Observed fire spread rates from 240 laboratory fires in horizontally-oriented single-species live fuel beds were compared to predictions from various implementations and modifications of the Rothermel rate of spread model and a physical fire spread model developed by Pagni and Koo. Packing ratio of the laboratory fuel beds was generally greater than that observed in...

  6. Cement based grouts - longevity laboratory studies: leaching behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofrei, M.; Gray, M.; Roe, L.

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a series of laboratory tests carried out to determine the possible leaching behaviour of cement-based grouts in repository environments. A reference high-performance cement-based grout, comprised of Canadian Type 50 (U.S. Type V) Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement, silica fume, potable water and superplasticizer, and a commercially available cement grout were subjected to leaching in distilled water and three simulated groundwaters of different ionic strength. Hardened, monolithic specimens of the grout were leached in static, pulsed-flow and continuous flow conditions at temperatures from 10 degrees C to 150 degrees C for periods of up to 56 days. The changes in concentration of ions in the leachants with time were determined and the changes in the morphology of the surfaces of the grout specimens were examined using electron microscopy. After a review of possible mechanisms of degradation of cement-based materials, the data from these experiments are presented. The data show that the grouts will leach when in contact with water through dissolution of more soluble phases. Comparison of the leaching performance of the two grouts indicates that, while there are some minor differences, they behaved quite similarly. The rate of the leaching processes were found to tend to decrease with time and to be accompanied by precipitation and/or growth of an assemblage of secondary alteration phases (i.e., CaCO 3 , Mg(OH) 2 ). The mechanisms of leaching depended on the environmental conditions of temperature, groundwater composition and water flow rate. Matrix dissolution occurred. However, in many of the tests leaching was shown to be limited by the precipitated/reaction layers which acted as protective surface coatings. (37 refs.) (au)

  7. Laboratory studies of 235U enrichment by chemical separation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daloisi, P.J.; Orlett, M.J.; Tracy, J.W.; Saraceno, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on 235 U enrichment processes based on column redox ion exchange, electrodialysis, and gas exchange chromatography performed from August 1972 to September 1974 are summarized. Effluent from a 50 to 50 weight mixture of U +4 and U +6 (as UO 2 2+ ), at a total uranium concentration of 5 mg U per ml in 0.25N H 2 SO 4 -0.03N NaF solution, passing through a 100 cm length cation exchange column at 0.5 ml/min flow rates, was enriched in 235 U by 1.00090 +- .00012. The enriched fraction was mostly in the +6 valence form while the depleted fraction was U +4 retained on the resin. At flow rates of 2 ml/min, the enrichment factor decreases to 1.00033 +- .00003. In the electrodialysis experiments, the fraction of uranium diffusing through the membranes (mostly as +6 valence state) in 4.2 hours is enriched in 235 U by 1.00096 +- .00012. Gas exchange chromatography tests involved dynamic and static exposure of UF 6 over NaF. In dynamic tests, no significant change in isotopic abundance occurred in the initial one-half weight cut of UF 6 . The measured relative 235 U/ 238 U mole ratios were 1.00004 +- .00004 for these runs. In static runs, enrichment became evident. For the NaF(UF 6 )/sub x/-UF 6 system, there is 235 U depletion in the gas phase, with a single-stage factor of 1.00033 at 100 0 C and 1.00025 at 25 0 C after 10 days of equilibration. The single-stage or unit holdup time is impractically long for all three chemical processes

  8. Digital Reading Disposition Scale: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Berker; Karasakaloglu, Nuri

    2018-01-01

    In this study, "a Digital Reading Disposition Scale" was developed to determine undergraduate pre-service teacher students' dispositions towards digital reading, opposed to a preference for printed reading material. Initially, a 20-items trial version of the scale was administered to a total sample of N = 301 undergraduate pre-service…

  9. Turkish Metalinguistic Awareness Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varisoglu, Behice

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a useful, valid and reliable measurement tool that will help teacher candidates determine their Turkish metalinguistic awareness. During the development of the scale, a pool of items was created by scanning the relevant literature and examining other awareness scales. The materials prepared were re-examined…

  10. Laboratory Scale Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon – Polluted Mangrove Swamps in the Niger Delta Using Cow Dung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dike, E. N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of the study was to carry-out laboratory–scale bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted mangrove swamps using cow dung as source of limiting of nutrients.Methodology and Results: In a 70 days study, the cow dung treated polluted soil had its total culturable hydrocarbon utilising bacterial/fungi, heterotrophic bacterial and fungal counts increased progressively from the 28th day to the 70th day. The control set- up showed very slight increment in its microbial growth. Alkaline pH was observed in all the treatments and control during the study period. The conductivity values of cow dung decreased progressively. In the cow dung treatment option, the nitrate concentration decreased from 35.44 mg/kg to 14.28 mg/kg. Phosphate concentration of cow dung option decreased from 25.41 mg/kg to 9.31mg/kg. The control had the nitrate decreased from 8.42 mg/kg to 6.98 mg/kg. Percentage total organic carbon (% TOC in the cow dung option decreased from 4.06% to 0.96%. Control experiment had the % TOC decreased from 3.32% to 2.99%. Studies using Gas chromatographic analyses showed that 0%, 49.88%, and 69.85% of Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH were lost at zero hour, 28th day and 70th day respectively in the cow dung option. In addition, in the control experimental set-up, 0%, 7.14% and 13.42% of TPH were lost at zero hour, 28th day and 70th day respectively.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The use of organic nutrient sources such as cow dung has shown good promises in bioremediation of crude oil impacted Mangrove Swamps in the Niger Delta. The next line of action is to transfer the technology to pilot scale study.

  11. The 1993 QUASIMEME laboratory-performance study: chlorobiphenyls in fish oil and standard solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, D.E.; Boer, de J.

    1994-01-01

    A laboratory-performance study has been undertaken to improve the measurement of chlorobiphenyls in marine biota as part of the QUASIMEME (EU - Measurement and Testing) project. Fifty-two laboratories were invited to participate, of which 47 returned data on nine congeners in iso-octane solution and

  12. A Feasibility Study for Mobile Marketing and Distribution Occupational Laboratories in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohns, Donald P.

    A study determined the feasibility of a mobile laboratory for marketing and distribution in North Dakota. It attempted to answer four questions: (1) What types of staffing, equipment, curriculum, and delivery systems are presently being utilized in mobile laboratories throughout the nation? (2) What significant information obtained from mobile…

  13. Laboratory and field studies on an Indian strain of the brine shrimp Artemia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.

    The Tuticorin strain of the brine shrimp @iArtemia@@ was studied under both laboratory and field conditions. Studies on the survival of the nauplii at different temperatures and salinities revealed that the nauplii preferred a salinity of 35 ppt...

  14. Performance on selected visual and auditory subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition during laboratory-induced pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherton, Joseph L; Tapscott, Brian E

    2015-01-01

    Although chronic pain patients commonly report problems with concentration and memory, recent research indicates that induced pain alone causes little or no impairment on several Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtests, suggesting that cognitive complaints in chronic pain may be attributable to factors other than pain. The current studies examined potential effects of induced pain on Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) visual working memory index (VWM) subtests (Experiment 1, n = 32) and on the immediate portions of WMS-IV auditory memory (IAM) subtests (Experiment 2, n = 55). In both studies, participants were administered one of two subtests (Symbol Span or Spatial Addition for Experiment 1; Logical Memory or Verbal Paired Associates for Experiment 2) normally and were then administered the alternate subtest while experiencing either cold pressor pain induction or a nonpainful control condition. Results indicate that induced pain in nonclinical volunteers did not impair performance on either VWM or IAM performance, suggesting that pain alone does not account for complaints or deficits in these domains in chronic pain patients. Nonpainful variables such as sleep deprivation or emotional disturbance may be responsible for reported cognitive complaints in chronic pain patients.

  15. Pilot-scale study of the solar detoxification of VOC-contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehos, M.; Turchi, C.; Pacheco, J.; Boegel, A.J.; Merrill, T.; Stanley, R.

    1992-08-01

    The Solar Detoxification Field Experiment was designed to investigate the photocatalytic decomposition of organic contaminants in