Mebarki, Bouhafs; El-Bachir, Tebboune Cheikh
The growing need in Algeria to develop ergonomics knowledge and practice in industry was behind the initiative to develop a training and research project within the ergonomics laboratory at Oran University. Since 2005 the laboratory team is running an academic option master in work design and ergonomics. The evaluation of the academic master in 2010 revealed the acute need of the local industry for professional competences in ergonomic and work psychology. A professional training master program in "ergonomics & work psychology" was then developed in partnership with local industry, five European Universities and six Universities from three Maghreb countries. Research projects were initiated around the two training programs, in conjunction with a number of ergonomics dissemination and promotion activities. Preliminary results of the project are presented and discussed in relation to the local context, and in the light of similar cases in Industrially Developing Countries.
Ostrom, L.T.; Romero, H.A.; Gilbert, B.G.; Wilhelmsen, C.A.
The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is a Department of Energy facility that performs a variety of engineering and research projects. EG G Idaho is the prime contractor for the laboratory and, as such, performs the support functions in addition to technical, research, and development functions. As a part of the EG G Idaho Industrial Hygiene Initiative, ergonomic assessments were conducted at three Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cafeterias. The purposes of the assessments were to determine whether ergonomic problems existed in the work places and, if so, to make recommendations to improve the work place and task designs. The study showed there were ergonomic problems in all three cafeterias assessed. The primary ergonomic stresses observed included wrist and shoulder stress in the dish washing task, postural stress in the dish washing and food preparation tasks, and back stress in the food handling tasks.
Ostrom, L.T.; Romero, H.A.; Gilbert, B.G.; Wilhelmsen, C.A.
The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is a Department of Energy facility that performs a variety of engineering and research projects. EG&G Idaho is the prime contractor for the laboratory and, as such, performs the support functions in addition to technical, research, and development functions. As a part of the EG&G Idaho Industrial Hygiene Initiative, ergonomic assessments were conducted at three Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cafeterias. The purposes of the assessments were to determine whether ergonomic problems existed in the work places and, if so, to make recommendations to improve the work place and task designs. The study showed there were ergonomic problems in all three cafeterias assessed. The primary ergonomic stresses observed included wrist and shoulder stress in the dish washing task, postural stress in the dish washing and food preparation tasks, and back stress in the food handling tasks.
Sari, AD; Suryoputro, MR; Rahmillah, FI
This article discusses 6S implementation in Ergonomic Laboratory, Department of Industrial Engineering, Islamic University of Indonesia. This research is improvement project of 5S implementation in Ergonomic laboratory. Referring to the 5S implementation of the previous year, there have been improvements from environmental conditions or a more organized workplace however there is still a lack of safety aspects. There are several safeties problems such as equipment arrangement, potential hazards of room dividers that cause injury several times, placement of fire extinguisher, no evacuation path and assembly point in case of fire, as well as expired hydrant condition and lack of awareness of stakeholders related to safety. Therefore, this study aims to apply the 6S kaizen method to the Ergonomic laboratory to facilitate the work process, reduce waste, improve work safety and improve staff performance. Based on the score 6S assessment increased audit results by 32 points, before implementation is 75 point while after implementation is 107 point. This has implications for better use for mitigate people in laboratory area, save time when looking for tools and materials, safe workplace, as well as improving the culture and spirit of ‘6S’ on staff due to better and safetier working environment.
Chowdhury, Anirban; Sanjog, J; Reddy, Swathi Matta; Karmakar, Sougata
Application of nanotechnology and nanomaterials is not new in the field of design, but a recent trend of extensive use of nanomaterials in product and/or workplace design is drawing attention of design researchers all over the world. In the present paper, an attempt has been made to describe the diverse use of nanomaterials in product and workplace design with special emphasis on ergonomics (occupational health and safety; thermo-regulation and work efficiency, cognitive interface design; maintenance of workplace, etc.) to popularise the new discipline 'nanoergonomics' among designers, design users and design researchers. Nanoergonomics for sustainable product and workplace design by minimising occupational health risks has been felt by the authors to be an emerging research area in coming years. Use of nanomaterials in the field of design ergonomics is less explored till date. In the present review, an attempt has been made to extend general awareness among ergonomists/designers about applications of nanomaterials/nanotechnology in the field of design ergonomics and about health implications of nanomaterials during their use.
... between you and your job conditions. Examples of ergonomic changes to your work might include Adjusting the position of your computer ... you are safe, comfortable, and less prone to work-related injuries.
Full Text Available whether trends exist across jobs that use similar equipment, tools or processes. 23.4.4 Limitations An effective ergonomics hazard identification and risk assessment process should facilitate the classification of possible high risk jobs in a mining... to review the data available, which identify a shop or workplace as a potential ergonomics problem area. It is also useful to become familiar with the processes and job activities that are performed in each work area. Step 2: Conduct a workplace/ work...
Dila Sari, Amarria; Ilma Rahmillah, Fety; Prabowo Aji, Bagus
This article discusses 5S implementation in Work System Design and Ergonomic Laboratory, Department of Industrial Engineering, Islamic University of Indonesia. There are some problems related to equipment settings for activity involving students such as files which is accumulated over the previous year practicum, as well as the movement of waste in the form of time due to the placement of goods that do not fit. Therefore, this study aims to apply the 5S method in DSK & E laboratory to facilitate the work processes and reduce waste. The project is performed by laboratory management using 5S methods in response to continuous improvement (Kaizen). Moreover, some strategy and suggestions are promoted to impose 5S system within the laboratory. As a result, the tidiness and cleanliness can be achieved that lead to the great performance of laboratory users. Score assessment before implementing 5S DSKE laboratory is at 64 (2.56) while the score after implementation is 32 (1.28) and shows an improvement of 50%. This has implications for better use in the laboratory area, save time when looking for tools and materials due to its location and good visual control, as well as improving the culture and spirit of ‘5S’ on staff regarding better working environment
Sundaragiri, Krishna Sireesha; Shrivastava, Shikha; Sankhla, Bharat; Bhargava, Akshay
Ergonomics is simply a science focused on "study of work" to reduce fatigue and discomfort through product design. A comprehensive ergonomics program for the pathology laboratory has become necessary to prevent the occurrence of work related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and accidents. Most of the literature on ergonomics involve various web links or occasional studies on the effect of laboratory work and associated MSDs. A Google search was carried out corresponding to the terms "ergonomics", "pathology laboratory", "microscope". All the relevant literature from web sources was sorted out and categorized. In this review, we intend to identify basic anthropometric factors, biomechanical risk factors, laboratory design considerations and specific microscopy-related considerations. The ultimate aim of ergonomics is to provide a safe environment for laboratory personnel to conduct their work and to allow maximum flexibility for safe research use.
Oladeinde, B H; Ekejindu, I M; Omoregie, R; Aguh, O D
Ergonomics awareness helps in its right application and contributes significantly to general wellbeing and safety of worker at workplace. This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed at assessing the level of awareness and knowledge of the science of ergonomics among Medical Laboratory Scientists in Benin City, Nigeria. A total of 106 medical laboratory scientists comprising 64 and 42 in public and private laboratories, respectively, were recruited for this study using systematic random sampling technique. Data were obtained from the study participants using a questionnaire and subsequently analyzed with the statistical software INSTAT(®). Out of 106 study participants, 27 (25.5%) were reported to have heard of the term ergonomics. Awareness was significantly associated with gender (male vs. female: 38.5% [15/39] vs. 17.9% [12/67]; odds ratio = 2.9; 95% confidence interval = 1.2, 7.1;P = 0.02). Awareness of ergonomics was not significantly affected by affiliation (P = 0.18), area of specialization (P = 0.78), post-qualification experience (P = 0.43), and educational qualification (P = 0.23) of the study participants. Irrespective of the affiliation of the participant, only 6 of 27 (22.2%) participants who were aware of ergonomics knew at least a benefit of right application of ergonomics in the laboratory. Knowledge of risk factors for the development of musculoskeletal disorders was reported by 8 of 27 (29.6%) persons who claimed to be aware of ergonomics. Awareness of ergonomics and knowledge of gains of its right application was poor among the study participants. Regular ergonomic education of medical laboratory scientists in Nigeria is advocated.
Oladeinde, BH; Ekejindu, IM; Omoregie, R; Aguh, OD
Background: Ergonomics awareness helps in its right application and contributes significantly to general wellbeing and safety of worker at workplace. Aim: This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed at assessing the level of awareness and knowledge of the science of ergonomics among Medical Laboratory Scientists in Benin City, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A total of 106 medical laboratory scientists comprising 64 and 42 in public and private laboratories, respectively, were recruited for this study using systematic random sampling technique. Data were obtained from the study participants using a questionnaire and subsequently analyzed with the statistical software INSTAT®. Results: Out of 106 study participants, 27 (25.5%) were reported to have heard of the term ergonomics. Awareness was significantly associated with gender (male vs. female: 38.5% [15/39] vs. 17.9% [12/67]; odds ratio = 2.9; 95% confidence interval = 1.2, 7.1;P = 0.02). Awareness of ergonomics was not significantly affected by affiliation (P = 0.18), area of specialization (P = 0.78), post-qualification experience (P = 0.43), and educational qualification (P = 0.23) of the study participants. Irrespective of the affiliation of the participant, only 6 of 27 (22.2%) participants who were aware of ergonomics knew at least a benefit of right application of ergonomics in the laboratory. Knowledge of risk factors for the development of musculoskeletal disorders was reported by 8 of 27 (29.6%) persons who claimed to be aware of ergonomics. Conclusions: Awareness of ergonomics and knowledge of gains of its right application was poor among the study participants. Regular ergonomic education of medical laboratory scientists in Nigeria is advocated. PMID:27057381
Puckett, Leslie Guthrie [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)
A survey of employee behavior was conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of ergonomic behavior that decreased the chance of having a work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) among employees. The null hypothesis was tested to determine if there was a significant difference in ergonomic behavior between trained and untrained employees. The LANL employees were stratified by job series and then randomly selected to participate. The data were gathered using an electronic self-administered behavior questionnaire. The study population was composed of 6931 employees, and the response rate was 48%. The null hypothesis was rejected for twelve out of fifteen questions on the questionnaire. Logistic regression results indicate that the trained participants were more likely to report the risk-avoiding behavior, which supported the rejection of the null hypothesis for 60% of the questions. There was a higher frequency that the beneficial or risk-avoiding behavior was reported by the uninjured participants. Job series analysis revealed that ergonomics is an important issue among participants from all the job series. It also identified the occupational specialist classification (an administrative job), as the job series with the most occurrences of undesired ergonomic behaviors. In conclusion, there was a significant difference between the trained and untrained participants of the beneficial ergonomic behavior in the reported risk reducing behaviors.
El-Helaly, Mohamed; Balkhy, Hanan H; Vallenius, Laura
Work-related carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) has been reported in different occupations, including laboratory technicians, so this study was carried out to determine the prevalence and the associated personal and ergonomic factors for CTS among laboratory technicians. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 279 laboratory technicians at King Fahd Hospital, Saudi Arabia, who filled in a self-administered questionnaire, including questions regarding their demographic criteria, occupational history, job tasks, workplace tools, ergonomic factors at work, and symptoms suggestive of CTS. Physical examinations and electrodiagnostic studies were carried out for those who had symptoms suggestive of CTS to confirm the diagnosis. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed for both personal and physical factors in association with confirmed CTS among laboratory technicians. The prevalence of CTS among the laboratory technicians was 9.7% (27/279). The following were the statistically significant risk factors for CTS among them: gender (all cases of CTS were female, P=0.00), arm/hand exertion (OR: 7.96; 95% CI: 1.84-34.33), pipetting (OR: 7.27; 95% CI: 3.15-16.78), repetitive tasks (OR: 4.60; 95% CI: 1.39-15.70), using unadjustable chairs or desks (OR: 3.35; 95% CI: 1.23-9.15), and working with a biosafety cabinet (OR: 2.49; 95% CI: 1.11-5.59). CTS cases had significant longer work duration (17.9 ± 5.6 years) than CTS non-case (11.5 ± 7.4 yeas) with low OR (1.108). This study demonstrates some personal and ergonomic factors associated with CTS among the laboratory technicians, including female gender, arm/hand exertion, pipetting, repetitive tasks, working with a biosafety cabinet, and an unadjusted workstation.
Xu Song; Song Fei; Li Zhizhong; Zhao Qianyi; Luo Wei; He Xuhong; Salvendy, Gavriel
Emergency operating procedures (EOPs) are widely used in nuclear power plants (NPPs). With the development of information technology, computerized EOPs are taking the place of paper-based ones. Unlike paper-based EOPs, the industrial practice of computerized EOPs is still quite limited. Ergonomics issues of computerized EOPs have not been studied adequately. This study focuses on the effects of EOP presentation style, task complexity, and training level on the performance of the operators in the execution of computerized EOPs. One simulated computerized EOP system was developed to present two EOPs, each with different task complexity levels, by two presentation styles (Style A: one- and two-dimensional flowcharts combination; Style B: two-dimensional flowchart and success logic tree combination). Forty subjects participated in the experiment of EOP execution using the simulated system. Statistical analysis of the experimental results indicates that: (1) complexity, presentation style, and training level all can significantly influence the error rate. High-complexity tasks and lack of sufficient training may lead to a higher error rate. Style B caused a significantly higher error rate than style A did in the skilled phase. So the designers of computerized procedures should take the presentation styles of EOPs into account. (2) Task complexity and training level can significantly influence operation time. No significant difference was found in operation time between the two presentation styles. (3) Training level can also significantly influence the subjective workload of EOPs operations. This implies that adequate training is very important for the performance of computerized EOPs even if emergency responses with computerized EOPs are much more simple and easy than that with paper-based EOPs
Xu Song; Song Fei [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li Zhizhong [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: email@example.com; Zhao Qianyi; Luo Wei [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); He Xuhong [Scanpower Risk Management China Inc., Towercrest International Plaza, No. 3 Maizidian West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100016 (China); Salvendy, Gavriel [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)
Emergency operating procedures (EOPs) are widely used in nuclear power plants (NPPs). With the development of information technology, computerized EOPs are taking the place of paper-based ones. Unlike paper-based EOPs, the industrial practice of computerized EOPs is still quite limited. Ergonomics issues of computerized EOPs have not been studied adequately. This study focuses on the effects of EOP presentation style, task complexity, and training level on the performance of the operators in the execution of computerized EOPs. One simulated computerized EOP system was developed to present two EOPs, each with different task complexity levels, by two presentation styles (Style A: one- and two-dimensional flowcharts combination; Style B: two-dimensional flowchart and success logic tree combination). Forty subjects participated in the experiment of EOP execution using the simulated system. Statistical analysis of the experimental results indicates that: (1) complexity, presentation style, and training level all can significantly influence the error rate. High-complexity tasks and lack of sufficient training may lead to a higher error rate. Style B caused a significantly higher error rate than style A did in the skilled phase. So the designers of computerized procedures should take the presentation styles of EOPs into account. (2) Task complexity and training level can significantly influence operation time. No significant difference was found in operation time between the two presentation styles. (3) Training level can also significantly influence the subjective workload of EOPs operations. This implies that adequate training is very important for the performance of computerized EOPs even if emergency responses with computerized EOPs are much more simple and easy than that with paper-based EOPs.
Looze, M.P. de; Koningsveld, E.
Physical ergonomics deals with the physical load on the human body when performing activities like work, sports, jobs at home or dealing with products. With regard to the exposure to physical loads and its potential effects on the human body, the presented framework is helpful. In this article we
Ergonomics are an essential safety factor in controlling automated processes. It has to be taken into account in three stages: information presentation, information perception and information treatment
Torok, Andrew G.
Discusses evolution of ergonomics and development of computer ergonomics with its sub-fields of hardware ergonomics (user-equipment-related problems including workstation design); software ergonomics (problems in communication with computers); and peopleware ergonomics (psychological impact). Ergonomic features of VDTs, keyboards, and printers are…
Goyal, N. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Jain, N.; Rachapalli, V. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom)
The use of computers is increasing in every field of medicine, especially radiology. Filmless radiology departments, speech recognition software, electronic request forms and teleradiology are some of the recent developments that have substantially increased the amount of time a radiologist spends in front of a computer monitor. Computers are also needed for searching literature on the internet, communicating via e-mails, and preparing for lectures and presentations. It is well known that regular computer users can suffer musculoskeletal injuries due to repetitive stress. The role of ergonomics in radiology is to ensure that working conditions are optimized in order to avoid injury and fatigue. Adequate workplace ergonomics can go a long way in increasing productivity, efficiency, and job satisfaction. We review the current literature pertaining to the role of ergonomics in modern-day radiology especially with the development of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) workstations.
Goyal, N.; Jain, N.; Rachapalli, V.
The use of computers is increasing in every field of medicine, especially radiology. Filmless radiology departments, speech recognition software, electronic request forms and teleradiology are some of the recent developments that have substantially increased the amount of time a radiologist spends in front of a computer monitor. Computers are also needed for searching literature on the internet, communicating via e-mails, and preparing for lectures and presentations. It is well known that regular computer users can suffer musculoskeletal injuries due to repetitive stress. The role of ergonomics in radiology is to ensure that working conditions are optimized in order to avoid injury and fatigue. Adequate workplace ergonomics can go a long way in increasing productivity, efficiency, and job satisfaction. We review the current literature pertaining to the role of ergonomics in modern-day radiology especially with the development of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) workstations
Marmaras, N; Poulakakis, G; Papakostopoulos, V
Although the science of ergonomics did not actually emerge until the 20th century, there is evidence to suggest that ergonomic principles were in fact known and adhered to 25 centuries ago. The study reported here is a first attempt to research the ergonomics concerns of ancient Greeks, on both a conceptual and a practical level. On the former we present a collection of literature references to the concepts of usability and human-centred design. On the latter, examples of ergonomic design from a variety of fields are analysed. The fields explored here include the design of everyday utensils, the sculpture and manipulation of marble as a building material and the design of theatres. Though hardly exhaustive, these examples serve to demonstrate that the ergonomics principles, in content if not in name, actually emerged a lot earlier than is traditionally thought.
Journal Homepage Image. Ergonomics SA (esa) provides a medium for publication of material relevant to occupational conditions and needs in Southern Africa at a time of change unparalleled in history. To this end the journal accepts articles in the following categories: research papers, review articles, conceptual theories, ...
What's the number 1 threat to young students using computers today? According to Dan Odell, Microsoft's in-house ergonomist, when he asked parents this very question, "the things they were most concerned about were online predators and people taking advantage of their kids. Ergonomics was fairly far down the list." Unfortunately, that…
Bennett, C; Alexandre, M; Jacobs, K
Ergonomics risk factors apply to everybody. Numerous adults have experienced disabling injuries related to use of computers and other forms of technology. Now children are using technology even more than adults. Increasingly ergonomics risk factors are being recognized as present in the world of children. Outreach to schools and the surrounding community by employers may help protect the future work force. A growing body of researchers believe that children can benefit from the early introduction of ergonomics awareness and preventative measures. While individual representatives of the educational system may embrace the concept of introducing ergonomics into the classroom, a number of barriers can prevent implementation of integrated programs. Some of the barriers to introducing ergonomics in schools have been absence of a tie to educational standards, the existing demands on teaching hours, and the absence of easily executable lesson plans. Ergonomics is rarely included in teacher training and professional ergonomics expertise is needed for the development of a class-based program. As part of Strategic Vision plan for 2025, a National Laboratory identified community outreach and the future workforces as key areas for initiatives. A series of hands-on interactive modules have been developed by professional ergonomics specialists. They are being tested with elementary, middle and high school students. Where possible, the content has been tied to the educational standards in the State of California in the USA. Currently the modules include grip strength, effective breathing, optimal keyboard and mouse positions, optimizing chairs, posture and movement, backpack safety and safe lifting. Each module takes the students through a related activity or experience. An individual worksheet asks them questions about the experience and guides them to consider implications in their activities of daily living. A module on hearing is under development. The goal is to have a
Bentley, Tim; Tappin, David
This paper conceptualises organisational safety culture and considers its relevance to ergonomics practice. Issues discussed in the paper include the modest contribution that ergonomists and ergonomics as a discipline have made to this burgeoning field of study and the significance of safety culture to a systems approach. The relevance of safety culture to ergonomics work with regard to the analysis, design, implementation and evaluation process, and implications for participatory ergonomics approaches, are also discussed. A potential user-friendly, qualitative approach to assessing safety culture as part of ergonomics work is presented, based on a recently published conceptual framework that recognises the dynamic and multi-dimensional nature of safety culture. The paper concludes by considering the use of such an approach, where an understanding of different aspects of safety culture within an organisation is seen as important to the success of ergonomics projects. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The relevance of safety culture to ergonomics practice is a key focus of this paper, including its relationship with the systems approach, participatory ergonomics and the ergonomics analysis, design, implementation and evaluation process. An approach to assessing safety culture as part of ergonomics work is presented.
Jones, W. L.
Major areas of research and development in ergonomics technology for space environments are discussed. Attention is given to possible applications of the technology developed by NASA in industrial settings. A group of mass spectrometers for gas analysis capable of fully automatic operation has been developed for atmosphere control on spacecraft; a version for industrial use has been constructed. Advances have been made in personal cooling technology, remote monitoring of medical information, and aerosol particle control. Experience gained by NASA during the design and development of portable life support units has recently been applied to improve breathing equipment used by fire fighters.
It is meaningful to discuss the "present and future of laboratories" for the development of laboratories and education of medical technologists. Laboratory staff must be able to perform urgent high-quality tests and take part in so-called team-based medicine and should be proud of devising systems that efficiently provide laboratory data for all medical staff. On the other hand, there may be staff with a poor sense of professionalism who work no more than is expected and too readily ask firms and commercial laboratories to solve problems. Overwork caused by providing team-based medicine and a decrease in numbers of clinical chemists are concerns. The following are hoped for in the future. Firstly, laboratory staff will become conscious of their own high-level abilities and expand their areas of work, for example, bioscience, proteomics, and reproductive medicine. Secondly, a consultation system for medical staff and patients will be established. Thirdly, clinical research will be advanced, such as investigating unknown pathophysiologies using laboratory data and samples, and developing new methods of measurement. Lastly, it is of overriding importance that staff of laboratory and educational facilities will cooperate with each other to train the next generation. In conclusion, each laboratory should be appreciated, attractive, positive regarding its contribution to society, and show individuality.
Ergonomics is often defined simply as the study of work. Related or synonymous terms include human factors, human engineering, engineering psychology, and others. Occupational ergonomics is a term that has been proposed to describe the study of the working environment, including the physical consequences resulting from having an improperly designed workplace. The routine space working environment presents some problems not found in the typical Earthbound workplace. These include radiation, intravehicular contamination/pollution, temperature extremes, impact with other objects, limited psychosocial relationships, sensory deprivation, and reduced gravity. These are important workplace considerations, and may affect astronauts either directly at work or at some point during their life as a result of their work under these conditions. Some of the major issues associated with each of these hazards are presented.
Findings published in the NASA Anthropometric Source Book by Johnson Space Center helped BodyBilt, Inc. to fashion controlled comfort chairs that lessen the harmful effects of gravity on seated workers. Crew members living aboard NASA's Skylab noted that in space the human posture differs from the normal posture caused by the tug of one gravity. There has been an alarming increase in back pain and muscle fatigue in workers, along with a dramatic escalation in repetitive stress injuries. BodyBilt's ergonomically-correct line of office chairs are targeted for the average worker that sits for prolonged periods, be it in the classroom or boardroom. Their roster of national clients lists such organizations as IBM, Microsoft, Texas Instruments, Hewlett-Packard, Eastman-Kodak, Boeing, Motorola, and Walt Disney Studios.
Fitterman, L. Jeffrey
Defines ergonomics and discusses design and environmental considerations. Suggests work-space requirements for: tables, chairs, monitor height, ambient noise and light, electricity, and environmental hazards. Includes sources for additional information related to ergonomic design. (AEF)
Aim: This cross‑sectional descriptive study aimed at assessing the level of awareness and knowledge of the science of ergonomics among Medical Laboratory Scientists in Benin City, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A total of 106 medical laboratory scientists comprising 64 and 42 in public and private laboratories, ...
Pikaar, R.N.; Koningsveld, E.A.P.; Settels, P.J.M.
Key Features: Offers the conceptual tools for creating more adaptable ergonomic designs to meet the needs of diverse human populations, Unlock the strategic business value found in ergonomically safe and comfortable products, Learn from in-depth case studies how ergonomic intervention was
Pilczuk, Davana; Barefield, Kevin
When discussing ergonomics, the term 'sustainability' usually refers to the preservation of the human workforce. However, in 2010 Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation made a conscious effort to combine ergonomics and environmental sustainability in order to increase employee engagement for both programs. They introduced a companywide campaign called Green Ergo which is the idea of creating ergonomic solutions from scrap material found on site. This concept embraced the true meaning of 'green' and encouraged engineers and employees all across the company to design innovative green ergonomic solutions. The idea generated over 35 new ergo solutions, reduced waste production, and solved over 700 ergo problems for a fraction of the cost of newly purchased items. The demand for these items grew large enough that the company outsourced their manufacturing to a local non-profit. The Green Ergo campaign has changed the culture of the company and has increased the level of buy-in for both the ergonomics and sustainability programs.
Hedge, A; Dorsey, J A
A retrospective post-occupancy evaluation survey of 44 occupants in two Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Platinum buildings on a US college campus is reported. The Internet survey covered a range of indoor environment and ergonomics issues. Results show that working in these buildings were a generally positive experience for their health, performance and satisfaction. However, in one building there were persistent issues of variability in air temperature, air freshness, air quality and noise that affected the perceived health and performance of the occupants. Although the buildings were energy-efficient and sustainable structures, ergonomics design issues were identified. Implications for the role of ergonomics in green buildings and in the US LEED rating system are discussed. This survey identified a number of ergonomics design issues present in the LEED Platinum energy-efficient and sustainable buildings that were studied. These results highlight the importance of integrating ergonomics design into green buildings as a component in the US LEED rating system.
Kwon, Yeong Guk
This book explains basic of ergonomic product design with human engineering, image engineering and strategy of that design, ergonomic industrial design, which includes product design to access the human engineering in development of new product and customer satisfaction, application technology of image engineering, industrial design of human engineering item and strategy of human engineering, a good ergonomic design. It also tells of examples of convenient design for human such as hardware product and software product in automobile, telephones for ergonomic product in the future, new goods and new technology, ergonomic product in house and office, and computers and robots in the future.
Long, Jennifer; Long, Airdrie
Ergonomics is a holistic discipline encompassing a wide range of special interest groups. The role of an ergonomics consultant is to provide integrated solutions to improve comfort, safety and productivity. In Australia, there are two types of consultants--generalists and specialists. Both have training in ergonomics but specialist knowledge may be the result of previous education or work experience. This paper presents three projects illustrating generalist and specialist (visual ergonomics) consultancy: development of a vision screening protocol, solving visual discomfort in an office environment and solving postural discomfort in heavy industry. These case studies demonstrate how multiple ergonomics consultants may work together to solve ergonomics problems. It also describes some of the challenges for consultants, for those engaging their services and for the ergonomics profession, e.g. recognizing the boundaries of expertise, sharing information with business competitors, the costs-benefits of engaging multiple consultants and the risk of fragmentation of ergonomics knowledge and solutions. Since ergonomics problems are often multifaceted, ergonomics consultants should have a solid grounding in all domains of ergonomics, even if they ultimately only practice in one specialty or domain. This will benefit the profession and ensure that ergonomics remains a holistic discipline.
Illankoon, Prasanna; Abeysekera, John; Singh, Sarbjeet
Detecting abnormal machine conditions is of great importance in an autonomous maintenance environment. Ergonomic aspects can be invaluable when detection of machine abnormalities using human senses is examined. This research outlines the ergonomic issues involved in detecting machine abnormalities and suggests how ergonomics would improve such detections. Cognitive Task Analysis was performed in a plant in Sri Lanka where Total Productive Maintenance is being implemented to identify sensory types that would be used to detect machine abnormalities and relevant Ergonomic characteristics. As the outcome of this research, a methodology comprising of an Ergonomic Gap Analysis Matrix for machine abnormality detection is presented.
Full Text Available This paper presents a model for an ergonomic design of an aircraft cockpit with the specification and verification with respect to the new European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA requirements. The goal is to expressing the concepts on which the aircraft cockpit design are based.
Full Text Available This paper presents a model for an ergonomic design of an aircraft cockpit with the specification and verification with respect to the new European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA requirements. The goal is to expressing the concepts on which the aircraft cockpit design is based.
Arpigny, S.; Biscarrat, C.; Ruas, A.; Viallesoubranne, C.; Hanssens, A.; Roche, C.
The EQRAIN Uranium or Plutonium programmes (Evaluation of the Quality of Analysis Results in the Nuclear Industry) have led to the creation of round-robins, which require reference solutions of uranyl nitrate or of plutonium nitrate to be made available. The samples are fabricated and packaged, and their benchmark values determined, by the Nuclear Material Metrology Laboratory in the Atalante facility. All the operations are carried out by highly precise weighing, including correction for air buoyancy. In order to guarantee the preservation of reference samples, a laser-sealing apparatus is used to condition the final solutions in ampoules. Random tests to check the concentration of uranium or plutonium are carried out on a certain number of ampoules after the sealing step. The analysis are performed on a photo-gravimetric analysis line (in glove box for Pu) based on the titanium potentiometric analysis method. The ampoules are then packaged and delivered to the participating laboratories. The French nuclear laboratories participating in the EQRAIN programs belong to the Cea and to the AREVA Group, with activities covering the entire fuel cycle. They have been joined by new participants from European, Japanese and South American laboratories
Arpigny, S.; Biscarrat, C.; Ruas, A.; Viallesoubranne, C. [CEA/DEN/DRCP/SE2A/LAMM, Marcoule, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Hanssens, A.; Roche, C. [CEA/DEN/DRCP/CETAMA Marcoule, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France)
The EQRAIN Uranium or Plutonium programmes (Evaluation of the Quality of Analysis Results in the Nuclear Industry) have led to the creation of round-robins, which require reference solutions of uranyl nitrate or of plutonium nitrate to be made available. The samples are fabricated and packaged, and their benchmark values determined, by the Nuclear Material Metrology Laboratory in the Atalante facility. All the operations are carried out by highly precise weighing, including correction for air buoyancy. In order to guarantee the preservation of reference samples, a laser-sealing apparatus is used to condition the final solutions in ampoules. Random tests to check the concentration of uranium or plutonium are carried out on a certain number of ampoules after the sealing step. The analysis are performed on a photo-gravimetric analysis line (in glove box for Pu) based on the titanium potentiometric analysis method. The ampoules are then packaged and delivered to the participating laboratories. The French nuclear laboratories participating in the EQRAIN programs belong to the Cea and to the AREVA Group, with activities covering the entire fuel cycle. They have been joined by new participants from European, Japanese and South American laboratories.
Regis B. Miller
This report describes the history and current status of wood collections housed in the Center for Wood Anatomy Research at the Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service. The collections include the original Madison collection (MADw.) and the collection formerly housed at the Yale School of Forestry, Yale University (...
Full Text Available Modern engineer training is not conceivable without knowledge of work psychology and ergonomics. In this paper, we would like to outline the situation of work psychology and ergonomics as well as their changes in Hungary. The technical approach to health and safety is linked to human health care, and, through that, to ergonomics. The traditional notion of ergonomics is the 'ergonomics of scales, levers and pedals', which has now become a field of research helping the development of socio-technical systems. Here, we present the developmental stages of ergonomics, divided into six periods, first, and then the relationship between environmental ergonomics and health and safety. In the last chapter, I shall expound a few details from Hungarian investigations in work psychology, as well as from the activity of prominent academic circles at certain universities.
Pinheiro, Cristina; da Silva, Fernando Moreira
This paper is based on a research project - Visual Communication and Inclusive Design-Colour, Legibility and Aged Vision, developed at the Faculty of Architecture of Lisbon. The research has the aim of determining specific design principles to be applied to visual communication design (printed) objects, in order to be easily read and perceived by all. This study target group was composed by a selection of socially active individuals, between 55 and 80 years, and we used cultural events posters as objects of study and observation. The main objective is to overlap the study of areas such as colour, vision, older people's colour vision, ergonomics, chromatic contrasts, typography and legibility. In the end we will produce a manual with guidelines and information to apply scientific knowledge into the communication design projectual practice. Within the normal aging process, visual functions gradually decline; the quality of vision worsens, colour vision and contrast sensitivity are also affected. As people's needs change along with age, design should help people and communities, and improve life quality in the present. Applying principles of visually accessible design and ergonomics, the printed design objects, (or interior spaces, urban environments, products, signage and all kinds of visually information) will be effective, easier on everyone's eyes not only for visually impaired people but also for all of us as we age.
The subject of this bachelor thesis is survey of computer classrooms from the ergonomic point of view and show ergonomic rules to internet community in accessible form. Theoretic knowledge was gain from literature connected with ergonomic and work hygiene. Main relevance was given to use of computer and ergonomic of computer classroom. Several schools was evaluates in practical part with focus on ergonomic suitability. The conclusions of this thesis are websites contains ergonomics rules and ...
Training Officer, 1975
A discussion with James Crowley of British Steel Corporation on the changing face of ergonomics in practice today and yesterday examines the influence of experimental psychology on the method of study and data collection. The broadening scope of ergonomics from only safety concerns to cost effectiveness and the computer are analyzed. (Author/JB)
Full Text Available Background and Aims: There are several risk factors in dentistry professional environment. Carelessness about occupational health regulation endangers dentist's life. Erconomics in dentistry is a scientific approach which introduces the latest ergonomic principles in dental profession. It discusses about physical and mental stresses. Ergonomic programs eliminate dentist physical and mental challenges and provide practical solution to establish efficient and comforting environment. Materials and Methods: This study reviewed the role and effectiveness of Ergonomics in dental profession. We used related journals, books and ergonomics websites to write this article. Conclusion: Many of researchers believe that awkward body posture and low movement are the sources of occupational disorders. Therefore, knowledge of ergonomics risk factors in dental office design is very important. Dentist's body posture and dental equipment evaluations are important factors in dental ergonomics. The most logical approach to design dental equipment for utilizing ergonomics principles is consideration of the dentist posture and type of movements and activities. In conclusion, dentists should be informed about dental ergonomics regulation and its different aspects. Furthermore, academic developments and research projects can be useful in this area.
The present SLAC accelerator program is summarized briefly, and the future of electron-positron colliders is discussed. Present activities discussed include the PEP storage ring, the SPEAR storage ring, the Linear Accelerator, and the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) project. Future prospects include a larger scale linear collider. The stability requirements on acceleration are briefly discussed
Sutarjo, Untung S
Workers' conditions in accordance with their place of work are different from one area to another, especially in this reformation era where there are immense alterations in politics shown from the centralized government shifting to decentralization and district autonomy. Ergonomics problems in Indonesia are reviewed. In home industries, workers have to adjust themselves to their jobs, and ergonomic improvement may face significant impediments especially in small-scale industries. It is necessary to create or identify the most plausible model to be implemented in accordance with the conditions of districts, including low awareness about the relation between ergonomics and workers' productivity in producing goods and services and working processes scattered often at their own houses. As conditions conducive to ergonomics programs, district-level willingness to improve and increase the wealth of their society, recognition by businesses about the impacts of ergonomics on productivity and reduction of medical treatment costs may be mentioned. Labor unions support ergonomic improvements at production processes, and professionals and academicians are ready to assist, whereas national banks and foreign investment may encourage new technologies including ergonomics aspects. It is important to strengthen ergonomic improvement efforts in Indonesia through establishing district ergonomics improvement networks and ergonomics peer leaders with the support of continual training starting from the training of core leaders at the province level and extending to peer leaders at district level. This training should be made as simple as possible in order to facilitate innovations toward changes. Finally assistance is needed by the mentor teams in order to periodically monitor the improvements undertaken.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of video presentations of natural landscapes on European starlings' (Sturnus vulgaris stereotypic behaviours (SBs and other abnormal repetitive behaviours (ARBs and to evaluate the impact of past experience by comparing wild-caught and hand-reared starlings' reactions. Ten wild-caught and five hand-reared starlings were presented 1-hour videos of landscapes twice a day for five successive days, while a control group of eight wild-caught and four hand-reared starlings was presented a grey screen for the same amount of time. The analysis of the starlings' behaviour revealed that the video presentations of landscapes appeared to have a positive but limited and experience-dependent effect on starlings' SBs and other ARBs compared to the controls. Indeed, whereas video presentations seemed to modulate high rates of SBs and ARBs, they did not appear to be enriching enough to prevent the emergence or the development of SBs and ARBs in an impoverished environment. They even appeared to promote a particular type of SB (somersaulting that is thought to be linked to escape motivation. The fact that this effect was observed in hand-reared starlings suggests that videos of landscapes could elicit motivation to escape even in birds that never experienced outdoor life. These results highlight the importance of investigating stereotypic behaviour both quantitatively and qualitatively in order to provide crucial clues on animal welfare.
This paper discusses some central issues in the concept of constructive ergonomics. It does so by reflecting on experiences from ergonomics intervention projects carried out in Denmark. Constructive ergonomics has a huge potential as a new way to go for ergonomics research and practice. However, ...
Rosenblatt, Peter L; McKinney, Jessica; Adams, Sonia R
To review elements of an ergonomic operating room environment and describe common ergonomic errors in surgeon posture during laparoscopic and robotic surgery. Descriptive video based on clinical experience and a review of the literature (Canadian Task Force classification III). Community teaching hospital affiliated with a major teaching hospital. Gynecologic surgeons. Demonstration of surgical ergonomic principles and common errors in surgical ergonomics by a physical therapist and surgeon. The physical nature of surgery necessitates awareness of ergonomic principles. The literature has identified ergonomic awareness to be grossly lacking among practicing surgeons, and video has not been documented as a teaching tool for this population. Taking this into account, we created a video that demonstrates proper positioning of monitors and equipment, and incorrect and correct ergonomic positions during surgery. Also presented are 3 common ergonomic errors in surgeon posture: forward head position, improper shoulder elevation, and pelvic girdle asymmetry. Postural reset and motion strategies are demonstrated to help the surgeon learn techniques to counterbalance the sustained and awkward positions common during surgery that lead to muscle fatigue, pain, and degenerative changes. Correct ergonomics is a learned and practiced behavior. We believe that video is a useful way to facilitate improvement in ergonomic behaviors. We suggest that consideration of operating room setup, proper posture, and practice of postural resets are necessary components for a longer, healthier, and pain-free surgical career. Copyright © 2013 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This paper discusses some central issues in the concept of constructive ergonomics. It does so by reflecting on experiences from ergonomics intervention projects carried out in Denmark. Constructive ergonomics has a huge potential as a new way to go for ergonomics research and practice. However, many challenges are to be overcome. They relate among others to education and training of ergonomist, and the cultural and institutional setting of ergonomics in specific countries.
Two sessions of the ERGONOMICS safety course will be held on November 27, 2008, in French and in English. PLEASE SIGN-UP! •\tErgonomie - Sensibilisation à l’ergonomie bureautique (Nov 27, 08:30-12:30, in French) https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TRN/new?course=077M00 •\tErgonomics - Applying ergonomic principles in the workplace (Nov 27, 13:30-17:30, in English) https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TRN/new?course=077M10 You will receive an invitation via e-mail once your EDH request is completed and fully signed. For further information, please contact Isabelle CUSATO (73811).
Two sessions of the ERGONOMICS safety course will be held on November 27, 2008, in French and in English. PLEASE SIGN-UP! Ergonomie - Sensibilisation à l’ergonomie bureautique (Nov 27, 08:30-12:30, in French) https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TRN/new?course=077M00 Ergonomics - Applying ergonomic principles in the workplace (Nov 27, 13:30-17:30, in English) https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TRN/new?course=077M10 You will receive and invitation via e-mail once your EDH request is completed and fully signed. For further information, please contact Isabelle CUSATO (73811).
Two sessions of the ERGONOMICS safety course will be held on November 27, 2008, in French and in English. PLEASE SIGN-UP! Ergonomie - Sensibilisation à l’ergonomie bureautique (Nov 27, 08:30-12:30, in French) https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TRN/new?course=077M00 Ergonomics - Applying ergonomic principles in the workplace (Nov 27, 13:30-17:30, in English) https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TRN/new?course=077M10 You will be invited by email after your EDH request is completed and fully signed. For further information, please contact Isabelle CUSATO (73811).
Marziale, M H; Robazzi, M L
This text articulates empirical evidence resulting from scientific work with the intention of providing a reflection about the application of ergonomics as a methodological instrument to support improvement of the labor conditions of nursing personnel in hospitals.
Full Text Available The word of “Ergonomics “is composed of two separate parts: “Ergo” and” Nomos” and means the Human Factors Engineering. Indeed, Ergonomics (or human factors is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. It has applied different sciences such as Anatomy and physiology, anthropometry, engineering, psychology, biophysics and biochemistry from different ergonomics purposes. Sound when is referred as noise pollution can affect such balance in human life. The industrial noise caused by factories, traffic jam, media, and modern human activity can affect the health of the society.Here we are aimed at discussing sound from an ergonomic point of view.
Principal Contact. Mrs June McDougall. Rhodes University. Department of Human Kinetics and Ergonomics. P.O. Box 94. Rhodes University. Grahamstown. 6140. Phone: +27 46 6038471. Email: email@example.com ...
Stanton, NA; Young, MS
Ergonomists have a say in the design of almost everything in the modern world, but there is little evidence that their methods actually work. Here is an evaluation of those methods and of the worth of ergonomics in design.
Full Text Available Laparoscopic surgery provides patients with less painful surgery but is more demanding for the surgeon. The increased technological complexity and sometimes poorly adapted equipment have led to increased complaints of surgeon fatigue and discomfort during laparoscopic surgery. Ergonomic integration and suitable laparoscopic operating room environment are essential to improve efficiency, safety, and comfort for the operating team. Understanding ergonomics can not only make life of surgeon comfortable in the operating room but also reduce physical strains on surgeon.
Frank Peters; Patrick Patterson
The goal of this project was to make improvements to the production systems of the steel casting industry through ergonomic improvements. Because of the wide variety of products, the wide range of product sizes, and the relatively small quantities of any particular product, manual operations remain a vital part of the production systems of the steel casting companies. Ergonomic improvements will assist the operators to more efficiently and consistently produce quality products.
Dargahi H; Saraji J; Sadr J; Sadri G
Background and Aims: There are several risk factors in dentistry professional environment. Carelessness about occupational health regulation endangers dentist's life. Erconomics in dentistry is a scientific approach which introduces the latest ergonomic principles in dental profession. It discusses about physical and mental stresses. Ergonomic programs eliminate dentist physical and mental challenges and provide practical solution to establish efficient and comforting environment. Materi...
Edwards, Kasper; Winkel, Jørgen
Introduction: Ergonomic intervention research includes studies in which researchers arrange (or follow) changes in working conditions to determine the effects in risk factors and/or health. Often this research takes place at workplaces and not in a controlled environment of a laboratory. The effe......Introduction: Ergonomic intervention research includes studies in which researchers arrange (or follow) changes in working conditions to determine the effects in risk factors and/or health. Often this research takes place at workplaces and not in a controlled environment of a laboratory...... of the literature revealed lack of or poor consideration of effect modifiers in ergonomic intervention research. We present a method that has been developed over the course of several years parallel to intervention studies in healthcare. Material and methods: The EMA method is a type of group interview including 3...... sources. Conclusion: The EMA method seems to offer a feasible procedure to obtain significant knowledge on potential effect modifiers in ergonomic intervention research. However, further development and validation is suggested....
Gratz, Rene R.; Claffey, Anne; King, Phyllis; Scheuer, Gina
Examines the physical demands and ergonomic concerns within child care settings. Discusses problem areas and ergonomic recommendations for room design and staff training. Presents important implications for writing job descriptions, determining essential job functions, orienting and training staff, and committing to improving the child care work…
Full Text Available One of the sciences which considers to human health, human performance and body activities is Ergonomics. Ergonomics is one of the modern sciences, drawing as much from the field as from the laboratory, and including elements of art and craft as well. Before designing the workplace it is necessary to determine its requirements, i.e., which it is intended for, what are the characteristics of the existing work equipment and the additional tools needed. However, there are some standards and with their application people will prevent the occurrence of modern office diseases. This paper is focused on the positive aspects of ergonomics in improvement of the working environment.
Woo, E H C; White, P; Lai, C W K
This paper presents an overview of global ergonomics standards and guidelines for design of computer workstations, with particular focus on their inconsistency and associated health risk impact. Overall, considerable disagreements were found in the design specifications of computer workstations globally, particularly in relation to the results from previous ergonomics research and the outcomes from current ergonomics standards and guidelines. To cope with the rapid advancement in computer technology, this article provides justifications and suggestions for modifications in the current ergonomics standards and guidelines for the design of computer workstations. Practitioner Summary: A research gap exists in ergonomics standards and guidelines for computer workstations. We explore the validity and generalisability of ergonomics recommendations by comparing previous ergonomics research through to recommendations and outcomes from current ergonomics standards and guidelines.
Lucas Quaresemin de Oliveira
Full Text Available The application of ergonomics is critical so that you can get a suitable working environment for professional, it is safe, healthy and comfortable. The objective was to identify whether the dental students followed the principles of ergonomics during clinical visits, evaluating, through photographs, compliance with ergonomic principles applied in dental practice, and finally identify the most affected sites by RSI / WMSDs of students enrolled in the dental clinic of the Faculdade IMED. Snapshots were made and only considered the position of the student operator, the same taken by the researcher using the mobile device. For each clinical procedure were taken two photographs in hidden angles to the student operator so that it did not change its ergonomic position to be observed. After obtaining the photos, they were evaluated and classified in scores from 0 to 3 according to the adequacy of the work placement, and then inserted into Excel and later in a database (SPSS 15.0. The following work is a cross-sectional, observational study, they were conducted in dental clinics IMED college. Among the 66 respondents, 14 were male and 52 female. It was found that 57 (86,3% reported feeling pain somewhere in the body, being the most affected sites neck (36.4%, and consecutively lower back (30.3% and higher than the back (27.3%. The results of the 63 procedures performed by the photographic shots were classified as “inadequate” in 49 procedures, “partially adequate” in 12 and “impossible to evaluate” in 2 procedures. The research results have shown a high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain and do not follow the ergonomic principles, emphasizing the need for more attention to ergonomics of the students.
Ng, Yee Guan; Shamsul Bahri, Mohd Tamrin; Irwan Syah, Md Yusoff; Mori, Ippei; Hashim, Zailina
Production agriculture is commonly associated with high prevalence of ergonomic injuries, particularly during intensive manual labor and during harvesting. This paper intends to briefly describe an overview of oil palm plantation management highlighting the ergonomics problem each of the breakdown task analysis. Although cross-sectional field visits were conducted in the current study, insight into past and present occupational safety and health concerns particularly regarding the ergonomics of oil palm plantations was further exploited. Besides discussion, video recordings were extensively used for ergonomics analysis. The unique commodity of oil palm plantations presents significantly different ergonomics risk factors for fresh fruit bunch (FFB) cutters during different stages of harvesting. Although the ergonomics risk factors remain the same for FFB collectors, the intensity of manual lifting increases significantly with the age of the oil palm trees-weight of FFB. There is urgent need to establish surveillance in order to determine the current prevalence of ergonomic injuries. Thereafter, ergonomics interventions that are holistic and comprehensive should be conducted and evaluated for their efficacy using approaches that are integrated, participatory and cost-effective.
Vidal, Mario Cesar; Guizze, Carmen Lucia Campos; Bonfatti, Renato José; Silva e Santos, Marcello
This paper aims at the application of an ergonomic maturity model (EMM), in order to assess the ergonomic sustainability outreach of ergonomic actions. This proposition was motivated by the widespread sensation that the development of the discipline, its educational devices and related practices depends on the attitude of ergonomics practitioners rather than environmental macroergonomic conditions. Maturity modeling in this paper is undertaken as a tool for ergonomic practitioners. Thus, its foundations were uprooted from diverse fields: Clinic Psychology, Quality Management and Project Management. The paper brings about a detailled explanation of this ergonomic maturity tool. The empirical part is fulfilled by the examination - using the EMM - of four emblematic cases excerpted from our research lab ergonomic portfolio.
Rodríguez Mondelo, Pedro Manuel
Conté: 1. Fundamentos. 2. Confort y estrés térmico. La obra ofrece una visión general de los aspectos básicos de la ergonomía. Está dividida en ocho capítulos, que abordan los temas de relaciones dimensionales, relaciones informáticas y de control, relaciones ambientales, gasto energético y capacidad de trabajo físico y trabajo mental. El libro pretende ser una guía básica para aquellas personas que se inicien en el apasionante campo de la ergonomía.
Alhadeff, Cynthia Mossé; Silva, Rosana Fernandes da; Reis, Márcia Sales dos
This study presents the challenge involved in the negotiation and construction of a standard process in a major petroleum company that has the purpose of guiding the implementation of ergonomic studies in the development of projects, systemising the implementation of ergonomics design. The standard was created by a multi-disciplinary working group consisting of specialists in ergonomics, who work in a number of different areas of the company. The objective was to guide "how to" undertake ergonomics in all projects, taking into consideration the development of the ergonomic appraisals of work. It also established that all the process, in each project phase, should be accompanied by a specialist in ergonomics. This process as an innovation in the conception of projects in this company, signals a change of culture, and, for this reason requires broad dissemination throughout the several company leadership levels, and training of professionals in projects of ergonomics design. An implementation plan was also prepared and approved by the corporate governance, complementing the proposed challenge. In this way, this major oil company will implement new procedures of ergonomics design to promote health, safety, and wellbeing of the workforce, besides improving the performance and reliability of its systems and processes.
Das, B [ed.; Technical University of Nova Scotia, Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Industrial Engineering
135 papers were presented at the conference in 20 sessions with the following headings: aging and industrial performance; back injury and rehabilitation; bioinstrumentation and electromyography; cumulative trauma disorders; engineering anthropometry; equipment design and ergonomics; human computer interaction; human performance and worker satisfaction; human strength and testing; industrial accidents and prevention; industrial biomechanics; injuries in health care; manual materials handling; noise and vibration effects; occupational health and safety; robotics and agricultural machinery safety; statistics and modelling in ergonomics; work environment; workplace safety analysis; and workstation design. Papers are included entitled: A model for analyzing mining machine illumination systems' by R.L. Unger, A.F. Glowacki and E.W. Rossi, 'Ergonomic design guidelines for underground coal mining equipment by E.J. Conway and R. Unger, and Hot work environment and human strain - a relation proposed by K. Bhattacharya and S. Raja.
Das, B. (ed.) (Technical University of Nova Scotia, Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Industrial Engineering)
135 papers were presented at the conference in 20 sessions with the following headings: aging and industrial performance; back injury and rehabilitation; bioinstrumentation and electromyography; cumulative trauma disorders; engineering anthropometry; equipment design and ergonomics; human computer interaction; human performance and worker satisfaction; human strength and testing; industrial accidents and prevention; industrial biomechanics; injuries in health care; manual materials handling; noise and vibration effects; occupational health and safety; robotics and agricultural machinery safety; statistics and modelling in ergonomics; work environment; workplace safety analysis; and workstation design. Papers are included entitled: A model for analyzing mining machine illumination systems' by R.L. Unger, A.F. Glowacki and E.W. Rossi, 'Ergonomic design guidelines for underground coal mining equipment by E.J. Conway and R. Unger, and Hot work environment and human strain - a relation proposed by K. Bhattacharya and S. Raja.
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BROOKHUIS, K; BROWN, [No Value
Modifications to the design of vehicles and road infrastructures have improved road safety significantly over the past decades, but all such developments depend upon user acceptance and institutional backing for their success. New R&D programmes combining ergonomic and engineering approaches are
Uspenskiy, S. I.; Yermakova, S. V.; Chaynova, L. D.; Mitkin, A. A.; Gushcheva, T. M.; Strelkov, Y. K.; Tsvetkova, N. F.
Various factors used in ergonomic research are given. They are: (1) anthrometric measurement, (2) polyeffector method of assessing the functional state of man, (3) galvanic skin reaction, (4) pneumography, (5) electromyography, (6) electrooculography, and (7) tachestoscopy. A brief summary is given of each factor and includes instrumentation and results.
Ergonomists offer services to organizations. The goal of their work is to provide safety and health at work in combination with a sound human performance. However, the impact of ergonomics efforts is not always as good as ergonomists and human factors specialists want. This chapter aims to support
Looze, M.P. de; Pikaar, R.
The plenary lectures from the 16th World Congress on Ergonomics, Maastricht, July 10-14, 2006, have been documented in this special issue. Its theme was ‘Meeting Diversity'. The contributions, ranging from scientific papers to technical notes or short statements, cover different aspects of the
Full Text Available The article analyzes ergonomics as a social and cultural phenomenon, as something that is formulated and described by speakers in a specific social context; in a company that is specialized in producing ergonomic office furniture. Through a case study of an office chair, the article examines how ergonomics and its association with the vision of the potential users and their working spaces are constructed by the relevant actors in project meetings and individual interviews during the manufacturing process. The article is concerned with how, in the process of producing an office chair, the chair gains an identity of an aesthetic design object and how this comes to mean the reformulation of the idea of ergonomics. The empirical analysis also provides insight into how the somewhat grand discourses of soft capitalism or aesthetic economy are not abstract, but very much grounded in everyday practices of an organization. The article establishes how the vision shared by all the relevant actors invites active, flexible, and cooperative end-users and how the vision also has potential material effects. The research is an ethnographically inspired case study that draws ideas from discursive psychology.
The presented materials consist of presentations of international workshop which held in Warsaw from 4 to 5 October 2007. Main subject of the meeting was progress in manufacturing as well as research program development for neutron detector which is planned to be placed at GANIL laboratory and will be used in nuclear spectroscopy research
This paper demonstrates that the goals of ergonomics (i.e. effectiveness, efficiency, health, safety and usability) are closely aligned with the goals of design for environmental sustainability. In this paper, the term 'green ergonomics' is conceptualised to specifically describe ergonomics interventions with a pro-nature emphasis. Green ergonomics is focused on the bi-directional connections between human systems and nature. This involves looking at (1) how ergonomics design and evaluation might be used to conserve, preserve, and restore nature and (2) how ecosystem services might be harnessed to facilitate the improved wellbeing and effectiveness of human systems. The paper proposes the scope of green ergonomics based on these bi-directional relationships in the areas of the design of low resource systems and products, the design of green jobs, and the design for behaviour change. Suggestions for further work in the green ergonomics domain are also made. Given the enormous environmental challenges facing modern industrial society, this paper encourages ergonomics science to embrace a pro-nature understanding of work design and research. This paper sets out the role for green ergonomics based on an appreciation of the human-nature connections that have been integrated with our understanding of ergonomics science and practice.
Samani, Afshin; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas; Madeleine, Pascal
The aim was to investigate the effect of ergonomics guidelines on muscular activity, postural and cardiovascular load during cleaning. Eighteen cleaners performed 10 min of cleaning tasks in two locations; three min in a laboratory and seven min in a lecture room. All participants performed the task with or without focusing on ergonomics guidelines (ergonomics/non-ergonomics session). Bipolar surface electromyography was recorded bilaterally from upper trapezius and erector spinae muscles. A tri-axial accelerometer package was mounted on the low back (L5-S1) to measure postural changes, and the cardiovascular load was estimated by electrocardiogram. Ergonomics sessions resulted in lower muscular load, a more complex pattern of muscular activity, lower range of motion and angular velocity of the trunk as well as lower cardiovascular load compared with non-ergonomics sessions (p ergonomics guidelines during cleaning tasks. This study investigated the effects of following instructive ergonomics guidelines during cleaning tasks (daily curriculum of cleaning including mopping, sweeping, changing trash bins and cleaning of desks and blackboards). Following the ergonomics guidelines reduces the general workload and induces a more complex pattern of muscular activity. The study contributes with novel knowledge concerning ergonomics guidelines and work techniques.
Samani, Afshin; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen
The aim was to investigate the effect of ergonomics guidelines on muscular activity, postural and cardiovascular load during cleaning. Eighteen cleaners performed 10 min of cleaning tasks in two locations; three min in a laboratory and seven min in a lecture room. All participants performed...... the task with or without focusing on ergonomics guidelines (ergonomics/non-ergonomics session). Bipolar surface electromyography was recorded bilaterally from upper trapezius and erector spinae muscles. A tri-axial accelerometer package was mounted on the low back (L5-S1) to measure postural changes......, and the cardiovascular load was estimated by electrocardiogram. Ergonomics sessions resulted in lower muscular load, a more complex pattern of muscular activity, lower range of motion and angular velocity of the trunk as well as lower cardiovascular load compared with non-ergonomics sessions (p ...
Hanson, Margaret A
Addressing the causes and consequences of environmental degradation presents significant challenges for humankind. This paper considers what ergonomics/human factors (E/HF) professionals can contribute to understanding and tackling some of the issues that arise through the movement towards a more environmentally sustainable economy. These issues are considered in relation to work in green industries (specifically, sustainable energy production, recycling and organic food production), and there is a need to ensure that these jobs are safe and healthy; the design of products and systems that are 'environmentally friendly' to facilitate their acceptability and use and how E/HF professionals can contribute to understanding and promoting behavioural change relating to environmental choices. The activities of some international organisations in this area are identified and the potential for E/HF involvement is considered. The implications for the E/HF profession are discussed. This paper considers how ergonomics/human factors professionals can contribute to the movement towards more sustainable and 'environmentally friendly' design and work. Potential challenges and opportunities are discussed in relation to jobs in green industries, products and systems and behaviour change.
Harten, G A; Derks, P M
Following frequent complaints of lower back pain by lathe operators, a working group from the Philips Ergonomics Department have produced a model of an ergonomically improved lathe which ensures a healthy posture for the lathe operator at work. The same healthy posture can be adopted whether the operator is sitting or standing. The operator also has a good view of his work. At least two manufacturers have undertaken to develop this ergonomic lathe.
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Daniela Capri; Eliana Maria dos Santos Bahia; Adilson Luiz Pinto
This final paper aimed to analyze the real ergonomics of a university library from Florianópolis and compare it with the ergonomics perceived by the user to perform an ergonomic diagnosis. In order to meet this goal two specific goals were established such as: describe the physical and environmental aspects of the library related to the real ergonomics and verify the actual perception of users about the library. As a theoretical approach, aspects of ergonomics and environmental ergonomics wer...
Botti, Lucia; Mora, Cristina; Regattieri, Alberto
The data presented in this article are related to the research article "Integrating ergonomics and lean manufacturing principles in a hybrid assembly line" (Botti et al., 2017) . The results refer to the application of the mathematical model for the design of lean processes in hybrid assembly lines, meeting both the lean principles and the ergonomic requirements for safe assembly work. Data show that the success of a lean strategy is possible when ergonomics of workers is a parameter of the assembly process design.
Bredel; Thierry; Buzare, Alain
The high activity laboratories have been built at the end of the 50ies. The particularity of this facility was that about 14 different laboratories worked in 14 different fields (biology, production of Cs and Cf sources, metallurgy, mechanical testing ...). Because of the optimization of the nuclear research, the CEA decided to close progressively this facility and to transfer the different experiments in other places. This action began in 1997 and is planed to end in 2010. 6 laboratories have been closed from 1997 to 2001 and the dismantling of the shielded cells has begun since 2002. Therefore, several laboratories have been cleaned of the materials and experiments. Nevertheless, the main particularity of this subject is that some experimental activities have been pursued during the cleaning and dismantling of other laboratories. For example, we describe the dismantling of the laboratory that performed metallurgical and mechanical characterization of irradiated materials. This laboratory occupied 20 lead cells and 2 glove boxes. The exploitation of those cells has been stopped progressively (12 at the end of 2001 and 5 at the end of 2003). The end of the last 3 cell exploitation is planed to end 2005. Since the end of 2001, 9 lead cells have been cleaned. Their dismantling is planed for next the two years. In parallel, we will clean all the other cells. During this phase we will have also to transfer all the irradiated samples (about 5000) that are still in the laboratory to the waste treatment facility of the CEA centre or to the new laboratory which has been presented during the previous hotlab meeting in Saclay. The paper gives details for background about ended operations: Organization, waste production, specific designs which improve radioprotection, waste destinations and costs, Difficulties and feedback experience of dismantling. (Author)
Neubert, Nicole; Bruder, Ralph; Toledo, Begoña
The importance of ergonomic workplace design has been rising incredibly. The knowledge of the interaction with a view to many indicators (e.g. operators' health, quality, productivity etc.) in the automotive assembly shop pushed into another thinking of ergonomics and an increasing awareness of economic possibilities relating to benefits and cost savings aligned with ergonomics. The paper discusses exemplary the various indicators and factors which could be influenced by ergonomic workplace design. These factors are linked each other and support the statement of ergonomic efficiency. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present a model which describes that investments in ergonomic work placement acts with preventive measurements, minimization of losses (refinishing operations, compensation money etc.) and extensive economies on the whole company.
J. Dul (Jan); W.P. Neumann (Patrick)
textabstractManagers usually associate ergonomics with occupational health and safety and related legislation, not with business performance. In many companies, these decision makers seem not to be positively motivated to apply ergonomics for reasons of improving health and safety. In order to
This thesis is the first to provide the fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton design. The fundamental theory as well as technology necessary to analyze and develop ergonomic wearable robots interacting with humans is established and validated by experiments and prototypes. The fundamentals are (1) a
The scientific activity and review of results attained at Florov Nuclear Reactions Laboratory of the Joined Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna, have been presented in historical order. Especially the heavy ion cyclotron use for synthesis of new super-heavy elements as well as investigations of their physical and chemical properties have been shown. 1 fig
Janki, Shiromani; Mulder, Evalyn E A P; IJzermans, Jan N M; Tran, T C Khe
Since the introduction of minimally invasive surgery, surgeons appear to be experiencing more occupational musculoskeletal injuries. The aim of this study is to investigate the current frequency and effects of occupational musculoskeletal injuries on work absence. An online questionnaire was conducted among all surgeons affiliated to the Dutch Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Gastrointestinal Surgery, and Surgical Oncology. In addition, this survey was conducted among surgeons, gynaecologists, and urologists of one cluster of training hospitals in the Netherlands. There were 127 respondents. Fifty-six surgeons currently suffer from musculoskeletal complaints, and 30 have previously suffered from musculoskeletal complaints with no current complaints. Frequently reported localizations were the neck (39.5 %), the erector spinae muscle (34.9 %), and the right deltoid muscle (18.6 %). Most of the musculoskeletal complaints were present while operating (41.8 %). Currently, 37.5 % uses medication and/or therapy to reduce complaints. Of surgeons with past complaints, 26.7 % required work leave and 40.0 % made intraoperative adjustments. More surgeons with a medical history of musculoskeletal complaints have current complaints (OR 6.1, 95 % CI 1.9-19.6). There were no significant differences between surgeons of different operating techniques in localizations and frequency of complaints, or work leave. Despite previous various ergonomic recommendations in the operating room, the current study demonstrated that musculoskeletal complaints and subsequent work absence are still present among surgeons, especially among surgeons with a positive medical history for musculoskeletal complaints. Even sick leave was necessary to fully recover. There were no significant differences in reported complaints between surgeons of different operating techniques. Almost half of the respondents with complaints made intraoperative ergonomic adjustments to prevent future complaints. The
Full Text Available Background: The present study aimed to evaluate the biomechanical exposure to the trapezius muscle activity in female weavers for a prolonged period in the workstation A (suggested by previous studies and workstation B (proposed by the present study. Methods: Electromyography data were collected from nine females during four hours for each ergonomically designed workstation at the Ergonomics Laboratory, Hamadan, Iran. The design criteria for ergonomically designed workstations were: 1 weaving height (20 and 3 cm above elbow height for workstations A and B, respectively, and 2 seat type (10° and 0° forwardsloping seat for workstations A and B, respectively. Results: The amplitude probability distribution function (APDF analysis showed that the left and right upper trapezius muscle activity was almost similar at each workstation. Trapezius muscle activity in the workstation A was significantly greater than workstations B (P<0.001. Conclusion: In general, use of workstation B leads to significantly reduced muscle activity levels in the upper trapezius as compared to workstation A in weavers. Despite the positive impact of workstation B in reducing trapezius muscle activity, it seems that constrained postures of the upper arm during weaving may be associated with musculoskeletal symptoms.
Teymourian, Kiumars; Seneviratne, Dammika; Galar, Diego
The objective of this paper is to describe an ergonomics contribution in maintainability. The economical designs, inputs and training helps to increase the maintainability indicators for industrial devices. This analysis can be helpful, among other cases, to compare systems, to achieve a better design regarding maintainability requirements, to improve this maintainability under specific industrial environment and to foresee maintainability problems due to eventual changes in a device operation conditions. With this purpose, this work first introduces the notion of ergonomics and human factors, maintainability and the implementation of assessment of human postures, including some important postures to perform maintenance activities. A simulation approach is used to identify the critical posture of the maintenance personnel and implements the defined postures with minimal loads on the personnel who use the equipment in a practical scenario. The simulation inputs are given to the designers to improve the workplace/equipment in order to high level of maintainability. Finally, the work concludes summarizing the more significant aspects and suggesting future research.
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ENGLISH ABSTRACT: To develop high quality products, a designer has to consider various influential factors, one of which is ergonomics. And to fashion a specific product for the user, a designer needs expert knowledge of the user’s requirements. However, expert knowledge can also be accessed through an intelligent advisory system for ergonomic design support. The effectiveness of such an expert system depends mainly on the quality of the knowledge base and on the appropriateness of the system's inference engine. Data for the system’s knowledge base can be collected in different ways. One approach is to study relevant projects to collect appropriate ergonomic solutions; another is to recognise bottlenecks in ergonomic design. This paper presents a case study of the design of an actual chainsaw – with emphasis on ergonomic design solutions – that can be transformed into ergonomic design recommendations. At the end of the paper, an application of one of the derived recommendations within the knowledge base of the intelligent advisory system is presented.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: By die ontwerp van gehaltegoedere moet aandag gegee word aan verskeie faktore soos die Ergonomie. Die produkontwerper moet deeglike kennis dra van die verbruikersbehoeftes. Daarbenewens moet hy liefs ook gebruik maak van ’n intelligente sisteem vir ontwerphulp. Die navorsing is toegespits op datasteun vir ’n kettingsaagontwerp en toon hoe die intelligente sisteem betekenisvolle ondersteuning verleen.
Stobbe, T J
Ergonomics is the study of people at work. The current focus is on the prevention of work-induced musculoskeletal injuries through the application of sound ergonomic principles. This chapter has briefly outlined ergonomics and its history, has described low back pain and upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders from an ergonomic perspective, and has discussed control and prevention approaches for a few scenarios. Ergonomic principles are based on a combination of science and engineering and a thorough understanding of human capabilities and limitations. When these principles are applied to the design of a job, task, process, or procedure, the incidence and severity of musculoskeletal injuries decrease. In many cases productivity and morale also improve. Workers are spared suffering, and employers are spared costs. It is hoped that this discussion will encourage more health, safety, and business professionals to learn about and apply ergonomics in their workplaces for the improvement of the worker, product, and business. Finally, many additional epidemiologic studies on the individual and joint effects of the CTD risk factors are needed. The knowledge gained from these studies will promote the more effective application of ergonomic principles to reduce worker suffering, improve products, and reduce costs.
Nathanael, Dimitris; Zarboutis, Nikos; Marmaras, Nicolas
The present communication deals with the methodology of the ergonomics field intervention process. It proposes an operationalized version of work analysis in terms of contradictions. The aim is to demonstrate that such a dialectic tool and method of representation may assist the ergonomist to frame the essence of a work activity in practical terms, swiftly and in a manner that preserves its multifaceted unity. The proposed method is inspired by two theoretical constructs (i) contradiction as used in Cultural Historical Activity Theory and (ii) regulation, as developed and used by the francophone tradition of ergonomics of activity. Two brief examples of its use are presented and a discussion is made on further developments and possible pitfalls.
Grenier, M.; Bigu, J.
A brief history of the dust research work at the Elliot Lake Laboratory is given. Two decades of dust research work are studied and reviewed. This review clearly shows where, when, and with what intensity various components of dust research were performed. From the data presented here, it is suggested that a major portion of the future efforts be aimed at research directed towards the control and suppression of dust in underground mines
Watson, Celia H.
The wearing of body amour has become a necessity for many professions and much work has gone into the optimisation of the mechanics of protection. In the present study a broader view of the effects of ergonomics, design, reliability and protection has been taken. Three background topics are examined by reference to the literature. First, as an example of the threats and injury mechanisms that prevail in modern conflicts, the effects of blast injury to the head are investigat...
Dirkse van Schalkwyk, Riaan; Steenkamp, Rigard J
A holistic review of ergonomic history shows that science remains important for general occupational health and safety (OSH), the broad society, culture, politics and the design of everyday things. Science provides an unconventional and multifaceted viewpoint exploring ergonomics from a social, corporate and OSH perspective. Ergonomic solutions from this mindset may redefine the science, and it will change with companies that change within this socially hyper-connected world. Authentic corporate social responsibility will counter 'misleadership' by not approaching ergonomics with an afterthought. The review concludes that ergonomics will be stronger with social respect and ergonomic thinking based on the optimisation of anthropometric data, digital human models, computer-aided tools, self-empowerment, job enrichment, work enlargement, physiology, industrial psychology, cybernetic ergonomics, operations design, ergonomic-friendly process technologies, ergonomic empowerment, behaviour-based safety, outcome-based employee wellness and fatigue risk management solutions, to mention a few.
This thesis is the first to provide the fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton design. The fundamental theory as well as technology necessary to analyze and develop ergonomic wearable robots interacting with humans is established and validated by experiments and prototypes. The fundamentals are (1) a new theoretical framework for analyzing physical human robot interaction (pHRI) with exoskeletons, and (2) a clear set of design rules of how to build wearable, portable exoskeletons to easily and...
Frank Peters; Patrick Patterson
The goal of this project was to make improvements to the production systems of the steel casting industry through ergonomic improvements. Because of the wide variety of products, the wide range of product sizes, and the relatively small quantities of any particular product, manual operations remain a vital part of the production systems of the steel casting companies. Ergonomic improvements will assist the operators to more efficiently and consistently produce quality products
Courtney, Theodore K.
Perhaps the four most popular 'ergonomic' office culprits are: (1) the computer or visual display terminal (VDT); (2) the office chair; (3) the workstation; and (4) other automated equipment such as the facsimile machine, photocopier, etc. Among the ergonomics issues in the office environment are visual fatigue, musculoskeletal disorders, and radiation/electromagnetic (VLF,ELF) field exposure from VDT's. We address each of these in turn and then review some regulatory considerations regarding such stressors in the office and general industrial environment.
Mavin, S; Watson, E J; Evans, R
This study examines the distribution of laboratory-confirmed cases of Lyme borreliosis in Scotland and the clinical spectrum of presentations within NHS Highland. Methods General demographic data (age/sex/referring Health Board) from all cases of Lyme borreliosis serologically confirmed by the National Lyme Borreliosis Testing Laboratory from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2013 were analysed. Clinical features of confirmed cases were ascertained from questionnaires sent to referring clinicians within NHS Highland during the study period. Results The number of laboratory-confirmed cases of Lyme borreliosis in Scotland peaked at 440 in 2010. From 2008 to 2013 the estimated average annual incidence was 6.8 per 100,000 (44.1 per 100,000 in NHS Highland). Of 594 questionnaires from NHS Highland patients: 76% had clinically confirmed Lyme borreliosis; 48% erythema migrans; 17% rash, 25% joint, 15% neurological and 1% cardiac symptoms. Only 61% could recall a tick bite. Conclusion The incidence of Lyme borreliosis may be stabilising in Scotland but NHS Highland remains an area of high incidence. Lyme borreliosis should be considered in symptomatic patients that have had exposure to ticks and not just those with a definite tick bite.
Educational ergonomics - the teaching of ergonomics and the design of environments where ergonomics teaching and learning might occur - has received little attention from ergonomists. This paper first describes the roots of the author's interest and research in educational ergonomics; second it provides a personal view of the opportunities and challenges posed by the two streams of educational ergonomics; and lastly it considers the implications of teaching ergonomics to children in terms of their personal development, the design of schools and the impact such initiatives might have on wider societal problems.
Pîrvu, C; Pătraşcu, I; Pîrvu, D; Ionescu, C
The practice of dentistry involves laborious high finesse dental preparations, precision and control in executions that require a particular attention, concentration and patience of the dentist and finally the dentist's physical and mental resistance. The optimal therapeutic approach and the success of practice involve special working conditions for the dentist and his team in an ergonomic environment. The meaning of the posture in ergonomics is the manner in which different parts of the body are located and thus the reports are established between them in order to allow a special task execution. This article discusses the posture adopted by dentists when they work, beginning with the balanced posture and going to different variants of posture. The ideal posture of a dentist gives him, on the one hand the optimal working conditions (access, visibility and control in the mouth) and on the other hand, physical and psychological comfort throughout the execution of the clinical acts. Although the theme of dentist posture is treated with great care and often presented in the undergraduate courses and the continuing education courses on ergonomics in dentistry, many dentists do not know the subject well enough nor the theoretical issues and therefore nor the practical applicability. The risk and perspective of the musculoskeletal disorders related to unbalanced postures should determine the dentists take postural corrective actions and compensation measures in order to limit the negative effects of working in a bad posture.
Statham, Melissa McCarty; Sukits, Alison L.; Redfern, Mark S.; Smith, Libby J.; Sok, John C.; Rosen, Clark A.
Objectives/Hypothesis To apply ergonomic principles in analysis of three different operative positions used in laryngeal microsurgery. Study Design Prospective case-control study. Methods Laryngologists were studied in three different microlaryngeal operative positions: a supported position in a chair with articulated arm supports, a supported position with arms resting on a Mayo stand, and a position with arms unsupported. Operative positions were uniformly photographed in three dimensions. Full body postural data was collected and analyzed using the validated Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) tool to calculate a risk score indicative of potential musculoskeletal misuse in each position. Joint forces were calculated for the neck and shoulder, and compression forces were calculated for the L5/S1 disc space. Results Higher-risk postures were obtained with unfavorably adjusted eyepieces and lack of any arm support during microlaryngeal surgery. Support with a Mayo stand led to more neck flexion and strain. Using a chair with articulated arm supports leads to decreased neck strain, less shoulder torque, and decreased compressive forces on the L5/S1 disc space. Ideal postures during microlaryngoscopy place the surgeon with arms and feet supported, with shoulders in an unraised, neutral anatomic position, upper arms neutrally positioned 20° to 45° from torso, lower arms neutrally positioned 60° to 100° from torso, and wrists extended or flexed postures and repetitive stress injury may lead to reduced occupationally related musculoskeletal pain and may improve microsurgical motor control. Laryngoscope, 2010 PMID:19950376
Ergonomics is the study of physical interaction between humans and their working environment. The objective of this study was to characterize the performance of spinal anaesthesia in an acute hospital setting, applying ergonomic task analysis.
Kairisto, V; Poola, A
GraphROC for Windows is a program for clinical test evaluation. It was designed for the handling of large datasets obtained from clinical laboratory databases. In the user interface, graphical and numerical presentations are combined. For simplicity, numerical data is not shown unless requested. Relevant numbers can be "picked up" from the graph by simple mouse operations. Reference distributions can be displayed by using automatically optimized bin widths. Any percentile of the distribution with corresponding confidence limits can be chosen for display. In sensitivity-specificity analysis, both illness- and health-related distributions are shown in the same graph. The following data for any cutoff limit can be shown in a separate click window: clinical sensitivity and specificity with corresponding confidence limits, positive and negative likelihood ratios, positive and negative predictive values and efficiency. Predictive values and clinical efficiency of the cutoff limit can be updated for any prior probability of disease. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves can be generated and combined into the same graph for comparison of several different tests. The area under the curve with corresponding confidence interval is calculated for each ROC curve. Numerical results of analyses and graphs can be printed or exported to other Microsoft Windows programs. GraphROC for Windows also employs a new method, developed by us, for the indirect estimation of health-related limits and change limits from mixed distributions of clinical laboratory data.
Batista, I C; Gomes, G J C; Teles, C S; Oliveira, P F; Santos, R M; Sassi, A C; Sá, B; V, B; Pardauil, A A
This paper aims to present an ergonomic device to assist in the maintenance of the units of Tucuruí Hydropower Plant. The development of this ergonomic device made possible to reduce maintenance time, reduce losses caused by billing, improve performance and reduce the physical strain for labors during the execution of services.
Lawton, Cindy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Ergonomic injury and radiation exposure are two safety concerns for the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This facility employs the largest number of gloveboxes (GB) at LANL with approximately 6000 gloves installed. The current GB glove design dates back to the 1960’s and is not based on true hand anatomy, revealing several issues: short fingers, inappropriate length from the wrist to finger webbing, nonexistent joint angles and incorrect thumb placement. These design flaws are directly related to elbow (lateral epicondylitis) and thumb (DeQuervain’s tenosynovitis) injuries. The current design also contributes to increased wear on the glove, causing unplanned glove openings (failures) which places workers at risk of exposure. An improved glovebox glove design has three significant benefits: 1) it will reduce the risk of injury, 2) it will improve comfort and productivity, and 3) it will reduce the risk of a glovebox failures. The combination of these three benefits has estimated savings of several million dollars. The new glove design incorporated the varied physical attributes of workers ranging from the 5th percentile female to the 95th percentile male. Anthropometric hand dimensions along with current GB worker dimensions were used to develop the most comprehensive design specifications for the new glove. Collaboration with orthopedic hand surgeons also provided major contributtions to the design. The new glovebox glove was developed and manufactured incorporating over forty dimensions producing the most comprehensive ergonomically sound design. The new design received a LANL patent (patent attorney docket No: LANS 36USD1 “Protective Glove”, one of 20 highest patents awarded by the Richard P. Feynman Center for Innovation. The glove dimensions were inputed into a solid works model which was used to produce molds. The molds were then shipped to a glove manufacturer for production of the new glovebox gloves. The new
Guzman Suárez, Olga Beatriz
Full Text Available RESUMENEn éste artículo se dan a conocer algunas de las aplicaciones más importantes de la ergonomía en Terapia Ocupacional, puesto que a pesar de tener un gran reconocimiento en el sector trabajo, en donde hay un mayor predominio de estudio por parte de la ergonomía, aún se desconocen muchas de las actividades que pueden ser realizadas por éstos profesionales. Terapia Ocupacional abarca el estudio de todas las etapas de la vida del individuo, en cuanto a su desempeño ocupacional se refiere, lo cual garantiza un amplio campo de actuación profesional, que permite profundizar e investigar en diversas áreas, para que desde su experiencia y resultados se facilite el aporte a muchos proyectos de investigación que requieren de conceptos que son transversales a diferentes disciplinas y que pueden constituirse en conocimiento nuevo para la sociedad científica. Con la creación del Grupo de Salud Ocupacional y Ergonomía en la Universidad Manuela Beltrán, se pretende “Desarrollar proyectos de investigación en el campo de la ergonomía, aplicables en los contextos: laboral, escolar, social y familiar; que permitan la adaptación de diferentes entornos al ser humano y a su vez mejorar condiciones tendientes al logro de un óptimo desempeño y productividad”. De esta manera, se inician proyectos de investigación con estudiantes de Terapia Ocupacional, cuyos avances han permitido escribir el presente articulo, se espera además la vinculación de otras áreas para su fortalecimiento. ABSTRACTIn this article they bring themselves to light some of the most important applications of the ergonomics in occupational therapy, since in spite of having a great recognition in the work sector, where there is a greater predominance of study on the part of the ergonomics, still many of the activities they do not know themselves that can be carried out for these professionals. The occupational therapy covers the study of all the phases of the life of
Ahearn, David J; Sanders, Martha J; Turcotte, Claudia
The increasing complexity of the dental office environment influences productivity and workflow for dental clinicians. Advances in technology, and with it the range of products needed to provide services, have led to sprawl in operatory setups and the potential for awkward postures for dental clinicians during the delivery of oral health services. Although ergonomics often addresses the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders for specific populations of workers, concepts of workflow and productivity are integral to improved practice in work environments. This article provides suggestions for improving workflow and productivity for dental clinicians. The article applies ergonomic principles to dental practice issues such as equipment and supply management, office design, and workflow management. Implications for improved ergonomic processes and future research are explored.
Barsnick, Lance E.; Zalk, David M.; Perry, Catherine M.; Biggs, Terry; Tageson, Robert E.
A hand-held ergonomic material-handling device capable of moving heavy objects, such as large waste containers and other large objects requiring mechanical assistance. The ergonomic material-handling device can be used with neutral postures of the back, shoulders, wrists and knees, thereby reducing potential injury to the user. The device involves two key features: 1) gives the user the ability to adjust the height of the handles of the device to ergonomically fit the needs of the user's back, wrists and shoulders; and 2) has a rounded handlebar shape, as well as the size and configuration of the handles which keep the user's wrists in a neutral posture during manipulation of the device.
Full Text Available The article analyzes the available ergonomic constructions used for the support of the musculoskeletal system during static, prolonged work performed in forced positions. Possible evaluation methods are presented as well as ergonomic considerations of work performed in inclined positions, where there is no possibility of influencing the working plane. As a result of the presented work, a set of criteria has been proposed and the requirements for methods which can be used to evaluate the technical constructions supporting the worker during tasks performed in forced and static positions.
Richardson, Miles; Maspero, Marta; Golightly, David; Sheffield, David; Staples, Vicki; Lumber, Ryan
Nature is presented as a new paradigm for ergonomics. As a discipline concerned with well-being, the importance of natural environments for wellness should be part of ergonomics knowledge and practice. This position is supported by providing a concise summary of the evidence of the value of the natural environment to well-being. Further, an emerging body of research has found relationships between well-being and a connection to nature, a concept that reveals the integrative character of human experience which can inform wider practice and epistemology in ergonomics. Practitioners are encouraged to bring nature into the workplace, so that ergonomics keeps pace with the move to nature-based solutions, but also as a necessity in the current ecological and social context. Practitioner Summary: Nature-based solutions are coming to the fore to address societal challenges such as well-being. As ergonomics is concerned with well-being, there is a need for a paradigm shift in the discipline. This position is supported by providing a concise summary of the evidence of the value of the natural environment to well-being.
Many construction injuries are musculoskeletal related in the form of sprains and strains arising from the handling of materials, which are specified by designers. The paper presents the results of a study conducted among delegates attending two 'designing for H&S' (DfH&S) seminars using a questionnaire. The salient findings include: the level of knowledge relative to the mass and density of materials is limited; designers generally do not consider the mass and density of materials when designing structures and elements and specifying materials; to a degree designers appreciate that the mass and density of materials impact on construction ergonomics; designers rate their knowledge of the mass and density of materials as limited, and designers appreciate the potential of the consideration of the mass and density of materials to contribute to an improvement in construction ergonomics. Conclusions include: designers lack the requisite knowledge relative to the mass and density of materials; designers are thus precluded from conducting optimum design hazard identification and risk assessments, and tertiary built environment designer education does not enlighten designers relative to construction ergonomics. Recommendations include: tertiary built environment designer education should construction ergonomics; professional associations should raise the level of awareness relative to construction ergonomics, and design practices should include a category 'mass and density of materials' in their practice libraries.
Williams, J.C.; Story, D.T.
The application of ergonomic principles to the design process and some aspects of the Sizewell B control room is discussed. Also outlined is the management process which ensures that these principles are applied systematically throughout the design development activity and highlights the functional requirements which must also be met in the creation of a total man-machine system package which meets all the technical design criteria. The ergonomics requirements are part of this process and extend into all aspects of design ranging from such matters as workplace organization to environmental factors, social engineering, communications and aesthetics. (author)
Full Text Available Context: The bioburden present on the pharmaceutical microbiology laboratory’s surfaces, may increase the risk of cross-contamination when analytical tests are being carried out; periodic monitoring allows to set limits that reduce the risk. Aims: To determinate the limits of bioburden present on seven surfaces of the pharmaceutical microbiology laboratory, after the cleaning and disinfection process. Methods: The swabbing method was used for sampling. With a 25 cm2 stencil and a sterile swab, a sample was taken, passing the swab over five points of every surface chosen. A total aerobic microbial count and a total yeast and mold count was done. Finally, the average and the standard deviation of the counts was obtained. Results: The average from the counts obtained on each surface selected for the study, were below the recommended limits by international entities like the World Health Organization and the European Union, between others; also, the results generated in this study, allow to classify the biosafety cabinet as an ISO 5 area and the other areas as ISO 7. Conclusions: Bioburden levels on the tested surfaces are considered low, reducing the risk of cross-contamination, which could have a negative impact on laboratory’s activities. Also, it follows that disinfectant concentration used, is effectively.
Scarpa, Philip J.; Field, Steven A.
The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Environmental Health (EH) contractor performs ergonomic evaluations under its Ergonomic Program. Any KSC employee may request one or the reviewing physician may request one for a patient during a visit to an onsite medical facility. As part of the ergonomic evaluation, recommendations are given to the patient to help reduce any ergonomic problems they experience. The recommendations, if implemented, are successful in the majority of KSC patients; however, a group of patients do not seem to improve. Those who don't improve may be identified by reevaluations, which are performed to implement maximum resolution of ergonomic problems.
Full Text Available Background & Objectives: According to previous researches, workers' participation in issues affecting their working condition is the key to success in ergonomics interventions in working environments. Therefore, the present study was performed to increase active particapitation of supervisors in production line and also to identify and assess ergonomics risks and presenting modification actions (Kaizen by themselves in Pars Khodro automobile manufacturing company. Methods: A manual regarding lifting objects and body postures, according to the Finish evaluation method, was provided for supervisors in production line and related trainings were presented to them. Then, they were asked to insert the results of their assessments and suggestions in special forms during one year. The presented assessments and suggestions were examined by ergonomics experts. Results: According to the assessments conducted by supervisors, 26 work stations had high ergonomics risks, 51 had ergonomics risks with an average level, and 45 had low ergonomics risks. Moreover, the number of required Kaizens presented by supervisors was increased from 18 cases in the first year to 42 cases in the second year, after implementation of ergonomics training and identifying and assessing ergonomic risks by supervisors. Conclusion: Empowering and training supervisors increased workers' participation. In case of adequate training, supervisors can present practical solutions to reduce ergonomics risks in their workstations.
Full Text Available This study has arisenfrom the experience in the discipline “Estágio Curricular" from Biomedicine, Pharmacy and Laboratory Technique courses in ULAB/HC/UFPE. The goal of this study wasto use a semi-present environment (50 hours to the qualification of the incoming students in 2011-1. Conventional classes were given through present approaches (theoretical-practical classes and the students were inscribed and trained in the virtual environment to accomplish the distant learning course: “Capacitaçãodos Estagiários daULAB em Biossegurança e Coleta”, in which classes, debates, links, scientificstudies, tests and videoconferences were available. The presence phase was evaluated by the attendance (assiduity 98%, while the online phase was the result ofthe access reports (6,221, the progress of the exercises (95%, and the final evaluations grades available in thesystem (8.2. Theoretical-practical classes have provided interaction between content/teacher/student.Didactical model, quality contents and multidisciplinary present approach remarkably contribute to diminish difficulties in using the tools and applications: 80% of students have never taken a distant learning coursebefore; 23% haven’t had a computer; 95% have declared that presential training helped them to conclude the course and 100%have stated non-restricted contents available online have facilitated their access. Current challenges in education is to conciliate technology and learningin favor of ensuring that the students take advantage on their potentialities.
Moroni, Janaina Luisa da Silva; Aymone, José Luís Farinatti
This work proposes a design methodology using ergonomics and anthropometry concepts applied to traffic sign and street name sign projects. Initially, a literature revision on cognitive ergonomics and anthropometry is performed. Several authors and their design methodologies are analyzed and the aspects to be considered in projects of traffic and street name signs are selected and other specific aspects are proposed for the design methodology. A case study of the signs of "Street of Antiques" in Porto Alegre city is presented. To do that, interviews with the population are made to evaluate the current situation of signs. After that, a new sign proposal with virtual prototyping is done using the developed methodology. The results obtained with new interviews about the proposal show the user satisfaction and the importance of cognitive ergonomics to development of this type of urban furniture.
Mital, A. (ed.) (University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (USA). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ergonomics Research Lab.)
125 papers are presented under the session headings: industrial ergonomics - programs and applications; applied work physiology; occupational biomechanics; engineering anthropometry; work and protective clothing; hand tools; human-computer interface; theory and practice of industrial safety; human perception and performance; human strengths; industrial noise and vibration; machine guarding and industrial machine safety; manual materials handling; modelling for safety and health; occupational injuries and health problems; policies and standards; quality control and inspection; rehabilitation and designing for the disabled; work duration and fatigue; and work and work place design. Includes papers on static and dynamic back strength of underground coal miners, and slip and fall accidents during equipment maintenance in the surface mining industry.
Hermawati, Setia; Lawson, Glyn; Sutarto, Auditya Purwandini
In industrially developing countries (IDC), small and medium enterprises (SMEs) account for the highest proprotion of employment. Unfortunately, the working conditions in SMEs are often very poor and expose employees to a potentially wide range of health and safety risks. This paper presents a comprehensive review of 161 articles related to ergonomics application in SMEs, using Indonesia as a case study. The aim of this paper is to investigate the extent of ergonomics application and identify areas that can be improved to promote effective ergonomics for SMEs in IDC. The most urgent issue found is the need for adopting participatory approach in contrast to the commonly implemented top-down approach. Some good practices in ergonomics application were also revealed from the review, e.g. a multidisciplinary approach, unsophisticated and low-cost solutions, and recognising the importance of productivity. The review also found that more work is still required to achieve appropriate cross-cultural adaptation of ergonomics application.
Zink, Klaus J; Fischer, Klaus
The International Ergonomics Association Technical Committee 'Human Factors and Sustainable Development' was established to contribute to a broad discourse about opportunities and risks resulting from current societal 'mega-trends' and their impacts on the interactions among humans and other elements of a system, e.g. in work systems. This paper focuses on the underlying key issues: how do the sustainability paradigm and human factors/ergonomics interplay and interact, and is sustainability necessary as a new approach for our discipline? Based on a discussion of the sustainability concept, some general principles for designing new and enhancing existent approaches of human factors and ergonomics regarding their orientation towards sustainability are proposed. The increasing profile of sustainability on the international stage presents new opportunities for human factors/ergonomics. Positioning of the sustainability paradigm within human factors/ergonomics is discussed. Approaches to incorporating sustainability in the design of work systems are considered.
Duraccio, Vincenzo [University Niccolò Cusano, Rome Via Don Gnocchi,00166, Roma Italy (Italy); Elia, Valerio [Dept. of Innovation Engineering - University of Salento Via Monteroni, 73100, Lecce (Italy); Forcina, Antonio [University Parthenope, Dep. of Engineering Centro Direzionale - Isola C4 80143 - Naples - Italy (Italy)
An efficient ergonomic optimization can lead to a significant improvement in production performance and a considerable reduction of costs. In the present paper new model for ergonomic optimization is proposed. The new approach is based on the criteria defined by National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health and, adapted to Italian legislation. The proposed model provides an ergonomic optimization, by analyzing ergonomic relations between manual work in correct conditions. The model includes a schematic and systematic analysis method of the operations, and identifies all possible ergonomic aspects to be evaluated. The proposed approach has been applied to an automotive assembly line, where the operation repeatability makes the optimization fundamental. The proposed application clearly demonstrates the effectiveness of the new approach.
Duraccio, Vincenzo; Elia, Valerio; Forcina, Antonio
An efficient ergonomic optimization can lead to a significant improvement in production performance and a considerable reduction of costs. In the present paper new model for ergonomic optimization is proposed. The new approach is based on the criteria defined by National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health and, adapted to Italian legislation. The proposed model provides an ergonomic optimization, by analyzing ergonomic relations between manual work in correct conditions. The model includes a schematic and systematic analysis method of the operations, and identifies all possible ergonomic aspects to be evaluated. The proposed approach has been applied to an automotive assembly line, where the operation repeatability makes the optimization fundamental. The proposed application clearly demonstrates the effectiveness of the new approach.
Duraccio, Vincenzo; Elia, Valerio; Forcina, Antonio
An efficient ergonomic optimization can lead to a significant improvement in production performance and a considerable reduction of costs. In the present paper new model for ergonomic optimization is proposed. The new approach is based on the criteria defined by National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health and, adapted to Italian legislation. The proposed model provides an ergonomic optimization, by analyzing ergonomic relations between manual work in correct conditions. The model includes a schematic and systematic analysis method of the operations, and identifies all possible ergonomic aspects to be evaluated. The proposed approach has been applied to an automotive assembly line, where the operation repeatability makes the optimization fundamental. The proposed application clearly demonstrates the effectiveness of the new approach.
Gao, Xiyin; Li, Xinling; Song, Qiang; Zheng, Ying
Along with agricultural economy development, the farm machinery product type Increases gradually, the ergonomics question is also getting more and more prominent. The widespread application of computer aided machinery design makes it possible that farm machinery design is intuitive, flexible and convenient. At present, because the developed computer aided ergonomics software has not suitable human body database, which is needed in view of farm machinery design in China, the farm machinery design have deviation in ergonomics analysis. This article puts forward that using the open database interface procedure in CATIA to establish human body database which aims at the farm machinery design, and reading the human body data to ergonomics module of CATIA can product practical application virtual body, using human posture analysis and human activity analysis module to analysis the ergonomics in farm machinery, thus computer aided farm machinery designing method based on engineering can be realized.
Markich, S J; Jeffree, R A [eds.
The Rum Jungle uranium-copper mine in tropical northern Australia has been a source of acid rock drainage contaminants since the 1950s, which have had adverse impacts on the receiving waters of the Finniss River. Mine site remediation began in 1982 followed by long-term monitoring of water quality and flow, based on daily measurements within the Finniss River system. A decade or more after the initiation of these remedial activities, a set of investigations have been completed that have measured the post-remedial ecological status of the Finniss River system, relative to this environmental benchmark. These studies have also been complemented by studies on various other ecological endpoints. Moreover, the Finniss River system has provided unique opportunities for broader scientific goals to be pursued. Because it has been so well-monitored, it can be viewed as a natural laboratory to investigate the impacts of acid rock drainage on tropical freshwater biodiversity. The scientific papers presented at this symposium address a broad spectrum of issues that are directly related to environmental sustainability and mining. The topics range across future contaminant scenarios and their predicted ecological impacts, the various metrics used to assess ecological detriment to biodiversity, the abilities of laminated biological structures to act as archives of pollution history, and also spin-off applications in environmental and wildlife management. Furthermore, the participation of many stakeholders in open discussion during the symposium provided an important set of views and opinions on the needs for future studies in the Finniss River system.
Markich, S.J.; Jeffree, R.A.
The Rum Jungle uranium-copper mine in tropical northern Australia has been a source of acid rock drainage contaminants since the 1950s, which have had adverse impacts on the receiving waters of the Finniss River. Mine site remediation began in 1982 followed by long-term monitoring of water quality and flow, based on daily measurements within the Finniss River system. A decade or more after the initiation of these remedial activities, a set of investigations have been completed that have measured the post-remedial ecological status of the Finniss River system, relative to this environmental benchmark. These studies have also been complemented by studies on various other ecological endpoints. Moreover, the Finniss River system has provided unique opportunities for broader scientific goals to be pursued. Because it has been so well-monitored, it can be viewed as a natural laboratory to investigate the impacts of acid rock drainage on tropical freshwater biodiversity. The scientific papers presented at this symposium address a broad spectrum of issues that are directly related to environmental sustainability and mining. The topics range across future contaminant scenarios and their predicted ecological impacts, the various metrics used to assess ecological detriment to biodiversity, the abilities of laminated biological structures to act as archives of pollution history, and also spin-off applications in environmental and wildlife management. Furthermore, the participation of many stakeholders in open discussion during the symposium provided an important set of views and opinions on the needs for future studies in the Finniss River system
Pedro Guatimosim Vidigal
Full Text Available Introduction: Modifications in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS have led to a significant improvement in the national health indexes. However, some challenges still need to be faced, especially concerning SUS patients' access to high-quality laboratory support services.Objective: To evaluate the present status of laboratory services in SUS in 31 cities of Minas Gerais, Brazil, between 2008 and 2011.Material and method: This analysis was performed through data from the Information Technology Department of SUS (DATASUS and through interviews with local public health managers with structured questionnaires.Results: Among all the studied cities, 21 had their own laboratory, 90.2% of which were in precarious conditions, not meeting the requirements established by the legislation in force, and employing inappropriate procedures and techniques, in addition to using obsolete equipment. The range of available laboratory tests was limited, what demanded the services of supporting laboratories. None of the evaluated laboratories developed any systematic activity on quality management, including control of analytical quality, maintenance of laboratory equipment, calibration and performance evaluation of critical equipment, continuing education programs, and safety and biosecurity.Conclusion: The effective role of laboratory test results in medical decision is unquestionably impaired, risking the safety of SUS patients. The present work reveals the deficiencies of public laboratory services in Minas Gerais, and proposes a new management model, which is able to associate operational quality, technological development and optimization of human and material resources with higher productivity.
The Three Mile Island accident highlighted the importance of ergonomic design of control rooms. Emphasis has been on a reappraisal of the reactor/operator interface, but in the United Kingdom the CEGB maintains that safe efficient operation needs a centralised information system optimised for all control room staff. (author)
Ministry of Technology, London (England). Warren Spring Lab.
THE LITERATURE OF ERGONOMICS, OR BIOTECHNOLOGY, IS CLASSIFIED INTO 15 AREAS--METHODS, SYSTEMS OF MEN AND MACHINES, VISUAL AND AUDITORY AND OTHER INPUTS AND PROCESSES, INPUT CHANNELS, BODY MEASUREMENTS, DESIGN OF CONTROLS AND INTEGRATION WITH DISPLAYS, LAYOUT OF PANELS AND CONSOLES, DESIGN OF WORK SPACE, CLOTHING AND PERSONAL EQUIPMENT, SPECIAL…
The relationship between research and practice in ergonomics and human factors has rarely been addressed in the literature. This presents specific problems for researchers when seeking to relate their work to the research community. Equally, practitioners are often frustrated by the lack of appropriate research to meet their needs. This paper seeks to identify current drivers for ergonomics research along with an analysis of how these are changing. Specifically, the use of bibliometric data to assess research output and its impact on a multi-disciplinary subject such as ergonomics is examined. Areas where action may be required to stimulate better research and improved practice are proposed. These include a greater role for the practitioner in completing the circle of knowledge and improving the evidence base for practice with, in particular, practitioners becoming more active in determining research priorities. It is concluded that combined effort is needed by researcher and practitioner communities to enable and promote a more effective understanding of the true impact of ergonomics across industry and society. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The relationship between ergonomics research and practice is examined. Research 'drivers' are identified, including the influence of bibliometric data. Implications for researchers and practitioners are discussed. The role of practitioners in completing the circle of knowledge and improving the ergonomics evidence base is stressed, as is the need to promote the impact of ergonomics across society.
Fleer, Paul; Gauthier-Green, Erin
Describes the use of ergonomics to reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders such as back pain, tendonitis, and carpal tunnel syndrome. Describes ergonomics and how to identify ergonomic problems, conduct a job hazard analysis, and develop solutions. Also lists common ergonomic errors in schools. Provides an ergonomic checklist for employees…
Full Text Available World population aging is a phenomenon we are confronting with, more than past. This fact has different implications for today’s societies. One of these aspects is workforce (1. Some factors have resulted in more tendencies of workers to remain in their works including: Economic, societal, cultural factors, and social trends and laws such as increasing age of retirement in the middle twentieth century, which recently increased more (2. Productive workforce is one of major assets of each country. So, in one hand we have older adults in our workplaces and in other hand, we are following to retain employee’s productivity at first, and then, improve it. Ergonomics as a multidisciplinary science, attempts to make balance between human capabilities and its limitations by fitting the task to the person or fitting the person to the task. In this way, workers’ fatigue and errors are minimized and productivity and well-being optimized (3. In more developed countries like United States, approximately 66.3 percent of adults aged 55-64 years are in the workforce (4. In our country, Iran, 7.3% of populations were more than 60 yrs. in 2006 (5 which indicate our population is aging, though accurate number of those people in work is lacking. Older adults have physical and mental changes as a common result of aging. Physical changes show itself as decline in physical capabilities, and mental changes involved in sensation and perception, cognition, and motor control (6. So, it is essential to acknowledge these changes and adopt suitable strategies and accommodations for job circumstances and living environments when considering older adults. In general, a few ergonomics studies explored the effect of aging on environmental modifications and job adaptation. To best of my knowledge, also in Iran there are few studies that presented in conferences or published in journals. Therefore, as a closing remark, it is widely needed to pay more
Hirscher, Verena; Unbehaun, Thomas; Feige, Bernd; Nissen, Christoph; Riemann, Dieter; Spiegelhalder, Kai
The validity of sleep laboratory investigations in patients with insomnia is important for researchers and clinicians. The objective of this study was to examine the first-night effect and the reverse first-night effect in patients with chronic primary insomnia compared with good sleeper controls. A retrospective comparison of a well-characterised sample of 50 patients with primary insomnia and 50 good sleeper controls was conducted with respect to 2 nights of polysomnography, and subjective sleep parameters in the sleep laboratory and the home setting. When comparing the first and second sleep laboratory night, a significant first-night effect was observed across both groups in the great majority of the investigated polysomnographic and subjective variables. However, patients with primary insomnia and good sleeper controls did not differ with respect to this effect. Regarding the comparison between the sleep laboratory nights and the home setting, unlike good sleeper controls, patients with primary insomnia reported an increased subjective sleep efficiency on both nights (in part due to a reduced bed time) and an increased subjective total sleep time on the second night. These results suggest that even the second sleep laboratory night does not necessarily provide clinicians and researchers with a representative insight into the sleep perception of patients with primary insomnia. Future studies should investigate whether these findings also hold for other patient populations. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.
Winkel, Jørgen; Schiller, Bernt; Dellve, L.
Ergonomic interventions have generally been unsuccessful in improving workers’ health, with concurrent rationalization efforts negating potentially successful intervention initiatives. We propose the two aims are considered simultaneously, aiming at the joint consideration of competitive performa...... to carry out such research. The present authors bring forth the vision of “a Nordic Model for development of more sustainable production systems”....
This paper presents a survey of cybercafes in a developing country to reveal their design pitfalls and propose appropriate solutions to the observed problems based on ergonomic principles. These cybercafes provide Internet services to communities but the concern is to make the work convenient at the computer workplace ...
Maheshwar; Jawalkar, Chandrashekhar S.
This paper presents the ergonomic aspects in designing and prototyping of desks cum chairs used in elementary schools. The procedures adopted for the assessment included: the study of existing school furniture, design analysis and development of prototypes. The design approach proposed a series of adjustable desks and chairs developed in terms of…
Full Text Available Luca Masotti1,8, Patrick Ray2, Marc Righini3, Gregoire Le Gal4, Fabio Antonelli5, Giancarlo Landini1, Roberto Cappelli6, Domenico Prisco7, Paola Rottoli81Internal Medicine, Cecina Hospital, Cecina, Italy; 2Department of Emergency Medicine, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Pitié-Salpêtrière, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Paris, France; 3Division of Angiology and Hemostasis, Geneva University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland; 4Department of Internal Medicine and Chest Diseases, Brest University Hospital, Brest, France; 5Clinical Chemistry, Cecina Hospital, Cecina, Italy; 6Department of Internal, Cardiovascular and Geriatric Medicine, University of Siena, Siena, Italy; 7Department of Critical Care Medicine, Thrombosis Centre, Careggi Hospital, Florence, Italy; 8Departiment of Clinical Medicine and Immunological Sciences, Division of Respiratory Diseases, University of Siena, Siena, ItalyObjective: Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE remains difficult and is often missed in the elderly due to nonspecific and atypical presentation. Diagnostic algorithms able to rule out PE and validated in young adult patients may have reduced applicability in elderly patients, which increases the number of diagnostic tools use and costs. The aim of the present study was to analyze the reported clinical presentation of PE in patients aged 65 and more.Materials and Methods: Prospective and retrospective English language studies dealing with the clinical, instrumental and laboratory aspects of PE in patients more than 65 and published after January 1987 and indexed in MEDLINE using keywords as pulmonary embolism, elderly, old, venous thromboembolism (VTE in the title, abstract or text, were reviewed.Results: Dyspnea (range 59%–91.5%, tachypnea (46%–74%, tachycardia (29%–76%, and chest pain (26%–57% represented the most common clinical symptoms and signs. Bed rest was the most frequent risk factor for VTE (15%–67%; deep vein
Anjos, Luciana Mattos dos; Curty, Adriana Favacho [CHEMTECH, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Franca, Guilherme Foerster do Monte; Jardino, Alessandro Neto [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
Ergonomics is the technological design of the interplay between men, machines and environment in order to make labor activities more pleasant, profitable and functional. This article analyses the importance of ergonomic issues in process terminal plants and facilities, since the conceptual design stage until the detail engineering design. The ergonomic solutions are compared with practices that are current in engineering design plants nowadays. It will be shown how an inadequate ergonomic design often leads to accessibility problems and non-effectiveness during plant operation and dangers in emergency situations. The way perform an ergonomic design is to integrate the various disciplines that are involved in all stages of the design plant. The earlier the ergonomic design is implemented the better are the results in cost reduction, since later design modifications are more time-consuming and expensive. (author)
Beek, A.J. van der; IJmker, S.
This chapter discusses the physical ergonomics and musculoskeletal disorders and summarizes the Triennial International Ergonomics Association (IEA) World Congress 2006-IEA2006-highlights on physical ergonomics and work-related MusculoSkeletal Disorders (MSDs). Two general trends are observed.
Longbotham, L.; Miller, D.P.
A telephone survey was conducted to evaluate the quality of service provided to the primary customers of the Corporate Ergonomics Group (CEG). One hundred clients who received services between October 1993 and June 1994 were asked questions on their expectations, implementation of ergonomic recommendations, follow-ups, time required, productivity improvements, symptom alleviation, and satisfaction. Suggestions on how processes could be improved were also solicited. In general, recommendations are being implemented, worksite evaluations are going smoothly, and customers are satisfied with the process. The CEG was pleased to learn that half of the people who implemented recommendations experienced improvements in productivity, and four out of five symptomatic customers experienced partial or complete relief. Through analysis of the data and by studying clients` suggestions for process improvement, the CEG has developed a strategy for changing and improving current procedures and practices. These plans can be found in the last section of this report.
Full Text Available The term "work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs," refers to musculoskeletal disorders to which the work environment contributes significantly, or to musculoskeletal disorders that are made worse or longer lasting by work conditions or workplace risk factors. In recent years, there has been an increase in reporting WMSDs for dental persons. Risk factors of WMSDs with specific reference to dentistry include - stress, poor flexibility, improper positioning, infrequent breaks, repetitive movements, weak postural muscles, prolonged awkward postures and improper adjustment of equipment. Ergonomics is the science of designing jobs, equipment and workplaces to fit workers. Proper ergonomic design is necessary to prevent repetitive strain injuries, which can develop over time and can lead to long-term disability. In this article, 20 strategies to prevent WMSDs in the dental operatory are discussed.
Weiss, Patrice L Tamar; Schreuer, Naomi; Jermias-Cohen, Tali; Josman, Naomi
For the past two years, the Department of Occupational Therapy at the University of Haifa has offered an online course to third year occupational therapists on the topic of Ergonomics for Health Care Professionals. The development and implementation of this course was funded by the Israeli Ministry of Education. Unique teaching materials, developed and uploaded to the University's server via "High Learn", included interactive and self-directed documents containing graphics, animations, and video clips. Extensive use was made of the discussion forum and survey tools, and students submitted all assignments online. For the final topic, an expert in ergonomics from Boston University delivered a lecture via two-way videoconferencing. The course site included comprehensive library listings in which all bibliographic materials were made available online. Students accessed course materials at the University in a computer classroom and at home via modem. In an accompanying research study, the frequency of student usage of the various online tools was tracked and extensive data were collected via questionnaires documenting students' demographic background, preferred learning style, prior usage of technology, satisfaction with the course and academic achievement. This paper focuses on the results of the research study that examined how the students responded to and coped with teaching material presented and accessed in this format.
Anshel, Jeffrey R
This article provides information about visual function and its role in workplace productivity. By understanding the connection among comfort, health, and productivity and knowing the many options for effective ergonomic workplace lighting, the occupational health nurse can be sensitive to potential visual stress that can affect all areas of performance. Computer vision syndrome-the eye and vision problems associated with near work experienced during or related to computer use-is defined and solutions to it are discussed.
Jensen, Per Langaa; Broberg, Ole; Møller, Niels
This paper discusses how the ergonomics community can contribute to make ergonomics a strategic element in business decisions on strategy and implementation of strategy. The ergonomics community is seen as a heterogeneous entity made up of educational and research activities in universities......, ergonomists and engineers with ergonomic skills, professional ergonomics and engineering societies, and the complex of occupational health and safety regulation. This community interacts in different ways with companies and hereby influences how companies are dealing with ergonomics. The paper argues...
M. A. Godkov
Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Assessment of the immune status of patients with urgent types of pathology in the Institute for Emergency Medicine is performed according to three main objects of research: humoral , phagocytic and lymphocytic components of immune system . This complex allows to fully and adequately evaluate the condition of the immune system of patients at different stages of traumatic disease and after transplantation of organs and tissues , to forecast the probability of septic complications developing, adjust the therapy . During 45 years of work of immunological service formed the algorithm of the adequate immunological screening was formed, number of innovative methods of diagnosis was developed, the ideology of post-test counseling of patients by immunologists was created, mathematical methods of storage, modeling and processing of research results was introduced. Laboratory staff identified a number of medical and social factors in the spread of blood-borne viral infections (HIV, hepatitis B and C. New organizational and economic methods of management team were introduced in the laboratory. The basis of the work is equal integration of scientific and clinical staff of the laboratory.
The handbook is intended to facilitate the design and construction of controlrooms. The book appeals to instrument makers, computer operators and process technicians among others. The ergonomic data and relevant information are presented. (G.B.)
Broberg, Ole; Hansen, Iben Posniak
The research question for the study presented in this paper was: What are the opportunities and barriers for integrating ergonomics aspects into joint projects sponsored by the FOETEK programme? The objectives were (i) to evaluate the outcome of this clause of accounting for ergonomics impacts......, and (ii) to put forward recommendations for improving the integration of ergonomics into joint projects sponsored by the FOETEK programme. A survey based on a questionnaire was conducted among 57 joint projects. A total of 217 project managers or contact persons received the questionnaire. The response...
Rothmore, Paul; Aylward, Paul; Oakman, Jodi; Tappin, David; Gray, Jodi; Karnon, Jonathan
The Stage of Change (SOC) approach has been proposed as a method to improve the implementation of ergonomics advice. However, despite evidence for its efficacy there is little evidence to suggest it has been adopted by ergonomics consultants. This paper investigates barriers and facilitators to the implementation, monitoring and effectiveness of ergonomics advice and the adoption of the SOC approach in a series of focus groups and a subsequent survey of members of the Human Factors Societies of Australia and New Zealand. A proposed SOC assessment tool developed for use by ergonomics practitioners is presented. Findings from this study suggest the limited application of a SOC based approach to work-related musculoskeletal injury prevention by ergonomics practitioners is due to the absence of a suitable tool in the ergonomists' repertoire, the need for training in this approach, and their limited access to relevant research findings. The final translation of the SOC assessment tool into professional ergonomics practice will require accessible demonstration of its real-world usability to practitioners and the training of ergonomics practitioners in its application. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to assess different types of machines adapted for mechanized forest harvesting activities in order to quantify the degree of compliance with ergonomic principles applicable to forest machines, as well as the ergonomic risks to which workers are exposed. The following machines were evaluated: a feller buncher adapted into a wheel loader; a mini skidder coupled to an agricultural tractor; and a forest loader adapted to an agricultural tractor; operating in the states of Paraná and Minas Gerais. Biomechanical working conditions were assessed by applying a checklist for simplified assessment of the workplace biomechanical conditions. The forced postures assessment was performed using the REBA - "Rapid Entire Body Assessment" method. In turn, ergonomic classification was through guidelines contained in the ergonomic classification manual "Ergonomic Guidelines for Forest Machines". Moreover, the environmental factors noise, temperature and vibration to which the operators of these machines were exposed were assessed. The results showed all assessed machines had ergonomic standards below those indicated in all assessed aspects, mainly related to access and dimensions of the workplace, need to adopt forced postures during working hours, and exposure to environmental factors assessed above tolerance limits. It is concluded that machines adapted for use in forest harvesting processes have shown significant gaps in relation to ergonomic aspects, presenting high and imminent risk of development of occupational diseases in their operators.
Manzotti, E.; Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Ibsen, Lars Bo
Offshore wind turbines are increasing in both efficiency and size. More economical foundations for such light structures are under investigation, and suction caisson was shown to be particularly suitable for this purpose. In multi-pod foundation configuration, the overturning moment given by loads...... on the structure is resisted by push-pull loads on the vertical axis of each suction caisson. Relevant works where this situation is examined by means of laboratory testing are summarized in this article, then different conclusions are followed by discussion and comparison. In the initial theoretical section...
Yeow, Paul H P; Yuen, Y Y; Loo, W H
Ever since the 9/11 terrorist attack, many countries are considering the use of smart national identity card (SNIC) which has the ability to identify terrorists due to its biometric verification function. However, there are many ergonomics issues in the use of SNIC, e.g. card credibility. This research presents a case study survey of Malaysian users. Although most citizens (>96%) own MyKad (Malaysia SNIC), many do not carry it around and use its applications. This defeats one of its main purposes, i.e. combating terrorism. Thus, the research investigates ergonomics issues affecting the citizens' Intention to Use (ITU) MyKad for homeland security by using an extended technology acceptance model. Five hundred questionnaires were collected and analysed using structural equation modelling. Results show that perceived credibility and performance expectancy are the key issues. The findings provide many countries with insights into methods of addressing ergonomics issues and increasing adoption of SNIC for homeland security. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
de Oliveira, Claudilaine Caldas; Pereira Moro, Antônio Renato; Ulbricht, Leandra; Belinelli, Marjorie; de Souza, Gilberto F M; Gabriel, Michele; Zattar, Izabel Cristina
The purpose of this study was to select in a structured manner the relevant articles with scientific recognition, and simultaneously identify the characteristics of these publications that may scientifically enrich the theme in a portfolio of papers. The theme involves ergonomics in milk production as a criterion for evaluating and improving organizational performance in the milking sector. The study used ProKnow-C as a theoretical instrument for intervention. The main results show: i) a bibliographic portfolio of 18 items aligned with the view adopted by researchers which served as a theoretical framework for this research; ii) The article entitled "Wrist positions and movements as possible risk factors during machine milking", by Marianne Stål, Gert-Åke Hansson and Ulrich Moritz in 1999 and published in the Journal of Applied Ergonomics presented the highest scientific recognition, iii) the authors highlighted in the bibliographic portfolio or in its references researching the subject are Gert-Åke Hansson, Marianne Stål and Stefan Pinzke, and iv) the International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics shows the highest number of scientific articles in the bibliographic portfolio. The studies selected using the methodology indicate research in ergonomics focused on the production of milk in rural areas, specifically in the milking sector, are generally related to the health and safety of the workers.
Every year in the State of Washington more than 50,000 workers experience a work related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD), making up more than 30% of all worker compensation cases. In 2000, the Washington State Department of Labor and Industries (L&I) adopted a workplace ergonomics rule requiring employers to reduce worker exposure to hazards that cause or contribute to WMSDs. In 2003, the ergonomics rule was repealed by a margin of 53.5-46.5 in a statewide voter initiative. The official rulemaking record of approximately 100,000 pages, along with supplementary published and unpublished material, was reviewed. The relationship between scientific deliberation and the public policy process in adopting and repealing the ergonomics rule was assessed and described. The deliberative features of the regulatory, judicial, legislative, and ballot processes were compared. The ergonomics rule was successful in the regulatory and legal arenas where the process was most transparent and open to public involvement, differing views could be presented fully, and decision makers were expected to explain their decisions in light of the record. The rule fared most poorly in the legislature and at the ballot box when these features were lost and where considered deliberation was replaced by unconstrained political conflict. Additional checks and balances are needed.
The PARIS meeting held in Cracow, Poland from 14 to 15 May 2007. The main subjects discussed during this meeting were the status of international project dedicated to gamma spectroscopy research. The scientific research program includes investigations of giant dipole resonance, probe of hot nuclei induced in heavy reactions, Jacobi shape transitions, isospin mixing and nuclear multifragmentation. The mentioned programme needs Rand D development such as new scintillations materials as lanthanum chlorides and bromides as well as new photo detection sensors as avalanche photodiodes - such subjects are also subjects of discussion. Additionally results of computerized simulations of scintillation detectors properties by means of GEANT- 4 code are presented
Papanikolaou, Xenofon; Repousis, Panagiotis; Tzenou, Tatiana; Maltezas, Dimitris; Kotsopoulou, Maria; Megalakaki, Katerina; Angelopoulou, Maria; Dimitrakoloulou, Elektra; Koulieris, Efstathios; Bartzis, Vassiliki; Pangalis, Gerasimos; Panayotidis, Panagiotis; Kyrtsonis, Marie-Christine
Extramedullary plasmacytomas constitute a rare and not well studied subset of multiple myeloma (MM) relapses. We report the incidence, clinical-laboratory features and outcome of patients with MM and extramedullary relapse (ExMeR). A total of 303 patients with symptomatic MM were recorded in a 13-year period in two institutions. Twenty-eight cases of ExMeR (9%) were recorded. There was an increased frequency of elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (p = 0.026), bone plasmacytomas (p = 0.001) and fractures (p = 0.002) at diagnosis, in patients with ExMeR compared to the others. ExMeR was associated with an ominous outcome, high LDH, constitutional symptoms and a statistically significant decrease of monoclonal paraprotein compared to levels at diagnosis (p = 0.009). Prior treatment with bortezomib was associated with a decreased hazard of ExMeR (p = 0.041). Overall survival (OS) was decreased in patients with ExMeR compared to the others (38 vs. 59 months, p = 0.006). Patients with MM with ExMeR have a lower OS and their clinical and laboratory features differ from those without.
Dilly, Marc; Read, Emma K; Baillie, Sarah
Developing competence in clinical skills is important if graduates are to provide entry-level care, but it is dependent on having had sufficient hands-on practice. Clinical skills laboratories provide opportunities for students to learn on simulators and models in a safe environment and to supplement training with animals. Interest in facilities for developing veterinary clinical skills has increased in recent years as many veterinary colleges face challenges in training their students with traditional methods alone. For the present study, we designed a survey to gather information from established veterinary clinical skills laboratories with the aim of assisting others considering opening or expanding their own facility. Data were collated from 16 veterinary colleges in North America and Europe about the uses of their laboratory, the building and associated facilities, and the staffing, budgets, equipment, and supporting learning resources. The findings indicated that having a dedicated veterinary clinical skills laboratory is a relatively new initiative and that colleges have adopted a range of approaches to implementing and running the laboratory, teaching, and assessments. Major strengths were the motivation and positive characteristics of the staff involved, providing open access and supporting self-directed learning. However, respondents widely recognized the increasing demands placed on the facility to provide more space, equipment, and staff. There is no doubt that veterinary clinical skills laboratories are on the increase and provide opportunities to enhance student learning, complement traditional training, and benefit animal welfare.
Full Text Available In the present edition of Significação – Scientific Journal for Audiovisual Culture and in the others to follow something new is brought: the presence of thematic dossiers which are to be organized by invited scholars. The appointed subject for the very first one of them was Radio and the invited scholar, Eduardo Vicente, professor at the Graduate Course in Audiovisual and at the Postgraduate Program in Audiovisual Media and Processes of the School of Communication and Arts of the University of São Paulo (ECA-USP. Entitled Radio Beyond Borders the dossier gathers six articles and the intention of reuniting works on the perspectives of usage of such media as much as on the new possibilities of aesthetical experimenting being build up for it, especially considering the new digital technologies and technological convergences. It also intends to present works with original theoretical approach and original reflections able to reset the way we look at what is today already a centennial media. Having broadened the meaning of “beyond borders”, four foreign authors were invited to join the dossier. This is the first time they are being published in this country and so, in all cases, the articles where either written or translated into Portuguese.The dossier begins with “Radio is dead…Long live to the sound”, which is the transcription of a thought provoking lecture given by Armand Balsebre (Autonomous University of Barcelona – one of the most influential authors in the world on the Radio study field. It addresses the challenges such media is to face so that it can become “a new sound media, in the context of a new soundscape or sound-sphere, for the new listeners”. Andrew Dubber (Birmingham City University regarding the challenges posed by a Digital Era argues for a theoretical approach in radio studies which can consider a Media Ecology. The author understands the form and discourse of radio as a negotiation of affordances and
Ergonomics is “the scientific study of people at work,” with the goal of reducing stress and eliminating injuries associated with overused muscles, bad posture, and repeated tasks, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) states that working ergonomically reduces muscle fatigue, increases
In a complex industrial environment, ergonomics must be combined with management science and systems analysis to produce a program which can create effective change and improve safety performance. We give an overview of such an approach, namely System Safety, so that its ergonomic content may be seen
The proceedings contain presentations from ESA 86 which reflect most of the major areas of Ergonomics as it is researched and practised internationally. Highlights include presentations dealing with transport and computer system ergonomics, office furniture and other consumer products, safety at work and executive health. One seminar 'Ergonomics and nuclear power generation', looks at the control systems and its safety in a nuclear power plant. Ergonomics is concerned with the relationship between people and technology: specifically the design of the user interface. Its objective is to enhance efficiency, usability and safety and it is applied to the design of a wide range of industrial and consumer products. However not the least consideration is to achieve as near as possible total wellbeing for the Human Factor
Luana Kelle Batista Moura
Full Text Available Objective: To learn the social representations of ergonomic risk prepared by dental students. Methodology: This exploratory study, subsidized the Theory of Social Representations, with 64 dental students of an educational institution, by means of interviews. The data were processed in Alceste4.8 and lexical analysis done by the descending hierarchical classification. Results: In two categories: knowledge about exposure to ergonomic risk end attitude of students on preventing and treating injuries caused by repetitive motion. For students, the ergonomic risk is related to the attitude in the dental office. Conclusion: Prevention of ergonomic risk for dental students has not been incorporated as a set of necessary measures for their health and the patients, to prevent ergonomic hazards that can result in harm to the patient caused by work-related musculoskeletal disorder, which is reflected in a lower quality practice.
Kizaki, M.; Tobita, T.; Koya, T.; Kikuchi, T.
Mechanical tests of irradiated metallic materials at the Research Hot Laboratory(RHL) have been carried out for 30 years to support material research in JAERI and to evaluate the irradiation integrity of pressure vessel steel in commercial power plant. Two tensile testing machines and one Charpy impact testing machine are available for the examinations. One of the tensile testing machines has 1000 kgf load capacity under the vacuum of ∼ 10 -7 torr at the temperature of 1300degC max.. The other one has 10 tonf load capacity, and is utilized for the multi-purpose tests such as tensile and compressive tests in air atmosphere at the temperature between -160 and 900degC. Examinations cover tensile test, bending test, J ic fracture toughness test, low cycle fatigue test and so on. Charpy impact testing machine with notched-bar specimen is instrumented with 30 kgf-m capacity in the temperature range of -140 - 240 degC. To support these mechanical tests in RHL, special jigs, devices and instruments have been developed. (author)
Sjölund-Karlsson, Maria; Gordon, Melita A.; Parry, Christopher M.
SUMMARY Salmonella enterica infections are common causes of bloodstream infection in low-resource areas, where they may be difficult to distinguish from other febrile illnesses and may be associated with a high case fatality ratio. Microbiologic culture of blood or bone marrow remains the mainstay of laboratory diagnosis. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged in Salmonella enterica, initially to the traditional first-line drugs chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Decreased fluoroquinolone susceptibility and then fluoroquinolone resistance have developed in association with chromosomal mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of genes encoding DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV and also by plasmid-mediated resistance mechanisms. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins has occurred more often in nontyphoidal than in typhoidal Salmonella strains. Azithromycin is effective for the management of uncomplicated typhoid fever and may serve as an alternative oral drug in areas where fluoroquinolone resistance is common. In 2013, CLSI lowered the ciprofloxacin susceptibility breakpoints to account for accumulating clinical, microbiologic, and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic data suggesting that revision was needed for contemporary invasive Salmonella infections. Newly established CLSI guidelines for azithromycin and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi were published in CLSI document M100 in 2015. PMID:26180063
Cuenca, Gabriela; Zotta, Gastón
With the advent of the deep economic crisis in Argentina on 2001, the recovery of companies through to the creation of the Cooperatives Working Self-Management or Factories Recovered by its workers was constituted as one of the ways in which the salaried disobeyed the increasing unemployment. When the companies turn into recovered factories they tend to leave of side practices that have been seen like imposed by the previous organization and not understanding them as a primary condition for the execution of his tasks. Safety and ergonomics are two disciplines that are no longer considered relevant to the daily work. Therefore this investigation aims to revalue, undergo semantic to give back to a place in every organization analyzed. This research developed a self-diagnostic tool for working conditions, and the environment, present in the recovered factories.
Full Text Available This paper present the risks faced by people working in the office. In the next pages you will find some methods and suggestions how to prevent the appearance of occupational diseases. These suggestions can help anyone to rearrange his work place in order to make his job more pleasant and healthy.
Felipe Leitão da Cunha Marzano
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Context: In mechanized forestry work, the ergonomic conditions of the workplace affects operator's health, performance and productivity. Originality: A comparison of different forest machines becomes complex in case where it is required analysis of several ergonomic factors simultaneously. There are several methods of ergonomic analysis however, a more complete methodology that considers several ergonomic factors and produces an index that represent the ergonomic condition of the machine is needed. Objective: Propose a methodology to determining an Ergonomic Conformity Index to evaluate Harvesters and Forwarders of different brands. Methodology: The ECI was determined initially basing in four relevant ergonomic factors: noise, vibration, thermal environment and air quality. These factors were evaluated utilizing four Harvesters and two Forwarders in eucalyptus timber harvesting operations. For each factor, a score was given according to its compliance with the established parameters. The ECI was obtained from an average of the scores given to each factor. The index ranges from zero to one, so that lower values indicate worse ergonomic conditions. Results: All the analyzed machines had continuous noise between 75.0 and 82.6 dB (A and whole-body vibration between 0.27 and 0.70 m s-2. HV1 and HV2 presented thermal environment in accordance with the established criteria, other machines showed deficiencies in this regard. All the machines presented non-conformities in the air quality, except HV2. The ECI of Harvesters HV1, HV2, HV3 and HV4, were 0.83; 0.88; 0.71; 0.63. The ECI of Forwarders FW1 and FW2 were 0.58 and 0.79. Conclusion: The determination of the ECI allowed an evaluation and comparison between analyzed forest machines. The machine with the higher ECI had only one non-conformity, and it was related to noise inside the cab. The machine that got the lower ECI presented non-conformities for all the factors.
Full Text Available Background. Among most significant for practical medicine infections, acute intestinal infections of viral etiology are becoming increasingly topical [2, 4]. According to domestic and foreign literature, up to 70 % of gastroenteritis occur during cold seasons of the year and are induced by viruses [3, 5]. The range of the factors producing viral diarrheas is rather wide. One of the comparatively new acute intestinal infections (AII producing factors is noroviruses [5, 6]. The prevalence of noroviruses has been little studied, and the clinical picture has been characterized insufficiently. This can be explained by insufficient diagnostics and registration of this infection [3, 6, 7]. Aim of the work: analysis of the morbidity and determination of clinical laboratory features of noroviral infection (NVI in children according to the data of the Regional Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital in Grodno. Materials and methods. A comprehensive clinical laboratory analysis of 1,105 case histories of children aged 1 month to 14 years with verified viral intestinal infection, who were admitted to Grodno Regional Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital from January 2013 to December 2016, was carried out. The patients were divided according to the final clinical diagnosis in the following way: rotaviral infection (RVI was found in 676 (61.2 % individuals, adenoviral intestinal infection (AVI — in 212 (19.2 %, NVI was detected in 156 (14.1 % and enteroviral infection — in 61 (5.5 % persons. The examination was carried out according to the protocols approved by the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus. Results. As our study showed, at the period analyzed the viral intestinal diseases amounted to 70.4 % of all the cases of diseases in the structure of AII in children. Patients hospitalized with viral diarrhea showed prevalence of RVI (61.2 %. NVI was the third by the incidence among viral diarrheas, and it was registered in 14.1 % of the cases
Malik, H.S.; Cheema, H.A.; Fayyaz, Z.; Hashmi, M.A.
Spontaneous perforation of bile duct (SPBD) is a rare and often misdiagnosed entity. Though rare, it is the second most common surgical cause of jaundice in infants, after biliary atresia. This study was planned to determine the clinical presentation, study different diagnostic modalities, treatment and outcome of patients with spontaneous perforation of bile duct. Methods: This descriptive case series, comprising 22 patients with spontaneous perforation of bile duct over a period of 24 months. Clinical presentation, biochemical abnormalities, imaging details, treatment options and outcome were studied. Results: Total 22 patients (12 Males and 10 Females) between ages of 1.5-36 months were studied. Associated anatomical defects included choledochal cyst in 7 (31.8%) while acquired biliary atresia in 1 (4.5%). Elevated liver enzymes (ALT and AST) were present in 16 patients (72.7%) and 5 (22.7%) had bilirubin above 3 mg/dl. Coagulopathy was seen in 8 (36.6%) patients. Abdominal USG showed presence of ascites in all 22 (100%), hydrocele in 2 (9.0%), inguinal hernia in 1 (4.5%), choledochal cyst in 7 (31.8%) and atretic gall bladder suggestive of acquired biliary atresia in one (4.5%) patient. HIDA scan was diagnostic in all 17 (77.27%) in which it was performed. MRCP was done in 3 (13.6%) patients. Mortality frequency was 3/22 (13.6%); one died of post-surgical sepsis second one was cirrhotic at time of presentation and didnot make It. Two were lost to follow up one which died at home while we lost contact with fourth patient. Conclusion: Spontaneous perforation of bile duct can present and should be suspected as an important cause of neonatal biliary ascites or peritonitis. Most patients can be managed with intravenous antibiotics, percutaneous drainage and t-tube insertion while patients with choledochal cysts required cholecystectomy with roux en y choledochjejunostomy. Timely recognition and intervention is associated with favourable outcome. (author)
Moraes, A S P; Arezes, P M; Vasconcelos, R
The development of ergonomics' recommendations, guidelines and standards are attempts to promote the integration of ergonomics into industrial contexts. Such developments result from several sources and professionals and represent the effort that has been done to develop healthier and safer work environments. However, the availability of large amount of data and documents regarding ergonomics does not guarantee their applicability. The main goal of this paper is to use a specific case to demonstrate how ergonomics criteria were developed in order to contribute to the design of workplaces. Based on the obtained results from research undertaken in a tire company, it was observed that the ergonomics criteria should be presented as design specifications in order to be used by engineers and designers. In conclusion, it is observed that the multiple constraint environment impeded the appliance of the ergonomics criteria. It was also observed that the knowledge on technical design and the acquaintance with ergonomic standards, the level of integration in the design team, and the ability to communicate with workers and other technical staff have paramount importance in integrating ergonomics criteria into the design process.
Tong, Man-Li; Liu, Li-Li; Zeng, Yan-Li; Zhang, Hui-Lin; Liu, Gui-Li; Zheng, Wei-Hong; Dong, Jie; Wu, Jing-Yi; Su, Yuan-Hui; Lin, Li-Rong; Yang, Tian-Ci
A retrospective chart review was performed to characterize the clinical presentation, the characteristic combination of serologic and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) abnormalities, and the neuroimaging findings of neurosyphilis (NS) patients who had epileptic seizures alone as an initial presenting symptom. In a 6.75-year period, 169 inpatients with NS were identified at Zhongshan Hospital (from June 2005 to February 2012). We demonstrated that 13 (7.7%) of the 169 NS patients had epileptic seizures alone as an initial presenting feature. Epileptic seizures occurred in NS patients with syphilitic meningitis (2 cases), meningovascular NS (5 cases), and general paresis (6 cases). The types of epileptic seizures included simple partial, complex partial with secondary generalization (including status epilepticus), and generalized seizures (no focal onset reported). Nine of NS patients with only epileptic seizures as primary symptom were misdiagnosed, and the original misdiagnosis was 69.23% (9/13). Ten (10/13, 76.9%) patients had an abnormal magnetic resonance imaging, and 7 (7/13 53.8%) patients had abnormal electroencephalogram recordings. In addition, the sera rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) from all 13 patients were positive. The overall positive rates of the CSF-RPR and CSF-TPPA were 61.5% and 69.2%, respectively. Three patients demonstrated CSF pleocytosis, and 9 patients exhibited elevated CSF protein levels. Therefore, NS with only epileptic seizures at the initial presentation exhibits a lack of specificity. It is recommended that every patient with clinically evident symptoms of epileptic seizures should have a blood test performed for syphilis. When the serology results are positive, all of the patients should undergo a CSF examination to diagnose NS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Martin, K; Legg, S; Brown, C
Sustainability is a global issue that has worldwide attention but the role of ergonomics in designing for sustainability is poorly understood and seldom considered. An analysis of the literature on ergonomics, design and sustainability was conducted via a search of electronic databases: Scopus, Business Source Complete, Google Scholar, Emerald Publishing, Academic Search Premiere, Web of Science, Discover and Ergonomics Abstracts, for the years 1995-2012. A total of 1934 articles fulfilled the search criteria, but content analysis of the abstracts indicated that only 14 refereed articles addressed the main search criteria. Of those seven were in ergonomics journals and seven were in other journals (and were not written by ergonomists). It is concluded that the contribution of ergonomics to sustainability and sustainable design has been limited, even though the goals of sustainability and ergonomics are congruent. Ergonomists have not been at the forefront of research contributing to sustainability - and it is time for them to 'seize the day' - 'carpe diem'. This literature review shows that ergonomics contribution to sustainability is limited but since there is congruence between the disciplines it calls for ergonomists to become more involved and to seize the day - carpe diem.
Full Text Available This final paper aimed to analyze the real ergonomics of a university library from Florianópolis and compare it with the ergonomics perceived by the user to perform an ergonomic diagnosis. In order to meet this goal two specific goals were established such as: describe the physical and environmental aspects of the library related to the real ergonomics and verify the actual perception of users about the library. As a theoretical approach, aspects of ergonomics and environmental ergonomics were contextualized and linked to the library and the university library. Referring to the methodology, the Ergonomical Assessment of the Built Environment was used as a reference. The study subjects comprised a sample of 15, among students and library staff. In the results obtained, when related to the physical-environmental analysis of the library, it was found that there are some aspects that differ from the regulatory standards and that also fall short in relation to feedback from users. Aspects such as lighting and noise were cited as unsatisfactory, but the temperature factor was analyzed as satisfactory.
Modern engineer training is not conceivable without knowledge of work psychology and ergonomics. In this paper, we would like to outline the situation of work psychology and ergonomics as well as their changes in Hungary. The technical approach to health and safety is linked to human health care, and, through that, to ergonomics. The traditional notion of ergonomics is the 'ergonomics of scales, levers and pedals', which has now become a field of research helping the development of socio-tech...
Full Text Available The present paper is a methodological contribution to the ergonomics field intervention process. It proposes a perspective on work analysis based on the dialectics notion of contradictions. Contradiction analysis is proposed as being complementary to more established work decomposition methods. The aim of including such an analysis is to frame various heterogeneous determinants of a work activity in practical terms, swiftly and in a manner that preserves its multifaceted unity and essence. Such framing is of particular value when considering alternative design solutions because it provides a practical means for anticipating the effects and side effects of proposed changes. The proposed method is inspired by two theoretical constructs: (i contradiction, as used in Cultural Historical Activity Theory, and (ii regulation, as developed and used by the francophone tradition of the ergonomics of activity. Two brief examples of its use are presented, and its usefulness, possible pitfalls and need for further developments are discussed.
Full Text Available The present article presents results of a study that aims at the assessment of ergonomic safety conditions inside the Palatina chapel of Palermo. To reach this object, an informative questionnaire was established so as to collect visitors’ subjective judgments regarding overall ergonomic conditions in terms of accessibility, availability, safety or else environmental conditions (thermo-hygrometry; air, sound and visual quality; this stage was carried out, bearing in mind the Museum Visitors’ Rights Card that is currently under creation by the “Legambiente” group. An automatic instrument was bought to daily count the numbers of visitors; the latter element shall then be related to indoor environmental data registered thanks to a monitoring system of thermohygrometry, illuminating engineering and environmental aggressiveness.
Fraccaro, Paolo; Vigo, Markel; Balatsoukas, Panagiotis; van der Veer, Sabine N; Hassan, Lamiece; Williams, Richard; Wood, Grahame; Sinha, Smeeta; Buchan, Iain; Peek, Niels
Patient portals are considered valuable instruments for self-management of long term conditions, however, there are concerns over how patients might interpret and act on the clinical information they access. We hypothesized that visual cues improve patients' abilities to correctly interpret laboratory test results presented through patient portals. We also assessed, by applying eye-tracking methods, the relationship between risk interpretation and visual search behaviour. We conducted a controlled study with 20 kidney transplant patients. Participants viewed three different graphical presentations in each of low, medium, and high risk clinical scenarios composed of results for 28 laboratory tests. After viewing each clinical scenario, patients were asked how they would have acted in real life if the results were their own, as a proxy of their risk interpretation. They could choose between: 1) Calling their doctor immediately (high interpreted risk); 2) Trying to arrange an appointment within the next 4 weeks (medium interpreted risk); 3) Waiting for the next appointment in 3 months (low interpreted risk). For each presentation, we assessed accuracy of patients' risk interpretation, and employed eye tracking to assess and compare visual search behaviour. Misinterpretation of risk was common, with 65% of participants underestimating the need for action across all presentations at least once. Participants found it particularly difficult to interpret medium risk clinical scenarios. Participants who consistently understood when action was needed showed a higher visual search efficiency, suggesting a better strategy to cope with information overload that helped them to focus on the laboratory tests most relevant to their condition. This study confirms patients' difficulties in interpreting laboratories test results, with many patients underestimating the need for action, even when abnormal values were highlighted or grouped together. Our findings raise patient safety
Doudoumis, V; Blow, F; Saridaki, A; Augustinos, A; Dyer, N A; Goodhead, I; Solano, P; Rayaisse, J-B; Takac, P; Mekonnen, S; Parker, A G; Abd-Alla, A M M; Darby, A; Bourtzis, K; Tsiamis, G
Profiling of wild and laboratory tsetse populations using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing allowed us to examine whether the "Wigglesworthia-Sodalis-Wolbachia dogma" operates across species and populations. The most abundant taxa, in wild and laboratory populations, were Wigglesworthia (the primary endosymbiont), Sodalis and Wolbachia as previously characterized. The species richness of the microbiota was greater in wild than laboratory populations. Spiroplasma was identified as a new symbiont exclusively in Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and G. tachinoides, members of the palpalis sub-group, and the infection prevalence in several laboratory and natural populations was surveyed. Multi locus sequencing typing (MLST) analysis identified two strains of tsetse-associated Spiroplasma, present in G. f. fuscipes and G. tachinoides. Spiroplasma density in G. f. fuscipes larva guts was significantly higher than in guts from teneral and 15-day old male and female adults. In gonads of teneral and 15-day old insects, Spiroplasma density was higher in testes than ovaries, and was significantly higher density in live versus prematurely deceased females indicating a potentially mutualistic association. Higher Spiroplasma density in testes than in ovaries was also detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization in G. f. fuscipes.
Ishii, Takehiko; Miyahara, Yoshikazu; Suga, Shigemasa; Kakizaki, Akito
The SOR-ring was initially designed so as to do steady operation at 300 MeV, but at present, it is used by injecting electrons at 308 MeV, and thereafter, accelerating to 380 MeV. The beam transport system carrying electrons from an electron synchrotron as the injector to the SOR-ring and the arrangement of the SOR-ring proper are shown. The action of the electron synchrotron and the SOR-ring is outlined. There are eight deflecting electromagnets and four sets of quadrupole electromagnets in the SOR-ring. The length of the straight parts is 1.3 m, and a high frequency accelerating cavity is placed in one of the straight parts, while exhaust pumps are installed in other parts. The arrangement of the electromagnets and the action of various equipments are explained. There are five beam lines in the SOR-ring. The way of using these beam lines is described. The research using the SOR-ring is classified into the research on the state of electrons in solids, the research on the state of electrons by optical reaction, absorption and light emission, the effect of vacuum ultraviolet irradiation to living things, and the research on beam dynamics in the ring. The mode of operation is explained. (Kako, I.)
Simone De Sio
working session and at the end of the working day, while 61.5% of the original articles emphasized the use of modern and ergonomic instruments. Discussion This review showed that static postures are strongly responsible in the etiology of musculoskeletal disorders. The awkward postures more frequently identified among dental professionals are: extreme forward-head and neck flexion; trunk inclination and rotation towards one side; lifting one or both shoulders; increased curvature of the thoracic vertebral column; incorrect positioning of the lower limbs with thigh-leg angle of less than 90°. It is really important to use of a modern workstation with appropriate ergonomic supports. Among the preventive ergonomic measures, literature has widely recognized the role of physical activity and of a neutral and balanced posture. The present review has some limits: a large part of the selected studies did not have a high methodological quality score and an inadequate statistical analysis.
De Sio, Simone; Traversini, Veronica; Rinaldo, Francesca; Colasanti, Valerio; Buomprisco, Giuseppe; Perri, Roberto; Mormone, Federica; La Torre, Giuseppe; Guerra, Fabrizio
, while 61.5% of the original articles emphasized the use of modern and ergonomic instruments. This review showed that static postures are strongly responsible in the etiology of musculoskeletal disorders. The awkward postures more frequently identified among dental professionals are: extreme forward-head and neck flexion; trunk inclination and rotation towards one side; lifting one or both shoulders; increased curvature of the thoracic vertebral column; incorrect positioning of the lower limbs with thigh-leg angle of less than 90°. It is really important to use of a modern workstation with appropriate ergonomic supports. Among the preventive ergonomic measures, literature has widely recognized the role of physical activity and of a neutral and balanced posture. The present review has some limits: a large part of the selected studies did not have a high methodological quality score and an inadequate statistical analysis.
Little has been written about wartime ergonomics and the role this played in prompting the need for a society dedicated to ergonomics within the UK, namely the formation of the Ergonomics Research Society (ERS) in early 1950. This article aims to fill this gap in our understanding of the history of ergonomics in the UK and provide further details of the types of research undertaken by wartime research groups and committees such as the Institute of Aviation Medicine, Medical Research Council Applied Psychology Unit and the Flying Personnel Research Committee. In addition, the role of societal developments such as wartime links with the USA, the post-war drive to increase productivity and collaboration with industry and the recommendations of government committees in stimulating the work of the ERS are described in detail. This article also offers some reflection on present-day ergonomics in the UK and how this contrasts with the past. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This article will provide practitioners with a historical perspective on the development of ergonomics from its roots in the Second World War. These developments shed light on current trends and challenges within the discipline as a whole.
Sancibrian, Ramon; Gutierrez-Diez, María C; Torre-Ferrero, Carlos; Benito-Gonzalez, Maria A; Redondo-Figuero, Carlos; Manuel-Palazuelos, Jose C
Laparoscopic surgery techniques have been demonstrated to provide massive benefits to patients. However, surgeons are subjected to hardworking conditions because of the poor ergonomic design of the instruments. In this article, a new ergonomic handle design is presented. This handle is designed using ergonomic principles, trying to provide both more intuitive manipulation of the instrument and a shape that reduces the high-pressure zones in the contact with the surgeon's hand. The ergonomic characteristics of the new handle were evaluated using objective and subjective studies. The experimental evaluation was performed using 28 volunteers by means of the comparison of the new handle with the ring-handle (RH) concept in an instrument available on the market. The volunteers' muscle activation and motions of the hand, wrist, and arm were studied while they performed different tasks. The data measured in the experiment include electromyography and goniometry values. The results obtained from the subjective analysis reveal that most volunteers (64%) preferred the new prototype to the RH, reporting less pain and less difficulty to complete the tasks. The results from the objective study reveal that the hyperflexion of the wrist required for the manipulation of the instrument is strongly reduced. The new ergonomic handle not only provides important ergonomic advantages but also improves the efficiency when completing the tasks. Compared with RH instruments, the new prototype reduced the high-pressure areas and the extreme motions of the wrist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Program . Areas that should be addressed a facility's safety and health program include: Management Leadership / Employee Participation Workplace Analysis Accident and Record Analysis Hazard Prevention and ...
Wang, Lingyan; Lau, Henry Y K
It is a well recognized understanding that workers whose voice needs to be heard should be actively encouraged as full participants and involved in the early design stages of new ergonomic work system which encompass the development and implementation of new tools, workplaces, technologies or organizations. This paper presents a novel participatory strategy to evaluate three key psychological factors which are respectively mental fatigue, spiritual stress, and emotional satisfaction in work system design based on a modified version of Participatory Ergonomics (PE). In specific, it integrates a PE technique with a formulation view by combining the parallel development of PE strategies, frameworks and functions throughout the coverage of the entire work system design process, so as to bridge the gap between qualitative and quantitative analysis of psychological factors which can cause adverse or advantageous effects on worker's physiological and behavioral performance.
Control systems have become increasingly more powerful over the past decades. The availability of high data throughput and sophisticated graphical interactions has opened a variety of new possibilities. But has this helped to provide intuitive, easy to use applications to simplify the operation of modern large scale accelerator facilities? We will discuss what makes an application useful to operation and what is necessary to make a tool easy to use. We will show that even the implementation of a small number of simple application design rules can help to create ergonomic operational tools. The author is convinced that such tools do indeed help to achieve higher beam availability and better beam performance at all accelerator facilities. (author)
Beyers, C.J.; Bogie, K.D.
The design and construction of nuclear power plants are executed to rigorous standards of safety and reliability. Similarly the human interface within the nuclear power plant must meet very high standards, and these must be demonstrated to be maintained and assured through time. The control room, as the operating nerve-centre of the plant, carries a large part of this responsibility. It is the work space dimension within which the operator-instrumentation interface must function as efficiently as possible. This paper provides an overview of how ergonomics has been used as a major tool in reshaping the man-machine interface within the control room in the interest of safety and reliability. Topics covered in the paper include workspace design, control panel layout, demarcation and labelling, switch and meter types, and annunciated and unannunciated alarms
This study examines ergonomic stressors associated with front-end process tool maintenance, relates them to decreased machine utilization, and proposes solution strategies to reduce their negative impact on productivity. Member company ergonomists observed technicians performing field maintenance tasks on seven different bottleneck tools and recorded ergonomic stressors using SEMaCheck, a graphics-based, integrated checklist developed by Sandia National Laboratories. The top ten stressors were prioritized according to a cost formula that accounted for difficulty, time, and potential errors. Estimates of additional time on a task caused by ergonomic stressors demonstrated that machine utilization could be increased from 6% to 25%. Optimal solution strategies were formulated based on redesign budget, stressor cost, and estimates of solution costs and benefits
Full Text Available Background: Most dentists complain of musculoskeletal disorders which can be caused by prolonged static posture, lack of suitable rest and other physical and psychological problems. Objective: We evaluated a chair with a new ergonomic design which incorporated forward leaning chest and arm supports. Methods: The chair was evaluated in the laboratory during task simulation and EMG analysis on 12 students and subjectively assessed by 30 professional dentists using an 18-item questionnaire. EMG activity of right and left trapezius muscles for 12 male students with no musculoskeletal disorders was measured while simulating common tasks like working on the teeth of the lower jaw. Results: Normalized EMG data showed significant reduction (p<0.05 in all EMG recordings of the trapezius muscle. Dentists also unanimously preferred the ergonomically designed chair. Conclusion: Such ergonomically designed chairs should be introduced as early as possible in student training before bad postural habits are acquired.
Hall-Andersen, Lene Bjerg
Integrating ergonomic knowledge into engineering design processes has been shown to contribute to healthy and effective designs of workplaces. However, it is also well-recognized that, in practice, ergonomists often have difficulties gaining access to and impacting engineering design processes...... employed in the same company, constituted a supporting factor for the possibilities to integrate ergonomic knowledge into the engineering design processes. However, the integration activities remained discrete and only happened in some of the design projects. A major barrier was related to the business...... to the ergonomic ambitions of the clients. The ergonomists’ ability to navigate, act strategically, and compromise on ergonomic inputs is also important in relation to having an impact in the engineering design processes. Familiarity with the engineering design terminology and the setup of design projects seems...
Muench, E.; Schultheiss, G.F.
The work situation including man-machine-relationships in nuclear power plants is described. The overview gives only a compact summary of some important ergonomic parameters, i.e. human body dimension, human load, human characteristics and human knowledge. (DG)
Joseph, Bradley S
The use of ergonomic principles in automobile assembly and manufacturing operations has become an important part of a comprehensive health and safety process as well as an integral part of the engineering systems. Ford Motor Company has developed an ergonomics process to manage issues related to injury and illness (e.g., musculoskeletal diseases) and to ensure the appropriate use of human resources on the plant floor. The ergonomics programme uses joint labour and management teams to identify and evaluate jobs and develop and implement solutions. This paper summarises the efforts of the Ford Motor Company in implementing and maintaining the programme. Key strategies are outlined that provide important links to internal organisational units that are critical to fully utilise the ergonomics process. In addition, the paper outlines differences between proactive and reactive efforts and shows the importance of using the information generated by the initiatives for process improvement.
Rado Gazo; James D. McGlothlin; Yuehwern, Wiedenbeck, Jan Yih; Yuehwern Yih
The main goal of the project was to initiate a pilot program in ergonomics for the secondary wood products industry. Case studies were conducted at three Midwest secondary wood product companies in 2000 and 2001.
Sep 9, 2010 ... in relation to their work environment and working surroundings. ... prolonged computer usage and application of ergonomics in the workstation. Design:One hundred and .... Occupational Health and Safety Services should.
Shikdar, Ashraf A; Al-Kindi, Mahmoud A
Stanton, NA; Baber, C
Since its inception, just after the Second World War, ergonomics research has paid special attention to the issues surrounding human control of systems. Command and Control environments continue to represent a challenging domain for Ergonomics research. We take a broad view of Command and Control research, to include C2 (Command and Control), C3 (Command, Control and Communication), and C4 (Command, Control, Communication and Computers) as well as human supervisory control paradigms. This spe...
There are so many definitions for ergonomics terms such as human factors, human factors engineering, human engineering, human factors psychology, engineering psychology, applied ergonomics, occupational ergonomics, industrial ergonomics and industrial engineering. The most inclusive terms are ergonomics and human factors. Both represent the study of work and the interaction between people and their work environmental systems. The main objective is especially fitting with the need to design, develop, implement and evaluate human-machine and environment systems that are productive, comfortable, safe and satisfying to use. The work of the ergonomists in Indonesia--most of them are academicians--have one thing in common, i.e. with the appropriate type of ergonomic approaches to interventions; there would be improvements in productivity, quality of working conditions, occupational safety and health (OSH), costs reduction, better environment, and increase in profits. So many researches, training, seminars and socialization about ergonomics and OSH have been done concerning micro-to-macro themes; but it seems that we are practically still running at the same place up to now. In facts, workers are still working using their traditional or obsolete methods in poor working conditions. Accidents are still happening inside and outside industry with the main root-cause being human "unsafe behavior" and errors. Industrial products cannot compete in the global market, and so many manufacturing industries collapsed or relocated to foreign countries. This paper discusses such a roadmap and review what we ergonomists in Indonesia have done and where we are going to? This review will be treated in the field of ergonomics and OSH to take care the future Indonesia challenges. Some of the challenges faced are care for the workers, care for the people, care for the quality and productivity of work, care for the new advanced technologies, care for the environment, and last but not least
The scope of the ergonomics contribution to the design and operation of power stations is described on the basis of current experience in the CEGB and in other countries. The ergonomics questions which arise in relation to Sizewell 'B' are enumerated in detail. Issues which arise from the point of view of station operation and from the complementary point of view of human behaviour are considered. (author)
Thatcher, Andrew; Waterson, Patrick; Todd, Andrew; Moray, Neville
In his 1993 IEA keynote address, Neville Moray urged the ergonomics discipline to face up to the global problems facing humanity and consider how ergonomics might help find some of the solutions. In this State of Science article we critically evaluate what the ergonomics discipline has achieved in the last two and a half decades to help create a secure future for humanity. Moray's challenges for ergonomics included deriving a value structure that moves us beyond a Westernised view of worker-organisation-technology fit, taking a multidisciplinary approach which engages with other social and biological sciences, considering the gross cross-cultural factors that determine how different societies function, paying more attention to mindful consumption, and embracing the complexity of our interconnected world. This article takes a socio-historical approach by considering the factors that influence what has been achieved since Moray's keynote address. We conclude with our own set of predictions for the future and priorities for addressing the challenges that we are likely to face. Practitioner Summary: We critically reflect on what has been achieved by the ergonomics profession in addressing the global challenges raised by Moray's 1993 keynote address to the International Ergonomics Association. Apart from healthcare, the response has largely been weak and disorganised. We make suggestions for priority research and practice that is required to facilitate a sustainable future for humanity.
Full Text Available Nowadays the most competitive companies are always innovative, renewable and able to be ‘the best’ in something. But what does one of the most important resources – the human resource – need to achieve a high level of success in his or her workplace? He needs a creative workplace environment where he feels himself in safe, has inspiration and meets challenges. Ergonomics is a human centred science. The ergonomists are focused on the interfaces of the individual person and his or her narrow or wide work environment. Ergonomists typically have not been trained in management or business administration. The business-oriented topics such as cost justification and cost–benefit analysis have not been a part of their curricula. Not surprisingly, instead of presenting the projects to the management in the language of business, they make a great effort to improve engineering design, health and safety, and the quality of work life on. Regardless of the benefits that may be realized from ergonomic improvements, managers are usually willing to provide funds for the intervention unless there is a clear economic benefit to be derived. The ergonomics projects do result in significant economic benefits if they are properly planned and implemented.
Pîrvu, C; Pătraşcu, I; Pîrvu, D; Ionescu, C
Abstract The practice of dentistry involves laborious high finesse dental preparations, precision and control in executions that require a particular attention, concentration and patience of the dentist and finally the dentist’s physical and mental resistance. The optimal therapeutic approach and the success of practice involve special working conditions for the dentist and his team in an ergonomic environment. The meaning of the posture in ergonomics is the manner in which different parts of the body are located and thus the reports are established between them in order to allow a special task execution. This article discusses the posture adopted by dentists when they work, beginning with the balanced posture and going to different variants of posture. The ideal posture of a dentist gives him, on the one hand the optimal working conditions (access, visibility and control in the mouth) and on the other hand, physical and psychological comfort throughout the execution of the clinical acts. Although the theme of dentist posture is treated with great care and often presented in the undergraduate courses and the continuing education courses on ergonomics in dentistry, many dentists do not know the subject well enough nor the theoretical issues and therefore nor the practical applicability. The risk and perspective of the musculoskeletal disorders related to unbalanced postures should determine the dentists take postural corrective actions and compensation measures in order to limit the negative effects of working in a bad posture. PMID:25184007
Peres, S Camille; Mehta, Ranjana K; Ritchey, Paul
Software utilizing interaction designs that require extensive dragging or clicking of icons may increase users' risks for upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders. The purpose of this research is to develop a Self-report Ergonomic Assessment Tool (SEAT) for assessing the risks of software interaction designs and facilitate mitigation of those risks. A 28-item self-report measure was developed by combining and modifying items from existing industrial ergonomic tools. Data were collected from 166 participants after they completed four different tasks that varied by method of input (touch or keyboard and mouse) and type of task (selecting or typing). Principal component analysis found distinct factors associated with stress (i.e., demands) and strain (i.e., response). Repeated measures analyses of variance showed that participants could discriminate the different strain induced by the input methods and tasks. However, participants' ability to discriminate between the stressors associated with that strain was mixed. Further validation of the SEAT is necessary but these results indicate that the SEAT may be a viable method of assessing ergonomics risks presented by software design. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gil-Agudo, Angel; Solís-Mozos, Marta; del-Ama, Antonio J; Crespo-Ruiz, Beatriz; de la Peña-González, Ana Isabel; Pérez-Nombela, Soraya
The aim of the present study was to describe and test the reliability of a comprehensive product-centered approach to assessing functional performance and wheelchair user perceptions on device ergonomics and satisfaction of performance. A pilot study was implemented using this approach to evaluate differences among four manual wheelchairs. Six wheelchair users with complete spinal cord injury (SCI) at the thoracic level and with no previous upper limbs impairment were recruited for this study. After finishing circuit tasks, subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire about ergonomic wheelchair characteristics (manoeuvrability, stability, comfort and ease of propulsion) and satisfaction about task performance. On the other hand, objective data were recorded during user performance as the time required to complete each test, kinetic wheelchair propulsion data obtained with two SMARTWheels® and physiological parameters (heart rate and physiological index). Kuschall Champion® and Otto Bock Voyage® wheelchairs were ranked best for most ergonomic aspects specially in manoeuvrability (p importance of looking both kinds of information, user perception and user functional performance when evaluating a wheelchair or comparing across devices.
Sanchez-Lite, Alberto; Garcia, Manuel; Domingo, Rosario; Angel Sebastian, Miguel
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) that result from poor ergonomic design are one of the occupational disorders of greatest concern in the industrial sector. A key advantage in the primary design phase is to focus on a method of assessment that detects and evaluates the potential risks experienced by the operative when faced with these types of physical injuries. The method of assessment will improve the process design identifying potential ergonomic improvements from various design alternatives or activities undertaken as part of the cycle of continuous improvement throughout the differing phases of the product life cycle. This paper presents a novel postural assessment method (NERPA) fit for product-process design, which was developed with the help of a digital human model together with a 3D CAD tool, which is widely used in the aeronautic and automotive industries. The power of 3D visualization and the possibility of studying the actual assembly sequence in a virtual environment can allow the functional performance of the parts to be addressed. Such tools can also provide us with an ergonomic workstation design, together with a competitive advantage in the assembly process. The method developed was used in the design of six production lines, studying 240 manual assembly operations and improving 21 of them. This study demonstrated the proposed method's usefulness and found statistically significant differences in the evaluations of the proposed method and the widely used Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) method.
Sanchez-Lite, Alberto; Garcia, Manuel; Domingo, Rosario; Angel Sebastian, Miguel
Background Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) that result from poor ergonomic design are one of the occupational disorders of greatest concern in the industrial sector. A key advantage in the primary design phase is to focus on a method of assessment that detects and evaluates the potential risks experienced by the operative when faced with these types of physical injuries. The method of assessment will improve the process design identifying potential ergonomic improvements from various design alternatives or activities undertaken as part of the cycle of continuous improvement throughout the differing phases of the product life cycle. Methodology/Principal Findings This paper presents a novel postural assessment method (NERPA) fit for product-process design, which was developed with the help of a digital human model together with a 3D CAD tool, which is widely used in the aeronautic and automotive industries. The power of 3D visualization and the possibility of studying the actual assembly sequence in a virtual environment can allow the functional performance of the parts to be addressed. Such tools can also provide us with an ergonomic workstation design, together with a competitive advantage in the assembly process. Conclusions The method developed was used in the design of six production lines, studying 240 manual assembly operations and improving 21 of them. This study demonstrated the proposed method’s usefulness and found statistically significant differences in the evaluations of the proposed method and the widely used Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) method. PMID:23977340
Adel Mazloumi; Seyed Hamid Reza Hosseini; Abdolsamad Ahmadvand; Zeinab Kazemi
Background & Objectives: According to previous researches, workers' participation in issues affecting their working condition is the key to success in ergonomics interventions in working environments. Therefore, the present study was performed to increase active particapitation of supervisors in production line and also to identify and assess ergonomics risks and presenting modification actions (Kaizen) by themselves in Pars Khodro automobile manufacturing company. Methods: A manual regar...
Martins, S B; Martins, L B
People who lie beyond the "standard" model of users often come up against barriers when using fashion products, especially clothing, the design of which ought to give special attention to comfort, security and well-being. The principles of universal design seek to extend the design process for products manufactured in bulk so as to include people who, because of their personal characteristics or physical conditions, are at an extreme end of some dimension of performance, whether this is to do with sight, hearing, reach or manipulation. Ergonomics, a discipline anchored on scientific data, regards human beings as the central focus of its operations and, consequently, offers various forms of support to applying universal design in product development. In this context, this paper sets out a reflection on applying the seven principles of universal design to fashion products and clothing with a view to targeting such principles as recommendations that will guide the early stages of developing these products, and establish strategies for market expansion, thereby increasing the volume of production and reducing prices.
The Final Proceedings for Europe Chapter of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Meeting, 7 November 2001 - 9 November 2001 This is an interdisciplinary conference in human factors and ergonomics...
Recent developments of research and application of Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) are described, in particular the domain of healthcare delivery. HFE activities in this domain are highlighted and challenges for the discipline and the International Ergonomics Association are presented. PMID:22317500
Mason, Barry S; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L
Optimizing mobility performance in wheelchair court sports (basketball, rugby and tennis) is dependent on a combination of factors associated with the user, the wheelchair and the interfacing between the two. Substantial research has been attributed to the wheelchair athlete yet very little has focused on the role of the wheelchair and the wheelchair-user combination. This article aims to review relevant scientific literature that has investigated the effects of wheelchair configuration on aspects of mobility performance from an ergonomics perspective. Optimizing performance from an ergonomics perspective requires a multidisciplinary approach. This has resulted in laboratory-based investigations incorporating a combination of physiological and biomechanical analyses to assess the efficiency, health/safety and comfort of various wheelchair configurations. To a lesser extent, field-based testing has also been incorporated to determine the effects of wheelchair configuration on aspects of mobility performance specific to the wheelchair court sports. The available literature has demonstrated that areas of seat positioning, rear wheel camber, wheel size and hand-rim configurations can all influence the ergonomics of wheelchair performance. Certain configurations have been found to elevate the physiological demand of wheelchair propulsion, others have been associated with an increased risk of injury and some have demonstrated favourable performance on court. A consideration of all these factors is required to identify optimal wheelchair configurations. Unfortunately, a wide variety of different methodologies have immerged between studies, many of which are accompanied by limitations, thus making the identification of optimal configurations problematic. When investigating an area of wheelchair configuration, many studies have failed to adequately standardize other areas, which has prevented reliable cause and effect relationships being established. In addition, a large
The Mars Science Laboratory mission has comprehensively interrogated the surface environment of Mars as it explores Gale Crater. Both chemical and physical attributes of the present environment have been measured over the course of the mission, enabling us to compare the present state of the martian surface with the environmental requirements of prokaryotic microbes. While this approach does not exclude the possibility of martian life that may have evolved to adapt to the present conditions, it is advantageous in that it allows us to evaluate environmental requirements of known life and also provide insight into the likelihood of forward contamination by Earth organisms with the comparison of their environmental requirements with the measured attributes of the environment at Gale Crater. We have already modeled a paleoenvironment with high habitability potential (HP) based upon chemistry, mineralogy and other geological evidence such as sedimentary structures and larger scale geomorphology . In this report, we turn our attention to the present HP of the Yellowknife Bay area, including the importance of the physical environmental metrics such as atmospheric pressure, air and ground temperature, ionizing radiation, wind speed and direction, slope, etc.
Molen, H.F. van der; Sluiter, J.K.; Hulshof, C.T.J.; Vink, P.; Duivenbooden, J.C. van; Holman, R.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a participatory ergonomics (PE) implementation strategy on the use of ergonomic measures reducing the physical work demands of construction work. The ergonomic measures consisted of adjusting working height (two measures) and mechanising the
Despite the development and availability of ergonomic measures in the construction industry, the number of construction workers reporting high physical work demands remains high. A reduction of the high physical work demands can be achieved by using ergonomic measures. However, these ergonomic
Obradović, Slobodan; Džudović, Boris; Rusović, Siniša; Subota, Vesna; Obradović, Dragana
Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially life threating event, but there are scarce data about genderrelated differences in this condition. The aim of this study was to identify gender-specific differences in clinical presentation, the diagnosis and outcome between male and female patients with PE. We analysed the data of 144 consecutive patients with PE (50% women) and compared female and male patients regarding clinical presentation, electrocardiography (ECG) signs, basic laboratory markers and six-month outcome. All the patients confirmed PE by visualized thrombus on the multidetector computed tomography with pulmonary angiography (MDCTPA), ECG and echocardiographic examination at admission. Compared to the men, the women were older and a larger proportion of them was in the third tertile of age (66.0% vs 34.0%, p = 0.008). In univariate analysis the men more often had hemoptysis [OR (95% CI) 3.75 (1.16-12.11)], chest pain [OR (95% CI) 3.31 (1.57-7.00)] febrile state [OR (95% CI) 2.41 (1.12-5.22)] and pneumonia at PE presentation [OR (95% CI) 3.40 (1.25-9.22)] and less likely had heart decompensation early in the course of the disease [OR (95%CI) 0.48 (0.24-0.97)]. In the multivariate analysis a significant difference in the rate of pneumonia and acute heart failure between genders disappeared due to strong influence of age. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of typical ECG signs for PE between the genders. Women had higher level of admission glycaemia [7.7 mmol/L (5.5-8.2 mmol/L) vs 6.9 mmol/L (6.3-9.6 mmol/L), p = 0.006] and total number of leukocytes [10.5 x 109/L (8.8-12.7 x 109/L vs 8.7 x 109/L (7.0-11.6 x 109/L)), p = 0.007]. There was a trend toward higher plasma level of brain natriuretic peptide in women compared to men 127.1 pg/mL (55.0-484.0 pg/mL), p = 0.092] vs [90.3 pg/mL (39.2-308.5 pg/mL). The main 6-month outcomes, death and major bleeding, had similar frequencies in both sexes. There are several important differences
Hignett, Sue; Wilson, John R; Morris, Wendy
This paper gives an overview of the theory of participatory ergonomics interventions and summary examples from a range of industries, including health care, military, manufacturing, production and processing, services, construction and transport. The definition of participatory approaches includes interventions at macro (organizational, systems) levels as well as micro (individual), where workers are given the opportunity and power to use their knowledge to address ergonomic problems relating to their own working activities. Examples are given where a cost-effective benefit has been measured using musculoskeletal sickness absence and compensation costs. Other examples, using different outcome measures, also showed improvements, for example, an increase in productivity, improved communication between staff and management, reduction in risk factors, the development of new processes and new designs for work environments and activities. Three cases are described from Canada and Japan where the participatory project was led by occupational health teams, suggesting that occupational health practitioners can have an important role to play in participatory ergonomics projects.
and production engineers regarding information sources in problem solving, communication pattern, perception of ergonomics, motivation and requests to support tools and methods. These differences and the social and organizational contexts of the development process must be taken into account when considering......A cross-sectional case study was performed in a large company producing electro-mechanical products for industrial application. The purpose was to elucidate conditions and strategies for integrating ergonomics into the product development process thereby preventing ergonomic problems at the time...... of manufacture of new products. In reality the product development process is not a rational problem solving process and does not proceed in a sequential manner as decribed in engineering models. Instead it is a complex organizational process involving uncertainties, iterative elements and negotiation between...
Whitmore, Mihriban; Berman, Andrea H.; Byerly, Diane
Various gloveboxes (GBXs) have been used aboard the Shuttle and ISS. Though the overall technical specifications are similar, each GBX's crew interface is unique. JSC conducted a series of ergonomic evaluations of the various glovebox designs to identify human factors requirements for new designs to provide operator commonality across different designs. We conducted 2 0g evaluations aboard the Shuttle to evaluate the material sciences GBX and the General Purpose Workstation (GPWS), and a KC-135 evaluation to compare combinations of arm hole interfaces and foot restraints (flexible arm holes were better than rigid ports for repetitive fine manipulation tasks). Posture analysis revealed that the smallest and tallest subjects assumed similar postures at all four configurations, suggesting that problematic postures are not necessarily a function of the operator s height but a function of the task characteristics. There was concern that the subjects were using the restrictive nature of the GBX s cuffs as an upper-body restraint to achieve such high forces, which might lead to neck/shoulder discomfort. EMG data revealed more consistent muscle performance at the GBX; the variability in the EMG profiles observed at the GPWS was attributed to the subjects attempts to provide more stabilization for themselves in the loose, flexible gauntlets. Tests revealed that the GBX should be designed for a 95 percentile American male to accommodate a neutral working posture. In addition, the foot restraint with knee support appeared beneficial for GBX operations. Crew comments were to provide 2 foot restraint mechanical modes, loose and lock-down, to accommodate a wide range of tasks without egressing the restraint system. Thus far, we have developed preliminary design guidelines for GBXs and foot.
Background Improper workstation, work procedures and tools are found to be the risk factors for the development of musculoskeletal disorders among the informal sector workers of the developing countries. Low cost ergonomic interventions can effectively improve such adverse conditions. Case presentation In the present article some studies related to design interventions in different informal and agricultural sectors were discussed and their efficacies were analyzed. It was observed that with the help of appropriate interventions musculoskeletal disorders were reduced, adverse physiological conditions were improved when awkward postures were corrected and ultimately the organisational productivity was increased. Conclusion Proper implementation of ergonomic interventions can ultimately improve the economy of the nation. PMID:25009740
Karsh, Ben-Tzion; Waterson, Patrick; Holden, Richard J
In this paper we elaborate and articulate the need for what has been termed 'mesoergonomics'. In particular, we argue that the concept has the potential to bridge the gap between, and integrate, established work within the domains of micro- and macroergonomics. Mesoergonomics is defined as an open systems approach to human factors and ergonomics (HFE) theory and research whereby the relationship between variables in at least two different system levels or echelons is studied, and where the dependent variables are human factors and ergonomic constructs. We present a framework which can be used to structure a set of questions for future work and prompt further empirical and conceptual inquiry. The framework consists of four steps: (1) establishing the purpose of the mesoergonomic investigation; (2) selecting human factors and ergonomics variables; (3) selecting a specific type of mesoergonomic investigation; and (4) establishing relationships between system levels. In addition, we describe two case studies which illustrate the workings of the framework and the value of adopting a mesoergonomic perspective within HFE. The paper concludes with a set of issues which could form part of a future agenda for research within systems ergonomics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Araujo, Cesar Ribeiro de; Domech More, Jesus [Universidade Estacio de Sa do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Mestrado em Desenvolvimento Empresarial - MADE]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; Silva, Aretha Felix Thomaz da [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Civil. Sistemas Computacionais Orientados a Industria do Petroleo]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
This paper intends to show a model to help us to incorporate ergonomics criteria into the usability of the human computer interface (HCI). The techniques based on fuzzy set theory are appropriate tools for the treatment of subjective and vague concepts that are inherent to usability for the HCI. The application consists of analysis concepts. This approach allows the use of natural language expressions of importance in ergonomics criteria estimation. The above-mentioned model shows the degree of importance of the ergonomics criteria present in the software interface used in the medical area. In this work, as entry data, the system developer opinions are used and as a result we had the hierarchy of 18 ergonomic criteria. The ergonomic criteria are those already validated by the market, which are linked to the ErgoList checklists. The fuzzy model created will allow knowing the most important criteria to health governmental companies. Its Information Technology (IT) professionals will concentrate efforts when treating the usability of the software interface and its systems. (author)
Araujo, Cesar Ribeiro de; Domech More, Jesus; Silva, Aretha Felix Thomaz da
This paper intends to show a model to help us to incorporate ergonomics criteria into the usability of the human computer interface (HCI). The techniques based on fuzzy set theory are appropriate tools for the treatment of subjective and vague concepts that are inherent to usability for the HCI. The application consists of analysis concepts. This approach allows the use of natural language expressions of importance in ergonomics criteria estimation. The above-mentioned model shows the degree of importance of the ergonomics criteria present in the software interface used in the medical area. In this work, as entry data, the system developer opinions are used and as a result we had the hierarchy of 18 ergonomic criteria. The ergonomic criteria are those already validated by the market, which are linked to the ErgoList checklists. The fuzzy model created will allow knowing the most important criteria to health governmental companies. Its Information Technology (IT) professionals will concentrate efforts when treating the usability of the software interface and its systems. (author)
Graetz, Christian; Plaumann, Anna; Rauschenbach, Sebastian; Bielfeldt, Jule; Dörfer, Christof E; Schwendicke, Falk
Periodontal scaling might cause musculoskeletal disorders, and scaling instruments might not only have different effectiveness and efficiency but also differ in their ergonomic properties. The present study assessed ergonomic working patterns of experienced (EO) and less experienced operators (LO) when using hand and powered devices for periodontal scaling and root planning. In an experimental study using periodontally affected manikins, sonic (AIR), ultrasonic (TIG) and hand instruments (GRA) were used by 11 operators (7 EO/4 LO) during simulated supportive periodontal therapy. Using an electronic motion monitoring system, we objectively assessed the working frequency and positioning of hand, neck and head. Operators' subjective evaluation of the instruments was recorded using a questionnaire. Hand instruments were used with the lowest frequency (2.57 ± 1.08 s(-1)) but greatest wrist deviation (59.57 ± 53.94°). EO used instruments more specifically than LO, and generally worked more ergonomically, with less inclination of head and neck in both the frontal and sagittal planes, especially when using hand instruments. All groups found hand instruments more tiring and difficult to use than powered instruments. Regardless of operators' experience, powered instruments were used more ergonomically and were subjectively preferred compared to hand instruments. The use of hand instruments has potential ergonomic disadvantages. However, with increasing experience, operators are able to recognise and mitigate possible risks.
Theberge, N; Neumann, W P
Literature on ergonomic practice contains many discussions of how ergonomists should work but far less attention has been paid to how they do work and the factors that influence their practice. In an effort to improve our understanding of ergonomic practice as it occurs and how it is conditioned by broader contexts, we conducted an interview study with 21 ergonomists in Canada. We were particularly interested to understand the different kinds of activities study participants engaged in during the course of their work, the challenges they faced and the strategies they employed for facing these challenges. Findings indicate that in the course of their professional practice ergonomists engage in a variety of types of activities. This includes consulting on risk factors as well as a proactive role of fostering the application of ergonomics in organizations. The process of advocating for ergonomics brought study participants into a variety of interactions and collaborations with workplace parties in a type of activity we have called "organizational work". In the course of doing organizational work, ergonomists utilize different strategies, including "political manoeuvring", tailoring data collection and report presentations to clients' concerns and 'goal hooking' in order to make the case for implementing ergonomics in workplaces. The article concludes with a list of "tips" for practicing ergonomists that are suggested by the analysis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Neumann, W P; Dixon, S M; Ekman, M
This paper presents the case for the need for 'Action Research' (AR) approaches to gain understanding of how ergonomics considerations can best be integrated into the design of new work systems. The AR researchers work collaboratively with other stakeholders to solve a real-world problem: gaining insight into the problem and factors influencing solution building from an embedded position in the development process. This experience is interpreted in terms of available theory and can support further theory development. This non-experimental approach can help provide practical new approaches for integrating ergonomics considerations into real work system design processes. The AR approach suffers from a lack of acceptance by conventionally trained scientists. This paper aims to help overcome this weakness by developing the underlying theory and rationale for using AR approaches in ergonomics research. We propose further development of hybrid approaches which incorporate other evaluation techniques to extend the knowledge gains from AR projects. Researchers should engage directly with organisations in ergonomics projects so that they can better understand the challenges and needs of practitioners who are trying to apply available scientific knowledge in their own unique context. Such 'Action Research' could help develop theory and approaches useful to improve mobilisation and application of ergonomics knowledge in organisations.
In the last twenty years, terms such as sustainable development, environmental protection, and sustainable design have been widely exploited, often without justification. Does ergonomics have a legitimate need or right to use these terms and to be the part of the process to which they refer? This paper discusses the relationship between ergonomics and the concept of sustainable development and its three elements of sustainability (environmental, social and economic), as the steps ergonomists need to take to secure and strengthen the influence in sustainability topics.
Rodríguez Mondelo, Pedro Manuel; Gregori Torada, Enrique; Barrau Bombardó, Pedro
La obra ofrece una visión general de los aspectos básicos de la ergonomía. Está dividida en ocho capítulos, que abordan los temas de relaciones dimensionales, relaciones informáticas y de control, relaciones ambientales, gasto energético y capacidad de trabajo físico y trabajo mental. El libro pretende ser una guía básica para aquellas personas que se inicien en el apasionante campo de la ergonomía.
This report contains the findings of a records search performed to survey the past and present use, storage, and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site. This report provides a point of departure for further planning of environmental protection activities at the site. This report was conducted using the LLNL archives and library, documents from the US Navy, old LLNL Plant Engineering blueprint files, published articles and reports, Environmental Protection Program records, employee interviews, and available aerial photographs. Sections I and II of this report provide an introduction to the LLNL site and its environmental characteristics. Several tenants have occupied the site prior to the establishment of LLNL, currently operated by the University of California for the US Department of Energy. Section III of this report contains information on environmentally related operations of early site users, the US Navy and California Research and Development. Section IV of this report contains information on the handling of hazardous materials and wastes by LLNL programs. The information is presented in 12 sub-sections, one for each currently operating LLNL program. General site areas, i.e., garbage trenches, the traffic circle landfill, the taxi strip, and old ammunition bunkers are discussed in Section V. 12 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.
This report contains the findings of a records search performed to survey the past and present use, storage, and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site. This report provides a point of departure for further planning of environmental protection activities at the site. This report was conducted using the LLNL archives and library, documents from the US Navy, old LLNL Plant Engineering blueprint files, published articles and reports, Environmental Protection Program records, employee interviews, and available aerial photographs. Sections I and II of this report provide an introduction to the LLNL site and its environmental characteristics. Several tenants have occupied the site prior to the establishment of LLNL, currently operated by the University of California for the US Department of Energy. Section III of this report contains information on environmentally related operations of early site users, the US Navy and California Research and Development. Section IV of this report contains information on the handling of hazardous materials and wastes by LLNL programs. The information is presented in 12 sub-sections, one for each currently operating LLNL program. General site areas, i.e., garbage trenches, the traffic circle landfill, the taxi strip, and old ammunition bunkers are discussed in Section V. 12 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs
Glesener, G. B.; Vican, L.
Physical analog models and demonstrations can be effective educational tools for helping instructors teach abstract concepts in the Earth, planetary, and space sciences. Reducing the learning challenges for students using physical analog models and demonstrations, however, can often increase instructors' workload and budget because the cost and time needed to produce and maintain such curriculum materials is substantial. First, this presentation describes a working model for the Modeling and Educational Demonstrations Laboratory Curriculum Materials Center (MEDL-CMC) to support instructors' use of physical analog models and demonstrations in the science classroom. The working model is based on a combination of instructional resource models developed by the Association of College & Research Libraries and by the Physics Instructional Resource Association. The MEDL-CMC aims to make the curriculum materials available for all science courses and outreach programs within the institution where the MEDL-CMC resides. The sustainability and value of the MEDL-CMC comes from its ability to provide and maintain a variety of physical analog models and demonstrations in a wide range of science disciplines. Second, the presentation then reports on the development, progress, and future of the MEDL-CMC at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA). Development of the UCLA MEDL-CMC was funded by a grant from UCLA's Office of Instructional Development and is supported by the Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences. Other UCLA science departments have recently shown interest in the UCLA MEDL-CMC services, and therefore, preparations are currently underway to increase our capacity for providing interdepartmental service. The presentation concludes with recommendations and suggestions for other institutions that wish to start their own MEDL-CMC in order to increase educational effectiveness and decrease instructor workload. We welcome an interuniversity collaboration to
Musculoskeletal 2: The effectiveness of participatory ergonomics to prevent low back pain and neck pain: results of a cluster randomised controlled trial. Oral presentations: Day 3: Friday, September 9, 2011. 22nd International Conference on Epidemiology in Occupational Health EPICOH 2011 September 7-9, 2011, Oxford, UK
Driessen, M.; Proper, K.; Anema, J.; Knol, D.; Bongers, P.; Beek, A. van der
Objectives To investigate the effectiveness of the Stay@Work Participatory Ergonomics program (PE) aimed at prevention of low back pain (LBP) and neck pain (NP). Methods Departments were randomly allocated to either the intervention (PE) or control group (no PE). During a 6-h meeting, working groups
Srinivasa Rao, P.; Niraj, Malay
Lean manufacturing is a business strategy developed in Japan. In the present scenario, the global market is developing new techniques for getting more and more production rate with a good quality under low cost. In this context, human factors have to be given importance to their working conditions. The study demonstrates the adoption of ergonomic conditions in lean manufacturing for the improvement of organizational performance of the industry. The aim of ergonomics is to adapt the new techniques to their work in efficient and safe ways in order to optimize the human health conditions and increasing the production rate. By conducting survey on various disciplines and showed how the production rate and human ergonomic conditions is affected.
Filus, Rodrigo; Wruca, Rodrigo; Charleaux, Vanessa; Ortega, Auro; Ferreira, Claudio; Jesus, Leandro; Stramari, Anderson; Neufel, Michel; Maia, Uyara
Following the technological developments and presented to the multidisciplinary processes as automakers, Volkswagen Brazil, represented by its ergonomists, through this paper, shows the importance of ergonomic efficiency of management applied to various levels of life of a product, since its creation to its final implementation on production lines.The preventive work of ergonomists during the processes leading to production of a vehicle is accomplished through assessments on a simulated system called the Digital Factory. Since the initial stages to final product delivery there is a need for a multidisciplinary aligning the concepts of ergonomics, productivity and quality of product. Industrial Engineering, Process Engineering, ergonomists and workers are involved in the analysis made through the Workshop's showing the importance of discussion between the various users of the systems. The processes of series are also equipped with a set of certifications flow of job and planned audits on items that describe processes and applied ergonomics.
Full Text Available To improve the present situation where the assembly work of ship outfitting depends on manual experiential operation, the thesis, taking outfitting assembly operation as the research object and optimal assembly path as the target, puts forward the simulation method and procedure of outfitting virtual assembly considering operational posture, operational load, reachability and visibility and other ergonomic factors, taking pipe assembly operation of ship section as the application example. The results show that the method can obtain better assembly operation path, avoid interference of workers’ operation process and improve the efficiency of assembly operation.
Dempsey, Patrick G; Pollard, Jonisha; Porter, William L; Mayton, Alan; Heberger, John R; Gallagher, Sean; Reardon, Leanna; Drury, Colin G
The development and testing of ergonomics and safety audits for small and bulk bag filling, haul truck and maintenance and repair operations in coal preparation and mineral processing plants found at surface mine sites is described. The content for the audits was derived from diverse sources of information on ergonomics and safety deficiencies including: analysis of injury, illness and fatality data and reports; task analysis; empirical laboratory studies of particular tasks; field studies and observations at mine sites; and maintenance records. These diverse sources of information were utilised to establish construct validity of the modular audits that were developed for use by mine safety personnel. User and interrater reliability testing was carried out prior to finalising the audits. The audits can be implemented using downloadable paper versions or with a free mobile NIOSH-developed Android application called ErgoMine. Practitioner Summary: The methodology used to develop ergonomics audits for three types of mining operations is described. Various sources of audit content are compared and contrasted to serve as a guide for developing ergonomics audits for other occupational contexts.
Despite guidance from the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) on the requirements for earning a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) ergonomics credit in the Innovation in Design and Innovation in Operations category, few projects have received the credit. The University of California, Berkeley ergonomics program, Ergonomics@Work, has aligned the ergonomics strategy to those of the USGBC and LEED to achieve the ergonomics credit in several new buildings. This article describes the steps needed to obtain the credit and highlights the opportunities it creates to partner with the project team to promote ergonomics. As a profession it is up to ergonomists to create the road map that incorporates ergonomics into the green building design.
Duckwitz, Sönke; Flemisch, Frank; Frenz, Martin; Kuz, Sinem; Mertens, Alexander; Mütze-Niewöhner, Susanne
These proceedings summarize the best papers in each research area represented at the 2016 Annual Meeting of the German Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, held at Institute of Industrial Engineering and Ergonomics of RWTH Aachen University from March 2-4. The meeting featured more than 200 presentations and 36 posters reflecting the diversity of subject matter in the field of human and industrial engineering. This volume addresses human factors and safety specialists, industrial engineers, work and organizational psychologists, occupational medicines as well as production planners and design engineers.
Sørensen, Lene Bjerg; Broberg, Ole
This paper reports on a case study within an engineering consultancy firm, where engineering designers and ergonomists were working together on the design of a new hospital sterile processing plant. The objective of the paper is to gain a better understanding of the premises for integrating ergonomics into engineering design processes and how different factors either promote or limit the integration. Based on a grounded theory approach a model illustrating these factors is developed and different hypotheses about how these factors either promote and/or limit the integration of ergonomics into design processes is presented along with the model.
The growing prevalence of health problems among computer workstation workers has become one of the biggest threats to the overall health of our population. That is why many modern scientists are looking for ways and methods to prevent and reverse these negative trends. The purpose of this article is to present the potential for practical use of computer programs to design an ergonomic workplace and postural loads. These programs help configure the computer workstation correctly and adopt the correct body position during work, which reduces the risk of health problems. Creating visually attractive programs helps encourage and inspire those who work with a computer to introduce ergonomic solutions and reject the sedentary lifestyle.
Marco Aurélio Lameirão Pinto
Full Text Available The authors describe a surgical technique which allows, without increasing costs, to perform laparoscopic cholecystectomy with a single incision, without using specific materials and with better surgical ergonomics. The technique consists of a longitudinal umbilical incision, navel detachment, use of a permanent 10mm trocar and two clamps directly and bilaterally through the aponeurosis without the use of 5mm trocars, transcutaneous gallbladder repair with straight needle cotton suture, ligation with unabsorbable suture and umbilical incision for the specimen extraction. The presented technique enables the procedure with conventional and permanent materials, improving surgical ergonomics, with safety and aesthetic advantages.
Buijsman, M. C.; Church, I.; Haydel, J.; Martin, K. M.; Shiller, A. M.; Wallace, D. J.; Blancher, J.; Foltz, A.; Griffis, A. M.; Kosciuch, T. J.; Kincketootle, A.; Pierce, E.; Young, V. A.
To better prepare first-year Department of Marine Science MSc students of the University of Southern Mississippi for their science careers, we plan to execute a semester-long Physical Oceanography laboratory class that exposes the enrolled students to all aspects of interdisciplinary research: writing a proposal, planning a cruise, collecting and analyzing data, and presenting their results. Although some of these aspects may be taught in any such class, the incorporation of all these aspects makes this class unique.The fieldwork will be conducted by boat in the Rigolets in Louisiana, a 13-km long tidal strait up to 1 km wide connecting the Mississippi Sound with Lake Pontchartrain. The students have the opportunity to collect ADCP, CTD, multibeam sonar, sediment and water samples.A second novel characteristic of this class is that the instructor partnered with the Lake Pontchartrain Basin Foundation, a not for profit environmental advocacy group. The foundation will give an hour-long seminar on the natural history of the study area and its environmental problems. This information provides context for the students' research proposals and allows them to formulate research questions and hypotheses that connect their research objectives to societally relevant issues, such as coastal erosion, salt water intrusion, and water quality. The proposal writing and cruise planning is done in the first month of the 3.5-month long semester. In the second month two surveys are conducted. The remainder of the semester is spent on analysis and reporting. Whenever possible we teach Matlab for the students to use in their data analysis. In this presentation, we will report on the successes and difficulties associated with teaching such a multi-faceted class.
with gender (male vs. female: 38.5% [15/39] vs. 17.9% [12/67]; odds ratio = 2.9; 95% ... contribute to achievement of organizational goals. Improving .... poor culture of application of ergonomics by participants as knowledge of benefit of ...
handling tasks of Indian nurses. Smaranika Goswami. M.Sc. Ergonomics and ... manual patient handling, nurses in India and other developing countries frequently experience awkward postures during work. ..... technique and availability of lifting devices was one of the reasons for WMSDs. Awkward postures were also a ...
Rodriguez, Martin Antonio; Lopez, Luis Fernando
This paper is an approach of how Kaizen (Continuous Improvement) and Ergonomics could be implemented in the field of work. The Toyota's Team Members are the owners of this job, applying tools and techniques to improve work conditions using the Kaizen Philosophy in a QCC Activity (Quality Control Circle).
Lazet, A.; Walraven, P.L.
New ergonomic questions arise from the tendency toward increasing automation in maritime operations. Direct control of engines and rudder from the bridge promises improved ship control, provided that the operator can really exploit the technical improvements. To make such direct control most
Development of a Modular Test Stand for the Measuring of Dynamic Muscular Strain of Test Persons for the Simulation in Digital Human Models · EMAIL FULL TEXT ... Ergonomic intervention for reducing the exposure to musculoskeletal disorders risk factors in pharmaceutical production centre · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL ...
Poole Wilson, Tiffany; Davis, Kermit G
The aim of this study was to assess the contributions of Thomas Waters's work in the field of health care ergonomics and beyond. Waters's research of safe patient handling with a focus on reducing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in health care workers contributed to current studies and prevention strategies. He worked with several groups to share his research and assist in developing safe patient handling guidelines and curriculum for nursing students and health care workers. The citations of articles that were published by Waters in health care ergonomics were evaluated for quality and themes of conclusions. Quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool and centrality to original research rating. Themes were documented by the type of population the citing articles were investigating. In total, 266 articles that referenced the top seven cited articles were evaluated. More than 95% of them were rated either medium or high quality. The important themes of these citing articles were as follows: (a) Safe patient handling is effective in reducing MSDs in health care workers. (b) Shift work has negative impact on nurses. (c) There is no safe way to manually lift a patient. (d) Nurse curriculums should contain safe patient handling. The research of Waters has contributed significantly to the health care ergonomics and beyond. His work, in combination with other pioneers in the field, has generated multiple initiatives, such as a standard safe patient-handling curriculum and safe patient-handling programs. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2012
"Ergonomics" is a body of knowledge about human abilities and limitations and how these abilities and limitations should be applied to the design of equipment, machinery, and other devices to ensure safe, comfortable and effective use. Most homes and schools today are equipped with computers for student use. Backpacks have become the…
Conclusion: With the implementation of ergonomic intervention is casting unit, the risk of exposure to musculoskeletal disorders caused by manual handling of oxygen cylinders was eliminated and safety of employees against the risk of explosion of the cylinders in comparison with before the intervention was improved.
This study assessed the ergonomic risk factors, and occupational health and ... health hazards such as increased mortality, dermal contamination, depression in cholinesterase level, fetal abnormalities spontaneous abortion among pregnant women ..... Another study in China showed the correlation between pesticide in ...
Ergonomics study on Musculoskeletal Disorders among female agricultural workers of West Bengal, India · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. S Gangopadhyay, B Das, T Das, G Ghoshal, T Ghosh, T Ara, S Dev, 11-22 ...
researchers take the time to read the work that is coming out of these developing regions to better understand things such as technology transfer and the like. I am increasingly of the opinion that there are a large number of Human Factors and Ergonomics researchers and practitioners who are not fully aware of the work in ...
Moraes, Berla; Andrade, Valéria Sousa
This article aims to describe step-by-step the implementation of an ergonomics administration system in a company from March 2009 till March 2011 by an occupational therapist specialist in ergonomics based on the OSHAS 18001 guidelines and the Regulatory Norms 17 manual. The process began with the definition of five requisites with bases on the manual of application of the Regulatory Norms 17: survey; materials individual transportation and discharge; workplace furniture; workplace equipments; work environment and organization of the work to be managed with bases on the OSHAS 18001 guidelines. The following steps were established: sensitization of the company high administration, elaboration and institution of an ergonomics politics, development of ergonomics committees, ergonomics analysis of the work with recommendation of ergonomic improvements, implantation of improvements and evaluation or the results. This research experiment suggests the importance not only of a guiding axle but also of a professional qualification and participation of the company on the implementation of an ergonomics management system.
Alves, M J; Fernandes, P L; Amaro, F; Osório, H; Luz, T; Parreira, P; Andrade, G; Zé-Zé, L; Zeller, H
An outbreak of dengue fever in Madeira island was reported in 2012. Clinical and laboratory findings of the first two laboratory-confirmed autochthonous cases are reported. Both cases had fever (≥38 °C) and petechial rash. Symptoms also included myalgia, asthenia, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diffuse abdominal pain, and diarrhoea. The two cases were confirmed by serology and one tested positive for a dengue viral sequence. Dengue virus serotype DEN-1 was identified with probable Central or South American origin.
Zalk, D. M., LLNL
When we first requested to speak at the American Society of Safety Engineer`s Professional Development Conference in Seattle, Washington, the theme we had in mind for this program paper was quite different. It definitely was not anything like our title, `Heart to Heart` implies. It was more formal and traditional. Give you figures, diagrams and the like. But two years later, we have come to another conclusion, to tell you the story about how a group of custodians and health & safety professionals dreamed big dreams and they came true. In order to understand what occurred, we first need to start at the very beginning with the Custodian Quality Improvement Team (CQIT). This group had been formed by the Plant Engineering Department at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) located in Livermore, California. LLNL is operated by the University of California for The U.S.Department of Energy. It is the premier applied physics research laboratory in the world. Plant Engineering (PE) is much like a Public Works Department. PE has all of the crafts, such as plumbers and electricians, who do maintenance-type work, as well as the engineering and construction employees. PE maintain the utilities, constructs new buildings and takes care of old ones. They take of the roads and clean the buildings and landscape the campus. So the Custodian Shop and its some 150 employees is a member of the PE family so to speak. The CQIT had decided to investigate ways they could reduce the number of injuries they were having. They invited health and safety professionals, David Zalk (an Industrial Hygienist) and Jack Tolley (Safety Engineer) to consult with them about this. They are both Hazards Control Team 4 members at LLNL. They were both interested in ergonomics and suggested that an approach to reducing their injuries might lie in studying how the custodians actually do their work. David has extensive training in ergonomics, and Jack simply had a long-time interest in ergonomics for
Madhwani, Kishore P; Nag, P K
Use of laptops and hand-held devices increase the risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). More time spent on this activity adopting faulty postures, higher the risk of developing such injuries. This study addresses training on office ergonomics with emphasis on sustainable behavior change among employees to work in safe postures, as this is a top priority in the corporate environment, today. To explore training intervention methods that ensure wider coverage of awareness on office ergonomics, thereby promoting safer working and suggesting sustainable programs for behavior change and job enrichment. A cross-sectional study was conducted (2012 - 2017), encompassing corporate office employees of multinational corporations selected from India, Dubai (U.A.E), Nairobi (East Africa), Durban (South Africa), South East Asian countries (Philippines, Vietnam, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and Sri Lanka).Participant employees ( n = 3503) were divided into two groups to study the effect of interventions'; i.e., (a) deep training: 40 minute lecture by the investigator with a power point presentation ( n = 1765) using a mock workstation and (b) quick training: live demonstrations of 10 minutes ( n = 1738) using a live workstation. While deep training enhanced awareness in 95.51% and quick training in 96.59% globally, the latterwas much appreciated and educated maximum employees. From statistical analysis, quick training was found superior in providing comprehensive training and influencing behavior modification in India, but all over the world it was found highly superior in knowledge enlargement, skills enrichment in addition to providing comprehensive training ( P office ergonomics program. This could lead to propose as a best practice for corporate offices globally.
Azadeh, A; Motevali Haghighi, S; Gaeini, Z; Shabanpour, N
This study presents an integrated approach for analyzing the impact of macro-ergonomics factors in healthcare supply chain (HCSC) by data envelopment analysis (DEA). The case of this study is the supply chain (SC) of a real hospital. Thus, healthcare standards and macro-ergonomics factors are considered to be modeled by the mathematical programming approach. Over 28 subsidiary SC divisions with parallel missions and objectives are evaluated by analyzing inputs and outputs through DEA. Each division in this HCSC is considered as decision making unit (DMU). This approach can analyze the impact of macro-ergonomics factors on supply chain management (SCM) in healthcare sector. Also, this method ranks the relevant performance efficiencies of each HCSC. In this study by using proposed method, the most effective macro-ergonomics factor on HCSC is identified as "teamwork" issue. Also, this study would help managers to identify the areas of weaknesses in their SCM system and set improvement target plan for the related SCM system in healthcare industry. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study for macro-ergonomics optimization of HCSC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Bezerra, Isabela Xavier Barbalho; de Carvalho, Ricardo José Matos
This article proposes a system of indicators to evaluate the performance of companies in ergonomics for buildings. The system was developed based primarily on studies related to the performance evaluation of the construction industry and on Brazilian standards of ergonomics and work safety and had also the contribution of national and international indicators related to ergonomics, work safety, quality, sustainability, quality of work life and to organizational behavior. The indicators were named, classified and their components were assigned to compose the theoretical model SIDECE--System of Performance Indicators in Ergonomics for Building Construction (as for the Portuguese acronym), serving the major goals of ergonomics: health, safety and workers' satisfaction and production efficiency. The SIDECE is being validated along with the building construction companies in the city of Natal, Brazil, whose practical results, deriving from the application of instruments to collect field data, are under process, to be presented on the occasion of the 18th World Congress on Ergonomics. It is intended that the SIDECE be used by building construction companies as a support tool for excellence management.
Nadiarnykh, Oleg; Moll, Annette C.; de Boer, Johannes F.
We demonstrate a novel optical coherence tomography system specifically developed and validated for clinical imaging of retinoblastoma tumors in pediatric patients. The existing treatment options for this malignant tumor of the retina aim at reduction of tumor (re)growth risks, and vision preservation. The choice of optimal treatment strongly depends on skilled and detailed clinical assessment. Currently, the patients at risk are periodically monitored with retinal imaging for possible morphological changes over time, and new tumor seedings, as the existing real-time diagnostic tools are limited. Three-dimensional visualization of tissue layer and microvasculature at improved axial and lateral resolution of interference-based OCT imaging provides sensitivity for detection of vital tumor tissue concurrent with local treatment. Our METC-approved system accommodates for the range of optical parameters of infants' eyes, and uses the 1050nm wavelength to access the deeper choroid layers of retina. The prototype is designed for patients in supine position under general anesthesia, where ergonomic handheld module is connected to fiber-based optical setup via umbilical cord. The system conforms to clinical safety requirements, including fully isolated low-voltage electric circuit. Focusing is performed with a mechanically tunable lens, where resolution is 6 µm axially, and varies with focusing at 10-18µm laterally. We will present optical design, performance limitations, and results of the ongoing clinical study, including the increased OCT diagnostic sensitivity in three dimensions in comparison with the established clinical imaging modalities. We will discuss images of early, active, and treated tumors, as well as follow-up on patients after local and systemic treatments.
Calvo, Ana M.; Semino, Maria S.; Romero, Gregoria O.; Alfaro, Laura S.; Miranda, Maria V.; Chinen, Silvia P.
In Ezeiza Atomic Center (CAE), there is a working group formed by staff members from a Documentation and Information Center known as 'Lic. Maria Isabel Gonzalez' (CEDICAE) and from the CNEA Paper Collections Conservation and Restoration Laboratory. New personnel were hired in 2007, which allowed the reorganization of tasks and gave way to the creation of new projects. By conducting weekly morning meetings, the working group decided to organize and plan the activities that had to be conducted. From the first moment, the main objective of the group was to offer a service of excellence, i.e. to provide a duly and timely response to the bibliographical requests made by users, to perform tasks in the laboratory, to train members in diverse subjects of preventive conservation, surveys and evaluations of archives and libraries, and tasks of restoration of our own material and material from third parties. Among the projects carried out by the CEDICAE, the following are included: Firstly, the continuous training and education of its personnel, training of users in topics dealing with the use of the MINCyT Library, participation in the Internal Network of Libraries (REDIN) in order to adopt a joint policy by CNEA libraries, participation in the Network RRIAN (Regional Network of Information for Latin America and the Caribbean in the Nuclear Field), participation in the Federal Network of Libraries and Information, with the National Commission of Public Libraries (CONABIP) and with the Documentation Center of the Ministry of Economy and so on. It has worked in training of personnel working at the institutions that submit requests to the Laboratory (SERPAJ, Monastery of San Francisco, Ministry of Economy, CONABIP, etc) regarding topics of preventive conservation. It has realised a mockup of bibliographical recovery of damaged material after any climate disasters and has conducted surveys and evaluations from the point of view of preventive conservation. In this sense and as an
Full Text Available the design of trackless mining equipment (TME) is poor, with improvised seating, poor cabin layouts and sub-standard display instrumentation. This paper will present the key findings of two studies assessing ergonomics risk factors associated with automated...
Souza da Conceição, Carolina; Duarte, F.; Broberg, Ole
The objective of this paper is to present and discuss the use of an intermediary object, built from the ergonomic work analysis, in a participative design process. The object was a zoning pattern, developed as a visual representation ‘mapping’ of the interrelations among the functional units of t...
Places of work have been completely transformed by innovations in mobile work tools and ever-present access to internet data. This article characterizes use patterns and provides preliminary considerations for productive and comfortable use of common mobile devices. Two surveys described trends in mobile work. In the first, ergonomics professionals who oversee programs reported common mobile devices, their users and what data is accessed. The second, an end user survey, explored common activities performed on mobile devices, duration of use and locations where mobile work is common. The survey results provide a baseline data point for the status of mobile work in early 2014. Research indicates that additional risks have been introduced to the neck, thumbs and hands when using mobile devices. Possible trends regarding device use and work locations emerge. Intervention studies provide some direction for the practitioner. Practical strategies are outlined to reduce exposure intensity and duration. Contemporary mobile work presents tremendous change and opportunity for ergonomists and researchers to keep pace with fitting the changing models of work to the person. Continued research is needed on current mobile device use patterns to better understand ergonomic risk exposure in this rapidly changing realm.
Regional Educational Laboratory Pacific, 2013
REL Pacific at McREL, 1 of 10 Regional Educational Laboratories (RELs) funded by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES), serves educators in American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap), Guam, Hawai'i, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic…
Emmons, Mark; Wilkinson, Frances C.
Applies learning theory and ergonomic principles to the design of effective learning environments for library instruction. Discusses features of electronic classroom ergonomics, including the ergonomics of physical space, environmental factors, and workstations; and includes classroom layouts. (Author/LRW)
Waters, Thomas R
Healthcare workers who handle and move patients as part of their jobs suffer a disproportionately high number of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The majority of reported work-related MSDs are back pain cases that result in significant numbers of lost work days. It is likely that these lost workdays have a substantial impact on the quality and cost of health care. Patient care ergonomics can reduce the risk of work-related MSDs by helping safety experts design the work so it can be safely performed by most workers. This article provides a general overview of ergonomics--what it is, how it can be used to help design safe work, and why all healthcare workers and administrators should know and understand how excessive work demands can lead to increased risk of work-related MSDs. The article will also explain technological solutions that can be implemented to reduce the risk of work-related MSDs for healthcare workers.
Nowadays, human factors has become an important aspect of the design of work places. Since the control room in a nuclear power plant is a work place, too, its layout is also influenced by ergonomics. With the KWU control room concept for the 1300 MW PWR as an example, we show how assured and applicable ergonomic findings enter into the control room design. On the basis of general design principles for work places, specific methods for control room planning have been developed. By working with these methods a concept that makes it possible to build a man-machine interface able to fulfill the process control tasks with all their underlying conditions has been derived. (author)
Ferrer, Nicole; Villarouco, Vilma
Research in the field of Ergonomics of the Built Environment has been developed with a view to consolidating studies in this area, the objective of which is to provide evidence that the joint participation of users and designers on drawing up projects is important. In this context, the theme of this study is to investigate the interactions between users and the environment in a university library. To do so, well-established techniques from Ergonomics, Architecture and Environmental Psychology were used to make a functional and behavioral evaluation to identify the level of user satisfaction in six libraries in the various study centers of the Federal University of Pernambuco in Recife, northeast Brazil, so as to identify the strengths and also weaknesses in these spatial structures.
This paper examines the following question: given a collection of man-made shapes, e.g., chairs, can we effectively explore and rank the shapes with respect to a given human body – in terms of how well a candidate shape fits the specified human body? Answering this question requires identifying which shapes are more suitable for a prescribed body, and how to alter the input geometry to better fit the shapes to a given human body. The problem links physical proportions of the human body and its interaction with object geometry, which is often expressed as ergonomics guidelines. We present an interactive system that allows users to explore shapes using different avatar poses, while, at the same time providing interactive previews of how to alter the shapes to fit the user-specified body and pose. We achieve this by first constructing a fuzzy shape-to-body map from the ergonomic guidelines to multi-contacts geometric constraints; and then, proposing a novel contact-preserving deformation paradigm to realize a reshaping to adapt the input shape. We evaluate our method on collections of models from different categories and validate the results through a user study.
Silvana, Salerno; Laura, Forcella; Ursula, Di Fabio; Irene, Figà Talamanca; Paolo, Boscolo
Patient's aggressive behavior is one of the major problem in the psychiatric ward. Here we present the preliminary results of a psychiatric ward case-study, of a public hospital in the Chieti province, in order to plan ergonomic improvement. We applied the Method of Organizational Congruencies in the psychiatric ward in order to study the relationship between organized hospital work and nurses wellbeing in a 24 hour shifts. We observed 58 main phases in the three work shifts. The technical actions are mainly those of any hospital wards (shift briefing, preparing and administering drugs, recording data on clinical charts, etc.). We found important differences mainly due to the nurses overcontrol activities on the patients behavior (preventing suicides or self destructive behavior), the occurrence of restraint procedure towards patients, the pollution due to patient's cigarette smoke. The fear of patient's self destructive behavior or other aggressive behaviour are the main cognitive and social aspects of this hospital ward. Nurses working in this psychiatric ward have to accept: locked doors, poor and polluted environment, restraint procedure with high risk of aggression and no availability of mental health care programs. A new interdisciplinary concept for ergonomics in psychiatry setting may represent a challenge for both nurses and patients and the community.
Walker, Guy H; Salmon, Paul M; Bedinger, Melissa; Stanton, Neville A
A paradigm is an accepted world view. If we do not continually question our paradigm then wider trends and movements will overtake the discipline leaving it ill adapted to future challenges. This Special Issue is an opportunity to keep systems thinking at the forefront of ergonomics theory and practice. Systems thinking prompts us to ask whether ergonomics, as a discipline, has been too timid? Too preoccupied with the resolution of immediate problems with industrial-age methods when, approaching fast, are developments which could render these operating assumptions an irrelevance. Practical case studies are presented to show how abstract systems problems can be tackled head-on to deliver highly innovative and cost-effective insights. The strategic direction of the discipline foregrounds high-quality systems problems. These are something the discipline is well able to respond to provided that the appropriate operating paradigms are selected. Practitioner Summary: High-quality systems problems are the future of the discipline. How do we convert obtuse sounding systems concepts into practical interventions? In this paper, the essence of systems thinking is distilled and practical case studies used to demonstrate the benefits of this new paradigm.
Bolis, I; Brunoro, C M; Sznelwar, L I
By introducing policies for sustainability and social responsibility, companies declare their interest in caring for all stakeholders, including workers. To analyze how and which themes related to work practices and to workers are approached in the discourse of corporations are considered sustainable and socially responsible. Based on ergonomic principles, more elements are brought into this discussion, viewed from a strategic perspective for the development of corporations and society. Data collected from 20 corporations considered more sustainable according to an assessment made by the Corporate Knights organization. Multiple-case study, based on the analysis of secondary sources content (websites and reports). Analysis of websites and reports by their content, and their classification according to the aspects present in the thematic of work practices and of human rights elaborated by standard ISO 26000. Corporations show that the worker is one of the stakeholders to be considered in their sustainability and social responsibility policies. However, it's not possible using this method to obtain effective evidences related to actual programs performed by companies in order to demonstrate the real importance of workers in sustainable polices. The discipline of ergonomics could be active in improving the implementation of corporate social responsibility policies, especially by emphasizing the social dimension of these policies.
Jusoh, Faisal; Nafis Osman Zahid, Muhammed
Awareness of ergonomic risk assessment among workers are getting intense in many industries nowadays. It is essential since most of the workers spend 7 to 8 hours of their time in the workplaces. Previous study shown that spending too much time with static posture in sitting at workplace leads to the problem of Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs). The implications are not only harmful to human body but also effect the productivity. Currently, there are no scientific study conducted to assess the conditions of workers in Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP). Therefore, the problem of MSDs could not be justified clearly and the top management did not acknowledge this issue. This study aims to present current scenario of ergonomic risk level at UMP by using structured model. It focuses on operational staff from faculties and Human Resources Department (HRD). Initially, three types of assessments are executed based on general working condition, Cornell Muscokeletal Discomfort Questionnaire (CMDQ) and Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA). Based on the findings, 90% of the respondents felt discomfort at workplace but prefer to rectify the issues by themselves. Almost 50% of them evaluated themselves in level 4-5 of discomfort level. The CMDQ result shown the discomfort area at faculties and HRD. The workplace at faculties and HRD had been assessed through ROSA and the overall result shown the risk level is medium level respectively. Therefore, further investigation is requires and improvement of workplace need to be proposed to establish good working condition.
Mendonça, André N F; van der Linden, Júlio C S; Fonseca, Tania M G
Through Brazilian publication revision on the relations amongst Ergonomics and Design, we observed the tendency towards an approach focusing on product design. However, it is our duty to question which would be the influences of ergonomics in the graphic design. As a methodology, we considered the identification that the practices derived from ergonomics as epistemic system found in the main bibliography related to graphic design.
The aim of this thesis was to promote and “refresh” the good ergonomics in nursing for Suomikoti in Sweden. The author noticed the need for re-education or “refreshment” of the nursing ergonomics among the permanent personnel as well updating knowledge of functioning of the existing assistive devices. Suomikoti has already a good and comprehensive transfer and ergonomics education and practical training for new employees arranged by their own physiotherapist and occupational therapist. It cov...
Dotoral thesis ERGONOMICS INTEGRATION IMPROVING PRODUCTION PROCESS MANAGEMENT IN ENTERPRISES OF LATVIA ANNOTATION Ergonomics integration in process management has great significance in organisations` growth of productivity. It is a new approach to entrepreneurship and business strategy, where ergonomic aspects and values are taken into account in ensuring the effective process management and profitability of enterprises. This study is aimed at solution of the problem of e...
Ghosh, Subrata; Bagchi, Anandi; Sen, Devashish; Bandyopadhyay, Pathikrit
Ergonomics is becoming a subject of applying fundamentals on anthropocentric dimensions for holistic welfare. The so-called conflict between Basic science and Applied research finds one of its edges in Ergonomics. Be it cutting-edge technology or frontiers of scientific innovation-all start from understanding basic scientific aptitude and skill, and the best way to get familiar with the situation is practicing basic science again and again at a regular basis. Ergonomics is diversified in such...
The article analyzes ergonomics as a social and cultural phenomenon, as something that is formulated and described by speakers in a specific social context; in a company that is specialized in producing ergonomic office furniture. Through a case study of an office chair, the article examines how ergonomics and its association with the vision of the potential users and their working spaces are constructed by the relevant actors in project meetings and individual interviews during the manufactu...
This paper first discusses the major inefficiencies faced in current human factors and ergonomics (HFE) approaches: (1) delivering an optimal end-to-end user experience (UX) to users of a solution across its solution lifecycle stages; (2) strategically influencing the product business and technology capability roadmaps from a UX perspective and (3) proactively identifying new market opportunities and influencing the platform architecture capabilities on which the UX of end products relies. In response to these challenges, three case studies are presented to demonstrate how enhanced ergonomics design approaches have effectively addressed the challenges faced in current HFE approaches. Then, the enhanced ergonomics design approaches are conceptualised by a user-experience ecosystem (UXE) framework, from a UX ecosystem perspective. Finally, evidence supporting the UXE, the advantage and the formalised process for executing UXE and methodological considerations are discussed. Practitioner Summary: This paper presents enhanced ergonomics approaches to product design via three case studies to effectively address current HFE challenges by leveraging a systematic end-to-end UX approach, UX roadmaps and emerging UX associated with prioritised user needs and usages. Thus, HFE professionals can be more strategic, creative and influential.
Siemieniuch, C E; Sinclair, M A; Henshaw, M J deC
This paper briefly explores the expected impact of the 'Global Drivers' (such as population demographics, food security; energy security; community security and safety), and the role of sustainability engineering in mitigating the potential effects of these Global Drivers. The message of the paper is that sustainability requires a significant input from Ergonomics/Human Factors, but the profession needs some expansion in its thinking in order to make this contribution. Creating a future sustainable world in which people experience an acceptable way of life will not happen without a large input from manufacturing industry into all the Global Drivers, both in delivering products that meet sustainability criteria (such as durability, reliability, minimised material requirement and low energy consumption), and in developing sustainable processes to deliver products for sustainability (such as minimum waste, minimum emissions and low energy consumption). Appropriate changes are already being implemented in manufacturing industry, including new business models, new jobs and new skills. Considerable high-level planning around the world is in progress and is bringing about these changes; for example, there is the US 'Advanced Manufacturing National Program' (AMNP)', the German 'Industrie 4.0' plan, the French plan 'la nouvelle France industrielle' and the UK Foresight publications on the 'Future of Manufacturing'. All of these activities recognise the central part that humans will continue to play in the new manufacturing paradigms; however, they do not discuss many of the issues that systems ergonomics professionals acknowledge. This paper discusses a number of these issues, highlighting the need for some new thinking and knowledge capture by systems ergonomics professionals. Among these are ethical issues, job content and skills issues. Towards the end, there is a summary of knowledge extensions considered necessary in order that systems ergonomists can be fully
of Psychology: Ergonomics Section J. Mallart Instituto Nacional de Psicologia , Aplicada y Psiotechnia Juan Huarte de San Juan Ciudad Universitaria...Israel ITALY Bagnara, Sebastino CNR Instituto Di Psicologia via Dei Monti Tiburtini 509 00517 Roma Italy Buti, Luigi Bandini SEA via Valtorta 21 20127...Francesco Olivetti Centro di Psicologia via Jervis 77 Ivrea Italy Ruggeri, Remigio Politecnico, Dip. di Meccanica, sez Ergotecnica Ind. Piazza L de
In recent years, the engineering community has recognized that ergonomics can make significant contributions to system design. Working together engineers and ergonomists can create designs that effectively meet system goals. By considering the role of humans and technology in the context of systems and by reducing the potential for errors, gains can be made in overall system reliability. Such efforts can reduce the need for costly backfits and increase system efficiency. (author)
Six lectures deal with new developments in the application of ergonomic knowledge, in particular to nuclear technology. All contributions have in common the aspects of analysis and structure of man-machine-systems in which human operators have to process information and have to make decisions. Quoting a lot of examples from a variety of industrial sectors, the article discusses complexes of problems and ways of solving them concerning questions requiring the answer 'yes' or 'no', concerning the dialogue man-computer, the organization of central control mechanisms, the avoidance of human errors, influence of man on system safety, and the rational incorporation of ergonomics in system planning. This publication is meant to be a contribution to extend the knowledge on the organization of work from an ergonomic and engineer/psychological point of view. It is to show how the knowledge of the nature of man can be applied as a systems component in order to make industrial processes safer and more economical, and to entrust man with purposeful and satisfying tasks. (orig./LN) [de
Gomes, Luciene Betzler C.; Santos, Isaac Luquetti dos; Fonseca, Antonio Carlos C. da; Pellini, Marcos Pinto; Rebelo, Ana Maria
The doses of radioisotopes to be administrated in patients for diagnostic effect or therapy are prepared in the radiopharmacological sector. The preparation process adopts techniques that are aimed to reduce the exposition time of the professionals and the absorption of excessive doses for patients. The ergonomic analysis of this process contributes in the prevention of occupational illnesses and to prevent risks of accidents during the routines, providing welfare and security to the involved users and conferring to the process an adequate working standard. In this context it is perceived relevance of studies that deal with the analysis of factors that point with respect to the solution of problems and for establishing proposals that minimize risks in the exercise of the activities. Through a methodology that considers the application of the concepts of Ergonomics, it is searched the improvement of the effectiveness or the quality and reduction of the difficulties lived for the workers. The work prescribed, established through norms and procedures codified will be faced with the work effectively carried through, the real work, shaped to break the correct appreciation, with focus in the activities. This work has as objective to argue an ergonomic analysis of samples preparation process of radioisotopes in the Setor de Radiofarmacia do Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). (author)
Ashraf A. Shikdar
Full Text Available Ergonomic conditions in small manufacturing industries were investigated. Twenty seven managers of small manufacturing industries participated in the study. Old equipment and machines, poorly designed workplaces, lack of systematic planning, layout and organization, unsafe working conditions and poor environment were found common to these industries. Fifty-nine percent of companies indicated having equipment older than 15 years. Fifty-two percent of company managers reported receiving complaints of fatigue from their workforce, 41% complaints of back pain, and 33% complaints of upper-body pain. Seventy eight percent of companies reported a noisy environment (above 90 dBA while 63% reported a hot environment. Management in 44% of the companies acknowledged failure to ensure safety rules and 48% did not provide training on manual material handling. Lack of skills in ergonomics and training, communication and resources are believed to be some of the factors contributing to the poor ergonomic conditions in a sample of small manufacturing industries in Malaysia.
Broberg, Ole; Seim, Rikke; Andersen, Vibeke
How can a macro-ergonomic framework developed in academia be “transferred” to ergonomic practitioners and become a new work practice? The purpose of this paper is to reflect upon experiences from an interactive research program in which this transferral was tested by two consecutive approaches......” with the researchers and other practitioners; 3) paying attention to the organizational settings of the ergonomic practitioner to make sure that a new work practice is implemented in the organization and not only by a single practitioner....... and interpretation of results when applying the new concept to a real case in a company; 2) the concept is introduced to practitioners, after which they try to practice the concept in a normal consultancy situation, and afterwards have the opportunity to reflect upon their experiences in a “learning space...
Marano, Antonio; Di Bucchianico, Giuseppe; Rossi, Emilio
Referring to the discussion recently promoted by the Sub-Technical Committee n°4 "Ergonomics and design for sustainability", in this paper will be shown the early results of a theoretical and methodological study on Ergonomic design for sustainability. In particular, the research is based on the comparison between the common thematic structure characterizing Ergonomics, with the principles of Sustainable Development and with criteria adopted from other disciplines already oriented toward Sustainability. The paper identifies an early logical-interpretative model and describes possible and relevant Strategies of Ergonomic design for sustainability, which are connected in a series of specific Sustainable Arguments.
Jensen, Olaf Chresten
According to the definitions, ergonomics is a natural part of the health and safety activity but it has its own research methods and causal models. Public health, occupational and clinical medicines are closely related to epidemiology and differ from ergonomics by using a disease model with a wide...... success of health effects from the clinical trials could not be obtained. It is argued that the ergonomics design, Integration and Implementation can be strengthened by adapting the epidemiological methods and causal models. The ergonomics can then contribute to a common development of public health...
To achieve ergonomics awareness in 3 subsidiary companies, an intervention team was formed. The aims of this study were to implement basic ergonomics through a participatory ergonomics intervention process that can support a continuous learning process and lead to an improvement in health and safety as well as in the work systems in the organization. The findings of this study (i.e., method, continuous learning and integration) were key to making the participatory ergonomics intervention successful. Furthermore, 4 issues of the ergonomics checkpoints (i.e., work schedules, work tasks, healthy work organization and learning) for assessing the work system were found suitable for both changing work schedules and for improving the work system. This paper describes the result of this project and also the experiences gained and the conclusions reached from using the International Labour Office's ergonomics checkpoints in the industries of industrially developing country.
Questions related to job skills and the teaching situations that best promote skill development are investigated by specialists in various fields, notably among them, ergonomists. This paper presents the findings of an ergonomic intervention study whose aim was to develop a meat-deboning training program by taking into account both the training content to be constructed and the working conditions that might facilitate or hinder skill development. One-on-one interviews and group discussions, on-the-job and videotape playback observations, as well as self-confrontation interviews were carried out. Activity analysis revealed major variability in work methods. The reasoning behind the experienced workers' actions and the experiential job knowledge they had developed were brought to light and served to develop the training content. The determining factors in the choice of work methods were identified, allowing adjustments to be made to the working conditions that might hinder skill development. The ergonomic process that implied taking working conditions into account in our study may make a significant contribution to vocational didactics, which is based on the cognitive analysis of work for the purpose of improving the effectiveness of job-skills training.
Genaidy, Ash M; Sequeira, Reynold; Rinder, Magda M; A-Rehim, Amal D
There is a need to integrate both macro- and micro-ergonomic approaches for the effective implementation of interventions designed to improve the root causes of problems such as work safety, quality and productivity in the enterprise system. The objective of this study was to explore from an ergonomics perspective the concept of business sustainability through optimising the worker-work environment interface. The specific aims were: (a) to assess the working conditions of a production department work process with the goal to jointly optimise work safety, quality and quantity; (b) to evaluate the enterprise-wide work process at the system level as a social entity in an attempt to trace the root causes of ergonomic issues impacting employees throughout the work process. The Work Compatibility Model was deployed to examine the experiences of workers (that is, effort, perceived risk/benefit, performance and satisfaction/dissatisfaction or psychological impact) and their associations with the complex domains of the work environment (task content, physical and non-physical work environment and conditions for learning/growth/development). This was followed by assessment of the enterprise system through detailed interviews with department managers and lead workers. A system diagnostic instrument was also constructed from information derived from the published literature to evaluate the enterprise system performance. The investigation of the production department indicated that the stress and musculoskeletal pain experienced by workers (particularly on the day shift) were derived from sources elsewhere in the work process. The enterprise system evaluation and detailed interviews allowed the research team to chart the feed-forward and feedback stress propagation loops in the work system. System improvement strategies were extracted on the basis of tacit/explicit knowledge obtained from department managers and lead workers. In certain situations concerning workplace human
Santos, R M; Sassi, A C; Sá, B M; Miguez, S A; Pardauil, A A
This paper aims to present the benefits achieved in the ergonomics process management with the use of the TPM methodology (Total Productive Maintenance) in Tucuruí Hydropower Plant. The methodology is aligned with the corporate guidelines, moreover with the Strategic Planning of the company, it is represented in the TPM Pillars including the Health Pillar in which is inserted the ergonomics process. The results of the ergonomic actions demonstrated a 12% reduction over the absenteeism rate due to musculoskeletal disorders, solving 77,0% of ergonomic non-conformities, what favored the rise of the Organizational Climate in 44,8%, impacting on the overall performance of the company. Awards confirmed the success of the work by the achievement of the Award for TPM Excellence in 2001, Award for Excellence in Consistent TPM Commitment in 2009 and more recently the Special Award for TPM Achievement, 2010. The determination of the high rank administration and workers, allied with the involvement/dynamism of Pillars, has assured the success of this management practice in Tucuruí Hydropower Plant.
Becker, G.; Bohr, E.; Thau, G.
This report describes the findings of a study on the present status and possible improvements in the design of nuclear power plant control rooms according to ergonomic principles and criteria. The findings have been acquired by observing the performance of control room operators, by interviewing operators and management personnel, and by analyzing major characteristics of the man-machine interface. The methods currently used for developing and designing control rooms have also been examined, and the pertinent scientific and technical literature has been reviewed. The results of the study indicate that there is a growing awareness and consideration of physical factors affecting operator performance and reliability whereas less attention is paid to the essential cognitive characteristics of work in the control room. The tasks of operators thus may contain avoidable hindrances and error possibilities that may adversely affect their contribution to reliable plant operation. Major areas of possible ergonomic advancements are set out in the study, and most of them are discussed in depth. Ergonomic requirements are identified for further improving the situation, and approaches, ways and means for solving of mitigating individual problems are indicated wherever possible. A more deliberate consideration of factors affecting operator performance and reliability is suggested, based on a systems ergonomics approach. Design objectives and criteria as well as specific design recommendations for individual areas are given separately. In conclusion, gaps in our existing knowledge are identified which require further research. (orig.) [de
Background More than seven out of 10 Dutch construction workers describe their work as physically demanding. Ergonomic measures can be used to reduce these physically demanding work tasks. To increase the use of ergonomic measures, employers and workers have to get used to other working methods and to maintaining them. To facilitate this behavioural change, participatory ergonomics (PE) interventions could be useful. For this study a protocol of a PE intervention is adapted in such a way that the intervention can be performed by an ergonomics consultant through face-to-face contacts or email contacts. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the face-to-face guidance strategy and the e-guidance strategy on the primary outcome measure: use of ergonomic measures by individual construction workers, and on the secondary outcome measures: the work ability, physical functioning and limitations due to physical problems of individual workers. Methods/Design The present study is a randomised intervention trial of six months in 12 companies to establish the effects of a PE intervention guided by four face-to-face contacts (N = 6) or guided by 13 email contacts (N = 6) on the primary and secondary outcome measures at baseline and after six months. Construction companies are randomly assigned to one of the guidance strategies with the help of a computer generated randomisation table. In addition, a process evaluation for both strategies will be performed to determine reach, dose delivered, dose received, precision, competence, satisfaction and behavioural change to find possible barriers and facilitators for both strategies. A cost-benefit analysis will be performed to establish the financial consequences of both strategies. The present study is in accordance with the CONSORT statement. Discussion The outcome of this study will help to 1) evaluate the effect of both guidance strategies, and 2) find barriers to and facilitators of both guidance
Visser, Steven; van der Molen, Henk F; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W
More than seven out of 10 Dutch construction workers describe their work as physically demanding. Ergonomic measures can be used to reduce these physically demanding work tasks. To increase the use of ergonomic measures, employers and workers have to get used to other working methods and to maintaining them. To facilitate this behavioural change, participatory ergonomics (PE) interventions could be useful. For this study a protocol of a PE intervention is adapted in such a way that the intervention can be performed by an ergonomics consultant through face-to-face contacts or email contacts. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the face-to-face guidance strategy and the e-guidance strategy on the primary outcome measure: use of ergonomic measures by individual construction workers, and on the secondary outcome measures: the work ability, physical functioning and limitations due to physical problems of individual workers. The present study is a randomised intervention trial of six months in 12 companies to establish the effects of a PE intervention guided by four face-to-face contacts (N = 6) or guided by 13 email contacts (N = 6) on the primary and secondary outcome measures at baseline and after six months. Construction companies are randomly assigned to one of the guidance strategies with the help of a computer generated randomisation table. In addition, a process evaluation for both strategies will be performed to determine reach, dose delivered, dose received, precision, competence, satisfaction and behavioural change to find possible barriers and facilitators for both strategies. A cost-benefit analysis will be performed to establish the financial consequences of both strategies. The present study is in accordance with the CONSORT statement. The outcome of this study will help to 1) evaluate the effect of both guidance strategies, and 2) find barriers to and facilitators of both guidance strategies. When these strategies are
A summary of reactor activities is presented and discussed. The RC-1 reactor is used by ENEA's laboratories, research institutes and national industries for different aims: research, analysis materials behaviour under neutron flux, etc. To satisfy the requests increase it is important to signalize: - the realization of a new radiochemical laboratory for radioisotopes production, to be used in a medical and/or diagnostic field in general; - the realization of a tritium handling laboratory, to study tritium solubility, release and diffusion in different material (particularly in ceramic breeder as lithium aluminate) to support Italian programs on fusion technology; - a research activity on the reactors computerized control by a console of advanced conception. The aim of this activity is the development of an ergonomic control room that could be a reference point for the planning of the power reactor control rooms
Full Text Available The paper deals with the development of a methodology for studying, in a virtual environment, the ergonomics of a work cell in an automotive manufacturing system. The methodology is based on the use of digital human models and virtual reality techniques in order to simulate, in a virtual environment, human performances during the execution of assembly operations. The objective is to define the optimum combination of those geometry features that influence human postures during assembly operation in a work cell. In the demanding global marketplace, ensuring that human factors are comprehensively addressed is becoming an increasingly important aspect of design. Manufacturers have to design work cells that conform to all relevant Health and Safety standards. The proposed methodology can assist the designer to evaluate the performance of workers in a workplace before it has been realized. The paper presents an analysis of a case study proposed by COMAU, a global supplier of industrial automation systems for the automotive manufacturing sector and a global provider of full maintenance services. The study and all the virtual simulations have been carried out in the Virtual Reality Laboratory of the Competence Regional Center for the qualification of transportation systems (CRdC “Trasporti” - www.centrodicompetenzatrasporti.unina. it, which was founded by the Campania region with the aim of delivering advanced services and introducing new technologies into local companies operating in the field of transport.
Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Salmon, Paul M; Jenkins, Daniel P; Rafferty, Laura
Since 1958 more than 80 journal papers from the mainstream ergonomics literature have used either the words 'complex' or 'complexity' in their titles. Of those, more than 90% have been published in only the past 20 years. This observation communicates something interesting about the way in which contemporary ergonomics problems are being understood. The study of complexity itself derives from non-linear mathematics but many of its core concepts have found analogies in numerous non-mathematical domains. Set against this cross-disciplinary background, the current paper aims to provide a similar initial mapping to the field of ergonomics. In it, the ergonomics problem space, complexity metrics and powerful concepts such as emergence raise complexity to the status of an important contingency factor in achieving a match between ergonomics problems and ergonomics methods. The concept of relative predictive efficiency is used to illustrate how this match could be achieved in practice. What is clear overall is that a major source of, and solution to, complexity are the humans in systems. Understanding complexity on its own terms offers the potential to leverage disproportionate effects from ergonomics interventions and to tighten up the often loose usage of the term in the titles of ergonomics papers. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This paper reviews and discusses concepts from the study of complexity and maps them to ergonomics problems and methods. It concludes that humans are a major source of and solution to complexity in systems and that complexity is a powerful contingency factor, which should be considered to ensure that ergonomics approaches match the true nature of ergonomics problems.
Kramer, O N; Albrecht, J
Many physicians monitor liver function tests during terbinafine therapy. To evaluate the symptoms of published cases of terbinafine-associated severe drug-induced liver injury (DILI) to assess the utility of laboratory monitoring. We based our search on the LiverTox database of the National Institutes of Health, but we also searched both PubMed and Embase. In addition, we hand searched the references of the papers we found. All reports of patients with DILI on terbinafine and with reported clinical symptoms, or absence thereof, were evaluated. Two independent reviewers (J.A. and O.N.K.) assessed articles for eligibility of inclusion, and collected and evaluated the data. Thirty-eight papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria, with reports of 69 symptomatic patients. The mean duration of terbinafine treatment until onset of symptoms was 30·2 days (range 5-84). Symptoms in order of frequency were jaundice, flu-like symptoms, dark urine and pruritus. Patients experienced symptoms for a mean and median of 14·8 and 16 days, respectively (range 0-42) until seeking medical attention. Patients who had DILI were symptomatic, usually with jaundice, abdominal pain and general malaise, but also with severe pruritus. No asymptomatic patient was identified through laboratory screening. The timeline of DILI onset varies significantly, but most cases occur between 4 and 6 weeks. There was no time point at which monitoring was meaningful, and we do not recommend monitoring of liver function tests on terbinafine; however, patients should be advised to discontinue treatment and look for medical care when symptoms of DILI occur. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.
Ingrid V. Sellschop
Clinical implications: The clinical contribution of this study to our healthcare system is that through the early identification and intervention of the poor ergonomics in a school environment, a positive impact on reducing poor postural behaviour amongst learners can be achieved.
Haines, H.; Wilson, J.R.; Vink, P.; Koningsveld, E.
Participatory ergonomics is reported in an increasing number of case studies, but there is little evidence of emerging supportive theory and relatively little generic advice or guidance. The paper describes an effort to provide clarity and organization to the field of participatory ergonomics. A
Larson, N; Wick, H
The added value of the Ergonomics Program at 3M was found to be improved employee safety, compliance with regulations and reduction of work-related illness, increases in productivity, and quality and operating efficiency. This paper describes the thirty years of existence of this program. For the first twenty years, the program objectives were to: respond to requests for assistance related to work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) concerns, raise employee awareness of MSDs and ergonomics; educate engineers in ergonomics design; and develop ergonomics teams at manufacturing locations. Since the year 2000, 3M's Ergonomics Program has been in transition from a US-centric and corporate-based technical-expertled program to a global program applying participatory ergonomics strategies within a macroergonomics framework. During that transition, the existing program requirements were revised, new methods and program tools were created, and expectations for implementation at the manufacturing locations clarified. This paper focuses on the company's manufacturing ergonomics program activities during the past ten years and includes specifics of the program's objectives, risk assessment reduction process, and ergonomics technical expertise development. The main benefit achieved throughout the company is reducing employee injury while also increasing productivity and operating efficiency.
Looze, M.P. de; Koningsveld, E.P.A.; Fritzsche, L.; O'Sullivan, L.; Levizzari, A.
Ergonomic measures to reduce or eliminate the risks for developing musculoskeletal disorders, usually affects the performance at work as well, e.g. productivity or quality. The costs and benefits that can be associated with ergonomic measures are highly diverse in nature. Prior to investing in any
Background: Poor posture when maintained for a long period can result in musculoskeletal injuries and deformities. Aims: This study aimed at investigating the knowledge of work ergonomics among bank workers, and the ergonomic compliance of office furniture used in some banks, in Enugu metropolis. Methods: This is a ...
Migueza, S.A.; Hallbeck, M.S.; Vink, P.
A participatory ergonomics approach is used to create a new work environment, which is aimed at reducing neck complaints in a cell phone assembly. The participatory ergonomics program included an initiative, problem identification, a selection of solutions, an implementation and evaluation.
Lichty, Monica G; Janowitz, Ira L; Rempel, David M
Repetitive pipetting is a task that is associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the hand and arm. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usability and ergonomic performance of commercially available pipettes as determined by user ratings and objective measurements. Participants were laboratory technicians and scientists at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with experience performing pipetting tasks. Twenty-one experienced pipette users completed a standardized pipetting task with 5 manual and 5 electronic pipettes. After using each pipette, the user rated it for attributes of comfort and usability. Although no single pipette was rated significantly better than all of the others for every attribute tested, some significant differences were found between pipettes. The Rainin Pipet-Lite received the highest overall quality score among manual pipettes, while the Thermo Scientific Finnpipette Novus was the top-ranked electronic pipette. Features correlated with greater hand and arm comfort were lower tip ejection force, lower blowout force, and pipette balance in the hand. The findings, when considered with participant comments, provide insights into desirable pipette features and emphasize the value of user testing and the importance of the interactions between task, workplace layout, and pipette design. © 2011 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Ergonomics is the science of designing the job equipment and workplace to fit the worker by obtaining a correct match between the human body, work related tasks and work tools. By applying the science of ergonomics we can reduce the difficulties faced by computer users. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficacy of tear substitutes and the role of ergonomics in the management of Computer Vision Syndrome. Development of counseling plan, initial treatment plan, prevent complications and educate the subjects about the disease process and to enhance public awareness. MATERIALS AND METHODS A minimum of 100 subjects were selected randomly irrespective of gender, place and nature of computer work & ethnic differences. The subjects were between age group of 10-60 years who had been using the computer for a minimum of 2 hours/day for atleast 5-6 days a week. The subjects underwent tests like Schirmer's, Test film breakup time (TBUT, Inter Blink Interval and Ocular surface staining. A Computer Vision score was taken out based on 5 symptoms each of which was given a score of 2. The symptoms included foreign body sensation, redness, eyestrain, blurring of vision and frequent change in refraction. The score of more than 6 was treated as Computer Vision syndrome and the subjects underwent synoptophore tests and refraction. RESULT In the present study where we had divided 100 subjects into 2 groups of 50 each and given tear substitutes only in one group and ergonomics was considered with tear substitutes in the other. We saw that there was more improvement after 4 weeks and 8 weeks in the group taking lubricants and ergonomics into consideration than lubricants alone. More improvement was seen in eyestrain and blurring (P0.05. CONCLUSION Advanced training in proper computer usage can decrease discomfort.
Morita, Mark M.; Ratib, Osman
The ergonomic design in the Surgical OR of information technology systems has been and continues to be a large problem. Numerous disparate information systems with unique hardware and display configurations create an environment similar to the chaotic environments of air traffic control. Patient information systems tend to show all available statistics making it difficult to isolate the key, relevant vitals for the patient. Interactions in this sterile environment are still being done with the traditional keyboard and mouse designed for cubicle office workflows. This presentation will address the shortcomings of the current design paradigm in the Surgical OR that relate to Information Technology systems. It will offer a perspective that addresses the ergonomic deficiencies and predicts how future technological innovations will integrate into this vision. Part of this vision includes a Surgical OR PACS prototype, developed by GE Healthcare Technologies, that addresses ergonomic challenges of PACS in the OR that include lack of portability, sterile field integrity, and UI targeted for diagnostic radiologists. GWindows (gesture control) developed by Microsoft Research and Voice command will allow for the surgeons to navigate and review diagnostic imagery without using the conventional keyboard and mouse that disrupt the integrity of the sterile field. This prototype also demonstrates how a wireless, battery powered, self contained mobile PACS workstation can be optimally positioned for a surgeon to reference images during an intervention as opposed to the current pre-operative review. Lessons learned from the creation of the Surgical OR PACS Prototype have demonstrated that PACS alone is not the end all solution in the OR. Integration of other disparate information systems and presentation of this information in simple, easy to navigate information packets will enable smoother interactions for the surgeons and other healthcare professionals in the OR. More intuitive
Demiris, A M; Meinzer, H P
Whether or not a computerized system enhances the conditions of work in the application domain, very much demands on the user interface. Graphical user interfaces seem to attract the interest of the users but mostly ignore some basic rules of visual information processing thus leading to systems which are difficult to use, lowering productivity and increasing working stress (cognitive and work load). In this work we present some fundamental ergonomic considerations and their application to the medical image processing and archiving domain. We introduce the extensions to an existing concept needed to control and guide the development of GUIs with respect to domain specific ergonomics. The suggested concept, called Model-View-Controller Constraints (MVCC), can be used to programmatically implement ergonomic constraints, and thus has some advantages over written style guides. We conclude with the presentation of existing norms and methods to evaluate user interfaces.
Ludwig, Wesley W; Lee, Gyusung; Ziemba, Justin B; Ko, Joan S; Matlaga, Brian R
To date, the ergonomics of flexible ureteroscopy (URS) have not been well described. We performed a study to assess the biomechanical stresses on urologists performing URS and to investigate the effect of ureteroscope type on these parameters. Electromyography (EMG) was used to quantify the activation level of muscle groups involved in URS. Surface EMG electrodes (Delsys, Boston, MA) were placed on the right and left thenar, flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU), biceps, triceps, and deltoid. Three endoscopes were studied: single-use digital (Boston Scientific LithoVue), reusable digital (Karl Storz Flex-X c ), and reusable fiber-optic (Karl Storz Flex-X 2 ). Each ureteroscope was used to perform a set sequence of navigation and procedural tasks in a training model. EMG data were processed and normalized to compare the maximum voluntary contractions between muscle groups. Cumulative muscular workload (CMW) and average muscular work per second (AWS) were used for comparative analysis. For navigational tasks, CMW and AWS were greatest for the ECU, followed in descending order by right and left thenar, FCU, biceps, deltoid, and triceps. For procedural tasks, CMW and AWS were greatest for the right thenar, followed in descending order by the left thenar, ECU, FCU, triceps, biceps, and deltoid. During navigational tasks, both LithoVue and Flex-X c had lower CMWs for every muscle group than Flex-X 2 (p ergonomics of URS. Both the single-use and reusable digital ureteroscopes have similar profiles, and both have significantly better ergonomic metrics than the reusable fiber-optic ureteroscope.
Hoffmann, A L; Milman, N; Byg, K E
AIM: To describe the incidence, clinical presentation and paraclinical findings in childhood sarcoidosis in Denmark, 1979-1994. METHODS: Patients (n = 5536) with a diagnosis of sarcoidosis were drawn from the nationwide Patient Registry; 81 patients were ... examination (glucose, albumin, haemoglobin) was normal in 96% of the patients; the patient with nephrocalcinosis had albuminuria and haematuria. CONCLUSION: The incidence of sarcoidosis in Danish children is low and increases with age. Sarcoidosis in young children may present clinical features...... that are different from the appearance of those in older children and often constitute a diagnostic challenge. In older children, the clinical appearance has many features in common with the presentation in adults....
Sherrod, Charles W.; Casey, George; Dubro, Robert E.; Johnson, Dale F.
Objective This report describes the case management of musculoskeletal disorders for an employee in a college work environment using both chiropractic care and applied ergonomics. Clinical Findings A 54-year-old male office worker presented with decreased motor function in both wrists; intermittent moderate-to-severe headaches; and pain or discomfort in the neck, both shoulders, left hand and wrist, and lumbosacral region resulting from injuries sustained during recreational soccer and from excessive forces and awkward postures when interacting with his home and office computer workstations. Intervention and Results Ergonomic training, surveillance, retrofitted equipment with new furniture, and an emphasis on adopting healthy work-style behaviors were applied in combination with regular chiropractic care. Baseline ergonomic job task analysis identified risk factors and delineated appropriate control measures to improve the subject's interface with his office workstation. Serial reevaluations at 3-month, 1-year, and 2-year periods recorded changes to the participant's pain, discomfort, and work-style behaviors. At end of study and relative to baseline, pain scale improved from 4/10 to 2/10; general disability improved from 4 to 0; and hand grip strength (pounds) increased from 20 to 105 (left) and 45 to 100 (right). Healthy work habits and postures adopted in the 3-month to 1-year period regressed to baseline exposures for 3 of 6 risk priorities identified in the ergonomic job task analysis. Conclusion The patient responded positively to the intervention of chiropractic care and applied ergonomics. PMID:23997724
Hallmark, Beth; Mechan, Patricia; Shores, Lynne
This article reviews and investigates the issues surrounding ergonomics, with a specific focus on safe patient handling and mobility. The health care worker of today faces many challenges, one of which is related to the safety of patients. Safe patient handling and mobility is on the forefront of the movement to improve patient safety. This article reviews the risks associated with patient handling and mobility, and informs the reader of current evidence-based practice relevant to this area of care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The 9 papers included in this Technical Memorandum were presented at the Third ANS Topical Meeting on the Technology of Controlled Nuclear Fusion that was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico on May 9-11, 1978
Jensen, Per Langaa
Under the label 'participatory ergonomics' the idea of establishing changes in working conditions through participatory approaches has been a central issue within ergonomics. Tools and procedures have been developed and demonstrated beneficial. But how this approach can be established as the way...
Full Text Available In the working environment of the modern man, where the junction man-machine is a system that aims at achieving professional success, the ergonomic measures are increasingly promoted. These measures come after waves of complaints from the employees who often accuse psycho-physical fatigue. In this paper we will present a series of psychophysical techniques designed for those employees who work in an office. The examples are built on patterns existing in the physical exercise practice and mental theatre training used by some of the greatest teachers of theatre in the world. Alternating these types of physical and mental exercises, adapted for office work, can visibly improve the health of the employees
Ismail Wilson Taifa
Full Text Available This paper presents anthropometric measurements regarding engineering students in India. Health survey (ergonomic assessment was carried out to know the health status of all students who have been using poorly designed furniture. The data were measured with the help of various tools. After data collection and analysis, authors came up with exhaustive dimensions for designing adjustable classrooms furniture. Dimensions recommended include; bench surface height, bench depth and width, back rest width and height, backrest angle, desk height, desk depth, width, and desk angle. Therefore, an implementation of these data will help to create comfortability, safety, well-being, suitability, reduce Musculoskeletal disorders, and improve performance of students in terms of attentiveness. Also, it is highly recommended to consider requirements from students in designing classrooms furniture and conduct seminar or workshop to educate students regarding the negative impact towards adapting poor posture in the long usage of classrooms furniture.
Luciano Brito Rodrigues
Full Text Available The present work consisted of an analysis of work conditions aspects in small dairy industries from southwest region of Bahia state. The study considered the analysis of environmental variables and the organization of the work in the production process of cheeses. The analysis was performed by means of observations in loco and measurement of the environmental variables related to noise, illumination and temperature. The main problems are related to posture and inadequate illumination. The parameters were evaluated according to the norms and legislation available in order to propose suggestions for the identified problems, objectifying the comfort and safety of workers and the consequent improvement of activities developed in these industries. Keywords: Ergonomics, Dairy industries, Environmental comfort.
N Sadra Abarqhouei
Full Text Available Background and aims : The present studies show that the theoretical discussions and the applications of ergonomics have not been seriously handled in our country, Iran. So, the aim of the current study was to present an appropriate method which could help in increasing the productivity and decreasing the risk factors of ergonomics in socio-technical systems. Methods: During the present study, a theoretical model was developed to guide the “ergonomic intervention processes” and its evaluation and application was carried out for an educational organization (EO. The faculty members were selected as the subjects of statistical survey and simple random sampling was performed. The level of musculoskeletal disorders was evaluated in control and treatment groups. Comparative analysis of the obtained data was carried out using fuzzy numbers and their level of confinement. Results: According to the results of present study with the help of ergonomic interventions, an increase in the activity of staff members, increased revenue, expansion of work with the least number of manpower and a decrease in the overall expenses was seen as compared to the base year. In addition, the analysis of questionnaires with fuzzy approach has shown that the level of musculoskeletal disorders in the experimental group was less as compared to that of control group. Conclusion: The results obtained by the use of macro and micro ergonomic interventions (Total ergonomics have proved that these methods were successful by increasing the innovation and motivation of the staff members to solve the organizational problems as compared to the base year. The decrease of musculoskeletal disorders among the members resulted to an increase of performance in different units of the educational organization.
Hoffmann, A L; Milman, N; Byg, K E
.7-15). In 1979-1994 the incidence was 0.29 per 100000 person-years incidence was 0.06 in children weight loss, abdominal discomfort, respiratory symptoms, lymphadenopathy......AIM: To describe the incidence, clinical presentation and paraclinical findings in childhood sarcoidosis in Denmark, 1979-1994. METHODS: Patients (n = 5536) with a diagnosis of sarcoidosis were drawn from the nationwide Patient Registry; 81 patients were ... examination (glucose, albumin, haemoglobin) was normal in 96% of the patients; the patient with nephrocalcinosis had albuminuria and haematuria. CONCLUSION: The incidence of sarcoidosis in Danish children is low and increases with age. Sarcoidosis in young children may present clinical features...
Hardt, T.L.; Schutt, S.M.; Doran, K.S.; Dihel, D.L.; Lucas, R.O. II; Eifert, T.K.
A new state of the art radiochemistry laboratory incorporating advanced design and environmental control elements has been constructed in Atlanta, Georgia. The design of the facility is oriented to the efficient production of analytical sample results which meet regulatory requirements while at the same time provides an atmosphere that is pleasurable for analysts and visitors alike. The laboratory building contains two separate and distinct laboratories under one roof. This allows the facility to handle samples with low levels of radioactivity on one side of the lab without fear of contamination of environmental work on the other side. Unlike most laboratories, this facility utilizes a scrubber system and liquid waste holdup system to prevent accidental releases to the environment. The potential spread of radioactive contamination is controlled through the use of negative pressure ventillation zones. Construction techniques, laboratory systems, instrumentation and ergonomic considerations will also be discussed. (author) 1 fig
O'Connor, Denise; Page, Matthew J; Marshall, Shawn C; Massy-Westropp, Nicola
Non-surgical treatment, including ergonomic positioning or equipment, are sometimes offered to people experiencing mild to moderate symptoms from carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The effectiveness and duration of benefit from ergonomic positioning or equipment interventions for treating CTS are unknown. To assess the effects of ergonomic positioning or equipment compared with no treatment, a placebo or another non-surgical intervention in people with CTS. We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (14 June 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2011, Issue 2, in The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (1966 to June 2011), EMBASE (1980 to June 2011), CINAHL Plus (1937 to June 2011), and AMED (1985 to June 2011). We also reviewed the reference lists of randomised or quasi-randomised trials identified from the electronic search. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing ergonomic positioning or equipment with no treatment, placebo or another non-surgical intervention in people with CTS. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the primary and secondary outcomes. We pooled results of clinically and statistically homogeneous trials, where possible, to provide estimates of the effect of ergonomic positioning or equipment. We included two trials (105 participants) comparing ergonomic versus placebo keyboards. Neither trial assessed the primary outcome (short-term overall improvement) or adverse effects of interventions. In one small trial (25 participants) an ergonomic keyboard significantly reduced pain after 12 weeks (MD -2.40; 95% CI -4.45 to -0.35) but not six weeks (MD -0.20; 95% CI -1.51 to 1.11). In this same study, there was no difference between ergonomic and standard keyboards in hand function at six or 12 weeks or palm
Alton, G.D.; Beene, J.R.
The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) is a first generation national user facility for nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics research with radioactive ion beams (RIBs). The reconfiguration, construction, and equipment commissioning phases have been completed and the beam development program is in progress. In this article, descriptions of the facility and newly implemented experimental equipment for use in the nuclear and astrophysics programs will be given and an outline of the initial experimental program will be presented. Special target ion source related problems, endemic to the production of specific short lived RIBs will be discussed. In addition, plans, which involve either a 200 MeV or a 1 GeV proton linac driver for a second generation ISOL facility, will be presented
Pentikis, John; Lopez, Mary S; Thomas, Robert E
An ergonomics team from the US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive medicine evaluated 465 video display terminal (VDT) workstations in a Government office building over an 18-day period. Each workstation evaluation involved an assessment of the worker, the chair, the desk, the keyboard, the pointing device, the monitor, and the office environmental conditions. The team also collected worker pain and injury information. The problems seen during the evaluation were characteristic of most office environments where VDT workstation furniture was purchased before the advent of mouse-driven software. The majority of furniture evaluated was not designed to meet the demands of intensive mouse use for prolonged periods of time. Much of the workstation furniture was not adjustable, chairs lacked adequate back support, and workers assumed non-neutral postures. As a result, more than 35% of the workers evaluated complained of on-the-job pain. New office furniture that is adjustable, adequate desk space and storage space were among the solutions recommended by the ergonomics team.
Gordon, Claire C; Bradtmiller, Bruce
Well-designed office workspaces require good anthropometric data in order to accommodate variability in the worker population. The recent obesity epidemic carries with it a number of anthropometric changes that have significant impact on design. We examine anthropometric change among US civilians over the last 50 years, and then examine that change in a subset of the US population--the US military--as military data sets often have more ergonomic dimensions than civilian ones. The civilian mean stature increased throughout the period 1962 to 2006 for both males and females. However, the rate of increase in mean weight was considerably faster. As a result, the male obesity rate changed from 10.7% in 1962 to 31.3% in 2006. The female change for the same period was 15.8% to 33.2%. In the Army, the proportion of obesity increased from 3.6% to 20.9%, in males. In the absence of national US ergonomic data, we demonstrate one approach to tracking civilian change in these dimensions, applying military height/weight regression equations to the civilian population estimates. This approach is useful for population monitoring but is not suitable for establishing new design limits, as regression estimates likely underestimate the change at the ends of the distribution.
Gilbert Cardoso Bouyer
Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to amplify the current theoretical scenario of “Ergonomics of Project” area, according to the knowledge creation/innovation theory, and his concepts of virtual and subjectivity in the Work. This theoretical-conceptual article aims to shed new light on the relations between innovation and present-day efforts toward a scientific theory of knowledge in the Work, with its complex structure of theories, hypotheses and disciplines. There is in this paper a new approach to understand the Contemporary Ergonomic Project in a kind of Socio-Epistemological Engineering initiated by Markus F. Peschl in the University of Vienna. The methods employed were the systematic review and adaptation of Socio-Epistemological Engineering’s concepts in the actual context of epistemological and ontological principles of Ergonomics of Project.
Sze, Gordon; Bluth, Edward I; Bender, Claire E; Parikh, Jay R
Increasingly, radiologists' workplaces revolve around PACS and digital imaging. Use of these technologies can lead to repetitive strain injuries, many of which can be exacerbated by specific features of a radiology practice environment. Ergonomic approaches, such as proper reading room structure, lighting, temperature, noise, and equipment setup, can help decrease the frequency and severity of repetitive strain injuries and improve radiologist productivity. However, ergonomic approaches are complex, include all aspects of the radiology practice environment, and are best implemented along with proper training of the practicing radiologists. The ergonomic approaches considered most important by members of the ACR Commission on Human Resources are presented in this report, and this information may serve as an aid in departmental planning. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kohlmann, Rebekka; Gatermann, Sören G
Many clinical microbiology laboratories report on cumulative antimicrobial susceptibility testing (cAST) data on a regular basis. Criteria for generation of cAST reports, however, are often obscure and inconsistent. Whereas the CLSI has published a guideline for analysis and presentation of cAST data, national guidelines directed at clinical microbiology laboratories are not available in Europe. Thus, we sought to describe the influence of different parameters in the process of cAST data analysis in the setting of a German routine clinical microbiology laboratory during 2 consecutive years. We developed various program scripts to assess the consequences ensuing from different algorithms for calculation of cumulative antibiograms from the data collected in our clinical microbiology laboratory in 2013 and 2014. One of the most pronounced effects was caused by exclusion of screening cultures for multi-drug resistant organisms which decreased the MRSA rate in some cases to one third. Dependent on the handling of duplicate isolates, i.e. isolates of the same species recovered from successive cultures on the same patient during the time period analyzed, we recorded differences in resistance rates of up to 5 percentage points for S. aureus, E. coli and K. pneumoniae and up to 10 percentage points for P. aeruginosa. Stratification by site of care and specimen type, testing of antimicrobials selectively on resistant isolates, change of interpretation rules and analysis at genus level instead of species level resulted in further changes of calculated antimicrobial resistance rates. The choice of parameters for cAST data analysis may have a substantial influence on calculated antimicrobial resistance rates. Consequently, comparability of cAST reports from different clinical microbiology laboratories may be limited. We suggest that laboratories communicate the strategy used for cAST data analysis as long as national guidelines for standardized cAST data analysis and reporting
Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate different signal-processing algorithms for tactile identification of environmental sounds in a monitoring aid for the deafblind. Two men and three women, sensorineurally deaf or profoundly hearing impaired with experience of vibratory experiments, age 22-36 years. Methods: A closed set of 45 representative environmental sounds were processed using two transposing (TRHA, TR1/3 and three modulating algorithms (AM, AMFM, AMMC and presented as tactile stimuli using a portable vibrator in three experiments. The algorithms TRHA, TR1/3, AMFM and AMMC had two alternatives (with and without adaption to vibratory thresholds. In Exp. 1, the sounds were preprocessed and directly fed to the vibrator. In Exp. 2 and 3, the sounds were presented in an acoustic test room, without or with background noise (SNR=+5 dB, and processed in real time. Results: In Exp. 1, Algorithm AMFM and AMFM(A consistently had the lowest identification scores, and were thus excluded in Exp. 2 and 3. TRHA, AM, AMMC, and AMMC(A showed comparable identification scores (30%-42% and the addition of noise did not deteriorate the performance. Discussion: Algorithm TRHA, AM, AMMC, and AMMC(A showed good performance in all three experiments and were robust in noise they can therefore be used in further testing in real environments.
Dekker, Sidney W A; Hancock, Peter A; Wilkin, Peter
Technology offers a promising route to a sustainable future, and ergonomics can serve a vital role. The argument of this article is that the lasting success of sustainability initiatives in ergonomics hinges on an examination of ergonomics' own epistemology and ethics. The epistemology of ergonomics is fundamentally empiricist and positivist. This places practical constraints on its ability to address important issues such as sustainability, emergence and complexity. The implicit ethical position of ergonomics is one of neutrality, and its positivist epistemology generally puts value-laden questions outside the parameters of what it sees as scientific practice. We argue, by contrast, that a discipline that deals with both technology and human beings cannot avoid engaging with questions of complexity and emergence and seeking innovative ways of addressing these issues. Ergonomics has largely modelled its research on a reductive science, studying parts and problems to fix. In sustainability efforts, this can lead to mere local adaptations with a negative effect on global sustainability. Ergonomics must consider quality of life globally, appreciating complexity and emergent effects of local relationships.
Partido, Brian B
Due to postural demands, dental professionals are at high risk for developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). Dental clinicians' lack of ergonomic awareness may impede the clinical application of recommendations to improve their posture. The aim of this study was to determine whether feedback involving photography and self-assessment would improve dental hygiene students' ergonomic scores and accuracy of their ergonomic self-assessments. The study involved a randomized control design and used a convenience sample of all 32 junior-year dental hygiene students enrolled in the autumn 2016 term in The Ohio State University baccalaureate dental hygiene program. Sixteen students were randomly assigned to each of two groups (control and training). At weeks one and four, all participants were photographed and completed ergonomic self-evaluations using the Modified-Dental Operator Posture Assessment Instrument (M-DOPAI). During weeks two and three, participants in the training group were photographed again and used those photographs to complete ergonomic self-assessments. All participants' pre-training and post-training photographs were given ergonomic scores by three raters. Students' self-assessments in the control group and faculty evaluations of the training group showed significant improvement in scores over time (F(1,60)=4.25, p<0.05). In addition, the accuracy of self-assessment significantly improved for students in the training group (F(1,30)=8.29, p<0.01). In this study, dental hygiene students' self-assessments using photographs resulted in improvements in their ergonomic scores and increased accuracy of their ergonomic self-assessments. Any improvement in ergonomic score or awareness can help reduce the risks for WMSDs, especially among dental clinicians.
Fernandes, Marcelo Vicente Forestieri
The purpose of this paper is to propose foundations for a theory of using the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) methodology to improve the strategic view of ergonomics inside the organizations. This approach may help to promote a better understanding of investing on an ergonomic program to obtain good results in quality and production, as well as health maintenance. It is explained the basics of balanced scorecard, and how ergonomists could use this to work with strategic enterprises demand. Implications of this viewpoint for the development of a new methodology for ergonomics strategy views are offered.
Li, Zheng; Wang, Guohui; Tan, Juan; Sun, Xulong; Lin, Hao; Zhu, Shaihong
Laparoscopic surgery carries the advantage of minimal invasiveness, but ergonomic design of the instruments used has progressed slowly. Previous studies have demonstrated that the handle of laparoscopic instruments is vital for both surgical performance and surgeon's health. This review provides an overview of the sub-discipline of handle ergonomics, including an evaluation framework, objective and subjective assessment systems, data collection and statistical analyses. Furthermore, a framework for ergonomic research on laparoscopic instrument handles is proposed to standardize work on instrument design. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Monroe, Kimberly; Fick, Faye; Joshi, Madina
Process improvement initiatives are receiving renewed attention by large corporations as they attempt to reduce manufacturing costs and stay competitive in the global marketplace. These initiatives include 5S, Six Sigma, and Lean. These programs often take up a large amount of available time and budget resources. More often than not, existing ergonomics processes are considered separate initiatives by upper management and struggle to gain a seat at the table. To effectively maintain their programs, ergonomics program managers need to overcome those obstacles and demonstrate how ergonomics initiatives are a natural fit with continuous improvement philosophies.
Tosetto, Thaís; Camarotto, João Alberto
The paper presents a correlation between the parameters of classical TRIZ and variables of analysis of the EWA to construct a matrix of contradictions in ergonomics, with the objective of assisting the designing processes in the Brazilian agricultural sector. Given the representativeness of the sector in the economy, the boundary conditions in which the activities are developed and their impact on the health of workers, this proposal should contribute to the development of adaptable solutions and the promotion of Decent Work.
Díaz Caballero, Antonio José; Gomez Palencia, Isabel Patricia; Díaz Cárdenas, Shyrley
Objective: To identify the ergonomic factors and the presence of muscular pain in dental students of VIII, IX, X semesters presently practicing at the clinics of the College of Dentistry of university of Cartagena, Colombia, South America. Materials and methods: This is a descriptive study carried out in dental students of the VIII, IX, and X semesters which were undergoing clinical practice at the College of Dentistry of University of Cartagena. A convenience sample of 83 students who m...
Szeto, Grace P; Lee, Raymond
To evaluate and compare the postures and movements of the cervical and upper thoracic spine, the typing performance, and workstation ergonomic factors when using a desktop, notebook, and subnotebook computers. Repeated-measures design. A motion analysis laboratory with an electromagnetic tracking device. A convenience sample of 21 university students between ages 20 and 24 years with no history of neck or shoulder discomfort. Each subject performed a standardized typing task by using each of the 3 computers. Measurements during the typing task were taken at set intervals. Cervical and thoracic spines adopted a more flexed posture in using the smaller-sized computers. There were significantly greater neck movements in using desktop computers when compared with the notebook and subnotebook computers. The viewing distances adopted by the subjects decreased as the computer size decreased. Typing performance and subjective rating of difficulty in using the keyboards were also significantly different among the 3 types of computers. Computer users need to consider the posture of the spine and potential risk of developing musculoskeletal discomfort in choosing computers. Copyright 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Dennerlein, Jack T
Because mobile computing technologies, such as notebook computers, smart mobile phones, and tablet computers afford users many different configurations through their intended mobility, there is concern about their effects on musculoskeletal pain and a need for usage recommendations. Therefore the main goal of this paper to determine which best practices surrounding the use of mobile computing devices can be gleaned from current field and laboratory studies of mobile computing devices. An expert review was completed. Field studies have documented various user configurations, which often include non-neutral postures, that users adopt when using mobile technology, along with some evidence suggesting that longer duration of use is associated with more discomfort. It is therefore prudent for users to take advantage of their mobility and not get stuck in any given posture for too long. The use of accessories such as appropriate cases or riser stands, as well as external keyboards and pointing devices, can also improve postures and comfort. Overall, the state of ergonomics for mobile technology is a work in progress and there are more research questions to be addressed.
Aksoy, O; Ertürk, Z; Oztürk, K; Saltik, H; Ward, J S
A 4-week UNESCO-sponsored mission to the Department of Architecture, Karadeniz Technical University in Eastern Turkey, gave an opportunity to apply ergonomics techniques to some aspects of that country's domestic washbasin design. The study was intended to provide experience in questionnaire design and administration, in the application of psycho-physical methods, and to highlight the importance of determining user characteristics and preferences with regard to the built environment. A field study elicited information on dimensions and positioning of existing wash-basins and ancillary equipment and the opinions of users as to the suitability of these features in relation to the activities performed. A laboratory study, using an adjustable rig permitting variation in the heights of basin, taps and mirror/shelf, followed. The data obtained on preferred heights of these items led to the conclusions that basin height should be increased to between 95 and 100 cm to satisfy the majority of users; tap height above the basin should be reduced to about 11 cm; the shelf and lower edge of a mirror sited above the basin should be 136 cm above the floor; and a clear space of 110 cm should be available between the front of the basin and a wall or other obstruction. Suggestions on other design aspects of the bathroom, resulting from the study, are discussed.
Full Text Available Background and aims Awkward posture has been recognized as one of the important risk factors of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD. The current study aimed at determining ergonomic risk level, WMSDs ratio and exploring working postures contribution to WMSD. During the study, working postures were phased and then they were scored using the REBAtool from observing the work. Methods To perform the study, workers of a home appliances manufacturing factory were assessed. In order to collecting required data, each part of the body was scored and work frequency, load/force, coupling were considered to achieve a REBA score. Nordic Questionnaire was used to determining WMSD ratio and its relationship whit REBA score. 231 working phases were assessed and 13761 questions using Nordic Questionnaire were answered. Percentage of the workers in press, spot welding, grinding, cutting, assembling, and painting was 15.8, 21.6, 25.9, 34.5, 89.9%, respectively. Workers were 18-54 years old and their work recording average was 52 month. Results REBAscore was 4-13 in under study tasks. REBA score = 9 had the most frequency (20% and REBA score =13 had the least frequency (1.4%. Risk level in press, cutting, and painting was high (25.5, 100, 68.2% cases. This shows that cutting has the highest risk level. On the other hand 38.5% of the workers in past 12 month had problem in different parts of their body. Totally 11.7% of the workers had problem in neck, 19.4$ in leg, 10.7% in foot, 82.5% in lower back, 87.6% in upper back and 7.8% in shoulders.10.7% of the workers had previous illness that 8.7% of them were non occupational and 1.9% were caused their previous jobs. The REBAscore mean and ergonomic risk level is not equal in tasks (p-value0. Action level was necessary soon in others. Conclusion Risk level should be reduced specially in cutting. The heavy workload and working height poor design, awkward
The report presents a wide, easily understandable description of presentation technique and man-machine communication. General fundamentals for the man-machine interface are illustrated, and the factors that affect the interface are described. A model is presented for describing the operators work situation, based on three different levels in the operators behaviour. The operator reacts routinely in the face of simple, known problems, and reacts in accordance with predetermined plans in the face of more complex, recognizable problems. Deep fundamental knowledge is necessary for truly complex questions. Today's technical status and future development have been studied. In the future, the operator interface will be based on standard software. Functions such as zooming, integration of video pictures, and sound reproduction will become common. Video walls may be expected to come into use in situations in which several persons simultaneously need access to the same information. A summary of the fundamental rules for the design of good picture ergonomics and design requirements for control rooms are included in the report. In conclusion, the report describes a presentation technique within the Distribution Automation and Demand Side Management area and analyses the know-how requirements within Vattenfall. If different systems are integrated, such as geographical information systems and operation monitoring systems, strict demands are made on the expertise of the users for achieving a user-friendly technique which is matched to the needs of the human being. (3 figs.)
Engineering Research Computational Mechanics Laboratory Environmental Engineering Laboratory Geotechnical of Engineering & Applied Science A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z D2L Programs Concentration in Biomedical Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer
May, Douglas R; Reed, Kendra; Schwoerer, Catherine E; Potter, Paul
A naturally occurring quasi-experimental longitudinal field study of 87 municipal employees using pretest and posttest measures investigated the effects of an office workstation ergonomics intervention program on employees' perceptions of their workstation characteristics, levels of persistent pain, eyestrain, and workstation satisfaction. The study examined whether reactions differed between younger and older employees. Results revealed that workstation improvements were associated with enhanced perceptions of the workstation's ergonomic qualities, less upper back pain, and greater workstation satisfaction. Among those experiencing an improvement, the perceptions of workstation ergonomic qualities increased more for younger than older employees, supporting the "impressionable years" framework in the psychological literature on aging. Implications for human resources managers are discussed.
Tompa, Emile; Dolinschi, Roman; Laing, Andrew
We assess the costs and consequences of a participatory ergonomics process at a Canadian car parts manufacturer from the perspective of the firm. Regression modeling was used with interrupted time series data to assess the impact of the process on several health measures. Consequences were kept in natural units for cost-effectiveness analysis, and translated into monetary units for cost-benefit analysis. The duration of disability insurance claims and the number of denied workers' compensation claims was significantly reduced. The cost-effectiveness ratio is $12.06 per disability day averted. The net present value is $244,416 for a 23-month period with a benefit-to-cost ratio of 10.6, suggesting that the process was worth undertaking (monetary units in 2001 Canadian dollars). Our findings emphasize the importance of considering a range of outcomes when evaluating an occupational health and safety intervention. Participatory ergonomics process can be cost-effective for a firm.
, ergonomic analysis and non-technical dimensions, i.e. the social side of the process. In an international perspective the Nordic countries are presumed to offer the best location for studies on how to integrate work environment issues into process development for improved performance. Our unique roots...... and increasing ergonomic strain leading to more sick days and early retirement. In order to improve sustainability of suggested system solutions resulting from VSM a complementary tool, Ergonova, is now developed. The present planned Nordic investigation aims to evaluate and further develop the Ergonova tool...... for practical use in the Nordic countries. I t is hypothesized that a broader spectrum of suggested solutions will be obtained by using Ergonova and some of these may appear to offer a higher level of sustainability. The overall research design is a comparative study where both the Ergonova and VSM tools...
Gatto, Leandro Barbosa da Silveira
A nuclear power plant control room is a complex system that controls a nuclear and thermodynamic process used to produce electrical energy. The operators interact with the control room through interfaces that have significant implications to nuclear power plant safety and influence the operator activity. The operator activity presents complexity features and shows a series of mechanisms absents from the human factors guidelines, important to the evaluation and update of control rooms. The ergonomics approach considers the operation strategies, the interaction between the operators, the operator-system interaction, and interaction between operators and support groups. The main objective of this paper is propose the modeling of a nuclear control room, with the support of a game engine core. This tool will be used in the ergonomic evaluation of nuclear control room, generating information and data that will make possible the adequacy of control rooms features to the legal requirements of the regulating agency, assisting the nuclear licensing. (author)
Bowie, Paul; Jeffcott, Shelly
In the second paper of this series, we provide a brief overview of the scientific discipline of human factors and ergonomics (HFE). Traditionally the HFE focus in healthcare has been in acute hospital settings which are perceived to exhibit characteristics more similar to other high-risk industries already applying related principles and methods. This paper argues that primary care is an area which could benefit extensively from an HFE approach, specifically in improving the performance and well-being of people and organisations. To this end, we define the purpose of HFE, outline its three specialist sub-domains (physical, cognitive and organisational HFE) and provide examples of guiding HFE principles and practices. Additionally, we describe HFE issues of significance to primary care education, improvement and research and outline early plans for building capacity and capability in this setting.
Young, Mark S; Brookhuis, Karel A; Wickens, Christopher D; Hancock, Peter A
Mental workload (MWL) is one of the most widely used concepts in ergonomics and human factors and represents a topic of increasing importance. Since modern technology in many working environments imposes ever more cognitive demands upon operators while physical demands diminish, understanding how MWL impinges on performance is increasingly critical. Yet, MWL is also one of the most nebulous concepts, with numerous definitions and dimensions associated with it. Moreover, MWL research has had a tendency to focus on complex, often safety-critical systems (e.g. transport, process control). Here we provide a general overview of the current state of affairs regarding the understanding, measurement and application of MWL in the design of complex systems over the last three decades. We conclude by discussing contemporary challenges for applied research, such as the interaction between cognitive workload and physical workload, and the quantification of workload 'redlines' which specify when operators are approaching or exceeding their performance tolerances.
Development in Indonesia, particularly in Bali, has been planned and done through several stages of the Five-Year Development Programs, which started in 1969, and emphasized intensification of agriculture and extensification of industries related to potential resources available in the region. In the process, industrialization, being regarded as a prerequisite to higher living standards, brought with it problems concerning safety, health, and work conditions, especially with respect to transfer of technology. As examples, experiences and data, related particularly to ergonomics in the sectors of agriculture, hotel business, textile mills, transportation, and others in Bali, Indonesia, are reported. In dealing with such possible consequences of development, efforts to find fundamental solutions should be given the highest priority. It is necessary to make use of all the existing institutions having potential functions and roles in the policy of development planning, and to take into consideration the factors of safety, health, and work conditions in specifying technical and financial development projects for industrialization.
Liem, André; Brangier, Eric
In this conceptual article the topic of "Prospective Ergonomics" will be discussed within the context of innovation, design thinking and design processes & methods. Design thinking is essentially a human-centred innovation process that emphasises observation, collaboration, interpretation, visualisation of ideas, rapid concept prototyping and concurrent business analysis, which ultimately influences innovation and business strategy. The objective of this project is to develop a roadmap for innovation, involving consumers, designers and business people in an integrative process, which can be applied to product, service and business design. A theoretical structure comprising of Innovation perspectives (1), Worldviews supported by rationalist-historicist and empirical-idealistic dimensions (2) and Models of "design" reasoning (3) precedes the development and classification of existing methods as well as the introduction of new ones.
Di Bucchianico, Giuseppe; Marano, Antonio; Rossi, Emilio
Starting from the results of a theoretical and methodological study on Ergonomic design for sustainability previously developed from the authors, this paper shows the early results of a study that tries to apply them to actual operational and conceptual apparatuses of Ergonomics. In particular, the research aims to verify the possibility for Ergonomics to initiate an update of its current theoretical and procedural tools, towards new design solutions of "sustainable well-being", trying to look for new declinations of its several fields of application. The paper identifies new paradigms and definitions for one of the central themes of ergonomic design, as well as one among the most established and investigated: the usability of products and services.
Jerônimo Costa Branco
Full Text Available Objective: To verify the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and evaluate ergonomic conditions among teachers. Methods: A quantitative, observational and cross-sectional study held in the city of Pelotas-RS, Brazil, in the period of November to December 2009. The sample was composed by 320 teachers in 6 schools. Research was accomplished by means of a socialdemographic questionnaire, a check-list for ergonomic evaluation, and the Nordic questionnaire, applied in order to evaluate the ostheomuscular symptoms. Results:287 (89,7% teachers referred some symptom in the last 12 months. The most affected areas were: shoulders 177 (61,6%, thoracic column 173 (60,2% and cervical spine 163 (56,7%. Ergonomic condition of the workplace was considered unsatisfactory by the teachers. Conclusion: Ostheomuscular symptoms were found in high prevalence among teachersin Pelotas, whose ergonomic conditions are considered inappropriate, standing out the vertebral column as the most affected body part.
Jensen, Per Langå
For year’s integration of ergonomics into the planning of new production processes has been an ideal for regulating agencies supported by ergonomic experts. But the ideal appears to be difficult to live up to. A development of tools both by agencies and by groups of researchers has been seen...... of organizational conditions for giving ergonomics a stronger position in the firm. Ergonomists have to tackle these issues, but it implies a new understanding of their roles, which goes beyond the traditional discussion of expert versus facilitator. The paper is based on an evaluation of a Swedish research......-programme of a new approach to intervention studies on musculosceletaldiseases, on a major Danish research programme on integrating ergonomics (working environment) into the planning activities of the enterprises and on discussions with the staff of the Danish mandatory occupational health and safety services...
, the construction process generates a disproportionate number of fatalities, injuries and disease and both the direct and indirect costs contribute to the cumulative cost of construction. Designers influence construction ergonomics directly and ...
Hall-Andersen, Lene Bjerg; Broberg, Ole
The objective of this study was to explore the role of objects in integrating ergonomic knowledge in engineering design processes. An engineering design case was analyzed using the theoretical concepts of boundary objects and intermediary objects: Boundary objects facilitate collaboration between different knowledge domains, while the aim of an intermediary object is to circulate knowledge and thus produce a distant effect. Adjustable layout drawings served as boundary objects and had a positive impact on the dialog between an ergonomist and designers. An ergonomic guideline document was identified as an intermediary object. However, when the ergonomic guidelines were circulated in the design process, only some of the guidelines were transferred to the design of the sterile processing plant. Based on these findings, recommendations for working with objects in design processes are included. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Ergonomic Chair Explorative Intervention Study: Effect on Chronic Upper ... they are associated with a complex relationship between individual, work-related and ... in chronic upper quadrant musculoskeletal dysfunction and work productivity ...
Full Text Available A theoretical calculation model based on the ergonomic evaluation of team performance was proposed in order to carry out the ergonomic evaluation of the layout design schemes of the action station in a multitasking operational room. This model was constructed in order to calculate and compare the theoretical value of team performance in multiple layout schemes by considering such substantial influential factors as frequency of communication, distance, angle, importance, human cognitive characteristics and so on. An experiment was finally conducted to verify the proposed model under the criteria of completion time and accuracy rating. As illustrated by the experiment results,the proposed approach is conductive to the prediction and ergonomic evaluation of the layout design schemes of the action station during early design stages,and provides a new theoretical method for the ergonomic evaluation,selection and optimization design of layout design schemes.
The application of system technics on ergonomical problems is called system ergonomics. This enables improvements of human reliability by design measures. The precondition for this is the knowledge of how information processing is performed by man and machine. By a separate consideration of sensory processing, cognitive processing, and motory processing it is possible to have a more exact idea of the system element 'man'. The system element 'machine' is well described by differential equations which allow an ergonomical assessment of the manouverability. The knowledge of information processing of man and machine enables a task analysis. This makes appear on one hand the human boundaries depending on the different properties of the task and on the other hand suitable ergonomical solution proposals which improve the reliability of the total system. It is a disadvantage, however, that the change of human reliability by such measures may not be quoted numerically at the moment. (orig.)
Watson, Gale R.; Ramsey, Vincent; De l'Aune, William; Elk, Arona
This study found that the provision of ergonomic workstations for 12 older persons with age-related macular degeneration who used low vision devices significantly increased the participants' reading speed and decreased their discomfort when reading.
Dale, Ann Marie; Jaegers, Lisa; Welch, Laura; Barnidge, Ellen; Weaver, Nancy; Evanoff, Bradley A.
Background Rates of musculoskeletal disorders in construction remain high. Few studies have described barriers and facilitators to the use of available ergonomic solutions. This paper describes these barriers and facilitators and their relationship to the level of adoption. Methods Three analysts rated 16 proposed ergonomic solutions from a participatory ergonomics study and assessed the level of adoption, six adoption characteristics, and identified the category of adoption from a theoretical model. Results Twelve solutions were always or intermittently used and were rated positively for characteristics of relative advantage, compatibility with existing work processes, and trialability. Locus of control (worker vs. contractor) was not related to adoption. Simple solutions faced fewer barriers to adoption than those rated as complex. Conclusions Specific adoption characteristics can help predict the use of new ergonomic solutions in construction. Adoption of complex solutions must involve multiple stakeholders, more time, and shifts in culture or work systems. PMID:28195660
Tee, Kian Sek; Low, Eugene; Saim, Hashim; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Khialdin, Safinaz Binti Mohd; Isa, Hazlita; Awad, M. I.; Soon, Chin Fhong
Ergonomics has gained attention and take into consideration by the workers in the different fields of works recently. It has given a huge impact on the workers comfort which directly affects the work efficiency and productivity. The workers have claimed to suffer from the painful postures and injuries in their workplace. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) is the most common problem frequently reported by the workers. This problem occurs due to the lack of knowledge and alertness from the workers to the ergonomic in their surroundings. This paper intends to review the approaches and instruments used by the previous works of the researchers in the evaluation of the ergonomics. The two main assessment methods often used for ergonomic evaluation are Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA). Popular devices are Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) and Microsoft Kinect.
Training Officer, 1975
The four conditions of ergonomics, a new technology that has emerged to investigate and improve man's relationship with his working environment, are discussed. Its main task is adapting work to fit the needs of man. (Author/BP)
involved in architectural CPD programmes take 'upstream design ownership' and use the model as a ... health and safety (H&S), inclusive of construction ergonomics, the responsibility for ...... Santiago, Chile, 18-20 January. Rotterdam: CIB ...
Full Text Available As an interdisciplinary science, ergonomics needs to makethe operating of traffic safer, faster and more reliable, for thesake of higher profitability and generally improved economiceffects. This is achieved by adapting and shaping the workplace,machines, transport means, equipment, physical environment,working process etc. according to experience abouthuman anatomic physica~ sociologica~ intellectual and otherminimal, average or maximal capabilities. Therefore, it is necessaryto analyse ergonomics from the standpoint of better productivenessof humans, greater safety (comfort and security ingeneral.
Ergonomics considerations at the stage of product development in industry is a major strategy for prevention of work-related injuries and illnesses among employees at the time of manufacture of new products. This study elucidates some important conditions and possibilities for integrating...... such considerations during the product development process. Special attention is paid to the role of design and production engineers. Based on different understandings of the product development process four approaches to integration of ergonomics are outlined....
The relationship between Ergonomics and Design is a key element in the sustainability project, as well as in many other areas of experimental design. In the Design for Sustainability field, Ergonomics is a strategic factor for design culture innovation, providing designers with the necessary knowledge and skills regarding human characteristics and capabilities, as well as user needs and desires during use and interaction with products in work activities and everyday life. Ergonomics is also a strategic innovative factor in design development and manufacturing processes. In fact, ergonomics provides a methodological approach in user-product interaction evaluation processes through the use of participatory design and survey methods, user trials, direct observation, savings and resource conservation, etc.On the other hand, design offers solutions able to interpret user needs and expectations, at the same time suggesting new behaviors and lifestyles.In Design for Sustainability, the ergonomic and user-centered approach contributes greatly to lifestyles and innovative use of products--making it possible to understand and interpret real people needs and expectations in their everyday actions and behavior.New consumption patterns, new awareness of lifestyles, energy source consumption, purchasing methods and consumption style etc. can be supported by design innovation, responding to expressed and unexpressed user needs. With this in mind, the ergonomic approach represents the starting point for design choices and at the same time, a tool for assessing their appropriateness and effectiveness.
Franssila, Heljä; Okkonen, Jussi; Savolainen, Reijo
Information ergonomics is an evolving application domain of ergonomics focusing on the management of workload in the real-world contexts of information-intensive tasks. This study introduces a method for the evaluation of information ergonomics in knowledge work. To this end, five key dimensions of information ergonomics were identified: contextual factors of knowledge work, multitasking, interruptions at work, practices for managing information load, and perceived job control and productivity. In total, 24 measures focusing on the above dimensions were constructed. The measures include, for example, the number of fragmented work tasks per work day. The measures were preliminarily tested in two Finnish organisations, making use of empirical data gathered by interviews, electronic questionnaires and log data applications tracking work processes on personal computers. The measures are applicable to the evaluation of information ergonomics, even though individual measures vary with regard to the amount of work and time needed for data analysis. Practitioner Summary: The study introduces a method for the evaluation of information ergonomics in knowledge work. To this end, 24 measures were constructed and tested empirically. The measures focus on contextual factors of knowledge work, multitasking, interruptions at work, practices for managing information load, and perceived job control and productivity.
van Eerd, Dwayne; Cole, Donald; Irvin, Emma; Mahood, Quenby; Keown, Kiera; Theberge, Nancy; Village, Judy; St Vincent, Marie; Cullen, Kim
Participatory ergonomic (PE) interventions may vary in implementation. A systematic review was done to determine the evidence regarding context, barriers and facilitators to the implementation of participatory ergonomic interventions in workplaces. In total, 17 electronic databases were searched. Data on PE process and implementation were extracted from documents meeting content and quality criteria and synthesised. The search yielded 2151 references. Of these, 190 documents were relevant and 52 met content and quality criteria. Different ergonomic teams were described in the documents as were the type, duration and content of ergonomic training. PE interventions tended to focus on physical and work process changes and report positive impacts. Resources, programme support, ergonomic training, organisational training and communication were the most often noted facilitators or barriers. Successful PE interventions require the right people to be involved, appropriate ergonomic training and clear responsibilities. Addressing key facilitators and barriers such as programme support, resources, and communication is paramount. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: A recent systematic review has suggested that PE has some effect on reducing symptoms, lost days of work and claims. Systematic reviews of effectiveness provide practitioners with the desire to implement but do not provide clear information about how. This article reviews the literature on process and implementation of PE.
This paper examines the development of ergonomics in Taiwan by analysing 1404 scientific articles published by 113 permanent members of the Ergonomics Society of Taiwan (EST). Each article was classified by key words and abstract content. Each article was also coded by period of publication (1971-1992 (first period), 1993-1997 (second period), 1998-2002 (third period), 2003-2007 (fourth period), and 2008-2012 (fifth period), and against 13 topic categories. The results show that rate of publication has increased by approximately 100 articles every five years since 1993.The most popular topic was ergonomics assessment and analysis techniques in the first period, force exertion-related research in the second period, product design and evaluation in the third period, occupational safety and health in the fourth period and human-computer interface in the fifth period. Each of these is highly relevant to current contemporary issues around the world. Finally, potential areas for future ergonomics research in Taiwan are discussed. This study investigates the trends in academic papers published by members of the EST. Over time, topics have shifted from ergonomics evaluation methods to occupational safety and health, and human–computer interaction. The findings should be considered as important references for planning the future of ergonomics in Taiwan.
Penteado, Eliane Villas Bôas de Freitas; de França, Maria Goretti; Ramalhoto, Ana Maria de Brito; de Oliveira, Ana Maria; Machado, Bruno Rangel Cortoppassi; Genipapeiro, Joana Angélica Matos
This article discusses the implementation of ergonomics in a service unit of a major company in the energy sector. From the perspective of management, it analyses the process of implementation of ergonomics programmes in four operational areas. The objective was to diagnose the level of implementation of ergonomics. The study is descriptive, undertaken through the interaction with the technical staff of the operational areas involved, incorporating the perception of these role players concerning their work routines. The results indicated significant differences in the level of implementation of the programmes, especially those concerning structural conditions. Important conquests were registered, such as the investment in the training of specialists, the establishment of a facilitator network and the improvement of the standard for the directioning and alignment of the execution of initiatives. The linking in of the programmes with those of occupational health management emphasises its contribution to the safety and well-being of the workforce through interventions aimed mainly at eliminating and reducing ergonomic biomechanical risks. However, the need to broaden and deepen the ergonomic approach regarding organizational and cognitive aspects, as well as the insertion of ergonomics in project design of new work spaces and processes were also identified.
Geotechnical characterization through in situ and laboratory tests of several geological formations present in the route of the Future Fix Connection between Spain and Morocco through Gibraltar Strait
Perucho Martinez, A.; Diez Torres, J. A.; Muniz Menendez, M.; Cano Linares, H.; Ruiz Fonticiella, J. M.
CEDEX and SECEGSA (Sociedad Española para la Comunicación Fija a través del Estrecho de Gibraltar), Have been collaborating since a few decades ago to study different technical aspects related to the Fix Connection through the Gibraltar Strait, mainly in relation to the geological and geotechnical properties of the different formations present in the route. In order to do so, many studies of geotechnical characterization of materials, in situ and laboratory testing campaigns have been carried out. Furthermore, they have participated in some Expertise Committees carrying out some advice work related to studies performed by other organizations. This paper presents a brief description of the most relevant aspects of the main geological and geotechnical studies performed related to this Project of the Future Fix Connection and obtained through the study of SECEGSAs extensive data base. Moreover, it includes a synopsis of the geotechnical characterization carried out through in situ and laboratory tests on different Miocene and Eocene formations from the Algeciras Unit, present in the route of the future Fix Connection between Spain and gibraltar through the Gibraltar Strait. (Author)
Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Wong, Man-Ting; Yu, Yu-Chung; Ju, Yan-Ying
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) have become increasingly common among health-related professionals. Special education personnel who serve students with disabilities often experience physical strains; however, WMSDs have been overlooked in this population. The objectives of this study were to investigate the work-related ergonomics-associated factors in this population and to evaluate their correlation with the WMSDs prevalence. A questionnaire with three domains, namely demographics, prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, and ergonomic factors, designed by our research team was delivered to educators who work in special education schools. Approximately 86 % of the 388 special education school teachers and teacher's aides in this study experienced musculoskeletal disorders. The lower back, shoulder, and wrist were the three most affected regions. A logistic regression analysis revealed that the participants' background factors, namely >5.5 years of experience (odds ratio [OR] = 4.090, 95 % CI: 1.350-12.390), students with multiple disorders (OR = 2.412, 95 % CI: 1.100-5.287), and other work-related ergonomic factors (assistance in diaper changing and others duties), were strongly associated with the prevalence of WMSD. Nap habit (OR = 0.442, 95 % CI: 0.230-0.851) and having teaching partners in the same class (OR = 0.486, 95 % CI: 0.250-0.945) resulted in low possibility of acquiring WMSDs. The use of supportive devices was associated with a low WMSD prevalence. The present study revealed an association between WMSDs and specific job features among teachers and teacher's aides in special education schools. Future efforts should emphasize examining safe student-handling ergonomics, formulating policies regarding student-teacher ratio, incorporating mandatory break times at the workplaces, and promoting personal health for preventing work-related injuries.
Punchihewa, Himan K G; Gyi, Diane E
Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) affect the well-being of workers. Unfortunately, user requirements for design to reduce workplace risk factors for MSDs are not always effectively communicated to designers creating a mismatch between the user requirements and what is ultimately produced. To understand the views of practitioners of design and ergonomics regarding tools for participatory design and features they would like to see in such tools. An online questionnaire survey was conducted with a cohort of practitioners of ergonomics and design (n = 32). In-depth interviews were then conducted with a subset of these practitioners (n = 8). To facilitate discussion, a prototype integrated design tool was developed and demonstrated to practitioners using a verbalized walkthrough approach. According to the results of the questionnaire survey, the majority (70%) believed an integrated approach to participatory design would help reduce work-related MSDs and suggested ways to achieve this, for example, through sharing design information. The interviews showed the majority (n = 7) valued being provided with guidance on design activities and ways to manage and present information. It is believed that an integrated approach to design in order to help reduce work-related MSDs is highly important and a provision to evaluate design solutions would be desirable for practitioners of design and ergonomics.
Tompa, Emile; Dolinschi, Roman; Natale, Julianne
In this study we report on the economic evaluation of a participatory ergonomics process undertaken at a clothing manufacturer in Southwestern Ontario, Canada that employs approximately 300 workers. We undertake a cost-benefit analysis from the company perspective. Intervention costs amounted to $65,787 and intervention benefits $360,614 (2011 Canadian dollars). The net present value was $294,827, suggesting that the intervention was worth undertaking based on the costs and consequences over the measurement period spanning more than four years. Based on these costs and benefits, the benefit-to-cost ratio is 5.5. Overall, the findings from this study suggest that participatory ergonomics interventions can be cost beneficial from the company perspective. Even though the changes were typically low-cost and low-tech interventions implemented by the plant mechanics and maintenance personnel, benefits were realized on both the health and financial fronts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Nath, Nipun D; Akhavian, Reza; Behzadan, Amir H
Construction jobs are more labor-intensive compared to other industries. As such, construction workers are often required to exceed their natural physical capability to cope with the increasing complexity and challenges in this industry. Over long periods of time, this sustained physical labor causes bodily injuries to the workers which in turn, conveys huge losses to the industry in terms of money, time, and productivity. Various safety and health organizations have established rules and regulations that limit the amount and intensity of workers' physical movements to mitigate work-related bodily injuries. A precursor to enforcing and implementing such regulations and improving the ergonomics conditions on the jobsite is to identify physical risks associated with a particular task. Manually assessing a field activity to identify the ergonomic risks is not trivial and often requires extra effort which may render it to be challenging if not impossible. In this paper, a low-cost ubiquitous approach is presented and validated which deploys built-in smartphone sensors to unobtrusively monitor workers' bodily postures and autonomously identify potential work-related ergonomic risks. Results indicates that measurements of trunk and shoulder flexions of a worker by smartphone sensory data are very close to corresponding measurements by observation. The proposed method is applicable for workers in various occupations who are exposed to WMSDs due to awkward postures. Examples include, but are not limited to industry laborers, carpenters, welders, farmers, health assistants, teachers, and office workers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Recent experiences in the action-oriented use of ergonomic checkpoints in different work settings are reviewed. The purpose is to know what features are useful for healthy work design adjusted to each local situation. Based on the review results, common features of ergonomic checkpoints used in participatory training programs for improving workplace conditions in small enterprises, construction sites, home work and agriculture in industrially developing countries in Asia are discussed. These checkpoints generally compile practical improvement options in a broad range of technical areas, such as materials handling, workstation design, physical environment and work organization. Usually, "action checklists" comprising the tiles of the checkpoints are used together. A clear focus is placed on readily applicable low-cost options. Three common features of these various checkpoints appear to be important. First, the checkpoints represent typical good practices in multiple areas. Second, each how-to section of these checkpoints presents simple improvements reflecting basic ergonomic principles. Examples of these principles include easy reach, fewer and faster transport, elbow-level work, coded displays, isolated or screened hazards and shared teamwork. Third, the illustrated checkpoints accompanied by corresponding checklists are used as group work tools in short-term training courses. Many practical improvements achieved are displayed in websites for inter-country work improvement networks. It is suggested to promote the use of locally adjusted checkpoints in various forms of participatory action-oriented training in small-scale workplaces and in agriculture particularly in industrially developing countries.
The foundation of a 'National Laboratory' which would support a Research center in synchrotron radiation applications is proposed. The essential features of such a laboratory differing of others centers in Brazil are presented. (L.C.) [pt
Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis due to anticonvulsants share certain clinical and laboratory features with drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome, despite differences in cutaneous presentations.
Teraki, Y; Shibuya, M; Izaki, S
Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS)/drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is characterized by late disease onset, fever, rash, hepatic dysfunction, haematological abnormalities, lymphadenopathy and often, human herpesvirus (HHV) reactivation. The diagnosis of DIHS is based on the combined presence of these findings. Anticonvulsants are a major cause of DIHS and may also cause Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). We examined whether SJS/TEN due to anticonvulsants display similar clinical and laboratory features seen in DIHS. Patients diagnosed with SJS or TEN due to anticonvulsants (n = 8) were examined and their clinical features and laboratory findings were compared with patients with anticonvulsant-related DIHS (n = 6). Seven of the eight patients with SJS/TEN developed symptoms > 3 weeks after starting anticonvulsants. Hepatic dysfunction was present in six patients with SJS/TEN and five patients with DIHS. Leucocytosis and/or eosinophilia was noted in seven patients with SJS/TEN and four patients with DIHS. Only one patient in the SJS/TEN group had atypical lymphocytosis; this was present in four patients with DIHS. Reactivation of HHV-6 was detected in one of the four patients tested in the SJS/TEN group, although it was seen in five of the six patients with DIHS. TSJS/TEN due to anticonvulsants may exhibit some clinical and laboratory features of DIHS. The nature of the cutaneous involvement should be emphasized in the diagnosis of DIHS. © 2009 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2009 British Association of Dermatologists.
Biliouris, Dimitrios; Verstraeten, Willem W; Dutré, Phillip; Van Aardt, Jan A N; Muys, Bart; Coppin, Pol
The design and calibration of a new hyperspectral Compact Laboratory Spectro-Goniometer (CLabSpeG) is presented. CLabSpeG effectively measures the bidirectionalreflectance Factor (BRF) of a sample, using a halogen light source and an AnalyticalSpectral Devices (ASD) spectroradiometer. The apparatus collects 4356 reflectance datareadings covering the spectrum from 350 nm to 2500 nm by independent positioning of thesensor, sample holder, and light source. It has an azimuth and zenith resolution of 30 and15 degrees, respectively. CLabSpeG is used to collect BRF data and extract BidirectionalReflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) data of non-isotropic vegetation elements suchas bark, soil, and leaves. Accurate calibration has ensured robust geometric accuracy of theapparatus, correction for the conicality of the light source, while sufficient radiometricstability and repeatability between measurements are obtained. The bidirectionalreflectance data collection is automated and remotely controlled and takes approximatelytwo and half hours for a BRF measurement cycle over a full hemisphere with 125 cmradius and 2.4 minutes for a single BRF acquisition. A specific protocol for vegetative leafcollection and measurement was established in order to investigate the possibility to extractBRDF values from Fagus sylvatica L. leaves under laboratory conditions. Drying leafeffects induce a reflectance change during the BRF measurements due to the laboratorySensors 2007, 7 1847 illumination source. Therefore, the full hemisphere could not be covered with one leaf. Instead 12 BRF measurements per leaf were acquired covering all azimuth positions for a single light source zenith position. Data are collected in radiance format and reflectance is calculated by dividing the leaf cycle measurement with a radiance cycle of a Spectralon reference panel, multiplied by a Spectralon reflectance correction factor and a factor to correct for the conical effect of the light source. BRF results
Full Text Available The design and calibration of a new hyperspectral Compact Laboratory Spectro-Goniometer (CLabSpeG is presented. CLabSpeG effectively measures the bidirectionalreflectance Factor (BRF of a sample, using a halogen light source and an AnalyticalSpectral Devices (ASD spectroradiometer. The apparatus collects 4356 reflectance datareadings covering the spectrum from 350 nm to 2500 nm by independent positioning of thesensor, sample holder, and light source. It has an azimuth and zenith resolution of 30 and15 degrees, respectively. CLabSpeG is used to collect BRF data and extract BidirectionalReflectance Distribution Function (BRDF data of non-isotropic vegetation elements suchas bark, soil, and leaves. Accurate calibration has ensured robust geometric accuracy of theapparatus, correction for the conicality of the light source, while sufficient radiometricstability and repeatability between measurements are obtained. The bidirectionalreflectance data collection is automated and remotely controlled and takes approximatelytwo and half hours for a BRF measurement cycle over a full hemisphere with 125 cmradius and 2.4 minutes for a single BRF acquisition. A specific protocol for vegetative leafcollection and measurement was established in order to investigate the possibility to extractBRDF values from Fagus sylvatica L. leaves under laboratory conditions. Drying leafeffects induce a reflectance change during the BRF measurements due to the laboratorySensors 2007, 7 1847 illumination source. Therefore, the full hemisphere could not be covered with one leaf. Instead 12 BRF measurements per leaf were acquired covering all azimuth positions for a single light source zenith position. Data are collected in radiance format and reflectance is calculated by dividing the leaf cycle measurement with a radiance cycle of a Spectralon reference panel, multiplied by a Spectralon reflectance correction factor and a factor to correct for the conical effect of the light
Browning, A C
In this article, an uncommon form of passenger transport is considered, the moving pavement or pedestrian conveyor running at speeds of up to 16 km/h. There are very little relevant ergonomic data for such devices and some specific laboratory experiments have been carried out using 1000 subjects to represent the general public. It is concluded that whilst high speed pedestrian conveyors are quite feasible, stations along them are likely to be large. The most attractive type is a set of parallel surfaces moving at different speeds and with handholds provided in the form of poles. This type could be extremely convenient for certain locations but will probably have to be restricted in its use to fairly fit adults carrying little luggage, and would find applications in situations where a large number of people need to travel in the same direction. Part 2, Ergonomic considerations of complete conveyor systems, will follow.
Arezes, Pedro M; Dinis-Carvalho, José; Alves, Anabela Carvalho
Lean Production Systems (LPS) have become very popular among manufacturing industries, services and large commercial areas. A LPS must develop and consider a set of work features to bring compatibility with workplace ergonomics, namely at a muscular, cognitive and emotional demands level. Identify the most relevant impacts of the adoption of LPS from the ergonomics point of view and summarizes some possible drawbacks for workplace ergonomics due to a flawed application of the LPS. The impacts identified are focused in four dimensions: work pace, intensity and load; worker motivation, satisfaction and stress; autonomy and participation; and health outcome. This paper also discusses the influence that the work organization model has on workplace ergonomics and on the waste elimination previewed by LPS. Literature review focused LPS and its impact on occupational ergonomics conditions, as well as on the Health and Safety of workers. The main focus of this research is on LPS implementations in industrial environments and mainly in manufacturing industry workplaces. This is followed by a discussion including the authors' experience (and previous research). From the reviewed literature it seems that there is no consensus on how Lean principles affect the workplace ergonomics since most authors found positive (advantages) and negative (disadvantages) impacts. The negative impacts or disadvantages of LPS implementations reviewed may result from the misunderstanding of the Lean principles. Possibly, they also happen due to partial Lean implementations (when only one or two tools were implemented) that may be effective in a specific work context but not suitable to all possible situations as the principles of LPS should not lead, by definition, to any of the reported drawbacks in terms of workplace ergonomics.
Quintana, Leonardo; Arias, Claudia; Cordoba, Jorge; Moroy, Magda; Pulido, Jean; Ramirez, Angela
The aim of this study was to combine three different analytical methods from three different disciplines to diagnose the ergonomic conditions, manufacturing and supply chain operation of a baking company. The study explores a summary of comprehensive working methods that combines the ergonomics, automation and logistics study methods in the diagnosis of working conditions and productivity. The participatory approach of this type of study that involves the feelings and first-hand knowledge of workers of the operation are determining factors in defining points of action and ergonomic interventions, as well as defining opportunities in the automation of manufacturing and logistics, to cope with the needs of the company. The study identified an ergonomic situation (high prevalence of wrist-hand pain), and the combination of interdisciplinary techniques applied allowed to improve this condition in the company. This type of study allows a primary basis of the opportunities presented by the combination of specialized methods of different disciplines, for the definition of comprehensive action plans for the company. Additionally, it outlines opportunities for improvement and recommendations to mitigate the burden associated with occupational diseases and as an end result improve the quality of life and productivity of workers.
Han Jing; Itoh, Ryouiti; Shinguryo, Takuro; Yamazaki, Koetsu; Nishiyama, Sadao
This paper introduced the finite element analyses into the ergonomics designs to evaluate the human feelings numerically and objectively. Two design examples in developing aluminum beverage cans and bottles are presented. The first example describes a design of the tab of the can with better finger access. A simulation of finger pulling up the tab of the can has been performed and a pain in the finger has been evaluated by using the maximum value of the contact stress of a finger model. The finger access comparison of three kinds of tab ring shape designs showed that the finger access of the tab that may have a larger contact area with finger is better. The second example describes a design of rib-shape embossed bottles for hot vending. Analyses of tactile sensation of heat have been performed and the amount of heat transmitted from hot bottles to finger was used to present the hot touch feeling. Comparison results showed that the hot touch feeling of rib-shape embossed bottles is better than that of cylindrical bottles, and that the shape of the rib also influenced the hot touch feeling
Myer, Spencer S., Jr.
On Oct. 1, 2001 Cleveland State University and NASA Glenn Research Center embarked on the above named cooperative agreement. Because NASA's research facilities often exhibit instances where the failure to use state-of-the-art technologies and methods to improve on outmoded systems of interface and control, and this runs contrary to the NASA philosophy of "faster, better, and cheaper", it was deemed an ideal opportunity for this collaboration. The main objectives of the proposed effort were to research and investigate the use of the latest technologies, methods, techniques, etc. which pertain to control and interface with industrial and research systems and facilities. The work was done in large part at NASA Glenn Research Center, using selected research facilities as real-world laboratories; such as certain Microgravity Science Division and Space Station projects. Microgravity Science Division at Glenn Research Center designs and builds experiments to be flown on the Space Shuttle and eventually on the International Space Station. Economy of space, weight, complexity, data storage, ergonomics, and many other factors present problems that also exist in industry. Many of the solutions can come from the same areas of study mentioned above.
Cai, Dengchuan; Chen, Hsiao-Lin
Sleep quality is an essential factor to human beings for health. The current paper conducted four studies to provide a suitable pillow for promoting sleep quality. Study 1 investigated the natural positions of 40 subjects during sleep to derive key-points for a pillow design. The results suggested that the supine and lateral positions were alternatively 24 times a night, and the current pillows were too high for the supine position and too low for lateral positions. Study 2 measured body dimensions related to pillow design of 40 subjects to determine pillow sizes. The results suggested that the pillow height were quite different in supine position and lateral position and needed to take into consideration for a pillow design. Study 3 created a pillow design based on the results of above studies. The pillow was a U-form in the front of view in which the pillow height in the middle area was lower for the supine position, and both sides were higher for the lateral positions. Study 4 assessed sleep quality of 6 subjects by using the proposed pillows and the current pillows. The results showed that the newly designed pillow led to significantly higher sleep quality, and the new design received an innovation patent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Operator's role in industrial control centers takes place in time, which is one of the most important determinants of whether an expected action is going to be successful or not. In certain situations, due to the complex nature of the work, the existing interfaces and already prepared procedures do not meet the dynamic requirements of operator's cognitive demands, making the control tasks unnecessarily difficult. This study was conducted to identify ergonomic issues with a specific industrial control panel, and redesign its layout and elements to enhance its usability. Task and link analysis methodologies were implemented. All essential functions and supporting operations were identified at the required trivial levels. Next, the weight of any possible link between the elements of the panel was computed as a composite index of frequency and importance. Finally, all components were rearranged within a new layout, and a computerized mockup was generated. A total of 8 primary tasks was identified, including 4 system failure handling tasks, switching between manual and automated modes, and 3 types of routine vigilance and control tasks. These tasks were broken down into 28 functions and 145 supporting operations, accordingly. Higher link values were observed between hand rest position and 2 elements. Also, 6 other components showed robust linkages. In conclusion, computer modeling can reduce the likelihood of accidents and near misses in industrial control rooms by considering the operators' misperception or mental burden and correcting poor design of the panels and inappropriate task allocation.
Rogers, Bonnie; Buckheit, Kathleen; Ostendorf, Judith
This study describes workplace conditions, the environment, and activities that may contribute to musculoskeletal injuries among nurses, as well as identifies solutions to decrease these risks and improve work-related conditions. The study used a mixed-methods design. Participants included nurses and stakeholders from five hospitals. Several focus groups were held with nurses, walk-throughs of clinical units were conducted, and stakeholder interviews with key occupational health and safety personnel were conducted in each of the five hospitals, as well as with representatives from the American Nurses Association, Veterans Health Administration hospital, and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Several key contributing factors, including the physical environment (e.g., layout and organization of work stations), work organization and culture (e.g., heavy workload, inadequate staffing, lack of education), and work activities (e.g., manual lifting of patients, lack of assistive devices), were identified. Recommendations included the need for a multifaceted and comprehensive approach to developing a sound ergonomics program. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Costa, A L; Coura, P V; Gomes, M M A; Peregrino, Y R; Sarmento, B R; Sousa, R A
Public space is endowed with undeniable social relevance, thus becoming a defining element of integration and interaction among its users. Aware of this importance the Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB), linked to the Ministério da Educação e Cultura (MEC), develops the project "UFPB para todos: eliminando barreiras'' (UFPB for all: removing barriers) that aims to conceive an architectural design of an accessible rout to UFPB's campus I, and execute a pilot stretch of this route. This article aims to subsidize the preprojectual phase by understanding the needs of this campus' users, through the concepts of ergonomics and universal design. Was performed out direct observation of the space, and the methods of interviews and observation of user behavior were applied to a group of students with disabilities, through the techniques of assisted walking, photographic and video recording. Based on those, projective guidelines have been defined, which will contribute to the final project's quality, so that this is not a simple application of the rule, but works free of segregating barriers.
.Conclusion: By implementing ergonomics interventions in carpet delivery sites, the risk factors of MSDs, induced by manual carpet handling, were reduced and safety and ergonomic conditions of the retailers were improved, compared to the previous conditions.
Describes research to design and construct ergonomically correct work stations for Computer Numerical Control machine tools. By designing ergonomically correct work stations, industrial technology teachers help protect students from repetitive motion injuries. (Contains 12 references.) (JOW)
Sang D. Choi
Full Text Available This review paper discusses the ergonomic challenges associated with laparoscopy in the operating room (OR and summarizes the practical ergonomic solutions. The literature search was conducted in the fields of laparoscopy and applied ergonomics. Findings indicated that laparoscopic OR staff (surgeons, perioperative nurses and technicians commonly experienced physical and mental ergonomic risks while working in prolonged static and awkward body positions. This study highlighted the need for more ergonomic interventions in OR environment in order to improve the efficiency of laparoscopy. Ergonomic solutions included utilizing adjustable equipment, placing computer peripherals in optimal locations, providing ergonomic instruments, and improving communication. Understanding the job- or task-related ergonomic risks and hazards could help identify intervention requirements to meet the challenges associated with increased dependency on advanced high technology in the OR.
Ritchie, Catherine L W; Miller, Linda L; Antle, David M
Telehealth approaches to delivering ergonomics assessment hold great potential to improve service delivery in rural and remote settings. This case study describes a telehealth-based ergonomics service delivery process, and compares in-person and telehealth-based ergonomics approaches at an Alberta-based non-profit advocacy group. This project demonstrates that telehealth approaches to ergonomics do not lead to significantly different scoring outcomes for assessment of ergonomics issues, when compared to in-person assessments. This project also outlines the importance of live real-time video conferencing to improving communication, attaining key assessment information, and demonstrating ergonomic adjustments. However, some key considerations of bandwidth and hardware capabilities need to be taken into account. Key communication strategies are outlined to improve rapport, maintain employee confidentiality, and reduce client anxiety around telehealth ergonomics assessments. This project provides further support for telehealth approaches to office ergonomics, and outlines some key implementation strategies and barriers that should be considered.
Ushada, M.; Kusuma Aji, G.; Okayama, T.; Khidir, M.
Small-Medium sized (SME) is a focal type of Indonesian industry which contributes to national emerging economies. Indonesian goverment has developed employee social security system (BPJS Ketenagakerjaan) to support worker quality of life. However, there were limited research which could assist BPJS Ketenagakerjaan in evaluating worker quality of life. Worker quality of life could be categorized as the highest worker needs or affective states. SME Worker Affective (SWA) index is being concerned as a basic tool to make balance between worker performance and quality of life in workstation of SMEs. The research objectives are: 1) To optimize the environmental ergonomics in SMEs; 2) To quantify SME Worker Affective (SWA) index based on optimized environmental ergonomics. The research advantage is to support Indonesian goverment in monitoring SMEs good practices to its worker quality of life. Simulated annealing optimized the heart rate and environmental ergonomics parameters. SWA index was determined based on comparison between optimized heart rate and environmental ergonomics parameters. SWA index were quantified for 380 data of worker. The evaluation indicated 51.3% worker in affective and 48.7% in non-affective condition. Research results indicated that stakeholders of SMEs should put more attention on environmental ergonomics and worker affective.
Mirka, Gary A
Industry-specific ergonomics guidelines are an important component in the four-pronged approach to workplace ergonomics currently pursued by the United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The American Furniture Manufacturers Association has taken the initiative of developing such a guideline for its members. The result of this effort is the "AFMA Voluntary Ergonomics Guideline for the Furniture Manufacturing Industry", a document that includes basic information about ergonomics program components as well as a compilation of work-proven, ergonomics best practices as submitted by members of the furniture manufacturing community. This guideline was developed through an industry-research-government partnership and made strategic use of the unique attributes that each sector brought to this effort. Outlined in this paper are some of the characteristics of this partnership including, the roles played by each, the different motivations for pursuing the guideline, the challenges faced during the development of the document, the successes experienced in this process, as well as a proposed outline for measuring the effectiveness of this effort. The hope is that this summary, and some of the lessons learned contained herein, would be helpful to others considering the prospect of developing such a guideline for their industry.
Bao, Stephen; Silverstein, Barbara; Stewart, Kate
This study evaluated an ergonomics intervention among Nicaraguan coffee harvesting workers, using electromyography and questionnaire survey techniques. Nicaraguan researchers were involved in the study so that they could gain hands-on experience with ergonomics research and applications, and eventually be the specialists conducting ergonomics interventions in Nicaraguan workplaces. Coffee harvesting activities were studied individually and physical hazards were identified accordingly. The results showed decreased muscle loading on the erector spinae muscle and improved comfort reporting in the back region compared to the commonly used baskets. This fulfils the design objective of a newly developed bag that was used in the intervention to reduce physical workload on the coffee harvesting workers. Workers' opinion survey results showed some issues related to the size of the new bag and the lumbar-shoulder belt mechanism. This information can be used in the modification of the bag in the next design. Key players in the process have been identified. Stimulating ergonomics activities in developing countries is suggested by many experts. This study provided an example from coffee workers in Nicaragua. Commonly used job evaluation procedures and physical load quantification methods were used. Ergonomics researchers and practitioners in developing countries may do similar projects on their own in the future.
Allaire, Saralynn J; Backman, Catherine L; Alheresh, Rawan; Baker, Nancy A
Prior articles in this series on employment and arthritis have documented the major impact arthritis and other rheumatic conditions have on employment. As expected, physically demanding job tasks, including hand use, are substantial risk factors for work limitation. Computer use has been increasing. People with arthritis may choose occupations involving extensive computer use to avoid occupations with other physical demands. But studies show many people with arthritis conditions have difficulty using computers.Ergonomic assessment and implementation helps relieve the physical and other demands of jobs. The Ergonomic Assessment Tool for Arthritis (EATA) is specifically for people with arthritis conditions. Since the EATA can be conducted off worksite, it is feasible to use with workers not wishing to disclose their condition to their employer. Available research supports the effectiveness of ergonomic intervention as a viable method to reduce work limitation for persons with arthritis. Some workers will need additional vocational intervention to remain employed long term. However, ergonomic intervention is a useful first step, as it promotes awareness of arthritis effects on work activities. Assisting workers with arthritis or other rheumatic conditions to use ergonomics to enhance their ability to work well should be an important aspect of managing these conditions.
Zihni, Ahmed M; Cavallo, Jaime A; Ray, Shuddhadeb; Ohu, Ikechukwu; Cho, Sohyung; Awad, Michael M
Laparoscopic surgery is associated with a high degree of ergonomic stress. However, the stress associated with surgical assisting is not known. In this study, we compare the ergonomic stress associated with primary and assistant surgical roles during laparoscopic surgery. We hypothesize that higher ergonomic stress will be detected in the primary operating surgeon when compared with the surgical assistant. One right-hand dominant attending surgeon performed 698 min of laparoscopic surgery over 13 procedures (222 min primary and 476 min assisting), whereas electromyography data were collected from bilateral biceps, triceps, deltoids, and trapezius muscles. Data were analyzed in 1-min segments. Average muscle activation as quantified by maximal voluntary contraction (%MVC) was calculated for each muscle group during primary surgery and assisting. We compared mean %MVC values with unpaired t-tests. Activation of right (R) biceps and triceps muscle groups is significantly elevated while operating when compared with assisting (R biceps primary: 5.47 ± 0.21 %MVC, assistant: 3.93 ± 0.11, P ergonomic differences between operating and assisting. Surgical assisting was associated with similar and occasionally higher levels of muscle activation compared with primary operating. These findings suggest that surgical assistants face significant ergonomic stress, just as operating surgeons do. Steps must be taken to recognize and mitigate this stress in both operating surgeons and assistants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cristancho, María Yanire León
The objective of this paper was to control ergonomic risks among female cashiers working in a department store belonging to the retail market. This study was conducted between May and November 2010. Participatory ergonomics was applied through knowing and understanding how the company works, establishing the work team (Ergo group), training the team in ergonomics-related topics, and making decisions and interventions. The sample was composed of 71 participants--mostly female cashiers--, and all of them have a musculoskeletal compromise, declaring pain or discomfort mainly in the neck, lower back, right wrist and shoulders. Among others, following problems were found: postural overload, repetitive work, manual load handling, mental fatigue, environmental discomfort, variable work schedules, extended working days, and absence of breaks. In the intervention, the main implemented changes were the redesign of workstation, complete change of chairs and keyboards, and the implementation of a rotation system, as well breaks for compensatory exercises. After that, an evident improvement of found problems was observed, therefore it can be concluded that participatory ergonomics is an attractive methodology, appropriate and efficient for solving and controlling ergonomic risks and problems.
Fostervold, Knut Inge; Watten, Reidulf G; Volden, Frode
The literature discussing visual ergonomics often mention that human vision is adapted to light emitted by the sun. However, theoretical and practical implications of this viewpoint is seldom discussed or taken into account. The paper discusses some of the main theoretical implications of an evolutionary approach to visual ergonomics. Based on interactional theory and ideas from ecological psychology an evolutionary stress model is proposed as a theoretical framework for future research in ergonomics and human factors. The model stresses the importance of developing work environments that fits with our evolutionary adaptations. In accordance with evolutionary psychology, the environment of evolutionary adaptedness (EEA) and evolutionarily-novel environments (EN) are used as key concepts. Using work with visual display units (VDU) as an example, the paper discusses how this knowledge can be utilized in an ergonomic analysis of risk factors in the work environment. The paper emphasises the importance of incorporating evolutionary theory in the field of ergonomics. Further, the paper encourages scientific practices that further our understanding of any phenomena beyond the borders of traditional proximal explanations.
Barbieri, Juan Paulo; Schlosser, José Fernando; Farias, Marcelo Silveira de; Negri, Giácomo Müller; Oliveira, Luis Fernando Vargas de
ABSTRACT: This study aimed to develop and validate an ergonomics index for the operator workplace assessment of agricultural tractors sold in the Brazilian market. To develop the ergonomics index, the operator work places were assessed for compliance with current, national and international, safety and ergonomics standards. The following standards were analyzed to develop ergonomics index: ISO 15077 (1996), which regulates the position of operator controls; ABNT NBR ISO 4254-1(2015) and ABNT ...
Gardner, Larry; Strott, Al
A growing concern throughout the world is the increasing occurrence of cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) or repetitive motion injuries. Countries worldwide are struggling over the correct way to respond to the legal aspects of the problem, given the difficulty of root cause identification of the injury. The mask industry is no exception to this. Some companies may not be aware of the problem. Some companies may be aware, but not concerned. The reality is, however, that the problem exists and should not be ignored. Eventually, regulatory agencies such as OSHA, will take a position or stance on recognition of this as an injury status making it impossible to ignore. Companies who have not been proactive in the prevention of ergonomic injuries may find themselves in a crisis reactive mode that may cost them thousands of unplanned dollars. In this paper, we expand on the awareness of CTDs as a growing problem. We also share the actions that Intel is taking to address this problem. It is the authors' hope that the awareness and sharing presented in this paper will result in the sharing of experiences among the mask suppliers, so that we can all be successful in addressing this challenging issue.
Cinara Caetano Pereira
Full Text Available Work in construction has tasks directly connected with manual transport. One of the body segments suffering greater demand in works with these characteristics is the lumbar spine segment. The aim of this study was to analyze the level of risk of lumbar construction workers in the shipment of materials. The sample was composed of 74 construction workers. Were used as a research tool: the NIOSH method for lumbar risk verification expressed by weight limit recommended (WPR and the lifting Index (IL, Visual analogue scale (VAS for the evaluation of pain intensity, the e-1 Corlett.0 for the mapping of the pain and Borg to the subjective perception of the intensity of physical exertion. The present study identified the weight limit (WP of 8.707 for management activity of bags of cement for the load of 8.194 wheelbarrows used. These findings are 6 times under actual weights handled during the activities that revolve around 50 kg with the sacks and averaged 49.72 kg stands with mass. The dimensional settings found in the search are at high risk for ergonomic lumbar region, and measures of reconfiguration of workplaces and operation of auxiliary devices for lifting, transporting and unloading are fundamental, in addition to the need for reflection about the current logistical problems that induce producers to supply the cement sacks with 50 kg.
One of the most crucial decisions to be made while designing and re-modernizing an operating theatre is selecting a method of transporting the patient through the hospital’s spatial arrangement. This decision, while irrelevant at first thought, implies numerous project and functional consequences. Designing an operating theatre within a hospital is related to numerous specialist requirements with an aim of minimizing the risk of microbiological contamination. Surgeries conducted on the operating theatre take place within sterile areas, usually within a protection area provided with laminar air flow. Furthermore, currently in Poland, there are applicable rules requiring to have entrances secured with tract locks leading towards the operational rooms for hospital personnel, patients as well as hospital equipment and materials. Such construction of an operating theatre provides the necessity of applying detailed procedures of transporting the patient, who in most cases is not able to reach the surgery on his or her own. In operating theatres functioning during the last decades, the operating tables were most often fixed to the floor. This resulted in the need to relocate the patient, who is ready for surgery, for several times. The consequences of this included risks related shock due to the relocations for the patient as well as physical overload for the medical staff. The aim of hereby article is to present modern designer solutions providing the opportunity to enhance ergonomics of using the operating theatre.
Panov, G Ye
The essence of the ergonomic method, objects, goals and tasks of this new area of knowledge, and their urgency for the oil industry are briefly presented. The systems methodology of studying complicated bioengineering systems man-machine-medium is viewed in examples of its practical application. Man, his diverse activity, place and function in the dynamic structure man-machine-medium are studied in relation to the effectiveness and safety of labor, structure and properties of the man-machine-medium systems. A detailed study is made of the basic technological processes and the correspondence of the equipment to anthropometric, biomechanical, psychophysiological properties of man. The basic professionally important characteristics are evaluated in relation to the composition and structure of the process of labor, reasons for production injury, errors and idling of the human-operator, etc. The book is designed for a broad circle of engineering-technical workers in the oil and gas industry (technologists, machinists, drillers, economists, etc.), and scientific research institutes.
Giguère, D; Bélanger, R; Gauthier, J M; Larue, C
The highlights of a descriptive study on the ergonomics and occupational health and safety aspects of tree-planting in Québec are presented. The study was planned to consider the most representative geographical sites, planting technologies, and planting organizations. Semi-directed interviews were made with a mixed group of 48 male and female tree-planters and physiological measurements were made on four male planters. Tools and other equipment were also examined. An analysis of the work identified the main elements of the planting cycle, and the high cardiac rate in the working planters was related more to his manual transportation of seedlings and travel on rough paths than to planting per se. A tree-planter will typically travel 2.4 km carrying 16.8 kg of material and equipment in order to plant an average of 1245 seedlings daily. One out of two interviewed planters reported having a work-related accident or incident during his or her lifetime planting career. The body parts reported most frequently injured were the lower extremities (knee, foot, ankle), the skin, the eyes, and the wrist. Recommendations on the development of appropriate tools and footwear for tree-planters and for further research on repetitive strain injury induced by tree-planting have been made.
Cantley, Linda F; Taiwo, Oyebode A; Galusha, Deron; Barbour, Russell; Slade, Martin D; Tessier-Sherman, Baylah; Cullen, Mark R
This study aimed to examine the effect of an ergonomic hazard control (HC) initiative, undertaken as part of a company ergonomics standard, on worker injury risk. Using the company's ergonomic hazards database to identify jobs with and without ergonomic HC implementation and linking to individual job and injury histories, injury risk among person-jobs with HC implementation (the HC group) was compared to those without HC (NoHC group) using random coefficient models. Further analysis of the HC group was conducted to determine the effect of additional ergonomic hazards controlled on injury risk. Among 123 jobs at 17 plant locations, 347 ergonomic hazards were quantitatively identified during the study period. HC were implemented for 204 quantified ergonomic hazards in 84 jobs, impacting 10 385 persons (12 967 person-jobs). No HC were implemented for quantified ergonomic hazards in the remaining 39 jobs affecting 4155 persons (5046 person-jobs). Adjusting for age, sex, plant origin, and year to control for any temporal trend in injury risk, the relative risk (RR) for musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) was 0.85 and the RR for any injury or MSD was 0.92 in the HC compared to NoHC group. Among the HC group, each ergonomic hazard controlled was associated with risk reduction for MSD and acute injury outcomes (RR 0.93). Systematic ergonomic HC through participatory ergonomics, as part of a mandatory company ergonomics standard, is associated with MSD and injury risk reduction among workers in jobs with HC implemented.
J. Dul (Jan); H.J. de Vries (Henk); S. Verschoof (Sandra); W. Eveleens (Wietske); A. Feilzer (Albert)
textabstractIn designing of production systems, economic and social goals can be combined, if ergonomics is integrated into the design process. More than 50 years of ergonomics research and practice have resulted in a large number of ergonomics standards for designing physical and organizational
Saito, S; Piccoli, B; Smith, M J; Sotoyama, M; Sweitzer, G; Villanueva, M B; Yoshitake, R
In the 1980's, the visual display terminal (VDT) was introduced in workplaces of many countries. Soon thereafter, an upsurge in reported cases of related health problems, such as musculoskeletal disorders and eyestrain, was seen. Recently, the flat panel display or notebook personal computer (PC) became the most remarkable feature in modern workplaces with VDTs and even in homes. A proactive approach must be taken to avert foreseeable ergonomic and occupational health problems from the use of this new technology. Because of its distinct physical and optical characteristics, the ergonomic requirements for notebook PCs in terms of machine layout, workstation design, lighting conditions, among others, should be different from the CRT-based computers. The Japan Ergonomics Society (JES) technical committee came up with a set of guidelines for notebook PC use following exploratory discussions that dwelt on its ergonomic aspects. To keep in stride with this development, the Technical Committee on Human-Computer Interaction under the auspices of the International Ergonomics Association worked towards the international issuance of the guidelines. This paper unveils the result of this collaborative effort.
August-Dalfen, Sharon; Snider, Laurie
Multimedia technology has the capacity to provide students with an interactive approach to problem based learning and to bridge the gap between theoretical knowledge and clinical practice. The present paper describes the design and development of the program ErgoROM, a CD which presents a case study to assist occupational therapy students in their studies of office ergonomics. A pilot study showed that overall, 91% of respondents rated the ErgoROM as either "Excellent" or "Very Good". Additionally they reported that ErgoROM had a positive impact on active learning and critical thinking.
Marjanovic, Nicolas; L'Her, Erwan
Mechanical ventilation is an important part of emergency medicine and is frequently used for transportation. Human errors during ventilator settings are frequent and may be associated with high morbidity/mortality. The aim of the study was to provide a complete ergonomic evaluation of emergency and transport ventilators, taking into account objective and subjective human-machine interface assessments and individual mental work load. We performed a prospective bench ergonomic evaluation of 13 emergency and transport ventilators, using standardized conditions and a global methodological approach. The study was performed in an evaluation laboratory dedicated to respiratory care, and 12 emergency physicians unfamiliar with the tested devices were included in the evaluation. The ventilators were classified into 3 categories (simple, sophisticated, and ICU-like). Objective chronometric evaluations were conducted considering 9 tasks, and subjective evaluations were performed (ease of use, willingness to use, and user-friendliness of monitoring) using Likert scales. Mental work load evaluation was performed using the NASA Task Load Index scale. Overall task failure rate represented 4% of all attempts. Setting modifications, ventilation mode changes, and powering down durations were different between simple and other emergency and transport ventilator categories (P < .005). There was no difference between ventilator categories for the ease of use and user-friendliness of the monitoring. In contrast, the willingness to use was lower for simple devices, compared with sophisticated and ICU-like emergency and transport ventilators (2.9 ± 1.4 vs 3.9 ± 1.2, P = .002 and 4.3 ± 1, P < .001). No differences were observed between devices regarding the mental work load, except for several specific devices in the sophisticated category. A comprehensive ergonomic evaluation provides valuable information while investigating operational friendliness in emergency and transport
Full Text Available Taylor's University School of Engineering (Malaysia is a project-based-learning school that puts a conscious effort to educate engineers on the importance of applying ergonomic principles at the conceiving and designing stages of a product life cycle. This paper reports on an innovative approach to teaching ergonomics using the SUCCESS framework (Simple, Unexpected, Credible, Concrete, Emotions, Story, and Simulation. This teaching technique was adopted to engage the hearts and minds of the students and get them to embrace ergonomics as an important skill for engineers. Comparing students’ module evaluation and feedback, both before and after the adoption of the SUCCESS framework showed that students enjoyed the new approach of teaching and found it more fulfilling.
Zadry, Hilma Raimona; Susanti, Lusi; Rahmayanti, Dina
Full Text Available Due to the improvement of living standards, higher level of ergonomic performance is required for the products. As a result, the ergonomic evaluation has become one of the key points in the decisions making of modern products, especially the complex products. Aiming at improving the situation that the methods for ergonomic evaluation and decision making are one-sided and discrete, this paper proposed several methods for measuring multiply factors and data format of products and built a comprehensive evaluation and decision making system. In this system, the data supplied by soft hardware and specialists were calculated separately to gain the preliminary scores, and the preliminary scores were processed to get the final results for the decision making using the AHP-GRA analytic hierarchy process-gray relational analysis method proposed in this paper.
Garcia, P P N S; Gottardello, A C A; Wajngarten, D; Presoto, C D; Campos, J A D B
The aim of this study was to qualitatively evaluate the experiences of students enrolled in the last year of dentistry school with ergonomic practice. This is a qualitative, observational and cross-sectional study, with a non-probabilistic sample design. The sample comprised students enrolled in the last year of dentistry in Araraquara-UNESP (n = 29). The data were collected by means of open semi-structured and individual interviews, captured by a digital voice recorder. The students were interviewed in their own university at a time that was previously scheduled, and care was taken to provide a private and welcoming environment to carry out the interviews. A script containing questions related to practices in ergonomics was prepared at the university. Data analysis was carried out using the qualitative-quantitative Collective Subject Discourse technique with the aid of Qualiquantisoft ® software program. It was found that more than half of the students (58.6%) believe that adopting an ergonomic posture is important to prevent future problems, pain and occupational diseases, and 62.1% of the students confirm having difficulties in adopting ergonomic postures due to the types of treatment required and the regions of the mouth being treated. The main reasons stated for the fact that their colleagues do not adopt ergonomic postures are lack of attention, practice and forgetfulness (44.8%) and difficulty in visualising the operatory field or the procedure performed (27.6%). It is possible to conclude that the students interviewed know ergonomic principles and their importance in occupational health. However, they found it difficult to put these principles into practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nathanael, Dimitris; Marmaras, Nicolas
The present paper is a commentary on the recently published IEA strategy for human factors/ergonomics (Dul, J., et al. (2012), A strategy for human factors/ergonomics: developing the discipline and profession. Ergonomics, 55(4), 377-395). Two main issues that demand attention are: (i) the way others understand our profession and discipline, and (ii) the way we understand our profession and added value to industry. First, it is advocated that the discussion on the future of human factors/ergonomics (HFE) should be focused more on the quality of the delivered value of HFE and less on its visibility and marketing. Second, the three fundamental characteristics of HFE, as proposed in the report, are discussed and the consequences of this proposal are further developed. Arguments are put forward on the endemic epistemological vagueness within the discipline and on the optimistic definition of its aim. Finally, a proposal is made at the epistemological level, which challenges some established convictions of the discipline. It is advocated that such an epistemological evolution may be necessary if HFE is to make progress towards contributing to system performance. The paper is a commentary on the IEA strategy for human factors/ergonomics. Issues discussed are, the way others understand our profession and the way we understand our profession and added value to industry. Some of the established convictions of the discipline are challenged and proposals are made to overcome these.
Full Text Available One of the preconditions for correct development of industrial production is continuous interconnecting of virtual reality and real world by computer software. Computer software are used for product modelling, creation of technical documentation, scheduling, management and optimization of manufacturing processes, and efficiency increase of human work in manufacturing plants. This article describes the frequent used ergonomic software which helping to increase of human work by error rate reducing, risks factors of working environment, injury in workplaces and elimination of arising occupational diseases. They are categorized in the field of micro ergonomics and they are applicable at the manufacturing level with flexible approach in solving of established problems.
Herbst, L.; Hinz, W.
Modern power plant control rooms are characterized by automation of protection and control functions, subdivision according to functions, computer-aided information processing, and ergonomic design. Automation relieves the personnel of stress. Subdivision according to functions permits optimized procedures. Computer-aided information processing results in variable information output tailored to the actual needs. Ergonomic design assures qualified man-machine interaction. Of course, these characteristics will vary between power plants in dependence of unit power, mode of operation, and safety and availability requirements. (orig.) [de
Broberg, Ole; Andersen, Vibeke; Seim, Rikke
The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of boundary objects in order to better understand the role of objects in participatory ergonomics (PE) design processes. The research question is: What characterizes boundary objects in PE processes? Based on two case studies, we identify eight...... enable workers’ participation and collaborative design in different ways. The framework developed may serve to provide criteria to guide practitioners and intervention researchers in the selection of objects to facilitate a PE process. The paper concludes with a list of recommendations for ergonomic...
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is proposing to construct and operate a new Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF). The proposed DWTF would replace the existing Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) facilities at LLNL. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) to assess the environmental consequences of the proposed DWTF and its alternatives. This report presents the assumptions, methodologies, and analyses used to estimate the waste flows, air emissions, ambient air quality impacts, and public health risks that are presented in the DEIS. Two DWTF design alternatives (Level I and Level II) have been designated as reasonable design alternatives considering available technologies, environmental regulations, and current and future LLNL waste generation. Both design alternatives would include new, separate radioactive and nonradioactive liquid waste treatment systems, a solidification unit, a new decontamination facility, storage and treatment facilities for reactive materials, a radioactive waste storage area, receiving and classification areas, and a uranium burn pan. The Level I design alternative would include a controlled-air incinerator system, while the Level II design alternative would include a rotary kiln incinerator system. 43 refs., 4 figs., 24 tabs
Julitta S. Boschman
Conclusion: Only the use of ergonomic measures for vertical transport increased over a 2-year period. No relationship between the use of ergonomic measures and MSDs was found. Strategies aimed at improving the availability of ergonomic equipment complemented with individualized advice and training in using them might be the required next steps to increase the use of ergonomic measures.
Wulff, Ingrid Anette
This thesis investigates under what conditions ergonomic criteria are being adhered to in engineering design. Specifically, the thesis discusses (1) the ergonomic criteria implementation process, (2) designer recognition of ergonomic requirements and the organization of ergonomics, (3) issues important for the implementation of ergonomic requirements, (4) how different means for experience transfer in design and operation are evaluated by the designers, (5) how designers ensure usability of offshore work places, and (6) how project members experience and cope with the large amount of documentation in large-scale engineering. 84 refs., 11 figs., 18 tabs.
Lee, Mija Ruth; Lee, Gyusung Isaiah
To better understand the ergonomics associated with robotic surgery including physical discomfort and symptoms, factors influencing symptom reporting, and robotic surgery systems components recommended to be improved. The anonymous survey included 20 questions regarding demographics, systems, ergonomics, and physical symptoms and was completed by experienced robotic surgeons online through American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists (AAGL) and Society of Robotic Surgery (SRS). There were 289 (260 gynecology, 22 gynecology-oncology, and 7 urogynecology) gynecologic surgeon respondents regularly practicing robotic surgery. Statistical data analysis was performed using the t-test, χ² test, and logistic regression. One hundred fifty-six surgeons (54.0%) reported experiencing physical symptoms or discomfort. Participants with higher robotic case volume reported significantly lower physical symptom report rates (pergonomic settings not only acknowledged that the adjustments were helpful for better ergonomics but also reported a lower physical symptom rate (pergonomic settings (32.7%), took a break (33.3%) or simply ignored the problem (34%). Fingers and neck were the most common body parts with symptoms. Eye symptom complaints were significantly decreased with the Si robot (pergonomics were microphone/speaker, pedal design, and finger clutch. More than half of participants reported physical symptoms which were found to be primarily associated with confidence in managing ergonomic settings and familiarity with the system depending on the volume of robotic cases. Optimal guidelines and education on managing ergonomic settings should be implemented to maximize the ergonomic benefits of robotic surgery. Copyright © 2017. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology
Helali, Faramarz; Lönnroth, Emma-Christin; Shahnavaz, Houshang
In industrially developing countries, a few ergonomists have directed great efforts towards developing ergonomics awareness among managers and workers in organizations. There is little research on the degree of their success, though. Furthermore, access of organizations to ergonomics knowledge is usually very difficult, especially in industrially developing countries. Thus, building ergonomics awareness is certainly the first phase of the process. Three companies from one industry (44 people: 14 females and 30 males) participated in a project aimed at improving their work system. At the beginning, we needed to create a common goal and ensure participation with appropriate ergonomics tools. The findings of this study were the key issue for the ergonomics intervention (i.e., a shared vision, awakened need of change and learning). Further, to build ergonomics awareness and develop a continuous learning process in the company, it was necessary to use more ergonomics tools through workers' participation in different workplaces.
Kokolus, Kathleen M; Spangler, Haley M; Povinelli, Benjamin J; Farren, Matthew R; Lee, Kelvin P; Repasky, Elizabeth A
The ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to stimulate and regulate T cells is critical to effective anti-tumor immunity. Therefore, it is important to fully recognize any inherent factors which may influence DC function under experimental conditions, especially in laboratory mice since they are used so heavily to model immune responses. The goals of this report are to 1) briefly summarize previous work revealing how DCs respond to various forms of physiological stress and 2) to present new data highlighting the potential for chronic mild cold stress inherent to mice housed at the required standard ambient temperatures to influence baseline DCs properties in naïve and tumor-bearing mice. As recent data from our group shows that CD8(+) T cell function is significantly altered by chronic mild cold stress and since DC function is crucial for CD8(+) T cell activation, we wondered whether housing temperature may also be influencing DC function. Here we report that there are several significant phenotypical and functional differences among DC subsets in naïve and tumor-bearing mice housed at either standard housing temperature or at a thermoneutral ambient temperature, which significantly reduces the extent of cold stress. The new data presented here strongly suggests that, by itself, the housing temperature of mice can affect fundamental properties and functions of DCs. Therefore differences in basal levels of stress due to housing should be taken into consideration when interpreting experiments designed to evaluate the impact of additional variables, including other stressors on DC function.
Smith, Michael J; Bayehi, Antoinette Derjani
This paper examines whether improving physical ergonomics working conditions affects worker productivity in a call centre with computer-intensive work. A field study was conducted at a catalogue retail service organization to explore the impact of ergonomics improvements on worker production. There were three levels of ergonomics interventions, each adding incrementally to the previous one. The first level was ergonomics training for all computer users accompanied by workstation ergonomics analysis leading to specific customized adjustments to better fit each worker (Group C). The second level added specific workstation accessories to improve the worker fit if the ergonomics analysis indicated a need for them (Group B). The third level met Group B requirements plus an improved chair (Group A). Productivity data was gathered from 72 volunteer participants who received ergonomics improvements to their workstations and 370 control subjects working in the same departments. Daily company records of production outputs for each worker were taken before ergonomics intervention (baseline) and 12 months after ergonomics intervention. Productivity improvement from baseline to 12 months post-intervention was examined across all ergonomics conditions combined, and also compared to the control group. The findings showed that worker performance increased for 50% of the ergonomics improvement participants and decreased for 50%. Overall, there was a 4.87% output increase for the ergonomics improvement group as compared to a 3.46% output decrease for the control group. The level of productivity increase varied by the type of the ergonomics improvements with Group C showing the best improvement (9.43%). Even though the average production improved, caution must be used in interpreting the findings since the ergonomics interventions were not successful for one-half of the participants.
Christman, Marissa St John [Los Alamos National Laboratory
Determine an ergonomic glovebox glove port center line location which will be used for standardization in new designs, thus allowing for predictable human work performance, reduced worker exposure to radiation and musculoskeletal injury risks, and improved worker comfort, efficiency, health, and safety.
Knothe, F.; Goehlich, D.; Orschel, G.; Parnow, A. [DaimlerChrysler AG (Germany)
The new S-Class is taking off with a demonstrative overall concept, trendsetting safety and the highest degree of driving comfort. Agility and driving dynamics resulting from a harmonic interaction of design, technology and ergonomics provide a maximum comfort. (orig.)
Edwards, Kasper; Winkel, Jørgen
Literature reviews suggest that tools facilitating the ergonomic intervention processes should be integrated into rationalization tools, particular if such tools are participative. Such a Tool has recently been developed as an add-in module to the Lean tool “Value Stream Mapping” (VSM). However...
Mohd Fazi Hamizatun
Full Text Available The health constraint faced by production workers affects the quality of the work. The productivity of the workers is affected by the Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorder (WMSD which limits the movement of the workers. The comfort workplace condition, known as ergonomic environment is important to prevent the occurrence of the WMSD. Proper ergonomic workplace considers the condition of the workers while doing the assigned work. The objectives of this study are to identify the current problems related to ergonomic in food production process, to analyse the actual production data by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA and to recommend the ergonomic workplace environment based on the condition of the study. The study was done at a Small and Medium Enterprises (SME food production company in the Klang Valley of Malaysia. The condition of the workers affects the productivity of the company due to workers’ health deficiency. From the findings, the workers are exposed to the awkward postures which leads to the Work-Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs. Besides, the best height of the worker at the study area (critical area to prevent the worker from WMSDs is within 155 cm to 160 cm. The results show that the workers are exposed to the WMSD in different level of risks which causes high absenteeism among the workers.
2007) Ergonomic risk of assisting in minimally invasive surgery, Annual conference of SAGES 2008 Park AE, Meenaghan N, Lee TH, Seagull FJ, Lee G...of NOTES techniques: a study of physical and mental workload, body movement and posture Adrian Park, Gyusung Lee, Carlos Godinez, F Jacob Seagull
Chen, Chih-Wei; Maatta, T.T.; Wong, K.; Aghajan, H.
The importance of proper ergonomics for the health and wellbeing of office workers is being increasingly promoted by federal agencies, such as the OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health), which provide guidelines for
Hu, Hui-Min; Ding, Li; Chen, Shou-Ping; Yang, Chun-Xin; Yuan, Xiu-Gan
This paper investigates functional relationships between some of the key ergonomics indexes in manual performance, and attempts to condense the ergonomics appraisal indexes system and thus evaluate hand performance wearing EVA (extravehicular activity) glove, design and improve EVA glove's performance. Four types of ergonomics indexes were studied, i.e., dexterity, tactile sensibility (TS), strength and fatigue. Two test items of insert sticks into a holes-board (ISIHB) and nuts-bolts assembly task (NBAT) were used to measure dexterity, while shape discrimination (SD) was employed for TS, and grip force (GF) for strength and fatigue. The variables measured in this investigation included accomplishing time (AT) of ISIHB and NBAT, correct rate (CR) of SD, maximal grip force (MGF), instant grip force (IGF) and endurance time of grip force (ETGF). Experiments were conducted on 31 undergraduates (eight female and 23 male) with two experiment conditions of bare-hand group and gloved hand group. Results demonstrated that dexterity and TS performance of gloved hand group declined significantly compared with those of bare-hand group (pfatigue between two conditions (p>0.05). Four effective functional relationships were developed between four pairs of ergonomics indexes in bare-hand group. In gloved hand group, in addition to above-mentioned four pairs of relationships, another formula was found, which was y^=0.02061+0.01233x ( p<0.01, dexterity and TS).
Hall-Andersen, Lene Bjerg; Broberg, Ole
The objective of this study was to explore the role of objects in integrating ergonomic knowledge in engineering design processes. An engineering design case was analyzed using the theoretical concepts of boundary objects and intermediary objects: Boundary objects facilitate collaboration between...
van der Molen, Henk F.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Hulshof, Carel T. J.; Vink, Peter; van Duivenbooden, Cor; Holman, Rebecca; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.
Objectives The effectiveness of the implementation of participatory ergonomics intervention to reduce physical work demands in construction work was studied. Methods in a cluster randomized controlled trial, 10 bricklaying companies were randomly assigned either to an intervention group (N=5) or a
Molen, H.F. van der; Sluiter, J.K.; Vink, P.; Hulshof, C.T.J.; Duivenbooden, C. van; Holman, R.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.
Objectives The effectiveness of the implementation of participatory ergonomics intervention to reduce physical work demands in construction work was studied. Methods In a cluster randomized controlled trial, 10 bricklaying companies were randomly assigned either to an intervention group (N=5) or a
Ergonomic evaluation of subjects involved in orange handling operation in Kano State was conducted. Anthropometric parameters were evaluated, where they were found to vary with age amongst the subjects selected. 20th and 80th percentiles of the dimensions were computed and recommended for usage in design of ...
Salmani Nodooshan, H; Koohi Booshehri, S; Daneshmandi, H; Choobineh, A R
In Iranian orthotic and prosthetic workshops, the majority of activities are carried out by manpower and the tasks are labor-intensive. In these workshops, ergonomic aspects of working conditions are seldom considered. This study was conducted in orthotic and prosthetic workshops with the objectives of determination of prevalence rate of MSDs among employees and assessment of ergonomics working conditions. In this cross-sectional study, all employees (n = 42; 29 males and 13 females) in 11 active orthotic and prosthetic production centers of Shiraz city participated. Data were collected using Nordic Musculoskeletal disorders Questionnaire (NMQ) and observational technique by an ergonomics checklist for assessment of working conditions. The means (SD) of age and job tenure (years) in the study individuals were 37.26 (10.21) and 12.8 (9.39), respectively. The most prevalent MSD symptoms in the past 12 months were reported in the lower back (42.9%), shoulders (40.5%) and knees (40.5%). Working conditions assessment showed that the main ergonomic problems in the workshops studied originated from awkward working posture, improper workstation design, poorly designed hand tools and incorrect manual material handling. Any interventional program for working conditions improvement should, therefore, focus on these areas.
Christman, Marissa St; Land, Whitney Morgan
Determine an ergonomic glovebox glove port center line location which will be used for standardization in new designs, thus allowing for predictable human work performance, reduced worker exposure to radiation and musculoskeletal injury risks, and improved worker comfort, efficiency, health, and safety.
Albiol Ferrer, Josep Maria; Giralt de Veciana, Enrique; Novel Martí, Virginia; Ogalla, José Manuel; Zalacain, Antonio
La ergonomía pretende el estudio integral del sistema, reafirmando el derecho que tiene el hombre a que su salud en el puesto de trabajo no sufra ninguna mengua, ni interfiera su integridad física ni su dignidad personal.
... of works departments constituted the sample. Four research questions and one hypothesis guided the study. Data was collected using a researcher-constructed questionnaire entitled Educational Ergonomics in Higher Institutions questionnaire (EEIHIQ). An observation checklist and interview schedules were also used.
Edwards, Kasper; Winkel, Jørgen
Literature reviews suggest that tools facilitating the ergonomic intervention processes should be integrated into rationalization tools, particular if such tools are participative. Such a Tool has recently been developed as an add-in module to the Lean tool “Value Stream Mapping” (VSM). However...
Background: Awareness of effects of long term use of computer and application of ergonomics in the computer workstation is important for preventing musculoskeletal disorders, eyestrain and psychosocial effects. Objectives: To determine the awareness of ºphysical and psychological effects of prolonged computer usage ...
Eyal, Levy; Ribak, Joseph; Badihi, Yehuda
remote online ergonomic assessment in the office environment as compared to face-to-face ergonomic assessment and examination of the applicability of remote online ergonomic assessment to office workers. 40 employees from a large Israeli hi-tech company were ergonomically assessed per the University of California computer usage checklist, according to the two assessment types (face-to-face and remote). An additional Ergonomist "assessor 2" examined the credibility of the process. Research hypothesis 1 was verified: 21 out of 22 questions (95.45%) from the checklist indicated compatibility between "assessor 1" to the "Gold Standard" at an 80% level. Research hypothesis 2: examining the credibility between the assessors with regard to remote assessment. This hypothesis was partially verified, the correlation between the assessors was measured at 0.54. Research hypothesis 3: examining the extent of deviation of natural posture between distal body parts assessment (distant from the center of the body) and proximal body parts (close to the center of the body). This hypothesis was clearly verified. It has been proven that there is statistical significance between the results. The current research has proved that there is an additional method to assess musculoskeletal disorders risk factors remotely online at office environment.
Dhara, Prakash C; De, Sujaya; Sengupta, Piyali; Maity, Payel; Pal, Amitava
In India varieties of hand tools have been used to cut the vegetables. Traditional vegetable cutter is a commonly used hand tool which has been used for years in the kitchen. The tool may have some design related problems. The present study was undertaken to reduce those problems. The study objective was to evaluate a new design of traditional vegetable cutters for use in the Indian kitchen. One hundred and fifty Indian women who regularly used a vegetable cutter for cooking purposes participated in this study. The design of the vegetable cutter was modified based on the postural preference of the users and other anthropometric factors including the blade angle, length, breadth and width of the sitting area. The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was assessed by means of a questionnaire for subjects' feedback. New concepts of the design were proposed and a few prototypes were made and were tested by paired comparison using the EMG system. A large number of subjects (61%) used the vegetable cutter while sitting on the floor with folded knees and the prevalence of MSD in most of the body parts was comparatively lower in this posture than that in squatting posture. In the new design, a broad platform was suggested to provide a more comfortable sitting when a subject sits on it with folded knees. For the vegetable cutter, the blade angle was made at 120° with a broad folded wooden base as the final prototype of the cutter. The length, breadth, and thickness of the base were selected based on the results of the anthropometric measurements among the prototypes of the cutters. The selected vegetable cutter showed the least myoelectric activity among the prototypes during cutting vegetables. The modified vegetable cutter appeared to be ergonomically effective, less prone to muscular stress, and compatible for preferred posture of the users.
Full Text Available Body height is an crucial variable in the design and production of all physical spaces, primarily in the manifacturing of clothes and means of transportation. Having such an ergonomic significance, the height of the human being has constantly changed during the course of history. There exist strong data suggesting that this change is still continue. To find out stages of evolution of human height throughout the ages up to the present will help us to illuminate the human-environment relations, and to predict the possible changes that the human height might be subjected to in the future. In view of these reasons, the changes that has occured in human height from the period at which hominids appeared until humans’ transition into settled life have been closely examined. The study was carried out on the basis of the data obtained from the earlier studies in literature. These data, when considered as a whole, reveal that the human height did not continuously increase in a linear fashion in its evolutionary path but recorded some increases and decreases at different stages. The difference between males and females (sexual dimorphism has not shown a steady decrease either; instead, it has exhibited an oscillating pattern. The modern humans as a species is not unique in terms of their height; as a matter of fact, two million years ago hominids had existed at approximately the same height as the Homo sapiens. Although the average height had shown some decrease in Homo erectus, its distribution pattern was not much different than the one observed in the modern human societies. In the findings dated to the early stages of the Upper Paleolithic Age, height showed a tendency to increase again
Weerd, Heleen Ariane van de
Current laboratory housing systems have mainly been developed on the basis of ergonomic and economic factors. These systems provide adequate, basic physiological requirements of animals, but only marginally fulfil other needs, such as the performance of natural behaviour or social interactions.
Holden, Richard J
Social structures and processes are increasingly acknowledged and studied within the human factors/ergonomics (HFE) discipline. At the same time, social phenomena are rarely the focus of HFE work, leaving a knowledge gap. The present study directly addresses social and personal normative forces that influence technology use and performance. Social and personal normative influence to use electronic health records (EHR) were investigated using semi-structured qualitative interviews with 20 attending physicians at two US hospitals. Analyses used a comprehensive framework based on leading social scientific theories and revealed numerous sources of influence, including hospital administration, colleagues, patients, clinical and professional groups, government, and one's self. Influence was achieved through different means and invoked different psychological processes. Findings motivate a new view of professionals' technology use as a highly social process occurring in a social context, with implications for research, policy, design, and in general the development of a robust social ergonomics.
Xu, Yan-Wen; Cheng, Andy S K
This article is a case presentation of an onsite ergonomic assessment of the risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) among three cooks working at a medium-sized Chinese restaurant in Hong Kong. The weight of workload was measured during the onsite assessment and the Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS), Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), and National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting equation used to assess the risk of WMSDs. The results showed that these cooks usually had to hold utensils for extended periods of time, toss woks, and barbecue meat, all of which demanded a lot of repetitive movements of the upper limbs. Future research is needed on the implementation of effective prevention measures, including administrative and ergonomic controls, to reduce the problems within this industry associated with such high-risk tasks.
Ana M. García
Full Text Available Se describe una intervención de ergonomía participativa iniciada en abril de 2010 en una empresa del sector químico de la Comunidad Valenciana. Se presentó el programa de intervención en la empresa, se acordó el ámbito de la intervención (dos líneas, 24 trabajadores y trabajadoras y se constituyó un grupo de trabajo (Grupo Ergo, formado por personas responsables, técnicos y delegados de prevención de la empresa encargado de guiar la intervención. Se recogió mediante cuestionario información acerca de daños y riesgos ergonómicos en los trabajadores y trabajadoras de los puestos seleccionados. Esta información fue analizada por el Grupo Ergo y discutida posteriormente en círculos de prevención, con la participación de los trabajadores y trabajadoras afectados. En el momento de redactar esta nota, como resultado del proceso se ha acordado ya implementar 16 medidas de mejora en las condiciones de trabajo, algunas de las cuales se han mostrado eficaces según la opinión de algunos de los participantes. Un compromiso firme en prevención por parte de la empresa es condición necesaria para poder llevar a cabo este tipo de programas, de los cuales podrían beneficiarse un número sustancial de trabajadores y trabajadoras en España.We describe a participatory ergonomics program that started in April 2010 in a chemical company located in the autonomous region of Valencia, Spain. The program was introduced in the company, the intervention level was agreed (two working lines, 24 workers and a working group was established (Ergo Group, including managers, technicians and safety representatives in the company with the aim of leading the intervention. A questionnaire was applied to collect information on ergonomic injuries and exposures in workers at the selected working lines. This information was analyzed by the Ergo Group and was later discussed at prevention circles with the direct participation of affected workers. When the present
Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of two distinct human lifting movements regarding acceleration and angular velocity. For the first movement, the ergonomic one, the test persons produced the lifting power by squatting down, bending at the hips and knees only. Whereas performing the unergonomic one they bent forward lifting the box mainly with their backs. The measurements were taken by using a vest equipped with five Inertial Measurement Units (IMU with 9 Dimensions of Freedom (DOF each. In the following the IMU data captured for these two movements will be evaluated using statistics and visualized. It will also be discussed with respect to their suitability as features for further machine learning classifications. The reason for observing these movements is that occupational diseases of the musculoskeletal system lead to a reduction of the workers’ quality of life and extra costs for companies. Therefore, a vest, called CareJack, was designed to give the worker a real-time feedback about his ergonomic state while working. The CareJack is an approach to reduce the risk of spinal and back diseases. This paper will also present the idea behind it as well as its main components.
Vieira, Leandro; Balbinotti, Giles; Varasquin, Adriano; Gontijo, Leila
With increased international competitiveness in the automotive industry, came the concern of the companies save costs and lower production costs. For this purpose many ways are designed to reduce costs and waste of raw materials and reduce activities that do not aggregate value to manufacturing processes. In the early XVII appears the manufacturing system, which processes were hard with little concern for the health and safety of employees and conditions of the workplace. After the advent of the production system called lean manufacturing, a new paradigm in terms of production system capable of providing high levels of productivity and quality. It is based on waste elimination that occur during the production process. After began a new way of thinking, creating a culture of continuous improvement and lean process with no waste and reducing costs, without neglecting the welfare worker and improving the conditions of their work environment. This paper presents a reflection on the application of ergonomics in a lean production system of an automotive industry, using methodology based on the Kaizen (Continuous Improvement) to gain performance and improving the conditions of the workplace, also will be presented with positive and negative points in using this methodology in relation to ergonomics. The research will be conducted by collecting data 'in loco' and interviews with workers. Some studies show that in companies that are lean system and using the methodology of Kaizen, the results of product quality, levels of absenteeism and accidents are better than those obtained in companies that do not apply the same concept.
Santos, V; Zamberlan, M; Streit, P; Oliveira, J; Guimarães, C; Pastura, F; Cid, G
The aim in this paper is to present a research on the application of serious games for the design of laboratories in the oil and gas industries. The focus is in human virtual representation acquired from 3D scanning, human interaction, workspace layout and equipment designed considering ergonomics standards. The laboratory studies were simulated in Unity3D platform, which allows the users to control the DHM1 on the dynamic virtual scenario, in order to simulate work activities. This methodology can change the design process by improving the level of interaction between final users, managers and human factor teams. That helps to better visualize future work settings and improve the level of participation between all stakeholders.
Juan Paulo Barbieri
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to develop and validate an ergonomics index for the operator workplace assessment of agricultural tractors sold in the Brazilian market. To develop the ergonomics index, the operator work places were assessed for compliance with current, national and international, safety and ergonomics standards. The following standards were analyzed to develop ergonomics index: ISO 15077 (1996, which regulates the position of operator controls; ABNT NBR ISO 4254-1(2015 and ABNT NBR ISO 4252 (2011, which regulate the access to operator workplaces; and NR 12 (2010, which determines the mandatory items of operator workplaces.Thirty-four operator work places of 152 models of new agricultural tractors sold in the Brazilian market were analyzed in this study. Ergonomics index was developed and validated using these standards, and the findings enabled the ranking of agricultural tractors. Therefore, the proposed ergonomics index proved feasible and may be applied to other agricultural machines.
Torres, Yaniel; Rodríguez, Yordán; Viña, Silvio
The concept of ergonomics was introduced in Cuba at the beginning of the 1970s. More than 40 years later, the prevailing approach to workers' health is still generally reactive rather than proactive, despite the commitment of the government to the subject. A factor influencing this issue is, generally, lack of recognition of the benefits of establishing ergonomic principles within most occupational activities. Recent progress to move occupational health practice toward a more preventive approach has been conducted, frequently with international support. The introduction of a set of Cuban standards proposing the necessity of ergonomic evaluations is an example of this progress. The main challenge for Cuban ergonomists is to transfer knowledge to occupational health practitioners in order to be in concordance with basic standards and regulations regarding ergonomics. The article offers a short description of the history of ergonomics and an overview of ergonomics practice in Cuba.
Goodman, Glenn; Landis, James; George, Christina; McGuire, Sheila; Shorter, Crystal; Sieminski, Michelle; Wilson, Tamika
Ergonomic principles at the computer workstation may reduce the occurrence of work related injuries commonly associated with intensive computer use. A program implemented in 2001 by an occupational therapist and a physical therapist utilized these preventative measures with education about ergonomics, individualized evaluations of computer workstations, and recommendations for ergonomic and environmental changes. This study examined program outcomes and perceived effectiveness based on review of documents, interviews, and surveys of the employees and the plant manager. The program was deemed successful as shown by 59% of all therapist recommendations and 74% of ergonomic recommendations being implemented by the company, with an 85% satisfaction rate for the ergonomic interventions and an overall employee satisfaction rate of 70%. Eighty-one percent of the physical problems reported by employees were resolved to their satisfaction one year later. Successful implementation of ergonomics programs depend upon effective communication and education of the consumers, and the support, cooperation and collaboration of management and employees.
Dalila Giovana Pagnoncelli Laperuta
Full Text Available Current study assesses whether deficits and usability of ergonomics impair the functionality of a university website. The concepts of functionality, usability and ergonomics were foregrounded by contextualizing them within a university profile. Later, a satisfaction survey was proposed to users to measure the satisfaction in the use of the website and to map the problems in usability. In addition, an ergonomic inspection was performed on the site by applying Bastien and Scapin´s ergonomic criteria. After analyzing results by descriptive statistics and content analysis, the ergonomic and usability problems were detected, or rather, feedback deficits, minimum action (navigation, flexibility and experience impaired the excellence of website´s functionality, causing dissatisfaction or abandonment of the website by the users. After the analysis of the results, ergonomic adjustments were suggested for the website. They may be a help in new website projects or adjust products in which usability has not been incorporated to the development process.
Robertson, Michelle M; O'Neill, Michael J
Effects of an office ergonomics workplace and training intervention on workers' knowledge and self-reported musculoskeletal pain and discomfort were investigated. An instructional systems design process was used to develop an office ergonomics training program and the evaluation tools used to measure the effectiveness of the training program on workers' office ergonomics knowledge and skills. It was hypothesized that the training and workplace intervention would allow the worker to more effectively use their workplace through increased office ergonomics knowledge and skills. Following the intervention, there was a significant increase in workers' office ergonomics knowledge and awareness. Self-reported work-related musculoskeletal disorders significantly decreased for the group who had a workplace change and received ergonomic training relative to a workplace change-only group and a no intervention control group.
Hsin-Yi Kathy Cheng
Full Text Available Abstract Background Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs have become increasingly common among health-related professionals. Special education personnel who serve students with disabilities often experience physical strains; however, WMSDs have been overlooked in this population. The objectives of this study were to investigate the work-related ergonomics-associated factors in this population and to evaluate their correlation with the WMSDs prevalence. Methods A questionnaire with three domains, namely demographics, prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, and ergonomic factors, designed by our research team was delivered to educators who work in special education schools. Results Approximately 86 % of the 388 special education school teachers and teacher’s aides in this study experienced musculoskeletal disorders. The lower back, shoulder, and wrist were the three most affected regions. A logistic regression analysis revealed that the participants’ background factors, namely >5.5 years of experience (odds ratio [OR] = 4.090, 95 % CI: 1.350-12.390, students with multiple disorders (OR = 2.412, 95 % CI: 1.100-5.287, and other work-related ergonomic factors (assistance in diaper changing and others duties, were strongly associated with the prevalence of WMSD. Nap habit (OR = 0.442, 95 % CI: 0.230-0.851 and having teaching partners in the same class (OR = 0.486, 95 % CI: 0.250-0.945 resulted in low possibility of acquiring WMSDs. The use of supportive devices was associated with a low WMSD prevalence. Conclusions The present study revealed an association between WMSDs and specific job features among teachers and teacher’s aides in special education schools. Future efforts should emphasize examining safe student-handling ergonomics, formulating policies regarding student-teacher ratio, incorporating mandatory break times at the workplaces, and promoting personal health for preventing work
Andersen, Simone Nyholm
Participatory ergonomics simulations, taking place in simulation labs, have the tendency to get detached from the surrounding design process, resulting in a knowledge gap. Few studies in the human factors and ergonomics field have applied knowledge management based object concepts in the study...... of knowledge generation and transfer over such gaps. This paper introduces the concept of knowledge object to identify the roles of objects in an exploratory case study of five participatory simulation activities. The simulations had the purpose of contributing to room design of a new Danish hospital....... The analysis showed sequences and transitions of the knowledge objects revealing the process behind the knowledge interpretations and development of the future hospital rooms. Practitioner Summary: When planning participatory simulation in a lab context, the ergonomist should consider the role of objects...
Widiasih, Wiwin; Murnawan, Hery; Setiawan, Danny
Time is an important thing in life. People need a tool or equipment to measure time which is divided into two types, namely clock and watch. Everyone needs those kinds of tool. It becomes an opportunity for manufacturer to build a business. However, establishing a business by depending on the demand is not enough, it is necessary to take a consideration of making innovation. Innovation is a difficult thing to find out, but it is not impossible to do it. By creating an innovative product, it can be a strategy to win the competitive market. This study aimed to create an innovative product based on the ergonomic aspects, which was by utilizing wheel dop. This methodology consisted of pre-study, planning and product development, and product analysis. This product utilized wheel dop and was made based on the ergonomic aspects.
Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Thomas, Robert E.; Babai, Majid
The application of high-level 3D simulation software to the design phase of colossal mandrel tooling for composite aerospace fuel tanks was accomplished to discover and resolve safety and human engineering problems. The analyses were conducted to determine safety, ergonomic and human engineering aspects of the disassembly process of the fuel tank composite shell mandrel. Three-dimensional graphics high-level software, incorporating various ergonomic analysis algorithms, was utilized to determine if the process was within safety and health boundaries for the workers carrying out these tasks. In addition, the graphical software was extremely helpful in the identification of material handling equipment and devices for the mandrel tooling assembly/disassembly process.
The variety and increasing availability of hypermedia information systems, which are used in stationary applications like operators’ consoles as well as mobile systems, e.g. driver information and navigation systems in automobiles form a foundation for the mediatization of the society. From the human engineering point of view this development and the ensuing increased importance of information systems for economic and private needs require careful deliberation of the derivation and application of ergonomics methods particularly in the field of information systems. This book consists of two closely intertwined parts. The first, theoretical part defines the concept of an information system, followed by an explanation of action regulation as well as cognitive theories to describe man information system interaction. A comprehensive description of information ergonomics concludes the theoretical approach. In the second, practically oriented part of this book authors from industry as well as from academic institu...
The aim of working condition and ergonomics is to control the task method and condition for the best productive activity with the highest efficiency and sustainability. The Principles of Scientific Management by Frederick Winslow Taylor and its criticism by Gito Teruoka, the 1st director of The Institute for Science of Labour, are introduced for a better understanding of work condition and ergonomics in this article. Occupational physician have a duty to control working method and condition to reduce the health hazards induced by job duty. Not only the technical knowledge of medicine, but also a fundamental knowledge of manufacturing is needed for the occupational physician. The development of tools for early detection of health hazards and workload evaluation, the introduction of work management systems with cooperation between occupational physicians and technical experts of manufacturing are needed for effective control of the workplace. The strengthening of the Industrial Safety and Health Law should help to drive these improvements.
Full Text Available Today, people of almost every age group are users of computers and computer aided systems. Technology makes our life easier, but it can also threaten our health. In recent years, one of the main causes of the proliferation of diseases such as lower back pain, neck pain or hernia, Arthritis, visual disturbances and obesity is wrong computer usage. The widespread use of computers also increases these findings. The purpose of this study is to direct computer users to use computers more carefully in terms of ergonomics. The user-interactive system developed for this purpose controls distance of the user to the screen and calculates the look angle and the time spent looking at the screen and provides audio or text format warning when necessary. It is thought that this system will reduce the health problems caused by the frequency of computer usage by encouraging individuals to use computers ergonomically.
Jairo Ernesto Luna García
Full Text Available The health of workers in Colombia traverses multiple challenges and difficulties, starting from the national, political and economic context, crossroads living social security system and the trends in the world of work. Faced with this situation, the ergonomics as a field of knowledge and action has multiple possibilities of contribution, which depend on not to see this disciplined reduced to a technical dimension, but encourage their contribution within a framework of action located and contextualized. Although it has emphasized the action of ergonomics in its contribu-tion to the prevention of muscle-skeletal disorders, their contribution to the health of workers can be very important, in a setting of search of the labor and social welfare as a complement to the prevention of occupational risks.
Nellutla, Manobhiram; Patel, Hetal; Kabanda, Aline; Nuhu, Assuman
An important aspect that affects the effectiveness of ergonomic programs is that inefficient mechanical functioning start at an early age and that back pain and posture problems are already evident in children. Children, from a very early age, as well as adults spend an ever increasing amount of their time in front of computer and television screens. The cumulative effect of this sedentary lifestyle leads to improper posture, as well as inefficient and harmful movement patterns and loss of basic physical skills. Physical Education course should deal not only with sports and physical activities, but also with broader aspects of life-skills and physical functionality. It should offer a solution to the modern technology-based society. Keeping this in perspective, Ergonomics content was introduced in Physical Education Teacher's Guide in Rwandan schools with an aim in preventing musculoskeletal disorder in children.
Margaritis, Spyros; Marmaras, Nicolas
This paper proposes a method and an information technology tool aiming to support the ergonomics layout design of individual workstations in a given space (building). The proposed method shares common ideas with previous generic methods for office layout. However, it goes a step forward and focuses on the cognitive tasks which have to be carried out by the designer or the design team trying to alleviate them. This is achieved in two ways: (i) by decomposing the layout design problem to six main stages, during which only a limited number of variables and requirements are considered and (ii) by converting the ergonomics requirements to functional design guidelines. The information technology tool (ErgoOffice 0.1) automates certain phases of the layout design process, and supports the design team either by its editing and graphical facilities or by providing adequate memory support.
Alppay, Cem; Bayazit, Nigan
In this paper, we study the arrangement of displays in flight instrument panels of multi-purpose civil helicopters following a user-centered design method based on ergonomics principles. Our methodology can also be described as a user-interface arrangement methodology based on user opinions and preferences. This study can be outlined as gathering user-centered data using two different research methods and then analyzing and integrating the collected data to come up with an optimal instrument panel design. An interview with helicopter pilots formed the first step of our research. In that interview, pilots were asked to provide a quantitative evaluation of basic interface arrangement principles. In the second phase of the research, a paper prototyping study was conducted with same pilots. The final phase of the study entailed synthesizing the findings from interviews and observational studies to formulate an optimal flight instrument arrangement methodology. The primary results that we present in our paper are the methodology that we developed and three new interface arrangement concepts, namely relationship of inseparability, integrated value and locational value. An optimum instrument panel arrangement is also proposed by the researchers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Gomes, José Orlando; Huber, Gilbert J; Borges, Marcos R S; de Carvalho, Paulo Victor R
Air transportation of personnel to offshore oil platforms is one of the major hazards of this kind of endeavor. Pilot performance is a key factor in the safety of the transportation system. This study seeks to identify the ergonomic factors present in pilots' activities that may in some way compromise or enhance their performance, the constraints and affordances which they are subject to; and where possible to link these to their associated risk factors. Methodology adopted in this project studies work in its context. It is a merging of Activity Analysis (Guerin et al. 2001) of European tradition with Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA - www.ctaresource.com) articulated with the recent approaches to cognitive systems engineering developed by Professors David Woods and Erik Hollnagel. Fifty-five hours of field interviews provided the input for analysis. Sixteen ergonomic constraints were identified, some cognitive, some physical, all considered relevant by the research subjects and expert advisers. Although the safety record of the personnel transportation system studied is considered acceptable, there is low hanging fruit to be picked which can help improve the system's safety.
Horberry, Tim; Burgess-Limerick, Robin; Fuller, Ruth
This article describes examples of the application of human factors research and development work to a sustainable minerals industry. It begins by outlining human-related aspects of the minerals industry and the key human factors work previously undertaken in this domain. The focus then switches to sustainability in the minerals industry. Sustainability principles are introduced and illustrations provided of how human factors research and development work fits within such a framework. Three case studies of human factors in the minerals industry research are presented and the sustainability implications in each case study are highlighted. Finally, future trends related to human factors work in a sustainable minerals industry are addressed, in particular the opportunities and possible adverse consequences that increasing deployment of mining automation might bring. Minerals industries are a major global activity with significant sustainability implications. Aspects of sustainability in mining are examined using three case studies. These illustrate the contribution of human factors/ergonomics in reducing risks; developing emergency response management systems; and the value of participatory ergonomics in improving the design of mining equipment.
Nérot, Agathe; Skalli, Wafa; Wang, Xuguang
In this study, the accuracy of the joint centres of the manikins generated by RAMSIS and Human Builder (HB), two digital human modelling (DHM) systems widely used in industry for virtual ergonomics simulation, was investigated. Eighteen variously sized females and males were generated from external anthropometric dimensions and six joint centres (knee, hip and four spine joints) were compared with their anatomic locations obtained from the three-dimensional reconstructed bones from a low-dose X-ray system. Both RAMSIS and HB could correctly reproduce external anthropometric dimensions, while the estimation of internal joint centres location presented an average error of 27.6 mm for HB and 38.3 mm for RAMSIS. Differences between both manikins showed that a more realistic kinematic linkage led to better accuracy in joint location. This study opens the way to further research on the relationship between the external body geometry and internal skeleton in order to improve the realism of the internal skeleton of DHMs, especially for a biomechanical analysis requiring information of joint load and muscle force estimation. This study assessed two digital human modelling (DHM) systems widely used in industry for virtual ergonomics. Results support the need of a more realistic human modelling, especially for a biomechanical analysis and a standardisation of DHMs.
Irzmańska, Emilia; Tokarski, Tomasz
The paper presents a new method of ergonomic evaluation of gloves protecting against cuts and stabs during knife use, consisting of five manual dexterity tests. Two of them were selected based on the available literature and relevant safety standards, and three were developed by the authors. All of the tests were designed to simulate occupational tasks associated with meat processing as performed by the gloved hand in actual workplaces. The tests involved the three most common types of protective gloves (knitted gloves made of a coverspun yarn, metal mesh gloves, and metal mesh gloves with an ergonomic polyurethane tightener) and were conducted on a group of 20 males. The loading on the muscles of the upper limb (adductor pollicis, flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radialis, and biceps brachii) was measured using surface electromyography. For the obtained muscle activity values, correlations were found between the glove type and loading of the upper limb. ANOVA showed that the activity of all muscles differed significantly between the five tests. A relationship between glove types and electromyographic results was confirmed at a significance level of α = 0.05. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
d'Elia, Nicolò; Vanetti, Federica; Cempini, Marco; Pasquini, Guido; Parri, Andrea; Rabuffetti, Marco; Ferrarin, Maurizio; Molino Lova, Raffaele; Vitiello, Nicola
In human-centered robotics, exoskeletons are becoming relevant for addressing needs in the healthcare and industrial domains. Owing to their close interaction with the user, the safety and ergonomics of these systems are critical design features that require systematic evaluation methodologies. Proper transfer of mechanical power requires optimal tuning of the kinematic coupling between the robotic and anatomical joint rotation axes. We present the methods and results of an experimental evaluation of the physical interaction with an active pelvis orthosis (APO). This device was designed to effectively assist in hip flexion-extension during locomotion with a minimum impact on the physiological human kinematics, owing to a set of passive degrees of freedom for self-alignment of the human and robotic hip flexion-extension axes. Five healthy volunteers walked on a treadmill at different speeds without and with the APO under different levels of assistance. The user-APO physical interaction was evaluated in terms of: (i) the deviation of human lower-limb joint kinematics when wearing the APO with respect to the physiological behavior (i.e., without the APO); (ii) relative displacements between the APO orthotic shells and the corresponding body segments; and (iii) the discrepancy between the kinematics of the APO and the wearer's hip joints. The results show: (i) negligible interference of the APO in human kinematics under all the experimented conditions; (ii) small (i.e., ergonomics assessment of wearable robots.
Xie, Anping; Carayon, Pascale; Cox, Elizabeth D; Cartmill, Randi; Li, Yaqiong; Wetterneck, Tosha B; Kelly, Michelle M
Participatory ergonomics (PE) can promote the application of human factors and ergonomics (HFE) principles to healthcare system redesign. This study applied a PE approach to redesigning the family-centred rounds (FCR) process to improve family engagement. Various FCR stakeholders (e.g. patients and families, physicians, nurses, hospital management) were involved in different stages of the PE process. HFE principles were integrated in both the content (e.g. shared mental model, usability, workload consideration, systems approach) and process (e.g. top management commitment, stakeholder participation, communication and feedback, learning and training, project management) of FCR redesign. We describe activities of the PE process (e.g. formation and meetings of the redesign team, data collection activities, intervention development, intervention implementation) and present data on PE process evaluation. To demonstrate the value of PE-based FCR redesign, future research should document its impact on FCR process measures (e.g. family engagement, round efficiency) and patient outcome measures (e.g. patient satisfaction).
Xie, Anping; Carayon, Pascale; Cox, Elizabeth D.; Cartmill, Randi; Li, Yaqiong; Wetterneck, Tosha B.; Kelly, Michelle M.
Participatory ergonomics (PE) can promote the application of human factors and ergonomics (HFE) principles to healthcare system redesign. This study applied a PE approach to redesigning the family-centered rounds (FCR) process to improve family engagement. Various FCR stakeholders (e.g., patients and families, physicians, nurses, hospital management) were involved in different stages of the PE process. HFE principles were integrated in both the content (e.g., shared mental model, usability, workload consideration, systems approach) and process (e.g., top management commitment, stakeholder participation, communication and feedback, learning and training, project management) of FCR redesign. We describe activities of the PE process (e.g., formation and meetings of the redesign team, data collection activities, intervention development, intervention implementation) and present data on PE process evaluation. To demonstrate the value of PE-based FCR redesign, future research should document its impact on FCR process measures (e.g., family engagement, round efficiency) and patient outcome measures (e.g., patient satisfaction). PMID:25777042
Diaz-Caballero, Antonio-José; Gómez-Palencia, Isabel-Patricia; Díaz-Cárdenas, Shyrley
To identify the ergonomic factors and the presence of muscular pain in dental students of VIII, IX, X semesters presently practicing at the clinics of the College of Dentistry of university of Cartagena, Colombia, South America. This is a descriptive study carried out in dental students of the VIII, IX, and X semesters which were undergoing clinical practice at the College of Dentistry of University of Cartagena. A convenience sample of 83 students who met the inclusion criteria was taken and those who agreed to participate signed an informed consent. Data collection was obtained by means of a structured questionnaire for ergonomic factors and the presence of pain was identified palpating the muscles object of the study by a physical therapist. The variables evaluated were: presence of pain, affected muscles, affected zones, gender, postures and work environment. The adoption of inadequate postures such as exaggerated flexions or cervical torsions could generate a higher frequency of muscular pain in dental students. The approximating muscle of the thumb showed 11% frequency of pain. The presence of muscular pain was higher for the female group participating in this study. Dentists are prone, since the beginning of their clinical practice as students, to lesions of the skeletal muscle system due to the clinical exercise of the profession, being the most common, muscle pain in the back, neck, shoulders and hands. This would imply initiating an occupational health program promoting healthy lifestyles in their academic environment and their future professional life, at the beginning of their clinical practice in dental school.
Andreoni, Giuseppe; Arslan, Pelin; Costa, Fiammetta; Muschiato, Sabrina; Romero, Maximiliano
This work presents considerations on Ergonomics and Design for Sustainability in the healthcare field based on research experiences of the Technology and Design for Healthcare (TeDH) research group of INDACO (Industrial design, communication, arts and fashion) department of Politecnico di Milano. In order to develop a multidisciplinary approach to design able to answer to specific user needs such as elderly in an environmental sustainable way (1) this paper shows the results we achieved concerning ergonomics and environmental impact in product development (2), the extension of this approach to interior and home design and the advantage of the application of Information Communication Technologies (ICT). ICT can help people with special needs to make their everyday life easier and more safe, at the same time, ICT can make social-environmental impact of everyday behavior evident and can be applied to manage sustainability. The specific theme is thus to integrate ergonomics and sustainability competences in the development of Ambient Assisted Living through a Product- Service System approach. The concept of product service system has the potential to improve product performances and services, establish new relations and networks with different actors in order to satisfy user needs and apply a systems approach considering environmental, social and economic factors in the users' environment.
Jaqueline de Lima
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the risk factors present in the work activity and their impact on the health of the musicians of the Symphony Orchestra of Parana state. It is a descriptive qualitative research based on the method of Ergonomic Workplace Analysis of Francophone strand, used as a tool by occupational therapists in the health-work interface. The following procedures were performed: bibliographical survey, documental analysis of productivity data, production and quality of the task, systematic observation of the rehearsals of the Symphony Orchestra of Parana, task and workplace analysis with the application of Ergonomic Workplace Analysis (EWA and, confrontation of the data analyzed with an instrumental musician. As a result, the study showed significant deviations with reference to the standards described in Brazilian Norm 17 (Ergonomics, especially regarding individual cognitive and physical demands as well as demands related to work organization, considering each item evaluated by this analytical instrument. The action of occupational therapy was grounded on the insertion in the health and illness process, health promotion, illness prevention, and training of musicians as workers and social actors, envisioning the transformation of work situations.
Huang Xiangrui; Zheng Fuyu; Gao Jia
The general principle of ergonomic in design of NPPs is given and some causes of TMI and Chernobyl accidents from the view point of human factor engineering are reviewed. The paper also introduces some Ergonomic problems in design, operation and management of earlier NPPs. Some ergonomic principles of man-machine systems design have been described. Some proposals have been suggested for improving human reliability in NPPs
José Adriano Canton; Andrea Regina Martins Fontes; Isaías Torres
This paper addresses the issue of work spaces designed based on Activity-Centered Ergonomics. The aim was to reflect on the role of Ergonomics in the design of productive situations in order to anticipate and mitigate the emergence of new constraints. This study was developed using a case study from the packaging industry, where an automated line was implemented to mitigate the injuries suffered as result of the manual system. This article was based on the results of an Ergonomic Work Analysi...
Büchel, D; Mårvik, R; Hallabrin, B; Matern, U
The ergonomic deficiencies of currently available minimally invasive surgery (MIS) instrument handles have been addressed in many studies. In this study, a new ergonomic pistol handle concept, realized as a prototype, and two disposable ring handles were investigated according to ergonomic properties set by new European standards. In this study, 25 volunteers performed four practical tasks to evaluate the ergonomics of the handles used in standard operating procedures (e.g., measuring a suture and cutting to length, precise maneuvering and targeting, and dissection of a gallbladder). Moreover, 20 participants underwent electromyography (EMG) tests to measure the muscle strain they experienced while carrying out the basic functions (grasp, rotate, and maneuver) in the x, y, and z axes. The data measured included the number of errors, the time required for task completion, perception of pressure areas, and EMG data. The values for usability in the test were effectiveness, efficiency, and user satisfaction. Surveys relating to the subjective rating were completed after each task for each of the three handles tested. Each handle except the new prototype caused pressure areas and pain. Extreme differences in muscle strain could not be observed for any of the three handles. Experienced surgeons worked more quickly with the prototype when measuring and cutting a suture (approximately 20%) and during precise maneuvering and targeting (approximately 20%). On the other hand, they completed the dissection task faster with the handle manufactured by Ethicon. Fewer errors were made with the prototype in dissection of the gallbladder. In contrast to the handles available on the market, the prototype was always rated as positive by the volunteers in the subjective surveys. None of the handles could fulfil all of the requirements with top scores. Each handle had its advantages and disadvantages. In contrast to the ring handles, the volunteers could fulfil most of the tasks more
Lima, Rosa; Fontes, Liliana Magalhães Campos; Arezes, P.; Carvalho, Miguel
This study aimed to develop appropriate changes in a pair of shoes in order to improve the gait of an individual selected for this case study. This analysis took into account ergonomic aspects, namely those relating to the individual’s anthropometrics. Gait analysis was done with the adapted footwear both before and after intervention.A conventional X-ray was performed, which revealed a 29-mm left lower limb shortening and possible foot adduction. The anthropometric assessment confir...
Hulme, Adam; Thompson, Jason; Plant, Katherine L; Read, Gemma J M; Mclean, Scott; Clacy, Amanda; Salmon, Paul M
As sports systems become increasingly more complex, competitive, and technology-centric, there is a greater need for systems ergonomics methods to consider the performance, health, and safety of athletes in context with the wider settings in which they operate. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review was to identify and critically evaluate studies which have applied a systems ergonomics research approach in the context of sports performance and injury management. Five databases (PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus) were searched for the dates 01 January 1990 to 01 August 2017, inclusive, for original peer-reviewed journal articles and conference papers. Reported analyses were underpinned by a recognised systems ergonomics method, and study aims were related to the optimisation of sports performance (e.g. communication, playing style, technique, tactics, or equipment), and/or the management of sports injury (i.e. identification, prevention, or treatment). A total of seven articles were identified. Two articles were focussed on understanding and optimising sports performance, whereas five examined sports injury management. The methods used were the Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork, Cognitive Work Analysis (the Work Domain Analysis Abstraction Hierarchy), Rasmussen's Risk Management Framework, and the Systems Theoretic Accident Model and Processes method. The individual sport application was distance running, whereas the team sports contexts examined were cycling, football, Australian Football League, and rugby union. The included systems ergonomics applications were highly flexible, covering both amateur and elite sports contexts. The studies were rated as valuable, providing descriptions of injury controls and causation, the factors influencing injury management, the allocation of responsibilities for injury prevention, as well as the factors and their interactions underpinning sports performance. Implications and future
Alexandre, Neusa Maria Costa
Esse trabalho discute determinadas condições ergonômicas do trabalho que causam lesões no sistema músculo-esquelético da coluna vertebral, relacionando-as com as atividades ocupacionais da equipe de enfermagem.This paper discusses some of the ergonomics conditions that contribute to the development of musculoskeletal disorders of the vertebral column and relates these conditions to the occupational activities of the nursing staff.
Yan, P; Zhang, L; Li, F Y; Yang, Y; Wang, Y N; Huang, A M; Dai, Y L; Yao, H
Objective: To evaluate the ergonomic load of clinical nursing procedures and to provide evidence for the prevention and management of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in nurses. Methods: Based on the nursing unit characteristics and the common departments involving patient-turning procedures, 552 nurses were selected from 6 clinical departments from July to September, 2016. The ergonomic load of four types of patient-turning procedures, i.e., turning the patient's body, changing the bed linen of in-bed patients, moving patients, and chest physiotherapy, was evaluated by the on-site inspectors and self-evaluated by the operators using the Quick Exposure Check. The exposure value, exposure level, and exposure rate of WMSDs were assessed based on the procedure-related physical loads on the back, shoulders/arms, wrists/hands and neck, as well as the loads from work rhythm and work pressure. Results: All surveyed subjects were females who were aged mostly between 26-30 years (49.46%) , with a mean age of 29.66±5.28 years. These nurses were mainly from the Department of Infection (28.99%) and Spine Surgery (21.56%) . There were significant differences in the back, shoulders/arms, neck, work rhythm, and work pressure scores between different nursing procedures ( F =16.613, 5.884, 3.431, 3.222, and 5.085, respectively; P nursing procedures resulted in high to intermediate physical load in nurses. Procedures with high to low level of WMSDs exposure were patient turning (72.69%) , bed linen changing (67.15%) , patient transfer (65.82%) , and chest physiotherapy (58.34%) . In particular, patient turning was considered as very high-risk procedure, whereas others were considered as high-risk procedures. Conclusion: Patient-turning nursing procedures result in high ergonomic load in the operators. Therefore, more focus should be placed on the ergonomics of the caretakers and nurses.
Human possibilities and limits of performance can be taken into account by work configuration measures, in order to make the optimum contribution to the total output of the human being/machine system. The results of and considerations for the level ergonomic configuration of the control room, for the elements of the information carrier, for the structuring of the work field and for communication centres are introduced. (DG) [de
This report covers the examination of course Degree of Bachelor of Science in Innovation and Design MSGC12. The course is given on the Innovation and Design Program at the Faculty of Health, Science and Technology at Karlstad University. The course corresponds to 22.5 credits and extends over the spring semester in 2017. Examiner is Leo de Vin and supervisor is Kristina Gullander. The project is carried out on behalf of Support Design AB, which manufactures and distributes handmade ergonomic ...
Teodor Perić; Nada Štrumberger; Dean Perić
As an interdisciplinary science, ergonomics needs to makethe operating of traffic safer, faster and more reliable, for thesake of higher profitability and generally improved economiceffects. This is achieved by adapting and shaping the workplace,machines, transport means, equipment, physical environment,working process etc. according to experience abouthuman anatomic physica~ sociologica~ intellectual and otherminimal, average or maximal capabilities. Therefore, it is necessaryto analyse ergo...
Herbst, L.; Hinz, W.
Modern control rooms for the monitoring and control of large power plants have a high degree of automation. However, it is the responsibility of the control room personnel to ensure optimum process control during all operational states. The proper ergonomic design of a control room is one of the prerequisites to ensure that the operators are able to perceive the often large flow of current information and, after processing, to respond properly. (orig.) [de
Cao, Mingliang; Li, Yi; Guo, Yueping; Yao, Lei; Pan, Zhigeng
A successful high-performance sportswear design that considers human factors should result in a significant increase in thermal comfort and reduce energy loss. The authors describe a body-mapping approach that facilitates the effective ergonomic design of sportswear. Their general framework can be customized based on the functional requirements of various sports and sportswear, the desired combination and selection of mapping areas for the human body, and customized quantitative data distribution of target physiological indicators.
Drucker, L; Amaral, M; Carvalheira, C
This work studies biomechanical hazards to which the workforce of Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia Industrial (Inmetro) is exposed. It suggests a model for ergonomic evaluation of work, based on the concepts of resilience engineering which take into consideration the institute's ability to manage risk and deal with its consequences. Methodology includes the stages of identification, inventory, analysis, and risk management. Diagnosis of the workplace uses as parameters the minimal criteria stated in Brazilian legislation. The approach has several prospectives and encompasses the points of view of public management, safety engineering, physical therapy and ergonomics-oriented design. The suggested solution integrates all aspects of the problem: biological, psychological, sociological and organizational. Results obtained from a pilot Project allow to build a significant sample of Inmetro's workforce, identifying problems and validating the methodology employed as a tool to be applied to the whole institution. Finally, this work intends to draw risk maps and support goals and methods based on resiliency engineering to assess environmental and ergonomic risk management.
Guastello, Stephen J
Nonlinear dynamical systems (NDS) theory offers new constructs, methods and explanations for phenomena that have in turn produced new paradigms of thinking within several disciplines of the behavioural sciences. This article explores the recent developments of NDS as a paradigm in ergonomics. The exposition includes its basic axioms, the primary constructs from elementary dynamics and so-called complexity theory, an overview of its methods, and growing areas of application within ergonomics. The applications considered here include: psychophysics, iconic displays, control theory, cognitive workload and fatigue, occupational accidents, resilience of systems, team coordination and synchronisation in systems. Although these applications make use of different subsets of NDS constructs, several of them share the general principles of the complex adaptive system. Practitioner Summary: Nonlinear dynamical systems theory reframes problems in ergonomics that involve complex systems as they change over time. The leading applications to date include psychophysics, control theory, cognitive workload and fatigue, biomechanics, occupational accidents, resilience of systems, team coordination and synchronisation of system components.