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Sample records for laboratory ergonomics presentation

  1. Ergonomics problems and solutions in biotechnology laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coward, T.W.; Stengel, J.W.; Fellingham-Gilbert, P.

    1995-03-01

    The multi-functional successful ergonomics program currently implemented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be presented with special emphasis on recent findings in the Biotechnology laboratory environment. In addition to a discussion of more traditional computer-related repetitive stress injuries and associated statistics, the presentation will cover identification of ergonomic problems in laboratory functions such as pipetting, radiation shielding, and microscope work. Techniques to alleviate symptoms and prevent future injuries will be presented.

  2. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Ergonomics Committee FY 94 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This report presents the Committee`s accomplishments for fiscal year 1994. Ergonomic issues are getting increased attention nationwide. This is a result of ergonomic hazards impacting the safety and health of employees, and companies ``bottom line`` via an increase in medical and workers` compensation costs. The Committee reviews injury and illness data, advises management of ergonomic trends at LBL, initiates corrective action to mitigate ergonomic hazards, and sponsors ergonomic awareness activities. Documented evidence supports the claim that implementing cost-effective ergonomic solutions are a good investment.

  3. Ergonomic assessments of three Idaho National Engineering Laboratory cafeterias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrom, L.T.; Romero, H.A.; Gilbert, B.G.; Wilhelmsen, C.A.

    1993-05-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is a Department of Energy facility that performs a variety of engineering and research projects. EG&G Idaho is the prime contractor for the laboratory and, as such, performs the support functions in addition to technical, research, and development functions. As a part of the EG&G Idaho Industrial Hygiene Initiative, ergonomic assessments were conducted at three Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cafeterias. The purposes of the assessments were to determine whether ergonomic problems existed in the work places and, if so, to make recommendations to improve the work place and task designs. The study showed there were ergonomic problems in all three cafeterias assessed. The primary ergonomic stresses observed included wrist and shoulder stress in the dish washing task, postural stress in the dish washing and food preparation tasks, and back stress in the food handling tasks.

  4. Ergonomic assessments of three Idaho National Engineering Laboratory cafeterias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrom, L.T.; Romero, H.A.; Gilbert, B.G.; Wilhelmsen, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is a Department of Energy facility that performs a variety of engineering and research projects. EG G Idaho is the prime contractor for the laboratory and, as such, performs the support functions in addition to technical, research, and development functions. As a part of the EG G Idaho Industrial Hygiene Initiative, ergonomic assessments were conducted at three Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cafeterias. The purposes of the assessments were to determine whether ergonomic problems existed in the work places and, if so, to make recommendations to improve the work place and task designs. The study showed there were ergonomic problems in all three cafeterias assessed. The primary ergonomic stresses observed included wrist and shoulder stress in the dish washing task, postural stress in the dish washing and food preparation tasks, and back stress in the food handling tasks.

  5. Participatory ergonomics: past, present and future..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Andrew S

    2011-12-01

    This article traces the origins and development of Participatory Ergonomics as a macroergonomic approach to Japan in the 1980s. Since that time participatory approaches have evolved to make it a powerful means for ergonomists around the world. Future generations and ergonomic trends are projected using one set of conceptualization. Based on this model four generations can be identified: physical, cognitive, neural and biological. Four trends are projected to become important; one of which will be the need to engage users in other participatory means. This will result in finding an increasing number of new applications based on a finite set of ergonomic principles. This model is consistent with trends in the digital age.

  6. Ergonomics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schutte, PC

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available situations at work could often be avoided by taking into account the physiological and psychological capabilities and limitations of humans. Ergonomics is a multi-disciplinary science as specialists from various areas, e.g., engineering, physiology..., medicine, psychology, industrial design and occupational hygiene contribute to the body of knowledge. Ergonomics should therefore not be viewed in isolation when applied in the work environment and it is essential to draw on all available skills...

  7. Integration of ergonomics into hand tool design: principle and presentation of an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptel, Michel; Claudon, Laurent; Marsot, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    The development of ergonomic tools responds to health protection needs on the part of workers, especially the work related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limbs and to the development of ergonomic tools to take into account the needs of the factories. Only an ergonomic design process can enable tool manufacturers to meet these requirements. Three factors are involved: integration of ergonomics into the design process, definition of the different ergonomic stages involved, and finally knowledge of the different factors involved in hand tool design. This document examines these 3 elements in more detail and presents briefly a project of research whose main purpose is to integrate ergonomic criteria into a design process.

  8. Nanomaterials in the field of design ergonomics: present status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Anirban; Sanjog, J; Reddy, Swathi Matta; Karmakar, Sougata

    2012-01-01

    Application of nanotechnology and nanomaterials is not new in the field of design, but a recent trend of extensive use of nanomaterials in product and/or workplace design is drawing attention of design researchers all over the world. In the present paper, an attempt has been made to describe the diverse use of nanomaterials in product and workplace design with special emphasis on ergonomics (occupational health and safety; thermo-regulation and work efficiency, cognitive interface design; maintenance of workplace, etc.) to popularise the new discipline 'nanoergonomics' among designers, design users and design researchers. Nanoergonomics for sustainable product and workplace design by minimising occupational health risks has been felt by the authors to be an emerging research area in coming years. Use of nanomaterials in the field of design ergonomics is less explored till date. In the present review, an attempt has been made to extend general awareness among ergonomists/designers about applications of nanomaterials/nanotechnology in the field of design ergonomics and about health implications of nanomaterials during their use.

  9. Implementation of 5S Method for Ergonomic Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dila Sari, Amarria; Ilma Rahmillah, Fety; Prabowo Aji, Bagus

    2017-06-01

    This article discusses 5S implementation in Work System Design and Ergonomic Laboratory, Department of Industrial Engineering, Islamic University of Indonesia. There are some problems related to equipment settings for activity involving students such as files which is accumulated over the previous year practicum, as well as the movement of waste in the form of time due to the placement of goods that do not fit. Therefore, this study aims to apply the 5S method in DSK & E laboratory to facilitate the work processes and reduce waste. The project is performed by laboratory management using 5S methods in response to continuous improvement (Kaizen). Moreover, some strategy and suggestions are promoted to impose 5S system within the laboratory. As a result, the tidiness and cleanliness can be achieved that lead to the great performance of laboratory users. Score assessment before implementing 5S DSKE laboratory is at 64 (2.56) while the score after implementation is 32 (1.28) and shows an improvement of 50%. This has implications for better use in the laboratory area, save time when looking for tools and materials due to its location and good visual control, as well as improving the culture and spirit of ‘5S’ on staff regarding better working environment

  10. Ergonomics in an oral pathology laboratory: Back to basics in microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Sireesha Sundaragiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ergonomics is simply a science focused on "study of work" to reduce fatigue and discomfort through product design. A comprehensive ergonomics program for the pathology laboratory has become necessary to prevent the occurrence of work related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs and accidents. Most of the literature on ergonomics involve various web links or occasional studies on the effect of laboratory work and associated MSDs. A Google search was carried out corresponding to the terms "ergonomics", "pathology laboratory", "microscope". All the relevant literature from web sources was sorted out and categorized. In this review, we intend to identify basic anthropometric factors, biomechanical risk factors, laboratory design considerations and specific microscopy-related considerations. The ultimate aim of ergonomics is to provide a safe environment for laboratory personnel to conduct their work and to allow maximum flexibility for safe research use.

  11. Evaluation of Elementary School Computer Laboratories with Respect to Ergonomic Principles: Eskisehir Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül ULUUYSAL

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the computer laboratories according to appropriateness of the ergonomic principles in the primary schools. US-OSHA Ergonomic Evaluation Checklist was used and 30 different elementary schools’ computer laboratories were evaluated in Eskişehir. The results were examined according to the dimensions of position while working, sitting position, input devices, place of monitors, working areas and general. Research results showed that computer labs have adequate technical equipment but the deficiencies in the dimensions of position while working and sitting positions were found to be significant. According to the research results some suggestions are offered to improve computer labs’.

  12. The Influence of Ergonomics Training on Employee Behavior at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puckett, Leslie Guthrie [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2001-01-01

    A survey of employee behavior was conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of ergonomic behavior that decreased the chance of having a work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) among employees. The null hypothesis was tested to determine if there was a significant difference in ergonomic behavior between trained and untrained employees. The LANL employees were stratified by job series and then randomly selected to participate. The data were gathered using an electronic self-administered behavior questionnaire. The study population was composed of 6931 employees, and the response rate was 48%. The null hypothesis was rejected for twelve out of fifteen questions on the questionnaire. Logistic regression results indicate that the trained participants were more likely to report the risk-avoiding behavior, which supported the rejection of the null hypothesis for 60% of the questions. There was a higher frequency that the beneficial or risk-avoiding behavior was reported by the uninjured participants. Job series analysis revealed that ergonomics is an important issue among participants from all the job series. It also identified the occupational specialist classification (an administrative job), as the job series with the most occurrences of undesired ergonomic behaviors. In conclusion, there was a significant difference between the trained and untrained participants of the beneficial ergonomic behavior in the reported risk reducing behaviors.

  13. An ergonomics study of computerized emergency operating procedures: Presentation style, task complexity, and training level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Song; Song Fei [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li Zhizhong [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)], E-mail: zzli@tsinghua.edu.cn; Zhao Qianyi; Luo Wei [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); He Xuhong [Scanpower Risk Management China Inc., Towercrest International Plaza, No. 3 Maizidian West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100016 (China); Salvendy, Gavriel [Department of Industrial Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2008-10-15

    Emergency operating procedures (EOPs) are widely used in nuclear power plants (NPPs). With the development of information technology, computerized EOPs are taking the place of paper-based ones. Unlike paper-based EOPs, the industrial practice of computerized EOPs is still quite limited. Ergonomics issues of computerized EOPs have not been studied adequately. This study focuses on the effects of EOP presentation style, task complexity, and training level on the performance of the operators in the execution of computerized EOPs. One simulated computerized EOP system was developed to present two EOPs, each with different task complexity levels, by two presentation styles (Style A: one- and two-dimensional flowcharts combination; Style B: two-dimensional flowchart and success logic tree combination). Forty subjects participated in the experiment of EOP execution using the simulated system. Statistical analysis of the experimental results indicates that: (1) complexity, presentation style, and training level all can significantly influence the error rate. High-complexity tasks and lack of sufficient training may lead to a higher error rate. Style B caused a significantly higher error rate than style A did in the skilled phase. So the designers of computerized procedures should take the presentation styles of EOPs into account. (2) Task complexity and training level can significantly influence operation time. No significant difference was found in operation time between the two presentation styles. (3) Training level can also significantly influence the subjective workload of EOPs operations. This implies that adequate training is very important for the performance of computerized EOPs even if emergency responses with computerized EOPs are much more simple and easy than that with paper-based EOPs.

  14. Physical ergonomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looze, M. de; Koningsveld, E.

    2013-01-01

    Physical ergonomics deals with the physical load on the human body when performing activities like work, sports, jobs at home or dealing with products. With regard to the exposure to physical loads and its potential effects on the human body, the presented framework is helpful. In this article we ex

  15. Laboratory dialysis--past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Parikshit; Ajay, Dara

    2012-04-01

    Laboratory dialysis, one of the most widely used techniques in biological research is truly a ' gateway technology' . The analogy is to that of a ' gate' of a building through which everybody has to pass, even though they may wish to go to different departments. Similarly, researchers may be working in altogether different areas but all may need to use laboratory dialysis at one stage or the other during the course of their research. Biochemists may use it to purify enzymes, an immunologist may use it to purify monoclonal antibodies from culture supernatants, a chemist may use it as a step in the crystallography process or for purification of ionic liquids, a biotechnologist may use it to study the effectiveness of enzyme immobilization and a drug discovery scientist may use it for determining drug-protein interaction. The present article reviews patents in the field of laboratory dialysis from inception till date, focusing on the various developmental and innovation related milestones during evolution of the technique. It captures the full panorama of a very interesting technique which continues to be as relevant today as it was in 1866 when the term ' dialysis' was first coined.

  16. Ergonomics Considerations in Microcomputing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torok, Andrew G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses evolution of ergonomics and development of computer ergonomics with its sub-fields of hardware ergonomics (user-equipment-related problems including workstation design); software ergonomics (problems in communication with computers); and peopleware ergonomics (psychological impact). Ergonomic features of VDTs, keyboards, and printers are…

  17. Ergonomics Considerations in Microcomputing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torok, Andrew G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses evolution of ergonomics and development of computer ergonomics with its sub-fields of hardware ergonomics (user-equipment-related problems including workstation design); software ergonomics (problems in communication with computers); and peopleware ergonomics (psychological impact). Ergonomic features of VDTs, keyboards, and printers are…

  18. Awareness and Knowledge of Ergonomics Among Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regular ergonomic education of medical laboratory scientists in Nigeria is advocated. ... of ergonomics to medical practice has been extensively described in a ... Inclusion criteria included having at least 1 year post‑qualification experience and .... training policy by the employee of medical laboratory scientists in both public ...

  19. Hands-on lessons in ergonomics for youth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C; Alexandre, M; Jacobs, K

    2005-09-29

    Ergonomics risk factors apply to everybody. Numerous adults have experienced disabling injuries related to use of computers and other forms of technology. Now children are using technology even more than adults. Increasingly ergonomics risk factors are being recognized as present in the world of children. Outreach to schools and the surrounding community by employers may help protect the future work force. A growing body of researchers believe that children can benefit from the early introduction of ergonomics awareness and preventative measures. While individual representatives of the educational system may embrace the concept of introducing ergonomics into the classroom, a number of barriers can prevent implementation of integrated programs. Some of the barriers to introducing ergonomics in schools have been absence of a tie to educational standards, the existing demands on teaching hours, and the absence of easily executable lesson plans. Ergonomics is rarely included in teacher training and professional ergonomics expertise is needed for the development of a class-based program. As part of Strategic Vision plan for 2025, a National Laboratory identified community outreach and the future workforces as key areas for initiatives. A series of hands-on interactive modules have been developed by professional ergonomics specialists. They are being tested with elementary, middle and high school students. Where possible, the content has been tied to the educational standards in the State of California in the USA. Currently the modules include grip strength, effective breathing, optimal keyboard and mouse positions, optimizing chairs, posture and movement, backpack safety and safe lifting. Each module takes the students through a related activity or experience. An individual worksheet asks them questions about the experience and guides them to consider implications in their activities of daily living. A module on hearing is under development. The goal is to have a

  20. Elementary Ergonomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    What's the number 1 threat to young students using computers today? According to Dan Odell, Microsoft's in-house ergonomist, when he asked parents this very question, "the things they were most concerned about were online predators and people taking advantage of their kids. Ergonomics was fairly far down the list." Unfortunately, that…

  1. Incorporating organisational safety culture within ergonomics practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Tim; Tappin, David

    2010-10-01

    This paper conceptualises organisational safety culture and considers its relevance to ergonomics practice. Issues discussed in the paper include the modest contribution that ergonomists and ergonomics as a discipline have made to this burgeoning field of study and the significance of safety culture to a systems approach. The relevance of safety culture to ergonomics work with regard to the analysis, design, implementation and evaluation process, and implications for participatory ergonomics approaches, are also discussed. A potential user-friendly, qualitative approach to assessing safety culture as part of ergonomics work is presented, based on a recently published conceptual framework that recognises the dynamic and multi-dimensional nature of safety culture. The paper concludes by considering the use of such an approach, where an understanding of different aspects of safety culture within an organisation is seen as important to the success of ergonomics projects. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The relevance of safety culture to ergonomics practice is a key focus of this paper, including its relationship with the systems approach, participatory ergonomics and the ergonomics analysis, design, implementation and evaluation process. An approach to assessing safety culture as part of ergonomics work is presented.

  2. Ergonomics technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Major areas of research and development in ergonomics technology for space environments are discussed. Attention is given to possible applications of the technology developed by NASA in industrial settings. A group of mass spectrometers for gas analysis capable of fully automatic operation has been developed for atmosphere control on spacecraft; a version for industrial use has been constructed. Advances have been made in personal cooling technology, remote monitoring of medical information, and aerosol particle control. Experience gained by NASA during the design and development of portable life support units has recently been applied to improve breathing equipment used by fire fighters.

  3. Occupational ergonomics in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramler, J.

    1992-01-01

    Ergonomics is often defined simply as the study of work. Related or synonymous terms include human factors, human engineering, engineering psychology, and others. Occupational ergonomics is a term that has been proposed to describe the study of the working environment, including the physical consequences resulting from having an improperly designed workplace. The routine space working environment presents some problems not found in the typical Earthbound workplace. These include radiation, intravehicular contamination/pollution, temperature extremes, impact with other objects, limited psychosocial relationships, sensory deprivation, and reduced gravity. These are important workplace considerations, and may affect astronauts either directly at work or at some point during their life as a result of their work under these conditions. Some of the major issues associated with each of these hazards are presented.

  4. The ergonomics simulation and evaluation architecture for the automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianfeng; Yang, Ying; Sun, Shouqian; Liu, Tao

    2005-12-01

    The architecture of ergonomics simulation and evaluation for the automobile was described. Ergonomics analysis and evaluation is one of the most important processes in product design at present. This ergonomics simulation system based on the elements of ergonomics analysis and evaluation can provide an excellent solution to take human element into account earlier in the design phase and make proactive choices in automobile design than those traditional methods. Thinking of the characteristics of the automobile industry, this system adopted the anatomy-based and parameterized human model for Chinese, the simulation technique using motion editing and the mathematical models of ergonomics to solve real ergonomic design problems in the design phases.

  5. Mining ergonomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPhee, B.

    2007-02-15

    Changes in work practices and a drive for greater productivity have introduced a range of emerging issues in ergonomics in mining. Some of the practices appear to be at odds with the need to improve general occupational health and safety. Longer shift lengths and fatigue, mental overload and underload, intermittent heavy physical work, reduced task variation, sedentary work in fixed postures and whole-body vibration all have risks for health and safety. The increasing age of some of the workforce is of concern. There appears to be a need to recognise these as potential causes of health problems. The article gives a review of these problems are reports on research findings. 36 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Ergonomics: The Forgotten Variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, L. Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    Defines ergonomics and discusses design and environmental considerations. Suggests work-space requirements for: tables, chairs, monitor height, ambient noise and light, electricity, and environmental hazards. Includes sources for additional information related to ergonomic design. (AEF)

  7. Participatory ergonomics for ergonomists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C.L.

    1997-04-03

    This paper makes a case for the use of participatory ergonomics by and for ergonomists. A strategy for using participatory ergonomics in a conference workshop format is described. The process could be used as a tool for issues of common concern among ergonomists. it would also offer an experience of the participatory ergonomics process. An example workshop on quantifying costs and benefits of ergonomics is discussed.

  8. Meeting diversity in ergonomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikaar, R.N.; Koningsveld, E.A.P.; Settels, P.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Key Features: Offers the conceptual tools for creating more adaptable ergonomic designs to meet the needs of diverse human populations, Unlock the strategic business value found in ergonomically safe and comfortable products, Learn from in-depth case studies how ergonomic intervention was

  9. Applying research to practice: generalist and specialist (visual ergonomics) consultancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jennifer; Long, Airdrie

    2012-01-01

    Ergonomics is a holistic discipline encompassing a wide range of special interest groups. The role of an ergonomics consultant is to provide integrated solutions to improve comfort, safety and productivity. In Australia, there are two types of consultants--generalists and specialists. Both have training in ergonomics but specialist knowledge may be the result of previous education or work experience. This paper presents three projects illustrating generalist and specialist (visual ergonomics) consultancy: development of a vision screening protocol, solving visual discomfort in an office environment and solving postural discomfort in heavy industry. These case studies demonstrate how multiple ergonomics consultants may work together to solve ergonomics problems. It also describes some of the challenges for consultants, for those engaging their services and for the ergonomics profession, e.g. recognizing the boundaries of expertise, sharing information with business competitors, the costs-benefits of engaging multiple consultants and the risk of fragmentation of ergonomics knowledge and solutions. Since ergonomics problems are often multifaceted, ergonomics consultants should have a solid grounding in all domains of ergonomics, even if they ultimately only practice in one specialty or domain. This will benefit the profession and ensure that ergonomics remains a holistic discipline.

  10. Ergonomics Issues in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Loo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Ergonomics so far has had little impact in Malaysia. For most Malaysian managers, ergonomics is not considered to be associated with performance, but rather with occupational health and safety and legislation. Approach: This study reviews the development of ergonomics in Malaysia and the underlying issues related to national development. Results: Many changes need to be made within the ergonomics research, education and practice community by integrating concepts from the social sciences with technological advances into Malaysian culture to enhance productivity and sustainable improvements in the quality of life, while achieving essential health and safety goals. Conclusion/Recommendation: Ergonomics helps to improve performance besides enhancing workplace OSH. It is essential to promote ergonomics concepts and practice to various industries in Malaysia. More effort and skills are required to compensate for the lack of infrastructure in providing a framework within which ergonomics recommendations can be disseminated and realized.

  11. [View of a Laboratory Physician on the Present and Future of Clinical Laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Shuji

    2014-10-01

    It is meaningful to discuss the "present and future of laboratories" for the development of laboratories and education of medical technologists. Laboratory staff must be able to perform urgent high-quality tests and take part in so-called team-based medicine and should be proud of devising systems that efficiently provide laboratory data for all medical staff. On the other hand, there may be staff with a poor sense of professionalism who work no more than is expected and too readily ask firms and commercial laboratories to solve problems. Overwork caused by providing team-based medicine and a decrease in numbers of clinical chemists are concerns. The following are hoped for in the future. Firstly, laboratory staff will become conscious of their own high-level abilities and expand their areas of work, for example, bioscience, proteomics, and reproductive medicine. Secondly, a consultation system for medical staff and patients will be established. Thirdly, clinical research will be advanced, such as investigating unknown pathophysiologies using laboratory data and samples, and developing new methods of measurement. Lastly, it is of overriding importance that staff of laboratory and educational facilities will cooperate with each other to train the next generation. In conclusion, each laboratory should be appreciated, attractive, positive regarding its contribution to society, and show individuality.

  12. Ergonomics for enhancing detection of machine abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illankoon, Prasanna; Abeysekera, John; Singh, Sarbjeet

    2016-10-17

    Detecting abnormal machine conditions is of great importance in an autonomous maintenance environment. Ergonomic aspects can be invaluable when detection of machine abnormalities using human senses is examined. This research outlines the ergonomic issues involved in detecting machine abnormalities and suggests how ergonomics would improve such detections. Cognitive Task Analysis was performed in a plant in Sri Lanka where Total Productive Maintenance is being implemented to identify sensory types that would be used to detect machine abnormalities and relevant Ergonomic characteristics. As the outcome of this research, a methodology comprising of an Ergonomic Gap Analysis Matrix for machine abnormality detection is presented.

  13. The master student presenter: Peer teaching in the simulation laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Christine P; Lemley, Constance S; Alverson, Elise M

    2010-01-01

    The professional nurse needs to be able demonstrate the roles of teacher, manager, lifelong learner, research consumer, and provider of care. A teaching strategy that fosters the integration of these roles by the student is the Master Student Presenter (MSP) assignment, whereby students teach peers a fundamental skill in the simulation laboratory setting. The objectives of this assignment are for students to: (a) synthesize current literature to establish an evidence-based practice, (b) deliver an oral presentation, (c) demonstrate a skill to fellow students, and (d) evaluate peers on skill performance. Using the MSP assignment in the simulation laboratory contributes to the process of integrating these roles, which students build upon throughout their nursing education.

  14. The Changes of Ergonomics in Hungary and Engineering Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan Lükö

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern engineer training is not conceivable without knowledge of work psychology and ergonomics. In this paper, we would like to outline the situation of work psychology and ergonomics as well as their changes in Hungary. The technical approach to health and safety is linked to human health care, and, through that, to ergonomics. The traditional notion of ergonomics is the 'ergonomics of scales, levers and pedals', which has now become a field of research helping the development of socio-technical systems. Here, we present the developmental stages of ergonomics, divided into six periods, first, and then the relationship between environmental ergonomics and health and safety. In the last chapter, I shall expound a few details from Hungarian investigations in work psychology, as well as from the activity of prominent academic circles at certain universities.

  15. East European Ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Ergonomics Analysis" (Hungarian) Ergonomia , 1976, 9/3, 121-126 Positions defined on some essential conceptual and dmethodological questions relating to...Bartha "The Scientific-Technical Revolution and Ergonomics" (Hungarian) Ergonomia , 1978, 11/4, 217-221. Review of theoretical and practical problems of...Quantification of Means of Production" (Hungarian) Ergonomia , 1976 9/4 221-223. Actions taken in the course of Comecon ergonomic cooperation, difficulties in a

  16. Colour, vision and ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Cristina; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on a research project - Visual Communication and Inclusive Design-Colour, Legibility and Aged Vision, developed at the Faculty of Architecture of Lisbon. The research has the aim of determining specific design principles to be applied to visual communication design (printed) objects, in order to be easily read and perceived by all. This study target group was composed by a selection of socially active individuals, between 55 and 80 years, and we used cultural events posters as objects of study and observation. The main objective is to overlap the study of areas such as colour, vision, older people's colour vision, ergonomics, chromatic contrasts, typography and legibility. In the end we will produce a manual with guidelines and information to apply scientific knowledge into the communication design projectual practice. Within the normal aging process, visual functions gradually decline; the quality of vision worsens, colour vision and contrast sensitivity are also affected. As people's needs change along with age, design should help people and communities, and improve life quality in the present. Applying principles of visually accessible design and ergonomics, the printed design objects, (or interior spaces, urban environments, products, signage and all kinds of visually information) will be effective, easier on everyone's eyes not only for visually impaired people but also for all of us as we age.

  17. [Ergonomic characteristics of professional work among violinists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhov, A Ia; Sursimova, O Iu

    1999-01-01

    Complex hygienic, ergonomic, mechanographic studies and video timing revealed that violinist occupational activities are characterized by high physical intensity simultaneously with extreme nervous strain--that is assigned to the second degree of the third class, according present hygienic classification.

  18. Ergonomic redesign of the electric guitar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmaras, N; Zarboutis, N

    1997-02-01

    The present study deals with the redesign of the electric guitar, considering ergonomic criteria. Difficulties met by novice musicians, neuro-muscular fatigue caused by guitar playing and occupational diseases occurring to professional guitarists, justify this study. Characteristics of existing electric guitar models which add to musician's fatigue or difficulty, were identified. A number of ergonomic requirements were then derived. The redesign process tried to satisfy these requirements, considering at the same time musical requirements and technical constraints. A comparative evaluation of the designed ergonomic guitar with three existing electric guitar models, showed that although the designed electric guitar preserves the main features of the instrument, it achieves better user fit.

  19. Prospective ergonomics: origin, goal, and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Jean-Marc; Brangier, Eric

    2012-01-01

    So far ergonomics has been concerned with two categories of activities: correction and design. We propose to add a third category: prospection, and by so doing, we introduce a new series of activities that opens up the future of ergonomics. Corrective ergonomics relates to the past and comes with a demand and a client. It is turned towards the correction of existing situations and aims to reduce or eliminate problems. Here, after delimiting and defining the problem, the challenge is to find the best solution. Ergonomics for design relates to the present and also comes with a demand and a client. It is turned towards the design of new artefacts that have already been identified by a client, and that will allow users to do some activity and attain their goals. Here, after defining the scope of the project and the functional requirements, the challenge is to do the best design. Finally, prospective ergonomics relates to the future and does not come with a demand and a client. It is turned towards the creation of future things that have not been identified yet. Here the challenge is to detect existing user needs or anticipate future ones, and imagine solutions. These three categories of activities overlap and are not exclusive of each other. In this paper we define prospective ergonomics and compare it with corrective ergonomics and ergonomics for design. We describe its origin, goal, and prospects, we analyze its impacts on education and practice, and we emphasize the need of new collaboration between ergonomics and other disciplines.

  20. Action in Ergonomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training Officer, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A discussion with James Crowley of British Steel Corporation on the changing face of ergonomics in practice today and yesterday examines the influence of experimental psychology on the method of study and data collection. The broadening scope of ergonomics from only safety concerns to cost effectiveness and the computer are analyzed. (Author/JB)

  1. ERGONOMICS AND PROCESS AUTOMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Carrión Muñoz, Rolando; Docente de la FII - UNMSM

    2014-01-01

    The article shows the role that ergonomics in automation of processes, and the importance for Industrial Engineering.  El artículo nos muestra el papel que tiene la ergonomía en la automatización de los procesos, y la importancia para la Ingeniería Industrial.

  2. Design Processes and Constructive Ergonomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses some central issues in the concept of constructive ergonomics. It does so by reflecting on experiences from ergonomics intervention projects carried out in Denmark. Constructive ergonomics has a huge potential as a new way to go for ergonomics research and practice. However, ...

  3. Integrating ergonomic knowledge into engineering design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall-Andersen, Lene Bjerg

    Integrating ergonomic knowledge into engineering design processes has been shown to contribute to healthy and effective designs of workplaces. However, it is also well-recognized that, in practice, ergonomists often have difficulties gaining access to and impacting engineering design processes....... This PhD dissertation takes its point of departure in a recent development in Denmark in which many larger engineering consultancies chose to established ergonomic departments in house. In the ergonomic profession, this development was seen as a major opportunity to gain access to early design phases....... Present study contributes new perspectives on possibilities and barriers for integrating ergonomic knowledge in design by exploring the integration activities under new conditions. A case study in an engineering consultancy in Denmark was carried out. A total of 23 persons were interviewed...

  4. Design Processes and Constructive Ergonomics

    OpenAIRE

    Broberg, Ole

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses some central issues in the concept of constructive ergonomics. It does so by reflecting on experiences from ergonomics intervention projects carried out in Denmark. Constructive ergonomics has a huge potential as a new way to go for ergonomics research and practice. However, many challenges are to be overcome. They relate among others to education and training of ergonomist, and the cultural and institutional setting of ergonomics in specific countries.

  5. Design Processes and Constructive Ergonomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses some central issues in the concept of constructive ergonomics. It does so by reflecting on experiences from ergonomics intervention projects carried out in Denmark. Constructive ergonomics has a huge potential as a new way to go for ergonomics research and practice. However......, many challenges are to be overcome. They relate among others to education and training of ergonomist, and the cultural and institutional setting of ergonomics in specific countries....

  6. Ergonomics in the past and the future: from a German perspective to an international one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, K J

    2000-07-01

    Looking at the past there are more or less fragmented approaches in ergonomics as well as in management. Especially in Germany, the 'Lean Management wave' weakened ergonomics in industry. On the other hand, there is a growing demand for holistic concepts--and ergonomics can by definition be understood as holistic. Many of the newer approaches in management include ODAM or macro-ergonomics elements. In building up a stronger relationship between macro- and micro-ergonomics, the whole discipline could be promoted. This also requires the fulfillment of some preconditions like systematically gathering and presenting 'best practices', which show that ergonomics pays off.

  7. Ergonomics and safety in societies in transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koradecka, D

    1997-10-01

    In Central Europe, the influence of transformation on science and practice in both ergonomics and occupational safety has been positive. The opening of markets has automatically resulted in the quality of products of various countries being compared. The comparison of the state of science has been equally revealing. The spontaneous willingness of leading world centres to co-operate in both occupational safety and ergonomics has resulted in positive changes, e.g. intensive work on creating the instruments for: implementing ILO conventions and EU directives into national laws; implementing international and European standards into national standards; accrediting testing laboratories in the field of occupational safety and ergonomics; accrediting centres for product certification for the safety mark (obligatory) and for conformity with ergonomic parameters (voluntary); and computer-aided designing and creating databases in occupational safety and ergonomics conforming to international standards. These are the laws of the emerging common market for products and services. There is still a much more difficult area of necessary changes in the approach to: the value of life and health; the belief in the possibilities and the effectiveness of initiatives towards changing the working and life environment; and the form and content of the information in occupational safety and ergonomics taught from school to adult education. Transformation has led to a renaissance in which man has become the subject of all aspects of life and activity. There is also a renaissance of occupational safety and ergonomics. The fields of research that have gained importance in this new approach in Central Europe are discussed.

  8. ERGONOMICS safety course

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    Two sessions of the ERGONOMICS safety course will be held on November 27, 2008, in French and in English. PLEASE SIGN-UP! Ergonomie - Sensibilisation à l’ergonomie bureautique (Nov 27, 08:30-12:30, in French) https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TRN/new?course=077M00 Ergonomics - Applying ergonomic principles in the workplace (Nov 27, 13:30-17:30, in English) https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TRN/new?course=077M10 You will receive and invitation via e-mail once your EDH request is completed and fully signed. For further information, please contact Isabelle CUSATO (73811).

  9. ERGONOMICS safety course

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    Two sessions of the ERGONOMICS safety course will be held on November 27, 2008, in French and in English. PLEASE SIGN-UP! Ergonomie - Sensibilisation à l’ergonomie bureautique (Nov 27, 08:30-12:30, in French) https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TRN/new?course=077M00 Ergonomics - Applying ergonomic principles in the workplace (Nov 27, 13:30-17:30, in English) https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TRN/new?course=077M10 You will be invited by email after your EDH request is completed and fully signed. For further information, please contact Isabelle CUSATO (73811).

  10. ERGONOMICS safety course

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    Two sessions of the ERGONOMICS safety course will be held on November 27, 2008, in French and in English. PLEASE SIGN-UP! •\tErgonomie - Sensibilisation à l’ergonomie bureautique (Nov 27, 08:30-12:30, in French) https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TRN/new?course=077M00 •\tErgonomics - Applying ergonomic principles in the workplace (Nov 27, 13:30-17:30, in English) https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TRN/new?course=077M10 You will receive an invitation via e-mail once your EDH request is completed and fully signed. For further information, please contact Isabelle CUSATO (73811).

  11. Conceptual design pattern for ergonomic workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Bernardo Bastos; Aguilera, Maria Victoria Cabrera; Vidal, Mario Cesar Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed two laboratories of liquid chromatography (LC), separation technique of mixtures and identification of its components, in order to identify projectual gaps relating to the environment and the working station. The methodology used was the ergonomic analysis with interactional and participatory techniques applied during the activity performance. This work incorporated and adapted the concept developed by Alexander (1979)--pattern languages--passing from architectural projects to workstations project and physical arrangement of the work environment. The adaptation of the concept resulted in a list of recommendations, requirements and concepts that have brought design solutions for the problematic aspects observed in the ergonomic analysis. The employed methodology, strongly supported in ergonomics principles, and in interactional and participatory techniques, contributed to achieve our gold that is what we now call Conceptual Standards. The patterns go beyond of a usual model of book a of ergonomics specification, once incorporating the viewpoint of the end user, it is also a set of best project practices and of project management in conception ergonomics.

  12. Workplace Ergonomics Reference Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as well as tips for prevention of repetitive stress injuries. Ensuring proper ergonomics in the workplace is a smart business decision because it increases employee productivity and satisfaction. CAP works to ensure that people with disabilities have equal ...

  13. Sound in Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebreil Seraji

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The word of “Ergonomics “is composed of two separate parts: “Ergo” and” Nomos” and means the Human Factors Engineering. Indeed, Ergonomics (or human factors is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. It has applied different sciences such as Anatomy and physiology, anthropometry, engineering, psychology, biophysics and biochemistry from different ergonomics purposes. Sound when is referred as noise pollution can affect such balance in human life. The industrial noise caused by factories, traffic jam, media, and modern human activity can affect the health of the society.Here we are aimed at discussing sound from an ergonomic point of view.

  14. Ergonomics in Laparoscopic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Supe Avinash; Kulkarni Gaurav; Supe Pradnya

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery provides patients with less painful surgery but is more demanding for the surgeon. The increased technological complexity and sometimes poorly adapted equipment have led to increased complaints of surgeon fatigue and discomfort during laparoscopic surgery. Ergonomic integration and suitable laparoscopic operating room environment are essential to improve efficiency, safety, and comfort for the operating team. Understanding ergonomics can not only make life of surgeon comf...

  15. Ergonomics in laparoscopic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supe Avinash

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic surgery provides patients with less painful surgery but is more demanding for the surgeon. The increased technological complexity and sometimes poorly adapted equipment have led to increased complaints of surgeon fatigue and discomfort during laparoscopic surgery. Ergonomic integration and suitable laparoscopic operating room environment are essential to improve efficiency, safety, and comfort for the operating team. Understanding ergonomics can not only make life of surgeon comfortable in the operating room but also reduce physical strains on surgeon.

  16. Ergonomic Improvements for Foundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank Peters; Patrick Patterson

    2002-06-18

    The goal of this project was to make improvements to the production systems of the steel casting industry through ergonomic improvements. Because of the wide variety of products, the wide range of product sizes, and the relatively small quantities of any particular product, manual operations remain a vital part of the production systems of the steel casting companies. Ergonomic improvements will assist the operators to more efficiently and consistently produce quality products.

  17. Ergonomics standards and guidelines for computer workstation design and the impact on users' health - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, E H C; White, P; Lai, C W K

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of global ergonomics standards and guidelines for design of computer workstations, with particular focus on their inconsistency and associated health risk impact. Overall, considerable disagreements were found in the design specifications of computer workstations globally, particularly in relation to the results from previous ergonomics research and the outcomes from current ergonomics standards and guidelines. To cope with the rapid advancement in computer technology, this article provides justifications and suggestions for modifications in the current ergonomics standards and guidelines for the design of computer workstations. Practitioner Summary: A research gap exists in ergonomics standards and guidelines for computer workstations. We explore the validity and generalisability of ergonomics recommendations by comparing previous ergonomics research through to recommendations and outcomes from current ergonomics standards and guidelines.

  18. The Physical Demands and Ergonomics of Working with Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Rene R.; Claffey, Anne; King, Phyllis; Scheuer, Gina

    2002-01-01

    Examines the physical demands and ergonomic concerns within child care settings. Discusses problem areas and ergonomic recommendations for room design and staff training. Presents important implications for writing job descriptions, determining essential job functions, orienting and training staff, and committing to improving the child care work…

  19. Cost-effectiveness of ergonomic interventions in production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looze, M.P.d e; Vink, P.; Koningsveld, E.A.P.; Kuijt-Evers, L.; Rhijn, J.W. van

    2010-01-01

    Early cost-benefit analysis of ergonomic interventions in manufacturing is in the interest of the production management and the ergonomics specialist. Because of the variety of factors and the complexity to quantify these factors, this task is not an easy one. In this article we present a case study

  20. Positive outcomes of office ergonomics in terms of higher productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terek Edit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the sciences which considers to human health, human performance and body activities is Ergonomics. Ergonomics is one of the modern sciences, drawing as much from the field as from the laboratory, and including elements of art and craft as well. Before designing the workplace it is necessary to determine its requirements, i.e., which it is intended for, what are the characteristics of the existing work equipment and the additional tools needed. However, there are some standards and with their application people will prevent the occurrence of modern office diseases. This paper is focused on the positive aspects of ergonomics in improvement of the working environment.

  1. The Medical Interaction Laboratory--Multidiscipline Approach for Presentation of Principles of Physiology and Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jack W.; Sims, Michael H.

    1979-01-01

    An interdisciplinary physiology and pharmacology course presented by the Medical Interaction Laboratory at the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine provides interaction among faculty, conserves faculty time and animal expense, and presents a coordinated laboratory experience. (BH)

  2. [Ergonomic movement in dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos-Huizer, J J A; Bolderman, F W

    2014-02-01

    'Ergonomic movement in dentistry' is a recently developed ergonomic programme for dental healthcare professionals which is intended to prevent work-related complaints and assist in recovering from them. The programme is recommended by disability insurers in cases of specific physical complaints, limitations or disability, as a consequence of which a dental healthcare professional is unable to carry out his or her work. In a four-day training programme, in one's own workplace, skills are taught in the areas of work organization, work attitude and movement. These skills are directly applied in the treatment ofpatients and, if necessary, further improved. In this way, one advances step by step to an ergonomic way of working. Evaluations have shown that the programme is advantageous for the attitude toward work, the workplace and the work organization as well as the reduction of disability.

  3. Ergonomic sustainability based on the ergonomic maturity level measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Mario Cesar; Guizze, Carmen Lucia Campos; Bonfatti, Renato José; Silva e Santos, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at the application of an ergonomic maturity model (EMM), in order to assess the ergonomic sustainability outreach of ergonomic actions. This proposition was motivated by the widespread sensation that the development of the discipline, its educational devices and related practices depends on the attitude of ergonomics practitioners rather than environmental macroergonomic conditions. Maturity modeling in this paper is undertaken as a tool for ergonomic practitioners. Thus, its foundations were uprooted from diverse fields: Clinic Psychology, Quality Management and Project Management. The paper brings about a detailled explanation of this ergonomic maturity tool. The empirical part is fulfilled by the examination - using the EMM - of four emblematic cases excerpted from our research lab ergonomic portfolio.

  4. [Lavoisier, forerunner of ergonomics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, M

    1996-01-01

    Marcelin Berthelot has written that Lavoisier's physiological revolution has been nearly as important as his chemical one. Moreover he went beyond theoretical researches by a continual approach of labour and human environment, making himself a real precursor of ergonomics. Thus indeed can be considered his works on lighting, room aeration, hospitals reorganization, improvement of jails, transfer of slaughter-houses, watering and water-course, cesspools. Finally and chiefly his experimentation with Seguin on respiration and perspiration, as well as the wording of the program of the Prizes of Insalubrious Arts realize a genius' prospect of labour physiology and medicine already enclosed in what will later be ergonomics.

  5. Ergonomía

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Mondelo, Pedro Manuel

    1999-01-01

    Conté: 1. Fundamentos. 2. Confort y estrés térmico. La obra ofrece una visión general de los aspectos básicos de la ergonomía. Está dividida en ocho capítulos, que abordan los temas de relaciones dimensionales, relaciones informáticas y de control, relaciones ambientales, gasto energético y capacidad de trabajo físico y trabajo mental. El libro pretende ser una guía básica para aquellas personas que se inicien en el apasionante campo de la ergonomía.

  6. Assessing video presentations as environmental enrichment for laboratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Coulon

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of video presentations of natural landscapes on European starlings' (Sturnus vulgaris stereotypic behaviours (SBs and other abnormal repetitive behaviours (ARBs and to evaluate the impact of past experience by comparing wild-caught and hand-reared starlings' reactions. Ten wild-caught and five hand-reared starlings were presented 1-hour videos of landscapes twice a day for five successive days, while a control group of eight wild-caught and four hand-reared starlings was presented a grey screen for the same amount of time. The analysis of the starlings' behaviour revealed that the video presentations of landscapes appeared to have a positive but limited and experience-dependent effect on starlings' SBs and other ARBs compared to the controls. Indeed, whereas video presentations seemed to modulate high rates of SBs and ARBs, they did not appear to be enriching enough to prevent the emergence or the development of SBs and ARBs in an impoverished environment. They even appeared to promote a particular type of SB (somersaulting that is thought to be linked to escape motivation. The fact that this effect was observed in hand-reared starlings suggests that videos of landscapes could elicit motivation to escape even in birds that never experienced outdoor life. These results highlight the importance of investigating stereotypic behaviour both quantitatively and qualitatively in order to provide crucial clues on animal welfare.

  7. New procedures of ergonomics design in a large oil company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadeff, Cynthia Mossé; Silva, Rosana Fernandes da; Reis, Márcia Sales dos

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the challenge involved in the negotiation and construction of a standard process in a major petroleum company that has the purpose of guiding the implementation of ergonomic studies in the development of projects, systemising the implementation of ergonomics design. The standard was created by a multi-disciplinary working group consisting of specialists in ergonomics, who work in a number of different areas of the company. The objective was to guide "how to" undertake ergonomics in all projects, taking into consideration the development of the ergonomic appraisals of work. It also established that all the process, in each project phase, should be accompanied by a specialist in ergonomics. This process as an innovation in the conception of projects in this company, signals a change of culture, and, for this reason requires broad dissemination throughout the several company leadership levels, and training of professionals in projects of ergonomics design. An implementation plan was also prepared and approved by the corporate governance, complementing the proposed challenge. In this way, this major oil company will implement new procedures of ergonomics design to promote health, safety, and wellbeing of the workforce, besides improving the performance and reliability of its systems and processes.

  8. ERGONOMIC DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter JENČEK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The number and consequences of traffic accidents and work accidents in road transport represent a burden for individuals and society, as well as a substantial economic burden for transport companies, while also affecting their competitiveness. Research in the area of transport and road vehicle ergonomics can contribute to ensuring conditions for a more secure and efficient operation of commercial road vehicles, thereby reducing the risk of road accidents. The safety of vehicle operation and road transport depends in large part on good comportment between ergonomic vehicle design and human capabilities and limitations. Eventual ergonomic incongruity between these elements may have negative safety implications. The article presents an approach to ergonomic design of commercial road vehicles and their ergonomic evaluation, which occurs in two stages, the design of the vehicle and its exploitation.

  9. Ergonomics research methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspenskiy, S. I.; Yermakova, S. V.; Chaynova, L. D.; Mitkin, A. A.; Gushcheva, T. M.; Strelkov, Y. K.; Tsvetkova, N. F.

    1973-01-01

    Various factors used in ergonomic research are given. They are: (1) anthrometric measurement, (2) polyeffector method of assessing the functional state of man, (3) galvanic skin reaction, (4) pneumography, (5) electromyography, (6) electrooculography, and (7) tachestoscopy. A brief summary is given of each factor and includes instrumentation and results.

  10. Bad Enough Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virve Peteri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes ergonomics as a social and cultural phenomenon, as something that is formulated and described by speakers in a specific social context; in a company that is specialized in producing ergonomic office furniture. Through a case study of an office chair, the article examines how ergonomics and its association with the vision of the potential users and their working spaces are constructed by the relevant actors in project meetings and individual interviews during the manufacturing process. The article is concerned with how, in the process of producing an office chair, the chair gains an identity of an aesthetic design object and how this comes to mean the reformulation of the idea of ergonomics. The empirical analysis also provides insight into how the somewhat grand discourses of soft capitalism or aesthetic economy are not abstract, but very much grounded in everyday practices of an organization. The article establishes how the vision shared by all the relevant actors invites active, flexible, and cooperative end-users and how the vision also has potential material effects. The research is an ethnographically inspired case study that draws ideas from discursive psychology.

  11. Evaluations of science laboratory data: The role of computer-presented information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachmias, Rafi; Linn, Marcia C.

    The present study examines how students currently evaluate information acquired in the science laboratory, especially computer-presented information. We examine the effect of the use of microcomputer-based laboratory and of an explicit instruction on students' critical evaluation skills. Finally we contrast the activities in a science laboratory with current thinking about epistemology in the philosophy of science.

  12. Design of an ergonomic electric guitar

    OpenAIRE

    Genani, G.; Dekker, M.C.; Molenbroek, J.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of existing literature reveals that guitar players are most prone to musculoskeletal injuries amongst all musicians. In the light of recent injuries to prominent guitar players such as Eddie Van Halen, this article explores ergonomics of electric guitars. By means of surveys, user observations, biomechanical analysis and laboratory measurement, the root of the problem has been determined. Bad posture while playing and high wrist flexion seem to be the two prominent issues tha...

  13. Following ergonomics guidelines decreases physical and cardiovascular workload during cleaning tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samani, Afshin; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    the task with or without focusing on ergonomics guidelines (ergonomics/non-ergonomics session). Bipolar surface electromyography was recorded bilaterally from upper trapezius and erector spinae muscles. A tri-axial accelerometer package was mounted on the low back (L5-S1) to measure postural changes......The aim was to investigate the effect of ergonomics guidelines on muscular activity, postural and cardiovascular load during cleaning. Eighteen cleaners performed 10 min of cleaning tasks in two locations; three min in a laboratory and seven min in a lecture room. All participants performed...

  14. Application of a mathematical model for ergonomics in lean manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Lucia; Mora, Cristina; Regattieri, Alberto

    2017-10-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article "Integrating ergonomics and lean manufacturing principles in a hybrid assembly line" (Botti et al., 2017) [1]. The results refer to the application of the mathematical model for the design of lean processes in hybrid assembly lines, meeting both the lean principles and the ergonomic requirements for safe assembly work. Data show that the success of a lean strategy is possible when ergonomics of workers is a parameter of the assembly process design.

  15. Analysis of accessibility for buildings of a graduation school--an experiment in ergonomics training curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acioly, A S G; Oliveira, M D; Freitas, V H F

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a description of a study experience developed in the Discipline of Supervised Internship of the Industrial Design Course of the Federal University of Paraíba. The study is based on focused on ergonomics analysis and accessibility as an object of study, access into and out of buildings of classrooms and laboratories of the same institution. Among the buildings selected, which encompass where the course is established, is a contemporary building and a renovated building of historical and artistic values for current use. The study is characterized by a description of the objects of study, analysis of the reference literature and recommendations for adjustments in the event of any inconsistency with the accessibility standards. The experience of this supervised training provided an opportunity to perform design activities to a group of students in applied ergonomics, as well as enabling contact with professional practice, adding the contact with the appropriate guidelines governing intervention in historic heritage buildings.

  16. Proactive Ergonomics Based on Digitalization Using 3D Scanning and Workplace Modeling in Texnomatix Jack with Augmented Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Hovanec, Micha; Pačaiová, Hana; Hrozek, František; Varga, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This paper suggests a vision of present possibilities of modern ergonomics, and an application model of the proposed system in the digital environment of digital plant. Future trends and visions use a proactive approach of modern ergonomics integrated with sustainable success management. The implementation of new approaches digital plant of ergonomics and occupational safety and health management assumes synergic effect brought by the harmony between proactive ergonomics and risk management i...

  17. The charge of ergonomics--a model according to the influence of ergonomic workplace design for economical and efficient indicators of the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, Nicole; Bruder, Ralph; Toledo, Begoña

    2012-01-01

    The importance of ergonomic workplace design has been rising incredibly. The knowledge of the interaction with a view to many indicators (e.g. operators' health, quality, productivity etc.) in the automotive assembly shop pushed into another thinking of ergonomics and an increasing awareness of economic possibilities relating to benefits and cost savings aligned with ergonomics. The paper discusses exemplary the various indicators and factors which could be influenced by ergonomic workplace design. These factors are linked each other and support the statement of ergonomic efficiency. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present a model which describes that investments in ergonomic work placement acts with preventive measurements, minimization of losses (refinishing operations, compensation money etc.) and extensive economies on the whole company.

  18. Reshaping the laboratory results presentation layer: three interfaces for handheld devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrler, Frederic; Brissaud, Marion; Wipfli, Rolf; Lovis, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The interpretation of laboratory results is a critical part of the clinical decision making process. The proper understanding of many clinical conditions depends on the identification of evidences in the laboratory reports. If the classic tabular presentation of laboratory results has demonstrated its efficiency since many years, the increase number of potential results, the increased complexity of cases and the time shortage to analyses cases raise the question of finding more efficient ways of displaying these results to clinicians. The presentation layer becomes even more crucial when it comes to small-sized interactive displays. In this work, we discuss three alternative graphical representations of laboratory results adapted to handheld devices.

  19. Fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiele, A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is the first to provide the fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton design. The fundamental theory as well as technology necessary to analyze and develop ergonomic wearable robots interacting with humans is established and validated by experiments and prototypes. The fundamentals are (1) a

  20. Ergonomics Contributions to Company Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Dul (Jan); W.P. Neumann (Patrick)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractManagers usually associate ergonomics with occupational health and safety and related legislation, not with business performance. In many companies, these decision makers seem not to be positively motivated to apply ergonomics for reasons of improving health and safety. In order to stren

  1. Fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiele, A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is the first to provide the fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton design. The fundamental theory as well as technology necessary to analyze and develop ergonomic wearable robots interacting with humans is established and validated by experiments and prototypes. The fundamentals are (1) a

  2. Vibration reduction of pneumatic percussive rivet tools: mechanical and ergonomic re-design approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherng, John G; Eksioglu, Mahmut; Kizilaslan, Kemal

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents a systematic design approach, which is the result of years of research effort, to ergonomic re-design of rivet tools, i.e. rivet hammers and bucking bars. The investigation was carried out using both ergonomic approach and mechanical analysis of the rivet tools dynamic behavior. The optimal mechanical design parameters of the re-designed rivet tools were determined by Taguchi method. Two ergonomically re-designed rivet tools with vibration damping/isolation mechanisms were tested against two conventional rivet tools in both laboratory and field tests. Vibration characteristics of both types of tools were measured by laboratory tests using a custom-made test fixture. The subjective field evaluations of the tools were performed by six experienced riveters at an aircraft repair shop. Results indicate that the isolation spring and polymer damper are very effective in reducing the overall level of vibration under both unweighted and weighted acceleration conditions. The mass of the dolly head and the housing played a significant role in the vibration absorption of the bucking bars. Another important result was that the duct iron has better vibration reducing capability compared to steel and aluminum for bucking bars. Mathematical simulation results were also consistent with the experimental results. Overall conclusion obtained from the study was that by applying the design principles of ergonomics and by adding vibration damping/isolation mechanisms to the rivet tools, the vibration level can significantly be reduced and the tools become safer and user friendly. The details of the experience learned, design modifications, test methods, mathematical models and the results are included in the paper.

  3. Robotics and ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylopoulos, Nicholas; Rattner, David

    2003-12-01

    Industrial robotics have proven the benefit of using an untiring machine to perform precise repetitive tasks in uncomfortable or dangerous for humans environments. Highly skilled surgeons are trained to operate and adapt to difficult conditions. They are even capable of developing intelligent mechanisms to exploit a variety of tactile, visual, and other cues. The robotic systems, however, can enhance the surgeon's capability to perform a wide variety of tasks. They cannot replace the surgeon's problem-solving ability. Instead, they will redefine his role. They will significantly enhance the surgeon's skills and dexterity by providing their complementary capabilities and an ergonomically efficient and more user-friendly working environment.

  4. Human Factors And Ergonomics In The Planning Of Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langå

    2002-01-01

    For year’s integration of ergonomics into the planning of new production processes has been an ideal for regulating agencies supported by ergonomic experts. But the ideal appears to be difficult to live up to. A development of tools both by agencies and by groups of researchers has been seen...... as the strategy to move ergonomics from repair activities towards integration into planning. But the tools are available. An overview of the tools developed and discussed in the last two decades in the Scandinavian countries is presented. It is, therefore, argued that the focus shall be on the broader issues...... of organizational conditions for giving ergonomics a stronger position in the firm. Ergonomists have to tackle these issues, but it implies a new understanding of their roles, which goes beyond the traditional discussion of expert versus facilitator. The paper is based on an evaluation of a Swedish research...

  5. The Impact of Ergonomically Designed Workstations on Shoulder EMG Activity during Carpet Weaving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Motamedzade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aimed to evaluate the biomechanical exposure to the trapezius muscle activity in female weavers for a prolonged period in the workstation A (suggested by previous studies and workstation B (proposed by the present study. Methods: Electromyography data were collected from nine females during four hours for each ergonomically designed workstation at the Ergonomics Laboratory, Hamadan, Iran. The design criteria for ergonomically designed workstations were: 1 weaving height (20 and 3 cm above elbow height for workstations A and B, respectively, and 2 seat type (10° and 0° forwardsloping seat for workstations A and B, respectively. Results: The amplitude probability distribution function (APDF analysis showed that the left and right upper trapezius muscle activity was almost similar at each workstation. Trapezius muscle activity in the workstation A was significantly greater than workstations B (P<0.001. Conclusion: In general, use of workstation B leads to significantly reduced muscle activity levels in the upper trapezius as compared to workstation A in weavers. Despite the positive impact of workstation B in reducing trapezius muscle activity, it seems that constrained postures of the upper arm during weaving may be associated with musculoskeletal symptoms.

  6. Ergonomics Contribution in Maintainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymourian, Kiumars; Seneviratne, Dammika; Galar, Diego

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe an ergonomics contribution in maintainability. The economical designs, inputs and training helps to increase the maintainability indicators for industrial devices. This analysis can be helpful, among other cases, to compare systems, to achieve a better design regarding maintainability requirements, to improve this maintainability under specific industrial environment and to foresee maintainability problems due to eventual changes in a device operation conditions. With this purpose, this work first introduces the notion of ergonomics and human factors, maintainability and the implementation of assessment of human postures, including some important postures to perform maintenance activities. A simulation approach is used to identify the critical posture of the maintenance personnel and implements the defined postures with minimal loads on the personnel who use the equipment in a practical scenario. The simulation inputs are given to the designers to improve the workplace/equipment in order to high level of maintainability. Finally, the work concludes summarizing the more significant aspects and suggesting future research.

  7. Instruments for minimally invasive surgery: principles of ergonomic handles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matern, U; Waller, P

    1999-02-01

    Although the advantages of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) have been clearly established for the patient, the surgeon must cope with disadvantages caused by unergonomic instrument handles. Pressure areas and persisting nerve lesions have been described in the literature. The shape of the instrument handles has been identified as the reason for these disorders. To prevent these, it is necessary to use ergonomically designed handles for MIS instruments. Anatomic, physiologic, and ergonomic facts as well as the results of the authors' own experiences and tests are presented. On this basis, an ideal ergonomic working posture for the laparoscopic surgeon and an optimal grasp for manipulating the instruments' functional elements are recommended. To enable the surgeon to evaluate ergonomic handles for MIS instruments according to his own needs, 14 criteria for genuine "ergonomic handles" are established. On the basis of these criteria, deficiencies of handles currently available (ring and shank handles at an angle or with axial extension to the instrument shaft, and pistol handles) are discussed. Furthermore, new handles, developed by the authors according to the criteria for genuine ergonomic handles, are presented.

  8. ERGONOMIC DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS BASED ON AN ACTUAL CHAINSAW DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaljun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: To develop high quality products, a designer has to consider various influential factors, one of which is ergonomics. And to fashion a specific product for the user, a designer needs expert knowledge of the user’s requirements. However, expert knowledge can also be accessed through an intelligent advisory system for ergonomic design support. The effectiveness of such an expert system depends mainly on the quality of the knowledge base and on the appropriateness of the system's inference engine. Data for the system’s knowledge base can be collected in different ways. One approach is to study relevant projects to collect appropriate ergonomic solutions; another is to recognise bottlenecks in ergonomic design. This paper presents a case study of the design of an actual chainsaw – with emphasis on ergonomic design solutions – that can be transformed into ergonomic design recommendations. At the end of the paper, an application of one of the derived recommendations within the knowledge base of the intelligent advisory system is presented.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: By die ontwerp van gehaltegoedere moet aandag gegee word aan verskeie faktore soos die Ergonomie. Die produkontwerper moet deeglike kennis dra van die verbruikersbehoeftes. Daarbenewens moet hy liefs ook gebruik maak van ’n intelligente sisteem vir ontwerphulp. Die navorsing is toegespits op datasteun vir ’n kettingsaagontwerp en toon hoe die intelligente sisteem betekenisvolle ondersteuning verleen.

  9. The concept of contradiction in ergonomics practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanael, Dimitris; Zarboutis, Nikos; Marmaras, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    The present communication deals with the methodology of the ergonomics field intervention process. It proposes an operationalized version of work analysis in terms of contradictions. The aim is to demonstrate that such a dialectic tool and method of representation may assist the ergonomist to frame the essence of a work activity in practical terms, swiftly and in a manner that preserves its multifaceted unity. The proposed method is inspired by two theoretical constructs (i) contradiction as used in Cultural Historical Activity Theory and (ii) regulation, as developed and used by the francophone tradition of ergonomics of activity. Two brief examples of its use are presented and a discussion is made on further developments and possible pitfalls.

  10. Developing hands-on ergonomics lessons for youth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C; Alexandre, M; Jacobs, K

    2006-02-22

    By the time students are ready to enter the workforce they have been exposed to up to 20 years of ergonomics risk factors. As technology evolves, it provides more opportunities for intensive repetitive motion and with computers, cell phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and electronic games. The average student engages in fewer active physical activities, sit stationary in mismatched furniture in schools for hours and carry heavy backpacks. While long-term effects remain to be identified, increasingly ergonomists and others concerned with musculoskeletal health and wellness, see a need for early ergonomics education. This interactive session provides a hands-on approach to introducing ergonomics to students. Although different approaches may effectively introduce ergonomics at even early stages of development, this program was designed for youth at the middle to high school age. Attendees will participate in four activities designed to introduce ergonomics at an experiential level. The modules focus on grip strength, effective breathing, optimizing your chair, and backpack safety. The workshop will include presentation and worksheets designed for use by teachers with minimal ergonomics training. Feedback from the participants will be sought for further refining the usability and safety of the training package.

  11. Ergonomics in Colombian Floriculture: Results and Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lope H. Barrero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The flower industry has been affected for years by the high occurrence of muscu¬loskeletal disorders among workers. Various efforts have been done to understand the magnitude of the problem, its causes and possible solutions. This manuscript presents from the academic perspective the lessons and achievements of an industry-academics model of action to improve the ergonomic conditions of the working population of this important industry. Materials and methods: I conducted a review of minutes, communications, reports and scientific publications related to the ergonomics work done since year 2007 with the participation of the Center for Ergonomics Studies (cee of the Department of Industrial Engineering at Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. A retrospective analysis of the information sought to answer questions about the origin of the work, objectives, results, lessons learned and benefits gained. Results: The working model was participatory. Flower producers were the starters of the work. They made explicit their needs to workers’ insurance companies. The overall study design was not just given but built with academics, and subsequently refined with the association of producers. Although the overall objective of the work was the prevention of musculoskeletal disease among workers, the work was carried out in time as funds were secured through studies with specific objectives related to: Workplace ergonomics evaluations, characterization of the working population, and the development, implementation and testing of solutions. Discussion: The presented industry-academics collaboration model resulted in important improvements to working conditions and academic results. Although it is necessary to validate the view of the industry regarding this type of collaborative models, it is considered that this case was successful and therefore should be replicated in other industries.

  12. Ergonomics in the office environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Theodore K.

    1993-01-01

    Perhaps the four most popular 'ergonomic' office culprits are: (1) the computer or visual display terminal (VDT); (2) the office chair; (3) the workstation; and (4) other automated equipment such as the facsimile machine, photocopier, etc. Among the ergonomics issues in the office environment are visual fatigue, musculoskeletal disorders, and radiation/electromagnetic (VLF,ELF) field exposure from VDT's. We address each of these in turn and then review some regulatory considerations regarding such stressors in the office and general industrial environment.

  13. Ergonomics, education and children: a personal view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, A

    2007-10-01

    Educational ergonomics - the teaching of ergonomics and the design of environments where ergonomics teaching and learning might occur - has received little attention from ergonomists. This paper first describes the roots of the author's interest and research in educational ergonomics; second it provides a personal view of the opportunities and challenges posed by the two streams of educational ergonomics; and lastly it considers the implications of teaching ergonomics to children in terms of their personal development, the design of schools and the impact such initiatives might have on wider societal problems.

  14. Evaluating the effectiveness of ergonomics application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugbebor, J N; Adaramola, S S

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of ergonomics application is achieved in the course of this research by reviewing ergonomics literature, Internet searches and case studies of a number of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD's) and other ergonomic related workplace incidence rate. The results of ergonomic intervention control measures such as engineering controls, administrative controls and personnel protective equipment were also studied. The findings in this paper may help to development model for analysing and solving ergonomic problems in the workplace. It concludes on the need for management to support ergonomics intervention programme for effective cost saving, litigation avoidance and better productivity.

  15. The dentist's operating posture - ergonomic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pîrvu, C; Pătraşcu, I; Pîrvu, D; Ionescu, C

    2014-06-15

    The practice of dentistry involves laborious high finesse dental preparations, precision and control in executions that require a particular attention, concentration and patience of the dentist and finally the dentist's physical and mental resistance. The optimal therapeutic approach and the success of practice involve special working conditions for the dentist and his team in an ergonomic environment. The meaning of the posture in ergonomics is the manner in which different parts of the body are located and thus the reports are established between them in order to allow a special task execution. This article discusses the posture adopted by dentists when they work, beginning with the balanced posture and going to different variants of posture. The ideal posture of a dentist gives him, on the one hand the optimal working conditions (access, visibility and control in the mouth) and on the other hand, physical and psychological comfort throughout the execution of the clinical acts. Although the theme of dentist posture is treated with great care and often presented in the undergraduate courses and the continuing education courses on ergonomics in dentistry, many dentists do not know the subject well enough nor the theoretical issues and therefore nor the practical applicability. The risk and perspective of the musculoskeletal disorders related to unbalanced postures should determine the dentists take postural corrective actions and compensation measures in order to limit the negative effects of working in a bad posture.

  16. Specifying comfortable driving postures for ergonomic design and evaluation of the driver workspace using digital human models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyung, Gyouhyung; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2009-08-01

    Specifying comfortable driving postures is essential for ergonomic design and evaluation of a driver workspace. The present study sought to enhance and expand upon several existing recommendations for such postures. Participants (n = 38) were involved in six driving sessions that differed by vehicle class (sedan and SUV), driving venue (laboratory-based and field) or seat (from vehicles ranked high and low by vehicle comfort). Sixteen joint angles were measured in preferred postures to more completely describe driving postures, as were corresponding perceptual responses. Driving postures were found to be bilaterally asymmetric and distinct between vehicle classes, venues, age groups and gender. A subset of preferred postural ranges was identified using a filtering mechanism that ensured desired levels of perceptual responses. Accurate ranges of joint angles for comfortable driving postures, and careful consideration of vehicle and driver factors, will facilitate ergonomic design and evaluation of a driver workspace, particularly when embedded in digital human models.

  17. Development of an ergonomics device for maintenance of hydraulic generators of Tucuruí hydropower plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, I C; Gomes, G J C; Teles, C S; Oliveira, P F; Santos, R M; Sassi, A C; Sá, B; V, B; Pardauil, A A

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to present an ergonomic device to assist in the maintenance of the units of Tucuruí Hydropower Plant. The development of this ergonomic device made possible to reduce maintenance time, reduce losses caused by billing, improve performance and reduce the physical strain for labors during the execution of services.

  18. Ergonomics in a national research and development programme for food technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Hansen, Iben Posniak

    1997-01-01

    The research question for the study presented in this paper was: What are the opportunities and barriers for integrating ergonomics aspects into joint projects sponsored by the FOETEK programme? The objectives were (i) to evaluate the outcome of this clause of accounting for ergonomics impacts, a...

  19. An ergonomic task analysis of spinal anaesthesia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ajmal, Muhammad

    2009-12-01

    Ergonomics is the study of physical interaction between humans and their working environment. The objective of this study was to characterize the performance of spinal anaesthesia in an acute hospital setting, applying ergonomic task analysis.

  20. Ergonomía y Terapia Ocupacional = Ergonomics and Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzman Suárez, Olga Beatriz

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEn éste artículo se dan a conocer algunas de las aplicaciones más importantes de la ergonomía en Terapia Ocupacional, puesto que a pesar de tener un gran reconocimiento en el sector trabajo, en donde hay un mayor predominio de estudio por parte de la ergonomía, aún se desconocen muchas de las actividades que pueden ser realizadas por éstos profesionales. Terapia Ocupacional abarca el estudio de todas las etapas de la vida del individuo, en cuanto a su desempeño ocupacional se refiere, lo cual garantiza un amplio campo de actuación profesional, que permite profundizar e investigar en diversas áreas, para que desde su experiencia y resultados se facilite el aporte a muchos proyectos de investigación que requieren de conceptos que son transversales a diferentes disciplinas y que pueden constituirse en conocimiento nuevo para la sociedad científica. Con la creación del Grupo de Salud Ocupacional y Ergonomía en la Universidad Manuela Beltrán, se pretende “Desarrollar proyectos de investigación en el campo de la ergonomía, aplicables en los contextos: laboral, escolar, social y familiar; que permitan la adaptación de diferentes entornos al ser humano y a su vez mejorar condiciones tendientes al logro de un óptimo desempeño y productividad”[1]. De esta manera, se inician proyectos de investigación con estudiantes de Terapia Ocupacional, cuyos avances han permitido escribir el presente articulo, se espera además la vinculación de otras áreas para su fortalecimiento. ABSTRACTIn this article they bring themselves to light some of the most important applications of the ergonomics in occupational therapy, since in spite of having a great recognition in the work sector, where there is a greater predominance of study on the part of the ergonomics, still many of the activities they do not know themselves that can be carried out for these professionals. The occupational therapy covers the study of all the phases of the life of

  1. Ergonomics: Injury Protection You Can Afford.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1998-01-01

    Examines the physical health risks attributed to poor furniture and equipment ergonomics and looks at ways to help assure that furniture and equipment purchases and practices are ergonomically sound. Cautions to be wary wary of marketing hype that a company's furniture is ergonomically set, and acquire adjustable furniture and encourage students…

  2. Mass of materials: the impact of designers on construction ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, John

    2012-01-01

    Many construction injuries are musculoskeletal related in the form of sprains and strains arising from the handling of materials, which are specified by designers. The paper presents the results of a study conducted among delegates attending two 'designing for H&S' (DfH&S) seminars using a questionnaire. The salient findings include: the level of knowledge relative to the mass and density of materials is limited; designers generally do not consider the mass and density of materials when designing structures and elements and specifying materials; to a degree designers appreciate that the mass and density of materials impact on construction ergonomics; designers rate their knowledge of the mass and density of materials as limited, and designers appreciate the potential of the consideration of the mass and density of materials to contribute to an improvement in construction ergonomics. Conclusions include: designers lack the requisite knowledge relative to the mass and density of materials; designers are thus precluded from conducting optimum design hazard identification and risk assessments, and tertiary built environment designer education does not enlighten designers relative to construction ergonomics. Recommendations include: tertiary built environment designer education should construction ergonomics; professional associations should raise the level of awareness relative to construction ergonomics, and design practices should include a category 'mass and density of materials' in their practice libraries.

  3. Exercise and sports equipment: some ergonomics aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, T; Lees, A

    1984-12-01

    Sports equipment encompasses a gamut of devices used in laboratory, training and competitive contexts and these form the content of this paper. Ergometers range in sophistication from friction braked stationary bicycles to computer controlled simulators which incorporate exercise modes specific to the athletic user. These are now used in training, as experimental devices and in some instances for competition purposes. Training equipment exhibits a similar emphasis on exercise specificity, safety being an important aspect of its use. Design of projectiles for sporting activities has mainly reflected their traditional modes of use, the introduction of synthetic materials having some ergonomics implications. Similarly, materials science and design technology have contributed innovations in equipment for racquet sports and hitting implements. The changes have tended to be associated with availability of new materials for product construction and have implications for safety and skill in the transition to using the new products. Ski equipment design illustrates ergonomics factors in interfacing the performer with the sporting environment and how equipment has progressed by regenerative design processes. Enhancement of performance in some sports must be accompanied by an awareness of safety requirements: where appropriate, risks to participants should be reduced by use of protective clothing and equipment. Enforced validation of protective equipment is recommended to raise safety levels in certain sports and the safety of spectators must not be neglected. Human factors criteria can then be applied in monitoring, officiating and spectating at sporting events.

  4. Ergonomics Risk Assessment with Participation of Supervisors in Production Line: a Successful Experience in Pars Khodro Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Mazloumi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: According to previous researches, workers' participation in issues affecting their working condition is the key to success in ergonomics interventions in working environments. Therefore, the present study was performed to increase active particapitation of supervisors in production line and also to identify and assess ergonomics risks and presenting modification actions (Kaizen by themselves in Pars Khodro automobile manufacturing company. Methods: A manual regarding lifting objects and body postures, according to the Finish evaluation method, was provided for supervisors in production line and related trainings were presented to them. Then, they were asked to insert the results of their assessments and suggestions in special forms during one year. The presented assessments and suggestions were examined by ergonomics experts. Results: According to the assessments conducted by supervisors, 26 work stations had high ergonomics risks, 51 had ergonomics risks with an average level, and 45 had low ergonomics risks. Moreover, the number of required Kaizens presented by supervisors was increased from 18 cases in the first year to 42 cases in the second year, after implementation of ergonomics training and identifying and assessing ergonomic risks by supervisors. Conclusion: Empowering and training supervisors increased workers' participation. In case of adequate training, supervisors can present practical solutions to reduce ergonomics risks in their workstations.

  5. The Research of Computer Aided Farm Machinery Designing Method Based on Ergonomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiyin; Li, Xinling; Song, Qiang; Zheng, Ying

    Along with agricultural economy development, the farm machinery product type Increases gradually, the ergonomics question is also getting more and more prominent. The widespread application of computer aided machinery design makes it possible that farm machinery design is intuitive, flexible and convenient. At present, because the developed computer aided ergonomics software has not suitable human body database, which is needed in view of farm machinery design in China, the farm machinery design have deviation in ergonomics analysis. This article puts forward that using the open database interface procedure in CATIA to establish human body database which aims at the farm machinery design, and reading the human body data to ergonomics module of CATIA can product practical application virtual body, using human posture analysis and human activity analysis module to analysis the ergonomics in farm machinery, thus computer aided farm machinery designing method based on engineering can be realized.

  6. Mapping ergonomics application to improve SMEs working condition in industrially developing countries: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawati, Setia; Lawson, Glyn; Sutarto, Auditya Purwandini

    2014-01-01

    In industrially developing countries (IDC), small and medium enterprises (SMEs) account for the highest proprotion of employment. Unfortunately, the working conditions in SMEs are often very poor and expose employees to a potentially wide range of health and safety risks. This paper presents a comprehensive review of 161 articles related to ergonomics application in SMEs, using Indonesia as a case study. The aim of this paper is to investigate the extent of ergonomics application and identify areas that can be improved to promote effective ergonomics for SMEs in IDC. The most urgent issue found is the need for adopting participatory approach in contrast to the commonly implemented top-down approach. Some good practices in ergonomics application were also revealed from the review, e.g. a multidisciplinary approach, unsophisticated and low-cost solutions, and recognising the importance of productivity. The review also found that more work is still required to achieve appropriate cross-cultural adaptation of ergonomics application.

  7. Dynamic aspects of individual design activities. A cognitive ergonomics viewpoint

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, Willemien

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of knowledge possessed by designers. Data collection was based on observations (by the cognitive ergonomics researcher) and simultaneous verbalisations (by the designers) in empirical studies conducted in the context of industrial design projects. The contribution of this research is typical of cognitive ergonomics, in that it provides data on actual activities implemented by designers in their actual work situation (rather than on prescribed and/or idealised processes and methods). Data presented concern global strategies (the way in which designers actually organise their activity) and local strategies (reuse in design). Results from cognitive ergonomics and other research that challenges the way in which people are supposed to work with existing systems are generally not received warmly. Abundant corroboration of such results is required before industry may consider taking them into account. The opportunistic organisation of design activity is taken here as an example of this ...

  8. Ergonomics and design: traffic sign and street name sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Janaina Luisa da Silva; Aymone, José Luís Farinatti

    2012-01-01

    This work proposes a design methodology using ergonomics and anthropometry concepts applied to traffic sign and street name sign projects. Initially, a literature revision on cognitive ergonomics and anthropometry is performed. Several authors and their design methodologies are analyzed and the aspects to be considered in projects of traffic and street name signs are selected and other specific aspects are proposed for the design methodology. A case study of the signs of "Street of Antiques" in Porto Alegre city is presented. To do that, interviews with the population are made to evaluate the current situation of signs. After that, a new sign proposal with virtual prototyping is done using the developed methodology. The results obtained with new interviews about the proposal show the user satisfaction and the importance of cognitive ergonomics to development of this type of urban furniture.

  9. Presentation to Ohio State University Dept. of Electrical Engineering ElectroScience Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Gene

    2002-01-01

    Presentation made during visit to The Ohio State University, ElectroScience Laboratory, on November 14, 2002. An overview of NASA and selected technology products from the Digital Communications Technology Branch (5650) for fiscal year 2003 are highlighted. The purpose of the meeting was to exchange technical information on current aeronautics and space communications research and technology being conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center and to promote faculty/student collaborations of mutual interest.

  10. Ergonomics in total quality management: how can we sell ergonomics to management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K S

    2005-04-15

    The objective of this paper is to describe how and why ergonomics should be promoted in total quality management (TQM). Ergonomics and TQM activities are compared. An approach is proposed to apply ergonomics in TQM using ergonomics circles. An eight-step approach is introduced for applying ergonomics using ergonomics circles and a study that employed this approach in Korea is discussed. In applying this approach, all processes were first evaluated by workers. Processes that were identified as problematic were analysed by a company-wide committee to set priorities for improvement. An ergonomics improvement team consisting of safety and health personnel, process engineers and management innovation personnel then worked on the processes using a low-cost approach. It was found that applying ergonomics using ergonomics circles as quality circles in TQM was effective in improving workplaces and resulted in increasing productivity, cost saving and improved safety.

  11. Advances in industrial ergonomics and safety I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mital, A. (ed.) (University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (USA). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ergonomics Research Lab.)

    1989-01-01

    125 papers are presented under the session headings: industrial ergonomics - programs and applications; applied work physiology; occupational biomechanics; engineering anthropometry; work and protective clothing; hand tools; human-computer interface; theory and practice of industrial safety; human perception and performance; human strengths; industrial noise and vibration; machine guarding and industrial machine safety; manual materials handling; modelling for safety and health; occupational injuries and health problems; policies and standards; quality control and inspection; rehabilitation and designing for the disabled; work duration and fatigue; and work and work place design. Includes papers on static and dynamic back strength of underground coal miners, and slip and fall accidents during equipment maintenance in the surface mining industry.

  12. 'The perfect is the enemy of the good' - ergonomics research and practice. Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors Annual Lecture 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between research and practice in ergonomics and human factors has rarely been addressed in the literature. This presents specific problems for researchers when seeking to relate their work to the research community. Equally, practitioners are often frustrated by the lack of appropriate research to meet their needs. This paper seeks to identify current drivers for ergonomics research along with an analysis of how these are changing. Specifically, the use of bibliometric data to assess research output and its impact on a multi-disciplinary subject such as ergonomics is examined. Areas where action may be required to stimulate better research and improved practice are proposed. These include a greater role for the practitioner in completing the circle of knowledge and improving the evidence base for practice with, in particular, practitioners becoming more active in determining research priorities. It is concluded that combined effort is needed by researcher and practitioner communities to enable and promote a more effective understanding of the true impact of ergonomics across industry and society. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The relationship between ergonomics research and practice is examined. Research 'drivers' are identified, including the influence of bibliometric data. Implications for researchers and practitioners are discussed. The role of practitioners in completing the circle of knowledge and improving the ergonomics evidence base is stressed, as is the need to promote the impact of ergonomics across society.

  13. Training in practical ergonomics improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, K

    1989-06-01

    Recent ILO experiences show that concrete ergonomics improvements can result from learning-by-doing training in real settings. Particularly important is to build on local practice focusing on good examples already available. Checklist exercise, demonstrating low-cost solutions and group work are effective training tools. Opportunities can be widely created by such enabling training.

  14. Clinical and Laboratory Presentation of Hairy Cell Leukemia (Hcl and Rate of Response to Cladribine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Forat Yazdi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HCL is a rare malignant condition that is curable if diagnosed early. HCL can present with reduced blood cells and splenomegaly which maybe misdiagnosed with other conditions. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of early clinical and laboratory findings as well as the response rate of patients to the standard treatment regimen of Cladribine. Methods: The study was an uncontrolled clinical trial including 25 HCL patients referring to Oncology Clinics of Shahid Sadoughi (Yazd - Iran and Shahid Beheshti (Tehran - Iran between 1999 and 2005. Data was gathered by a pre–designed questionnaire. 21 out of 25 patients were treated with Cladribine and the clinical and laboratory response was assessed. Results: Of the 25 patients studied, 20 patients (80% were male and 5 patients (20% were female. Most of the patients at diagnosis were 55–67 years old and the most common presenting symptom was fatigue and lassitude secondary to anemia. Two patients were asymptomatic and were diagnosed incidentally. Splenomegaly was the main clinical finding which was present in about 80% of the males and all of the females. Accordingly, hairy cells in the peripheral blood smear, leukopenia and anemia were the most common laboratory findings. In contrast to previous results, pancytopenia was found in only 60% of the patients. Response rate was 90% (19 out of 21 of which 61.9% (13 patients and 28.5% (6 patients had complete remission (CR and partial remission (PR, respectively. Conclusion: According to the results, it can be concluded that HCL should be considered as a possible diagnosis in the context of fatigue, splenomegaly and reduced blood cell count. The results of the present study were similar to other similar international studies.

  15. Towards an efficient retractor handle: an ergonomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brearley, S; Watson, H

    1983-11-01

    In a study whose aim was to design an ergonomically efficient retractor handle, surgeons' views on retractor design were canvassed by questionnaire. After observing retractors in use and measuring the forces involved peroperatively, prototype handles were made and tested in a laboratory. Experimental subjects showed a marked preference for a vertical 'T' configuration. Such a handle could easily be incorporated into most existing retractor designs.

  16. Computer-Aided Design Models to Support Ergonomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    LABORATORY 4 WILLIAM B. ASKREN AIR FORCE HUMAN RESOURCES LABORA7IJRY LEC OCT 2 2 DECEMBER 1985 Apprw. edfor public release, distributionz is...SUPPORT ERGONOMICS (U) .__ _ _ _ _ 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) McDaniel, Joe W. and Askren, William B.* ". k % 13.. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14...technician which the designer can effectively use for maintainability analyses. ,% 4,1’ 12.. 6- - p *. **, . k % ... APPROACH v There are three elements to

  17. Ergonomics: A Commonsense Activity That Can Save Schools Money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Paul; Gauthier-Green, Erin

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of ergonomics to reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders such as back pain, tendonitis, and carpal tunnel syndrome. Describes ergonomics and how to identify ergonomic problems, conduct a job hazard analysis, and develop solutions. Also lists common ergonomic errors in schools. Provides an ergonomic checklist for employees…

  18. Ergonomic Based Design and Survey of Elementary School Furniture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwar; Jawalkar, Chandrashekhar S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the ergonomic aspects in designing and prototyping of desks cum chairs used in elementary schools. The procedures adopted for the assessment included: the study of existing school furniture, design analysis and development of prototypes. The design approach proposed a series of adjustable desks and chairs developed in terms of…

  19. Framework of awareness : For the analysis of ergonomics in design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, S.; Badke-Schaub, P.G.; Fernandes, A.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper introduces the Framework of Awarenessto the analysis of ergonomics in design. The framework is part of a doctoral research that took the Lean Thinking perspective by adopting the concept of MUDA and its set of principles as dimensions to study designers’ behaviour in industry.Resul

  20. The ergonomic evaluation of a virtual learning environment usability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Aliana Pereira; de Moraes, Anamaria

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the processes and the results of the application of some ergonomic techniques, used to evaluate the usability of the virtual learning environment adopted by the Distance Education Center of the Federal Institute of Espírito Santo - Brazil.

  1. Job stress management protocol using a merge between cognitive-behavioral techniques and ergonomic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Elaine; Vidal, Mario Cesar

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a protocol for work distress assessment. Work distress is defined as a merge between nonergonomic related aspects, in tasks or environment, and adversely conditions perceived for a worker, in a certain work situation. This frame requires an approach that can treat individuals and organizational factors in the same way, at the same time. For this, we elaborate a psycho-ergonomics method, associating concepts and practices from cognitive-behavioral techniques and work ergonomic analysis, which we named CEWAT - Cognitive-Behavioral Work Analysis Technique. This paper presents CEWAT's foundations and structure, in steps. An application to a complex and dangerous system illustrates its benefits in the ergonomics action.

  2. Physical Ergonomics and Musculoskeletal Disorders: What's hot? What's cool?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, A.J. van der; IJmker, S.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses the physical ergonomics and musculoskeletal disorders and summarizes the Triennial International Ergonomics Association (IEA) World Congress 2006-IEA2006-highlights on physical ergonomics and work-related MusculoSkeletal Disorders (MSDs). Two general trends are observed.

  3. Good ergonomic practices in a terminal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, Luciana Mattos dos; Curty, Adriana Favacho [CHEMTECH, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Franca, Guilherme Foerster do Monte; Jardino, Alessandro Neto [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Ergonomics is the technological design of the interplay between men, machines and environment in order to make labor activities more pleasant, profitable and functional. This article analyses the importance of ergonomic issues in process terminal plants and facilities, since the conceptual design stage until the detail engineering design. The ergonomic solutions are compared with practices that are current in engineering design plants nowadays. It will be shown how an inadequate ergonomic design often leads to accessibility problems and non-effectiveness during plant operation and dangers in emergency situations. The way perform an ergonomic design is to integrate the various disciplines that are involved in all stages of the design plant. The earlier the ergonomic design is implemented the better are the results in cost reduction, since later design modifications are more time-consuming and expensive. (author)

  4. Integrating ergonomics into the product development process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    1997-01-01

    key actors. Design and production engineers have a great influence on ergonomics in manufacturing departments. Ergonomics considerations are partly taken into account by production engineers but not as a part of standard operating procedures. There is a number of differences between design...... and production engineers regarding information sources in problem solving, communication pattern, perception of ergonomics, motivation and requests to support tools and methods. These differences and the social and organizational contexts of the development process must be taken into account when considering...

  5. HTO - A complementary ergonomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karltun, Anette; Karltun, Johan; Berglund, Martina; Eklund, Jörgen

    2017-03-01

    The field of human factors and ergonomics constitutes a strong potential in systems analysis, design and improvement. However, it is difficult to communicate its potential value. This paper addresses how the human-technology-organization (HTO) concept can be defined and supports the understanding, communication and development of the systems' character and potential of human factors and ergonomics. Empirical examples from the authors' experiences of working with the HTO concept in R&D and teaching are illustrated, including its usefulness as: 1) a conceptual model; 2) an analysis framework; 3) a meta methodology; 4) a pedagogical tool; and 5) a design tool. The use of HTO provides guidance on how the system can be designed to better support health, individual and systems performance. It is further suggested that there is a strong potential for developing the theory, applications and methodological aspects of HTO.

  6. Ergonomic applications to dental practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The term "work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs," refers to musculoskeletal disorders to which the work environment contributes significantly, or to musculoskeletal disorders that are made worse or longer lasting by work conditions or workplace risk factors. In recent years, there has been an increase in reporting WMSDs for dental persons. Risk factors of WMSDs with specific reference to dentistry include - stress, poor flexibility, improper positioning, infrequent breaks, repetitive movements, weak postural muscles, prolonged awkward postures and improper adjustment of equipment. Ergonomics is the science of designing jobs, equipment and workplaces to fit workers. Proper ergonomic design is necessary to prevent repetitive strain injuries, which can develop over time and can lead to long-term disability. In this article, 20 strategies to prevent WMSDs in the dental operatory are discussed.

  7. 1994 Ergonomics Program Quality Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longbotham, L.; Miller, D.P.

    1995-06-01

    A telephone survey was conducted to evaluate the quality of service provided to the primary customers of the Corporate Ergonomics Group (CEG). One hundred clients who received services between October 1993 and June 1994 were asked questions on their expectations, implementation of ergonomic recommendations, follow-ups, time required, productivity improvements, symptom alleviation, and satisfaction. Suggestions on how processes could be improved were also solicited. In general, recommendations are being implemented, worksite evaluations are going smoothly, and customers are satisfied with the process. The CEG was pleased to learn that half of the people who implemented recommendations experienced improvements in productivity, and four out of five symptomatic customers experienced partial or complete relief. Through analysis of the data and by studying clients` suggestions for process improvement, the CEG has developed a strategy for changing and improving current procedures and practices. These plans can be found in the last section of this report.

  8. Visual ergonomics in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshel, Jeffrey R

    2007-10-01

    This article provides information about visual function and its role in workplace productivity. By understanding the connection among comfort, health, and productivity and knowing the many options for effective ergonomic workplace lighting, the occupational health nurse can be sensitive to potential visual stress that can affect all areas of performance. Computer vision syndrome-the eye and vision problems associated with near work experienced during or related to computer use-is defined and solutions to it are discussed.

  9. [Ergonomics in planning and reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglioni, A; Capolongo, S

    2002-01-01

    The state of well being of people is not represented only by any illness, but also by the satisfaction of all environmental components around him. For this reason, the hospitals demand new and more project attentions and in particular they demand specific attentions for all the environmental qualities (light, colours, indoor air qualities, and temperature), the equipment, the furniture and the privacy. This new attention to the requirements of people, during the phase of planning, needs the ergonomic studies. This kind of discipline, in fact, has got the objective of good relationships between men and context where they live. The study of ergonomic qualities needs different competence of multiple areas of acquaintance, that collaborate to analyse the requirements of sanitary structure, and in particular they analyse needs of different categories of people that work or stay in this place (the patients, visitors and sanitary staff). Moreover ergonomic studies concurs to analyse the various factors of complexity, of the buildings, that are very important for the project of hospital. From the scientific literature, we say that some physical environmental characteristics (light, colour, noise,) can influence the psychological conditions of people, and in particular they can generate three different categories of reactions: behavioural, neuropsychological, neuroendocrinal. For this reason the study of all the environmental factors, simple and composed, is a primary necessity in the hospital planning. In this way we can guarantee to the patient, a better sanitary service and a better comfort, and we can guarantee to all sanitary staff adequate conditions of security and functionality.

  10. Ergonomic and work safety evaluation criteria of process excellence in the foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Butlewski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a concept of criteria assessment called the “process excellence” for ergonomics and work safety in enterprises of the foundry industry as well as points to the possibility of its application.

  11. Ergonomics in a national research and development programme for food technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Hansen, Iben Posniak

    1997-01-01

    The research question for the study presented in this paper was: What are the opportunities and barriers for integrating ergonomics aspects into joint projects sponsored by the FOETEK programme? The objectives were (i) to evaluate the outcome of this clause of accounting for ergonomics impacts......, and (ii) to put forward recommendations for improving the integration of ergonomics into joint projects sponsored by the FOETEK programme. A survey based on a questionnaire was conducted among 57 joint projects. A total of 217 project managers or contact persons received the questionnaire. The response...

  12. Knowledge of Computer Ergonomics among Computer Science Engineering and Information Technology Students in Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sherif Sirajudeen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ergonomics is the science of designing the job to fit the worker. Neglect of ergonomic principles results in inefficiency and pain in the workplace. The objective of this research is to assess the knowledge of Computer Ergonomics among Computer Science Engineering and Information Technology Students in Karnataka. In this Cross-sectional study, 177 Computer Science Engineering and Information Technology Students were recruited. A questionnaire is used to gather details regarding Personal characteristics, Computer Usage and Knowledge of Ergonomics. Descriptive statistics was produced for Personal characteristics and Computer usage. The distribution of responses to the items related to Ergonomic knowledge was presented by percentage of the subjects who answered correctly. The results shows that Majority of the subjects were unaware of ergonomics (32.8% correct responses, cumulative trauma disorders (18.6% correct responses, healthy postures related to elbow (34.4% correct responses, wrist & hand (39.5% correct responses, Level of Monitor (35% correct responses, Position of mouse (47.4% correct responses and Mini breaks (42.9% correct responses. This research highlighted the necessity of Ergonomic training regarding healthy postures and the measures to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal disorders for the students.

  13. The stage of change approach for implementing ergonomics advice - Translating research into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothmore, Paul; Aylward, Paul; Oakman, Jodi; Tappin, David; Gray, Jodi; Karnon, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    The Stage of Change (SOC) approach has been proposed as a method to improve the implementation of ergonomics advice. However, despite evidence for its efficacy there is little evidence to suggest it has been adopted by ergonomics consultants. This paper investigates barriers and facilitators to the implementation, monitoring and effectiveness of ergonomics advice and the adoption of the SOC approach in a series of focus groups and a subsequent survey of members of the Human Factors Societies of Australia and New Zealand. A proposed SOC assessment tool developed for use by ergonomics practitioners is presented. Findings from this study suggest the limited application of a SOC based approach to work-related musculoskeletal injury prevention by ergonomics practitioners is due to the absence of a suitable tool in the ergonomists' repertoire, the need for training in this approach, and their limited access to relevant research findings. The final translation of the SOC assessment tool into professional ergonomics practice will require accessible demonstration of its real-world usability to practitioners and the training of ergonomics practitioners in its application.

  14. Software development for the evaluation of the ergonomic compatibility on the selection of advanced manufacturing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Macías, A; Reyes, R; Guillen, L; García, J

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technology (AMT) is one of the most relevant resources that companies have to achieve competitiveness and best performance. The selection of AMT is a complex problem which involves significant amount of information and uncertainty when multiple aspects must be taken into consideration. Actual models for the selection of AMT are found scarce of the Human Factors and Ergonomics perspective which can lead to a more complete and reliable decision. This paper presents the development of software that enhances the application of an Ergonomic Compatibility Evaluation Model that supports decision making processes taking into consideration ergonomic attributes of designs. Ergonomic Compatibility is a construct used in this model and it is mainly based in the concept of human-artifact compatibility on human compatible systems. Also, an Axiomatic Design approach by the use of the Information Axiom was evolved under a fuzzy environment to obtain the Ergonomic Incompatibility Content. The extension of this axiom for the evaluation of ergonomic compatibility requirements was the theoretical framework of this research. An incremental methodology of four stages was used to design and develop the software that enables to compare AMT alternatives by the evaluation of Ergonomic Compatibility Attributes.

  15. Ergonomic study on human-powered vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mohd Azman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, new methods for ergonomic analysis of cyclist for 4-wheel recumbent seat human-powered vehicle (HPV are performed. An ergonomic index with fundamental formulation is developed in order to determine the level of comfortness during handling of the HPV. Basic reference of sitting postures are produced from three HPVs for 20 different individuals. All the dimensions, angles and measurements are recorded. The same individuals are required to sit on the three HPV models to evaluate their comfortness and ergonomic by observing the same dimensions, angles and measurements of leg and hand postures. The data is compared with reference comfort sitting ergonomic. This study is limited to a number of individuals which are the students of a university in Malaysia with age range from 20 to 24 years old. However, the ergonomic index can be expanded for Asian people and with some improvement in the parameters, it can be used for other countries. Derivation of ergonomic index and formulation in determining the comfort level and ergonomic of HPV. Using the ergonomic index, a new improved HPV can be developed. The index is also applicable with modification on several parameters in the formulation for other countries.

  16. Case studies--ergonomics in projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikaar, Ruud N

    2012-01-01

    The aim of a series of sessions on Company Case Studies, is to learn from practical experiences, to give feed back to researchers on applicability of theories, methods and techniques, and last but not least, to market ergonomics. In order to learn from case material, reports need to be easy accessible and well structured. System ergonomics provides such a structure. Usually a project is not done twice, i.e. with and without ergonomics. Therefore, it is not possible to make comparisons and determine the impact of ergonomics directly. A different approach is needed. It has been suggested at the IEA2006 World Congress, to compile a database of published case studies, each case to be reported in a fixed report format and critically reviewed to enable generalizing the outcomes. This paper proposes such a format. At the IEA2012 World Congress 40 case studies have been accepted, representing applied ergonomics cases in manufacturing, process industries, aviation and logistic systems.

  17. Ergonomic risk: social representations of dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Kelle Batista Moura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To learn the social representations of ergonomic risk prepared ​​by dental students. Methodology: This exploratory study, subsidized the Theory of Social Representations, with 64 dental students of an educational institution, by means of interviews. The data were processed in Alceste4.8 and lexical analysis done by the descending hierarchical classification. Results: In two categories: knowledge about exposure to ergonomic risk end attitude of students on preventing and treating injuries caused by repetitive motion. For students, the ergonomic risk is related to the attitude in the dental office. Conclusion: Prevention of ergonomic risk for dental students has not been incorporated as a set of necessary measures for their health and the patients, to prevent ergonomic hazards that can result in harm to the patient caused by work-related musculoskeletal disorder, which is reflected in a lower quality practice.

  18. Jan 20, 1995 to the editorial board of the new official Journal of The Chinese Ergonomics Society, The 《Chinese Ergonomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Recently The Chinese Ergonomics Society (CES) joined The International Ergonomics Association (IEA). As far as the most important ergonomic task. namely applying Ergonomics to our real life situations and conditions, is concerned.

  19. Semi-present Approachfor Intern Qualificationin Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory of UFPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Martins

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study has arisenfrom the experience in the discipline “Estágio Curricular" from Biomedicine,  Pharmacy and Laboratory Technique  courses in ULAB/HC/UFPE. The goal of this study wasto use a semi-present environment (50 hours to the qualification of the incoming students in 2011-1. Conventional classes were given through present approaches (theoretical-practical classes and the students were inscribed and trained in the virtual environment to accomplish the distant learning  course: “Capacitaçãodos Estagiários daULAB em Biossegurança e Coleta”, in which classes, debates, links, scientificstudies, tests and videoconferences were available. The presence phase was evaluated by the attendance (assiduity 98%, while the online phase was the result ofthe access reports (6,221, the progress of the exercises (95%, and the final evaluations grades available in thesystem (8.2. Theoretical-practical classes have provided interaction between content/teacher/student.Didactical model, quality contents and multidisciplinary  present approach remarkably contribute to diminish difficulties in using the tools and applications: 80% of students have never taken a distant learning coursebefore; 23% haven’t had a computer; 95% have declared that presential training helped them to conclude the course and 100%have stated non-restricted contents available online have facilitated their access. Current challenges in education is to conciliate technology and learningin favor of ensuring that the students take advantage on their potentialities.

  20. Challenges of the Unified Health System: present status of public laboratory services in 31 cities of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Guatimosim Vidigal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Modifications in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS have led to a significant improvement in the national health indexes. However, some challenges still need to be faced, especially concerning SUS patients' access to high-quality laboratory support services.Objective: To evaluate the present status of laboratory services in SUS in 31 cities of Minas Gerais, Brazil, between 2008 and 2011.Material and method: This analysis was performed through data from the Information Technology Department of SUS (DATASUS and through interviews with local public health managers with structured questionnaires.Results: Among all the studied cities, 21 had their own laboratory, 90.2% of which were in precarious conditions, not meeting the requirements established by the legislation in force, and employing inappropriate procedures and techniques, in addition to using obsolete equipment. The range of available laboratory tests was limited, what demanded the services of supporting laboratories. None of the evaluated laboratories developed any systematic activity on quality management, including control of analytical quality, maintenance of laboratory equipment, calibration and performance evaluation of critical equipment, continuing education programs, and safety and biosecurity.Conclusion: The effective role of laboratory test results in medical decision is unquestionably impaired, risking the safety of SUS patients. The present work reveals the deficiencies of public laboratory services in Minas Gerais, and proposes a new management model, which is able to associate operational quality, technological development and optimization of human and material resources with higher productivity.

  1. Ergonomics and kansei design; Ergonomics to kansei sekkei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaoka, T. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-05

    This paper describes product design in which a concept of ergonomics is employed and sensibility (kansei) is taken into consideration. In reference to an interface between human beings and machinery, the compatibility with both of them consists of five sides, namely compatibility in body, brain, time, environment and operation. It is necessary to give thought generally to each of these sides at the time of planning a design. Observing, scientific measuring and asking have been proposed methodologically in the utilization of ergonomics, a science to think over an interface. Especially, the scientific measuring is constituted of a measurement from a psychological side by SD method for example and a measurement from a physiological side by such method as heartbeat and a flicker value; the physiological data concerning sensibility is stored in a data base and made available for design work. Importantly, the composition of an interface that enhances sensibility increases the transparency of the interface as well; difference is obvious in a design work using a computer whether the screen is characters only or whether it is assisted with GUI(graphical user interface). 3 refs., 1 fig.

  2. An Integrated and Multivariate Model along with Designing Experiments Approach for Assessment of Micro- and Macro- Ergonomic Factors: The Case of a Gas Refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadeh, A; Mohammadfam, I; Sadjadi, M; Hamidi, Y; Kianfar, A

    2008-12-28

    The objectives of this paper are three folds. First, an integrated framework for designing and development of the integrated health, safety and environment (HSE) model is presented. Second, it is implemented and tested for a large gas refinery in Iran. Third, it is shown whether the total ergonomics model is superior to the conventional ergonomics approach. This study is among the first to examine total ergonomics components in a manufacturing system. This study was conducted in Sarkhoon & Qeshm Gas refinery- Iran in 2006. To achieve the above objectives, an integrated approach based on total ergonomics factors was developed. Second, it is applied to the refinery and the advantages of total ergonomics approach are discussed. Third, the impacts of total ergonomics factors on local factors are examined through non-parametric statistical analysis. It was shown that total ergonomics model is much more beneficial than conventional approach. It should be noted that the traditional ergonomics methodology is not capable of locating the findings of total ergonomics model. The distinguished aspect of this study is the employment of a total system approach based on integration of the conventional ergonomics factors with HSE factors.

  3. Ergonomic analysis jobs in recovered factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, Gabriela; Zotta, Gastón

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the deep economic crisis in Argentina on 2001, the recovery of companies through to the creation of the Cooperatives Working Self-Management or Factories Recovered by its workers was constituted as one of the ways in which the salaried disobeyed the increasing unemployment. When the companies turn into recovered factories they tend to leave of side practices that have been seen like imposed by the previous organization and not understanding them as a primary condition for the execution of his tasks. Safety and ergonomics are two disciplines that are no longer considered relevant to the daily work. Therefore this investigation aims to revalue, undergo semantic to give back to a place in every organization analyzed. This research developed a self-diagnostic tool for working conditions, and the environment, present in the recovered factories.

  4. Ergonomic design criteria for a novel laparoscopic tool handle with tactile feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårvik, R; Nesbakken, R; Langø, T; Yavuz, Y; Vanhauwaert Bjelland, H; Ottermo, M V; Stavdahl, O

    2006-10-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has many ergonomic disadvantages often not considered in the design of instruments. The poorly designed surgical tools produce inconveniences in both functional and cognitive aspects; including tactile sensation and visual-motor space coordination. The aim of this article is to find out how laparoscopic handle design can be improved by combining classical ergonomic guidelines with tactile feedback related to handle design. The article briefly discusses how the human hand and hand-held tools are used to perform tasks. An ergonomic handle for laparoscopic grasping, with a built-in tactile sensation display, is presented. Our review of laparoscopic instruments reveals important aspects for handle design. It is concluded that there is a need for greater awareness of ergonomic guidelines for users' sensory requirements when designing and manufacturing laparoscopic instruments.

  5. Ergonomics analyses of five joineries located in Florianópolis-SC, using the LEST Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Lizandra Lupi Garcia; Garcia, Carolina Schwinden; Miranda, Felipe Vergara

    2012-01-01

    Considering the goal of Ergonomic Work Analysis to establish, from the point of view of workers, safe, healthy, comfortable and efficient environments, this study propose to analyze the work situation of machine operators at five joineries from Florianópolis-SC. For this, it was applied the LEST Method to evaluate the task made by the operators, considering the physical, cognitive and organizational work environment. As results, it was identified the main ergonomics problems of these workstations, presenting an ergonomic diagnosis and their implications on health and safety of workers. As result, it was concluded that the main ergonomics problems at joineries are related with noise, with constant load of weight and with the postures taken. Besides these problems, others were diagnosed, for example, the pressure for workers to comply strictly the task stipulated and also the poor training and capacity of workers.

  6. From ergonomics to design specifications: contributions to the design of a processing machine in a tire company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, A S P; Arezes, P M; Vasconcelos, R

    2012-01-01

    The development of ergonomics' recommendations, guidelines and standards are attempts to promote the integration of ergonomics into industrial contexts. Such developments result from several sources and professionals and represent the effort that has been done to develop healthier and safer work environments. However, the availability of large amount of data and documents regarding ergonomics does not guarantee their applicability. The main goal of this paper is to use a specific case to demonstrate how ergonomics criteria were developed in order to contribute to the design of workplaces. Based on the obtained results from research undertaken in a tire company, it was observed that the ergonomics criteria should be presented as design specifications in order to be used by engineers and designers. In conclusion, it is observed that the multiple constraint environment impeded the appliance of the ergonomics criteria. It was also observed that the knowledge on technical design and the acquaintance with ergonomic standards, the level of integration in the design team, and the ability to communicate with workers and other technical staff have paramount importance in integrating ergonomics criteria into the design process.

  7. The struturing of an Ergonomics Program as a Center of Occupational Health Component in a public health institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugão, Suzana S M; Ricart, Simone L S I; Pinheiro, Renata M S; Gonçalves, Waldney M

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the description and discussion of a pilot project in an ergonomic action developed in a public health institution. This project involves the implantation of an Ergonomics Program (PROERGO) in a department of this institution, guided by a methodology structured on six stages, referenced in the literature by ergonomics authors. The methodology includes the training of workers and the formation of facilitators and multipliers of the ergonomics actions, aiming to the implementation of a cyclical process of actions and the consolidation of an ergonomics culture in the organization. Starting from the results of this experiment we intend to replicate this program model in other departments of the institution and to propose the methodology applied as a strategy of intervention to Occupational Health area.

  8. Ergonomics: case study in a university library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Capri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This final paper aimed to analyze the real ergonomics of a university library from Florianópolis and compare it with the ergonomics perceived by the user to perform an ergonomic diagnosis. In order to meet this goal two specific goals were established such as: describe the physical and environmental aspects of the library related to the real ergonomics and verify the actual perception of users about the library. As a theoretical approach, aspects of ergonomics and environmental ergonomics were contextualized and linked to the library and the university library. Referring to the methodology, the Ergonomical Assessment of the Built Environment was used as a reference. The study subjects comprised a sample of 15, among students and library staff. In the results obtained, when related to the physical-environmental analysis of the library, it was found that there are some aspects that differ from the regulatory standards and that also fall short in relation to feedback from users. Aspects such as lighting and noise were cited as unsatisfactory, but the temperature factor was analyzed as satisfactory.

  9. Ergonomics and cultural heritage: the Palatina chapel in Palermo, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Barbaro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The present article presents results of a study that aims at the assessment of ergonomic safety conditions inside the Palatina chapel of Palermo. To reach this object, an informative questionnaire was established so as to collect visitors’ subjective judgments regarding overall ergonomic conditions in terms of accessibility, availability, safety or else environmental conditions (thermo-hygrometry; air, sound and visual quality; this stage was carried out, bearing in mind the Museum Visitors’ Rights Card that is currently under creation by the “Legambiente” group. An automatic instrument was bought to daily count the numbers of visitors; the latter element shall then be related to indoor environmental data registered thanks to a monitoring system of thermohygrometry, illuminating engineering and environmental aggressiveness.

  10. Contradiction analysis: towards a dialectical approach in ergonomics field interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Nathanael

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a methodological contribution to the ergonomics field intervention process. It proposes a perspective on work analysis based on the dialectics notion of contradictions. Contradiction analysis is proposed as being complementary to more established work decomposition methods. The aim of including such an analysis is to frame various heterogeneous determinants of a work activity in practical terms, swiftly and in a manner that preserves its multifaceted unity and essence. Such framing is of particular value when considering alternative design solutions because it provides a practical means for anticipating the effects and side effects of proposed changes. The proposed method is inspired by two theoretical constructs: (i contradiction, as used in Cultural Historical Activity Theory, and (ii regulation, as developed and used by the francophone tradition of the ergonomics of activity. Two brief examples of its use are presented, and its usefulness, possible pitfalls and need for further developments are discussed.

  11. Pulmonary embolism in the elderly: a review on clinical, instrumental and laboratory presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Masotti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Luca Masotti1,8, Patrick Ray2, Marc Righini3, Gregoire Le Gal4, Fabio Antonelli5, Giancarlo Landini1, Roberto Cappelli6, Domenico Prisco7, Paola Rottoli81Internal Medicine, Cecina Hospital, Cecina, Italy; 2Department of Emergency Medicine, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Pitié-Salpêtrière, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Paris, France; 3Division of Angiology and Hemostasis, Geneva University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland; 4Department of Internal Medicine and Chest Diseases, Brest University Hospital, Brest, France; 5Clinical Chemistry, Cecina Hospital, Cecina, Italy; 6Department of Internal, Cardiovascular and Geriatric Medicine, University of Siena, Siena, Italy; 7Department of Critical Care Medicine, Thrombosis Centre, Careggi Hospital, Florence, Italy; 8Departiment of Clinical Medicine and Immunological Sciences, Division of Respiratory Diseases, University of Siena, Siena, ItalyObjective: Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE remains difficult and is often missed in the elderly due to nonspecific and atypical presentation. Diagnostic algorithms able to rule out PE and validated in young adult patients may have reduced applicability in elderly patients, which increases the number of diagnostic tools use and costs. The aim of the present study was to analyze the reported clinical presentation of PE in patients aged 65 and more.Materials and Methods: Prospective and retrospective English language studies dealing with the clinical, instrumental and laboratory aspects of PE in patients more than 65 and published after January 1987 and indexed in MEDLINE using keywords as pulmonary embolism, elderly, old, venous thromboembolism (VTE in the title, abstract or text, were reviewed.Results: Dyspnea (range 59%–91.5%, tachypnea (46%–74%, tachycardia (29%–76%, and chest pain (26%–57% represented the most common clinical symptoms and signs. Bed rest was the most frequent risk factor for VTE (15%–67%; deep vein

  12. Multi-touch pinch gestures: performance and ergonomics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoggan, Eve; Nacenta, Miguel; Kristensson, Per Ola; Williamson, John; Oulasvirta, Antti; Lehtiö, Anu

    2013-01-01

    Multi-touch gestures are prevalent interaction techniques for many different types of devices and applications. One of the most common gestures is the pinch gesture, which involves the expansion or contraction of a finger spread. There are multiple uses for this gesture—zooming and scaling being the most common—but little is known about the factors affecting performance and ergonomics of the gesture motion itself. In this note, we present the results from a study where we manipulated angle, d...

  13. Ergonomic analysis for a regional aircraft interior design.

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia Renata Dantas Alves Silva

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a preliminary interior design of a regional aircraft considering ergonomic and cost aspects. The use of virtual humans provides a better interpretation of the aircraft interior environment, making possible to simulate movements and passenger comfort aspects. The importance of this study becomes evident through the necessity of the aircraft manufacturer of predicting human behavior during all the flight phases. This text also aims to present the difficult...

  14. World War II and other historical influences on the formation of the Ergonomics Research Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterson, Patrick

    2011-12-01

    Little has been written about wartime ergonomics and the role this played in prompting the need for a society dedicated to ergonomics within the UK, namely the formation of the Ergonomics Research Society (ERS) in early 1950. This article aims to fill this gap in our understanding of the history of ergonomics in the UK and provide further details of the types of research undertaken by wartime research groups and committees such as the Institute of Aviation Medicine, Medical Research Council Applied Psychology Unit and the Flying Personnel Research Committee. In addition, the role of societal developments such as wartime links with the USA, the post-war drive to increase productivity and collaboration with industry and the recommendations of government committees in stimulating the work of the ERS are described in detail. This article also offers some reflection on present-day ergonomics in the UK and how this contrasts with the past. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This article will provide practitioners with a historical perspective on the development of ergonomics from its roots in the Second World War. These developments shed light on current trends and challenges within the discipline as a whole.

  15. The PhOCoe Model--ergonomic pattern mapping in participatory design processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva e Santos, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    The discipline and practice of human factors and ergonomics is quite rich in terms of the availability of analysis, development and evaluation tools and methods for its various processes. However, we lack effective instruments to either map or regulate comprehensively and effectively, cognitive and organizational related impacts, especially the environmental ones. Moreover, when ergonomic transformations through design - such as a new workstation design or even an entire new facility - is at play, ergonomics professionals tend to stay at bay, relying solely on design professionals and engineers. There is vast empirical evidence showing that participation of ergonomists as project facilitators, may contribute to an effective professional synergy amongst the various stakeholders in a multidisciplinary venue. When that happens, everyone wins - users and designers alike -because eventual conflicts, raised up in the midst of options selection, are dissipated in exchange for more convergent design alternatives. This paper presents a method for participatory design, in which users are encouraged to actively participate in the whole design process by sharing their real work activities with the design team. The negotiated results inferred from the ergonomic action and translated into a new design, are then compiled into a "Ergonomic Pattern Manual". This handbook of ergonomics-oriented design guidelines contains essential guidelines to be consulted in recurrent design project situations in which similar patterns might be used. The main drive is simple: nobody knows better than workers themselves what an adequate workplace design solution (equipment, workstation, office layout) should be.

  16. [Participatory ergonomics: a model for the prevention of occupational musculoskeletal disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Ana M; Gadea, Rafael; Sevilla, Maria José; Genís, Susana; Ronda, Elena

    2009-01-01

    Participatory ergonomics is an intervention strategy acting on physical load exposures occurring in occupational settings, scarcely known in Spain but with a number of experiences and evidences coming from other countries. There are several reasons justifying the interest of this approach. First, participatory ergonomics focuses on one of the categories of occupational exposures with the largest impact on workers' health in a majority of countries all over the world, in terms of incidence, prevalence and disability. Secondly, basic principle in participatory ergonomics is empowerment of workers for them to participate identifying risks and injuries caused by physical exposures at work as well as proposing and evaluating proper control measures for each situation. Thirdly, it allows dealing and solving a number of problems without the use of complex technical protocols. From a public health perspective, participatory ergonomics is a largely tried model of community empowerment for the control of (occupational) factors affecting health and wellbeing. In this paper we revise some basic principles of participatory ergonomics, we comment on the keys leading to success or failing of the interventions and we present some main results coming from participatory ergonomics experiences developed for a long time in countries such as Canada, United Kingdom, Netherlands or Finland.

  17. Present knowledge about Laboratory Testing of Axial Loading on Suction Caissons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzotti, E.; Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    on the structure is resisted by push-pull loads on the vertical axis of each suction caisson. Relevant works where this situation is examined by means of laboratory testing are summarized in this article, then different conclusions are followed by discussion and comparison. In the initial theoretical section...

  18. An Improved Method of Presenting Laboratory Demonstrations in Physiology and Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Michael H.; Oliver, Jack W.

    1979-01-01

    The use of a laboratory demonstration and discussion period in physiology and pharmacology instruction at the Univeristy of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine is described. The advantages for instruction include lower costs, fewer personnel and animals required, less time required in the curriculum, and increased student attention in class.…

  19. The effects of ergonomic stressors on process tool maintenance and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.

    1998-03-31

    This study examines ergonomic stressors associated with front-end process tool maintenance, relates them to decreased machine utilization, and proposes solution strategies to reduce their negative impact on productivity. Member company ergonomists observed technicians performing field maintenance tasks on seven different bottleneck tools and recorded ergonomic stressors using SEMaCheck, a graphics-based, integrated checklist developed by Sandia National Laboratories. The top ten stressors were prioritized according to a cost formula that accounted for difficulty, time, and potential errors. Estimates of additional time on a task caused by ergonomic stressors demonstrated that machine utilization could be increased from 6% to 25%. Optimal solution strategies were formulated based on redesign budget, stressor cost, and estimates of solution costs and benefits

  20. Trapezius Muscle Activity in using Ordinary and Ergonomically Designed Dentistry Chairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Haddad

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most dentists complain of musculoskeletal disorders which can be caused by prolonged static posture, lack of suitable rest and other physical and psychological problems. Objective: We evaluated a chair with a new ergonomic design which incorporated forward leaning chest and arm supports. Methods: The chair was evaluated in the laboratory during task simulation and EMG analysis on 12 students and subjectively assessed by 30 professional dentists using an 18-item questionnaire. EMG activity of right and left trapezius muscles for 12 male students with no musculoskeletal disorders was measured while simulating common tasks like working on the teeth of the lower jaw. Results: Normalized EMG data showed significant reduction (p<0.05 in all EMG recordings of the trapezius muscle. Dentists also unanimously preferred the ergonomically designed chair. Conclusion: Such ergonomically designed chairs should be introduced as early as possible in student training before bad postural habits are acquired.

  1. Ergonomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... illness recording. Early identification and treatment of injured employees. "Light duty" or "no lifting" work restrictions during recovery periods. Systematic monitoring of injured employees to identify when they are ready to return ... duty. Training: A training program, designed and implemented by ...

  2. Cognitive ergonomics of operational tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdeke, A.

    2012-10-01

    Control systems have become increasingly more powerful over the past decades. The availability of high data throughput and sophisticated graphical interactions has opened a variety of new possibilities. But has this helped to provide intuitive, easy to use applications to simplify the operation of modern large scale accelerator facilities? We will discuss what makes an application useful to operation and what is necessary to make a tool easy to use. We will show that even the implementation of a small number of simple application design rules can help to create ergonomic operational tools. The author is convinced that such tools do indeed help to achieve higher beam availability and better beam performance at accelerator facilities.

  3. Ergonomic microscope comfort and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Elizabeth Anne

    2011-03-01

    Microscope use in the inspection phase of computer chip manufacturing is a major cause of worker discomfort and injury. A two-phase ergonomics project to reduce employee fatigue and discomfort was planned, implemented, and evaluated in a microscope user environment within a high-technology manufacturing environment. Total Quality Management methodology and tools were employed by a multidisciplinary team led by an occupational health nurse practitioner to accomplish the project goals. A multifaceted approach including equipment changes, administrative changes, and focused training for behavior changes achieved the desired reduction in reports of fatigue and discomfort among microscope users. Occupational health nurses are ideal candidates to lead teams to accomplish meaningful health and safety goals consistent with corporate quality initiatives and strategic objectives. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Disparities between industrial and surgical ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagull, F Jacob

    2012-01-01

    A surgeon's work environment and working conditions are often harsher than those of an industrial worker. Accepted principles and regulations of ergonomics in manufacturing are largely ignored or absent in the medical/surgical domain. Examples include poor surgical tool handle design, awkward and stressful surgical postures, and prolonged standing without breaks and without a foot mat. In these and other areas, there are documented "best practices" for industrial hygiene and ergonomics that are not yet widely accepted for surgery. There is support in the literature for innovations in surgical ergonomics, yet adoption is not widespread. In the absence of these ergonomic principles, surgical repetitive strain injuries in minimally invasive surgery are reaching epidemic levels. As ergonomists, it falls upon us to understand why current solutions have not been widely adopted within this domain, and to derive solutions to the unique challenges of surgery.

  5. Ergonomic Strategies for Using a Purse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergonomic Strategies for Using a Purse Effects of Wearing a Heavy Purse • Heavy purses worn over one ... Selecting the Right Purse • For purses with short handles • Switch positions frequently to avoid fatigue from muscle ...

  6. An Assessment of Student Computer Ergonomic Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Melody W.

    1997-01-01

    Business students (n=254) were assessed on their knowledge of computers, health and safety, radiation, workstations, and ergonomic techniques. Overall knowledge was low in all categories. In particular, they had not learned computer-use techniques. (SK)

  7. Introducing Ergonomics in Two US Elementary Schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C L; Tien, D

    2003-06-25

    The increasing presence of computers and other forms of information and communications technology (ICT) in schools has raised concerns in the United States (US) and elsewhere. Children are using computers more than any other age group in the US. It is not known whether early intensive use of ICT predisposes children to future injury. Ergonomics is not included in state curriculum standards or requirements but can be supported by some of the existing standards. Some who believe that children are better off being educated early about ergonomics are taking action to bring ergonomics into elementary and secondary schools. This paper describes the process used to introduce ergonomics into two elementary schools in two different states by initiators with two different roles.

  8. Ergodesk-desktop Ergonomics Using the New Quadratic Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baskar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ergonomics is nothing but the rules governing the workplace. ErgoDesk is the ultimate drug-free way to look after your spine and health. This research provides an interesting and realistic solution towards achieving the goal maintaining good health. Physical stress at the work environment can reduce efficiency of the individuals at work. Ergonomics is described as the rules to be adapted by one, at work environment. The main focus of ergonomics is to reduce the physical stress caused by factors like improper body mechanics, repetitive motor movements, static positions, vibrations, lighting and impact or contact with objects. Henceforth, through this paper, we present a distinct tool called the “ERGODESK”, which could be useful for monitoring a computer user’s posture and activities. In this study, we present a real time feedback system for detecting people and their postures and generating summaries of postures and activities over a specified period of time. The system runs reliably on different people and under any lighting. The fundamental challenge, to detect the change in user’s posture most accurately in the least time, has been analysed and a solution in form of new Quadratic Search Algorithm has been proposed. The system captures an image of the user at regular intervals of time, carries out certain pre-processing steps and then checks for a change in user’s posture by comparing it with a reference image acquired previously in series of steps as per the New Quadratic Search algorithm. Then the user is notified about the change of his ergonomic posture.

  9. Indonesia ergonomics roadmap: where we are going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wignjosoebroto, Sritomo

    2007-12-01

    There are so many definitions for ergonomics terms such as human factors, human factors engineering, human engineering, human factors psychology, engineering psychology, applied ergonomics, occupational ergonomics, industrial ergonomics and industrial engineering. The most inclusive terms are ergonomics and human factors. Both represent the study of work and the interaction between people and their work environmental systems. The main objective is especially fitting with the need to design, develop, implement and evaluate human-machine and environment systems that are productive, comfortable, safe and satisfying to use. The work of the ergonomists in Indonesia--most of them are academicians--have one thing in common, i.e. with the appropriate type of ergonomic approaches to interventions; there would be improvements in productivity, quality of working conditions, occupational safety and health (OSH), costs reduction, better environment, and increase in profits. So many researches, training, seminars and socialization about ergonomics and OSH have been done concerning micro-to-macro themes; but it seems that we are practically still running at the same place up to now. In facts, workers are still working using their traditional or obsolete methods in poor working conditions. Accidents are still happening inside and outside industry with the main root-cause being human "unsafe behavior" and errors. Industrial products cannot compete in the global market, and so many manufacturing industries collapsed or relocated to foreign countries. This paper discusses such a roadmap and review what we ergonomists in Indonesia have done and where we are going to? This review will be treated in the field of ergonomics and OSH to take care the future Indonesia challenges. Some of the challenges faced are care for the workers, care for the people, care for the quality and productivity of work, care for the new advanced technologies, care for the environment, and last but not least

  10. Ergonomic risk: social representations of dental students

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Luana Kelle Batista; UNAERP; Sousa, Yara Teresinha Correa Silva; UNAERP; Moura, Guilherme César Batista; UNINOVAFAPI; Matos,Francisca Tereza Coelho; Falcão,Carlos Alberto Monteiro; Monte, Thiago LIma

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To learn the social representations of ergonomic risk prepared ​​by dental students. Methodology: This exploratory study, subsidized the Theory of Social Representations, with 64 dental students of an educational institution, by means of interviews. The data were processed in Alceste4.8 and lexical analysis done by the descending hierarchical classification. Results: In two categories: knowledge about exposure to ergonomic risk end attitude of students on preventing and treating in...

  11. Ergonomic assessment of porridge roaming sale system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, J; Cardoso, V; Abreu, A; Didoné, L; Evangelista, M; Serra, F

    2012-01-01

    This paper makes suggestions for the realization of an ergonomic intervention, guided by the method of Moraes and Mont'Alvão (2009), in the system of street vending of porridge, to improve the working conditions of this sales segment. Specifics are given about this practice and its problems, from ergonomic analysis comes to suggestions for improvements to be applied to a new system.

  12. THE VALUE CHAIN AND THE BENEFITS OF ERGONOMICS PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma LÓGÓ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the most competitive companies are always innovative, renewable and able to be ‘the best’ in something. But what does one of the most important resources – the human resource – need to achieve a high level of success in his or her workplace? He needs a creative workplace environment where he feels himself in safe, has inspiration and meets challenges. Ergonomics is a human centred science. The ergonomists are focused on the interfaces of the individual person and his or her narrow or wide work environment. Ergonomists typically have not been trained in management or business administration. The business-oriented topics such as cost justification and cost–benefit analysis have not been a part of their curricula. Not surprisingly, instead of presenting the projects to the management in the language of business, they make a great effort to improve engineering design, health and safety, and the quality of work life on. Regardless of the benefits that may be realized from ergonomic improvements, managers are usually willing to provide funds for the intervention unless there is a clear economic benefit to be derived. The ergonomics projects do result in significant economic benefits if they are properly planned and implemented.

  13. A Survey of Established Veterinary Clinical Skills Laboratories from Europe and North America: Present Practices and Recent Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilly, Marc; Read, Emma K; Baillie, Sarah

    2017-05-23

    Developing competence in clinical skills is important if graduates are to provide entry-level care but it is dependent on having had sufficient hands-on practice. Clinical skills laboratories provide opportunities for students to learn on simulators and models in a safe environment and to supplement training with animals. Interest in facilities for developing veterinary clinical skills has increased in recent years as many veterinary colleges face challenges in training their students with traditional methods alone. For the present study, we designed a survey to gather information from established veterinary clinical skills laboratories with the aim of assisting others considering opening or expanding their own facility. Data were collated from 16 veterinary colleges in North America and Europe about the uses of their laboratory, the building and associated facilities, and the staffing, budgets, equipment, and supporting learning resources. The findings indicated that having a dedicated veterinary clinical skills laboratory is a relatively new initiative and that colleges have adopted a range of approaches to implementing and running the laboratory, teaching, and assessments. Major strengths were the motivation and positive characteristics of the staff involved, providing open access and supporting self-directed learning. However, respondents widely recognized the increasing demands placed on the facility to provide more space, equipment, and staff. There is no doubt that veterinary clinical skills laboratories are on the increase and provide opportunities to enhance student learning, complement traditional training, and benefit animal welfare.

  14. Ergonomic Study and Design of the Pulpit of a Wire Rod Mill at an Integrated Steel Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra P. Dewangan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents ergonomic study and design of the pulpit in a wire rod mill at an integrated steel plant. The mill was facing problem of less productivity of workers due to lack of proper work posture and working conditions. The study data were collected from the interview of seven operators involved with the pulpit. Relevant ergonomic tools were used for assessing the survey data for identifying the risk factors involved with these operators. Ergonomically improved pulpit was proposed for reducing the musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs thereby increasing the productivity of the plant.

  15. Novel Ergonomic Postural Assessment Method (NERPA) Using Product-Process Computer Aided Engineering for Ergonomic Workplace Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lite, Alberto; Garcia, Manuel; Domingo, Rosario; Angel Sebastian, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) that result from poor ergonomic design are one of the occupational disorders of greatest concern in the industrial sector. A key advantage in the primary design phase is to focus on a method of assessment that detects and evaluates the potential risks experienced by the operative when faced with these types of physical injuries. The method of assessment will improve the process design identifying potential ergonomic improvements from various design alternatives or activities undertaken as part of the cycle of continuous improvement throughout the differing phases of the product life cycle. Methodology/Principal Findings This paper presents a novel postural assessment method (NERPA) fit for product-process design, which was developed with the help of a digital human model together with a 3D CAD tool, which is widely used in the aeronautic and automotive industries. The power of 3D visualization and the possibility of studying the actual assembly sequence in a virtual environment can allow the functional performance of the parts to be addressed. Such tools can also provide us with an ergonomic workstation design, together with a competitive advantage in the assembly process. Conclusions The method developed was used in the design of six production lines, studying 240 manual assembly operations and improving 21 of them. This study demonstrated the proposed method’s usefulness and found statistically significant differences in the evaluations of the proposed method and the widely used Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) method. PMID:23977340

  16. Present Status of Igex Dark Matter Search at Canfranc Underground Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irastorza, I. G.; Morales, A.; Aalseth, C. E.; Avignone, F. T., III; Brodzinski, R. L.; Carmona, J. M.; Cebrián, S.; García, E.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Klimenko, A. A.; Luzón, G.; Miley, H. S.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Osetrov, S. B.; Pogosov, V. S.; Puimedón, J.; Reeves, J. H.; Sarsa, M. L.; Smolnikov, A. A.; Tamanyan, A. G.; Vasenko, A. A.; Vasiliev, S. I.; Villar, J. A.

    2003-03-01

    One IGEX 76Ge double-beta decay detector is currently operating in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory in a search for dark matter WIMPs, through the Ge nuclear recoil produced by the WIMP elastic scattering. In this talk we report on the on-going efforts to understand and eventually reject the background at low energy. These efforts have led to the improvement of the neutron shielding and to partial reduction of the background, but still the remaining events are not totally identified. A tritium contamination or muon-induced neutrons are considered as possible sources, simulations and experimental test being still under progress. According to the success of this study we comment the prospects of the experiment as well as those of its future extension, the GEDEON dark matter experiment.

  17. Ergonomics Designs of Aluminum Beverage Cans & Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Itoh, Ryouiti; Yamazaki, Koetsu; Nishiyama, Sadao; Shinguryo, Takuro

    2005-08-01

    This paper introduced the finite element analyses into the ergonomics designs to evaluate the human feelings numerically and objectively. Two design examples in developing aluminum beverage cans & bottles are presented. The first example describes a design of the tab of the can with better finger access. A simulation of finger pulling up the tab of the can has been performed and a pain in the finger has been evaluated by using the maximum value of the contact stress of a finger model. The finger access comparison of three kinds of tab ring shape designs showed that the finger access of the tab that may have a larger contact area with finger is better. The second example describes a design of rib-shape embossed bottles for hot vending. Analyses of tactile sensation of heat have been performed and the amount of heat transmitted from hot bottles to finger was used to present the hot touch feeling. Comparison results showed that the hot touch feeling of rib-shape embossed bottles is better than that of cylindrical bottles, and that the shape of the rib also influenced the hot touch feeling.

  18. A review of ISO and CEN standards on ergonomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dul, J.; Vlaming, P.M. de; Munnik, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years an increasing number of official ergonomic standards has become available world-wide. The International Standardization Organization (ISO) and the European standardization organization Comite Europeen de Normalisation (CEN) have published 28 ergonomic standards, whereas 69 standards

  19. A review of ISO and CEN standards on ergonomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dul, J.; Vlaming, P.M. de; Munnik, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years an increasing number of official ergonomic standards has become available world-wide. The International Standardization Organization (ISO) and the European standardization organization Comite Europeen de Normalisation (CEN) have published 28 ergonomic standards, whereas 69 standards

  20. Epidemiology, Clinical Presentation, Laboratory Diagnosis, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Antimicrobial Management of Invasive Salmonella Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjölund-Karlsson, Maria; Gordon, Melita A.; Parry, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Salmonella enterica infections are common causes of bloodstream infection in low-resource areas, where they may be difficult to distinguish from other febrile illnesses and may be associated with a high case fatality ratio. Microbiologic culture of blood or bone marrow remains the mainstay of laboratory diagnosis. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged in Salmonella enterica, initially to the traditional first-line drugs chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Decreased fluoroquinolone susceptibility and then fluoroquinolone resistance have developed in association with chromosomal mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of genes encoding DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV and also by plasmid-mediated resistance mechanisms. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins has occurred more often in nontyphoidal than in typhoidal Salmonella strains. Azithromycin is effective for the management of uncomplicated typhoid fever and may serve as an alternative oral drug in areas where fluoroquinolone resistance is common. In 2013, CLSI lowered the ciprofloxacin susceptibility breakpoints to account for accumulating clinical, microbiologic, and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic data suggesting that revision was needed for contemporary invasive Salmonella infections. Newly established CLSI guidelines for azithromycin and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi were published in CLSI document M100 in 2015. PMID:26180063

  1. Present status of IGEX dark matter search at Canfranc Underground Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irastorza, I.G. E-mail: Igor.Irastorza@cern.ch; Morales, A.; Aalseth, C.E.; Avignone, F.T.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Cebrian, S.; Garcia, E.; Kirpichnikov, I.V.; Klimenko, A.A.; Miley, H.S.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Osetrov, S.B.; Pogosov, V.S.; Puimedon, J.; Reeves, J.H.; Sarsa, M.L.; Smolnikov, A.A.; Tamanyan, A.G.; Vasenko, A.A.; Vasiliev, S.I.; Villar, J.A

    2002-07-01

    One IGEX {sup 76}Ge double-beta decay detector is currently operating in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory in a search for dark matter WIMPs, through the Ge nuclear recoil produced by the WIMP elastic scattering. A new exclusion plot, {sigma}(m), has been derived for WIMP-nucleon spin-independent interactions. To obtain this result, 40 days of data from the IGEX detector (energy threshold E{sub thr} {approx} 4 keV), recently collected, have been analyzed. These data improve the exclusion limits derived from all the other ionization germanium detectors in the mass region from 20 GeV to 200 GeV, where a WIMP supposedly responsible for the annual modulation effect reported by the DAMA experiment would be located. The new IGEX exclusion contour enters, by the first time, the DAMA region by using only raw data, with no background discrimination, and excludes its upper left part. It is also shown that with a moderate improvement of the detector performances, the DAMA region could be fully explored.

  2. Present Status of IGEX Dark Matter Search of Canfranc Underground Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irastorza, I. G.(Universidad de Zaragoza); Morales, A (Universidad de Zaragoza); Aalseth, Craig E.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Avignone, Frank T.(UNKNOWN); Brodzinski, Ronald L.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Cebrian, S (Unknown); Garcia, E (Universidad de Zaragoza); Kirpichnikov, I. V.(Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow Russia); Klimenko, A A.(Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics); Miley, Harry S.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Morales, J (Universidad de Zaragoza); De Solorzano, A. O.(Universidad de Zaragoza); Osetrov, S. B.(Institute for Nuclear Research, Baksan Neutrino Observatory, Russia); Pogosov, V. S.(Yerevan Physical Institute, Armenia); Puimedon, J (Universidad de Zaragoza); Reeves, James H.(SELF-EMPLOYED CONSULTANTS); Sarsa, M. ..(Universidad de Zaragoza); Smolnikov, A. A.(Institute for Nuclear Research, Baksan Neutrino, Russia); Tamanyan, A. G.(Yerevan Physical Institute, Armenia); Vasenko, A. A.(Institute for Nuclear Research, Baksan Neutrino Observatory, Russia); Vasiliev, S. I.(Institute for Nucearl Reseaarch, Baksan Neutrino Observatory, Russia); Villar, Jose A.(VISITORS)

    2002-07-02

    One IGEX 78Ge double-beta decay detector is currently operating in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory in a search for dark matter WIMPs, through the Ge nuclear recoil produced by the WIMP elasatic scattering. A new exclusion plot, sigma(m), has been derived for WIMP-nucleon spin-independent interactions. To obtain this result, 40 days of data from the IGEX detector (energy threshold Ethr~ 4 keV), recently collected, have been analyzed. These data improve the exclusion lmiits derived from all the other ionization germanium detectors in the mass region from 20 GeV to 200 GeV, where a WIMP supposedly responsible for the annual modulation effect reported by the DAMA experiment would be located. The new IGEX exclusion contour enters, by the first time, the DAMA region by using only raw data, with no background discrimination, and excludes its upper left part. It is also shown that with a moderate improvement of the detector performances, the DAMA region could be fully explored.

  3. Present status of IGEX dark matter search at Canfranc Underground Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Irastorza, I G; Aalseth, C E; Brodzinski, R L; Cebrián, S; García, E; Kirpichnikov, I V; Klimenko, A A; Miley, H S; Morales, J; De Solorzano, A O; Osetrov, S B; Pogosov, V S; Puimedón, J; Reeves, J H; Sarsa, M L; Smolnikov, A A; Tamanyan, A G; Vasenko, A A; Vasilev, S I; Villar, J A

    2001-01-01

    One IGEX 76Ge double-beta decay detector is currently operating in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory in a search for dark matter WIMPs, through the Ge nuclear recoil produced by the WIMP elastic scattering. A new exclusion plot has been derived for WIMP-nucleon spin-independent interactions. To obtain this result, 40 days of data from the IGEX detector (energy threshold 4 keV), recently collected, have been analyzed. These data improve the exclusion limits derived from all the other ionization germanium detectors in the mass region from 20 GeV to 200 GeV, where a WIMP supposedly responsible for the annual modulation effect reported by the DAMA experiment would be located. The new IGEX exclusion contour enters, by the first time, the DAMA region by using only raw data, with no background discrimination, and excludes its upper left part. It is also shown that with a moderate improvement of the detector performances, the DAMA region could be fully explored.

  4. Ergonomics, design universal and fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, S B; Martins, L B

    2012-01-01

    People who lie beyond the "standard" model of users often come up against barriers when using fashion products, especially clothing, the design of which ought to give special attention to comfort, security and well-being. The principles of universal design seek to extend the design process for products manufactured in bulk so as to include people who, because of their personal characteristics or physical conditions, are at an extreme end of some dimension of performance, whether this is to do with sight, hearing, reach or manipulation. Ergonomics, a discipline anchored on scientific data, regards human beings as the central focus of its operations and, consequently, offers various forms of support to applying universal design in product development. In this context, this paper sets out a reflection on applying the seven principles of universal design to fashion products and clothing with a view to targeting such principles as recommendations that will guide the early stages of developing these products, and establish strategies for market expansion, thereby increasing the volume of production and reducing prices.

  5. The ergonomics of wheelchair configuration for optimal performance in the wheelchair court sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Barry S; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing mobility performance in wheelchair court sports (basketball, rugby and tennis) is dependent on a combination of factors associated with the user, the wheelchair and the interfacing between the two. Substantial research has been attributed to the wheelchair athlete yet very little has focused on the role of the wheelchair and the wheelchair-user combination. This article aims to review relevant scientific literature that has investigated the effects of wheelchair configuration on aspects of mobility performance from an ergonomics perspective. Optimizing performance from an ergonomics perspective requires a multidisciplinary approach. This has resulted in laboratory-based investigations incorporating a combination of physiological and biomechanical analyses to assess the efficiency, health/safety and comfort of various wheelchair configurations. To a lesser extent, field-based testing has also been incorporated to determine the effects of wheelchair configuration on aspects of mobility performance specific to the wheelchair court sports. The available literature has demonstrated that areas of seat positioning, rear wheel camber, wheel size and hand-rim configurations can all influence the ergonomics of wheelchair performance. Certain configurations have been found to elevate the physiological demand of wheelchair propulsion, others have been associated with an increased risk of injury and some have demonstrated favourable performance on court. A consideration of all these factors is required to identify optimal wheelchair configurations. Unfortunately, a wide variety of different methodologies have immerged between studies, many of which are accompanied by limitations, thus making the identification of optimal configurations problematic. When investigating an area of wheelchair configuration, many studies have failed to adequately standardize other areas, which has prevented reliable cause and effect relationships being established. In addition, a large

  6. Ergonomic concerns with lightbar guidance displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ima, C S; Mann, D D

    2004-05-01

    This article reviews some ergonomic factors associated with agricultural guidance displays. Any technology or management decision that improves the efficiency of an agricultural operation can be considered an aspect of precision farming. Agricultural guidance displays are one such tool because they help to reduce guidance error (i.e., skipping and overlapping of implements within the field), which result in improper application of crop inputs at increased cost. Although each of the guidance displays currently available functions using a different principle, their key objective is to communicate useful guidance information to the operator of the agricultural machine. The case with which the operator obtains the required information depends on a number of ergonomic factors, such as color perceptibility, flash rate, attentional demand, display size, viewing distance, and height of placement of the display in the cab. Ergonomics can be defined as the application of knowledge to create a safe, comfortable, and effective work environment. Consequently, it is critical to consider ergonomics when designing guidance displays or when locating a display in the tractor cab. Without considering ergonomics, it is unlikely that the efficiency of the human-machine system can be optimized.

  7. Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Freire Vieira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This dossier focuses on one of the essential debate topics today about the territorial dimension of the new development strategies concerned with the worsening of the global socioecological crisis, that is: the challenges related to the activation and integration in networks of localized agri-food systems. For its composition, some contributions presented and debated during the VI International Conference on Localized Agri-food System - The LAFS facing the opportunities and challenges of the new global context have been gathered. The event took place in the city of Florianópolis, from May 21th to 25th of 2013. The event was promoted by the Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC and by the Center for the International Cooperation on Agricultural Research for Development (CIRAD. Besides UFSC and CIRAD, EPAGRI, State University of Santa Catarina (UDESC, as well as research institutes and universities from other states (UFMG, IEA/SP, UFS, UFRGS and Mexican and Argentinian partners from the RED SIAL Latino Americana also participated in the organization of lectures, discussion tables and workshops.

  8. Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Vicente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present edition of Significação – Scientific Journal for Audiovisual Culture and in the others to follow something new is brought: the presence of thematic dossiers which are to be organized by invited scholars. The appointed subject for the very first one of them was Radio and the invited scholar, Eduardo Vicente, professor at the Graduate Course in Audiovisual and at the Postgraduate Program in Audiovisual Media and Processes of the School of Communication and Arts of the University of São Paulo (ECA-USP. Entitled Radio Beyond Borders the dossier gathers six articles and the intention of reuniting works on the perspectives of usage of such media as much as on the new possibilities of aesthetical experimenting being build up for it, especially considering the new digital technologies and technological convergences. It also intends to present works with original theoretical approach and original reflections able to reset the way we look at what is today already a centennial media. Having broadened the meaning of “beyond borders”, four foreign authors were invited to join the dossier. This is the first time they are being published in this country and so, in all cases, the articles where either written or translated into Portuguese.The dossier begins with “Radio is dead…Long live to the sound”, which is the transcription of a thought provoking lecture given by Armand Balsebre (Autonomous University of Barcelona – one of the most influential authors in the world on the Radio study field. It addresses the challenges such media is to face so that it can become “a new sound media, in the context of a new soundscape or sound-sphere, for the new listeners”. Andrew Dubber (Birmingham City University regarding the challenges posed by a Digital Era argues for a theoretical approach in radio studies which can consider a Media Ecology. The author understands the form and discourse of radio as a negotiation of affordances and

  9. Service quality as goal and outcome of ergonomics research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning

    2014-01-01

    Ergonomics research needs to design organizational level, occupational health interventions that contribute to improving organizational performance so as to become of practical relevance for management. This paper analyses a study evaluating the impact of such interventions on user satisfaction...... ergonomic outcomes and organizational performance. Consequently, ergonomics research may benefit from including measures of organizational performance....

  10. Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Renders

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We present to our esteemed readers the second edition of our journal for 2008. We have chosen the theme “The life and work of Prof. Dr. Jürgen Moltmann” as its special emphasis. It is our way to pay homage to J. Moltmann in the year the Universidade Metodista de São Paulo awards him an honorary Doctor Honoris Causa degree. Sincethe seventies, Moltmann and Latin America have been in dialog. In his emblematic work “A Theology of Liberation”, Gustavo Gutiérrez, the Catholic, discussed with Moltmann, the Reformed, the relationship between eschatology and history (GUTIÉRREZ, Gustavo.Teologia da Libertação. 5ª edição. Petrópolis, RJ: Vozes, 1985, p. 27, 137-139. A dialog held in the premises of IMS, which nowadays is called UMESP, has produced the little book “Passion for life” (MOLTMANN, Jürgen. Paixão pela vida. São Paulo, SP: ASTE - Associaçãode Seminários Teológicos Evangélicos, 1978.In the following years, the wide theological work of J. Moltmann went all the way from debates to congresses and has conquered the classrooms. Most probably, J. Moltmann is nowadays the most widely read European author in Brazilian theological seminaries. Thisrecognition can only be held in unison and the wide response to our request for articles confirms the huge repercussion that Moltmann’s work has been having up to today in Brazil. The ecumenical theologian J. Moltmann is ecumenically read. We believe that thisway we may be better equipped to answer to anyone who asks us for the reason there is hope in us. We have organized the articles on J. Moltmann’s theology according to the original publication date of the books dealt with in each essay. We also communicate that some articles which were originally requested for this edition of the journal will be published in the journal Estudos de Regilião in May 2009.As it is usual with the journal Caminhando, we have, besides this thematic emphasis, yet other contributions in the areas of

  11. Norovirus infection: features of epidemiology and clinical and laboratory manifestations at the present stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Pronko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Among most significant for practical medicine infections, acute intestinal infections of viral etiology are becoming increasingly topical [2, 4]. According to domestic and foreign literature, up to 70 % of gastroenteritis occur during cold seasons of the year and are induced by viruses [3, 5]. The range of the factors producing viral diarrheas is rather wide. One of the comparatively new acute intestinal infections (AII producing factors is noroviruses [5, 6]. The prevalence of noroviruses has been little studied, and the clinical picture has been characterized insufficiently. This can be explained by insufficient diagnostics and registration of this infection [3, 6, 7]. Aim of the work: analysis of the morbidity and determination of clinical laboratory features of noroviral infection (NVI in children according to the data of the Regional Clinical Infectious Di­seases Hospital in Grodno. Materials and methods. A comprehensive clinical laboratory analysis of 1,105 case histories of children aged 1 month to 14 years with verified viral intestinal infection, who were admitted to Grodno Regional Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital from January 2013 to December 2016, was carried out. The patients were divided according to the final clinical diagnosis in the following way: rotaviral infection (RVI was found in 676 (61.2 % individuals, adenoviral intestinal infection (AVI — in 212 (19.2 %, NVI was detected in 156 (14.1 % and enteroviral infection — in 61 (5.5 % persons. The examination was carried out according to the protocols approved by the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus. Results. As our study showed, at the period analyzed the viral intestinal diseases amounted to 70.4 % of all the cases of diseases in the structure of AII in children. Patients hospitalized with viral diarrhea showed prevalence of RVI (61.2 %. NVI was the third by the incidence among viral diarrheas, and it was registered in 14.1 % of the cases

  12. Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicanor Lopes

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Journal Caminhando debuts with a new editorial format: eachmagazine will have a Dossier.In 2010 Christianity celebrated the centenary of Edinburgh. TheWorld Missionary Conference in Edinburgh in 1910 is regarded by manyas missiological watershed in the missionary and ecumenical movement.So the Faculty of Theology of the Methodist Church (FATEO decidedto organize a Wesleyan Week discussing the issue of mission. For anevent of this magnitude FATEO invited the Rev. Dr. Wesley Ariarajah,Methodist pastor and teacher of Sri Lanka with extensive experience inpastoral ministry in local churches and professor of History of Religionsand the New Testament at the Theological College of Lanka, maintainedby the Protestant Churches in Sri Lanka. In 1981 he was invited to jointhe World Council of Churches, where he presided for over ten years theCouncil of Interreligious Dialogue. From 1992 he served as Deputy GeneralSecretary of the WCC.The following texts are not the speeches of the Rev. Dr. WesleyAriarajah, for they will be published separately. Nevertheless, the journaldialogs with the celebrations of the centenary of Edinburgh, parting formthe intriguing theme: "Mission in the 21st century in Brazil". After all, howis it that mission takes place among us in personal, church, and communityactivities?Within the Dossier, as common to the journal, the textos are organizedas follows: Bible, Theology / History and Pastoral Care. Other items thatdo not fit within the Dossier, but, do articulate mission, can be found inthe section Declarations and Documents and Book Reviews.The authors of the Dossier have important considerations in buildinga contemporary missiological concept considering Brazilian reality.Anderson de Oliveira, in the Bible-Section, presents a significantexegeses of Matthew 26.6-13. What does it mean when Jesus is quotedwith the words: "For the poor always ye have with you, but me ye havenot always." Is this declaration challenging the gospels

  13. Reducing audio stimulus presentation latencies across studies, laboratories, and hardware and operating system configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babjack, Destiny L; Cernicky, Brandon; Sobotka, Andrew J; Basler, Lee; Struthers, Devon; Kisic, Richard; Barone, Kimberly; Zuccolotto, Anthony P

    2015-09-01

    Using differing computer platforms and audio output devices to deliver audio stimuli often introduces (1) substantial variability across labs and (2) variable time between the intended and actual sound delivery (the sound onset latency). Fast, accurate audio onset latencies are particularly important when audio stimuli need to be delivered precisely as part of studies that depend on accurate timing (e.g., electroencephalographic, event-related potential, or multimodal studies), or in multisite studies in which standardization and strict control over the computer platforms used is not feasible. This research describes the variability introduced by using differing configurations and introduces a novel approach to minimizing audio sound latency and variability. A stimulus presentation and latency assessment approach is presented using E-Prime and Chronos (a new multifunction, USB-based data presentation and collection device). The present approach reliably delivers audio stimuli with low latencies that vary by ≤1 ms, independent of hardware and Windows operating system (OS)/driver combinations. The Chronos audio subsystem adopts a buffering, aborting, querying, and remixing approach to the delivery of audio, to achieve a consistent 1-ms sound onset latency for single-sound delivery, and precise delivery of multiple sounds that achieves standard deviations of 1/10th of a millisecond without the use of advanced scripting. Chronos's sound onset latencies are small, reliable, and consistent across systems. Testing of standard audio delivery devices and configurations highlights the need for careful attention to consistency between labs, experiments, and multiple study sites in their hardware choices, OS selections, and adoption of audio delivery systems designed to sidestep the audio latency variability issue.

  14. How can ergonomic practitioners learn to practice a macro-ergonomic framework developed in academia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Seim, Rikke; Andersen, Vibeke

    2009-01-01

    How can a macro-ergonomic framework developed in academia be “transferred” to ergonomic practitioners and become a new work practice? The purpose of this paper is to reflect upon experiences from an interactive research program in which this transferral was tested by two consecutive approaches......” with the researchers and other practitioners; 3) paying attention to the organizational settings of the ergonomic practitioner to make sure that a new work practice is implemented in the organization and not only by a single practitioner....

  15. Postural Assessment of Students Evaluating the Need of Ergonomic Seat and Magnification in Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dable, Rajani A; Wasnik, Pradnya B; Yeshwante, Babita J; Musani, Smita I; Patil, Ashishkumar K; Nagmode, Sunilkumar N

    2014-12-01

    Dental students using conventional chairs need immediate change in their posture. Implementing an ergonomic posture is necessary as they are at high risk for developing musculoskeletal disorders. This study recommends the use of an ergonomic seat and magnification system to enhance the visibility and the posture of an operator. The aim of this study is to make a foray into the hazards caused by inappropriate posture of dental students while working. It also aims at creating a cognizance about the related health implications among the dental fraternity at large, and to understand the significance of adopting an ergonomic posture since the beginning of the professional course. In the present study, postures have been assessed by using rapid upper limb assessment (RULA). This method uses diagrams of body postures and three scoring tables to evaluate ones exposure to risk factors. Ninety students from II BDS (preclinical students in the second year of dental school) were assessed in three groups using three different seats with and without magnification system. The results recorded significantly higher RULA scores for the conventional seats without using the magnification system compared to the SSC (Salli Saddle Chair-an ergonomic seat) with the use of magnification system. A poor ergonomic posture can make the dental students get habituated to the wrong working style which might lead to MSDs (Musculoskeletal diseases). It is advisable to acclimatize to good habits at the inception of the course, to prevent MSDs later in life.

  16. Ergonomic evaluation of a wheelchair for transfer of disabled passengers at a large airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmert, W; Löwenthal, I; Rückert, A

    1990-01-01

    Transferring disabled passengers to the aircraft, both arriving and departing, is one passenger service at a big airport. We use different ergonomic research methods (registration of heart rate, AET job analysis as well as a standardized questionnaire) to evaluate the present wheelchair design. Due to e.g. the high wheelchair backrest, the forces needed to handle the chair and other facts, the current wheelchair causes a strain bottleneck. The results of the AET analysis and the rating of the perceived exertion confirm this finding. A redesigned wheelchair based on ergonomic principles, which reduces stress on the employees and offers more comfort to disabled passengers, is presented.

  17. Ergonomics research: Impact on injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, A.

    1997-03-01

    No tool has characterized the modern workplace like the personal computer. An estimated 60 million PCs adorn desks in virtually every work environment today, achieving remarkable increases in productivity while virtually transforming entire industries. At the same time, however, an increasing number of employees are heavy computer users who suffer painful and sometimes debilitating (and occasionally career-ending) injuries called work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) involving their hands and arms. Within computer-intensive occupations the incidence of injury has doubled every year for the past four years. These disorders cost the nation over $40 billion per year in medical costs alone. When productivity losses and disability and retraining costs are included, the total bill may top $80 billion per year. A common injury is tendonitis--inflammation of tendons, which connect muscle to bone. Another well-publicized injury, carpal tunnel syndrome, involves damage to the median nerve that travels through a tight space in the wrist called the carpal tunnel. In the past, safety at most work sites, including Lawrence Livermore, traditionally focused on avoiding accidental injuries caused by hazardous materials or industrial equipment. As a result, procedures and instruments were developed that can detect, for example, toxic solvents at extremely low levels. Little is known about the range of WRMSDs which can lend itself to avoiding these problems. In response to the lack of scientific data, Lawrence Livermore`s Interdisciplinary Ergonomics Research Program is addressing comprehensively the problem of WRMSDs plaguing US industry. The program uses a multidisciplinary research team that taps LLNL`s strengths in human factors design and engineering, computational modeling, biomechanical engineering, sensors, industrial hygiene, and occupational medicine.

  18. Ergonomic Evaluations of Microgravity Workstations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Berman, Andrea H.; Byerly, Diane

    1996-01-01

    Various gloveboxes (GBXs) have been used aboard the Shuttle and ISS. Though the overall technical specifications are similar, each GBX's crew interface is unique. JSC conducted a series of ergonomic evaluations of the various glovebox designs to identify human factors requirements for new designs to provide operator commonality across different designs. We conducted 2 0g evaluations aboard the Shuttle to evaluate the material sciences GBX and the General Purpose Workstation (GPWS), and a KC-135 evaluation to compare combinations of arm hole interfaces and foot restraints (flexible arm holes were better than rigid ports for repetitive fine manipulation tasks). Posture analysis revealed that the smallest and tallest subjects assumed similar postures at all four configurations, suggesting that problematic postures are not necessarily a function of the operator s height but a function of the task characteristics. There was concern that the subjects were using the restrictive nature of the GBX s cuffs as an upper-body restraint to achieve such high forces, which might lead to neck/shoulder discomfort. EMG data revealed more consistent muscle performance at the GBX; the variability in the EMG profiles observed at the GPWS was attributed to the subjects attempts to provide more stabilization for themselves in the loose, flexible gauntlets. Tests revealed that the GBX should be designed for a 95 percentile American male to accommodate a neutral working posture. In addition, the foot restraint with knee support appeared beneficial for GBX operations. Crew comments were to provide 2 foot restraint mechanical modes, loose and lock-down, to accommodate a wide range of tasks without egressing the restraint system. Thus far, we have developed preliminary design guidelines for GBXs and foot.

  19. Ergonomics as a missing part of sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic-Veselinovic, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    In the last twenty years, terms such as sustainable development, environmental protection, and sustainable design have been widely exploited, often without justification. Does ergonomics have a legitimate need or right to use these terms and to be the part of the process to which they refer? This paper discusses the relationship between ergonomics and the concept of sustainable development and its three elements of sustainability (environmental, social and economic), as the steps ergonomists need to take to secure and strengthen the influence in sustainability topics.

  20. Avoid Workplace Injury through Ergonomics | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergonomics is “the scientific study of people at work,” with the goal of reducing stress and eliminating injuries associated with overused muscles, bad posture, and repeated tasks, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) states that working ergonomically reduces muscle fatigue, increases productivity, and decreases the number and severity of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). MSDs affect the muscles, nerves, and tendons, and are a leading cause of lost workdays due to injury or illness.

  1. Fundamentals of systems ergonomics/human factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John R

    2014-01-01

    Ergonomics/human factors is, above anything else, a systems discipline and profession, applying a systems philosophy and systems approaches. Many things are labelled as system in today's world, and this paper specifies just what attributes and notions define ergonomics/human factors in systems terms. These are obviously a systems focus, but also concern for context, acknowledgement of interactions and complexity, a holistic approach, recognition of emergence and embedding of the professional effort involved within organization system. These six notions are illustrated with examples from a large body of work on rail human factors.

  2. History of ergonomics and occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainer, Rochelle D

    2008-01-01

    Ergonomics is commonly known as "the scientific study of human work" [14, p. 3] and "the application of scientific information concerning human beings to the design of objects, systems, and environments" (p. 4). The American Occupational Therapy Association defines occupational therapy as "skilled treatment that helps individuals achieve independence in all facets of their lives. It gives people the 'skills for the job of living' necessary for independent and satisfying lives [1]." Both professions share common backgrounds. Occupational therapy has been involved in health care and ergonomics is looking for its place in the health care field.

  3. Case study for underground workers at an electric utility: how a research institution, university, and industry collaboration improved occupational health through ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Amy; Usher, Debra; Marklin, Richard; Seeley, Patricia; Yager, Janice W

    2006-08-01

    This article describes a collaboration between a research institution, a university, and a medium-sized electric power utility. Two ergonomics teams were created at the host utility to identify tasks with risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and propose ergonomic interventions for these tasks. Both ergonomics teams focused on tasks performed by underground workers: one team focused on manhole-vault tasks, and the other team focused on direct-buried cable job tasks. Several of the ergonomic interventions were tested in the ergonomics laboratory at the university. The results of one of the laboratory experiments indicated that a 2nd class lever tool reduced muscle forces required to remove and replace a manhole cover as compared with a T-handle attached to a hook and chain. The results of another laboratory experiment demonstrated that a battery-powered cutter reduced muscle forces to cut cable as compared to a manual cutting tool. A collaborative ergonomics effort is an effective method for identifying problematic tasks for workers in a particular industry, evaluating those tasks, and developing best work practices for that type of industry. This approach could be used by other industries in their effort to reduce the incidence, cost, and severity of MSDs in the workplace.

  4. Monitoring the trihalomethanes present in water after treatment with chlorine under laboratory condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paim, A P S; Souza, J B; Adorno, M A T; Moraes, E M

    2007-02-01

    In this work assays involving chlorinated water samples, which were previous spiked with humic substances or algae blue green and following the production of the THMs for 30 days is described. To implement the assays, five portions of 1,000 ml of water were stored in glass bottles. The water samples were treated with solutions containing 2, 3, 4 and 5 mg l(-1) chlorine. The samples aliquots (60 ml) were transferred into the glass vials, 10 ml were removed to have a headspace and 100 microl of the 10 mg l(-1) pentafluortoluene bromide solution was added to each vial. The extraction step was performed by adding 10 g of Na(2)SO(4) followed by 5 ml of n-pentane. The vials were stopped with a TFE-faced septum and sealed with aluminum caps. The generated THMs were determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detector using reference solutions with concentration ranging from 8 to 120 microg l(-1) THMs. Three assays were monitored during 30 days and chloroform was the predominant compound found in the water samples, while other species of THMs were not detected. The results showed that when the chlorine concentration was increased in water samples containing algae the concentration of THM varied randomly. Nevertheless, in water samples containing humic substances the increase of the THM concentration presented a relationship with the chlorine concentration. It was also observed that chloroform concentration increased with the elapsed time up to one and six days to water samples spiked with humic substances and algae blue green, respectively and decreased along 30 days. By other hand, assays performed using water samples containing decanted algae material showed that THM was not generated by the chlorine addition.

  5. A case study on implementing lean ergonomic manufacturing systems (LEMS) in an automobile industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa Rao, P.; Niraj, Malay

    2016-09-01

    Lean manufacturing is a business strategy developed in Japan. In the present scenario, the global market is developing new techniques for getting more and more production rate with a good quality under low cost. In this context, human factors have to be given importance to their working conditions. The study demonstrates the adoption of ergonomic conditions in lean manufacturing for the improvement of organizational performance of the industry. The aim of ergonomics is to adapt the new techniques to their work in efficient and safe ways in order to optimize the human health conditions and increasing the production rate. By conducting survey on various disciplines and showed how the production rate and human ergonomic conditions is affected.

  6. Achieving LEED credit for ergonomics: Laying the foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mallory

    2014-01-01

    Despite guidance from the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) on the requirements for earning a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) ergonomics credit in the Innovation in Design and Innovation in Operations category, few projects have received the credit. The University of California, Berkeley ergonomics program, Ergonomics@Work, has aligned the ergonomics strategy to those of the USGBC and LEED to achieve the ergonomics credit in several new buildings. This article describes the steps needed to obtain the credit and highlights the opportunities it creates to partner with the project team to promote ergonomics. As a profession it is up to ergonomists to create the road map that incorporates ergonomics into the green building design.

  7. Development of ergonomics audits for bagging, haul truck and maintenance and repair operations in mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Patrick G; Pollard, Jonisha; Porter, William L; Mayton, Alan; Heberger, John R; Gallagher, Sean; Reardon, Leanna; Drury, Colin G

    2017-06-18

    The development and testing of ergonomics and safety audits for small and bulk bag filling, haul truck and maintenance and repair operations in coal preparation and mineral processing plants found at surface mine sites is described. The content for the audits was derived from diverse sources of information on ergonomics and safety deficiencies including: analysis of injury, illness and fatality data and reports; task analysis; empirical laboratory studies of particular tasks; field studies and observations at mine sites; and maintenance records. These diverse sources of information were utilised to establish construct validity of the modular audits that were developed for use by mine safety personnel. User and interrater reliability testing was carried out prior to finalising the audits. The audits can be implemented using downloadable paper versions or with a free mobile NIOSH-developed Android application called ErgoMine. Practitioner Summary: The methodology used to develop ergonomics audits for three types of mining operations is described. Various sources of audit content are compared and contrasted to serve as a guide for developing ergonomics audits for other occupational contexts.

  8. 2016 Annual Meeting of the German Human Factors and Ergonomics Society

    CERN Document Server

    Duckwitz, Sönke; Flemisch, Frank; Frenz, Martin; Kuz, Sinem; Mertens, Alexander; Mütze-Niewöhner, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings summarize the best papers in each research area represented at the 2016 Annual Meeting of the German Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, held at Institute of Industrial Engineering and Ergonomics of RWTH Aachen University from March 2-4. The meeting featured more than 200 presentations and 36 posters reflecting the diversity of subject matter in the field of human and industrial engineering. This volume addresses human factors and safety specialists, industrial engineers, work and organizational psychologists, occupational medicines as well as production planners and design engineers.

  9. Integrating ergonomics in design processes: a case study within an engineering consultancy firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Lene Bjerg; Broberg, Ole

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study within an engineering consultancy firm, where engineering designers and ergonomists were working together on the design of a new hospital sterile processing plant. The objective of the paper is to gain a better understanding of the premises for integrating ergonomics into engineering design processes and how different factors either promote or limit the integration. Based on a grounded theory approach a model illustrating these factors is developed and different hypotheses about how these factors either promote and/or limit the integration of ergonomics into design processes is presented along with the model.

  10. Learning without Pain: Ergonomics Prevents Injuries. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Ergonomics" is a body of knowledge about human abilities and limitations and how these abilities and limitations should be applied to the design of equipment, machinery, and other devices to ensure safe, comfortable and effective use. Most homes and schools today are equipped with computers for student use. Backpacks have become the…

  11. Kaizen and ergonomics: the perfect marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Martin Antonio; Lopez, Luis Fernando

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an approach of how Kaizen (Continuous Improvement) and Ergonomics could be implemented in the field of work. The Toyota's Team Members are the owners of this job, applying tools and techniques to improve work conditions using the Kaizen Philosophy in a QCC Activity (Quality Control Circle).

  12. Ergonomic handle for an arthroscopic cutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijthof; van Engelen; Herder; Goossens; Snijders; van Dijk

    2003-03-01

    From an analysis of the routinely performed meniscectomy procedures, it was concluded that a punch with a side-ways steerable tip would improve the reachability of meniscal tissue. This potentially leads to a safer and more efficient meniscectomy. Furthermore, the current scissors handles of arthroscopic punches are ergonomically not sufficient. An ergonomic handle is designed with one lever that enables opening and closing of the instrument tip, and side-ways steering of the instrument tip. The design of the handle complies with ergonomic guidelines that were found in the literature. A model of the instrument tip was added to the new handle for comparison with conventional handles. Experiments were performed with a knee joint model, using objective and subjective criteria. The results show that the concept of a side-ways steerable punch is promising, since faster task times are achieved without increasing the risk of damaging healthy tissue. The current design of the ergonomic handle incorporates two degrees of freedom in an intuitive way, the handle is more comfortable to hold, and easy to control. The external memory capabilities of the new handle could be improved. Further development of this handle and the addition of a sufficient instrument tip and force transmission are recommended.

  13. Ergonomic aspects of automation in navigation bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazet, A.; Walraven, P.L.

    1971-01-01

    New ergonomic questions arise from the tendency toward increasing automation in maritime operations. Direct control of engines and rudder from the bridge promises improved ship control, provided that the operator can really exploit the technical improvements. To make such direct control most efficie

  14. Ergonomics of tactile and haptic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, J.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2006-01-01

    The area of tactile and haptic interactions has produced a number of exemplar systems and an even greater number of research papers. The time has come to systematize the knowledge that has been gained in order to produce guidance. The Ergonomics of Tactile and Haptic Interactions symposium provides

  15. Design of an ergonomic electric guitar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genani, G.; Dekker, M.C.; Molenbroek, J.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of existing literature reveals that guitar players are most prone to musculoskeletal injuries amongst all musicians. In the light of recent injuries to prominent guitar players such as Eddie Van Halen, this article explores ergonomics of electric guitars. By means of surveys, user o

  16. Ergonomics intervention in manual handling of oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Motamedzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Conclusion: With the implementation of ergonomic intervention is casting unit, the risk of exposure to musculoskeletal disorders caused by manual handling of oxygen cylinders was eliminated and safety of employees against the risk of explosion of the cylinders in comparison with before the intervention was improved.

  17. Implantation of an ergonomics administration system in a company: report of an occupational therapist specialist in ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Berla; Andrade, Valéria Sousa

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to describe step-by-step the implementation of an ergonomics administration system in a company from March 2009 till March 2011 by an occupational therapist specialist in ergonomics based on the OSHAS 18001 guidelines and the Regulatory Norms 17 manual. The process began with the definition of five requisites with bases on the manual of application of the Regulatory Norms 17: survey; materials individual transportation and discharge; workplace furniture; workplace equipments; work environment and organization of the work to be managed with bases on the OSHAS 18001 guidelines. The following steps were established: sensitization of the company high administration, elaboration and institution of an ergonomics politics, development of ergonomics committees, ergonomics analysis of the work with recommendation of ergonomic improvements, implantation of improvements and evaluation or the results. This research experiment suggests the importance not only of a guiding axle but also of a professional qualification and participation of the company on the implementation of an ergonomics management system.

  18. A method for Effect Modifier Assessment in ergonomic intervention research – The EMA method

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Kasper; Winkel, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction:Ergonomic intervention research includes studies in which researchers arrange (or follow) changes in working conditions to determine the effects in risk factors and/or health. Often this research takes place at workplaces and not in a controlled environment of a laboratory. The effects may thus be due to other factors in addition to the investigated intervention – i.e. due to effect modifiers. Such effect modifiers need to be identified and assessed in terms of potential impact o...

  19. Heart to heart - a custodian journal on grassroots ergonomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalk, D. M., LLNL

    1998-03-04

    When we first requested to speak at the American Society of Safety Engineer`s Professional Development Conference in Seattle, Washington, the theme we had in mind for this program paper was quite different. It definitely was not anything like our title, `Heart to Heart` implies. It was more formal and traditional. Give you figures, diagrams and the like. But two years later, we have come to another conclusion, to tell you the story about how a group of custodians and health & safety professionals dreamed big dreams and they came true. In order to understand what occurred, we first need to start at the very beginning with the Custodian Quality Improvement Team (CQIT). This group had been formed by the Plant Engineering Department at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) located in Livermore, California. LLNL is operated by the University of California for The U.S.Department of Energy. It is the premier applied physics research laboratory in the world. Plant Engineering (PE) is much like a Public Works Department. PE has all of the crafts, such as plumbers and electricians, who do maintenance-type work, as well as the engineering and construction employees. PE maintain the utilities, constructs new buildings and takes care of old ones. They take of the roads and clean the buildings and landscape the campus. So the Custodian Shop and its some 150 employees is a member of the PE family so to speak. The CQIT had decided to investigate ways they could reduce the number of injuries they were having. They invited health and safety professionals, David Zalk (an Industrial Hygienist) and Jack Tolley (Safety Engineer) to consult with them about this. They are both Hazards Control Team 4 members at LLNL. They were both interested in ergonomics and suggested that an approach to reducing their injuries might lie in studying how the custodians actually do their work. David has extensive training in ergonomics, and Jack simply had a long-time interest in ergonomics for

  20. Musculoskeletal 2: The effectiveness of participatory ergonomics to prevent low back pain and neck pain: results of a cluster randomised controlled trial. Oral presentations: Day 3: Friday, September 9, 2011. 22nd International Conference on Epidemiology in Occupational Health EPICOH 2011 September 7-9, 2011, Oxford, UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, M.; Proper, K.; Anema, J.; Knol, D.; Bongers, P.; Beek, A. van der

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effectiveness of the Stay@Work Participatory Ergonomics program (PE) aimed at prevention of low back pain (LBP) and neck pain (NP). Methods Departments were randomly allocated to either the intervention (PE) or control group (no PE). During a 6-h meeting, working groups

  1. Intermediary object for participative design processes based on the ergonomic work analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza da Conceição, Carolina; Duarte, F.; Broberg, Ole

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present and discuss the use of an intermediary object, built from the ergonomic work analysis, in a participative design process. The object was a zoning pattern, developed as a visual representation ‘mapping’ of the interrelations among the functional units of t...

  2. Designing the Electronic Classroom: Applying Learning Theory and Ergonomic Design Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Mark; Wilkinson, Frances C.

    2001-01-01

    Applies learning theory and ergonomic principles to the design of effective learning environments for library instruction. Discusses features of electronic classroom ergonomics, including the ergonomics of physical space, environmental factors, and workstations; and includes classroom layouts. (Author/LRW)

  3. The Role of Knowledge Objects in Participatory Ergonomics Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simone Nyholm

    2015-01-01

    Participatory ergonomics simulations, taking place in simulation labs, have the tendency to get detached from the surrounding design process, resulting in a knowledge gap. Few studies in the human factors and ergonomics field have applied knowledge management based object concepts in the study...... in generation of ergonomics knowledge and transfer of this knowledge to actors in the surrounding design process. Design actors receiving simulation documenting objects interpret and transform the represented knowledge according to their local context and experiences....

  4. A brief essay on ergonomics in graphic design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, André N F; van der Linden, Júlio C S; Fonseca, Tania M G

    2012-01-01

    Through Brazilian publication revision on the relations amongst Ergonomics and Design, we observed the tendency towards an approach focusing on product design. However, it is our duty to question which would be the influences of ergonomics in the graphic design. As a methodology, we considered the identification that the practices derived from ergonomics as epistemic system found in the main bibliography related to graphic design.

  5. Building a framework for ergonomic research on laparoscopic instrument handles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Guohui; Tan, Juan; Sun, Xulong; Lin, Hao; Zhu, Shaihong

    2016-06-01

    Laparoscopic surgery carries the advantage of minimal invasiveness, but ergonomic design of the instruments used has progressed slowly. Previous studies have demonstrated that the handle of laparoscopic instruments is vital for both surgical performance and surgeon's health. This review provides an overview of the sub-discipline of handle ergonomics, including an evaluation framework, objective and subjective assessment systems, data collection and statistical analyses. Furthermore, a framework for ergonomic research on laparoscopic instrument handles is proposed to standardize work on instrument design.

  6. Motivating Ergonomic Computer Workstation Setup: Sometimes Training Is Not Enough

    OpenAIRE

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O.; Artnak, Melissa; Needham, Mick; Wirth, Oliver; Silverman, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders lead to pain and suffering and result in high costs to industry. There is evidence to suggest that whereas conventional ergonomics training programs result in knowledge gains, they may not necessarily translate to changes in behavior. There were 11 participants in an ergonomics training program, and a subsample of participants received a motivational intervention in the form of incentives for correct workstation setup. Training did not yield any changes in ergonomics...

  7. Ergonomics Integration Omproving Production Process Management in Enterprises of Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Kaļķis, Henrijs

    2013-01-01

    Dotoral thesis ERGONOMICS INTEGRATION IMPROVING PRODUCTION PROCESS MANAGEMENT IN ENTERPRISES OF LATVIA ANNOTATION Ergonomics integration in process management has great significance in organisations` growth of productivity. It is a new approach to entrepreneurship and business strategy, where ergonomic aspects and values are taken into account in ensuring the effective process management and profitability of enterprises. This study is aimed at solution of the problem of e...

  8. Ergonomics, Engineering, and Business: Repairing a Tricky Divorce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langaa; Broberg, Ole; Møller, Niels

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how the ergonomics community can contribute to make ergonomics a strategic element in business decisions on strategy and implementation of strategy. The ergonomics community is seen as a heterogeneous entity made up of educational and research activities in universities, ergo...... that desired influential effects on companies are dependent on a concurrent change within the community’s different parts and their interaction with organizations and their surroundings....

  9. Quantum ergonomics: shifting the paradigm of the systems agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy H; Salmon, Paul M; Bedinger, Melissa; Stanton, Neville A

    2017-02-01

    A paradigm is an accepted world view. If we do not continually question our paradigm then wider trends and movements will overtake the discipline leaving it ill adapted to future challenges. This Special Issue is an opportunity to keep systems thinking at the forefront of ergonomics theory and practice. Systems thinking prompts us to ask whether ergonomics, as a discipline, has been too timid? Too preoccupied with the resolution of immediate problems with industrial-age methods when, approaching fast, are developments which could render these operating assumptions an irrelevance. Practical case studies are presented to show how abstract systems problems can be tackled head-on to deliver highly innovative and cost-effective insights. The strategic direction of the discipline foregrounds high-quality systems problems. These are something the discipline is well able to respond to provided that the appropriate operating paradigms are selected. Practitioner Summary: High-quality systems problems are the future of the discipline. How do we convert obtuse sounding systems concepts into practical interventions? In this paper, the essence of systems thinking is distilled and practical case studies used to demonstrate the benefits of this new paradigm.

  10. [A participatory ergonomics program in a chemical company].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Ana M; Sevilla, María José; Gadea, Rafael; Casañ, Consuelo

    2012-01-01

    We describe a participatory ergonomics program that started in April 2010 in a chemical company located in the autonomous region of Valencia, Spain. The program was introduced in the company, the intervention level was agreed (two working lines, 24 workers) and a working group was established (Ergo Group, including managers, technicians and safety representatives in the company) with the aim of leading the intervention. A questionnaire was applied to collect information on ergonomic injuries and exposures in workers at the selected working lines. This information was analyzed by the Ergo Group and was later discussed at prevention circles with the direct participation of affected workers. When the present article was being drafted, 16 improvements to working conditions had already been proposed. Some of these improvements had been implemented and, in the opinion of some of the participants, were effective. To develop this kind of program, which could benefit a substantial number of workers in Spain, a firm commitment to prevention by companies is required.

  11. Ergonomics in the psychiatric ward towards workers or patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvana, Salerno; Laura, Forcella; Ursula, Di Fabio; Irene, Figà Talamanca; Paolo, Boscolo

    2012-01-01

    Patient's aggressive behavior is one of the major problem in the psychiatric ward. Here we present the preliminary results of a psychiatric ward case-study, of a public hospital in the Chieti province, in order to plan ergonomic improvement. We applied the Method of Organizational Congruencies in the psychiatric ward in order to study the relationship between organized hospital work and nurses wellbeing in a 24 hour shifts. We observed 58 main phases in the three work shifts. The technical actions are mainly those of any hospital wards (shift briefing, preparing and administering drugs, recording data on clinical charts, etc.). We found important differences mainly due to the nurses overcontrol activities on the patients behavior (preventing suicides or self destructive behavior), the occurrence of restraint procedure towards patients, the pollution due to patient's cigarette smoke. The fear of patient's self destructive behavior or other aggressive behaviour are the main cognitive and social aspects of this hospital ward. Nurses working in this psychiatric ward have to accept: locked doors, poor and polluted environment, restraint procedure with high risk of aggression and no availability of mental health care programs. A new interdisciplinary concept for ergonomics in psychiatry setting may represent a challenge for both nurses and patients and the community.

  12. Office ergonomics programs. A case study of North American corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J S

    1997-12-01

    Subject matter experts from 13 North American corporations provided detailed descriptions of the historical development and the current components and operations of their office ergonomics programs. Results were summarized across corporations and presented for the following programmatic topics: backgrounds of key people, initial awareness and preliminary needs assessment, program development, program implementation, program monitoring and evaluation, program components, education and training, workstation and job analysis, early identification of cases, case management, and alternate office environments. The subject matter experts also provided comments about the strengths of their programs, their advice to others, and lessons they learned. These observations suggested the need for an office ergonomics program, and possibly other occupational health programs, to fit into a corporation's culture and capitalize on its infrastructure. Most corporations used multidisciplinary task forces or teams to develop their programs. Communication, which included training, awareness, advertising, and feedback, was also an important issue. Flexibility and simplicity were important attributes of these programs. It is hoped that this descriptive information will be helpful to some occupational health managers interested in or concerned about managerial perspectives and skills related to the development and implementation of programs within their own corporations.

  13. Ergonomics-inspired Reshaping and Exploration of Collections of Models

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Youyi

    2015-06-22

    This paper examines the following question: given a collection of man-made shapes, e.g., chairs, can we effectively explore and rank the shapes with respect to a given human body – in terms of how well a candidate shape fits the specified human body? Answering this question requires identifying which shapes are more suitable for a prescribed body, and how to alter the input geometry to better fit the shapes to a given human body. The problem links physical proportions of the human body and its interaction with object geometry, which is often expressed as ergonomics guidelines. We present an interactive system that allows users to explore shapes using different avatar poses, while, at the same time providing interactive previews of how to alter the shapes to fit the user-specified body and pose. We achieve this by first constructing a fuzzy shape-to-body map from the ergonomic guidelines to multi-contacts geometric constraints; and then, proposing a novel contact-preserving deformation paradigm to realize a reshaping to adapt the input shape. We evaluate our method on collections of models from different categories and validate the results through a user study.

  14. Ergonomics and workplace design: application of Ergo-UAS System in Fiat Group Automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitello, M; Galante, L G; Capoccia, M; Caragnano, G

    2012-01-01

    Since 2008 Fiat Group Automobiles has introduced Ergo-UAS system for the balancing of production lines and to detect ergonomic issues. Ergo-UAS system integrates 2 specific methods: MTM-UAS for time measurement and EAWS as ergonomic method to evaluate biomechanical effort for each workstation. Fiat is using a software system to manage time evaluation and ergo characterization of production cycle (UAS) to perform line balancing and obtain allowance factor in all Italian car manufacturing plant. For new car models, starting from New Panda, FGA is applying Ergo-UAS for workplace design since the earliest phase of product development. This means that workplace design is based on information about new product, new layout, new work organization and is performed by a multidisciplinary team (Work Place Integration Team), focusing on several aspects of product and process: safety, quality and productivity. This allows to find and solve ergonomic threats before the start of production, by means of a strict cooperation between product development, engineering and design, manufacturing. Three examples of workstation design are presented in which application of Ergo-UAS was determinant to find out initial excessive levels of biomechanical load and helped the process designer to improve the workstations and define limits of acceptability. Technical activities (on product or on process), or organizational changes, that have been implemented in order to solve the problems are presented. A comparison between "before" and "new" ergonomic scores necessary to bring workstations in acceptable conditions were made.

  15. Enhanced ergonomics approaches for product design: a user experience ecosystem perspective and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper first discusses the major inefficiencies faced in current human factors and ergonomics (HFE) approaches: (1) delivering an optimal end-to-end user experience (UX) to users of a solution across its solution lifecycle stages; (2) strategically influencing the product business and technology capability roadmaps from a UX perspective and (3) proactively identifying new market opportunities and influencing the platform architecture capabilities on which the UX of end products relies. In response to these challenges, three case studies are presented to demonstrate how enhanced ergonomics design approaches have effectively addressed the challenges faced in current HFE approaches. Then, the enhanced ergonomics design approaches are conceptualised by a user-experience ecosystem (UXE) framework, from a UX ecosystem perspective. Finally, evidence supporting the UXE, the advantage and the formalised process for executing UXE and methodological considerations are discussed. Practitioner Summary: This paper presents enhanced ergonomics approaches to product design via three case studies to effectively address current HFE challenges by leveraging a systematic end-to-end UX approach, UX roadmaps and emerging UX associated with prioritised user needs and usages. Thus, HFE professionals can be more strategic, creative and influential.

  16. Casting an ergonomic eye on university libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Nicole; Villarouco, Vilma

    2012-01-01

    Research in the field of Ergonomics of the Built Environment has been developed with a view to consolidating studies in this area, the objective of which is to provide evidence that the joint participation of users and designers on drawing up projects is important. In this context, the theme of this study is to investigate the interactions between users and the environment in a university library. To do so, well-established techniques from Ergonomics, Architecture and Environmental Psychology were used to make a functional and behavioral evaluation to identify the level of user satisfaction in six libraries in the various study centers of the Federal University of Pernambuco in Recife, northeast Brazil, so as to identify the strengths and also weaknesses in these spatial structures.

  17. Ergonomic aspects of automation in navigation bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazet, A; Walraven, P L

    1971-06-01

    New ergonomic questions arise from the tendency toward increasing automation in maritime operations. Direct control of engines and rudder from the bridge promises improved ship control, provided that the operator can really exploit the technical improvements. To make such direct control most efficient, good ergonomic design is essential. A series of designs of navigation bridges is used to illustrate typical problems and situations. The building of full scale mock-ups of complete bridges is essential in order to handle the design as an integrated problem and to simulate the work situation. Such static mock-ups have been shown to be extremely useful in the discussion between builder, future user and adviser. An extension to dynamic simulation is necessary in order to study the actual work conditions in a new design.

  18. [Ergonomic evaluation of assembly line of tractors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellera, L; Buratti, G

    2012-01-01

    In the assembly lines in the engineering sector, ever more guided by the theories of lean production, is increasingly important ergonomic factor working conditions to preserve the health of workers and ensuring the performance. This analysis has focused on the study of biomechanical and postural stress of work tasks of an assembly line of the tractor, characterized by different weights and volumes from that of the car. Comparison with the technical standard of EN 1005-4 has allowed the identification as the machining assembly of small components result in conditions of acceptability, while most of the other processes aren't reliable. The emergence of these problems pushed to find several ergonomic solutions including the development of a special reclining seat to enable a proper posture during the working.

  19. Ergonomics: safe patient handling and mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmark, Beth; Mechan, Patricia; Shores, Lynne

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews and investigates the issues surrounding ergonomics, with a specific focus on safe patient handling and mobility. The health care worker of today faces many challenges, one of which is related to the safety of patients. Safe patient handling and mobility is on the forefront of the movement to improve patient safety. This article reviews the risks associated with patient handling and mobility, and informs the reader of current evidence-based practice relevant to this area of care.

  20. Ergonomic Evaluation on Taxi Drivers Compartment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jimmy; SF; Chan; YW; Chui; Reggie; Kwan; K; K; Chau

    2002-01-01

    Driving involves long hours of physical work within c onfined compartment. Taxi drivers usually work with prolonged working hours, add itional stress may likely be induced on particular body limbs. Occupational heal th may occur and working efficiency may potentially be affected resulting fr om fatigues, pains or diseases. These problems, however, could be remedied if mo re attention is paid on seating design, the workplace and driving postures adopt ed. Ergonomics design can provide better understanding...

  1. Medical Device Development: the challenge for ergonomics

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Jennifer L; Norris, Beverley J.; Murphy, Elizabeth; Crowe, John A.

    2008-01-01

    High quality, well designed medical devices are necessary to provide safe and effective clinical care for patients as well as to ensure the health and safety of professional and lay device users. Capturing the user requirements of users and incorporating these into design is an essential component of this. The field of ergonomics has an opportunity to assist, not only with this area, but also to encourage a more general consideration of the user during medical device development. A review ...

  2. Standupable Desks - Ergonomic furniture for Primary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, John; Ennis, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown how prolonged sitting at school can have a negative effect on the physical health and is linked with obesity in primary school students. More physically active approaches to learning have been shown to not only improve physical wellbeing but increase attention and improve learning outcomes. There is also an increasing movement to sit/ stand desking for office worker for ergonomic reasons. This project is concerned with developing a sit/ stand school desk that wo...

  3. Ergonomics and epidemiology in evidence based health prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    2009-01-01

    According to the definitions, ergonomics is a natural part of the health and safety activity but it has its own research methods and causal models. Public health, occupational and clinical medicines are closely related to epidemiology and differ from ergonomics by using a disease model with a wide...... success of health effects from the clinical trials could not be obtained. It is argued that the ergonomics design, Integration and Implementation can be strengthened by adapting the epidemiological methods and causal models. The ergonomics can then contribute to a common development of public health...

  4. Dental Hygiene Students' Self-Assessment of Ergonomics Utilizing Photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partido, Brian B

    2017-10-01

    Due to postural demands, dental professionals are at high risk for developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). Dental clinicians' lack of ergonomic awareness may impede the clinical application of recommendations to improve their posture. The aim of this study was to determine whether feedback involving photography and self-assessment would improve dental hygiene students' ergonomic scores and accuracy of their ergonomic self-assessments. The study involved a randomized control design and used a convenience sample of all 32 junior-year dental hygiene students enrolled in the autumn 2016 term in The Ohio State University baccalaureate dental hygiene program. Sixteen students were randomly assigned to each of two groups (control and training). At weeks one and four, all participants were photographed and completed ergonomic self-evaluations using the Modified-Dental Operator Posture Assessment Instrument (M-DOPAI). During weeks two and three, participants in the training group were photographed again and used those photographs to complete ergonomic self-assessments. All participants' pre-training and post-training photographs were given ergonomic scores by three raters. Students' self-assessments in the control group and faculty evaluations of the training group showed significant improvement in scores over time (F(1,60)=4.25, phygiene students' self-assessments using photographs resulted in improvements in their ergonomic scores and increased accuracy of their ergonomic self-assessments. Any improvement in ergonomic score or awareness can help reduce the risks for WMSDs, especially among dental clinicians.

  5. Using ergonomics checkpoints to support a participatory ergonomics intervention in an industrially developing country (IDC)--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helali, Faramarz

    2009-01-01

    To achieve ergonomics awareness in 3 subsidiary companies, an intervention team was formed. The aims of this study were to implement basic ergonomics through a participatory ergonomics intervention process that can support a continuous learning process and lead to an improvement in health and safety as well as in the work systems in the organization. The findings of this study (i.e., method, continuous learning and integration) were key to making the participatory ergonomics intervention successful. Furthermore, 4 issues of the ergonomics checkpoints (i.e., work schedules, work tasks, healthy work organization and learning) for assessing the work system were found suitable for both changing work schedules and for improving the work system. This paper describes the result of this project and also the experiences gained and the conclusions reached from using the International Labour Office's ergonomics checkpoints in the industries of industrially developing country.

  6. Establishing Ergonomics in Industrially Developing Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, K; Silverstein, B; Kiefer, M

    2005-08-29

    The introduction of ergonomics is an ongoing effort in industrially developing countries and will ultimately require an organized, programmatic approach spanning several countries and organizations. Our preliminary efforts with our partner countries of Viet Nam, Thailand, and Nicaragua have demonstrated that a one-time course is just the first step in a series of necessary events to provide skills and create an infrastructure that will have lasting impact for the host country. To facilitate that any sort of training has a lasting impact, it is recommended that host countries establish a 'contract' with class participants and the guest instructors for at least one follow-up visit so instructors can see the progress and support the participants in current and future efforts. With repeated exchanges, the class participants can become the 'in country experts' and the next generation of ergonomic trainers. Additionally, providing participants with an easy to use hazard assessment tool and methods for evaluating the financial impact of the project (cost/benefit analysis) will assist increase the likelihood of success and establish a foundation for future projects. In the future, developing trade and regionally/culturally specific 'ergonomics toolkits' can help promote broader implementation, especially where training resources may be limited.

  7. Preventing Workplace Injuries and Illnesses through Ergonomics. Listening to Our Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosskam, Ellen; Baichoo, Pavan

    1997-01-01

    Ergonomics focuses on the prevention of injuries through proper design of equipment, workstations, and products. The adoption of an ergonomic philosophy in the workplace has demonstrable benefits. (JOW)

  8. Ergonomic analysis of work activity for the purpose of developing training programs: the contribution of ergonomics to vocational didactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellet, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Questions related to job skills and the teaching situations that best promote skill development are investigated by specialists in various fields, notably among them, ergonomists. This paper presents the findings of an ergonomic intervention study whose aim was to develop a meat-deboning training program by taking into account both the training content to be constructed and the working conditions that might facilitate or hinder skill development. One-on-one interviews and group discussions, on-the-job and videotape playback observations, as well as self-confrontation interviews were carried out. Activity analysis revealed major variability in work methods. The reasoning behind the experienced workers' actions and the experiential job knowledge they had developed were brought to light and served to develop the training content. The determining factors in the choice of work methods were identified, allowing adjustments to be made to the working conditions that might hinder skill development. The ergonomic process that implied taking working conditions into account in our study may make a significant contribution to vocational didactics, which is based on the cognitive analysis of work for the purpose of improving the effectiveness of job-skills training.

  9. Support of Interactive 3D/4D Presentations by the Very First Ever Made Virtual Laboratories of Antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Yannopoulou, Nikolitsa

    2011-01-01

    Based on the experience we have gained so far, as independent reviewers of Radioengineering journal, we thought that may be proved useful to publicly share with the interested author, especially the young one, some practical implementations of our ideas for the interactive representation of data using 3D/4D movement and animation, in an attempt to motivate and support her/him in the development of similar dynamic presentations, when s/he is looking for a way to locate the stronger aspects of her/his research results in order to prepare a clear, most appropriate for publication, static presentation figure. For this purpose, we selected to demonstrate a number of presentations, from the simplest to the most complicated, concerning well-known antenna issues with rather hard to imagine details, as it happens perhaps in cases involving Spherical Coordinates and Polarization, which we created to enrich the very first ever made Virtual Laboratories of Antennas, that we distribute over the Open Internet through our w...

  10. Ergonomics program management in Tucuruí Hydropower Plant using TPM methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, R M; Sassi, A C; Sá, B M; Miguez, S A; Pardauil, A A

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to present the benefits achieved in the ergonomics process management with the use of the TPM methodology (Total Productive Maintenance) in Tucuruí Hydropower Plant. The methodology is aligned with the corporate guidelines, moreover with the Strategic Planning of the company, it is represented in the TPM Pillars including the Health Pillar in which is inserted the ergonomics process. The results of the ergonomic actions demonstrated a 12% reduction over the absenteeism rate due to musculoskeletal disorders, solving 77,0% of ergonomic non-conformities, what favored the rise of the Organizational Climate in 44,8%, impacting on the overall performance of the company. Awards confirmed the success of the work by the achievement of the Award for TPM Excellence in 2001, Award for Excellence in Consistent TPM Commitment in 2009 and more recently the Special Award for TPM Achievement, 2010. The determination of the high rank administration and workers, allied with the involvement/dynamism of Pillars, has assured the success of this management practice in Tucuruí Hydropower Plant.

  11. Crossing levels in systems ergonomics: a framework to support 'mesoergonomic' inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsh, Ben-Tzion; Waterson, Patrick; Holden, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we elaborate and articulate the need for what has been termed 'mesoergonomics'. In particular, we argue that the concept has the potential to bridge the gap between, and integrate, established work within the domains of micro- and macroergonomics. Mesoergonomics is defined as an open systems approach to human factors and ergonomics (HFE) theory and research whereby the relationship between variables in at least two different system levels or echelons is studied, and where the dependent variables are human factors and ergonomic constructs. We present a framework which can be used to structure a set of questions for future work and prompt further empirical and conceptual inquiry. The framework consists of four steps: (1) establishing the purpose of the mesoergonomic investigation; (2) selecting human factors and ergonomics variables; (3) selecting a specific type of mesoergonomic investigation; and (4) establishing relationships between system levels. In addition, we describe two case studies which illustrate the workings of the framework and the value of adopting a mesoergonomic perspective within HFE. The paper concludes with a set of issues which could form part of a future agenda for research within systems ergonomics.

  12. Guidance strategies for a participatory ergonomic intervention to increase the use of ergonomic measures of workers in construction companies: a study design of a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Steven; van der Molen, Henk F; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2014-04-17

    More than seven out of 10 Dutch construction workers describe their work as physically demanding. Ergonomic measures can be used to reduce these physically demanding work tasks. To increase the use of ergonomic measures, employers and workers have to get used to other working methods and to maintaining them. To facilitate this behavioural change, participatory ergonomics (PE) interventions could be useful. For this study a protocol of a PE intervention is adapted in such a way that the intervention can be performed by an ergonomics consultant through face-to-face contacts or email contacts. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the face-to-face guidance strategy and the e-guidance strategy on the primary outcome measure: use of ergonomic measures by individual construction workers, and on the secondary outcome measures: the work ability, physical functioning and limitations due to physical problems of individual workers. The present study is a randomised intervention trial of six months in 12 companies to establish the effects of a PE intervention guided by four face-to-face contacts (N = 6) or guided by 13 email contacts (N = 6) on the primary and secondary outcome measures at baseline and after six months. Construction companies are randomly assigned to one of the guidance strategies with the help of a computer generated randomisation table. In addition, a process evaluation for both strategies will be performed to determine reach, dose delivered, dose received, precision, competence, satisfaction and behavioural change to find possible barriers and facilitators for both strategies. A cost-benefit analysis will be performed to establish the financial consequences of both strategies. The present study is in accordance with the CONSORT statement. The outcome of this study will help to 1) evaluate the effect of both guidance strategies, and 2) find barriers to and facilitators of both guidance strategies. When these strategies are

  13. Determinants of business sustainability: an ergonomics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genaidy, Ash M; Sequeira, Reynold; Rinder, Magda M; A-Rehim, Amal D

    2009-03-01

    There is a need to integrate both macro- and micro-ergonomic approaches for the effective implementation of interventions designed to improve the root causes of problems such as work safety, quality and productivity in the enterprise system. The objective of this study was to explore from an ergonomics perspective the concept of business sustainability through optimising the worker-work environment interface. The specific aims were: (a) to assess the working conditions of a production department work process with the goal to jointly optimise work safety, quality and quantity; (b) to evaluate the enterprise-wide work process at the system level as a social entity in an attempt to trace the root causes of ergonomic issues impacting employees throughout the work process. The Work Compatibility Model was deployed to examine the experiences of workers (that is, effort, perceived risk/benefit, performance and satisfaction/dissatisfaction or psychological impact) and their associations with the complex domains of the work environment (task content, physical and non-physical work environment and conditions for learning/growth/development). This was followed by assessment of the enterprise system through detailed interviews with department managers and lead workers. A system diagnostic instrument was also constructed from information derived from the published literature to evaluate the enterprise system performance. The investigation of the production department indicated that the stress and musculoskeletal pain experienced by workers (particularly on the day shift) were derived from sources elsewhere in the work process. The enterprise system evaluation and detailed interviews allowed the research team to chart the feed-forward and feedback stress propagation loops in the work system. System improvement strategies were extracted on the basis of tacit/explicit knowledge obtained from department managers and lead workers. In certain situations concerning workplace human

  14. Translating concepts of complexity to the field of ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Salmon, Paul M; Jenkins, Daniel P; Rafferty, Laura

    2010-10-01

    Since 1958 more than 80 journal papers from the mainstream ergonomics literature have used either the words 'complex' or 'complexity' in their titles. Of those, more than 90% have been published in only the past 20 years. This observation communicates something interesting about the way in which contemporary ergonomics problems are being understood. The study of complexity itself derives from non-linear mathematics but many of its core concepts have found analogies in numerous non-mathematical domains. Set against this cross-disciplinary background, the current paper aims to provide a similar initial mapping to the field of ergonomics. In it, the ergonomics problem space, complexity metrics and powerful concepts such as emergence raise complexity to the status of an important contingency factor in achieving a match between ergonomics problems and ergonomics methods. The concept of relative predictive efficiency is used to illustrate how this match could be achieved in practice. What is clear overall is that a major source of, and solution to, complexity are the humans in systems. Understanding complexity on its own terms offers the potential to leverage disproportionate effects from ergonomics interventions and to tighten up the often loose usage of the term in the titles of ergonomics papers. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This paper reviews and discusses concepts from the study of complexity and maps them to ergonomics problems and methods. It concludes that humans are a major source of and solution to complexity in systems and that complexity is a powerful contingency factor, which should be considered to ensure that ergonomics approaches match the true nature of ergonomics problems.

  15. Ergonomic Optimization of a Manufacturing System Work Cell in a Virtual Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Caputo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the development of a methodology for studying, in a virtual environment, the ergonomics of a work cell in an automotive manufacturing system. The methodology is based on the use of digital human models and virtual reality techniques in order to simulate, in a virtual environment, human performances during the execution of assembly operations. The objective is to define the optimum combination of those geometry features that influence human postures during assembly operation in a work cell. In the demanding global marketplace, ensuring that human factors are comprehensively addressed is becoming an increasingly important aspect of design. Manufacturers have to design work cells that conform to all relevant Health and Safety standards. The proposed methodology can assist the designer to evaluate the performance of workers in a workplace before it has been realized. The paper presents an analysis of a case study proposed by COMAU, a global supplier of industrial automation systems for the automotive manufacturing sector and a global provider of full maintenance services. The study and all the virtual simulations have been carried out in the Virtual Reality Laboratory of the Competence Regional Center for the qualification of transportation systems (CRdC “Trasporti” - www.centrodicompetenzatrasporti.unina. it, which was founded by the Campania region with the aim of delivering advanced services and introducing new technologies into local companies operating in the field of transport. 

  16. Presentation on the Modeling and Educational Demonstrations Laboratory Curriculum Materials Center (MEDL-CMC): A Working Model and Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glesener, G. B.; Vican, L.

    2015-12-01

    Physical analog models and demonstrations can be effective educational tools for helping instructors teach abstract concepts in the Earth, planetary, and space sciences. Reducing the learning challenges for students using physical analog models and demonstrations, however, can often increase instructors' workload and budget because the cost and time needed to produce and maintain such curriculum materials is substantial. First, this presentation describes a working model for the Modeling and Educational Demonstrations Laboratory Curriculum Materials Center (MEDL-CMC) to support instructors' use of physical analog models and demonstrations in the science classroom. The working model is based on a combination of instructional resource models developed by the Association of College & Research Libraries and by the Physics Instructional Resource Association. The MEDL-CMC aims to make the curriculum materials available for all science courses and outreach programs within the institution where the MEDL-CMC resides. The sustainability and value of the MEDL-CMC comes from its ability to provide and maintain a variety of physical analog models and demonstrations in a wide range of science disciplines. Second, the presentation then reports on the development, progress, and future of the MEDL-CMC at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA). Development of the UCLA MEDL-CMC was funded by a grant from UCLA's Office of Instructional Development and is supported by the Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences. Other UCLA science departments have recently shown interest in the UCLA MEDL-CMC services, and therefore, preparations are currently underway to increase our capacity for providing interdepartmental service. The presentation concludes with recommendations and suggestions for other institutions that wish to start their own MEDL-CMC in order to increase educational effectiveness and decrease instructor workload. We welcome an interuniversity collaboration to

  17. TO STUDY THE ROLE OF ERGONOMICS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF COMPUTER VISION SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Ergonomics is the science of designing the job equipment and workplace to fit the worker by obtaining a correct match between the human body, work related tasks and work tools. By applying the science of ergonomics we can reduce the difficulties faced by computer users. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficacy of tear substitutes and the role of ergonomics in the management of Computer Vision Syndrome. Development of counseling plan, initial treatment plan, prevent complications and educate the subjects about the disease process and to enhance public awareness. MATERIALS AND METHODS A minimum of 100 subjects were selected randomly irrespective of gender, place and nature of computer work & ethnic differences. The subjects were between age group of 10-60 years who had been using the computer for a minimum of 2 hours/day for atleast 5-6 days a week. The subjects underwent tests like Schirmer's, Test film breakup time (TBUT, Inter Blink Interval and Ocular surface staining. A Computer Vision score was taken out based on 5 symptoms each of which was given a score of 2. The symptoms included foreign body sensation, redness, eyestrain, blurring of vision and frequent change in refraction. The score of more than 6 was treated as Computer Vision syndrome and the subjects underwent synoptophore tests and refraction. RESULT In the present study where we had divided 100 subjects into 2 groups of 50 each and given tear substitutes only in one group and ergonomics was considered with tear substitutes in the other. We saw that there was more improvement after 4 weeks and 8 weeks in the group taking lubricants and ergonomics into consideration than lubricants alone. More improvement was seen in eyestrain and blurring (P0.05. CONCLUSION Advanced training in proper computer usage can decrease discomfort.

  18. Ergonomics and occupational safety and health: an ILO perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Shengli

    2010-10-01

    The ILO has a mandate to protect workers against sickness, diseases and injuries due to workplace hazards and risks including ergonomic and work organization risk factors. One of the main functions for the ILO is to develop international standards related to labour and work. ILO standards have exerted considerable influence on the laws and regulations of member States. The ILO standards take the form of international Conventions and Recommendations. ILO Conventions and Recommendations relevant to protection of workers against ergonomic risk factors at the workplace include Convention No. 127 and Recommendation No.128 which specify the international requirements concerning the manual transport of a load. To help member States in applying the ILO standards, the ILO produces practical guides and training manuals on ergonomics at work and collects and analyses national practices and laws on ergonomics at the workplace. The ILO also conducts technical cooperation activities in many countries on ergonomics to support and strengthen the capacities of its tripartite constituents in dealing with workplace ergonomic and work organization risks. The ILO's technical cooperation activities give priorities on the promotion of voluntary, participatory and action-oriented actions to improve working conditions and work organizations of the small and medium sized enterprises. This paper reviews ILO's policies and activities on ergonomics in relation to occupational safety and health and prescribes ILO's considerations for its future work on ergonomics.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of ergonomic interventions in production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looze, M.P. de; Koningsveld, E.P.A.; Fritzsche, L.; O'Sullivan, L.; Levizzari, A.

    2008-01-01

    Ergonomic measures to reduce or eliminate the risks for developing musculoskeletal disorders, usually affects the performance at work as well, e.g. productivity or quality. The costs and benefits that can be associated with ergonomic measures are highly diverse in nature. Prior to investing in any

  20. Participatory ergonomics and new work: reducing neck complaints in assembling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migueza, S.A.; Hallbeck, M.S.; Vink, P.

    2012-01-01

    A participatory ergonomics approach is used to create a new work environment, which is aimed at reducing neck complaints in a cell phone assembly. The participatory ergonomics program included an initiative, problem identification, a selection of solutions, an implementation and evaluation.

  1. WHO DOES WHAT IN HUMAN FACTORS/ERGONOMICS IN MALAYSIA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahasan, Rabiul

    2014-12-01

    Individuals' expertise in human factors and ergonomics in Malaysia was studied with a view to aiding in gauging the confusion and conjectures of the expertise in this area. The choices and preferences of individuals in dealing with the current issues of human factors and ergonomics were examined. The authors suggest the ways to meet ethical challenges in their work and professions.

  2. 30 years of ergonomics at 3M: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, N; Wick, H

    2012-01-01

    The added value of the Ergonomics Program at 3M was found to be improved employee safety, compliance with regulations and reduction of work-related illness, increases in productivity, and quality and operating efficiency. This paper describes the thirty years of existence of this program. For the first twenty years, the program objectives were to: respond to requests for assistance related to work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) concerns, raise employee awareness of MSDs and ergonomics; educate engineers in ergonomics design; and develop ergonomics teams at manufacturing locations. Since the year 2000, 3M's Ergonomics Program has been in transition from a US-centric and corporate-based technical-expertled program to a global program applying participatory ergonomics strategies within a macroergonomics framework. During that transition, the existing program requirements were revised, new methods and program tools were created, and expectations for implementation at the manufacturing locations clarified. This paper focuses on the company's manufacturing ergonomics program activities during the past ten years and includes specifics of the program's objectives, risk assessment reduction process, and ergonomics technical expertise development. The main benefit achieved throughout the company is reducing employee injury while also increasing productivity and operating efficiency.

  3. Ergonomic problems encountered during video-assisted thoracic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranenburg; Gossot

    2004-06-01

    In laparoscopic surgery, the way of thinking about operating room design is beginning to include ergonomic requirements. No study has yet been published about ergonomic concerns in Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery (VATS). The aim of this paper is to describe ergonomic issues encountered in VATS and to propose recommendations for operating room design for thoracoscopic surgery. To obtain an inventory of the ergonomic problems fifteen thoracoscopic operations were attended at the Institut Mutualiste Montsouris (Paris, France). Ergonomics can be divided into three divisions: physical, perceptual and cognitive ergonomics. During the observations of thoracoscopic operations the physical problems were registered. The perceptual and cognitive problems were obtained from a literature study. In general two different positions of the surgeon can be distinguished, depending on the placement of the trocars and the endoscope. One position resembles the body position during laparoscopy, involving the same problems such as fatigue of the legs, a static body position, a large working area, extreme movements of the upper limbs and the wrist and stiffness of the neck. The other position is specific for VATS resulting in a rotated upper body while the surgeon has to lean over the patient to be able to handle the instruments. This awkward position causes even more serious problems. The study resulted in a list of ergonomic problems encountered during VATS. Reorganisation of the operating room set-up and monitor position, design of a dedicated operating table and specific instruments might help to overcome the current ergonomic problems.

  4. REVEAL: Reconstruction, Enhancement, Visualization, and Ergonomic Assessment for Laparoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    internal forces generated by ligaments ( anterior and posterior cruciate and medial and lateral collateral ligaments ) and muscles (quadriceps, hamstring...NV, April 18-22, 2007 Lee G, Surgical Ergonomics in Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Physical Therapy , University of Maryland, MD, April...13 Physical Ergonomics

  5. Role of triggers and dysphoria in mind-wandering about past, present and future: A laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plimpton, Benjamin; Patel, Priya; Kvavilashvili, Lia

    2015-05-01

    To bridge the related but separate areas of research on mind-wandering and Involuntary Autobiographical Memory (IAM), the frequency and temporal focus of task unrelated thoughts about past, present, and future was compared in 19 dysphoric and 21 non-dysphoric participants, using a modified laboratory method for studying IAMs. Participants were stopped 11 times during a 15-min vigilance task and recorded their thoughts at that moment. In both groups, most thoughts were spontaneous, task-unrelated, and triggered by irrelevant cue-words on the screen with negative words being more likely to trigger past memories and positive cues - thoughts about future. Both groups reported more past memories than current or future thoughts, but differences emerged in the type of future thought experienced: non-dysphoric participants reported more planning thoughts, and dysphoric participants more abstract hypothetical thoughts. The results suggest that some findings from IAM research regarding cues and the impact of dysphoria may be generalizable to mind-wandering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ergonomic design in the operating room: information technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Mark M.; Ratib, Osman

    2005-04-01

    The ergonomic design in the Surgical OR of information technology systems has been and continues to be a large problem. Numerous disparate information systems with unique hardware and display configurations create an environment similar to the chaotic environments of air traffic control. Patient information systems tend to show all available statistics making it difficult to isolate the key, relevant vitals for the patient. Interactions in this sterile environment are still being done with the traditional keyboard and mouse designed for cubicle office workflows. This presentation will address the shortcomings of the current design paradigm in the Surgical OR that relate to Information Technology systems. It will offer a perspective that addresses the ergonomic deficiencies and predicts how future technological innovations will integrate into this vision. Part of this vision includes a Surgical OR PACS prototype, developed by GE Healthcare Technologies, that addresses ergonomic challenges of PACS in the OR that include lack of portability, sterile field integrity, and UI targeted for diagnostic radiologists. GWindows (gesture control) developed by Microsoft Research and Voice command will allow for the surgeons to navigate and review diagnostic imagery without using the conventional keyboard and mouse that disrupt the integrity of the sterile field. This prototype also demonstrates how a wireless, battery powered, self contained mobile PACS workstation can be optimally positioned for a surgeon to reference images during an intervention as opposed to the current pre-operative review. Lessons learned from the creation of the Surgical OR PACS Prototype have demonstrated that PACS alone is not the end all solution in the OR. Integration of other disparate information systems and presentation of this information in simple, easy to navigate information packets will enable smoother interactions for the surgeons and other healthcare professionals in the OR. More intuitive

  7. Ergonomic factors on task performance in laparoscopic surgery training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, D J; Jakimowicz, Jack J; Albayrak, A; Goossens, R H M

    2012-05-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of ergonomic factors on task performance and trainee posture during laparoscopic surgery training. Twenty subjects without laparoscopic experience were allotted into 2 groups. Group 1 was trained under the optimal ergonomic simulation setting according to current ergonomic guidelines (Condition A). Group 2 was trained under non-optimal ergonomic simulation setting that can often be observed during training in a skills lab (Condition B). Posture analysis showed that the subjects held a much more neutral posture under Condition A than under Condition B (poptimal ergonomic simulation setting leads to better task performance. In addition, no significant differences of task performance, for Groups 1 and 2 using the same test setting were found. However, better performance was observed for Group 1. It can be concluded that the optimal and non-optimal training setting have different learning effects on trainees' skill learning.

  8. Development of an ergonomic evaluation facility for Indian tractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, R; Kumar, A; Mohan, D

    2000-06-01

    The design of tractors manufactured in low-income countries like India has not changed much in the past two decades, especially from an ergonomic point of view. Moreover, in these countries tractors are used for transportation purposes in addition to farming operations. Therefore, the design criteria for these tractors need to be different from those in high-income countries. This paper describes the development of an ergonomic facility for improvement of tractor design. An ergonomic evaluation facility has been developed consisting of a work place envelope for the Indian population, a layout measuring device and an ergonomic rig. This facility can be used for comparative evaluation of the display and control layouts of different tractors in order to develop an optimum layout. The ergonomic rig has the facility to simulate the improved layout for subjective evaluation.

  9. Optimization of healthcare supply chain in context of macro-ergonomics factors by a unique mathematical programming approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadeh, A; Motevali Haghighi, S; Gaeini, Z; Shabanpour, N

    2016-07-01

    This study presents an integrated approach for analyzing the impact of macro-ergonomics factors in healthcare supply chain (HCSC) by data envelopment analysis (DEA). The case of this study is the supply chain (SC) of a real hospital. Thus, healthcare standards and macro-ergonomics factors are considered to be modeled by the mathematical programming approach. Over 28 subsidiary SC divisions with parallel missions and objectives are evaluated by analyzing inputs and outputs through DEA. Each division in this HCSC is considered as decision making unit (DMU). This approach can analyze the impact of macro-ergonomics factors on supply chain management (SCM) in healthcare sector. Also, this method ranks the relevant performance efficiencies of each HCSC. In this study by using proposed method, the most effective macro-ergonomics factor on HCSC is identified as "teamwork" issue. Also, this study would help managers to identify the areas of weaknesses in their SCM system and set improvement target plan for the related SCM system in healthcare industry. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study for macro-ergonomics optimization of HCSC.

  10. Global drivers, sustainable manufacturing and systems ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemieniuch, C E; Sinclair, M A; Henshaw, M J deC

    2015-11-01

    This paper briefly explores the expected impact of the 'Global Drivers' (such as population demographics, food security; energy security; community security and safety), and the role of sustainability engineering in mitigating the potential effects of these Global Drivers. The message of the paper is that sustainability requires a significant input from Ergonomics/Human Factors, but the profession needs some expansion in its thinking in order to make this contribution. Creating a future sustainable world in which people experience an acceptable way of life will not happen without a large input from manufacturing industry into all the Global Drivers, both in delivering products that meet sustainability criteria (such as durability, reliability, minimised material requirement and low energy consumption), and in developing sustainable processes to deliver products for sustainability (such as minimum waste, minimum emissions and low energy consumption). Appropriate changes are already being implemented in manufacturing industry, including new business models, new jobs and new skills. Considerable high-level planning around the world is in progress and is bringing about these changes; for example, there is the US 'Advanced Manufacturing National Program' (AMNP)', the German 'Industrie 4.0' plan, the French plan 'la nouvelle France industrielle' and the UK Foresight publications on the 'Future of Manufacturing'. All of these activities recognise the central part that humans will continue to play in the new manufacturing paradigms; however, they do not discuss many of the issues that systems ergonomics professionals acknowledge. This paper discusses a number of these issues, highlighting the need for some new thinking and knowledge capture by systems ergonomics professionals. Among these are ethical issues, job content and skills issues. Towards the end, there is a summary of knowledge extensions considered necessary in order that systems ergonomists can be fully

  11. Participatory ergonomics that builds on local solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, K

    1995-06-01

    Ergonomic interventions must be a local process that responds to the particular needs of local people. In view of the many constraints, a special attention is drawn to participatory ergonomics as an effective means of finding locally workable solutions. Recent experiences show that the best way to utilize its practical advantage is to focus on solutions. The practical steps in providing necessary support for participatory ergonomics should include (1) a good starting point for group discussion and subsequent participatory action based on locally achieved examples; (2) prioritizing different elements of the workplace by means of checklists of available solutions; and (3) making small improvements with a view to learning-by-doing through small wins. Good local examples that have been achieved in the given local conditions can show how improvements can be done in the local conditions and thus motivate people in making improvements. The next important step is to help the participants determine priority solutions by means of "action checklists" that list the available solutions. It is necessary to concentrate on those aspects in which both better working conditions and higher productivity are accessible simultaneously. They include operational, cognitive and organizational aspects. Through learning-by-doing, the participants must be able to base their judgement on the results of relative assessment of locally available solutions and to implement the chosen solutions. To sustain active initiatives of the participants, support and advice must be provided which are suitable for working in small groups, sharing experiences and identifying workable solutions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Can participatory ergonomics become 'the way we do things in this firm' - the Scandinavian approach to participatory ergonomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langaa

    1997-01-01

    Under the label 'participatory ergonomics' the idea of establishing changes in working conditions through participatory approaches has been a central issue within ergonomics. Tools and procedures have been developed and demonstrated beneficial. But how this approach can be established as the way...

  13. Clinical presentation and laboratory findings for the first autochthonous cases of dengue fever in Madeira island, Portugal, October 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, M J; Fernandes, P L; Amaro, F; Osório, H; Luz, T; Parreira, P; Andrade, G; Zé-Zé, L; Zeller, H

    2013-02-07

    An outbreak of dengue fever in Madeira island was reported in 2012. Clinical and laboratory findings of the first two laboratory-confirmed autochthonous cases are reported. Both cases had fever (≥38 °C) and petechial rash. Symptoms also included myalgia, asthenia, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, diffuse abdominal pain, and diarrhoea. The two cases were confirmed by serology and one tested positive for a dengue viral sequence. Dengue virus serotype DEN-1 was identified with probable Central or South American origin.

  14. Anthropometric measurements for ergonomic design of students’ furniture in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Wilson Taifa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents anthropometric measurements regarding engineering students in India. Health survey (ergonomic assessment was carried out to know the health status of all students who have been using poorly designed furniture. The data were measured with the help of various tools. After data collection and analysis, authors came up with exhaustive dimensions for designing adjustable classrooms furniture. Dimensions recommended include; bench surface height, bench depth and width, back rest width and height, backrest angle, desk height, desk depth, width, and desk angle. Therefore, an implementation of these data will help to create comfortability, safety, well-being, suitability, reduce Musculoskeletal disorders, and improve performance of students in terms of attentiveness. Also, it is highly recommended to consider requirements from students in designing classrooms furniture and conduct seminar or workshop to educate students regarding the negative impact towards adapting poor posture in the long usage of classrooms furniture.

  15. Cost effectiveness of ergonomic redesign of electronic motherboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Rabindra Nath; Yeow, Paul H P

    2003-09-01

    A case study to illustrate the cost effectiveness of ergonomic redesign of electronic motherboard was presented. The factory was running at a loss due to the high costs of rejects and poor quality and productivity. Subjective assessments and direct observations were made on the factory. Investigation revealed that due to motherboard design errors, the machine had difficulty in placing integrated circuits onto the pads, the operators had much difficulty in manual soldering certain components and much unproductive manual cleaning (MC) was required. Consequently, there were high rejects and occupational health and safety (OHS) problems, such as, boredom and work discomfort. Also, much labour and machine costs were spent on repairs. The motherboard was redesigned to correct the design errors, to allow more components to be machine soldered and to reduce MC. This eliminated rejects, reduced repairs, saved US dollars 581495/year and improved operators' OHS. The customer also saved US dollars 142105/year on loss of business.

  16. User Experience As A Challenge For Cognitive Psychology And Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Marchitto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on human–technology interaction has been concerned with assessing the experience of interacting with technology that is already in the process of being designed. However, the challenge nowadays is to help industry find out what technology should be designed. In this new context, cognitive psychology and ergonomics should be able to assist the innovation process through an analysis of the actions that constitute human life and the role that technology plays in these actions. In this paper, we present our approach to the definition of the role of cognitive psychologists and cognitive ergonomists in the innovation process. We aim to define new concepts and methodologies that would help in the process. One example, taken from a research project from a Spanish consortium of universities and industries, is described.

  17. An evaluation of ergonomic improvements in the woodworking industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdorf, A; van Duuren, L

    1993-12-01

    A survey was conducted among operators in the woodworking industry to study the effect of machine characteristics on exposure to mechanical load. The 28 subjects worked in five small factories and operated four-sided planing machines. Work postures and external load were analysed with the Ovako working posture analysis system. Among the operators awkward postures regularly occurred, such as a bent or twisted back (25%), outstretched arms (25%) and a twisted head (28%). The average percentage of time spent with lifting and carrying wooden boards and planks was 41%. The statistical analysis indicated that beneficial effects on postural load were achieved by various ergonomic improvements, such as rising platforms and roller paths. Work time with external load was reduced by 10% as a result of the presence of rising platforms and tables. The type of analysis presented may guide towards the improvement of work conditions of operators of planing machines by reducing mechanical load on the body.

  18. Emerging participatory approaches to ergonomic interventions in the construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, S; Buchholz, B

    1996-04-01

    The Central Artery/Third Harbor Tunnel (CA/T) construction project in Boston is the largest and most costly highway construction project ever undertaken in the United States. The Construction Occupational Health Project (COHP) of the Work Environment Department at the University of Massachusetts-Lowell was established to conduct exposure assessment and to develop, introduce, and evaluate interventions in the areas of ergonomics and industrial hygiene on the CA/T project. For both political and practical reasons, COHP is using a participatory approach to intervention in the construction industry. The research process is employing participation at all the levels of the construction hierarchy in the form of various advisory groups. These advisory groups have been formed from existing joint labor-management advisory committees and are presently engaged in two participatory intervention activities: (1) evaluations of intervention ideas, and (2) comparisons of safety systems.

  19. The labor activity of dental surgeons within the multidisciplinary context of ergonomics: a review of the domains to be considered in dental environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Augusto Ferrari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous scientific studies show that dental professionals are exposed daily to various risks associated with various agents present in the workplace. The objective of this study was to conduct a literature review related to research concerning dental activity in Brazil, under the aegis of ergonomics. Using the principles of Work Ergonomic Analysis (WEA as parameters, this study focused on giving an overview of the main ergonomic approaches addressed by researchers for a wide range of problems in this field. The method used in the study was a literature review of 48 scientific papers selected from the period of July to November 2014. The results showed that studies related to the fields of physical ergonomics focused on the dentist’s activity are widely addressed. Thus, this paper suggests new research lines on a cognitive and organizational level.

  20. Ergonomic project of the work and innovation in the virtual-actual dynamic: a theoretical-conceptual contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Cardoso Bouyer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to amplify the current theoretical scenario of “Ergonomics of Project” area, according to the knowledge creation/innovation theory, and his concepts of virtual and subjectivity in the Work. This theoretical-conceptual article aims to shed new light on the relations between innovation and present-day efforts toward a scientific theory of knowledge in the Work, with its complex structure of theories, hypotheses and disciplines. There is in this paper a new approach to understand  the Contemporary Ergonomic Project in a kind of Socio-Epistemological Engineering initiated by Markus F. Peschl in the University of Vienna. The methods employed were the systematic review and adaptation of Socio-Epistemological Engineering’s concepts in the actual context of epistemological and ontological principles of Ergonomics of Project.

  1. Global inequality, and the challenge for ergonomics to take a more dynamic role to redress the situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, P A

    2008-07-01

    This paper argues that ergonomics is more sorely needed, easier to implement, and potentially far more effective in industrially developing countries (IDCs) than where its efforts are presently most concentrated in the less populated, more affluent, technologically advanced world. The reasoning is a simple extension of the principle of diminishing returns in which the further from optimal a situation is, the greater the beneficial effect of any implemented improvement. The paper draws attention to the gap between 'have' and 'have not' cultures, plus the necessity for, and relative ease with which a sustainable ergonomics ethos can be engendered in IDCs. This requires a need to consider network causality, investigating both micro-problems (basic interaction between task and worker) and macro-conditions of the overall scenario (including managerial organisation, planning and responsibility). The two-pronged symbiosis of micro- and macro-ergonomics intervention has the potential to achieve both effective and sustainable development within small, medium and large enterprises.

  2. Participatory methods effective for ergonomic workplace improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, Kazutaka

    2006-07-01

    Recent experiences in using participatory methods for ergonomic workplace improvement are reviewed to know how these methods can be effective in different settings. The review covered participatory programmes for managers and workers in small enterprises, home workers, construction workers and farmers in Asian countries. To meet diversifying ergonomic needs, participatory steps reviewed are found to usually follow a good-practice approach easily adjustable according to local needs. These steps are found to usually focus on low-cost improvements. They can thus lead to concrete results particularly by addressing multiple technical areas together. Typical areas include materials handling, workstation design, physical environment and work organization. Further, the review confirms that the participatory methods are always modified according to each local situation. This is done by developing a group-work toolkit comprising action checklists and illustrated manuals and by building a support network of trained trainers. It is suggested that participatory methods taking a good-practice approach by multi-area low-cost improvements through the group use of locally adjusted toolkits are effective for improving small-scale workplaces including those in developing countries.

  3. [Vision of the future of ergonomics in dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokwerda, O

    2008-08-01

    With respect to ergonomics in dentistry, more people are becoming aware of occupational hazards and paying more attention to the prevention of hazards. Dutch law on health and safety at work requires dentists to protect the health and safety of their employees and educational institutions to protect the health and safety of their students. In the meantime a summary has appeared of the ergonomic standards required for the working methods of dentists and for the development of future equipment. Further development of dental ergonomics must take place on the basis of a coherent vision of the future. In this regard it must be clear exactly what ergonomics is and what developments have already taken place. Aspects of particular interest are the prevention of occupational diseases, legal responsibility for protecting the health and safety of employees and students, education in dental ergonomics for dental and oral hygiene students, the academic development and research of dental ergonomics, using organizational models in daily dental practice, and the development of ergonomics at the European level.

  4. The ergonomics of learning: educational design and learning performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T J

    2007-10-01

    The application of ergonomics/human factors (E/HF) principles and practices, and the implementation of ergonomics programmes, have achieved proven success in improving performance, productivity, competitiveness, and safety and health in most occupational sectors. However, the benefits that the application of E/HF science might bring to promoting student learning have yet to be widely recognized. This paper deals with the fundamental purpose of education - student learning - and with the question of how the ergonomic design of the learning environment influences learning performance. The underlying premise, embodied in the quote below, is that student learning performance to a substantial degree is context specific - influenced and specialized in relation to specific design factors in the learning environment. The basic scientific question confronting learning ergonomics is which design characteristics in the learning environment have the greatest influence on variability in learning performance. Practically, the basic challenge is to apply this scientific understanding to ergonomic interventions directed at design improvements of learning environments to benefit learning. This paper expands upon these themes by addressing the origins and scope of learning ergonomics, differing perspectives on the nature of learning, evidence for context specificity in learning and conclusions and research implications regarding an ergonomics perspective on learning.

  5. The cognitive ergonomics and the articulation of the functions of industrial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sabrina Talita; Heemann, Adriano

    2012-01-01

    The sustainable development is a challenge to all areas of knowledge. In the field of design, it motivates an enhanced discussion about the functions of systems, products and services. Accordingly, this paper presents a theoretical contribution to the sustainable articulation of the functions of industrial products from principles of cognitive ergonomics. This paper is based on an exploratory literature about the functions of industrial products and further study of the relationship between man and object of Cognitive Ergonomics, specifically linked the aesthetic perception and symbolic. Presents qualitative results of this correlation, which indicates the feasibility of a better articulation in product development. The paper argues that in the practical field of design, the best articulation of the functions may influence the effectiveness of product performance in its relationship with the user. Already, on theoretical grounds, this new articulation can help designers to understand the nature of the transdisciplinary functions and the insights into product design.

  6. Ergonomics of heat and cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamon, E

    1975-01-01

    The biophysical, physiological and some of the psychological aspects of work under unfavorable man-made ambient conditions are presented in light of the need to prevent excessive strain. Work is treated in two ways: 1) in terms of the muscles O2 demand as a fraction of maximal aerobic capacity; and 2) in terms of metabolic heat source. Since maximal aerobic capacity depends on factors such as physical fitness, age and sex, these factors require consideration in estimating strain due to work. The absolute metabolic heat (M) produced during work is needed in the consideration of the total heat balance. Radiation (r), convection (C), and, under some circumstances, evaporation (Eev) are the main avenues of heat exchange between man and his immediate environment. Eev is primarily a function of the ambient potential for evaporation (Emax). Since the relation of the sum M+R+C to Emax determines heat balance when man in under a heat load, evaluation of the avenues of heat exchange, the sources of heat load, and the stressing effect of all these on the physiological responses are treated in some detail. Psychrometrically defined limits of exposure are also discussed. Subjective sensation and mental performance are discussed in light of their correlation with physiological responses to heat. Cold is treated mainly from the point of view of safety and protective clothing.

  7. The rationalisation movement in perspective and some ergonomic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, T

    1996-04-01

    The paper gives an overview of the Rationalisation Movement from Taylor to the most recent organisation models such as 'Business Process Reengineering'. Special emphasis is put on the estimated implications of the different rationalisation strategies in terms of ergonomics/work physiology. In addition, basic terms and concepts are defined. According to the author, Taylorism, Fordism and Lean Production seem to offer an insufficient potential for good ergonomics. However, more recent organisational models such as 'Time Based Management' and 'Business Process Reengineering', may appear more promising but unfortunately almost no research has been conducted to describe the ergonomics implications of these models.

  8. Using Balanced Scorecard (BSC) approach to improve ergonomics programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Marcelo Vicente Forestieri

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose foundations for a theory of using the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) methodology to improve the strategic view of ergonomics inside the organizations. This approach may help to promote a better understanding of investing on an ergonomic program to obtain good results in quality and production, as well as health maintenance. It is explained the basics of balanced scorecard, and how ergonomists could use this to work with strategic enterprises demand. Implications of this viewpoint for the development of a new methodology for ergonomics strategy views are offered.

  9. Development of statistical methodologies applied to anthropometric data oriented towards the ergonomic design of products

    OpenAIRE

    Vinué Visús, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Ergonomics is the scientific discipline that studies the interactions between human beings and the elements of a system and presents multiple applications in areas such as clothing and footwear design or both working and household environments. In each of these sectors, knowing the anthropometric dimensions of the current target population is fundamental to ensure that products suit as well as possible most of the users who make up the population. Anthropometry refers to the study of the meas...

  10. [Multifactorial ergonomic evaluation of the hospital nursing activity in assisting not self-sufficient patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodaglio, E M; Capodaglio, P; Bazzini, G

    1999-01-01

    8 Institutes of Health Care and Research of Northern-Central Italy participated in the study, which consisted of on-site investigations, interviews with the chief-nurse, and monitoring of physiological and subjective variables. We studied the most critical phases in the laboratory, by means of video-graphical systems for biomechanical and postural analysis. The outlined profile shows a demanding activity, yielding important risk factors relative to musculoskeletal lesions. The preventive attitude (education, training) must be implemented by ergonomic interventions, aimed to minimize the risk related to manual handling.

  11. Metodologia de custeio para a ergonomia Ergonomics-based costing methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Dourado Mafra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma metodologia de Custeio para Ergonomia é apresentada neste artigo. Aqui o custeio é construído em paralelo ao processo da Análise de Ergonomia. Faz-se uma breve revisão da literatura. Essa metodologia de custeio abrange uma estimativa inicial de custos e a posterior aferição desses custos, decorrentes da ausência de Ergonomia no delineamento das situações em estudo; num outro momento, são feitos os cálculos dos custos das correções, ou investimentos necessários e a avaliação dos benefícios aportados pela nova concepção. A aplicação dessa metodologia é exemplificada em um estudo de caso de uma cozinha industrial, onde foi realizada uma Análise Ergonômica do Trabalho. No estudo de caso, a ausência de ergonomia é caracterizada por indicadores econômicos de efetividade na empresa. Conclui-se que essa metodologia de custeio mostra como problemas no desempenho impactam no negócio, economicamente, caracterizados em saúde, qualidade de vida e produtividade no trabalho. Nesse sentido, acredita-se ter contribuído com o estado da prática, contabilizando os custos e avaliando a viabilidade da solução.This paper discusses an ergonomics-based costing methodology, in which the costing process and the ergonomic work analysis are realized at the same time. A brief bibliographic review is presented. Two questions are pointed out regarding the economic evaluation of ergonomic interventions: one is the costing problem and the other evaluation itself. This costing methodology involves an initial costing estimate of the lack of ergonomics in the study case, followed by the checking of data validity; then, the costs of solutions are calculated and the benefits of the new conception are assessed. The methodology is applied to one example, i.e. a case study of an industrial kitchen, where an ergonomic work analysis was performed. In the studied case, the lack of ergonomics is characterized by economic indicators of company efficacy

  12. Musculoskeletal diseases of spine and risk factors during Dentistry: Multilevel ergonomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charilaos Koutis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of occupational musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs among dentists is estimated to be high, despite the ergonomic interventions in this sector. The aim of the present study was a the evaluation of spine MSDs in dentists and b the assessment of risk factors related to dentist practice. Material and Method: The sample of the present study consisted of 16 dentists (n=16. The participants divided into two (2 groups, based on MSDs of the spine. A multilevel ergonomic analysis was conducted in both groups, which evaluated individual, physical and occupational risk factors during nine (9 dental procedures. For the analysis of data were used, direct methods (video, observation, amended postural analysis OWAS, indirect method (questionnaire and quantitative methods of ergonomic analysis (computerized mediball postural stabilizer cushion. Results: The most frequent MSDs of spine among dentists in the present research are localized on low back (66,7% and neck (8,3%. Based on OWAS analysis of 2348 working postures, statistically significant correlation was found between dentists' MSDs and factors concerning both dentists (weakness of stabilizer muscles of spine, awkward positions during working time, fatigue (p< 0,05 as well as the nature of dental work (specific dental procedures, patient's, the position of patients, tools and dentists during the working time, certain areas of the mouth, working hours, lack of breaks, etc (p< 0,05 respectively. Conclusions: Low back pain and neck pain are the most frequent MSDs of dentists' spine. They are related to individual and other occupational factors which could have been prevented using proper ergonomic interventions.

  13. A method for Effect Modifier Assessment in ergonomic intervention research – The EMA method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Winkel, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    of the literature revealed lack of or poor consideration of effect modifiers in ergonomic intervention research. We present a method that has been developed over the course of several years parallel to intervention studies in healthcare. Material and methods: The EMA method is a type of group interview including 3...... intervention(s) or other causes (“the effect modifiers”) and their impact on the work environment. Following the workshop, events are entered into a database and reassessed by triangulation based on scientific evidence, researcher knowledge, reading the transcribed audio recorded workshop and other local...... sources. Conclusion: The EMA method seems to offer a feasible procedure to obtain significant knowledge on potential effect modifiers in ergonomic intervention research. However, further development and validation is suggested....

  14. [Ergonomic analysis of the handle of manual instruments for dental hygiene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliario, Mario; Franchignoni, Marco; Soldati, Libero; Melle, Andrea; Carcieri, Paola; Ferriero, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders of upper limbs are very common among dental hygienists. To minimize the risk of their occurrence, it is essential that attention be paid to proper ergonomics in the workplace, including the selection of instrumentation. At present there are no specific guidelines but only some indications for the selection of the different hand tools. The main purpose of this study was to make a comparative analysis of different types of handles of hand tools used for root planing (Gracey curettes). Nine dental hygienists were interviewed with a questionnaire aimed to assess three different types of curette handle. The results showed that lightness, being of solid steel, having a cylindrical non-uniform shape with full enlarged cross-section, and being silicon coated with non-slip ends are the preferred characteristics for a curette handle. These considerations may assist both manufacturers in designing new hand instruments and clinicians in selecting the most ergonomic ones to buy.

  15. Ergonomics assessment of composite ballistic inserts for bullet- and fragment-proof vests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Brochocka, Agnieszka; Luczak, Anna; Lężak, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Personal protective equipment worn by uniformed services (e.g., the police and the military) must ensure protection against bodily injuries. However, a high degree of protection is always associated with significant discomfort. This article presents the results of an assessment of the ergonomics parameters of new special purpose products, ballistic inserts with improved ballistic resistance, and an assessment of the impact of the burden related to their use on the psychomotor performance of the subjects. An obstacle course and subjective ergonomics assessment questionnaires were used in tests. Thermal discomfort was also assessed. Psychological testing included tests enabling an assessment of the subjects' cognitive and psychomotor performance, and a subjective assessment of mental load. The tests did not show any decrease in the comfort of use of the new inserts with improved ballistic resistance compared to the inserts currently used.

  16. Economic evaluation of a participatory ergonomics intervention in a textile plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompa, Emile; Dolinschi, Roman; Natale, Julianne

    2013-05-01

    In this study we report on the economic evaluation of a participatory ergonomics process undertaken at a clothing manufacturer in Southwestern Ontario, Canada that employs approximately 300 workers. We undertake a cost-benefit analysis from the company perspective. Intervention costs amounted to $65,787 and intervention benefits $360,614 (2011 Canadian dollars). The net present value was $294,827, suggesting that the intervention was worth undertaking based on the costs and consequences over the measurement period spanning more than four years. Based on these costs and benefits, the benefit-to-cost ratio is 5.5. Overall, the findings from this study suggest that participatory ergonomics interventions can be cost beneficial from the company perspective. Even though the changes were typically low-cost and low-tech interventions implemented by the plant mechanics and maintenance personnel, benefits were realized on both the health and financial fronts.

  17. Innovation and design approaches within prospective ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, André; Brangier, Eric

    2012-01-01

    In this conceptual article the topic of "Prospective Ergonomics" will be discussed within the context of innovation, design thinking and design processes & methods. Design thinking is essentially a human-centred innovation process that emphasises observation, collaboration, interpretation, visualisation of ideas, rapid concept prototyping and concurrent business analysis, which ultimately influences innovation and business strategy. The objective of this project is to develop a roadmap for innovation, involving consumers, designers and business people in an integrative process, which can be applied to product, service and business design. A theoretical structure comprising of Innovation perspectives (1), Worldviews supported by rationalist-historicist and empirical-idealistic dimensions (2) and Models of "design" reasoning (3) precedes the development and classification of existing methods as well as the introduction of new ones.

  18. State of science: mental workload in ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mark S; Brookhuis, Karel A; Wickens, Christopher D; Hancock, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Mental workload (MWL) is one of the most widely used concepts in ergonomics and human factors and represents a topic of increasing importance. Since modern technology in many working environments imposes ever more cognitive demands upon operators while physical demands diminish, understanding how MWL impinges on performance is increasingly critical. Yet, MWL is also one of the most nebulous concepts, with numerous definitions and dimensions associated with it. Moreover, MWL research has had a tendency to focus on complex, often safety-critical systems (e.g. transport, process control). Here we provide a general overview of the current state of affairs regarding the understanding, measurement and application of MWL in the design of complex systems over the last three decades. We conclude by discussing contemporary challenges for applied research, such as the interaction between cognitive workload and physical workload, and the quantification of workload 'redlines' which specify when operators are approaching or exceeding their performance tolerances.

  19. Human factors and ergonomics for primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Paul; Jeffcott, Shelly

    2016-03-01

    In the second paper of this series, we provide a brief overview of the scientific discipline of human factors and ergonomics (HFE). Traditionally the HFE focus in healthcare has been in acute hospital settings which are perceived to exhibit characteristics more similar to other high-risk industries already applying related principles and methods. This paper argues that primary care is an area which could benefit extensively from an HFE approach, specifically in improving the performance and well-being of people and organisations. To this end, we define the purpose of HFE, outline its three specialist sub-domains (physical, cognitive and organisational HFE) and provide examples of guiding HFE principles and practices. Additionally, we describe HFE issues of significance to primary care education, improvement and research and outline early plans for building capacity and capability in this setting.

  20. Anaphylaxis treatment: ergonomics of epinephrine autoinjector design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennerlein, Jack T

    2014-01-01

    Epinephrine administration is a critical component of individualized emergency action plans for patients at risk for anaphylaxis. Fundamental ergonomic principles can be used to facilitate rapid and effective use of an epinephrine autoinjector when appropriate. Specific patient characteristics, including age and strength, that impact physical and cognitive capabilities, should be considered when choosing an epinephrine autoinjector. Considerations in the optimal functioning of an autoinjector include the device being portable, identifiable, safe, and effective. Size, shape, coloring, and labeling of the device all contribute to the device being portable and identifiable. Trigger-lock features, designs resistant to physical perturbations, and safety technology to prevent injury after use contribute to safety and reliability. Optimal grip designs, tailored in size and/or shape to specific patient types, contribute to reliability and effectiveness. After selection of the most appropriate autoinjector, hands-on training, practice, and drills should be implemented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Problems of ergonomics in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuaba, A

    1976-12-01

    Development in Indonesia, particularly in Bali, has been planned and done through several stages of the Five-Year Development Programs, which started in 1969, and emphasized intensification of agriculture and extensification of industries related to potential resources available in the region. In the process, industrialization, being regarded as a prerequisite to higher living standards, brought with it problems concerning safety, health, and work conditions, especially with respect to transfer of technology. As examples, experiences and data, related particularly to ergonomics in the sectors of agriculture, hotel business, textile mills, transportation, and others in Bali, Indonesia, are reported. In dealing with such possible consequences of development, efforts to find fundamental solutions should be given the highest priority. It is necessary to make use of all the existing institutions having potential functions and roles in the policy of development planning, and to take into consideration the factors of safety, health, and work conditions in specifying technical and financial development projects for industrialization.

  2. [Ergonomics of the workplace in radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lallana, A; Viteri-Ramírez, G; Saiz-Mendiguren, R; Broncano, J; Dámaso Aquerreta, J

    2011-01-01

    The replacement of conventional films and view boxes with digital images and computer monitors managed by PACS has clearly improved the diagnostic imaging workplace. The new setup has many advantages, including increased productivity brought about by decreased overall time required for image interpretation. On the other hand, the implementation of the digital workplace has increased the importance of factors like background lighting and the position of the chair, work table, mouse, keyboard, and monitor to prevent lesions that can disable the radiologist. The influence of these factors is often undervalued in the design and implementation of the radiological workplace. This article provides recommendations for the design of the radiological workplace based on ergonomics, which is the science that studies interactions among humans and other elements of a system.

  3. Motivating ergonomic computer workstation setup: sometimes training is not enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O; Artnak, Melissa; Needham, Mick; Wirth, Oliver; Silverman, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders lead to pain and suffering and result in high costs to industry. There is evidence to suggest that whereas conventional ergonomics training programs result in knowledge gains, they may not necessarily translate to changes in behavior. There were 11 participants in an ergonomics training program, and a subsample of participants received a motivational intervention in the form of incentives for correct workstation setup. Training did not yield any changes in ergonomics measures for any participant. Incentives resulted in marked and durable changes in targeted workstation measures. The data suggest that improving worker knowledge about ergonomically correct workstation setup does not necessarily lead to correct workstation setup, and that motivational interventions may be needed to achieve lasting behavior change.

  4. Toward improved construction health, safety, and ergonomics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toward improved construction health, safety, and ergonomics in South Africa: A ... positioned in the action research (AR) paradigm and used focus-group (FG) ... use of the core model relies on appropriate knowledge of architectural designers.

  5. Ergonomic workforce scheduling under complex worker limitation and task requirements:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuchporn Wongwien

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The ergonomic workforce scheduling problem (WPS is addressed in this paper. Unlike its previous related works, theproblem considers realistic worker limitation and task requirements that include heterogeneous workforce with limited taskflexibility, varying worker team sizes, and pre-defined task operation schedules. Its main objective is to find a daily rotatingwork schedule solution using a minimum number of workers such that all workers’ ergonomics hazard exposures do notexceed a permissible limit. Initially, the ergonomic WPS is explained. Its mathematical model and approximation procedure toobtain the workforce schedule solution are described. From the results of the computation experiment, it can be concludedthat the approximation procedure is both efficient and effective in solving large-sized ergonomic workforce schedulingproblems.

  6. User Experience As A Challenge For Cognitive Psychology And Ergonomics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mauro Marchitto; José J. Cañas

    2011-01-01

    .... In this new context, cognitive psychology and ergonomics should be able to assist the innovation process through an analysis of the actions that constitute human life and the role that technology plays in these actions...

  7. An ergonomic evaluation of workstations in small-scale cybercafes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... solutions to the observed problems based on ergonomic principles. These cybercafes provide Internet services to communities but the concern is ... Also, the top of computer monitors often is above eye level for an average height customer.

  8. A study on the ergonomic assessment in the workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Kian Sek; Low, Eugene; Saim, Hashim; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Khialdin, Safinaz Binti Mohd; Isa, Hazlita; Awad, M. I.; Soon, Chin Fhong

    2017-09-01

    Ergonomics has gained attention and take into consideration by the workers in the different fields of works recently. It has given a huge impact on the workers comfort which directly affects the work efficiency and productivity. The workers have claimed to suffer from the painful postures and injuries in their workplace. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) is the most common problem frequently reported by the workers. This problem occurs due to the lack of knowledge and alertness from the workers to the ergonomic in their surroundings. This paper intends to review the approaches and instruments used by the previous works of the researchers in the evaluation of the ergonomics. The two main assessment methods often used for ergonomic evaluation are Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA). Popular devices are Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) and Microsoft Kinect.

  9. The thermal ergonomics of firefighting reviewed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, David; Gregson, Warren; Reilly, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The occupation of firefighting is one that has repeatedly attracted the research interests of ergonomics. Among the activities encountered are attention to live fires, performing search and rescue of victims, and dealing with emergencies. The scientific literature is reviewed to highlight the investigative models used to contribute to the knowledge base about the ergonomics of firefighting, in particular to establish the multi-variate demands of the job and the attributes and capabilities of operators to cope with these demands. The job requires individuals to be competent in aerobic and anaerobic power and capacity, muscle strength, and have an appropriate body composition. It is still difficult to set down thresholds for values in all the areas in concert. Physiological demands are reflected in metabolic, circulatory, and thermoregulatory responses and hydration status, whilst psychological strain can be partially reflected in heart rate and endocrine measures. Research models have comprised of studying live fires, but more commonly in simulations in training facilities or treadmills and other ergometers. Wearing protective clothing adds to the physiological burden, raising oxygen consumption and body temperature, and reducing the time to fatigue. More sophisticated models of cognitive function compatible with decision-making in a fire-fighting context need to be developed. Recovery methods following a fire-fighting event have focused on accelerating the restoration towards homeostasis. The effectiveness of different recovery strategies is considered, ranging from passive cooling and wearing of cooling jackets to immersions in cold water and combinations of methods. Rehydration is also relevant in securing the safety of firefighters prior to returning for the next event in their work shift.

  10. Big data and ergonomics methods: A new paradigm for tackling strategic transport safety risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy; Strathie, Ailsa

    2016-03-01

    Big data collected from On-Train Data Recorders (OTDR) has the potential to address the most important strategic risks currently faced by rail operators and authorities worldwide. These risk issues are increasingly orientated around human performance and have proven resistant to existing approaches. This paper presents a number of proof of concept demonstrations to show that long standing ergonomics methods can be driven from big data, and succeed in providing insight into human performance in a novel way. Over 300 ergonomics methods were reviewed and a smaller sub-set selected for proof-of-concept development using real on-train recorder data. From this are derived nine candidate Human Factors Leading Indicators which map on to all of the psychological precursors of the identified risks. This approach has the potential to make use of a significantly underused source of data, and enable rail industry stakeholders to intervene sooner to address human performance issues that, via the methods presented in this paper, are clearly manifest in on-train data recordings. The intersection of psychological knowledge, ergonomics methods and big data creates an important new framework for driving new insights.

  11. Ergonomics and sustainability – challenges from global supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2012-01-01

    The development of globalised supply chains is a major challenge for sustainability. For several years, there has been discussion within the profession whether and how ergonomics and human factors can play a role. Based on our research, we have identified five major challenges from global supply...... sustainability. Starting from such a basis, the next step would be to find ways for the ergonomics and human factors community to create international collaboration which can impact specific global supply chains....

  12. Conditions and strategies for integrating ergonomics into product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    1996-01-01

    Ergonomics considerations at the stage of product development in industry is a major strategy for prevention of work-related injuries and illnesses among employees at the time of manufacture of new products. This study elucidates some important conditions and possibilities for integrating...... such considerations during the product development process. Special attention is paid to the role of design and production engineers. Based on different understandings of the product development process four approaches to integration of ergonomics are outlined....

  13. Ergonomics: Requirements for Adjusting the Height of Laparoscopic Operating Tables

    OpenAIRE

    Matern, Ulrich; Waller, Peter; Giebmeyer, Carsten; Rückauer, Klaus D.; Farthmann, Eduard H.

    2001-01-01

    Background and Objectives: In the last few years many new instruments and devices have been developed and introduced into the operating room (OR). A debate has been ongoing about the optimal ergonomic posture for the operating staff. From practical experience, we have learned that the operating tables cannot be adjusted adequately to allow surgeons of different stature to maintain a comfortable posture. The goal of this study was to establish the most ergonomic table height for the particular...

  14. The dentist’s operating posture – ergonomic aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Pîrvu, C; Pătraşcu, I; Pîrvu, D; Ionescu, C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The practice of dentistry involves laborious high finesse dental preparations, precision and control in executions that require a particular attention, concentration and patience of the dentist and finally the dentist’s physical and mental resistance. The optimal therapeutic approach and the success of practice involve special working conditions for the dentist and his team in an ergonomic environment. The meaning of the posture in ergonomics is the manner in which different parts of...

  15. Ergonomic intervention, workplace exercises and musculoskeletal complaints: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Heydari, Mohammad; Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Taheri, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are among the most prevalent occupational disorders in different jobs such as office work. Some interventions such as ergonomic modifications and workplace exercises are introduced as the methods for alleviating these disorders. In this study we compared the effect of ergonomic modifications and workplace exercises on musculoskeletal pain and discomfort in a group of office workers. Methods: In an interventional study on office workers, the effect of two ...

  16. Multiple ulcers in primary syphilis with negative rapid plasma reagin and Venereal Disease Research Laboratory tests: an unusual presentation during the re-emergence of syphilis in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harxhi, A; Kraja, D; Shehu, E; French, P

    2010-03-01

    Since 1995 infectious syphilis has re-emerged in Albania. As syphilis has become more common, more unusual presentations are being recognized. We present a case of an HIV-negative man with primary syphilis presenting with multiple penile ulcers and negative rapid plasma reagin and Venereal Disease Research Laboratory tests. The case illustrates the challenges of diagnosing early syphilis and the importance of not relying on non-treponemal tests.

  17. Developing measures for information ergonomics in knowledge work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssila, Heljä; Okkonen, Jussi; Savolainen, Reijo

    2016-03-01

    Information ergonomics is an evolving application domain of ergonomics focusing on the management of workload in the real-world contexts of information-intensive tasks. This study introduces a method for the evaluation of information ergonomics in knowledge work. To this end, five key dimensions of information ergonomics were identified: contextual factors of knowledge work, multitasking, interruptions at work, practices for managing information load, and perceived job control and productivity. In total, 24 measures focusing on the above dimensions were constructed. The measures include, for example, the number of fragmented work tasks per work day. The measures were preliminarily tested in two Finnish organisations, making use of empirical data gathered by interviews, electronic questionnaires and log data applications tracking work processes on personal computers. The measures are applicable to the evaluation of information ergonomics, even though individual measures vary with regard to the amount of work and time needed for data analysis. Practitioner Summary: The study introduces a method for the evaluation of information ergonomics in knowledge work. To this end, 24 measures were constructed and tested empirically. The measures focus on contextual factors of knowledge work, multitasking, interruptions at work, practices for managing information load, and perceived job control and productivity.

  18. Implementation of ergonomics in a service unit: challenges and advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteado, Eliane Villas Bôas de Freitas; de França, Maria Goretti; Ramalhoto, Ana Maria de Brito; de Oliveira, Ana Maria; Machado, Bruno Rangel Cortoppassi; Genipapeiro, Joana Angélica Matos

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the implementation of ergonomics in a service unit of a major company in the energy sector. From the perspective of management, it analyses the process of implementation of ergonomics programmes in four operational areas. The objective was to diagnose the level of implementation of ergonomics. The study is descriptive, undertaken through the interaction with the technical staff of the operational areas involved, incorporating the perception of these role players concerning their work routines. The results indicated significant differences in the level of implementation of the programmes, especially those concerning structural conditions. Important conquests were registered, such as the investment in the training of specialists, the establishment of a facilitator network and the improvement of the standard for the directioning and alignment of the execution of initiatives. The linking in of the programmes with those of occupational health management emphasises its contribution to the safety and well-being of the workforce through interventions aimed mainly at eliminating and reducing ergonomic biomechanical risks. However, the need to broaden and deepen the ergonomic approach regarding organizational and cognitive aspects, as well as the insertion of ergonomics in project design of new work spaces and processes were also identified.

  19. Ergonomics oriented to processes becomes a tool for continuous improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, R L; Getty, J M

    1999-01-01

    A holistic view is essential for quality initiatives such as Total Quality Management (TQM), Standard No. ISO 9001:1994 (International Organization for Standardization [ISO], 1994), Concurrent Engineering, Business Reengineering, and Business Process Improvement. The challenge is knowing how to transition from this theoretical concept to implementation. The relationship between quality interest and an ergonomics program will be the focus of this discussion. An ergonomics oriented improvement program includes (a) ergonomics or fitting the job to the person; (b) integration of operations management, safety engineering, medical management, and employees as co-owners of the process; (c) the emphasis of ergonomic precepts in the engineering of new processes and improvement of current processes; and (d) the emphasis of employees taking responsibility for their own well being and the improvement of their work environment. The parallel between the continuous improvement process delineated by the quality-system requirements in Standard No. ISO 9001:1994 (ISO, 1994) and the improvement contributions of ergonomics are very revealing (Getty, Abbott, & Getty, 1995). It is the contention of this approach that if the precepts of ergonomics were applied to the work environment, it would support the objective of world class quality and productivity, resulting in improved global competitiveness of businesses.

  20. Organizational Approach to the Ergonomic Examination of E-Learning Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy LAVROV

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With a significant increase in the number of e-learning resources the issue of quality is of current importance. An analysis of existing scientific and methodological literature shows the variety of approaches, methods and tools to evaluate e-learning materials. This paper proposes an approach based on the procedure for estimating parameters of local factors and receiving the integral index of usability quality of e-learning modules. We present a mathematical model which serves as a basis for the automated procedures for expertise. The use of fuzzy logic allows to reduce greatly the complexity of evaluating the formation of a repository of e-learning modules. The proposed approach is focused on the situation, when the university has amassed a large number of e-learning modules that have to be assessed in terms of ergonomics; is able to use experts in ergonomics and organization of e-learning (the experts can provide, as a rule, qualitative assessment; is limited in resources on the development of special software for evaluation of e-learning modules; is forced by the need to reduce the cost of expertise to be limited to considering only the main quality indicators that have the greatest impact on the ergonomics of e-learning modules. For automation of the ergonomic examination procedures a MatLab system is used, in particular Fuzzy Logic Toolbox. Application of the well-known mathematical tools and widely used means of processing expert qualitative assessments can significantly reduce the cost of the expertise.

  1. Reducing work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) through design: Views of ergonomics and design practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punchihewa, Himan K G; Gyi, Diane E

    2015-01-01

    Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) affect the well-being of workers. Unfortunately, user requirements for design to reduce workplace risk factors for MSDs are not always effectively communicated to designers creating a mismatch between the user requirements and what is ultimately produced. To understand the views of practitioners of design and ergonomics regarding tools for participatory design and features they would like to see in such tools. An online questionnaire survey was conducted with a cohort of practitioners of ergonomics and design (n = 32). In-depth interviews were then conducted with a subset of these practitioners (n = 8). To facilitate discussion, a prototype integrated design tool was developed and demonstrated to practitioners using a verbalized walkthrough approach. According to the results of the questionnaire survey, the majority (70%) believed an integrated approach to participatory design would help reduce work-related MSDs and suggested ways to achieve this, for example, through sharing design information. The interviews showed the majority (n = 7) valued being provided with guidance on design activities and ways to manage and present information. It is believed that an integrated approach to design in order to help reduce work-related MSDs is highly important and a provision to evaluate design solutions would be desirable for practitioners of design and ergonomics.

  2. Ergonomics and design in a ischial support proposal for the Medellin metro, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz Zapata, Luz Mercedes; Valencia Escobar, Andrés

    2012-01-01

    This project, developed by the Design Studies Research Group at the Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana (UPB), presents a design proposal focused on human factors for ischial support for the stations of the Medellín Metro. An initial pilot scheme was developed on Platform 'A' of San Antonio - the most important transfer station. The methodology of the Ergonomics Research Division at UPB constituted the basis of the project. This methodology observes, analyses and draws conclusions of the conditions that optimize the User-Product-Context nexus, and in doing so defines design requirements which, in this proposal, centered on the needs of the users of the Medellín Metro. The Experimental Morphology Research Division provided technical support in the form of modelling, production and structural testing of the object. The proposal includes thematic units, themes and priority components for analysis and application in the design process. In addition, the project generates certain activities and moments that future designers can develop in a parallel manner, coherent with the vision of ergonomics. The methodology focused on the requirements of the users and took into account the existing space (the Metro System), thus establishing relationships of use that were coherent with the principles of ergonomics and design.

  3. Effectiveness of the C-Sharp: reducing ergonomics problems at VDTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, J J; Brown, M E

    1993-10-01

    The use of visual display terminals (VDTs) has been associated with complaints of visual fatigue and body discomfort. In an effort to eliminate some of these problems, an ergonomic emphasis has been placed on the design of computer workstations. A new device, the C-Sharp, has been developed to help reduce some of the ergonomics problems related to long-term VDT usage. The C-Sharp was designed to alleviate visual strain and temporary myopia by reducing the amount of muscular work associated with accommodation and convergence to near targets. It was also designed to eliminate glare. The present study is an ergonomics evaluation to determine whether the C-Sharp meets accepted standards and guidelines. Specifically, the objectives of the research are to determine the effects of the C-Sharp on operator reading and search performance, perceived comfort, body posture, and visual acuity. The C-Sharp is compared with mesh-glare filter and no-glare filter device conditions. Subjects were blocked into three groups based on age and type of vision correction (with or without bifocals). Results indicate that the C-Sharp meets the recommendations of the Americal National Standard for human factors engineering of visual display terminal workstations. No differences in objective performance were found between the three glare device conditions. The C-Sharp allowed bifocal wearers to keep their necks in natural postures rather than tilted backwards. Post-session far visual acuity worsened regardless of the device condition.

  4. Geometric dimension model of virtual astronaut body for ergonomic analysis of man-machine space system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qianxiang, Zhou

    2012-07-01

    It is very important to clarify the geometric characteristic of human body segment and constitute analysis model for ergonomic design and the application of ergonomic virtual human. The typical anthropometric data of 1122 Chinese men aged 20-35 years were collected using three-dimensional laser scanner for human body. According to the correlation between different parameters, curve fitting were made between seven trunk parameters and ten body parameters with the SPSS 16.0 software. It can be concluded that hip circumference and shoulder breadth are the most important parameters in the models and the two parameters have high correlation with the others parameters of human body. By comparison with the conventional regressive curves, the present regression equation with the seven trunk parameters is more accurate to forecast the geometric dimensions of head, neck, height and the four limbs with high precision. Therefore, it is greatly valuable for ergonomic design and analysis of man-machine system.This result will be very useful to astronaut body model analysis and application.

  5. Action-oriented use of ergonomic checkpoints for healthy work design in different settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, Kazutaka

    2007-12-01

    Recent experiences in the action-oriented use of ergonomic checkpoints in different work settings are reviewed. The purpose is to know what features are useful for healthy work design adjusted to each local situation. Based on the review results, common features of ergonomic checkpoints used in participatory training programs for improving workplace conditions in small enterprises, construction sites, home work and agriculture in industrially developing countries in Asia are discussed. These checkpoints generally compile practical improvement options in a broad range of technical areas, such as materials handling, workstation design, physical environment and work organization. Usually, "action checklists" comprising the tiles of the checkpoints are used together. A clear focus is placed on readily applicable low-cost options. Three common features of these various checkpoints appear to be important. First, the checkpoints represent typical good practices in multiple areas. Second, each how-to section of these checkpoints presents simple improvements reflecting basic ergonomic principles. Examples of these principles include easy reach, fewer and faster transport, elbow-level work, coded displays, isolated or screened hazards and shared teamwork. Third, the illustrated checkpoints accompanied by corresponding checklists are used as group work tools in short-term training courses. Many practical improvements achieved are displayed in websites for inter-country work improvement networks. It is suggested to promote the use of locally adjusted checkpoints in various forms of participatory action-oriented training in small-scale workplaces and in agriculture particularly in industrially developing countries.

  6. Ergonomic risks on the operational activities of firefighters from Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitari, Flávia Curi; Francisco, Hilmar Soares; Mello, Márcia Gomide da Silva

    2012-01-01

    The Fire Brigade of the State of Rio de Janeiro (CBMERJ) is Brazil's most ancient and is one of the military forces of the state. It has the primary function of activities related to civil defense of the state. This study aims to contribute to the improvement of the current situation by proposing a solution of eliminating totally or at least mitigating risks of ergonomic injury, since all operating activities are based on the performance of man, applying techniques and equipment with intensive use of hands, teamwork, extended shifts and living with stressful situations, which enhance the occurrence of awkward postures among other ergonomic risk factors. This is a quantitative study. The fields of study were five operational units with the highest statistical service of the Corporation. The following items were analyzed: profile of the firemen, work environment, activity performed, adequacy of training received and epidemiological assessment of pain. In total, 208 questionnaires were answered. Data analysis was performed by frequency and presented in tables, charts and graphs. It is important to implement procedures aimed at occupational health and safety of firefighters in the light of ergonomic concepts, so that crews activities are carried out with increased safety and quality.

  7. PATRAM '92: 10th international symposium on the packaging and transportation of radioactive materials [Papers presented by Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-01-01

    This document provides the papers presented by Sandia Laboratories at PATRAM '92, the tenth International symposium on the Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials held September 13--18, 1992 in Yokohama City, Japan. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. (FL)

  8. Anthropometry and it application in ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Romelio Rodriguez-Añez

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometry, is the branch of the human science that studies the physical measurement of the human body, particularly size and shape. Ergonomics is the science of work: of the people who do it and the way it is done; the tools and equipment they use, the places they work in, and the psychological aspects of the working environment. In a simplifi ed way can be understood as the adaptation of work to man. One characteristic of the ergonomic is its interdisciplinarity; since it is based on many different areas of knowledge. Anthropometry has a special importance because of the emergence of complex work systems where knowledge of the physicaldimensions of man with accuracy is important. One application of anthropometrical measurement in ergonomics is the design of working space and the development of industrialized products such as furnishing, cars, tools, etc. With advances in technology, the precision and automation of measurement techniques will increase, improving definition of human size, and the mechanics of workspaces, clothing and equipment. A well-developed tool will perform better in a worker’s hand without injuring his bodily structures. On the other hand, anthropometric data is only meaningful if the workers’ activities are also analyzed. RESUMO A antropometria é o ramo das ciências humanas que estuda as medidas do corpo, particularmente o tamanho e a forma. A ergonomia é a ciência do trabalho e envolve: as pessoas que o fazem, a forma como é feito, as ferramentas e equipamentos que elas usam, os lugares em que elas trabalham e os aspectos psicossociais nas situações de trabalho. De forma bastante simplifi cada, pode ser entendida como a adaptação do trabalho ao homem. Uma característica da ergonomia é a sua interdisciplinaridade, pois diversas áreas do conhecimento lhe dão sustentação. A antropometria assumiu uma importância especial com o surgimento dos sistemas complexos de trabalho onde o conhecimento das

  9. Do colours affect 'normal' behaviour of laboratory and farm animals? Instantaneous change of behaviour by presentation of red in the Peach-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebes, H D

    1979-06-01

    In spite of genetic and environmental standardisation in farm and laboratory animal science, a considerable amount of variation in the results of comparable experiments remains. This presumably depends upon the individual variability within a species, and upon differences of various species in their specific demands to the environment in captivity. Due to a discovery in the Southwest-African lovebird species Agapornis roseicollis, used as a conventional laboratory animal in bioacoustic research, the phenomenon of instantaneous fear expressed in a number of different displays in connection with the presence or presentation of red objects is described and compared to earlier observations of instantaneous phobias, aggressions, and preferences towards colours, in other bird species. Consequently it is suggested that investigation of the chromatophobe and chromatophile behaviour of typical laboratory and farm animals be undertaken to ensure the adequate design of lodging and experimental environments.

  10. Adding a strategic edge to human factors/ergonomics: principles for the management of uncertainty as cornerstones for system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Gudela

    2014-01-01

    It is frequently lamented that human factors and ergonomics knowledge does not receive the attention and consideration that it deserves. In this paper I argue that in order to change this situation human factors/ergonomics based system design needs to be positioned as a strategic task within a conceptual framework that incorporates both business and design concerns. The management of uncertainty is presented as a viable candidate for such a framework. A case is described where human factors/ergonomics experts in a railway company have used the management of uncertainty perspective to address strategic concerns at firm level. Furthermore, system design is discussed in view of the relationship between organization and technology more broadly. System designers need to be supported in better understanding this relationship in order to cope with the uncertainties this relationship brings to the design process itself. Finally, the emphasis on uncertainty embedded in the recent surge of introducing risk management across all business sectors is suggested as another opportunity for bringing human factors and ergonomics expertise to the fore.

  11. Workplace ergonomics in lean production environments: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arezes, Pedro M; Dinis-Carvalho, José; Alves, Anabela Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Lean Production Systems (LPS) have become very popular among manufacturing industries, services and large commercial areas. A LPS must develop and consider a set of work features to bring compatibility with workplace ergonomics, namely at a muscular, cognitive and emotional demands level. Identify the most relevant impacts of the adoption of LPS from the ergonomics point of view and summarizes some possible drawbacks for workplace ergonomics due to a flawed application of the LPS. The impacts identified are focused in four dimensions: work pace, intensity and load; worker motivation, satisfaction and stress; autonomy and participation; and health outcome. This paper also discusses the influence that the work organization model has on workplace ergonomics and on the waste elimination previewed by LPS. Literature review focused LPS and its impact on occupational ergonomics conditions, as well as on the Health and Safety of workers. The main focus of this research is on LPS implementations in industrial environments and mainly in manufacturing industry workplaces. This is followed by a discussion including the authors' experience (and previous research). From the reviewed literature it seems that there is no consensus on how Lean principles affect the workplace ergonomics since most authors found positive (advantages) and negative (disadvantages) impacts. The negative impacts or disadvantages of LPS implementations reviewed may result from the misunderstanding of the Lean principles. Possibly, they also happen due to partial Lean implementations (when only one or two tools were implemented) that may be effective in a specific work context but not suitable to all possible situations as the principles of LPS should not lead, by definition, to any of the reported drawbacks in terms of workplace ergonomics.

  12. Ergonomic Interventions in Manual Handling of Carpets to the retail sellers in a textile company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Darvishi

    2015-04-01

    .Conclusion: By implementing ergonomics interventions in carpet delivery sites, the risk factors of MSDs, induced by manual carpet handling, were reduced and safety and ergonomic conditions of the retailers were improved, compared to the previous conditions.

  13. A Review of the Ergonomic Issues in the Laparoscopic Operating Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang D. Choi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This review paper discusses the ergonomic challenges associated with laparoscopy in the operating room (OR and summarizes the practical ergonomic solutions. The literature search was conducted in the fields of laparoscopy and applied ergonomics. Findings indicated that laparoscopic OR staff (surgeons, perioperative nurses and technicians commonly experienced physical and mental ergonomic risks while working in prolonged static and awkward body positions. This study highlighted the need for more ergonomic interventions in OR environment in order to improve the efficiency of laparoscopy. Ergonomic solutions included utilizing adjustable equipment, placing computer peripherals in optimal locations, providing ergonomic instruments, and improving communication. Understanding the job- or task-related ergonomic risks and hazards could help identify intervention requirements to meet the challenges associated with increased dependency on advanced high technology in the OR.

  14. Designing an Ergonomically Correct CNC Workstation on a Shoe String Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightner, Stan

    2001-01-01

    Describes research to design and construct ergonomically correct work stations for Computer Numerical Control machine tools. By designing ergonomically correct work stations, industrial technology teachers help protect students from repetitive motion injuries. (Contains 12 references.) (JOW)

  15. Management of the Benefits on the Client's Involvement on Ergonomic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Isabel F.; Leão, Celina P.; Arezes, Pedro

    Nowadays, market trade economy is witnessing to a continuous development and transformation. The organizations come to be seen as sociotechnical systems with new ergonomic contexts. Various types of relationships can be established. From the ergonomic analysis point of view, it is necessary to understand all the mechanisms that regulate these relationships. The interaction between clients and professionals (workers) reproduce a relationship that can be important to the ergonomic analysis. This paper allows a better comprehension of the relationship in the effective's ergonomic intervention. A case study was analyzed in a private health sector using the Ergonomic Three-dimension Analysis as an ergonomic approach. This analysis is made by three different but related dimensions: analyst, professional and client. The results show that that clients' involvement in the ergonomic analysis will benefit the ergonomic intervention and consequently the professional environment.

  16. Designing an Ergonomically Correct CNC Workstation on a Shoe String Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightner, Stan

    2001-01-01

    Describes research to design and construct ergonomically correct work stations for Computer Numerical Control machine tools. By designing ergonomically correct work stations, industrial technology teachers help protect students from repetitive motion injuries. (Contains 12 references.) (JOW)

  17. Participatory ergonomics and design of technical assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Claudia Isabel Rojas

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the experience of application of a procedural initiative, which aimed to identify and address technical assistance needs progressively in therapy and rehabilitation activities. The proposal theoretical axes are the basics of participatory ergonomics and interdisciplinary work, was raised with the intention of addressing important issues for the entire design process including: perception, attention, memory and human being comfort, and the interrelationships that create objects in the context in which they are used. This project was done in collaboration with leading institutes for the rehabilitation of Colombia: Cirec and Roosevelt, through two investigative stages: a first ethnographic stage, during which were observed one hundred forty four (144) procedures of rehabilitation and therapy to build a bank of assistive technology needs, justified on the project observation variables. And a second stage of action research in which they were designed elements that facilitate the implementation of rehabilitation procedures efficiently. Currently being developed experiential situations in different hospitals to examine the reliability of the proposed solutions.

  18. Ergonomic Redesign of an Industrial Control Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Raeisi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Operator's role in industrial control centers takes place in time, which is one of the most important determinants of whether an expected action is going to be successful or not. In certain situations, due to the complex nature of the work, the existing interfaces and already prepared procedures do not meet the dynamic requirements of operator's cognitive demands, making the control tasks unnecessarily difficult. This study was conducted to identify ergonomic issues with a specific industrial control panel, and redesign its layout and elements to enhance its usability. Task and link analysis methodologies were implemented. All essential functions and supporting operations were identified at the required trivial levels. Next, the weight of any possible link between the elements of the panel was computed as a composite index of frequency and importance. Finally, all components were rearranged within a new layout, and a computerized mockup was generated. A total of 8 primary tasks was identified, including 4 system failure handling tasks, switching between manual and automated modes, and 3 types of routine vigilance and control tasks. These tasks were broken down into 28 functions and 145 supporting operations, accordingly. Higher link values were observed between hand rest position and 2 elements. Also, 6 other components showed robust linkages. In conclusion, computer modeling can reduce the likelihood of accidents and near misses in industrial control rooms by considering the operators' misperception or mental burden and correcting poor design of the panels and inappropriate task allocation.

  19. Ergonomics issues in conceiving an accessible project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A L; Coura, P V; Gomes, M M A; Peregrino, Y R; Sarmento, B R; Sousa, R A

    2012-01-01

    Public space is endowed with undeniable social relevance, thus becoming a defining element of integration and interaction among its users. Aware of this importance the Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB), linked to the Ministério da Educação e Cultura (MEC), develops the project "UFPB para todos: eliminando barreiras'' (UFPB for all: removing barriers) that aims to conceive an architectural design of an accessible rout to UFPB's campus I, and execute a pilot stretch of this route. This article aims to subsidize the preprojectual phase by understanding the needs of this campus' users, through the concepts of ergonomics and universal design. Was performed out direct observation of the space, and the methods of interviews and observation of user behavior were applied to a group of students with disabilities, through the techniques of assisted walking, photographic and video recording. Based on those, projective guidelines have been defined, which will contribute to the final project's quality, so that this is not a simple application of the rule, but works free of segregating barriers.

  20. Ergonomic Redesign of an Industrial Control Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisi, S; Osqueizadeh, R; Maghsoudipour, M; Jafarpisheh, A S

    2016-07-01

    Operator's role in industrial control centers takes place in time, which is one of the most important determinants of whether an expected action is going to be successful or not. In certain situations, due to the complex nature of the work, the existing interfaces and already prepared procedures do not meet the dynamic requirements of operator's cognitive demands, making the control tasks unnecessarily difficult. This study was conducted to identify ergonomic issues with a specific industrial control panel, and redesign its layout and elements to enhance its usability. Task and link analysis methodologies were implemented. All essential functions and supporting operations were identified at the required trivial levels. Next, the weight of any possible link between the elements of the panel was computed as a composite index of frequency and importance. Finally, all components were rearranged within a new layout, and a computerized mockup was generated. A total of 8 primary tasks was identified, including 4 system failure handling tasks, switching between manual and automated modes, and 3 types of routine vigilance and control tasks. These tasks were broken down into 28 functions and 145 supporting operations, accordingly. Higher link values were observed between hand rest position and 2 elements. Also, 6 other components showed robust linkages. In conclusion, computer modeling can reduce the likelihood of accidents and near misses in industrial control rooms by considering the operators' misperception or mental burden and correcting poor design of the panels and inappropriate task allocation.

  1. Ergonomics guidelines for designing electronic mail addresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, P L; Salvendy, G

    2001-03-15

    The aim was to design a human-centred electronic mail (e-mail) address system based on networking technology and cognitive ergonomics. Based on the background literature and the results of users' survey, a conceptual model is developed for designing e-mail addresses. This model consists of e-mail address components of formats, domain length, meaningfulness, orientation and information type pertaining to recall, information association and categorization. Five hypotheses were proposed to test the conceptual model, and four experiments were conducted with 85 participants to test the hypotheses. The dependent variables were performance time, error rate and degree of satisfaction, and the independent variables were components of the e-mail addresses. The main results indicate that for a recall task, significantly lower total performance time (26.2%) and error rate (75%) were found for the hybrid formats (digits and letters) than for the letter format, and up to four characters was the best single domain length. For an information association task, embedding both geographical and organizational information significantly decreased the response time (10.9%) in comparison with only embedding organizational information. For a categorization task, embedding both geographical information and organizational information significantly decreased response time (40.7%) in comparison with only embedding organizational information. This research demonstrates the importance of human-centred design and provides guidelines in effectively designing e-mail addresses.

  2. Investigation of the Utilization of Modern Industrial Methods, Processes, Ergonomics, and the Internet in the Scientific Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Spencer S., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    On Oct. 1, 2001 Cleveland State University and NASA Glenn Research Center embarked on the above named cooperative agreement. Because NASA's research facilities often exhibit instances where the failure to use state-of-the-art technologies and methods to improve on outmoded systems of interface and control, and this runs contrary to the NASA philosophy of "faster, better, and cheaper", it was deemed an ideal opportunity for this collaboration. The main objectives of the proposed effort were to research and investigate the use of the latest technologies, methods, techniques, etc. which pertain to control and interface with industrial and research systems and facilities. The work was done in large part at NASA Glenn Research Center, using selected research facilities as real-world laboratories; such as certain Microgravity Science Division and Space Station projects. Microgravity Science Division at Glenn Research Center designs and builds experiments to be flown on the Space Shuttle and eventually on the International Space Station. Economy of space, weight, complexity, data storage, ergonomics, and many other factors present problems that also exist in industry. Many of the solutions can come from the same areas of study mentioned above.

  3. Part 1: Participatory Ergonomics Approach to Waste Container Handling Utilizing a Multidisciplinary Team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalk, D.M.; Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Biggs, T.W.; Perry, C.M.; Tageson, R.; Barsnick, L.

    2000-02-07

    This multidisciplinary team approach to waste container handling, developed within the Grassroots Ergonomics process, presents participatory ergonomic interpretations of quantitative and qualitative aspects of this process resulting in a peer developed training. The lower back, shoulders, and wrists were identified as frequently injured areas, so these working postures were a primary focus for the creation of the workers' training. Handling procedures were analyzed by the team to identify common cycles involving one 5 gallon (60 pounds), two 5 gallons (60 and 54 pounds), 30 gallon (216 pounds), and 55 gallon (482 pounds) containers: lowering from transporting to/from transport vehicles, loading/unloading on transport vehicles, and loading onto pallet. Eleven experienced waste container handlers participated in this field analysis. Ergonomic exposure assessment tools measuring these field activities included posture analysis, posture targeting, Lumbar Motion Monitor{trademark} (LMM), and surface electromyography (sEMG) for the erector spinae, infraspinatus, and upper trapezius muscles. Posture analysis indicates that waste container handlers maintained non-neutral lower back postures (flexion, lateral bending, and rotation) for a mean of 51.7% of the time across all activities. The right wrist was in non-neutral postures (radial, ulnar, extension, and flexion) a mean of 30.5% of the time and the left wrist 31.4%. Non-neutral shoulder postures (elevation) were the least common, occurring 17.6% and 14.0% of the time in the right and left shoulders respectively. For training applications, each cycle had its own synchronized posture analysis and posture target diagram. Visual interpretations relating to the peak force modifications of the posture target diagrams proved to be invaluable for the workers' understanding of LMM and sEMG results (refer to Part II). Results were reviewed by the team's field technicians and their interpretations were developed

  4. An assessment system for rating scientific journals in the field of ergonomics and human factors

    OpenAIRE

    Dul, Jan; Karwowski, W.

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA method for selecting and rating scientific and professional journals representing the discipline of ergonomics and human factors is proposed. The method is based upon the journal list, impact factors and citations provided by the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI), and the journal list published in the Ergonomics Abstracts. Three groups of journals were distinguished. The "ergonomics journals" focus exclusively on ergonomics or human factors. The "related journals" focus ...

  5. Integrating community ergonomics with educational ergonomics--designing community systems to support classroom learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a conceptual framework, bolstered by empirical evidence, for two conclusions: (1) that variability in student learning is prominently influenced by ergonomic design features, not only of classrooms and school systems, but also of surrounding communities; and (2) a systems concept of learning environments therefore is required to support student learning, based on integrating educational with community ergonomics. Educational system design factors known to strongly influence student learning first are reviewed. One of the most prominent of these is the socioeconomic status of communities in which schools are housed. Independent lines of evidence then are introduced that may account for how and why community design affects learning. The paper closes with recommendations for persuading policymakers and educators that closer integration of school system operations and functions with those of the surrounding community, with a central goal of upgrading community design conditions, represents a highly promising opportunity for improving student learning performance. One major challenge is to heighten awareness that learning environments outside the classroom are as or more important as those inside, in terms of influencing not only test but broader educational and societal trajectories of children.

  6. The Hexagon-Spindle Model for educational ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedyk, Rachel; Woodcock, Andrée; Harder, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Ergonomics has traditionally considered work done, in a workplace. More recently, this scope has broadened, and the concept of 'work' may now be applied to the satisfactory completion of any task. Thus, learning, being the transformation and extension of the learner's knowledge or skills, can be viewed as work, with its workplace being the educational environment in which learning tasks take place. In accomplishing the learning, the learner interacts with the teachers, other students, equipment, materials, study plans and the educational organisation; the effectiveness of these learning interactions is influenced by many factors both inside and external to the organisation. To optimize such a multi-factorial process requires the application of an ergonomic approach. This paper proposes an adaptation of the concentric rings model of ergonomics, informed by Kao's earlier model, to produce a new model for educational ergonomics, known as the Hexagon-Spindle Model. In comparison to other published models of educational ergonomics, it is holistic, multi-dimensional, task-related and transferable across a range of educational settings. It extends to characterise a time base for serial and simultaneous tasks, and space shared by multiple learners, and highlights areas where learner/system conflicts may arise. The paper illustrates analysis tools for the application of the model in evaluation and design.

  7. Evidence-based ergonomics: a model and conceptual structure proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Dierci Marcio

    2012-01-01

    In Human Factors and Ergonomics Science (HFES), it is difficult to identify what is the best approach to tackle the workplace and systems design problems which needs to be solved, and it has been also advocated as transdisciplinary and multidisciplinary the issue of "How to solve the human factors and ergonomics problems that are identified?". The proposition on this study is to combine the theoretical approach for Sustainability Science, the Taxonomy of the Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) discipline and the framework for Evidence-Based Medicine in an attempt to be applied in Human Factors and Ergonomics. Applications of ontologies are known in the field of medical research and computer science. By scrutinizing the key requirements for the HFES structuring of knowledge, it was designed a reference model, First, it was identified the important requirements for HFES Concept structuring, as regarded by Meister. Second, it was developed an evidence-based ergonomics framework as a reference model composed of six levels based on these requirements. Third, it was devised a mapping tool using linguistic resources to translate human work, systems environment and the complexities inherent to their hierarchical relationships to support future development at Level 2 of the reference model and for meeting the two major challenges for HFES, namely, identifying what problems should be addressed in HFE as an Autonomous Science itself and proposing solutions by integrating concepts and methods applied in HFES for those problems.

  8. Participatory ergonomics among female cashiers from a department store.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristancho, María Yanire León

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to control ergonomic risks among female cashiers working in a department store belonging to the retail market. This study was conducted between May and November 2010. Participatory ergonomics was applied through knowing and understanding how the company works, establishing the work team (Ergo group), training the team in ergonomics-related topics, and making decisions and interventions. The sample was composed of 71 participants--mostly female cashiers--, and all of them have a musculoskeletal compromise, declaring pain or discomfort mainly in the neck, lower back, right wrist and shoulders. Among others, following problems were found: postural overload, repetitive work, manual load handling, mental fatigue, environmental discomfort, variable work schedules, extended working days, and absence of breaks. In the intervention, the main implemented changes were the redesign of workstation, complete change of chairs and keyboards, and the implementation of a rotation system, as well breaks for compensatory exercises. After that, an evident improvement of found problems was observed, therefore it can be concluded that participatory ergonomics is an attractive methodology, appropriate and efficient for solving and controlling ergonomic risks and problems.

  9. Childhood sarcoidosis in Denmark 1979-1994: incidence, clinical features and laboratory results at presentation in 48 children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, A L; Milman, N; Byg, K E

    2004-01-01

    and central nervous system symptoms were common; 31% of patients had erythema nodosum, 12.5% sarcoid skin lesions, 25% uveitis/iridocyclitis and 4.2% sarcoid arthritis. Chest X-rays were normal (stage 0) in 10% of patients, and showed pulmonary infiltrates stage I in 71%, stage II in 8.3% and stage III in 8...... examination (glucose, albumin, haemoglobin) was normal in 96% of the patients; the patient with nephrocalcinosis had albuminuria and haematuria. CONCLUSION: The incidence of sarcoidosis in Danish children is low and increases with age. Sarcoidosis in young children may present clinical features...... that are different from the appearance of those in older children and often constitute a diagnostic challenge. In older children, the clinical appearance has many features in common with the presentation in adults....

  10. Validation of an ergonomic assessment method using Kinect data in real workplace conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantard, Pierre; Shum, Hubert P H; Le Pierres, Anne-Sophie; Multon, Franck

    2016-11-04

    Evaluating potential musculoskeletal disorders risks in real workstations is challenging as the environment is cluttered, which makes it difficult to accurately assess workers' postures. Being marker-free and calibration-free, Microsoft Kinect is a promising device although it may be sensitive to occlusions. We propose and evaluate a RULA ergonomic assessment in real work conditions using recently published occlusion-resistant Kinect skeleton data correction. First, we compared postures estimated with this method to ground-truth data, in standardized laboratory conditions. Second, we compared RULA scores to those provided by two professional experts, in a non-laboratory cluttered workplace condition. The results show that the corrected Kinect data can provide more accurate RULA grand scores, even under sub-optimal conditions induced by the workplace environment. This study opens new perspectives in musculoskeletal risk assessment as it provides the ergonomists with 30 Hz continuous information that could be analyzed offline and in a real-time framework.

  11. The relation between OSH and ergonomics: a 'mother-daughter' or 'sister-sister' relation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Veerle; Van Peteghem, Jan

    2006-07-01

    Despite the growing importance of ergonomics and ergonomists worldwide, the position of ergonomics in companies is often not clear. Today, in many countries ergonomics is mainly (or even only) associated with the reduction of risks of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). Therefore, many companies consider ergonomics a part of occupational safety and health (OSH) that focuses mainly on the reduction of risks. This paper aims to analyse the links between occupational ergonomics and OSH. The position of occupational ergonomics in legislation, the presence of ergonomics in OSH networks, and the position of ergonomics in OSH company services are discussed. In addition, the added value of ergonomics to companies is examined. From these discussions, it becomes clear that ergonomics should be part of the OSH policy of companies, and should be integrated into today's company strategies to improve labour conditions. If ergonomics is considered as a discipline in its own right, a clear legislative context should be developed that goes beyond voluntary guidelines and the goodwill of employers, and necessitates the presence of ergonomics professionals in companies.

  12. Combining economic and social goals in the design of production systems by using ergonomics standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Dul (Jan); H.J. de Vries (Henk); S. Verschoof (Sandra); W. Eveleens (Wietske); A. Feilzer (Albert)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn designing of production systems, economic and social goals can be combined, if ergonomics is integrated into the design process. More than 50 years of ergonomics research and practice have resulted in a large number of ergonomics standards for designing physical and organizational wor

  13. Ergonomic and usability analysis on a sample of automobile dashboards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Raíssa; Soares, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    This is a research study based on an analysis which sets out to identify and pinpoint ergonomic and usability problems found in a sample of automobile dashboards. The sample consisted of three dashboards, of three different makes and characterized as being a popular model, an average model and a luxury model. The examination was conducted by observation, with the aid of photography, notes and open interview, questionnaires and performing tasks with users, the bases of which are on the principles laid down by methodologies. From this it was possible to point to the existence of problems such as: complaints about the layout, lighting, colors, available area, difficult access to points of interaction, such as buttons, and the difficult nomenclature of dials. Later, the findings and recommendations presented show the need for a further, deeper study, using more accurate tools, a larger sample of users, and an anthropometric study focused on the dashboard, since reading and understanding it have to be done quickly and accurately, and that more attention be given to the study of automobile dashboards, particularly in the most popular vehicles in order to maintain the standards of usability, and drivers' comfort and safety.

  14. Ergonomic lumbar risk analysis of construction workers by NIOSH method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinara Caetano Pereira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Work in construction has tasks directly connected with manual transport. One of the body segments suffering greater demand in works with these characteristics is the lumbar spine segment. The aim of this study was to analyze the level of risk of lumbar construction workers in the shipment of materials. The sample was composed of 74 construction workers. Were used as a research tool: the NIOSH method for lumbar risk verification expressed by weight limit recommended (WPR and the lifting Index (IL, Visual analogue scale (VAS for the evaluation of pain intensity, the e-1 Corlett.0 for the mapping of the pain and Borg to the subjective perception of the intensity of physical exertion. The present study identified the weight limit (WP of 8.707 for management activity of bags of cement for the load of 8.194 wheelbarrows used. These findings are 6 times under actual weights handled during the activities that revolve around 50 kg with the sacks and averaged 49.72 kg stands with mass. The dimensional settings found in the search are at high risk for ergonomic lumbar region, and measures of reconfiguration of workplaces and operation of auxiliary devices for lifting, transporting and unloading are fundamental, in addition to the need for reflection about the current logistical problems that induce producers to supply the cement sacks with 50 kg.

  15. Ergonomic evaluation of the wood cutting task using chain saw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Gaurav; Farooq, Mohd; Khan, Abid Ali; Muzammil, Mohammad

    2013-10-01

    Workers whose hands are regularly exposed to hand-arm vibration may suffer from damage to the tissues of the hands and arms, which cause the symptoms collectively known as hand-arm vibration syndrome. However, investigations have shown that vibration hazards can be controlled and risks might be reduced by good design of the task/tools. In the present study, an experiment was conducted for the evaluation of risk in operating chain saw. The evaluation of chain saw ergonomically performed based on four parameters--Discomfort level, EMG activity of seven different forearm muscles (ECRB, ECU, EPB, FCR, FDS, FCU and PT), angular deviation in hand-arm system and the vibration transfer to hand-arm system, while operating the chain saw on a wooden block. Ten male candidates participated for the discomfort level experiment, four participants volunteered for the EMG activity and angular deviation experiment and two participants were involved in vibration transfer recordings. The results showed that ECRB muscle was mostly affected muscle in this task of operating a chain saw. The findings also indicated that the problems were occurred due to the bad design of the rear handle of chain saw in association with the available vibration levels on hand arm system.

  16. Ergonomic risks in mask manufacturing and methods to combat them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Larry; Strott, Al

    1995-12-01

    A growing concern throughout the world is the increasing occurrence of cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) or repetitive motion injuries. Countries worldwide are struggling over the correct way to respond to the legal aspects of the problem, given the difficulty of root cause identification of the injury. The mask industry is no exception to this. Some companies may not be aware of the problem. Some companies may be aware, but not concerned. The reality is, however, that the problem exists and should not be ignored. Eventually, regulatory agencies such as OSHA, will take a position or stance on recognition of this as an injury status making it impossible to ignore. Companies who have not been proactive in the prevention of ergonomic injuries may find themselves in a crisis reactive mode that may cost them thousands of unplanned dollars. In this paper, we expand on the awareness of CTDs as a growing problem. We also share the actions that Intel is taking to address this problem. It is the authors' hope that the awareness and sharing presented in this paper will result in the sharing of experiences among the mask suppliers, so that we can all be successful in addressing this challenging issue.

  17. Performance evaluation model of stoves with ergonomic focus using the MCDA-C method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Vegini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of multi-criteria decision aid constructivist method (MCDA-C in a situation of evaluating the performance of stoves. Using techniques for structuring problems, the MCDA-C allows decision makers view the criteria that must be taken into account in the selection of stoves, thereby aiding in the decision-making projects for product development, and to enable ordinal and cardinal measurement of stoves performance. The case study of presented in this paper will use as an example the area of stoves ergonomics.

  18. Collaborative Virtual Environments for Ergonomics: Embedding the Design Engineer Role in the Loop

    OpenAIRE

    Pontonnier, Charles; Duval, Thierry; Dumont, Georges

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this paper is to define the role and duties of a design engineer involved in a collaborative ergonomic design session supported by a 3D collaborative virtual environment. For example, such a session can be used to adapt the manual task an operator must achieve in the context of an industrial assembly line. We first present the interest of such collaborative sessions. Then we present a related work explaining the need of proper 3DCVE and metaphors to obtain e...

  19. Ergonomic assessment of selected workstations on a merchant ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystosik-Gromadzińska, Agata

    2017-01-23

    This study describes some key ergonomic factors within the engine room, navigation bridge and other locations of a merchant ship. Ergonomic assessments were carried out on a crew of a merchant ship. The study examines the importance of factors such as noise, vibration, heat radiation (in machinery areas), psychological stress and ergonomics of the physical arrangement of the navigation bridge. It also addresses the effect of working in confined areas for a long duration and the need to process large amounts of data, decision-making and the influence of specific operating conditions in different areas of a ship. This study includes analysis of workstations, working methods and the burden of environmental factors as well as a discussion of specific marine environmental conditions such as confined working and leisure spaces, long-term family and sociocultural separation, frequent changes in climate and time zones, and temporary physical overload and long-term psychological burdens.

  20. Integrating ergonomics into engineering design: the role of objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Andersen, Lene Bjerg; Broberg, Ole

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the role of objects in integrating ergonomic knowledge in engineering design processes. An engineering design case was analyzed using the theoretical concepts of boundary objects and intermediary objects: Boundary objects facilitate collaboration between different knowledge domains, while the aim of an intermediary object is to circulate knowledge and thus produce a distant effect. Adjustable layout drawings served as boundary objects and had a positive impact on the dialog between an ergonomist and designers. An ergonomic guideline document was identified as an intermediary object. However, when the ergonomic guidelines were circulated in the design process, only some of the guidelines were transferred to the design of the sterile processing plant. Based on these findings, recommendations for working with objects in design processes are included.

  1. Evaluating the ergonomics of a student learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Michelle; Griffiths, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    Ergonomics is a key consideration of a student-learning environment. This paper examines aspects of ergonomics and application to the design of tables in three classrooms at a Midwestern university. Custom tables with power outlets and Internet access via Ethernet data ports were planned for classrooms in 2000 to facilitate a laptop program. However, table height, specifically thigh clearance from the seat to the bottom of the work surface, was not fully considered. The ergonomic analysis of the classrooms by an occupational therapy student led to the implementation of positive changes to the tables. The enhancement of the learning environment influences student comfort and productivity and can offset the cost of renovating the tables.

  2. Computer simulation for ergonomic improvements in laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Patricia; Seitz, T; Bubb, H; Wichert, A; Feussner, H

    2006-05-01

    It is the aim of this study to reduce the stress and strain of the medical staff during laparoscopic operations, and, simultaneously, to increase the safety and efficiency of an integrated operation room (OR) by an ergonomic redesign. This was attempted by a computer simulation approach using free modelling of the OR and 3D human models (manikins). After defining ergonomically "ideal" postures, optimal solutions for key elements of an ergonomic design of the OR (position and height of the image displays, height of the OR table and the Mayo stand) could be evaluated with special regard to the different individual body size of each member of the team. These data should be useful for the development of team adapted, user friendly integrated OR suites of the future.

  3. Multilevel Comprehensive Evaluation and Decision Making of Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-jun Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the improvement of living standards, higher level of ergonomic performance is required for the products. As a result, the ergonomic evaluation has become one of the key points in the decisions making of modern products, especially the complex products. Aiming at improving the situation that the methods for ergonomic evaluation and decision making are one-sided and discrete, this paper proposed several methods for measuring multiply factors and data format of products and built a comprehensive evaluation and decision making system. In this system, the data supplied by soft hardware and specialists were calculated separately to gain the preliminary scores, and the preliminary scores were processed to get the final results for the decision making using the AHP-GRA analytic hierarchy process-gray relational analysis method proposed in this paper.

  4. Design and sizing of ergonomic handles for hand tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, W G; Narayan, C V

    1993-10-01

    In this paper, handles for two commonly used hand tools, the chisel and the off-set pliers, are designed using ergonomic principles. These were sized for both males and females falling in the 5th percentile, 50th percentile and 95th percentile groupings. The stresses developed in the ergonomically designed chisel handle while in use were analysed to verify the validity of the design. This chisel handle was then manufactured, and preliminary evaluation using electromyography was conducted. In these tests, the stresses exerted on the flexor and extensor muscles of the arm were measured and compared with those obtained during the use of a conventional handle. Under similar working conditions, results clearly showed that the ergonomically designed handle allows higher working efficiency than existing handles.

  5. Ergonomic assessment among radiology technologists: a survey in a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Fernando Lima; Azevedo, Paulo Roberto; Medeiros, Lícia Helena de Oliveira; de Freitas, Iraí Borges; Stamato, Cláudia

    2012-01-01

    This article is the result of an Ergonomic Diagnosis in a study for a Specialization Course in Ergonomics. The research is being done in a public hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro, where the target system is the radiology sector. For diagnosis purposes, subjective techniques were used, such as an open-ended survey, Corlett questionnaire and techniques for evaluating ergonomic risk such as Owas and Rula. Systematic observation was emphasized using photos and films. Preliminary observations made to the radiographers found that these professionals suffer risks of physical and verbal harassment, as well as sexual harassment. Most of them feel discriminated against in terms of race and accumulate activities demanding a lot of attention, as the medical diagnosis and subsequent procedures will depend on the outcome of this task. They accumulate tension due to the weight of responsibility, since there are cases where the patient has risk of death.

  6. SUCCESS FRAMEWORK FOR TEACHING ERGONOMICS TO ENGINEERING STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSHTAK AL-ATABI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Taylor's University School of Engineering (Malaysia is a project-based-learning school that puts a conscious effort to educate engineers on the importance of applying ergonomic principles at the conceiving and designing stages of a product life cycle. This paper reports on an innovative approach to teaching ergonomics using the SUCCESS framework (Simple, Unexpected, Credible, Concrete, Emotions, Story, and Simulation. This teaching technique was adopted to engage the hearts and minds of the students and get them to embrace ergonomics as an important skill for engineers. Comparing students’ module evaluation and feedback, both before and after the adoption of the SUCCESS framework showed that students enjoyed the new approach of teaching and found it more fulfilling.

  7. Integrating ergonomics into engineering design: The role of objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall-Andersen, Lene Bjerg; Broberg, Ole

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the role of objects in integrating ergonomic knowledge in engineering design processes. An engineering design case was analyzed using the theoretical concepts of boundary objects and intermediary objects: Boundary objects facilitate collaboration between...... different knowledge domains, while the aim of an intermediary object is to circulate knowledge and thus produce a distant effect. Adjustable layout drawings served as boundary objects and had a positive impact on the dialog between an ergonomist and designers. An ergonomic guideline document was identified...... as an intermediary object. However, when the ergonomic guidelines were circulated in the design process, only some of the guidelines were transferred to the design of the sterile processing plant. Based on these findings, recommendations for working with objects in design processes are included. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd...

  8. A question of our marketing or our preconceptions: commentary on the paper 'a strategy for human factors/ergonomics: developing the discipline and profession'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanael, Dimitris; Marmaras, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    The present paper is a commentary on the recently published IEA strategy for human factors/ergonomics (Dul, J., et al. (2012), A strategy for human factors/ergonomics: developing the discipline and profession. Ergonomics, 55(4), 377-395). Two main issues that demand attention are: (i) the way others understand our profession and discipline, and (ii) the way we understand our profession and added value to industry. First, it is advocated that the discussion on the future of human factors/ergonomics (HFE) should be focused more on the quality of the delivered value of HFE and less on its visibility and marketing. Second, the three fundamental characteristics of HFE, as proposed in the report, are discussed and the consequences of this proposal are further developed. Arguments are put forward on the endemic epistemological vagueness within the discipline and on the optimistic definition of its aim. Finally, a proposal is made at the epistemological level, which challenges some established convictions of the discipline. It is advocated that such an epistemological evolution may be necessary if HFE is to make progress towards contributing to system performance. The paper is a commentary on the IEA strategy for human factors/ergonomics. Issues discussed are, the way others understand our profession and the way we understand our profession and added value to industry. Some of the established convictions of the discipline are challenged and proposals are made to overcome these.

  9. Ergonomics and design: its principles applied in the industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Ademario Santos; Silva, Francisco Nilson da

    2012-01-01

    Industrial Design encompasses both product development and optimization of production process. In this sense, Ergonomics plays a fundamental role, because its principles, methods and techniques can help operators to carry out their tasks most successfully. A case study carried out in an industry shows that the interaction among Design, Production Engineering and Materials Engineering departments may improve some aspects concerned security, comfort, efficiency and performance. In this process, Ergonomics had shown to be of essential importance to strategic decision making to the improvement of production section.

  10. Accounting for effect modifiers in ergonomic intervention research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Winkel, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Literature reviews suggest that tools facilitating the ergonomic intervention processes should be integrated into rationalization tools, particular if such tools are participative. Such a Tool has recently been developed as an add-in module to the Lean tool “Value Stream Mapping” (VSM). However......, in the investigated context this module seems not to have any direct impact on the generation of proposals with ergonomic consideration. Contextual factors of importance seem to be e.g. allocation of sufficient resources and if work environment issues are generally accepted as part of the VSM methodology...

  11. Participatory ergonomics in design processes: The role of boundary objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Andersen, Vibeke; Seim, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of boundary objects in order to better understand the role of objects in participatory ergonomics (PE) design processes. The research question is: What characterizes boundary objects in PE processes? Based on two case studies, we identify eight...... enable workers’ participation and collaborative design in different ways. The framework developed may serve to provide criteria to guide practitioners and intervention researchers in the selection of objects to facilitate a PE process. The paper concludes with a list of recommendations for ergonomic...

  12. Ergonomics for Children and Educational Environments - Around the World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C L; Tien, D

    2003-06-25

    This paper briefly reviews activities and research related to children and educational environments. The increasing prevalence and role of information and communications technology in the lives of children as well as the incidence of back pain and heavy loads children carry in back packs are raising concerns around the world. Out of this concern an International Ergonomics Association Technical Committee has been formed. A survey was sent to Ergonomics for Children and Educational Environments membership and those who have communicated through the committee. The results are compiled to describe a cross-section of international efforts to address the health and the future of children.

  13. Driver performance data acquisition system for ergonomics research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Engineering Physics and Mathematics Div.; Goodman, M.J. [National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Crash Avoidance Research

    1994-12-31

    A portable ergonomics data acquisition system consisting of state-of-the-art hardware being designed is described here. It will be employed to record driver, vehicle, and environment parameter data from a wide range of vehicles and trucks. The system will be unobtrusive to the driver and inconspicuous to the outside world. It will have three modes of data gathering and provide for extended periods of data collection. Modularity, flexibility, and cost will be key drivers in the development effort. The ergonomics data acquisition system project is being conducted in two phases--a feasibility study and a development, construction, and validation phase.

  14. Software Support of Modelling using Ergonomic Tools in Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darina Dupláková

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the preconditions for correct development of industrial production is continuous interconnecting of virtual reality and real world by computer software. Computer software are used for product modelling, creation of technical documentation, scheduling, management and optimization of manufacturing processes, and efficiency increase of human work in manufacturing plants. This article describes the frequent used ergonomic software which helping to increase of human work by error rate reducing, risks factors of working environment, injury in workplaces and elimination of arising occupational diseases. They are categorized in the field of micro ergonomics and they are applicable at the manufacturing level with flexible approach in solving of established problems.

  15. Use of Ergonomic Measures Related to Musculoskeletal Complaints among Construction Workers: A 2-year Follow-up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julitta S. Boschman

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Only the use of ergonomic measures for vertical transport increased over a 2-year period. No relationship between the use of ergonomic measures and MSDs was found. Strategies aimed at improving the availability of ergonomic equipment complemented with individualized advice and training in using them might be the required next steps to increase the use of ergonomic measures.

  16. Implementing ergonomics in large-scale engineering design. Communicating and negotiating requirements in an organizational context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulff, Ingrid Anette

    1997-12-31

    This thesis investigates under what conditions ergonomic criteria are being adhered to in engineering design. Specifically, the thesis discusses (1) the ergonomic criteria implementation process, (2) designer recognition of ergonomic requirements and the organization of ergonomics, (3) issues important for the implementation of ergonomic requirements, (4) how different means for experience transfer in design and operation are evaluated by the designers, (5) how designers ensure usability of offshore work places, and (6) how project members experience and cope with the large amount of documentation in large-scale engineering. 84 refs., 11 figs., 18 tabs.

  17. Guidance strategies for a participatory ergonomic intervention to increase the use of ergonomic measures of workers in construction companies: a study design of a randomised trial

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, Steven; van der Molen, Henk F; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique HW

    2014-01-01

    Background More than seven out of 10 Dutch construction workers describe their work as physically demanding. Ergonomic measures can be used to reduce these physically demanding work tasks. To increase the use of ergonomic measures, employers and workers have to get used to other working methods and to maintaining them. To facilitate this behavioural change, participatory ergonomics (PE) interventions could be useful. For this study a protocol of a PE intervention is adapted in such a way that...

  18. A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN ERGONOMIC ADVICES VERSUS ERGONOMIC PLUS PHYSIOTHERAPY INTERVENTION IN LOW BACK PAIN AMONG FARMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandipkumar. Parekh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In most countries, agriculture is recognized as one of the most hazardous industries. There is a host of injuries and illnesses in agriculture that have been consistently identified through epidemiological and community-based studies as in need for controlling due to their high reporting rates among agricultural workers. Low-back pain is a common and important clinical and public health problem. Low back problems affect the spines flexibility, stability, and strength, which can cause pain discomfort and stiffness. The prevalence of occupational low-back pain varies between industries and occupations and there is an association with heavy physical work, static work postures such as prolonged sitting, vibration and psychosocial factors such as work dissatisfaction. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of such an ergonomic and ergonomic plus physiotherapy treatment on functional and symptomatic parameters of moderately disabled farmers with chronic low back pain. Study Design: Experimental design. Methods: 30 patients (farmers were selected randomly from the population using simple random sampling procedure (Lottery Method and were divided into two equal groups. Both Group A &B were given ergonomic intervention for 4 weeks. And Group B was given Physiotherapy intervention for 2session/week, up to 4 weeks. Outcome measures: VAS(Visual Analogue Scale, Oswestry low back pain disability. Results: In Group-A (Ergonomic and Group-B (Physiotherapy plus ergonomic, all data was expressed as mean ± , SDand was statistically analysed using paired ‘t’ test and independent ‘t’ test to determine the statistical difference among the parameters at 0.5% level of significance. Statistical data of SPADI showed that, Group-B is significantly different from Group-A with p<0.05; i.e 95% of significance. Conclusion: In this study conclude that Physiotherapy plus ergonomic intervention to give greater improvement in pain, and functional

  19. The IEA contribution to the transition of Ergonomics from research to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caple, David C

    2010-10-01

    The future growth of ergonomics as a scientific discipline will require a greater focus on methods to transition research findings into practice. Whilst the International Ergonomics Association (IEA) and the Federated Ergonomics Societies provide opportunities to promote exchange on ergonomics research and collaboration in research programs, the future sustainability of the domain will be dependent on the provision of ongoing educational opportunities in ergonomics and the transitioning of the research findings into practice. This transition will require greater external focus outside the ergonomics profession in working in collaboration and partnership with other professional associations, governments and international agencies. Practical tools that are targeted towards particular user groups within the community, workplace, and governments will enhance the opportunities for the transition of ergonomics research into practice. Focus on extramural initiatives such as Ergonomics Checkpoints, integration of the ergonomics design process into the International Organisation for Standardization Guidelines, and the incorporation of ergonomics into the World Health Organisation research programs will ensure that the positioning of ergonomics will continue at an international level.

  20. Workplace aesthetics: impact of environments upon employee health as compared to ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Elisabet; Theorell, Tores; Saraste, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Associations between self-reported needs for aesthetic and ergonomic improvements were studied to analyse a possible impact of aesthetic needs on job performance as compared to ergonomic needs in 11 occupational groups. Employees at Swedish broadcasting company were invited to participate in a cross sectional study. 74% (n=1961/2641) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Demographic data from company files and a pre-validated questionnaire were used. 'High rank' and 'low rank' aesthetic and ergonomic needs were compared. The perceived needs for aesthetic and ergonomic improvements showed significantly different distributions (pstress, pain and age. 16/24 factors showed significant differences between 'high and low rank' aesthetic needs, whereas 21/24 between ergonomic needs. Sick leave was stronger related to ergonomics. The study results show a relation between not only work place ergonomics but also work place aesthetics to health and well-being. Future work health promotion and prevention may benefit from the inclusion of workplace aesthetics.

  1. A framework of motion capture system based human behaviours simulation for ergonomic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Ruina; Bennis, Fouad; Ma, Liang

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing of computer capabilities, Computer aided ergonomics (CAE) offers new possibilities to integrate conventional ergonomic knowledge and to develop new methods into the work design process. As mentioned in [1], different approaches have been developed to enhance the efficiency of the ergonomic evaluation. Ergonomic expert systems, ergonomic oriented information systems, numerical models of human, etc. have been implemented in numerical ergonomic software. Until now, there are ergonomic software tools available, such as Jack, Ergoman, Delmia Human, 3DSSPP, and Santos, etc. [2-4]. The main functions of these tools are posture analysis and posture prediction. In the visualization part, Jack and 3DSSPP produce results to visualize virtual human tasks in 3-dimensional, but without realistic physical properties. Nowadays, with the development of computer technology, the simulation of physical world is paid more attention. Physical engines [5] are used more and more in computer game (CG) field. The a...

  2. Participatory ergonomics intervention in an industrially developing country--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helali, Faramarz; Lönnroth, Emma-Christin; Shahnavaz, Houshang

    2008-01-01

    In industrially developing countries, a few ergonomists have directed great efforts towards developing ergonomics awareness among managers and workers in organizations. There is little research on the degree of their success, though. Furthermore, access of organizations to ergonomics knowledge is usually very difficult, especially in industrially developing countries. Thus, building ergonomics awareness is certainly the first phase of the process. Three companies from one industry (44 people: 14 females and 30 males) participated in a project aimed at improving their work system. At the beginning, we needed to create a common goal and ensure participation with appropriate ergonomics tools. The findings of this study were the key issue for the ergonomics intervention (i.e., a shared vision, awakened need of change and learning). Further, to build ergonomics awareness and develop a continuous learning process in the company, it was necessary to use more ergonomics tools through workers' participation in different workplaces.

  3. Infant feeding: the interfaces between interaction design and cognitive ergonomics in user-centered design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Flavia; Araújo, Lilian Kely

    2012-01-01

    This text presents a discussion on the process of developing interactive products focused on infant behavior, which result was an interactive game for encouraging infant feeding. For that, it describes the use of cognitive psychology concepts added to interaction design methodology. Through this project, this article sustains how the cooperative use of these concepts provides adherent solutions to users' needs, whichever they are. Besides that, it verifies the closeness of those methodologies to boundary areas of knowledge, such as design focused on user and ergonomics.

  4. Ergonomics of electronic mail address systems: related literature review and survey of users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, P L; Salvendy, G

    2001-03-15

    The paper reviews the cognitive ergonomics literature related to electronic mail (e-mail) address design. Based on this information, a survey of 160 users of current e-mail address system was conducted. The aim was to obtain information on likes, dislikes and difficulties associated with e-mail address and to obtain users' suggestions and input for improving the current e-mail address system. The survey results indicated that users want an improved e-mail address system with regard to shorter length, useful information and appropriate presentation of information.

  5. The Design Space of Information Presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Michael; Petersen, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    (adaptive, tailorable) presentations with a clear separation between (a) the content forms of data, (b) the representational forms through which data is expressed, (c) the combination of media of presentation, and (d) the specific layout within the constraints of the presentation devices and the ergonomic...

  6. Do ergonomics improvements increase computer workers' productivity?: an intervention study in a call centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael J; Bayehi, Antoinette Derjani

    2003-01-15

    This paper examines whether improving physical ergonomics working conditions affects worker productivity in a call centre with computer-intensive work. A field study was conducted at a catalogue retail service organization to explore the impact of ergonomics improvements on worker production. There were three levels of ergonomics interventions, each adding incrementally to the previous one. The first level was ergonomics training for all computer users accompanied by workstation ergonomics analysis leading to specific customized adjustments to better fit each worker (Group C). The second level added specific workstation accessories to improve the worker fit if the ergonomics analysis indicated a need for them (Group B). The third level met Group B requirements plus an improved chair (Group A). Productivity data was gathered from 72 volunteer participants who received ergonomics improvements to their workstations and 370 control subjects working in the same departments. Daily company records of production outputs for each worker were taken before ergonomics intervention (baseline) and 12 months after ergonomics intervention. Productivity improvement from baseline to 12 months post-intervention was examined across all ergonomics conditions combined, and also compared to the control group. The findings showed that worker performance increased for 50% of the ergonomics improvement participants and decreased for 50%. Overall, there was a 4.87% output increase for the ergonomics improvement group as compared to a 3.46% output decrease for the control group. The level of productivity increase varied by the type of the ergonomics improvements with Group C showing the best improvement (9.43%). Even though the average production improved, caution must be used in interpreting the findings since the ergonomics interventions were not successful for one-half of the participants.

  7. Some key issues in the development of ergonomic intervention tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Winkel, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    , in the investigated context this module seems not to have any direct impact on the generation of proposals with ergonomic consideration. Contextual factors of importance seem to be e.g. allocation of sufficient resources and if work environment issues are generally accepted as part of the VSM methodology...

  8. Ergonomía aplicada en podología

    OpenAIRE

    Albiol Ferrer, Josep Maria; Giralt de Veciana, Enrique; Novel Martí, Virginia; Ogalla, José Manuel; Zalacain, Antonio

    1990-01-01

    La ergonomía pretende el estudio integral del sistema, reafirmando el derecho que tiene el hombre a que su salud en el puesto de trabajo no sufra ninguna mengua, ni interfiera su integridad física ni su dignidad personal.

  9. Ergonomics study for workers at food production industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fazi Hamizatun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The health constraint faced by production workers affects the quality of the work. The productivity of the workers is affected by the Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorder (WMSD which limits the movement of the workers. The comfort workplace condition, known as ergonomic environment is important to prevent the occurrence of the WMSD. Proper ergonomic workplace considers the condition of the workers while doing the assigned work. The objectives of this study are to identify the current problems related to ergonomic in food production process, to analyse the actual production data by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA and to recommend the ergonomic workplace environment based on the condition of the study. The study was done at a Small and Medium Enterprises (SME food production company in the Klang Valley of Malaysia. The condition of the workers affects the productivity of the company due to workers’ health deficiency. From the findings, the workers are exposed to the awkward postures which leads to the Work-Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs. Besides, the best height of the worker at the study area (critical area to prevent the worker from WMSDs is within 155 cm to 160 cm. The results show that the workers are exposed to the WMSD in different level of risks which causes high absenteeism among the workers.

  10. Determination of an Ergonomically Sound Glovebox Glove Port Center Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christman, Marissa St John [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-11-30

    Determine an ergonomic glovebox glove port center line location which will be used for standardization in new designs, thus allowing for predictable human work performance, reduced worker exposure to radiation and musculoskeletal injury risks, and improved worker comfort, efficiency, health, and safety.

  11. Determination of an Ergonomically Sound Glovebox Glove Port Center Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christman, Marissa St [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Land, Whitney Morgan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-26

    Determine an ergonomic glovebox glove port center line location which will be used for standardization in new designs, thus allowing for predictable human work performance, reduced worker exposure to radiation and musculoskeletal injury risks, and improved worker comfort, efficiency, health, and safety.

  12. Study Utility Vehicle Makassar City Transport a HighErgonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hanafie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of technology during this was to meet the man, but it should be men must be spoilt, But if it turns out that all that did not make people feel safe, comfortable, healthy and easy, but the planning process, decision-making and developments have experienced a deviation orientation. Public transport Transportation in the Makassar city should be made with implementing aspects promotes ergonomic comfort, but it does not apply in means of transportation to the public. Issues for public vehicles on access up and down not in accordance with The aim of the research vehicle users. is to phrases dimensions body which have an effect on to utility vehicle, to examine the public vehicles that high-promotes ergonomic comfort. The method assessment is the measurement dimensions body to the passengers as well as the use questionnaires and analyzed in a holistic approach ergonomics. Results of research high security tools to public vehicles that high-security vehicle users generally by body dimensions as a powerful than Knee-and-a-half was knee, long your feet, and your elbow kelantai. While utilities yangbernilai ergonomics was the first and second around 24.76 cm and 49.53 cm, wide around 24.25 cm and was hangar 104, 78 cm.

  13. New Ergonomic Design Criteria for Handles of Laparoscopic Dissection Forceps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Veelen, M.A.; Meijer, D.W.; Goossens, R.H.M.; Snijders, C.J.

    2001-01-01

    Background: The shape of laparoscopic instrument handles can cause physical discomfort. This problem may be ascribed to a lack of standards for instrument design. In this study, new ergonomic requirements for the design of laparoscopic dissection forceps were created. Three representative handles (a

  14. Affluence, occupational safety and ergonomics: are they interdependent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broszkiewicz, Roman

    2016-12-01

    The number of fatal occupational injuries (FOI), the number of scientific publications in ergonomics (SP) and the gross domestic product (GDP) of 30 countries were investigated for their mutual dependence. This article shows that, although the ratio of FOI/SP decreases exponentially with a linear increase in the GDP, GDP may be only one of the major influencing factors.

  15. Ergonomics: A bridge between fundamentals and applied research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ergonomics is becoming a subject of applying fundamentals on anthropocentric dimensions for holistic welfare. The so-called conflict between Basic science and Applied research finds one of its edges in Ergonomics. Be it cutting-edge technology or frontiers of scientific innovation-all start from understanding basic scientific aptitude and skill, and the best way to get familiar with the situation is practicing basic science again and again at a regular basis. Ergonomics is diversified in such paradigms that truly set an example of such harmony between two apparently never-ending straight lines. If the spirit of Science is true human welfare, be it in the form of environmental development, machine development, technological advancement, human resource development, or development of consecutive interfaces between these components, Participatory Ergonomics is one of the vivid examples of such conglomeration. Although fundamental science may appear to be of very little practical significance, it turns out that eventually it has far greater impact on human society than much of the so-called "applied research."

  16. Study on functional relationships between ergonomics indexes of manual performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui-Min; Ding, Li; Chen, Shou-Ping; Yang, Chun-Xin; Yuan, Xiu-Gan

    This paper investigates functional relationships between some of the key ergonomics indexes in manual performance, and attempts to condense the ergonomics appraisal indexes system and thus evaluate hand performance wearing EVA (extravehicular activity) glove, design and improve EVA glove's performance. Four types of ergonomics indexes were studied, i.e., dexterity, tactile sensibility (TS), strength and fatigue. Two test items of insert sticks into a holes-board (ISIHB) and nuts-bolts assembly task (NBAT) were used to measure dexterity, while shape discrimination (SD) was employed for TS, and grip force (GF) for strength and fatigue. The variables measured in this investigation included accomplishing time (AT) of ISIHB and NBAT, correct rate (CR) of SD, maximal grip force (MGF), instant grip force (IGF) and endurance time of grip force (ETGF). Experiments were conducted on 31 undergraduates (eight female and 23 male) with two experiment conditions of bare-hand group and gloved hand group. Results demonstrated that dexterity and TS performance of gloved hand group declined significantly compared with those of bare-hand group (p0.05). Four effective functional relationships were developed between four pairs of ergonomics indexes in bare-hand group. In gloved hand group, in addition to above-mentioned four pairs of relationships, another formula was found, which was y^=0.02061+0.01233x ( p<0.01, dexterity and TS).

  17. Person-centred ergonomics: a Brantonian view of human factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oborne, David J; Oborne, D.T

    1993-01-01

    ... Cataloguing in Publication Data Person-Centred Ergonomics A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 0-203-22123-0 Master e-book ISBN ISBN 0-203-27588-8 (Adobe eR...

  18. Using ergonomics digital human modeling in evaluation of workplaces design and prevention of occupational hazards onboard fishing vessel

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Bing; Álvarez Casado, Enrique; Tello Sandoval, Sonia; Rodríguez Mondelo, Pedro Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to present methods for improving the occupational health and safety of Spanish fishermen, and for redesigning the workplace onboard small fishing vessels. To achieve its objective, the research project was designed in four steps: First, the equipment and procedures for catching, handling, and storing fish was studied. Second, the work postures of all the fishermen were simulated and assessed by using an ergonomic digital human modeling system (ManneQuin Pro). Third, the wo...

  19. Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis due to anticonvulsants share certain clinical and laboratory features with drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome, despite differences in cutaneous presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraki, Y; Shibuya, M; Izaki, S

    2010-10-01

    Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS)/drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is characterized by late disease onset, fever, rash, hepatic dysfunction, haematological abnormalities, lymphadenopathy and often, human herpesvirus (HHV) reactivation. The diagnosis of DIHS is based on the combined presence of these findings. Anticonvulsants are a major cause of DIHS and may also cause Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). We examined whether SJS/TEN due to anticonvulsants display similar clinical and laboratory features seen in DIHS. Patients diagnosed with SJS or TEN due to anticonvulsants (n = 8) were examined and their clinical features and laboratory findings were compared with patients with anticonvulsant-related DIHS (n = 6). Seven of the eight patients with SJS/TEN developed symptoms > 3 weeks after starting anticonvulsants. Hepatic dysfunction was present in six patients with SJS/TEN and five patients with DIHS. Leucocytosis and/or eosinophilia was noted in seven patients with SJS/TEN and four patients with DIHS. Only one patient in the SJS/TEN group had atypical lymphocytosis; this was present in four patients with DIHS. Reactivation of HHV-6 was detected in one of the four patients tested in the SJS/TEN group, although it was seen in five of the six patients with DIHS. TSJS/TEN due to anticonvulsants may exhibit some clinical and laboratory features of DIHS. The nature of the cutaneous involvement should be emphasized in the diagnosis of DIHS. © 2009 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2009 British Association of Dermatologists.

  20. Time to accelerate integration of human factors and ergonomics in patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurses, Ayse P; Ozok, A Ant; Pronovost, Peter J

    2012-04-01

    Progress toward improving patient safety has been slow despite engagement of the health care community in improvement efforts. A potential reason for this sluggish pace is the inadequate integration of human factors and ergonomics principles and methods in these efforts. Patient safety problems are complex and rarely caused by one factor or component of a work system. Thus, health care would benefit from human factors and ergonomics evaluations to systematically identify the problems, prioritize the right ones, and develop effective and practical solutions. This paper gives an overview of the discipline of human factors and ergonomics and describes its role in improving patient safety. We provide examples of how human factors and ergonomics principles and methods have improved both care processes and patient outcomes. We provide five major recommendations to better integrate human factors and ergonomics in patient safety improvement efforts: build capacity among health care workers to understand human factors and ergonomics, create market forces that demand the integration of human factors and ergonomics design principles into medical technologies, increase the number of human factors and ergonomic practitioners in health care organizations, expand investments in improvement efforts informed by human factors and ergonomics, and support interdisciplinary research to improve patient safety. In conclusion, human factors and ergonomics must play a more prominent role in health care if we want to increase the pace in improving patient safety.

  1. An onsite ergonomics assessment for risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among cooks in a Chinese restaurant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan-Wen; Cheng, Andy S K

    2014-01-01

    This article is a case presentation of an onsite ergonomic assessment of the risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) among three cooks working at a medium-sized Chinese restaurant in Hong Kong. The weight of workload was measured during the onsite assessment and the Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS), Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), and National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting equation used to assess the risk of WMSDs. The results showed that these cooks usually had to hold utensils for extended periods of time, toss woks, and barbecue meat, all of which demanded a lot of repetitive movements of the upper limbs. Future research is needed on the implementation of effective prevention measures, including administrative and ergonomic controls, to reduce the problems within this industry associated with such high-risk tasks.

  2. Ergonomic evaluation of the preparation of cuttings and minicuttings for eucalyptus seedling production, with the use of scissors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Eduarda Gabriela Santos; de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Minette, Luciano José

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in a nursery for eucalyptus seedling production in a forest Company, located in the southern state of Bahia, Brazil. It aimed to evaluate the ergonomic conditions of the preparation of cuttings and mini-cuttings with scissors for Eucalyptus seedling production to increase well-being, satisfaction and safety and minimizing the occurrence of occupational diseases, also improving the process efficiency and final product quality. Environmental conditions, levels of noise, postures, RSI risk and physical workload were assessed. The environmental conditions complied with the recommended norms, except at certain times of day, when workers should make compensation breaks. The workers that collect minicuttings presented postures classified as normal by OWAS. On the other hand, the posture of workers dealing with cutting preparation requires corrections in a short run. The workers were subjected to moderate RSI risk due to the high degree of repeatability found. The physical workload was classified as mild, with no need for ergonomic interventions.

  3. Interactive production planning and ergonomic assessment with Digital Human Models--introducing the Editor for Manual Work Activities (ema).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, Lars; Leidholdt, Wolfgang; Bauer, Sebastian; Jäckel, Thomas; Moreno, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    The aging workforce is a risk factor for manufacturing industries that contain many jobs with high physical workloads. Thus, ergonomic risk factors have to be avoided in early phases of production planning. This paper introduces a new tool for simulating manual work activities with 3D human models, the so-called emaΦ. For the most part, the emaΦ software is based on a unique modular approach including a number of complex operations that were theoretically developed and empirically validated by means of motion capturing technologies. Using these modules for defining the digital work process enables the production planner to compile human simulations more accurately and much quicker compared to any of the existing modeling tools. Features of the emaΦ software implementation, such as ergonomic evaluation and MTM-time analyses, and the workflow for practical application are presented.

  4. The Ergonomic-Sociotechnical tool : description of the in the European PSIM project developed prototype of the E/S Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenkamp, J.M. van de; Jongkind, R.

    2002-01-01

    In July 2002 an international workshop on computer science and information technologies was held in Patras, Greece. In this paper of this workshop the structure, the participative application procedure and the developed software prototype of the Ergonomic-Sociotechnical tool (E/S tool) are presented

  5. Intervención de ergonomía participativa en una empresa del sector químico A participatory ergonomics program in a chemical company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. García

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una intervención de ergonomía participativa iniciada en abril de 2010 en una empresa del sector químico de la Comunidad Valenciana. Se presentó el programa de intervención en la empresa, se acordó el ámbito de la intervención (dos líneas, 24 trabajadores y trabajadoras y se constituyó un grupo de trabajo (Grupo Ergo, formado por personas responsables, técnicos y delegados de prevención de la empresa encargado de guiar la intervención. Se recogió mediante cuestionario información acerca de daños y riesgos ergonómicos en los trabajadores y trabajadoras de los puestos seleccionados. Esta información fue analizada por el Grupo Ergo y discutida posteriormente en círculos de prevención, con la participación de los trabajadores y trabajadoras afectados. En el momento de redactar esta nota, como resultado del proceso se ha acordado ya implementar 16 medidas de mejora en las condiciones de trabajo, algunas de las cuales se han mostrado eficaces según la opinión de algunos de los participantes. Un compromiso firme en prevención por parte de la empresa es condición necesaria para poder llevar a cabo este tipo de programas, de los cuales podrían beneficiarse un número sustancial de trabajadores y trabajadoras en España.We describe a participatory ergonomics program that started in April 2010 in a chemical company located in the autonomous region of Valencia, Spain. The program was introduced in the company, the intervention level was agreed (two working lines, 24 workers and a working group was established (Ergo Group, including managers, technicians and safety representatives in the company with the aim of leading the intervention. A questionnaire was applied to collect information on ergonomic injuries and exposures in workers at the selected working lines. This information was analyzed by the Ergo Group and was later discussed at prevention circles with the direct participation of affected workers. When the present

  6. Ergonomics and Kaizen as strategies for competitiveness: a theoretical and practical in an automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Leandro; Balbinotti, Giles; Varasquin, Adriano; Gontijo, Leila

    2012-01-01

    With increased international competitiveness in the automotive industry, came the concern of the companies save costs and lower production costs. For this purpose many ways are designed to reduce costs and waste of raw materials and reduce activities that do not aggregate value to manufacturing processes. In the early XVII appears the manufacturing system, which processes were hard with little concern for the health and safety of employees and conditions of the workplace. After the advent of the production system called lean manufacturing, a new paradigm in terms of production system capable of providing high levels of productivity and quality. It is based on waste elimination that occur during the production process. After began a new way of thinking, creating a culture of continuous improvement and lean process with no waste and reducing costs, without neglecting the welfare worker and improving the conditions of their work environment. This paper presents a reflection on the application of ergonomics in a lean production system of an automotive industry, using methodology based on the Kaizen (Continuous Improvement) to gain performance and improving the conditions of the workplace, also will be presented with positive and negative points in using this methodology in relation to ergonomics. The research will be conducted by collecting data 'in loco' and interviews with workers. Some studies show that in companies that are lean system and using the methodology of Kaizen, the results of product quality, levels of absenteeism and accidents are better than those obtained in companies that do not apply the same concept.

  7. Evaluating instructional computer laboratuaries in terms of physical ergonomic criteria: Suleyman Demirel University case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Lema Tamer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate instructional computer laboratories according to the physical ergonomic criteria. A case study design with survey methodology was employed and data were collected through observation. Three computer labs were selected from various departments at the Suleyman Demirel University in Isparta, Turkey. The observation form, which was generated after reviewing the related literature, was used to gather data about computer labs’ physical characteristics, relative humidity and temperature levels, noise levels, desks and chairs, and technical features. The results reveals that the physical features of computer labs, monitor features, relative humidity and temperature levels are in agreement with the ergonomic criteria. However, desks and chairs, keyboard features, and noise levels fail to comply with the criteria, which can cause health problems and decrease the quality of students’ studies. Some suggestions are offered to improve computer labs’ study environments.Extended Abstract: There have been significant changes and innovations in every aspects of human lives. Education is one of the areas that may have been greatly influenced by these changes. Information and communication technologies changed the nature of teaching and learning. They facilitate active student participation, fast and durable learning, visualization, enjoyable learning, saving of time and so on. Therefore, educational institutions establish computer labs to support instructional activities. Although computers provide a number of opportunities, their uses in inappropriate and uncomfortable working conditions have recently caused some serious health problems. Common medical concerns include but not limited to eye strain, vision problems, headaches, pain in the lumbar region of the back, and strain on the ligaments in the back of the hand and wrist. Such problems have become the topic of many research studies and several ergonomic criteria

  8. Evaluating instructional computer laboratuaries in terms of physical ergonomic criteria: Suleyman Demirel University case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Lema Tamer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate instructional computer laboratories according to the physical ergonomic criteria. A case study design with survey methodology was employed and data were collected through observation. Three computer labs were selected from various departments at the Suleyman Demirel University in Isparta, Turkey. The observation form, which was generated after reviewing the related literature, was used to gather data about computer labs’ physical characteristics, relative humidity and temperature levels, noise levels, desks and chairs, and technical features. The results reveals that the physical features of computer labs, monitor features, relative humidity and temperature levels are in agreement with the ergonomic criteria. However, desks and chairs, keyboard features, and noise levels fail to comply with the criteria, which can cause health problems and decrease the quality of students’ studies. Some suggestions are offered to improve computer labs’ study environments.Extended Abstract: There have been significant changes and innovations in every aspects of human lives. Education is one of the areas that may have been greatly influenced by these changes. Information and communication technologies changed the nature of teaching and learning. They facilitate active student participation, fast and durable learning, visualization, enjoyable learning, saving of time and so on. Therefore, educational institutions establish computer labs to support instructional activities. Although computers provide a number of opportunities, their uses in inappropriate and uncomfortable working conditions have recently caused some serious health problems. Common medical concerns include but not limited to eye strain, vision problems, headaches, pain in the lumbar region of the back, and strain on the ligaments in the back of the hand and wrist. Such problems have become the topic of many research studies and several ergonomic criteria

  9. Ergonomics and sustainable development in the past two decades (1992-2011): Research trends and how ergonomics can contribute to sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radjiyev, Ayubkhon; Qiu, Hai; Xiong, Shuping; Nam, KyungHyun

    2015-01-01

    The need for sustainable development has been widely recognized and sustainable development has become a hot topic of various disciplines even though the role of ergonomics in it is seldom reported or considered. This study conducts a systematic survey of research publications in the fields of ergonomics and sustainable development over the past two decades (1992-2011), in order to identify their research trends and convergent areas where ergonomics can play an important role in sustainable development. The results show that 'methods and techniques', 'human characteristics', 'work design and organization', 'health and safety' and 'workplace and equipment design' are the top five frequently researched areas in ergonomics. Ergonomics has an opportunity to contribute its knowledge especially to 'industrial and product design', 'architecture', 'health and safety' and 'HCI' (especially for energy reduction issues) categories of sustainable development. Typical methodologies and general guidance on how to contribute the expertise of ergonomist to sustainable development are also discussed.

  10. The discipline of ergonomics in Cuba within the occupational health framework: background and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Yaniel; Rodríguez, Yordán; Viña, Silvio

    2013-01-01

    The concept of ergonomics was introduced in Cuba at the beginning of the 1970s. More than 40 years later, the prevailing approach to workers' health is still generally reactive rather than proactive, despite the commitment of the government to the subject. A factor influencing this issue is, generally, lack of recognition of the benefits of establishing ergonomic principles within most occupational activities. Recent progress to move occupational health practice toward a more preventive approach has been conducted, frequently with international support. The introduction of a set of Cuban standards proposing the necessity of ergonomic evaluations is an example of this progress. The main challenge for Cuban ergonomists is to transfer knowledge to occupational health practitioners in order to be in concordance with basic standards and regulations regarding ergonomics. The article offers a short description of the history of ergonomics and an overview of ergonomics practice in Cuba.

  11. Reducing musculoskeletal discomfort: effects of an office ergonomics workplace and training intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Michelle M; O'Neill, Michael J

    2003-01-01

    Effects of an office ergonomics workplace and training intervention on workers' knowledge and self-reported musculoskeletal pain and discomfort were investigated. An instructional systems design process was used to develop an office ergonomics training program and the evaluation tools used to measure the effectiveness of the training program on workers' office ergonomics knowledge and skills. It was hypothesized that the training and workplace intervention would allow the worker to more effectively use their workplace through increased office ergonomics knowledge and skills. Following the intervention, there was a significant increase in workers' office ergonomics knowledge and awareness. Self-reported work-related musculoskeletal disorders significantly decreased for the group who had a workplace change and received ergonomic training relative to a workplace change-only group and a no intervention control group.

  12. Ergonomics contribution to chemical risks prevention: An ergotoxicological investigation of the effectiveness of coverall against plant pest risk in viticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigou, Alain; Baldi, Isabelle; Le Frious, Patricia; Anselm, Rémy; Vallier, Martine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the contribution of a trans-disciplinary approach focused on ergonomics and chemical risk control. We shall more precisely discuss how such an approach carried out in the field of agricultural work has made it possible to highlight serious shortcomings in the effectiveness of the coveralls that are supposed to protect vineyard workers from pesticides. The study results, as well as the whistle-blow that followed have questioned the control and prevention measures used until then. The aforementioned trans-disciplinary approach gathers knowledge and methods from epidemiology, industrial hygiene, occupational health and safety and ergonomics. Ergonomics were central in the development of the approach as it connected task and activity analysis with contamination measurements. Lastly, the first results that were obtained have been confirmed and reused by the AFSSET (Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire Environnement et Travail, the French governmental agency in charge of environmental health and occupational health and safety issues) regarding the agricultural sector but also for all other situations in which workers use coveralls as protection against chemical risks.

  13. Ergonomics and design for sustainability in healthcare: ambient assisted living and the social-environmental impact of patients lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoni, Giuseppe; Arslan, Pelin; Costa, Fiammetta; Muschiato, Sabrina; Romero, Maximiliano

    2012-01-01

    This work presents considerations on Ergonomics and Design for Sustainability in the healthcare field based on research experiences of the Technology and Design for Healthcare (TeDH) research group of INDACO (Industrial design, communication, arts and fashion) department of Politecnico di Milano. In order to develop a multidisciplinary approach to design able to answer to specific user needs such as elderly in an environmental sustainable way (1) this paper shows the results we achieved concerning ergonomics and environmental impact in product development (2), the extension of this approach to interior and home design and the advantage of the application of Information Communication Technologies (ICT). ICT can help people with special needs to make their everyday life easier and more safe, at the same time, ICT can make social-environmental impact of everyday behavior evident and can be applied to manage sustainability. The specific theme is thus to integrate ergonomics and sustainability competences in the development of Ambient Assisted Living through a Product- Service System approach. The concept of product service system has the potential to improve product performances and services, establish new relations and networks with different actors in order to satisfy user needs and apply a systems approach considering environmental, social and economic factors in the users' environment.

  14. Analysis of ergonomics conditions of a brand of mattress and pillows. University-industry project, Medellín-Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz Zapata, Luz M; Arias, Ana María L; Guzmán, Emilio C; Arias de L, Martha

    2012-01-01

    This project presents an analysis of the ergonomic conditions of three types of mattress and three types of pillow. The products are manufactured by a Colombian company which specializes in flexible polyurethane foam and other products designed for rest and relaxation. The project was developed through the University - Industry relationship: a strategic partnership based on the knowledge and strengths of each component. The conceptual theories that underpin the Ergonomics Research Division of the Design Studies Research Group (GED) provided the methodological approach for the project: the characteristics, the requirements and the relationships that are established between the components that constitute the User - Product - Context system (basic principles of the Ergonomics - Design relationship). An important factor in the project was the conception and measurement of comfort. Comfort can be measured on an objective level (quantitative measurement), and on a subjective level (a user's particular perceptions and tastes). What constitutes 'comfort' can vary from person to person, thus making the identification of criteria for the standardization of consumer products problematic. This project enabled design recommendations to be made to the Company vis-à-vis future proposals for mattress and pillow products. This experience of applied research was carried out by professors and students from the Faculty of Industrial Design at the UPB in Medellín, Colombia.

  15. Ergonomic activity analysis of the musicians of the Symphony Orchestra of Paraná state: risk factors and workloads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline de Lima

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the risk factors present in the work activity and their impact on the health of the musicians of the Symphony Orchestra of Parana state. It is a descriptive qualitative research based on the method of Ergonomic Workplace Analysis of Francophone strand, used as a tool by occupational therapists in the health-work interface. The following procedures were performed: bibliographical survey, documental analysis of productivity data, production and quality of the task, systematic observation of the rehearsals of the Symphony Orchestra of Parana, task and workplace analysis with the application of Ergonomic Workplace Analysis (EWA and, confrontation of the data analyzed with an instrumental musician. As a result, the study showed significant deviations with reference to the standards described in Brazilian Norm 17 (Ergonomics, especially regarding individual cognitive and physical demands as well as demands related to work organization, considering each item evaluated by this analytical instrument. The action of occupational therapy was grounded on the insertion in the health and illness process, health promotion, illness prevention, and training of musicians as workers and social actors, envisioning the transformation of work situations.

  16. Environmental enrichment for laboratory mice: preferences and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, Heleen Ariane van de

    2001-01-01

    Current laboratory housing systems have mainly been developed on the basis of ergonomic and economic factors. These systems provide adequate, basic physiological requirements of animals, but only marginally fulfil other needs, such as the performance of natural behaviour or social interactions. M

  17. Ergonomic work analysis of urban bus drivers in Rio de Janeiro city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querido, Aloá; Nogueira, Tainan; Gama, Rafael; Orlando, José

    2012-01-01

    This article is the result of a case study on ergonomic work analysis carried out in an urban bus company located in Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro. The methodology used in this work follows the French-tradition Ergonomic Analysis of the Work (EWA) combined with the best tradition from anglo-saxon ergonomic work analysis. The situated diagnosis was performed to provide relevant information about the work conditions of a bus driver.

  18. Ergonomic chair intervention: Effect on chronic upper quadrant dysfunction, disability and productivity in female computer workers

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeben, C.; Q. Louw

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effect of two ergonomic chairs on upper quadrant musculoskeletal pain and tension, disability and productivity among female computer workers in the office workplace.METHODS: A series of two N=1 studies were conducted using the A-B-A-C-A design whereby an intervention ergonomic chair was compared to a less adjustable control ergonomic chair using visual analogue scales (VAS) for pain and muscle spasm, the Neck Disability Index and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairme...

  19. Application of participatory ergonomics to the redesign of the family-centred rounds process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Anping; Carayon, Pascale; Cox, Elizabeth D; Cartmill, Randi; Li, Yaqiong; Wetterneck, Tosha B; Kelly, Michelle M

    2015-01-01

    Participatory ergonomics (PE) can promote the application of human factors and ergonomics (HFE) principles to healthcare system redesign. This study applied a PE approach to redesigning the family-centred rounds (FCR) process to improve family engagement. Various FCR stakeholders (e.g. patients and families, physicians, nurses, hospital management) were involved in different stages of the PE process. HFE principles were integrated in both the content (e.g. shared mental model, usability, workload consideration, systems approach) and process (e.g. top management commitment, stakeholder participation, communication and feedback, learning and training, project management) of FCR redesign. We describe activities of the PE process (e.g. formation and meetings of the redesign team, data collection activities, intervention development, intervention implementation) and present data on PE process evaluation. To demonstrate the value of PE-based FCR redesign, future research should document its impact on FCR process measures (e.g. family engagement, round efficiency) and patient outcome measures (e.g. patient satisfaction).

  20. An ergonomics based design research method for the arrangement of helicopter flight instrument panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alppay, Cem; Bayazit, Nigan

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we study the arrangement of displays in flight instrument panels of multi-purpose civil helicopters following a user-centered design method based on ergonomics principles. Our methodology can also be described as a user-interface arrangement methodology based on user opinions and preferences. This study can be outlined as gathering user-centered data using two different research methods and then analyzing and integrating the collected data to come up with an optimal instrument panel design. An interview with helicopter pilots formed the first step of our research. In that interview, pilots were asked to provide a quantitative evaluation of basic interface arrangement principles. In the second phase of the research, a paper prototyping study was conducted with same pilots. The final phase of the study entailed synthesizing the findings from interviews and observational studies to formulate an optimal flight instrument arrangement methodology. The primary results that we present in our paper are the methodology that we developed and three new interface arrangement concepts, namely relationship of inseparability, integrated value and locational value. An optimum instrument panel arrangement is also proposed by the researchers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of accidents indicators as ergonomic intervention proposition in a chicken slaughterhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Takeda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The slaughterhouse industry makes Brazil a major producer and exporter of meat. In this perspective, this industry keeps in constant pursuit of competitiveness, and the activities within this sector are intensified to achieve greater productivity which results in occupational diseases and injury hazards. In order to propose measures that can contribute to the reduction of occupational accidents in poultry slaughterhouse, this research aims to evaluate and propose demands of ergonomic interventions based on accident numbers that occurred in the years 2012, 2013 and 2014 in a poultry slaughterhouse located in the region of São José – SC. The study is a field research with documental analysis and with the use of the inductive method. The data were evaluated quantitatively using spreadsheet and graphics. The results show that the total of 161 accidents assessed, the accidents with cuts were those with the highest number of cases. The causative agent that generated most accidents was the use of knives and the most affected part of the body was the upper limbs. The results show that the slaughterhouse presents demands of ergonomic interventions to adapt working conditions with a focus on reducing workplace accidents.

  2. Novel modular 2-DOF microsurgical forceps for transoral laser microsurgeries: Ergonomic design and preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Manish; Barresi, Giacinto; Deshpande, Nikhil; Caldwell, Darwin G; Mattos, Leonardo S

    2016-08-01

    Transoral Laser Microsurgeries (TLM) demand a great level of control and precision in intraoperative tissue manipulation. The optimal eradication of the diseased tissue is possible only with coordinated control of the laser aiming for incision and the microsurgical tools for orienting and stretching the tissue. However, the traditional microsurgical tools are long, single purpose, one degree-of-freedom (DOF), rigid tools with small range of motion and a normal grasping handle inducing non-ergonomic usage. This paper presents a novel, modular microsurgical tool to overcome the challenges of the traditional tools and improve the surgeon-tool usage experience. The novel design adds a rotational DOF to expand the reach and functionality of the tool. The device is provided with an ergonomic grasping handle that avoids extreme wrist excursions and is capable of adapting to the variety of tools used in TLM within the same design. The performance of the new microsurgical tool was evaluated through a subjective assessment with both medical students and expert surgeons. The evaluation demonstrated a general acceptance of the new forceps tool, with the expert surgeons providing positive appraisals for the improved functionality and user experience with the tool, which indicates towards the potential suitability of the device for TLM. The parameters assessed in the preliminary evaluation not only provide a sense of the advantages of the novel design, but also guide future evolution of the tool design.

  3. Contributions of participatory ergonomics to the improvement of safety culture in an industrial context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallemand, Carine

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an ergonomic intervention conducted within a blast furnace plant. As part of its risk prevention program, the company decided to set up an action plan, in a participatory manner, by setting up working groups to solve health & safety issues. This field mission involved 230 employees, 80 of whom participated actively by being incorporated into working groups. After four months of intervention, a questionnaire survey has been conducted among employees to study the effects of participation on the safety climate. The results seem promising and show that the benefits of participation are numerous: a more positive safety climate associated to safer attitudes and behaviors. However, rather than just participation, it seems to be the employee involvement in the working groups and the satisfaction they derive from their participation that guarantee these positive results. Hence, participatory ergonomics seems to be an effective way to decrease the number of unsafe behaviors at work, provided that the type of participation has been previously well defined and organized according to the specific context of each organization.

  4. Cognitive-ergonomics and instructional aspects of e-learning courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Martha; Castello Branco, Iana; Shimioshi, José; Rodrigues, Evaldo; Monteiro, Simone; Quirino, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of cognitive-ergonomic aspects of e-learning courses, offered by an organism from Brazilian Public Administration. The Cognitive Ergonomic studies conductive and cognitive aspects concerning to the relation between human, physics elements and social elements of the work space. From that usability aspects were evaluated by these points: i) visualization; ii) text comprehension lecture; iii) memory; iv) interface; v) instructional design; and vi) attention and learning. That survey is characterized as having been applied using the following techniques: (1) bibliographic survey, (2) field survey and (3) analysis of the documents. It was chosen the semi-structured questionnaire as the main method of data collection. About the interacting with artifacts, the interface of the courses is classified as direct engagement, because it allows the user to get the feeling that acts directly on the objects. Although the courses are well-structured they have flaws that will be discussed below. Even with these problems, the courses have a good degree of usability.

  5. Ergonomics, safety, and resilience in the helicopter offshore transportation system of Campos Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, José Orlando; Huber, Gilbert J; Borges, Marcos R S; de Carvalho, Paulo Victor R

    2015-01-01

    Air transportation of personnel to offshore oil platforms is one of the major hazards of this kind of endeavor. Pilot performance is a key factor in the safety of the transportation system. This study seeks to identify the ergonomic factors present in pilots' activities that may in some way compromise or enhance their performance, the constraints and affordances which they are subject to; and where possible to link these to their associated risk factors. Methodology adopted in this project studies work in its context. It is a merging of Activity Analysis (Guerin et al. 2001) of European tradition with Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA - www.ctaresource.com) articulated with the recent approaches to cognitive systems engineering developed by Professors David Woods and Erik Hollnagel. Fifty-five hours of field interviews provided the input for analysis. Sixteen ergonomic constraints were identified, some cognitive, some physical, all considered relevant by the research subjects and expert advisers. Although the safety record of the personnel transportation system studied is considered acceptable, there is low hanging fruit to be picked which can help improve the system's safety.

  6. A Framework Supporting The Design Of Walking Worker Assembly Line Towards Improving Productivity And Ergonomics Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiya Al-Zuheri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many flexible assembly systems have been adopted as effective and productive solutions to respond the changes and uncertainties in a competitive manufacturing environment. Successful designs of these systems must be capable of satisfying the strategic objectives of a management in manufacturing company. An example of such systems is so-called walking worker assembly line WWAL, in which each cross-trained worker travels along the line to carry out all required tasks. Design approaches for this system have not been investigated in depth both of significant role in manual assembly process design; productivity and ergonomics. Because of that, these approaches have had a limited success to real applications. This paper presents an innovative and integrated framework which offers the possibility to support the improvement of productivity and ergonomics requirements in WWAL design. To clearly demonstrate implementing the developed framework, a systematic approach established. The approach is based on the simultaneous application of mathematical and meta- heuristic techniques. The developed framework has been applied to the optimisation of a manual assembly system design from the industry.

  7. Ergonomic deficiencies in the operating room: examples from minimally invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matern, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The importance of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has constantly increased in the last 20 years. Laparoscopic removal of the gallbladder has become the gold standard with advantages for patients. However, in laparoscopy, the surgeon loses direct contact with the surgical site. Rather than seeing the entire surgical field including adjacent organs, the surgeon's vision is restricted by an optic and camera system. Pictures of the surgical site in the abdomen are presented on a monitor. Hand eye coordination is decreasing because the operating team is not able to position the monitor at an ergonomically preferable position given that operation tables, constructed for open surgery where surgeons use short instruments, are too high for laparoscopic procedures where surgeons use long-shafted instruments. Additionally the degrees of freedom for camera movements and the instruments are limited, tactile feedback given in open surgery is lost. The typical design of instrument handles leads to pressure areas and nerve lesions. All these aspects force the surgeon into unnatural and uncomfortable body postures that can affect the outcome of the operation. An ideal posture for laparoscopic surgeons is described and ergonomic requirements for an optimal height of operation tables, monitor positions and man-machine interfaces are discussed.

  8. Ergonomic Challenge of Lingual Orthodontics: An Innovative Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Rai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ergonomics is the way to work smarter and not harder, by designing tools, equipments, work stations so that the task fits to the operator and not vice versa. Lingual orthodontics entails long chair side time, working in indirect vision. The technique requires use of tools bimanually thus hand held mouth mirror becomes more of a handicap and there is always a need to have better indirect vision. Our postdoctoral research work in ergonomics has had an innovative outcome wherein we have devised a method using custom designed mirrors cut in the shape of lower metal stock tray and used by mounting them on those trays for full arch view of maxillary lingual aspect. This ensures upright posture and thus reduced lower back pain and discomfort.

  9. An approach for ergonomic design of mouse wheel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Sande; Nakana Keijiro; and Huang Loulin

    2012-01-01

    A new method for ergonomic design of a computer mouse is proposed in this paper. In the method, the movements of joints and tip of the forefinger during operating a mouse was captured by a high-speed video camera. The captured videos were ana- lyzed and an algorithm was developed to decide the size and location of the mouse wheel according to ergonomic principles. The al- gorithm was then coded in a software package with Visual C++ and OpenGL languages. Results of the calculation and simulation agreed well with those of the experiments. The software can also be used for shape design of mouse body, buttons and their layouts.

  10. Numerical Ergonomics Analysis in Operation Environment of CNC Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S. F.; Yang, Z. X.

    2010-05-01

    The performance of operator will be affected by different operation environments [1]. Moreover, poor operation environment may cause health problems of the operator [2]. Physical and psychological considerations are two main factors that will affect the performance of operator under different conditions of operation environment. In this paper, applying scientific and systematic methods find out the pivot elements in the field of physical and psychological factors. There are five main factors including light, temperature, noise, air flow and space that are analyzed. A numerical ergonomics model has been built up regarding the analysis results which can support to advance the design of operation environment. Moreover, the output of numerical ergonomic model can provide the safe, comfortable, more productive conditions for the operator.

  11. River and fish pollution in Malaysia: A green ergonomics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Wai Ching; Herath, Gamini; Sarker, Ashutosh; Masuda, Tadayoshi; Kada, Ryohei

    2016-11-01

    Human activities, such as industrial, agricultural, and domestic pursuits, discharge effluents into riverine ecological systems that contains aquatic resources, such as fish, which are also used by humans. We conducted case studies in Malaysia to investigate the impacts of these human activities on water and fish resources, as well as on human well-being from an ergonomics perspective. This research shows that a green ergonomics approach can provide us with useful insights into sustainable relationships between humans and ecology in facilitating human well-being in consideration of the overall performance of the social-ecological system. Heavy metal concentrations contained in the effluents pollute river water and contaminate fish, eventually creating significant health risks and economic costs for residents, including the polluters. The study suggests a number of policy interventions to change human behavior and achieve greater collaboration between various levels of government, academia, civil society, and businesses to help establish sustainable relationships between humans and ecology in Malaysia.

  12. Information Ergonomics A theoretical approach and practical experience in transportation

    CERN Document Server

    Sandl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The variety and increasing availability of hypermedia information systems, which are used in stationary applications like operators’ consoles as well as mobile systems, e.g. driver information and navigation systems in automobiles form a foundation for the mediatization of the society. From the human engineering point of view this development and the ensuing increased importance of information systems for economic and private needs require careful deliberation of the derivation and application of ergonomics methods particularly in the field of information systems. This book consists of two closely intertwined parts. The first, theoretical part defines the concept of an information system, followed by an explanation of action regulation as well as cognitive theories to describe man information system interaction. A comprehensive description of information ergonomics concludes the theoretical approach. In the second, practically oriented part of this book authors from industry as well as from academic institu...

  13. Ergonomic redesign and evaluation of a clamping tool handle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Chul; Hallbeck, M Susan

    2005-09-01

    The handle of a commercial bar clamp was redesigned using ergonomic principles and then compared with an original clamp. Ten male and ten female students participated in simulated clamping tasks under various conditions, including different clamping heights, clamping methods, and handle-gripping methods, with respect to the dependent variables of clamping and handle-squeezing forces. The results showed that the redesigned clamp produced larger clamping force with lower handle-squeezing forces than the original clamp. As expected, males exerted more force than females in both clamping and squeezing forces. A pistol grip method was superior to an upside-down handle-gripping method. Two-handed operation was recommended for this type of clamp by simultaneously pulling the trigger and sliding the bar in order to initially tighten around objects. This study shows that the application of ergonomic guidelines increases the efficiency and usability of manual handtools.

  14. The economic impact of implementing an ergonomic plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Amanda; Chow, Susanna

    2007-01-01

    It is of paramount importance for executives to be well aware of registered nurse (RN) hidden replacement costs related to musculoskeletal injuries. Developing and implementing an ergonomic plan that includes procurement of appropriate lifting equipment at the point of care makes sense. Armed with an ergonomic plan, proactive case management, and a return to work program, the organization is positioned for fiscal success. The ANA's Handle With Care campaign addressed the fact that 12% of RN turnover and 38% of RN workers' compensation pay are related to back strains. Using the benchmarks reported in the Handle With Care campaign, the average cost of replacing an RN who leaves nursing due to a back injury ranged from $25,450 to $38,280 per nurse. Health care worker injury prevention should be valued as a retention strategy, as well as a fiscal responsibility where all stakeholders benefit.

  15. Participatory ergonomics in design processes: the role of boundary objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, Ole; Andersen, Vibeke; Seim, Rikke

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of boundary objects in order to better understand the role of objects in participatory ergonomics (PE) design processes. The research question is: What characterizes boundary objects in PE processes? Based on two case studies, we identify eight characteristics of boundary objects and their use, which make them particularly useful in PE design processes. These characteristics go beyond the object itself and extend into the context of their use. We argue that the selection of boundary objects in PE processes is of great importance, since different objects enable workers' participation and collaborative design in different ways. The framework developed may serve to provide criteria to guide practitioners and intervention researchers in the selection of objects to facilitate a PE process. The paper concludes with a list of recommendations for ergonomic practitioners that are based on the framework.

  16. Users of assistive technology also require assistance with ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This case study describes an ergonomics workstation assessment conducted for an administrative worker with vision impairment due to keratoconus. The worker, PT, was provided with multiple assistive technology devices to help her with her work, but this resulted in an overcrowded workspace. The purpose of the workstation assessment was to assist the worker with her workstation arrangement to make it more comfortable and efficient. During the assessment, a range of physical, cognitive and organisational ergonomics issues were identified and addressed. Multidisciplinary teams are often used in the rehabilitation of workers with complex medical problems. An ergonomist can play a valuable role on this team. © 2011 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved

  17. Supporting the design of office layout meeting ergonomics requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritis, Spyros; Marmaras, Nicolas

    2007-11-01

    This paper proposes a method and an information technology tool aiming to support the ergonomics layout design of individual workstations in a given space (building). The proposed method shares common ideas with previous generic methods for office layout. However, it goes a step forward and focuses on the cognitive tasks which have to be carried out by the designer or the design team trying to alleviate them. This is achieved in two ways: (i) by decomposing the layout design problem to six main stages, during which only a limited number of variables and requirements are considered and (ii) by converting the ergonomics requirements to functional design guidelines. The information technology tool (ErgoOffice 0.1) automates certain phases of the layout design process, and supports the design team either by its editing and graphical facilities or by providing adequate memory support.

  18. Utilization of wheel dop based on ergonomic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiasih, Wiwin; Murnawan, Hery; Setiawan, Danny

    2017-06-01

    Time is an important thing in life. People need a tool or equipment to measure time which is divided into two types, namely clock and watch. Everyone needs those kinds of tool. It becomes an opportunity for manufacturer to build a business. However, establishing a business by depending on the demand is not enough, it is necessary to take a consideration of making innovation. Innovation is a difficult thing to find out, but it is not impossible to do it. By creating an innovative product, it can be a strategy to win the competitive market. This study aimed to create an innovative product based on the ergonomic aspects, which was by utilizing wheel dop. This methodology consisted of pre-study, planning and product development, and product analysis. This product utilized wheel dop and was made based on the ergonomic aspects.

  19. The question of the ergonomic use of virtual models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañon, J A B; Saraiva, T S; Araujo, T T

    2012-01-01

    The comfort and functionality between man and his surroundings are the main goals of ergonomics, making it are increasingly in the production process. Many companies have tried Virtual Reality Center (VRC) to assist the analysis and development of ergonomic products. The use of virtual models brings many benefits to the design of products, including greater flexibility, speed and quality, and facilitates the control and reporting, also integrating all stages of the project. There are still some difficulties for the deployment of these resources, like the need for more powerful computers and specialized professionals. Possibly, the VR will be indispensable to the construction in some years, becoming a tool of fundamental importance to the professionals.

  20. C.A.D. and ergonomic workstations conception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keravel, Francine

    1986-07-01

    Computer Aided Design is able to perform workstation's conception. An ergonomic data could be complete this view and warrant a coherent fiability conception. Complexe form representation machines, anthropometric data and environment factors are allowed to perceive the limit points between humain and new technology situation. Work ability users, safety, confort and human efficiency could be also included. Such a programm with expert system integration will give a complete listing appreciation about workstation's conception.

  1. Research and application of ergonomics to optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xue-kun; Xiao, Ze-xin; Zhang, Jie

    2008-03-01

    The characteristics of the human and the microscope, and their integrated characteristic have been studied respectively in this paper. Our results indicated that the correspondence of (i) focusing installment with human body arm, (ii) the height of ocular with eyes, (iii) visual characteristic with illuminative condition of the optical microscope, should obey the theory of the ergonomics. This was reflected in the structural design and the produce of the product, and therefore, improved the property of the amenity of the machine.

  2. Reconstruction, Enhancement, Visualization, and Ergonomic Assessment for Laparoscopic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    drape and stand rearrangement and time consumption. Given such difficulties, ergonomic factors warrant further analysis to determine if a standard...3. The laparoscope used in this installation is a Stryker 888, a 3- chip CCD camera which only has analog NTSC video outputs. The calibration camera is...analog signal must be digitized, applied to the DLP chip and then displayed) the time difference between the two clocks shown should give the latency of

  3. Ergonomic Worksite Analysis of an Army Dental Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    can contribute to the risk for development of CTS include diabetes mellitus , hyperthyroidism, pregnancy, arthritis, myxedema, and injuries to the wrist...of periodontal disease (short articles in post or hospital bulletin). ERGONOMIC PRINCIPLES 23 A. Avoid extremely tight gripping, as blood flow to the...3 Forearm, Wrist, or Hand Compression Neuropathy 11 2 Overuse Syndrome 11 2 Diabetes Melltus 6 1 Anomalous Muscle 6 1 Nonspecific Tenosynovitis 6 1

  4. Development of a Pamphlet Targeting Computer Workstation Ergonomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraci, Jennifer S.

    1997-01-01

    With the increased use of computers throughout Goddard Space Flight Center, the Industrial Hygiene Office (IHO) has observed a growing trend in the number of health complaints attributed to poor computer workstation setup. A majority of the complaints has centered around musculoskeletal symptoms, including numbness, pain, and tingling in the upper extremities, shoulders, and neck. Eye strain and headaches have also been reported. In some cases, these symptoms can lead to chronic conditions such as repetitive strain injuries (RSI's). In an effort to prevent or minimize the frequency of these symptoms among the GSFC population, the IHO conducts individual ergonomic workstation evaluations and ergonomics training classes upon request. Because of the extensive number of computer workstations at GSFC, and the limited amount of manpower which the Industrial Hygiene staff could reasonably allocate to conduct workstation evaluations and employee training, a pamphlet was developed with a two-fold purpose: (1) to educate the GSFC population about the importance of ergonomically-correct computer workstation setup and the potential effects of a poorly configured workstation; and (2) to enable employees to perform a general assessment of their own workstations and make any necessary modifications for proper setup.

  5. Activities and Ergonomics of Workers in Broiler Hatcheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CCS Carvalho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective this study was to assess ergonomic factors, posture and biomechanics of workers of a broiler egg hatchery. The analysis of ergonomic factors was based on physical work load, thermal environment, and exposure to light and noise. The posture of workers was analyzed using photographic records which were evaluated by the software program OWAS (Ovako Working Posture Analysing System. A biomechanics analysis was also performed based on the photographs taken of the employee at various angles, which were used as inputs to the Michigan two-dimensional biomechanical model software program. The results show that certain activities can be considered unhealthy due to the exposure of employees to physical and thermal overload. The continuous noise levels and lighting were outside the range considered adequate by the regulations of the Brazilian Ministry of Labor. The manner in which certain activities are carried out when associated with weight and poor posture can result in body lesions in broiler hatchery employees. It is therefore necessary to apply specific ergonomic programs, including scheduled breaks, training, and other measures in order to reduce or to eliminate the risks involved in these activities.

  6. Exposure level of ergonomic risk factors in hotel industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd; Syahir Muhamad Jaffar, Mohd; Fahrul Hassan, Mohd; Zamani Ngali, Mohd; Pauline, Ong

    2017-08-01

    Ergonomic Risk Factors (ERFs) which contribute to Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) among room attendants were considered as a problem or trouble since these ERFs would affect their work performance for hotel industries. The purpose of this study was to examine the exposure level of ERFs among room attendants in hotel industries. 65 of respondents were obtained from selected hotels in Peninsular Malaysia. Data were collected by direct observation via Workplace Ergonomic Risk Assessment (WERA) and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC). There were 36 males and 29 females room attendants involved throughout the research. Most of room attendants experienced high exposure level for back, leg, forceful and vibration based on the exposure level evaluation through WERA while QEC results showed that all room attendants were found to have moderate exposure level for risk factors including back for movement use, shoulders/arms, wrists/hands and neck. All the results obtained showed that the related ERFs for MSDs were associated and essential ergonomic interventions are needed in order to eliminate risk of exposures to MSDs among room attendants in hotel industries.

  7. Ergonomic initiatives at Inmetro: measuring occupational health and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, L; Amaral, M; Carvalheira, C

    2012-01-01

    This work studies biomechanical hazards to which the workforce of Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia Industrial (Inmetro) is exposed. It suggests a model for ergonomic evaluation of work, based on the concepts of resilience engineering which take into consideration the institute's ability to manage risk and deal with its consequences. Methodology includes the stages of identification, inventory, analysis, and risk management. Diagnosis of the workplace uses as parameters the minimal criteria stated in Brazilian legislation. The approach has several prospectives and encompasses the points of view of public management, safety engineering, physical therapy and ergonomics-oriented design. The suggested solution integrates all aspects of the problem: biological, psychological, sociological and organizational. Results obtained from a pilot Project allow to build a significant sample of Inmetro's workforce, identifying problems and validating the methodology employed as a tool to be applied to the whole institution. Finally, this work intends to draw risk maps and support goals and methods based on resiliency engineering to assess environmental and ergonomic risk management.

  8. Nonlinear dynamical systems for theory and research in ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastello, Stephen J

    2017-02-01

    Nonlinear dynamical systems (NDS) theory offers new constructs, methods and explanations for phenomena that have in turn produced new paradigms of thinking within several disciplines of the behavioural sciences. This article explores the recent developments of NDS as a paradigm in ergonomics. The exposition includes its basic axioms, the primary constructs from elementary dynamics and so-called complexity theory, an overview of its methods, and growing areas of application within ergonomics. The applications considered here include: psychophysics, iconic displays, control theory, cognitive workload and fatigue, occupational accidents, resilience of systems, team coordination and synchronisation in systems. Although these applications make use of different subsets of NDS constructs, several of them share the general principles of the complex adaptive system. Practitioner Summary: Nonlinear dynamical systems theory reframes problems in ergonomics that involve complex systems as they change over time. The leading applications to date include psychophysics, control theory, cognitive workload and fatigue, biomechanics, occupational accidents, resilience of systems, team coordination and synchronisation of system components.

  9. Ergonomic analyse of operation work in electric energy transmission substation; Analise ergonomica do trabalho de operacao de subestacoes de transmissao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menegon, Nilton Luiz

    1993-04-01

    The activity by the workers in sub-stations which transmits and distributes electric energy is studied within the context of ergonomic, i.e., of its adequateness to the human being characteristics. In the introduction of this book the ideas of ergonomic related to the behaviour of the workers who works which continuous processes in control room are reviewed. The development of the ideas in this field as well as the methodology to be followed in this work are discussed. The technical system involving the activities of the workers in sub-station is presented. These activities are inserted within a broad context of the electric energy sector. An analysis concerning the problems in the ergonomic field which justifies the ergonomic intervention follows the previous study. The work situation is characterized. The formal organization of the work and its physical and cognitive demands are examined. The task is explained in detail. With the analysis of the activities based on the systematic observation of the work performed by the workers, we finish this study. Finely, a diagnosis of the work situation and the recommendations compromised whit the workers health and improvement of the performance is settled. (author) 27 refs., 26 figs.

  10. DHM and serious games: a case-study oil and gas laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, V; Zamberlan, M; Streit, P; Oliveira, J; Guimarães, C; Pastura, F; Cid, G

    2012-01-01

    The aim in this paper is to present a research on the application of serious games for the design of laboratories in the oil and gas industries. The focus is in human virtual representation acquired from 3D scanning, human interaction, workspace layout and equipment designed considering ergonomics standards. The laboratory studies were simulated in Unity3D platform, which allows the users to control the DHM1 on the dynamic virtual scenario, in order to simulate work activities. This methodology can change the design process by improving the level of interaction between final users, managers and human factor teams. That helps to better visualize future work settings and improve the level of participation between all stakeholders.

  11. Heartbeat Registration Experiment (Rana Esculenta): Demonstration of the Preparatory Phase. A Case Study in the Design of a Video Presentation for Use in the Physiology Laboratory in the Department of Comparative Physiology at the Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, F. A.

    This case study describes the design of a video tape presentation for use in a college physiology laboratory. A goal of this color film is to demonstrate to the students those techniques involved in anaesthetising and preparing a frog for a laboratory experiment on the reaction of the heart to electrical and chemical stimuli. The film first shows…

  12. La ergonomía organizacional y la responsabilidad social inclusiva y preactiva: Un compromiso dentro de los objetivos de la organización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender Carrasquero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tiene como objetivo propiciar un análisis sobre la ergonomía organizacional y la responsabilidad social inclusiva y preactiva: un compromiso dentro de los objetivos de la organización, tomando en consideración teorías que la sustentan y sus diferentes conceptualizaciones. En cuanto a la ergonomía organizacional y la responsabilidad social inclusiva y preactiva se sustenta con los contenidos de Lippel (2001, Guédez (2005, Domont (1999, entre otros. En cuanto a responsabilidad social: De la Cuesta (2002, Guédez (2006, Callejas (2005, además de otros autores, desarrollándose bajo un enfoque interpretativo de tipo descriptivo y diseño no experimental, a través de análisis de documentos. A efectos de esta investigación, se indaga sobre tendencias en la demanda social de una mayor responsabilización del Estado y las organizaciones, examinando su significación como elemento central en la conformación de los modelos de desarrollo humano que configuran nuestro futuro.Partiendo de que existen dos actitudes y dos sensibilidades en el ser humano, se exponen visiones sobre el papel de la ergonomía como herramienta para el desarrollo de la proactividad y la disposición inclusiva como forma incorporación de aspectos de  responsabilidad social en la gestión ergonómica organizacional.Palabras Clave: Ergonomía organizacional; responsabilidad social; actitudes y sensibilidades. Organizational ergonomics and inclusive and proactive social responsibility: A commitment within the objectives of the organizationAbstractThe present study has as aim propitiate an analysis in relation to the ergonomics organizacional and the social inclusive responsibility and preactiva: a commitment inside the aims of the organization, taking in consideration theories that sustain her like they it are the different conceptualizations. As for the ergonomics organizacional and the social inclusive responsibility and preactiva is sustained by it

  13. Stressful presentations: mild cold stress in laboratory mice influences phenotype of dendritic cells in naïve and tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokolus, Kathleen M; Spangler, Haley M; Povinelli, Benjamin J; Farren, Matthew R; Lee, Kelvin P; Repasky, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    The ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to stimulate and regulate T cells is critical to effective anti-tumor immunity. Therefore, it is important to fully recognize any inherent factors which may influence DC function under experimental conditions, especially in laboratory mice since they are used so heavily to model immune responses. The goals of this report are to 1) briefly summarize previous work revealing how DCs respond to various forms of physiological stress and 2) to present new data highlighting the potential for chronic mild cold stress inherent to mice housed at the required standard ambient temperatures to influence baseline DCs properties in naïve and tumor-bearing mice. As recent data from our group shows that CD8(+) T cell function is significantly altered by chronic mild cold stress and since DC function is crucial for CD8(+) T cell activation, we wondered whether housing temperature may also be influencing DC function. Here we report that there are several significant phenotypical and functional differences among DC subsets in naïve and tumor-bearing mice housed at either standard housing temperature or at a thermoneutral ambient temperature, which significantly reduces the extent of cold stress. The new data presented here strongly suggests that, by itself, the housing temperature of mice can affect fundamental properties and functions of DCs. Therefore differences in basal levels of stress due to housing should be taken into consideration when interpreting experiments designed to evaluate the impact of additional variables, including other stressors on DC function.

  14. Ergonomic assessment of musculoskeletal disorders risk among the computer users by Rapid Upper Limb Assessment method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsanollah Habibi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This study result showed that frequency of musculoskeletal problems in the neck, back, elbow, and wrist was generally high among our subjects, and ergonomic interventions such as computer workstation redesign, users educate about ergonomic principles computer with work, reduced working hours in computers with work must be carried out.

  15. Ergonomics of mining machinery and transport in the South African mining industry.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schutte, PC

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available this background, a study was conducted to assess the ergonomics of a number of mining machines and transport systems to identify the ergonomics-related hazards that could impact on the operators’ ability to work safely and efficiently....

  16. Design and management of production systems: Integration of human factors and ergonomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langå; Broberg, Ole; Hasle, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Integration of ergonomics, human factors and occupational health and safety into design and management of pro-duction systems has for years been the major strategy for professional within the field. The traditional approach based on establishing ergonomic criteria’s to be integrated into other...

  17. '1966 and all that': Trends and developments in UK ergonomics during the 1960s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterson, Patrick; Eason, Ken

    2009-11-01

    The 1960s represents a key decade in the expansion of ergonomics within the UK. This paper reviews trends and developments that emerged out of the 1960s and compares these with ergonomics research and practice today. The focus in particular is on the expansion of ergonomics as a discipline within industry, as well as more specific topics, such as the emergence of areas of interest, for example, computers and technology, automation and systems ergonomics and consumer ergonomics. The account is illustrated with a detailed timeline of developments, a set of industrial case studies and the contents of important publications during the decade. A key aim of the paper is to provide the opportunity to reflect on the past and the implications this may have for future directions for ergonomics within the UK. The paper provides practitioners with an insight into the development of ergonomics in the UK during one of the most important decades of its history. This is especially relevant given the fact that in 2009 the Ergonomics Society celebrates its 60th anniversary.

  18. Ergonomics in Healthcare system-Human Factors models: a review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tarzimoghadam

    2015-12-01

      Conclusion: Most of the published studies emphasize on application of ergonomic models in healthcare centers since these models may reduce their problems. These ergonomics approaches support patient-centered treatment processes, user-oriented design of medical environments, efficient utilization of resources and increase motivation of clinical staff.

  19. Easy Ergonomics: A Guide to Selecting Non-Powered Hand Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easy Ergonomics: A Guide to Selecting Non-Powered Hand Tools Department of Industrial Relations Cal/OSHA Consultation Service Research ... puborder.asp http://www.cdc.gov/niosh Easy Ergonomics: A Guide to Selecting Non-Powered Hand Tools ...

  20. Psychological Care, Patient Education, Orthotics, Ergonomics and Prevention Strategies for Neck Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gross, Anita R; Kaplan, Faith; Huang, Stacey

    2013-01-01

    To conduct an overview on psychological interventions, orthoses, patient education, ergonomics, and 1⁰/2⁰ neck pain prevention for adults with acute-chronic neck pain.......To conduct an overview on psychological interventions, orthoses, patient education, ergonomics, and 1⁰/2⁰ neck pain prevention for adults with acute-chronic neck pain....

  1. Sources and Nature of Secondary School Teachers' Education in Computer-Related Ergonomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockrell, Sara; Fallon, Enda; Kelly, Martina; Galvin, Rose

    2009-01-01

    Teachers' knowledge of computer-related ergonomics in education will have an effect on the learning process and the work practices of their students. However little is known about teacher education in this area. The study aimed to investigate the sources and nature of secondary school teachers' education about computer-related ergonomics. It also…

  2. A framework for using simulation methodology in ergonomics interventions in design projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Duarte, Francisco; Andersen, Simone Nyholm

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to outline a framework of simulation methodology in design processes from an ergonomics perspective......The aim of this paper is to outline a framework of simulation methodology in design processes from an ergonomics perspective...

  3. Integrating ergonomics in design processes: a case study within an engineering consultancy firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Bjerg; Broberg, Ole

    2012-01-01

    ergonomics into engineering design processes and how different factors either promote or limit the integration. Based on a grounded theory approach a model illustrating these factors is developed and different hypotheses about how these factors either promote and/or limit the integration of ergonomics...

  4. Ergonomic Guidelines for Designing Effective and Healthy Learning Environments for Interactive Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Michael

    Many of the findings from ergonomics research on visual display workstations are relevant to the design of interactive learning stations. This 1993 paper briefly reviews ergonomics research on visual display workstations; specifically, (1) potential health hazards from electromagnetic radiation; (2) musculoskeletal disorders; (3)vision complaints;…

  5. What are possible barriers and facilitators to implementation of a Participatory Ergonomics programme?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, M.T.; Groenewoud, K.; Proper, K.I.; Anema, J.R.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2010-01-01

    Background: Low back pain (LBP) and neck pain (NP) are common among workers. Participatory Ergonomics (PE) is used as an implementation strategy to prevent these symptoms. By following the steps of PE, working groups composed and prioritised ergonomic measures, and developed an implementation plan.

  6. Participatory ergonomics generates new product to assist rural workers in greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miguez, S.A.; Vink, P.; Hallbeck, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that the conjunction of participatory ergonomics and outside consulting can be the link among professionals from different areas. This association can result in improvements in the workplace as well as in the production process. Employing participatory ergonomics

  7. The Effects of Training, Feedback, and Participant Involvement in Behavioral Safety Observations on Office Ergonomic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Joseph R.; Austin, John

    2005-01-01

    Eleven computer terminal operators participated in an experiment that assessed effects of several interventions aimed at increasing safe ergonomic performance. All participants received ergonomics training and performance feedback while six of them collected observations of safe behavior among the remaining five participants. Effects of…

  8. The effect of ergonomic training and intervention on reducing occupational stress among computer users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yektaee

    2014-05-01

    Result: According to covariance analysis, ergonomic training and interventions lead to reduction of occupational stress of computer users. .Conclusion: Training computer users and informing them of the ergonomic principals and also providing interventions such as correction of posture, reducing duration of work time, using armrest and footrest would have significant implication in reducing occupational stress among computer users.

  9. Fitting methods to paradigms: are ergonomics methods fit for systems thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul M; Walker, Guy H; M Read, Gemma J; Goode, Natassia; Stanton, Neville A

    2017-02-01

    The issues being tackled within ergonomics problem spaces are shifting. Although existing paradigms appear relevant for modern day systems, it is worth questioning whether our methods are. This paper asks whether the complexities of systems thinking, a currently ubiquitous ergonomics paradigm, are outpacing the capabilities of our methodological toolkit. This is achieved through examining the contemporary ergonomics problem space and the extent to which ergonomics methods can meet the challenges posed. Specifically, five key areas within the ergonomics paradigm of systems thinking are focused on: normal performance as a cause of accidents, accident prediction, system migration, systems concepts and ergonomics in design. The methods available for pursuing each line of inquiry are discussed, along with their ability to respond to key requirements. In doing so, a series of new methodological requirements and capabilities are identified. It is argued that further methodological development is required to provide researchers and practitioners with appropriate tools to explore both contemporary and future problems. Practitioner Summary: Ergonomics methods are the cornerstone of our discipline. This paper examines whether our current methodological toolkit is fit for purpose given the changing nature of ergonomics problems. The findings provide key research and practice requirements for methodological development.

  10. Improving office work: A participatory ergonomic experiment in a naturalistic setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    1997-01-01

    In a Department of Salary Records where VDU tasks were performed at a high work rate, a participative ergonomic study was undertaken. First, the 'old' workplace was investigated for all 45 employees. Work stations appeared to be of poor ergonomic quality. Second, 12 employees participated in an

  11. Positive outcomes of participatory ergonomics in terms of greater comfort and higher productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Koningsveld, E.A.P.; Molenbroek, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Ergonomics sometimes has a negative connotation, as it is seen to be connected to illness or guidelines that limit innovations. This paper is focused on the positive aspects of ergonomics in improvement of the working environment. It consists of a part that studies the literature on success factors

  12. Global ergonomics strategy in Volkswagen: from the product construction, over the planning until the serial process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Begoña

    2012-01-01

    The Volkswagen Group operates and coordinates the activities of ergonomics from Wolfsburg in Germany and works with its contact persons of every plant and brand of the group towards an integrated proceeding relating to ergonomics. For the ergonomic process it is very important to consider the ergonomics in the whole production process, still from the beginning the conception and construction of the vehicle in the early phases. In these phases there is a big potential to work in the preventive ergonomics and avoid correcting the workstations after start of production. Therefore, it is important to have fluently information in all this phases and identify the potential in each of them. In order to attend these items, Volkswagen has defined different activity fields: coordination of ergonomic standards and the roll-out into all the plants, introducing the ergonomic items in the product development process (PEP), considering the constant improvement of the workplaces in the Volkswagen-Way (KVP and 3P Workshops), taking care of an adequate qualification concept in ergonomics and the intern and extern information exchange within the committees. This topic is established in the industrial engineering of the production area of the group. We are working interdisciplinary with the medical services, human resources, work council and the protection of labor.

  13. Ergonomic assessment for the task of repairing computers in a manufacturing company: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Macías, Aidé; Realyvásquez, Arturo; Hernández, Juan Luis; García-Alcaraz, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturing industry workers who repair computers may be exposed to ergonomic risk factors. This project analyzes the tasks involved in the computer repair process to (1) find the risk level for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and (2) propose ergonomic interventions to address any ergonomic issues. Work procedures and main body postures were video recorded and analyzed using task analysis, the Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) postural method, and biomechanical analysis. High risk for MSDs was found on every subtask using REBA. Although biomechanical analysis found an acceptable mass center displacement during tasks, a hazardous level of compression on the lower back during computer's transportation was detected. This assessment found ergonomic risks mainly in the trunk, arm/forearm, and legs; the neck and hand/wrist were also compromised. Opportunities for ergonomic analyses and interventions in the design and execution of computer repair tasks are discussed.

  14. The assessment of visually impaired persons working capacities using electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Razumovsky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim was to analyze working capacities of visually impaired persons by means of complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics eye examination.Materials and methods. Standard clinical ophthalmologic examination (visual acuity measurement, refractometry, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy as well as electrophysiological (electrooculography, electrical sensitivity of the eye, critical flicker fusion frequency and ophthalmic ergonomics tests (accommodation measurement, professional testing using automated system «Proftest-1» were performed.Results. Complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics tests were performed in 20 visually impaired persons. Their results revealed direct correlation between electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics indices.Conclusion. Working capacities of visually impaired persons can be assessed reliably using complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics eye examination only.

  15. [Functions of participatory ergonomics programs in reducing work-related musculoskeletal disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, M J; Liu, J J; Yao, H Y

    2016-08-10

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are most commonly seen in all the occupational non-fatal injuries and illnesses for workers, especially those who are involved in labor-intensive industries. Participatory ergonomics is frequently used to prevent musculoskeletal disorders. This paper gives an overview of a historical perspective on the use of participatory ergonomics approach in reducing the health effects of labor-intensive industries. Progress, barriers and facilitators on the organization, implementation and evaluation of participatory ergonomics programs are studied. Participatory ergonomics seems a successful method to develop, prioritize measures to prevent MSDs. Participatory ergonomics can help industries reduce musculoskeletal injuries and disorders, improve workplace condition and promote health conditions of the workers.

  16. Optimizing the physical ergonomics indices for the use of partial pressure suits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li; Li, Xianxue; Hedge, Alan; Hu, Huimin; Feathers, David; Qin, Zhifeng; Xiao, Huajun; Xue, Lihao; Zhou, Qianxiang

    2015-03-01

    This study developed an ergonomic evaluation system for the design of high-altitude partial pressure suits (PPSs). A total of twenty-one Chinese males participated in the experiment which tested three types of ergonomics indices (manipulative mission, operational reach and operational strength) were studied using a three-dimensional video-based motion capture system, a target-pointing board, a hand dynamometer, and a step-tread apparatus. In total, 36 ergonomics indices were evaluated and optimized using regression and fitting analysis. Some indices that were found to be linearly related and redundant were removed from the study. An optimal ergonomics index system was established that can be used to conveniently and quickly evaluate the performance of different pressurized/non-pressurized suit designs. The resulting ergonomics index system will provide a theoretical basis and practical guidance for mission planners, suit designers and engineers to design equipment for human use, and to aid in assessing partial pressure suits.

  17. The assessment of visually impaired persons working capacities using electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Razumovsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim was to analyze working capacities of visually impaired persons by means of complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics eye examination.Materials and methods. Standard clinical ophthalmologic examination (visual acuity measurement, refractometry, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy as well as electrophysiological (electrooculography, electrical sensitivity of the eye, critical flicker fusion frequency and ophthalmic ergonomics tests (accommodation measurement, professional testing using automated system «Proftest-1» were performed.Results. Complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics tests were performed in 20 visually impaired persons. Their results revealed direct correlation between electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics indices.Conclusion. Working capacities of visually impaired persons can be assessed reliably using complex electrophysiological and ophthalmic ergonomics eye examination only.

  18. Ergonomic, psychosocial factors and risks at work in informal mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Nunes Alves de Sousa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to identify ergonomic and psychosocial factors, and risks at informal work in the mining sector of the State of Paraíba, Brazil, from miners' perspective. A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted with 371 informal mining workers. They responded two questionnaires for assessing work performed in three dimensions: ergonomic factors; psychosocial factors; and occupational risks. The scores of the items of each dimension were added so that, the higher the score, the lower workers' satisfaction related to the area investigated. The results indicated that noise was common in the working environment (66%. Most workers (54.7% pointed out that the work was too hard and that it required attention and reasoning (85.7%. The workers emphasized the lack of training for working in mining (59.3% and few of them regarded the maintenance of the workplace as a component to prevent lumbago (32.3%. Risk of accidents was pointed out as the factor that needed increased attention in daily work (56.6%. All occupational risks were mentioned, including physical and chemical risks. There was significant correlation between age and occupational risks, indicating that the greater the age, the greater the perception of harmful agents (ρ = -0.23; p < 0.01. In the end, it was observed that, to a greater or lesser degree, all workers perceived ergonomic and psychosocial factors, and risks in informal mining. Length of service and age were the features that interfered significantly with the understanding of those factors and occupational risks.

  19. Work Ergonomic Hazards for Musculoskeletal Pain among University Office Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunisa CHAIKLIENG

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional analytic study aimed to investigate ergonomic hazards in the workplace for musculoskeletal pain among university office workers. There were 142 full-time office staff from Khon Kaen University. Demographic characteristics and musculoskeletal pain were evaluated from a structured questionnaire. Ergonomic workstations, i.e. size of table, seat, work area and illuminations were measured at the workstations and anthropometric parameters were determined. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis which were percentage, mean, and standard deviation. Inferential statistics were chi-square test and the student t-test at 95 % confidence interval. The results showed that 81.7 % of office workers were female, the mean age was 38.0 ± 10.0 years, the average work experience was 12.3 ± 10.8 years. One-month prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was 69.0 %. The onset of symptoms was during working hours and the majorly reported the cause as prolonged sitting in the same posture at work (73.3 %. From measurements, 55.8 % of all workstations had insufficient illumination being lower than the minimum standard requirement (400 lux. Most workstations (75.6 % had significantly inappropriate height (above elbow height of workers at p < 0.001. From questionnaires, the seat height was significantly associated with musculoskeletal pain (p = 0.034. Moreover, anthropometric characteristics of musculoskeletal pain cases (i.e. buttock-popliteal length, hip breadth, sitting elbow height were significantly different from healthy office workers (p < 0.05. The findings suggest that ergonomic workstations need to be improved appropriately for individual workers and improvements in working conditions following standard requirements should be considered.

  20. Malaysian Ergonomics Standards-Its Development, Awareness and Implementation- A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosnah MOHD YUSUFF

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ergonomics standards play an important role in product and system design as it can improve their usability; provide comfort and safety for the users. The number of musculoskeletal diseases has increased in recent years in Malaysia. However, the awareness and importance of ergonomics in Malaysia is still very low among the industries. Many ergonomics standards have been adopted by SIRIM Berhad under the purview of Department of Standards Malaysia (STANDARDS MALAYSIA. However, the take-up has been slow.Method: This paper examined the role of SIRIM Berhad in developing the standards, involvement at international levels and other government agencies in promoting Ergonomics. Ergonomics awareness seminars were arranged in three localities, representing three regions, not only to disseminate information on ergonomics and standards available but also to solicit inputs from stakeholders on the problems in developing and adoption of the standards.Results: Most of the stakeholders were not aware of the standards, do not know how to implement it, and do not have people who are knowledgeable in ergonomics. Since it is not mandatory, no conscious efforts were directed towards it. The lack of research in the various areas has also hindered the development of MS standards.Conclusion: Standards are important in determining at least the minimum requirement for safety, health and comfort of workers. Creating awareness on the importance of ergonomics should be given some priority and this can be seen by the recent encouraging developments in Malaysia in the field of Ergonomics. Keywords: Standards, Ergonomics, Malaysian, Awareness

  1. Ergonomic status of laparoscopic urologic surgery: survey results from 241 urologic surgeons in china.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boluo Liang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prolonged and frequent use of laparoscopic equipment raises ergonomic risks that may cause physical distress for surgeons. We aimed to assess the prevalence of urologic surgeons' physical distress associated with ergonomic problems in the operating room (OR and their awareness of the ergonomic guidelines in China. METHODS: A sample of 300 laparoscopic urologists in China was assessed using a questionnaire on demographic information, ergonomic issues in the OR, musculoskeletal symptoms, and awareness of the ergonomic guidelines for the OR. RESULTS: There were 241 survey respondents (86.7% with valid questionnaires. Among the respondents, only 43.6% placed the operating table at pubic height during the actual operation. The majority of the respondents (63.5% used only one monitor during the procedure. Only 29.9% placed the monitor below the eye level. More than half of the respondents (50.6% preferred to use manual control instead of the foot pedal. Most of the respondents (95.0% never used the body support. The respondents experienced discomfort in the following regions, in ascending order: leg (21.6%, hand (30.3%, wrist (32.8%, shoulder (33.6%, back (53.1%, and neck (58.1%. The respondents with over 250 total operations experienced less discomfort than those with less than 250 total operations. Most of the respondents (84.6% were unaware of the ergonomic guidelines. However, almost all of the respondents (98.3% regarded the ergonomic guidelines to be important in the OR. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the laparoscopic urologists were not aware of the ergonomic guidelines for the OR; hence, they have been suffering from varying degrees of physical discomfort caused by ergonomic issues. There is an urgent need for education regarding ergonomic guidelines in the OR for laparoscopic urologists in China.

  2. Advances in human factors and ergonomics in healthcare

    CERN Document Server

    Duffy, Vincent G

    2010-01-01

    Based on recent research, this book discusses how to improve quality, safety, efficiency, and effectiveness in patient care through the application of human factors and ergonomics principles. It provides guidance for those involved with the design and application of systems and devices for effective and safe healthcare delivery from both a patient and staff perspective. Its huge range of chapters covers everything from the proper design of bed rails to the most efficient design of operating rooms, from the development of quality products to the rating of staff patient interaction. It considers

  3. Informe de ergonomía en Piedras de Burgos

    OpenAIRE

    Arreba, Ruben

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo fin de máster trata de desarrollar de forma práctica el temario aprendido a lo largo del curso en la especialidad de Ergonomía y Psicosociología aplicada. Para poder poner en práctica los conocimientos adquiridos, durante el máster en prevención de riesgos laborales impartido por la Universidad Internacional de la Rioja, se va trabajar sobre una empresa ficticia denominada Piedras de Burgos. Piedras de Burgos es una empresa dedicada a la fabricación de materiales de constru...

  4. Urban ergonomics: an ongoing study of city signs and maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Patricia; Arezes, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess whether the existing signals in three European cities were developed according usability principles and ergonomic aspects for the citizen. City maps and signals will be tested using efficiency, effectiveness and user's satisfaction criteria. Among the urban areas are the center of Paris-FR, assumed to be well signalized, the historical center of Guimarães-PT and Chorweiler, Cologne-DE, a residential neighborhood of modern urbanism characterized by the extensive use of vegetation, the landscape homogeneity, and, consequently, by the difficult navigation.

  5. Marketing ergonomics. Industrial design and engineering. Comfort and appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenkamp, I

    1990-04-01

    A project is being carried out with the aim to develop an individual, engine-driven, covered vehicle for handicapped people. The prime object is that this vehicle should meet the requirements of the handicapped. Nevertheless, choices had to be made by the parties concerned that could have violated this goal. In particular, this was experienced when designing the interior to accommodate large persons on the one hand and meeting the aesthetic requirements of the exterior, which called for a smaller height, on the other. Marketing ergonomics was used to deal with this problem.

  6. Ergonomics, gerontechnology, and design for the home-environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, M R; De Medici, S; Van Sant, C; Bianchi, A; Zlotnicki, A; Napoli, C

    2000-06-01

    An ergonomic approach could improve the quality of life and activities in daily living. Gerontechnology reduces the effects of age-related impairments with technological devices and particular design for the home-environment. Physiological decline with increasing age renders the daily activities at home more difficult. This paper highlights some "common sense" and specific design suggestions in the entrance and kitchen, aimed to increase the self-sufficiency of elderly people. We suggest that gerontechnology may have a particular role in the improvement of comfort and safety for aged people.

  7. A New Design of Student Apartment Bed Based on Kansei Engineering and Ergonomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Ming-yu; YANG Guang-hui

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the defects of the products available on the market at present and basing on the Kansei Engineering and Ergonomics, a new kind of student apartment bed which can prove its humanity more clearly is designed, and its design direction is gotten through the questionnaire and the design starts from the real actual needs of students. After the original design was finished, the later investigation on the students was engaged with and made the engineering analysis. The conclusion is that the sum of"perfect"and"good"membership rates is up to 64%, hence the comprehensive assessment of the design is perfect. That is to say, this design is able to realize and meet the needs of users, and there is no doubt that it will have a good business prospects.

  8. Integrating digital human modeling into virtual environment for ergonomic oriented design

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Liang; Bennis, Fouad; Hu, Bo; Zhang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Virtual human simulation integrated into virtual reality applications is mainly used for virtual representation of the user in virtual environment or for interactions between the user and the virtual avatar for cognitive tasks. In this paper, in order to prevent musculoskeletal disorders, the integration of virtual human simulation and VR application is presented to facilitate physical ergonomic evaluation, especially for physical fatigue evaluation of a given population. Immersive working environments are created to avoid expensive physical mock-up in conventional evaluation methods. Peripheral motion capture systems are used to capture natural movements and then to simulate the physical operations in virtual human simulation. Physical aspects of human's movement are then analyzed to determine the effort level of each key joint using inverse kinematics. The physical fatigue level of each joint is further analyzed by integrating a fatigue and recovery model on the basis of physical task parameters. All the pr...

  9. An electromyographic analysis of an ergonomic intervention with the jackleg drill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, S A; Marras, W S

    1990-06-01

    The jackleg drill is involved in more accidents than any other hand tool used in the underground metal/non-metal mining industries. A significant portion of these accidents are exertion injuries to the trunk. The experiments described in this paper were developed as a result of previous task and biomechanical analyses evaluating the operation of the jackleg drill. A simulated mine was developed where subjects were asked to perform transporting, positioning and removal tasks with and without an additional handle mounted on top of the drill casing. In addition, the positioning, collaring and removal tasks were conducted at three hole heights representative of those found underground. EMG results, along with predicted compression and shear via biomechanical modelling, indicate that the additional handle would need to be presented in conjunction with training in order to be an effective ergonomic aid.

  10. An ergonomic study on the navigation structure and information units of websites with multimedia content. A case study of the Xbox 360 promotional website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Eduardo; de Moraes, Anamaria

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an ergonomic study on the navigation structures and information units of entertainment sites with multimedia content. This research is a case study on the XBOX 360 promotional website. It analyzes the presentation of the content on a grid that simulates the spatial displacement of the screen's elements and evaluates the interaction that the page allows for, from the users' point of view.

  11. An investigation of low ergonomics risk awareness, among staffs at early product development phase in Malaysia automotive industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Fazilah Abdul; Razali, Noraini; Najmiyah Jaafar, Nur

    2016-02-01

    Currently there are many automotive companies still unable to effectively prevent consequences of poor ergonomics in their manufacturing processes. This study purpose is to determine the surrounding factors that influence low ergonomics risk awareness among staffs at early product development phase in Malaysia automotive industry. In this study there are four variables, low ergonomic risk awareness, inappropriate method and tools, tight development schedule and lack of management support. The survey data were gathered from 245 respondents of local automotive companies in Malaysia. The data was analysed through multiple regression and moderated regression using the IBM SPSS software. Study results revealed that low ergonomic risk awareness has influenced by inappropriate method and tool, and tight development schedule. There were positive linear relationships between low ergonomic risk awareness and inappropriate method and tools, and tight development schedule. The more inappropriate method and tools applied; the lower their ergonomic risk awareness. The more tight development schedule is the lower ergonomic risk awareness. The relationship between low ergonomic risk awareness and inappropriate method and tools depends on staff's age, and education level. Furthermore the relationship between low ergonomic risk awareness and tight development schedule depends on staff's working experience and number of project involvement. The main contribution of this paper was identified the number of factors of low ergonomics risk awareness and offers better understanding on ergonomics among researchers and automotive manufacturer's employees during product development process.

  12. Ergonomic Evaluation of Biomechanical Hand Function

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyung-Sun; Jung, Myung-Chul

    2014-01-01

    The human hand is a complex structure that performs various functions for activities of daily living and occupations. This paper presents a literature review on the methodologies used to evaluate hand functions from a biomechanics standpoint, including anthropometry, kinematics, kinetics, and electromyography (EMG). Anthropometry describes the dimensions and measurements of the hand. Kinematics includes hand movements and the range of motion of finger joints. Kinetics includes hand models for...

  13. The Use of Microcomputer Based Laboratories in Chemistry Secondary Education: Present State of the Art and Ideas for Research-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortosa, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    In microcomputer based laboratories (MBL) and data loggers, one or more sensors are connected to an interphase and this to a computer. This equipment allows visualization in real time of the variables of an experiment and provides the possibility of measuring magnitudes which are difficult to measure with traditional equipment. Research shows that…

  14. HIV实验室检测及其研究进展%Present Situation and Progress in Research on HIV Laboratory Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective:Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome(AIDS)is a severe infectious disease induced by human immuno deficiency virus(HIV). The laboratory testing method to be further discussed.Methods:This article focuses on the advances in HIV laboratory techniques and procedures.Results:HIV laboratory testing is vital for the diagnosis, treatment and epidemic surveillance and monitoring of AIDS.Conclusion:During the past twenty years,great progress has been made in laboratory testing.HIV laboratory testing is now developing towards a simple, rapid, sensitive,accurate and automatic way of diagnosing this condition.%目的:艾滋病又称获得性免疫缺陷综合征(AIDS),由人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV,又称艾滋病病毒)引起,是危胁人类健康甚至导致死亡的一种严重传染病,其实验室检测方法需要进一步探讨.方法:本文从常用HIV检测方法及HIV检测新进展两个方面总结了HIV实验室检测及进展.结果:HIV的实验室检测是预防AIDS的主要方法,可直接影响到AIDS的筛查及诊治.结论:在经历20多年后,HIV 的实验室检测法有了飞跃的发展,如今的HIV的实验室检测目标聚焦在如何开发更加准确、更加敏感、更加快速、更加简单化、更加自动化几个方向上,其研究任重而道远,需要我们共同努力携手完成.

  15. A distributed Approach for Access and Visibility Task under Ergonomic Constraints with a Manikin in a Virtual Reality Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Bidault, Florence; Chedmail, Patrick; Pino, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new method, based on a multi-agent system and on digital mock-up technology, to assess an efficient path planner for a manikin for access and visibility task under ergonomic constraints. In order to solve this problem, the human operator is integrated in the process optimization to contribute to a global perception of the environment. This operator cooperates, in real-time, with several automatic local elementary agents. The result of this work validates solutions brought by digital mock-up and that can be applied to simulate maintenance task.

  16. Factores de riesgo ergonométricos y biomecánicos en pagadores de punto y banca

    OpenAIRE

    Frigerio, Agustín Andrés

    2015-01-01

    La presente investigación se centra en el estudio de como los factores de riesgo ergonómicos afectan la postura correcta de trabajo en los pagadores de Punto y Banca en un Casino en la ciudad de Mar del Plata, se buscó determinar los cambios posturales a lo largo del turno laboral. Por medio de una escala de dolor se constató el grado de dolor lumbar y se buscó determinar los factores ergonométricos con la intensidad de dolor. Finalmente se elaboró un protocolo de prevención. Objetivo: ...

  17. Dossier de Prevención de Puesto: Seguridad, Higiene, Ergonomía, Medio Ambiente y Patrimonio

    OpenAIRE

    Alba Torres, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo, tiene como objeto desarrollar de forma práctica, todos los conocimientos adquiridos de forma teórica en el transcurso del Máster en Gestión de la Prevención de Riesgos Laborales, Calidad y Medio Ambiente. La práctica en casi toda su totalidad se ha centrado en el ámbito de la Gestión de la Prevención de Riesgos Laborales en sus tres ramas (Seguridad Industrial, Higiene Industrial y Ergonomía y Psicosociología aplicada), también se han desempeñado activid...

  18. A methodology to determine the level of automation to improve the production process and reduce the ergonomics index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Amaya, Alejandro; Anaya-Pérez, María Elena; Benítez-Baltazar, Víctor Hugo

    2017-08-01

    Companies are constantly looking for improvements in productivity to increase their competitiveness. The use of automation technologies is a tool that have been proven to be effective to achieve this. There are companies that are not familiar with the process to acquire automation technologies, therefore, they abstain from investments and thereby miss the opportunity to take advantage of it. The present document proposes a methodology to determine the level of automation appropriate for the production process and thus minimize automation and improve production taking in consideration the ergonomics factor.

  19. Developing human factors/ergonomics as a design discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norros, Leena

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with internal challenges that the human factors/ergonomics (HFE) research faces when wishing to strengthen its contribution to development of work systems. Three established characteristics of high-quality HFE, i.e., HFE takes a systems approach, HFE is design-driven, and HFE focuses on two closely related outcomes, performance and well-being, are taken as a starting point of a methodological discussion, in which conceptual innovations, e.g. adopting the technology-in-use perspective, are proposed to support development of HFE towards the high-quality aims. The feasibility of the proposed conceptual choices is demonstrated by introducing a naturalistic HFE analysis approach including four HFE functions. The gained experience of the use of this approach in a number of complex work domains allows the conclusion that becoming design-driven appears as that most difficult quality target for HFE to reach. Creating an own design discipline identity in a multi-voiced collaboration is the key internal challenge for human factors/ergonomics.

  20. Framework to Analyse Automotive Interiors with a Focus on Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajaria Nikhil

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The small car market in India is increasing by leaps and bounds. The market for small cars now occupies a substantial share of around 70% of the annual car production in India of about one million. The main players in the car market like Tata Motors, Maruti Udyog and Hyundai etc. are fiercely competitive and are trying to outdo each other in terms of design and technology. However, ultimately the focus of a manufacturer is providing customer satisfaction which is driven by comfort and ease of use. Automotive ergonomics is the study of how automotive can be designed better for human use. The human factor aspect of designing automobiles is first considered at the Vehicle Packaging stage. The term Vehicle Packaging comes to use whenever a new model is in the early stage of study. It is a method to safeguard and protect space for the human user and necessary components that make up the vehicle being designed. The improvement in the vehicle ergonomics requires a basic understanding of the problems that arise due to the conventional automotive interior design.