... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Parts 570 and 579 RIN 1235-AA06 Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations--Civil Money Penalties AGENCY... child labor regulations published on September 2, 2011. The Department of Labor (Department or DOL) is...
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Parts 570 and 579 RIN 1235-AA06 Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations--Civil Money Penalties AGENCY... its [[Page 31550
Grandey, Alicia A; Melloy, Robert C
Emotional labor has been an area of burgeoning research interest in occupational health psychology in recent years. Emotional labor was conceptualized in the early 1980s by sociologist Arlie Hochschild (1983) as occupational requirements that alienate workers from their emotions. Almost 2 decades later, a model was published in Journal of Occupational Health Psychology ( JOHP ) that viewed emotional labor through a psychological lens, as emotion regulation strategies that differentially relate to performance and wellbeing. For this anniversary issue of JOH P, we review the emotional labor as emotion regulation model, its contributions, limitations, and the state of the evidence for its propositions. At the heart of our article, we present a revised model of emotional labor as emotion regulation, that incorporates recent findings and represents a multilevel and dynamic nature of emotional labor as emotion regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Part 570 Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation CFR Correction 0 In Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 500 to 899, revised as of July 1, 2011, on page 302, the section heading for Sec. 570.65 is corrected to read...
... Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law Violations AGENCY: Office of Procurement and... Agriculture Acquisition Regulation (the ``AGAR'') to add a new clause at subpart 422.70 entitled ``Labor Law... respects and follows the policies and laws regarding worker labor protections particularly as they [[Page...
... Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law Violations; Withdrawal AGENCY: Office of... Agriculture Acquisition Regulation at subpart 422.70 entitled ``Labor Law Violations'' that would have a contractor certify upon accepting a contract that it is in compliance with all applicable labor laws and that...
... Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law Violations AGENCY: Office of Procurement and... Acquisition Regulation (the ``AGAR'') to add a new clause at subpart 422.70 entitled ``Labor Law Violations... objectives, this proposed rule adds a subpart and clause entitled Labor Law Violations to the Agriculture...
Mendes, Diana A.; Mendes, Vivaldo M.
Until very recently, the pervasive existence of models exhibiting well-defined backward dynamics but ill-defined forward dynamics in economics and finance has apparently posed no serious obstacles to the analysis of their dynamics and stability, despite the problems that may arise from possible erroneous conclusions regarding theoretical considerations and policy prescriptions from such models. A large number of papers have dealt with this problem in the past by assuming the existence of symmetry between forward and backward dynamics, even in the case when the map cannot be invertible either forward or backwards. However, this procedure has been seriously questioned over the last few years in a series of papers dealing with implicit difference equations and inverse limit spaces. This paper explores the search and matching labor market model developed by Bhattacharya and Bunzel [J. Bhattacharya, H. Bunzel, Chaotic Planning Solution in the Textbook Model of Equilibrium Labor Market Search and Matching, Mimeo, Iowa State University, 2002; J. Bhattacharya, H. Bunzel, Economics Bulletin 5 (19) (2003) 1-10], with the following objectives in mind: (i) to show that chaotic dynamics may still be present in the model for acceptable parameter values, (ii) to clarify some open questions related with the admissible dynamics in the forward looking setting, by providing a rigorous proof of the existence of cyclic and chaotic dynamics through the application of tools from symbolic dynamics and inverse limit theory.
In the field of the law governing the legal work relations one of the features that also contributes to defining the autonomy of labor law is that of the existence of the specific sources of law consisting in regulation on the functioning of the employer, internal regulation, collective labor agreement, and instructions regarding the security and labor health. In addition, in the practical field of the labor relationssome indirect (or derived) sources of law were also pointed out ...
Harper, Lorie M.; Caughey, Aaron B.; Roehl, Kimberly A.; Odibo, Anthony O.; Cahill, Alison G.
OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to determine the threshold for defining abnormal labor that is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. STUDY DESIGN This study consisted of a retrospective cohort of all consecutive women admitted at a gestation of 37.0 weeks or longer from 2004 to 2008 who reached the second stage of labor. The 90th, 95th, and 97th percentiles for progress in the first stage of labor were determined specific for parity and labor onset. Women with a first stage above and below each centile were compared. Maternal outcomes were cesarean delivery in the second stage, operative delivery, prolonged second stage, postpartum hemorrhage, and maternal fever. Neonatal outcomes were a composite of the following: admission to level 2 or 3 nursery, 5 minute Apgar less than 3, shoulder dystocia, arterial cord pH of less than 7.0, and a cord base excess of −12 or less. RESULTS Of the 5030 women, 4534 experienced first stage of less than the 90th percentile, 251 between the 90th and 94th percentiles, 102 between the 95th and 96th percentiles, and 143 at the 97th percentile or greater. Longer labors were associated with an increased risk of a prolonged second stage, maternal fever, the composite neonatal outcome, shoulder dystocia, and admission to a level 2 or 3 nursery (P dystocia. CONCLUSION Although women who experience labor dystocia may ultimately deliver vaginally, a longer first stage of labor is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, in particular shoulder dystocia. This risk must be balanced against the risks of cesarean delivery for labor arrest. PMID:24361789
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terms used in regulations. 541.1 Section 541.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS DEFINING AND DELIMITING THE EXEMPTIONS FOR EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, PROFESSIONAL, COMPUTER AND OUTSIDE SALES EMPLOYEES...
K. S. Ermakov
Full Text Available The article discusses how to optimize airline costs applying the Federal Law of 04.05.2013, № 60-FZ on the regulation of labor relations at the remote aviation enterprises of Russia. Taking into account the changes in the economic system of the country areas of transformation of social and labor issues are identified. A model of assessing the impact of teleworking on the company's profits is suggested. The main features of the activities which are ,most suitable for remote operation are determined.
... Management; Agriculture Acquisition Regulation, Labor Law Violations; Withdrawal AGENCY: Office of... 422.70 entitled ``Labor Law Violations'' that would have a contractor certify upon accepting a contract that it is in compliance with all applicable labor laws and that, to the best of its knowledge...
... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âEmployer,â âemployee,â and âemployâ defined. 1620.8 Section 1620.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.8 “Employer,” “employee,” and “employ” defined. The words “employer,” “employee...
Grandey, A A
The topic of emotions in the workplace is beginning to garner closer attention by researchers and theorists. The study of emotional labor addresses the stress of managing emotions when the work role demands that certain expressions be shown to customers. However, there has been no overarching framework to guide this work, and the previous studies have often disagreed on the definition and operationalization of emotional labor. The purposes of this article are as follows: to review and compare previous perspectives of emotional labor, to provide a definition of emotional labor that integrates these perspectives, to discuss emotion regulation as a guiding theory for understanding the mechanisms of emotional labor, and to present a model of emotional labor that includes individual differences (such as emotional intelligence) and organizational factors (such as supervisor support).
Onica -Chipea Lavinia
Full Text Available The paper aims to briefly review specific provisions of labor legislation for the solving of labor disputes. Those rules are found in matters of discrimination in the payment settlements, the public sector staff as well as some personnel status or disciplinary (work stops at Status of Teachers and established a derogationfrom the common law (Labor Code Law nr.62/2011 of Social Dialogue in resolving individual labor conflicts(former conflicts of rights. The role and importance of these regulations is that they give the parties the employment relationship, particularly employees, way, way more for rights enshrined in law. Appeals, complaints or expressions of individual grievances be settled outside the judicial system organ (the courts,authorizing officers, judicial administrative organs, which aim at restoring order violated.
E. Sh. Kachalova
Full Text Available At present, considerable disproportions take place in Russia between organizational, regulatory, social and economic relations actually existing in restaurant and hotel business enterprises on one part and provisions of their legal law basic norms and regulations on the other part. Labor organization and normative practice improvement directions are proposed for enterprises of the branch. Economic essence of the “tipping” phenomenon is revealed. Measures aimed at elimination of overcoming wage rise rates in comparison with those of the labor productivity presently existing in the branch.
... BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR General § 35.1 What is the purpose of the Department of Labor (DOL) age discrimination regulations... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What is the purpose of the Department of Labor (DOL) age...
... receive more frequent payments than every two weeks. The Contractor shall substantiate vouchers (including...] RIN 9000-AM01 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Payments Under Time-and-Materials and Labor-Hour... the authorization to use time-and-materials and labor-hour contract payment requirements. DATES...
Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio
Child labor is a persistent phenomenon in many developing countries. In recent years, support has been growing among rich-country governments and consumer groups for the use of trade policies, such as product boycotts and the imposition of international labor standards, to reduce child labor in poor countries. In this paper, we discuss research on the long-run implications of such policies. In particular, we demonstrate that such measures may have the unintended side effect of lowering domest...
... pension plans. 2520.101-4 Section 2520.101-4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE... pension plans. (a) In general. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, pursuant to section 101(f) of the Act, the administrator of a defined benefit, multiemployer pension plan shall...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Department of Labor Safety and Health Regulations for Ship Repairing. 1252.217-80 Section 1252.217-80 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1252.217-80...
Paik, S.; Schriver, W.R.
An attempt is made to explain the impact of increasing governmental regulation on capital costs and labor requirements for constructing light water reactor (LWR) electric power plants. The principal factors contributing to these increases are: (1) market conditions and (2) increased regulation. General market conditions include additional costs attributable to price inflation of equipment, material, labor, and the increased cost of money. The central objective of this work is to estimate the impact of increasing regulation on plant costs and, conversely, on output. To do this it is necessary to isolate two opposing sets of forces which have been in operation during the period of major regulatory expansion: learning based upon plant design experience and economies of scale with increasing size (generating capacity) of newer plants. Conceptual models are specified to capture the independent effects of increasing regulation, learning, and economies of scale. Empirical results were obtained by estimating the models on data collected from industry experience during the 1967-1980 period. 23 refs
Gabriel, Allison S; Daniels, Michael A; Diefendorff, James M; Greguras, Gary J
Research on emotional labor focuses on how employees utilize 2 main regulation strategies-surface acting (i.e., faking one's felt emotions) and deep acting (i.e., attempting to feel required emotions)-to adhere to emotional expectations of their jobs. To date, researchers largely have considered how each strategy functions to predict outcomes in isolation. However, this variable-centered perspective ignores the possibility that there are subpopulations of employees who may differ in their combined use of surface and deep acting. To address this issue, we conducted 2 studies that examined surface acting and deep acting from a person-centered perspective. Using latent profile analysis, we identified 5 emotional labor profiles-non-actors, low actors, surface actors, deep actors, and regulators-and found that these actor profiles were distinguished by several emotional labor antecedents (positive affectivity, negative affectivity, display rules, customer orientation, and emotion demands-abilities fit) and differentially predicted employee outcomes (emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and felt inauthenticity). Our results reveal new insights into the nature of emotion regulation in emotional labor contexts and how different employees may characteristically use distinct combinations of emotion regulation strategies to manage their emotional expressions at work. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh; Royaei, Nahid
This study attempted to scrutinize the multidimensional nature of teacher emotion. Three emotion-associated constructs, namely, emotion regulation, emotional labor strategies, and burnout were studied within a single framework. In particular, it was hypothesized that English as a foreign language teachers' emotion regulation and emotional labor…
Lee, Mikyoung; Pekrun, Reinhard; Taxer, Jamie L.; Schutz, Paul A.; Vogl, Elisabeth; Xie, Xiyao
While the similarities between emotion regulation (Gross in "J Personal Soc Psychol" 74:224-237, 1998a) and emotional labor (Hochschild in The managed heart: commercialization of human feeling. University of California Press, Berkeley, 1983) have been theoretically discussed, empirical research on their relation is lacking. We examined…
..., prior to such employee's engagement in any activity enumerated in section 3(6) of the Act. A farm labor... farm labor contractor employee. 500.41 Section 500.41 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... PROTECTION Registration of Farm Labor Contractors and Employees of Farm Labor Contractors Engaged in Farm...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting labor disputes. 2922.101-3 Section 2922.101-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 2922.101-3 Reporting...
... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labor organization. 401.9 Section 401.9 Labor Regulations... MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.9 Labor organization. Labor organization means a labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce and includes any organization of any kind, any agency...
Fomina Olena O.
Full Text Available The article is aimed at analyzing the fundamental economic theories of regulating the social-labor relations, in particular, Marxism, post-capitalism, social action – considering responsibility in the inter-subjective relations, as well as in the assessment of adequacy of implementation of the above indicated theories into economic activities. On the basis of an analysis, it has been found that Marxism considers responsibility as freedom for the economic entities and in the aspect of regulation of social-labor relations allows conflict, which is the engine of the human progress. The post-capitalism represents the conception, which provides for adaptation of public relations towards the technological changes, arbitrary behavior of business entities and formation of organizations of the new formation, aimed at cooperation. The social action theory allows to take into account the objective circumstances impacting the parties of the social-labor relations, and to settle conflicts through the provision of individual responsibility of each party for the situation present. In the light of the foregoing, we believe that regulation of the social-labor relations should be based on use of these theories. Prospects for further research in this direction will be considering the evolution of contemporary theories of responsibility as well as formation of a conceptual schema to ensure the responsible behavior of subjects in the social-labor relations.
Chakalova Kseniia O.
Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the theoretical foundations of the organizational-economic mechanism for the functioning and development of the internal labor market. The essence of the organizational-economic mechanism for the functioning and development of the internal labor market is highlighted. The main structural elements of the suggested mechanism have been characterized, including actors and facilities, factors and resources, regulation methods and institutions of the internal labor market, the main processes of staff management in the internal labor market (planning, promotion, development, and motivation of staff, as well as the nature of interactions with the external labor market and the features of the diagnostics of efficiency of the mechanism. The political, economic, social, and organizational groups of factors, influencing the internal labor market, have been provided. The regulation methods used by each actor in the internal labor market have been presented. Indicators for evaluating efficiency of the organizational-economic mechanism for the functioning and development of the internal labor market have been defined.
Full Text Available La cárcel es un ambiente laboral con especificidad propia. Se analizan las condiciones laborales de los agentes penitenciarios y las relaciones internas con los demás protagonistas con relación a la potencial o real peligrosidad que define este ambiente de trabajo. Se analizan tres temas claves: las requisas, la arbitrariedad de los reglamentos y la actitud frente a los conflictos internos. Se trata de aportar conocimiento alrededor de un lugar vacío de conocimiento y de políticas públicas relativas.The jail is a labor atmosphere which has his own specificity. The labor conditions of the prison officers and the internal relations with the other protagonists in relations to the potential or real danger are analyzed in order to define the atmosphere of work. Three key subjects are analyzed: requisitioning, the abuse of the regulations and the attitude around the internal conflicts. This paper intends to contribute with some knowledge around an empty place of knowledge and relative public policies.
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âTalent feesâ as used in section 7(e)(3)(c) of the Fair...) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS DEFINING AND DELIMITING THE TERM âTALENT FEESâ § 550.1 “Talent fees” as used in section 7(e)(3)(c) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, as amended. The...
... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Department of Labor contact. 215.8 Section 215.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GUIDELINES, SECTION 5333(b), FEDERAL TRANSIT LAW § 215.8 Department of Labor contact. Questions concerning the subject...
Full Text Available The validity and efficacy of the labor contract as well as cases of nullity and defeasibility import an analysis of scopes of the supplementary application of Civil Code taking into account the peculiarities of Labor Law. Labor contract, while legal business has as regulatory framework to the regulations of Civil Code but it is necessary to determine, in each case, whether to apply fully this normative body, or modulate its supplemental application, or simply conclude that it doesn’t result compatible its regulation due to the special nature of labor relations. Specifically, this issue will be analyzed from cases of nullity and defeasibility of the labor contract.
Андрей Георгиевич Иванов
Full Text Available The given article is devoted to the actual problem of the state regulation of external labor migration. It's based on examples of developed western countries. The author makes a conclusion about the importance of the state regulation of migration processes, warning that narrow understanding of migration policy as restriction of external migration flows is insufficient nowadays.
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Convict Labor. 52.222-3... Labor. As prescribed in 22.202, insert the following clause: Convict Labor (JUN 2003) (a) Except as... union central bodies or similar labor union organizations have been consulted; (iii) Such paid...
... reduce or eliminate the amount of diacetyl in some kinds of flavorings, foods, and beverages. They have.... Hilda L. Solis, Secretary of Labor. Office of Labor-Management Standards--Proposed Rule Stage Regulation... in part II of this issue of the Federal Register. Office of Labor-Management Standards--Completed...
Neal, Jeremy L; Lowe, Nancy K; Schorn, Mavis N; Holley, Sharon L; Ryan, Sharon L; Buxton, Margaret; Wilson-Liverman, Angela M
Contemporary labor and birth population norms should be the basis for evaluating labor progression and determining slow progress that may benefit from intervention. The aim of this article is to present guidelines for a common, evidence-based approach for determination of active labor onset and diagnosis of labor dystocia based on a synthesis of existing professional guidelines and relevant contemporary publications. A 3-point approach for diagnosing active labor onset and classifying labor dystocia-related labor aberrations into well-defined, mutually exclusive categories that can be used clinically and validated by researchers is proposed. The approach comprises identification of 1) an objective point that strictly defines active labor onset (point of active labor determination); 2) an objective point that identifies when labor progress becomes atypical, beyond which interventions aimed at correcting labor dystocia may be justified (point of protraction diagnosis); and 3) an objective point that identifies when interventions aimed at correcting labor dystocia, if used, can first be determined to be unsuccessful, beyond which assisted vaginal or cesarean birth may be justified (earliest point of arrest diagnosis). Widespread adoption of a common approach for diagnosing labor dystocia will facilitate consistent evaluation of labor progress, improve communications between clinicians and laboring women, indicate when intervention aimed at speeding labor progress or facilitating birth may be appropriate, and allow for more efficient translation of safe and effective management strategies into clinical practice. Correct application of the diagnosis of labor dystocia may lead to a decrease in the rate of cesarean birth, decreased health care costs, and improved health of childbearing women and neonates. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
... 452.14 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT... identity the terms of its officers may not be extended beyond the maximum period specified by the Act for...
Pessanha, Elina Gonçalves da Fonte; Artur, Karen
This paper presents the main institutional changes in labor relations in Brazil, highlighting their impact on the organization of workers. A more recent central change is the regulation of outsourcing by the Labor Judiciary. Research into claims in the Superior Labor Court, guidelines from the Labor Prosecution Office, and trade union lawsuits, show that outsourcing and working hours are subjects which have directly affected health workers. By addressing the institutional principles of justice in contracts, it was concluded that labor reform should deal with the inequality of rights that have characterized the Brazilian labor market.
Yuliya O. Almayeva
Full Text Available Objective to prove that the development of the legislation quality theory in labor law is of great practical importance. Methods the methodological basis of research is universal dialectic method of cognition as well as other general theoretical methods. Taking into account the impossibility to research and solve problems through the use of exclusively legal matter the specific scientific methods were also widely used formallogical comparativelegal etc. Results basing on the analysis of scientific works on the topic it is concluded that the integral characteristics of the labour standards quality requires consideration of not only legal but also social political and moral points of view. With this approach it is logical to allocate not only legal but also sociopolitical and moral quality of the labour law. It is recognized that the existing theoretical legal works on the problem of labor laws quality do not allow to speak about creation of the quality concept development of the research methodology of labour quality standards. It is concluded that the quality of the regulatory impact of labour legislation in Russia is not always at the proper level. Moreover among the main reasons for the imperfection of the normative base regulating sociallabour relations it is necessary to allocate objective and subjective reasons and their quotsymbiosisquot. Scientific novelty it was found that the definition of the quality of the law regulating sociolabour relations should have an indication of properties of their components the content of legal norms which allow to establish whether a particular law is a quality one. Practical significance the theoretical principles formulated in the article can be used in scientific legislative and law enforcement activity educational process of higher vocational education institutions of the legal profile to improve the skills of practitioners and scientificpedagogical staff in the field of jurisprudence. nbsp
Sybirtsev Volodymyr V.
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to substantiate and develop conceptual provisions for conducting the institutional reform of the national labor market. There singled out aspects of implementing the operation and development of the labor market in the context of manifestation of the internal complexity and multi-functionality inherent to it. The existence of regularities in the increase of the need for development of the institutional structure of the labor market under conditions of transforming and restructuring the system of socio-economic relations is proved. The presence of a multiplicative effect from the spread of the new institutional practices being introduced in the labor market on the institutional regulation of a wide range of economic operations, phenomena and processes is revealed. There defined the content of the process of developing the institutional space of the national labor market, which involves institutionalizing the processes of socialization of the socio-economic relations associated with productive employment, in the context of which there occurs an increase in the importance and role of human resources in the creation of economic goods, expanded social reproduction.
... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees not represented by a labor organization. 215.4 Section 215.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GUIDELINES, SECTION 5333(b), FEDERAL TRANSIT LAW § 215.4 Employees not represented by a labor...
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of Labor-Management Standards 29 CFR Part 404 Labor Organization Officer and Employee Reports CFR Correction In Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 100 to 499, revised as [[Page 4272
Craig C. Ulrich
Full Text Available The data described in this article is the subject of an article in the American Journal of Physiology: Cell Physiology, titled “The Human Uterine Smooth Muscle S-nitrosoproteome Fingerprint in Pregnancy, Labor, and Preterm Labor” (doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00198.2013 (Ulrich et al., 2013 . The data described is a large scale mass spectrometry data set that defines the human uterine smooth muscle S-nitrosoproteome differences among laboring, non-laboring, preterm laboring tissue after treatment with S-nitrosoglutathione.
Zheleznyak Maria, I.
Full Text Available In the paper institutional features and forms of social-economic partnership as regulation institute of a youth segment of labor market are considered. Use of interdisciplinary approach in combination with methodology of institutionalism forms new opportunities for the solution of problems of youth employment through the directions of improvement of tools of social-economic partnership on a youth segment of labor market of the Rostov region. Classification offorms of social-economic partnership in its formal and informal aspects is considered, methods of realization of the mechanism of social- economic partnership at primary and secondary employment of youth are defined.
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances; representation of the Department of Labor. 801.65 Section 801.65 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION OF THE EMPLOYEE POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 Administrative...
Neal, Jeremy L; Ryan, Sharon L; Lowe, Nancy K; Schorn, Mavis N; Buxton, Margaret; Holley, Sharon L; Wilson-Liverman, Angela M
Labor dystocia (slow or difficult labor or birth) is the most commonly diagnosed aberration of labor and the most frequently documented indication for primary cesarean birth. Yet, dystocia remains a poorly specified diagnostic category, with determinations often varying widely among clinicians. The primary aims of this review are to 1) summarize definitions of active labor and dystocia, as put forth by leading professional obstetric and midwifery organizations in world regions wherein English is the majority language and 2) describe the use of dystocia and related terms in contemporary research studies. Major national midwifery and obstetric organizations from qualifying United Nations-member sovereign nations and international organizations were searched to identify guidelines providing definitions of active labor and dystocia or related terms. Research studies (2000-2013) were systematically identified via PubMed, MEDLINE, and CINAHL searches to describe the use of dystocia and related terms in contemporary scientific publications. Only 6 organizational guidelines defined dystocia or related terms. Few research teams (n = 25 publications) defined dystocia-related terms with nonambiguous clinical parameters that can be applied prospectively. There is heterogeneity in the nomenclature used to describe dystocia, and when a similar term is shared between guidelines or research publications, the underlying definition of that term is sometimes inconsistent between documents. Failure to define dystocia in evidence-based, well-described, clinically meaningful terms that are widely acceptable to and reproducible among clinicians and researchers is concerning at both national and global levels. This failure is particularly problematic in light of the major contribution of this diagnosis to primary cesarean birth rates. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
... Procedures Before Administrative Law Judge § 500.231 Appearances; representation of the Department of Labor... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appearances; representation of the Department of Labor. 500.231 Section 500.231 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT...
... REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for..., interviews with workers, and all other aspects of investigations undertaken by the Department of Labor. When...
... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agricultural labor. 31.3401(a)(2)-1 Section 31... SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3401(a)(2)-1 Agricultural labor. The term “wages” does not include remuneration for services which constitute agricultural labor as defined in section 3121(g). For...
Lobrigo, Enrico; Pawlik, Thomas
The reports highlighting the foreseen lack of merchant marine officers for the expanding world’s fleet calls for a review in evaluating the impact of maritime policy in the seafaring labor market. This paper aims to clarify the particular characteristics of the seafaring labor market and how it can...... be shaped by specific maritime labor policies. The seafaring labor market in the Philippines, Poland, Germany, and Brazil as well as the general maritime labor policies in these countries is discussed. The focus on these countries leads to a comparative observation of maritime labor as a factor...... of production in an exporting market, in an importing market, and in a closed market, respectively, as shaped by various relevant maritime policies. Since a global policy that can regulate the maritime labor market does not exist, the trend on maritime labor supply is dynamic on a per country basis wherein crew...
The chapters of this thesis focus on policy-relevant research questions in economics of education and labor economics. All chapters make use of randomized experiments in order to answer these questions. The second chapter studies the returns to medical school in a regulated labor market, by
Full Text Available In this paper will be examined some important issues of the labor market policies in Albania. As well, the analysis of labor market institutions such as the Social Insurances or the Syndicates on the efficiency of employing active labor forces. Which are the policies on the protection of the labor forces and the criteria of definition of the minimum salary? Furthermore, it continues with the importance of reforms in the labor market policies, to be examined in the labor market aspect as a production factor and as a regulator of the internal market. Fast globalization is causing continuous risk and movement for the active labor forces. The increase and development of technology puts out of the market many employees, decreasing the number of unqualified employees and increases the demand for the qualified ones. Does the globalization really affect the labor market, efficiency and as a consequence increase production, or the latter are benefits only for the developed economic countries? At the same time, we shall examine the movement of the labor forces from one country to another and the fluctuation of the relevant salaries. In general, the analysis of this paper faces two key issues: the first being raised on discussion of the kinds of programs on the active labor forces, such as programs of direct employment or consideration of employment in public sector, and the second regarding the methodology of evaluating these programs. How effective are them on the domestic market? The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations on the efficiency of policies for the labor market forces.
Cech, Scott J.
Proposed child-labor-rule changes--the most ambitious in 30 years--would carve out a permanent exemption to U.S. Department of Labor regulations for the work-study program run by a national network of Roman Catholic high schools. The program is a requirement of the Chicago-based Cristo Rey Network, which now has 12 high schools around the country…
Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of child labor and ways of protection from child labor abuse. Child labor is a negative social phenomenon that is widespread throughout the world, and also in Republic of Macedonia. International and national institutions and organizations are making serious efforts to eradicate this negative phenomenon, through the adoption of numerous international legal instruments (conventions, recommendations, declarations, etc.. Child labor as a phenomenon refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability of education, and that is socially, mentally, physically, or morally dangerous and harmful. All international organizations define this practice as exploitative and destructive to the development of the whole society. With international legal instruments of the UN, ILO, Council of Europe and the EU child labor is strictly prohibited. There are some important differences which exist between the many kinds of work that is done by children. Some of them are demanding and difficult, others are hazardous and morally reprehensible. Children are doing a very wide range of activities and tasks when they work.
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maritime labor disputes. 5.71 Section 5.71 Shipping... REGULATIONS-PERSONNEL ACTION Statement of Policy and Interpretation § 5.71 Maritime labor disputes. Under no circumstances will the Coast Guard exercise its authority for the purpose of favoring any party to a maritime...
Rauscher, Kimberly J; Myers, Douglas J; Miller, Mary E
Evidence shows that violations of the United States (US) child labor regulations are common. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the magnitude and nature of work-related deaths among youth involving violations of US child labor regulations. We analyzed Census of Fatal Occupational Injury data from 2001 to 2012 using descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests. Between 2001 and 2012, 406 workers under age 18 were recorded in the CFOI as having suffered a fatal work-related injury. Among these cases, 233 were covered by the US child labor regulations. Forty-three percent of these cases involved at least one violation. The majority of cases that were not covered by the regulations involved decedents working on their family's farms (N = 139). Violations of federal child labor regulations are a significant contributor to work-related deaths among youth in the United States. Increased investment in enforcement is needed to prevent further young worker deaths involving child labor violations. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:959-968, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Careja, Romana; Andreß, H.-J.
in a multilevel design the impact that regulations in the EU member states concerning immigrants' access to domestic labor markets have on threat perceptions and on opinions about immigrants' economic role. It finds that labor market regulations have a positive effect on opinions about immigrants' economic role...... and reduce the negative relationships between precarious labor market status and opinions about the economic role. However, a robust effect of labor market regulations on threat perceptions was not found. Our results imply that labor market incorporation rules need to be accompanied by other measures......This article builds on the notion that immigrants' integration into the labor market benefits migrants and shapes natives' opinions about immigrants. Using insights from the newest literature on labor immigration and drawing upon the literature on attitudes toward immigrants, the article explores...
Globalization involves the international expansion of market relations and the global pursuit of economic liberalism. The essential factor in this process is commodification, including the commodification of human labor. Globalization integrates an increasing proportion of the world population
GAYLE ALLARD; Cristina Simón; RAQUEL MARTIN
This study explores the challenge of capturing talent from both the political and the management level in Western Europe. It begins by identifying the special characteristics of Generation Y: those born since 1980 and recently joining national labor forces. It then evaluates the rigidity of labor markets in the European countries, dividing them into most and least regulated and exploring some of the labor-market characteristics that accompany those extremes. Finally, it identifies the employm...
... commerce. 401.10 Section 401.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS... organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce. A labor organization shall be deemed to be engaged in an industry affecting commerce if it: (a) Is the certified representative of employees under the...
Riveros, Luis A.
The ratio of nonwage labor costs (for social security, pensions, vacation days, severence compensation, and the like) to direct wage costs is proportionately higher in Europe and Latin America than in Asia and Africa - largely because workers there are protected more by regulations. The distortionary growth of labor costs because of increasing nonwage costs is not common in the LDCs however. The author of this paper found that international differences in labor costs are attributable largely ...
Kool, Wouter; Botvinick, Matthew
Daily life frequently offers a choice between activities that are profitable but mentally demanding (cognitive labor) and activities that are undemanding but also unproductive (cognitive leisure). Although such decisions are often implicit, they help determine academic performance, career trajectories, and even health outcomes. Previous research has shed light both on the executive control functions that ultimately define cognitive labor and a ‘default mode’ of brain function that accompanies...
... convenience/labor-saving foods. 809.270 Section 809.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... 809.270 Qualified products for convenience/labor-saving foods. (a) Each VISN Nutrition and Food Service representative is authorized to establish a common VISN QPL for convenience and labor-saving foods...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery of errors by the... REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Act of 1965, as Amended 22.1015 Discovery of errors by the Department of Labor. If the Department of...
... labor laws (overseas). 252.222-7002 Section 252.222-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7002 Compliance with local labor laws (overseas). As prescribed in 222.7201(a), use the following clause: Compliance with Local Labor Laws (Overseas) (JUN 1997...
... to revise the Fair Labor Standards Act minimum wage, overtime and recordkeeping regulations... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Part 552 RIN 1235-AA05 Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act to Domestic Service AGENCY: Wage and Hour Division, Labor. ACTION: Extension of...
... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agricultural labor. 31.3306(c)(1)-1 Section 31... Agricultural labor. Services performed by an employee for the person employing him which constitute “agricultural labor” as defined in section 3306(k) are excepted from employment. For provisions relating to the...
... proposing to revise the Fair Labor Standards Act minimum wage, overtime and recordkeeping regulations... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Part 552 RIN 1235-AA05 Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act to Domestic Service AGENCY: Wage and Hour Division, Labor. ACTION: Notice and...
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial management of labor housing. 3560.578 Section 3560.578 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... § 3560.578 Financial management of labor housing. The requirements established in subpart G of this part...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What labor standards are applicable? 1000.16 Section 1000.16 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.16 What labor standards are...
Inna V. Donova
Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyse the consequences of informal employment for the Russian labor market. The author approaches informal employment from the legalism perspective. While distinguishing between formal and informal employment, the author relies on the contract criterion, i.e. presence or absence of formally established labor relations. The reasons for the existence and reproduction of informal employment relations in the Russian labor market are imperfect institutions of regulation and a complex of economic and social factors. The consequences of informal hiring for participants of the employment relationship are different. In the article are considered the positive and negative consequences of informal hiring for employees, employers and the state. It is shown that the problem of informal hiring is multilayered, not reducible only to imperfect labor market regulation institutions and requires adequate complexity of approaches. The ways to reduce the level of informality on the Russian labor market: the stimulation of an increase in the number of formal jobs and the legalization of business, especially in the smallest and micro-business; refusal of attempts of violent and excessive formalization of employment; improvement of the quality of regulation of the social and labor conditions and business climate. Special attention should be paid to estimation the balance of benefits and losses associated with informality for all participants of social and labor relations.
... in this regulation defined? Terms used in this part have the following meaning: Advertise means... well drilled from a mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) and the associated riser and well control...
Tran, Henry; Young, I. Phillip
Fundamental to updating a fixed-rate salary schedule for teachers is the reliance on a relevant labor market containing comparisons to other school districts--that is, object school districts, which can be chosen from a policy or empirical/efficiency perspective. As such, four relevant markets having roots in neoclassical economic…
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application of labor laws... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 1253.222 Application of labor laws... application of labor laws, as specified in (TAR) 48 CFR 1222.406-9: Form DOT F 4220.7, Employee Claim for Wage...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor standards. 570.25 Section 570.25 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... of Age Provisions of Other Laws § 570.25 Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor standards...
... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payments for agricultural labor. 31.3121(a)(8... Provisions § 31.3121(a)(8)-1 Payments for agricultural labor. (a) Scope of this section. For purposes of the regulations in this section, the term “agricultural labor” means only such agricultural labor (see § 31.3121(g...
Bergen, Gwen; West, Bethany A; Luo, Feijun; Bird, Donna C; Freund, Katherine; Fortinsky, Richard H; Staplin, Loren
Motor-vehicle crashes were the second leading cause of injury death for adults aged 65-84years in 2014. Some older drivers choose to self-regulate their driving to maintain mobility while reducing driving risk, yet the process remains poorly understood. Data from 729 older adults (aged ≥60years) who joined an older adult ride service program between April 1, 2010 and November 8, 2013 were analyzed to define and describe classes of driving self-regulation. Latent class analysis was employed to characterize older adult driving self-regulation classes using driving frequency and avoidance of seven driving situations. Logistic regression was used to explore associations between characteristics affecting mobility and self-regulation class. Three classes were identified (low, medium, and high self-regulation). High self-regulating participants reported the highest proportion of always avoiding seven risky driving situations and the lowest driving frequency followed by medium and low self-regulators. Those who were female, aged 80years or older, visually impaired, assistive device users, and those with special health needs were more likely to be high self-regulating compared with low self-regulating. Avoidance of certain driving situations and weekly driving frequency are valid indicators for describing driving self-regulation classes in older adults. Understanding the unique characteristics and mobility limitations of each class can guide optimal transportation strategies for older adults. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
....), Notification of Employee Rights Under Federal Labor Laws. DATES: Effective Date: November 2, 2011. FOR FURTHER..., 2010, to implement E.O. 13496, Notification of Employee Rights Under Federal Labor Laws, as implemented... Federal labor laws, and the DOL has determined that the notice shall include employee rights under the...
LAGER, Susanne; AYE, Irving L.M.H.; GACCIOLI, Francesca; RAMIREZ, Vanessa I.; JANSSON, Thomas; POWELL, Theresa L.
Introduction Labor induces a myriad of changes in placental gene expression. These changes may represent a physiological adaptation inhibiting placental cellular processes associated with a high demand for oxygen and energy (e.g., protein synthesis and active transport) thereby promoting oxygen and glucose transfer to the fetus. We hypothesized that mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, a positive regulator of trophoblast protein synthesis and amino acid transport, is inhibited by labor. Methods Placental tissue was collected from healthy, term pregnancies (n=15 no-labor; n=12 labor). Activation of Caspase-1, IRS1/Akt, STAT, mTOR, and inflammatory signaling pathways was determined by Western blot. NFκB p65 and PPARγ DNA binding activity was measured in isolated nuclei. Results Labor increased Caspase-1 activation and mTOR complex 2 signaling, as measured by phosphorylation of Akt (S473). However, mTORC1 signaling was inhibited in response to labor as evidenced by decreased phosphorylation of mTOR (S2448) and 4EBP1 (T37/46 and T70). Labor also decreased NFκB and PPARγ DNA binding activity, while having no effect on IRS1 or STAT signaling pathway. Discussion and conclusion Several placental signaling pathways are affected by labor, which has implications for experimental design in studies of placental signaling. Inhibition of placental mTORC1 signaling in response to labor may serve to down-regulate protein synthesis and amino acid transport, processes that account for a large share of placental oxygen and glucose consumption. We speculate that this response preserves glucose and oxygen for transfer to the fetus during the stressful events of labor. PMID:25454472
In recent years, there has been an astonishing proliferation of empirical work on child labor. An Econlit search of keywords "child lab*r" reveals a total of 6 peer reviewed journal articles between 1980 and 1990, 65 between 1990 and 2000, and 143 in the first five years of the present decade. The purpose of this essay is to provide a detailed overview of the state of the recent empirical literature on why and how children work as well as the consequences of that work. Section 1 defines terms...
Frey, Heather A; Tuuli, Methodius G; England, Sarah K; Roehl, Kimberly A; Odibo, Anthony O; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G
To identify clinical characteristics associated with high maximum oxytocin doses in women who achieve complete cervical dilation. A retrospective nested case-control study was performed within a cohort of all term women at a single center between 2004 and 2008 who reached the second stage of labor. Cases were defined as women who had a maximum oxytocin dose during labor >20 mu/min, while women in the control group had a maximum oxytocin dose during labor of ≤20 mu/min. Exclusion criteria included no oxytocin administration during labor, multiple gestations, major fetal anomalies, nonvertex presentation, and prior cesarean delivery. Multiple maternal, fetal, and labor factors were evaluated with univariable analysis and multivariable logistic regression. Maximum oxytocin doses >20 mu/min were administered to 108 women (3.6%), while 2864 women received doses ≤20 mu/min. Factors associated with higher maximum oxytocin dose after adjusting for relevant confounders included maternal diabetes, birthweight >4000 g, intrapartum fever, administration of magnesium, and induction of labor. Few women who achieve complete cervical dilation require high doses of oxytocin. We identified maternal, fetal and labor factors that characterize this group of parturients.
Леся Василівна Старовойт
Full Text Available The article deals with a topical problem of artistic and creative development of junior schoolchildren during labor process. There were considered the diverse aspects of problem of personal creative activity. The special attention was paid to importance of combining labor, creation and artistic activity in educational process. On the base of experimental research there was considered the modern state of artistic and creative development of pupils in elementary school. By analysis of the theory and practice of artistic and creative development of junior schoolchildren during labor education there was determined inexpediency of excessive reproductive approach to the labor activity of children that impedes emotional, spiritual and esthetic development transforming the work of children into the boring and ineffective one. There was determined the criteria of artistic and creative development of junior schoolchildren during the labor education. During the study there were defined principles that reveal content, essence and nature of creation. There were defined peculiarities of artistic and creative development of junior schoolchildren at the lessons of labor education and distinguished the main sings that characterize mechanism of creative activity of junior schoolchildren. There was grounded pedagogical expediency of artistic and creative approach to the work with junior schoolchildren
Hamot, Gregory E.; Jensen, Elizabeth S.
An estimated 246 million children between the ages of 5 and 17 work in the agricultural, industrial, and craft sectors worldwide. Approximately 180 million of these children work under the worst forms of child labor as defined by the International Labor Organization (2002). In spite of conventions and protocols designed to eradicate the worst…
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulations applicable to Region 3, Southwestern Region, as defined in Â§ 200.2. [Reserved] 261.73 Section 261.73 Parks, Forests... § 261.73 Regulations applicable to Region 3, Southwestern Region, as defined in § 200.2. [Reserved] ...
Full Text Available Comparing the Nordic countries, this article examines different combinations of permanent and temporary employment protection legislation, and whether such differences are reflected in patterns of labor market transitions. We find higher levels of transitions from unemployment to temporary contracts in Sweden and Finland, with lax regulation of temporary contracts and strict regulation of permanent contracts. Further, temporary employees are integrated into permanent contracts in countries with lax (Denmark or strict (Norway regulation of permanent contracts, while this is not the case in Finland and Sweden. For these countries, the study indicates a certain degree of labor market duality, with low mobility from temporary to permanent employment contracts.
Full Text Available Social changes that followed the war and perfection state unit generated new and complex problems in all areas. We try to present problems directly aimed at the working class, that is formalized and institutionalized labor, social and economic context of the time. As regards labor law of 1927 rooms and discussions around it, brought the authors to the conclusion that trying to regulate relations between labor and capital and precise directives followed, social reconciliation, abolition of trade union activity, labor movement split and its supervision. Concessions workers were considered only illusory and employers with state dominance. However during 1933/1934, Chambers work activity had a positive role in the field of enforcement of labor law, serving an important role in other institutions and labor organizations, representing a significant step in the development of labor law.
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application of labor laws... Prescription of Forms 3053.222-70 Application of labor laws to Government acquisitions. The following form is prescribed for use in connection with the application of labor laws, as specified in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3022.406-9...
Chiu, Hui-Ju; Cheng, Su-Fen; Lee, Ya-Ling
The Gender Equality in Employment Act was enacted to protect gender equality in the workplace. Increasingly tight controls over operating costs by employers and the increasingly heavy workloads of nurses pose major challenges to the labor rights of female nurses. This article introduces the labor rights of female nurses as stated in relevant laws and regulations such as the Gender Equality in Employment Act, the Labor Standards Act, the Labor Insurance Act, Regulations on Leave-Taking for Workers, Regulations on Implementing Unpaid Parental Leave for Raising Children Pension Act, and the Employment Insurance Act. In addition, this paper introduces three judicial decisions that highlight domestic judicial practice with regard to labor rights in nursing. It is hoped that nurses may gain a better understanding of their rights and challenges from these judicial decisions. Finally, this article makes recommendations to help nurses overcome the difficulties in implementing labor rights. It is hoped that this article helps increase the general awareness among nurses of their labor rights and encourages nurses to pursue and secure their rightful labor rights from their employer.
Full Text Available In the past decades, the European and Romanian economies have been strongly affected by major changes which have influenced also the labor market: the alert pace of the international economic integration, the creation of work division in order to protect some economic sectors, the accelerated development and implementation of new technologies, the increase of the demographic aging trends. In the context of the amplified labor force crisis, the present paper will analyze some dysfunctions which have affected especially the regional labor market: the chronic unemployment, the mismatch between the demand and the offer of jobs and the localized consequences of the labor migration. The approach on these aspects was done in a vaster context intended to analyze the regional labor market of Galati and Braila, starting from the existent imbalances on these markets. The present paper starts from the premise that the proposal of some measurements which should lead to a balancing of the regional working market, must take into account the way in which the direct actors involved are defining these obstacles and opportunities for professional (reinsertion. In order to highlight both the opinions and the perceptions of the participants on the labor market, the research had to take place on two levels: among the groups with a difficult position on the labor market and among the employers.
Full Text Available The revolution that took place in Russia on 25 October (or, according to the new style, on 7 November 1917 is believed to have been the most important political event of the 20th century and to have had a great influence on all aspects of life both within the country and worldwide. This article discusses the extent to which the Russian socialist revolution affected the relatively narrow, although extremely important, area of the mechanism for the legal regulation of labor. For this purpose, the authors compared the concept of socialism and the practice of its implementation in Russia with the practice of the legal regulation of labor in the countries that did not experience a socialist revolution and therefore were considered by socialists as “bourgeois” countries. At the same time, the authors challenged the view of the majority of Russian researchers of the Soviet period, including the researchers of the history of the legal regulation of labor, that Soviet economic history was a process of linear progressive development (when applied to the sphere of labor. The article shows and analyzes the dissimilarity in the qualitative characteristics of the history of the economy and the history of the legal regulation of labor in Soviet Russia. On this basis, the conclusions are drawn as to the influence of the Soviet experience on other countries in the sphere of the legal regulation of social labor and the relevance of this experience for the current times.
Kool, Wouter; Botvinick, Matthew
Daily life frequently offers a choice between activities that are profitable but mentally demanding (cognitive labor) and activities that are undemanding but also unproductive (cognitive leisure). Although such decisions are often implicit, they help determine academic performance, career trajectories, and even health outcomes. Previous research has shed light both on the executive control functions that ultimately define cognitive labor and on a "default mode" of brain function that accompanies cognitive leisure. However, little is known about how labor/leisure decisions are actually made. Here, we identify a central principle guiding such decisions. Results from 3 economic-choice experiments indicate that the motivation underlying cognitive labor/leisure decision making is to strike an optimal balance between income and leisure, as given by a joint utility function. The results reported establish a new connection between microeconomics and research on executive function. They also suggest a new interpretation of so-called ego-depletion effects and a potential new approach to such phenomena as mind wandering and self-control failure.
... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime... minimum wage requirements of section 6(a)(5) with respect to any employee not otherwise exempt in the.... 780.306 Section 780.306 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION...
Andreea Fortuna SCHIOPU
Full Text Available The use of emotions in the workplace has begun to be increasingly studied by theorists and researchers in organizational behavior. One essential construct in the literature is the emotional labor which is perceived to be the management of feelings to express organizationally desired emotions. This article aims to review existing perspectives on emotional labor, to differentiate the concepts of emotional labor and emotional dissonance, to analyze emotion regulation strategies, and to discuss the consequences of emotional labor in the workplace. These clarifications with regard to the emotional labor and its mechanisms can help manage their associated negative outcomes (such as emotional exhaustion, lower job satisfaction, higher levels of burnout, and intentions to quit the job and sustain their possible positive outcomes (such as feelings of accomplishment and enhanced identification with the work role.
Full Text Available In modern societies gender gap attracts significant attention. Scientists are trying to research this issue from different aspects: demographical, sociological, economic, etc. The goal of this paper is to define the basic variables that explain variation on the labor markets in Europe from the gender point of view and to compare labor market in Serbia with European countries in order to identify the countries with the most similar gender performances, with intention to overview their experiences concerning the policy measures for gender gap reduction. Analysis is conducted through observations of activity rates, employment rates, unemployment rates, inactivity rates, and long-term unemployment rates. With use of factor analysis we have identified the main factors on the labor markets in Europe and on the basis of cluster analysis we have conducted grouping of countries on the basis of discovered factors. Identification of cluster with Serbia was conducted and also the place of the Serbian labor market in the same cluster. On the basis of quantitative results qualitative analysis was conducted to overview the experience in the field of gender differences on the labor market in the countries from the same cluster as Serbia, with special attention to Italy. Contemporary researches define labor market policy measures oriented to reduction of inequalities in the field of paid and unpaid labor. Decrease of these inequalities will consequently lead to the increase of female labor supply on the market. Final result of this research is the recommendation of policy measures in order to reduce gender differences in economic activity with final goal of creating modern society in Serbia and convergence with the most advanced countries in that field.
... some kinds of flavorings, foods, and beverages. They have begun to use substitutes such as 2,3..., Secretary of Labor. Office of Labor-Management Standards--Proposed Rule Stage Regulation Sequence Title... issue of the Federal Register. Office of Labor-Management Standards--Completed Actions Regulation...
Henriksen, Lonny; Wu, Chunsen; Secher, Niels Jørgen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Oxytocin for labor augmentation is widely used in obstetric care in Western countries. Two recent, smaller studies found opposing results regarding the association between prenatal exposure to oxytocin for labor augmentation and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder...... (ADHD). In Denmark, oxytocin is the medication used for nearly all medical augmentations of labor, and we examined the association between medical augmentation of labor and ADHD in a large cohort study based on national register data. METHODS: All singletons born after spontaneous onset of labor...... in Denmark between 2000 and 2008 (N = 546 146) were included in the study. Data from the Danish Medical Birth Registry on medical augmentation of labor (yes/no) were used to identify exposed children. ADHD was defined based on the diagnostic codes of International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision...
Kool, Wouter; Botvinick, Matthew
Daily life frequently offers a choice between activities that are profitable but mentally demanding (cognitive labor) and activities that are undemanding but also unproductive (cognitive leisure). Although such decisions are often implicit, they help determine academic performance, career trajectories, and even health outcomes. Previous research has shed light both on the executive control functions that ultimately define cognitive labor and a ‘default mode’ of brain function that accompanies cognitive leisure. However, little is known about how labor/leisure decisions are actually made. Here, we identify a central principle guiding such decisions. Results from three economic-choice experiments indicate that the motivation underlying cognitive labor/leisure decision-making is to strike an optimal balance between income and leisure, as given by a joint utility function. The results reported establish a new connection between microeconomics and research on executive function. They also suggest a new interpretation of so-called ego-depletion effects, and a potential new approach to such phenomena as mind-wandering and self-control failure. PMID:23230991
... Public Session Meeting AGENCY: International Labor Affairs Bureau (ILAB), U.S. Department of Labor.... Department of Labor gives notice of the public session of the meeting of the Labor Affairs Council (``Council... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade...
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the... Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of International Labor Affairs, United States Department of Labor. ACTION..., 2013, regarding child labor and forced labor in foreign countries. Relevant information will be used by...
Motina E. V.
Full Text Available Several directions of reforming the Belarusian labor legislation are considered in this article, taking into account so urgent politics of flexicurity. For that reason causes of giving flexibility to legal regulation of employment agreement termination are explored. The conclusion is made about the necessity of taking into account the objective criteria of differentiation by determining the specifics of separate employers’ categories in the situation of labor relations termination
f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ154 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Labor Induction • What is labor induction? • Why is labor induced? • What is the Bishop score? • What is “ripening ...
Вишновецька, Світлана Василівна; Національний авіаційний університет; Пінчук, Ольга Борисівна; Національний авіаційний університет
The problem of discrimination on the grounds of gender and age in the field of labor relations are investigated in the article. International and Ukrainian legal regulation of non-discrimination as a guarantee of the right to work was analyzed; solutions to the problem are proposed in the article. The different points of view on the concept of discrimination in labor relations were studied by the authors. It was founded that discrimination by age and gender are the most extended forms of disc...
Andrews, Bonnie K; Karcz, Susan; Rosenberg, Beth
Emotional labor is a subtle but serious occupational hazard that is likely to spread rapidly as the global service economy continues to grow. Emotional labor requires more than just acting friendly and being helpful to customers; the worker must manage his or her emotions to create a company-dictated experience for customers. The practice of emotional labor in an unsupportive work environment produces work-related stress, which has a wide range of potentially serious health effects. Though many employers do not acknowledge the existence of emotional labor, it is a real occupational hazard that may generate life-altering effects on physical and emotional health. While no official regulations or identification standards specify emotional labor as an occupational hazard, some guidelines exist regarding its outcome: occupational stress. Emotional labor should be recognized as an occupational hazard by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), but this hazard does not lend itself to regulation through standards. The business culture that demands its performance is questioned.
Brennan, Donal J
Abstract Background The most common indication for cesarean section (CS) in nulliparous women is dystocia secondary to ineffective myometrial contractility. The aim of this study was to identify a molecular profile in myometrium associated with dystocic labor. Methods Myometrial biopsies were obtained from the upper incisional margins of nulliparous women undergoing lower segment CS for dystocia (n = 4) and control women undergoing CS in the second stage who had demonstrated efficient uterine action during the first stage of labor (n = 4). All patients were in spontaneous (non-induced) labor and had received intrapartum oxytocin to accelerate labor. RNA was extracted from biopsies and hybridized to Affymetrix HuGene U133A Plus 2 microarrays. Internal validation was performed using quantitative SYBR Green Real-Time PCR. Results Seventy genes were differentially expressed between the two groups. 58 genes were down-regulated in the dystocia group. Gene ontology analysis revealed 12 of the 58 down-regulated genes were involved in the immune response. These included (ERAP2, (8.67 fold change (FC)) HLA-DQB1 (7.88 FC) CD28 (2.60 FC), LILRA3 (2.87 FC) and TGFBR3 (2.1 FC)) Hierarchical clustering demonstrated a difference in global gene expression patterns between the samples from dystocic and non-dystocic labours. RT-PCR validation was performed on 4 genes ERAP2, CD28, LILRA3 and TGFBR3 Conclusion These findings suggest an underlying molecular basis for dystocia in nulliparous women in spontaneous labor. Differentially expressed genes suggest an important role for the immune response in dystocic labor and may provide important indicators for new diagnostic assays and potential intrapartum therapeutic targets.
Background The most common indication for cesarean section (CS) in nulliparous women is dystocia secondary to ineffective myometrial contractility. The aim of this study was to identify a molecular profile in myometrium associated with dystocic labor. Methods Myometrial biopsies were obtained from the upper incisional margins of nulliparous women undergoing lower segment CS for dystocia (n = 4) and control women undergoing CS in the second stage who had demonstrated efficient uterine action during the first stage of labor (n = 4). All patients were in spontaneous (non-induced) labor and had received intrapartum oxytocin to accelerate labor. RNA was extracted from biopsies and hybridized to Affymetrix HuGene U133A Plus 2 microarrays. Internal validation was performed using quantitative SYBR Green Real-Time PCR. Results Seventy genes were differentially expressed between the two groups. 58 genes were down-regulated in the dystocia group. Gene ontology analysis revealed 12 of the 58 down-regulated genes were involved in the immune response. These included (ERAP2, (8.67 fold change (FC)) HLA-DQB1 (7.88 FC) CD28 (2.60 FC), LILRA3 (2.87 FC) and TGFBR3 (2.1 FC)) Hierarchical clustering demonstrated a difference in global gene expression patterns between the samples from dystocic and non-dystocic labours. RT-PCR validation was performed on 4 genes ERAP2, CD28, LILRA3 and TGFBR3 Conclusion These findings suggest an underlying molecular basis for dystocia in nulliparous women in spontaneous labor. Differentially expressed genes suggest an important role for the immune response in dystocic labor and may provide important indicators for new diagnostic assays and potential intrapartum therapeutic targets. PMID:21999197
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false SF 1445, Labor Standards Interview. 53.301-1445 Section 53.301-1445 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Interview. ER02JA97.021 [62 FR 255, Jan. 2, 1997] ...
Vania de Fátima Barros Estivalete
Full Text Available The objective of the study is to examine the prospect of coordinators and members of collective enterprises members of a Brazilian social incubator about the contributions of social entrepreneurship with the female increase in the participation of women in the labor market. We conducted a descriptive and qualitative research. The analysis of the context was defined a priori by defined categories, based on a theoretical model that contemplates the dimensions: human capital, will and viability, social capital, social and institutional environment actors. The categories defined a posteriori contemplated the following categories: empowerment, recovery and personal fulfillment. Regarding women's inclusion in the labor market, the results reflected some difficulties faced by women who participate in projects, with highlights to the lack of qualification, opportunities and participation in the formal market. For many interviewees, these projects represented the first opportunity for inclusion in the labor market.
Galina Valentinovna Leonidova
Full Text Available Labor satisfaction is an indicator of social wellbeing of the working population. The study of subjective perceptions of labor is an important indicator of public administration efficiency. The article contains the analysis of the population’s satisfaction with labor, particularly, with one of its structural components – labor conditions. It reveals the high correlation of these indicators with the satisfaction with everyday life and labor productivity. It determines the degree of employees’ satisfaction with working conditions in such areas as health and psychological atmosphere at the workplace, equipment capability and security. The study discloses employees’ estimates in socio-demographic and territorialdimensional aspects. The research demonstrates the interrelation between satisfaction with working environment and implementation of labor potential. The analysis indicates the importance of regular sociological research into the issues of satisfaction with various aspects of labor activity. The article indicates that for the country’s development it is necessary to take into account the labor satisfaction factor (in the narrow sense – working conditions while developing strategies and approaches for social-economic policy and defining the standards of social responsibility, primarily, of the state and employers
Anna A. Muravyeva
Full Text Available The paper looks into the diverse aspects of qualifications system regulation, designed for balancing the supply and demand in the labor and educational service markets. Both the objects and mechanisms of such regulation are described. Special attention is given to institutions, involved in regulation of qualifications, and their jurisdiction. Another emphasis is on the industry-related regulation of qualifications which proved to be effective both on the national and European level. Such structures were first established on the national levels to regulate the qualifications and ensure their comparability and compatibility, given the economic globalization and growing labor and academic mobility. The author points out the role of the ministries of education and labor in maintaining a steady qualifications system, and outlines the positive experience of Great Britain using the industry councils for continuing development of qualifications system.
Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk
in global labor markets and industrial relations. The third part situates more squarely the impact of globalization on the catching-up strategies of Russia and China, while the next section digs into the transformation of the industrial relations regimes in Russia and China in comparative perspective....... Finally, the paper rounds up by pointing to the main similarities and differences between industrial relations, work and labor market regulation in Russia and China, but also with implications for a broader context. In order to come to terms with the crisis of former socialist type societ...
...; eligibility for award. 102.143 Section 102.143 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS... Marketing Act (12 U.S.C. 1141j(a)) with not more than 500 employees; and (5) Any other partnership, corporation, association, unit of local government, or public or private organization with a net worth of not...
Šuvaković Đorđe, Olgin
Full Text Available This paper compares the efficiency of profit- and wage-maximizing (PM and WM monopsony in the labor market. We show that, both locally and globally, a PM monopsony may well be dominated by its WM twin, where the local and global dominance are defined with respect to a single (inverse labor supply function and a single family of such functions. This family is always divided in the two disjoint (subfamilies of the PM and WM dominance. We also analyze some major factors that explain the size of these (subfamilies. .
Preterm labor is labor that starts before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. It can lead to premature birth. Premature babies may face serious health risks. Symptoms of preterm labor include Contractions every 10 minutes or more often ...
Full Text Available legal and organizational aspects of regulation of work of employees (serving banks and other credit organizations are considered. Specifics of activity of banks and other credit organizations attract need of improvement of the legislation governing the labor relations in this sphere for the purpose of reduction in compliance of established practices and standard legal support. Problems of absence of unity of terminology in the legal acts which are the cornerstone of regulation of work of employees of banks come to light; features of work of bank workers that doesn't allow to provide full protection of their labor law aren't defined; the set of shortcomings of system of compensation in the bank sphere takes place. Conclusions about need of improvement of the existing labor and banking legislation, and also local legal acts of banks for the sphere of the organization of work and its payment are drawn. Elimination of the revealed shortcomings, according to authors, will allow to strengthen legal guarantees of work of employees of banks.
Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev; Gatti, Roberta
Despite the extensive literature on the determinants of child labor, the evidence on the consequences of child labor on outcomes such as education, labor, and health is limited. We evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation among children in school on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy.…
This Issue Brief discusses the emerging issue of "defined contribution" (DC) health benefits. The term "defined contribution" is used to describe a wide variety of approaches to the provision of health benefits, all of which have in common a shift in the responsibility for payment and selection of health care services from employers to employees. DC health benefits often are mentioned in the context of enabling employers to control their outlay for health benefits by avoiding increases in health care costs. DC health benefits may also shift responsibility for choosing a health plan and the associated risks of choosing a plan from employers to employees. There are three primary reasons why some employers currently are considering some sort of DC approach. First, they are once again looking for ways to keep their health care cost increases in line with overall inflation. Second, some employers are concerned that the public "backlash" against managed care will result in new legislation, regulations, and litigation that will further increase their health care costs if they do not distance themselves from health care decisions. Third, employers have modified not only most employee benefit plans, but labor market practices in general, by giving workers more choice, control, and flexibility. DC-type health benefits have existed as cafeteria plans since the 1980s. A cafeteria plan gives each employee the opportunity to determine the allocation of his or her total compensation (within employer-defined limits) among various employee benefits (primarily retirement or health). Most types of DC health benefits currently being discussed could be provided within the existing employment-based health insurance system, with or without the use of cafeteria plans. They could also allow employees to purchase health insurance directly from insurers, or they could drive new technologies and new forms of risk pooling through which health care services are provided and financed. DC health
Zhang, Jianlei; Li, Qiaoyu; Zhang, Chunyan
The division of labor is one of the most basic and widely studied aspects of collective behavior in natural systems. Studies of division of labor are concerned with the integration of the individual worker behavior into a colony level task organization and with the question of how the regulation of the division of labor may contribute to the colony efficiency. This paper investigates the evolution of the division of labor with three strategies by employing the evolutionary game theory. Thus, these available strategies are, respectively, strategy A (performing task A), strategy B (performing task B), and strategy D (not performing any task but only free riding others' contributions). And, two typical networks (i.e., BA scale-free network and lattice network) are employed here for describing the interaction structure among agents. The theoretical analysis together with simulation results reveal that the division of labor can evolve and leads to players that differ in their tendency to take on a given task. The conditions under which the division of labor evolves depend on the costs for performing the task, the benefits led by performing the task, and the interaction structures among the players who are involved with division of labor games.
Sabine von Dirke
Full Text Available The article investigates the discourse on time and temporality in non-fictional and fictional accounts of paid, white collar labor, or, in the broader terminology of Maurizio Lazzarato, immaterial labor since the last quarter of the twentieth century. More specifically, it brings the critique of neoliberal capitalism by two influential social philosophers, Richard Sennett and Oskar Negt, in dialogue with fictional narratives of white collar labor: Rainer Merkel’s novel, Das Jahr der Wunder (The Year of Miracles, 2001, W.E. Richartz’s Büroroman (Office Novel, 1976 and Wilhelm Genazino’s A bschaffel-trilogy (1977-1979. Sennett and Negt’s non-fictional accounts contrast living and working conditions under the current hyper-flexible, neoliberal market economy to an earlier mode of a socially responsible capitalism. The latter is often nostalgically depicted as a golden age of a state-regulated labor market designed to protect the majority of the working population from exploitation and economic hardship. Yet, narratives on the working world published during the 1970s call into question the assumption that state-regulated work hours offer better conditions for lived time and the constitution of subjecthood.
... AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Introductory § 780.103 “Agriculture” as defined by the Act. Section 3(f) of the Act defines “agriculture” as follows: “Agriculture” includes farming in all its branches and among...
Uzagalieva, Ainura; Cukrowski, J.
Roč. 59, č. 2 (2006), s. 225-246 ISSN 0012-981X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : labor market regulations * competitiveness * international trade Subject RIV: AH - Economics
Weaver, Adam D.; Allen, Joseph A.
As the field of school psychology faces critical shortages, investigations of work factors affecting job satisfaction and burnout are of increasing importance. One such factor is emotional labor, which is defined as the work of managing one's emotions and emotional expressions so as to align to the expectations of the job or profession. In this…
Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010
The labor force is the number of people aged 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or institutionalized people, such as prison inmates. Quantifying this total supply of labor is a way of determining how big the economy can get. Labor force participation rates vary significantly…
Continuous labor support is practiced in different parts of the world. In Ethiopia ... Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess the attitude of women in response to labor support based at institutional ... The reasons given for wanting companion were emotional ..... mothers play vital role in labor and delivery while men.
Full Text Available Negotiation is the process we use in order to obtain things that we want and are controlled by others. Any desire we intend to fulfill, any need that we are obliged to meet is a potential bargaining situations. Between groups and individuals, negotiation occurs naturally, as some have one thing that the other wants and is willing to bargain to get it. More or less we are all involved in negotiations: closing a contract, buying a thing, obtaining sponsorships, collective decision making, conflict resolution, agreement on work plans. Within the field of labor relations, negotiation can occur on the occasion of closing / amending employment contracts or in order to regulate employment or work relations. Moreover, used properly, the negotiation can be an effective tool for solving labor disputes, with benefits for both involved parties. This paper aims to present negotiating principles and steps to follow in planning and preparing negotiations and the negotiating techniques that can lead to a successful negotiation based on a well-developed plan.
...), established a new eligibility criterion for receipt of trade benefits under the Generalized System of... Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of International Labor Affairs, United States Department of Labor. ACTION... information and/or comment on reports issued by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) October 3...
... trade benefits under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), Caribbean Basin Trade and Partnership... Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of International Labor Affairs, United States Department of Labor. ACTION... information and/or comment on reports issued by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) on December...
For demographic reasons, the German labor force will decrease dramatically and it will be much older on average. However, labor demand, especially for qualified workers, is expected to remain high. This paper focuses on the possibilities of expanding the labor force by increasing the participation rates of women and older persons. Herein, the change in the labor force is decomposed with respect to population and labor participation and, moreover, the effects of higher participation rates are simulated. The decomposition and simulation scenarios are based on data published by the Institute for Employment Research. The analysis clearly reveals that the effect of a considerably higher labor participation of women and older workers will disappear over time when the working-age population shrinks more and more. In addition, individuals who are currently unemployed or out of the labor force are not skilled enough. Since it seems difficult to get more qualified workers in the short and even in the medium term, improving the conditions for women and older people to take up jobs should be tackled soon. This includes investments in education and health care.
Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012
The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…
... Labor Standards Act minimum wage. 22.1002-4 Section 22.1002-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... its employees working on the contract less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the... Service Contract Act of 1965, as Amended 22.1002-4 Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act minimum...
Disability Insurance (DI) is a public program that provides income support to persons unable to continue work due to disability. The difficulty of defining disability, however, has raised the possibility that this program may be subsidizing the early retirement of workers who are not truly disabled. A critical input for assessing the optimal size of the DI program is therefore the elasticity of labor force participation with respect to benefits generosity. Unfortunately, this parameter has be...
Z.Y. Debebe (Zelalem)
textabstractThe author studies the effect of an agricultural shock and a labor sharing arrangement (informal social network) on child labor. Albeit bad parental preference to child labor (as the strand of literature claims), poor households face compelling situations to send their child to work.
Full Text Available Division of labor, an adaptation in which individuals specialize in performing tasks necessary to the colony, such as nest defense and foraging, is believed key to eusocial insects' remarkable ecological success. Here we report, for the first time, a completely novel specialization in a eusocial insect, namely the ability of Cataglyphis cursor ants to rescue a trapped nestmate using precisely targeted behavior. Labeled "precision rescue", this behavior involves the ability of rescuers not only to detect what, exactly, holds the victim in place, but also to direct specific actions to this obstacle. Individual ants, sampled from each of C. cursor's three castes, namely foragers, nurses and inactives, were experimentally ensnared (the "victim" and exposed to a caste-specific group of potential "rescuers." The data reveal that foragers were able to administer, and obtain, the most help while members of the youngest, inactive caste not only failed to respond to victims, but also received virtually no help from potential rescuers, regardless of caste. Nurses performed intermediate levels of aid, mirroring their intermediate caste status. Our results demonstrate that division of labor, which controls foraging, defense and brood care in C. cursor, also regulates a newly discovered behavior in this species, namely a sophisticated form of rescue, a highly adaptive specialization that is finely tuned to a caste member's probability of becoming, or encountering, a victim in need of rescue.
Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy; Romero, Roberto; Plazyo, Olesya; Schwenkel, George; Garcia-Flores, Valeria; Unkel, Ronald; Xu, Yi; Leng, Yaozhu; Hassan, Sonia S; Panaitescu, Bogdan; Cha, Jeeyeon; Dey, Sudhansu K
Decidual senescence has been considered a mechanism of disease for spontaneous preterm labor in the absence of severe acute inflammation. Yet, signs of cellular senescence have also been observed in the chorioamniotic membranes from women who underwent the physiological process of labor at term. We aimed to investigate whether, in the absence of acute histologic chorioamnionitis, the chorioamniotic membranes from women who underwent spontaneous preterm labor or labor at term exhibit signs of cellular senescence. Chorioamniotic membrane samples were collected from women who underwent spontaneous preterm labor or labor at term. Gestational age-matched nonlabor controls were also included. Senescence-associated genes/proteins were determined using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis (n = 7-9 each for array; n = 26-28 each for validation), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (n = 7-9 each), immunoblotting (n = 6-7 each), and immunohistochemistry (n = 7-8 each). Senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity (n = 7-11 each) and telomere length (n = 15-22 each) were also evaluated. In the chorioamniotic membranes without acute histologic chorioamnionitis: (1) the expression profile of senescence-associated genes was different between the labor groups (term in labor and preterm in labor) and the nonlabor groups (term no labor and preterm no labor), yet there were differences between the term in labor and preterm in labor groups; (2) most of the differentially expressed genes among the groups were closely related to the tumor suppressor protein (TP53) pathway; (3) the expression of TP53 was down-regulated in the term in labor and preterm in labor groups compared to their nonlabor counterparts; (4) the expression of CDKN1A (gene coding for p21) was up-regulated in the term in labor and preterm in labor groups compared to their nonlabor counterparts; (5) the expression of the cyclin kinase CDK2 and cyclins CCNA2, CCNB1, and
Koryakova Irina Konstantinovna
Full Text Available The article is devoted to investigating the struggle of the USA labor unions for the repeal of the Taft-Hartley law provision on the restraint of labor organizations’ political activity in connection with federal election campaigns. The author demonstrates that the united and active efforts of American labor unions became the main factor that made the USA Supreme Court interpret the Taft-Hartley law provision on the restraint of using labor expenditures for participating in election campaigns in favour of labor unions. The Taft-Hartley law was adopted in June of 1947 and became the main document determining the trends, forms and ways of governmental intervention into labor-management relations in the U.S. Signifying the transition from liberal statism to conservative statism, the Taft-Hartley law drastically changed the character of the state regulation of labor-management relations. Designed by the political forces intending to destroy the influence of trade unions, it seriously limited the resources and opportunities of labor party to uphold the interests of working population. As a result, the leaders of the American Federation of Labor and the Congress of Industrial Organizations were unanimous in their indignation regarding new legislation which actually put direct limitations on the right of trade unions to exercise political activities including the right to finance their participation in the presidential and congressional elections. According to the Section 304 of the law, labor unions were denied the right to contributions and expenditures related to all federal elections including primaries. It meant that labor was not permitted to publish the information about the candidates and to express the opinions about them as a whole in any newspaper (labor or commercial. The AFL and the CIO leaders called that Section unconstitutional and decided to strive for defining it unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. Following the recommendations
Corine J. Verhoeven
Full Text Available Objective. To identify potential risk factors for cesarean delivery following labor induction in multiparous women at term. Methods. We conducted a retrospective case-control study. Cases were parous women in whom the induction of labor had resulted in a cesarean delivery. For each case, we used the data of two successful inductions as controls. Successful induction was defined as a vaginal delivery after the induction of labor. The study was limited to term singleton pregnancies with a child in cephalic position. Results. Between 1995 and 2010, labor was induced in 2548 parous women, of whom 80 had a cesarean delivery (3%. These 80 cases were compared to the data of 160 parous women with a successful induction of labor. In the multivariate analysis history of preterm delivery (odds ratio (OR 5.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 25, maternal height (OR 0.87 (95% CI 0.80 to 0.95 and dilatation at the start of induction (OR 0.43 (95% CI 0.19 to 0.98 were associated with failed induction. Conclusion. In multiparous women, the risk of cesarean delivery following labor induction increases with previous preterm delivery, short maternal height, and limited dilatation at the start of induction.
Joo, Yosub; Rhie, Jeongbae
This study aimed to identify the emotional labor and workplace violence status among toll collectors by assessing and comparing the same with that in workers in other service occupation. It also aimed to analyze the relationship between emotional labor and workplace violence. This study examined emotional labor and workplace violence status in 264 female toll collectors from August 20 to September 4, 2015. The emotional labor was assessed using the Korean Emotional Labor Scale (K-ELS), and a questionnaire was used to examine the presence or absence, and type and frequency of workplace violence experienced by the subjects. A linear regression analysis was also performed to analyze the relationship between workplace violence and emotional labor. The scores on "emotional demanding and regulation ( p workplace violence, whereas they were "normal" of emotional labor in those who did not. Even after being adjusted in the linear regression analysis, the emotional labor scores for the above 4 sub-categories were still significantly high in those who experienced workplace violence. On comparing the present scores with 13 other service occupations, it was found that toll collectors had the highest level in "emotional disharmony and hurt," "organizational surveillance and monitoring," and "organizational supportive and protective system". This study found that the toll collectors engaged in a high level of emotional labor. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between emotional labor and the experience of workplace violence among the toll collectors.
Montoya Melgar, Alfredo
Full Text Available Iniciada en el último cuarto del siglo XIX nuestra legislación laboral, pronto se plantea la exigencia de que las reglas sustantivas del nuevo Derecho vayan acompañadas de normas jurisdiccionales y procesales específicas, atentas a las exigencias de la justicia laboral. Tras una etapa de justicia social paritaria, obrero-patronal, la jurisdicción laboral pasa a ser desempeñada por jueces profesionales centrándose en la Magistratura de Trabajo y consolidándose el diseño procesal en sucesivas Leyes de Procedimiento Laboral.
En la actualidad, y aunque la nueva Ley de Enjuiciamiento Civil ha incidido de modo relevante sobre el proceso laboral, es obvia la influencia que el modelo del proceso laboral ha ejercido con carácter previo sobre el nuevo proceso civil.
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Particular weight. 541.105 Section 541.105 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS DEFINING AND DELIMITING THE EXEMPTIONS FOR EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, PROFESSIONAL, COMPUTER AND OUTSIDE SALES EMPLOYEES...
Davalos, Maria E.; Elezaj, Ereblina; Flanagan Thurau, Julianna; Rodriguez-Chamussy, Lourdes
Labor market engagement of women is very low in Kosovo - only 12.5 percent of women of working age are employed compared to 41.3 percent of men - suggesting that women face obstacles to work and or being hired. These barriers can be related to a multiplicity of factors, including labor regulations - such as maternity provisions - but also others such as disincentives to work from taxes and ...
The secular trinity of c19th socialism was Labor-Internationalism-Emancipation. As early-industrial capitalism developed into a national-industrial-colonial capitalism, the internationalism of labor became literally international, and simultaneously lost its emancipatory aspiration and capacity (or vice versa). The dramatic â€“ and labor-devastating â€“ development of a globalised-networked-informatised capitalism is raising the necessity and possibility of a new kind of labor internationalis...
Yoneda, Satoshi; Yoneda, Noriko; Fukuta, Kaori; Shima, Tomoko; Nakashima, Akitoshi; Shiozaki, Arihiro; Yoshino, Osamu; Kigawa, Mika; Yoshida, Taketoshi; Saito, Shigeru
We evaluated whether maintenance tocolysis (intravenous ritodrine hydrochloride and/or magnesium sulfate) was effective in cases of spontaneous preterm labor with intact membranes. One hundred and thirty preterm labor patients who reached 36 weeks of gestation by maintenance tocolysis were selected. Immediate delivery (ID) after ceasing maintenance tocolysis was defined as an 'effective case'. The correlated factors between ID and no immediate delivery (NID) were statistically analyzed. Thirty-six patients delivered maintenance tocolysis (27.7%) and were defined as effective cases. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that amniotic fluid interleukin-8 at admission (≥ 2.3 ng/mL; odds ratio [OR] 5.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1-17.6; P Maintenance tocolysis may be effective in limited cases with mild intra-amniotic inflammation, in lean women and in cerclage cases. Maintenance tocolysis should be ceased in cases without these clinical factors when clinical symptoms disappear. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application of labor laws... Prescription of Forms 53.222 Application of labor laws to Government acquisitions (SF's 308, 1093, 1413, 1444... application of labor laws: (a) [Reserved] (b) [Reserved] (c) SF 308 (DOL) (Rev. 5/85), Request for Wage...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management. 541.102 Section 541.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS DEFINING AND... Executive Employees § 541.102 Management. Generally, “management” includes, but is not limited to...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Job titles insufficient. 541.2 Section 541.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS DEFINING AND DELIMITING THE EXEMPTIONS FOR EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, PROFESSIONAL, COMPUTER AND OUTSIDE SALES EMPLOYEES...
AVRAM COSTIN DANIEL
Full Text Available In recent years, economists and specialists in human resources have shown a growing interest for more efficient wage policy, one that proves to be judiciously developed and in accordance with the specific activity of each entity. Therefore, an effective wage policy should be part of the general policy of the firm and should answer, on the one hand to the general requirements of increasing the efficiency of the activity and on the other hand to provide stimulation and motivation for the staff so to achieve not only individual performance but bring along added value to the overall business performance. This article is part of a broader research conducted by authors in the field of wages and labor market flexicurity. In elaborating this article we have appealed to an exhaustive analysis of EU law regarding remuneration of labor, in general, and labor flexicurity, in particular, the opinions of experts in the field were considered and their opinions, or some legal texts, the most significant ones, were presented in this work in a summary form. A critical documentary work on Community regulations and Romanian legislation, foreign specialized literature and the one published in our country was performed while conducting the research. The theoretical approach of flexicurity is different from state to state within the European Union in relation to the development and diversification of the labor market of each state. In some countries the efforts can focus on the firms for retraining, requalification, while in others the focus should be put on training during periods of inactivity or unemployment.
The relationship between international trade and labor standards is one of several controversial issues facing the WTO. Proponents of a trade-labor link argue that labor is a human rights issue and that trade sanctions represent a critical tool in the effort to improve international working conditions. Opponents argue that a link between trade and labor would open the door to protectionist measures that would target low wage countries and harm the very workers the policy is intended to help. ...
Full Text Available When the economy goes in recession, the necessity of state intervention for its regulation becomes inevitable. Often, the monetary and fiscal policies undertaken by the government with the aim to achieve this target, may result with different economic configuration, probably undesirable. That’s by the other steps undertaken in the priority economic sectors. Actually, the Albanian government has taken some measure in order to reduce the informal economy (focused especially on business agent and to regulate the market labor in the country. As any reforms, the effectiveness of those initiatives will be seen after some years, but actually, some questions bring in mind: what is the impact of those in the economic performance of the agents (business-employee, and can improve their conditions? Is the labor market in able to handle the initiatives and have been those in the appropriate levels? How are the actual report private employment and state employment, and has been rise the employment rate during this time? Is the possibility that higher employment rate will be a good indicator for the improvement of the economic welfare? The configuration of the labor market in the country and its challenges will be the focus of this article.
Full Text Available Labor and its associated pain are thought to have unique impacts on parturient women. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of labor and associated pain on differential gene expression profiles in the maternal, fetal, and placental compartments. We used microarrays to analyze maternal blood (MB, fetal cord blood (CB, and placental tissue samples in pregnant women after term vaginal deliveries (laboring group and in term pregnant women after scheduled Ceasarean sections (nonlaboring group. The upregulated genes in the MB of the laboring group are involved in cytokine and nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathways, regulation of the networks of toll-like receptor 4, and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3. Upregulated genes in the CB of the laboring group are involved in responding to stress and stimuli by regulating the network genes of the T-cell receptor beta locus and the FK506 binding protein 8. Differentially expressed genes in the placenta of the laboring group are involved in nitric oxide transport, gas transport, response to hydrostatic pressure, oxygen transport, acute phase responses, and the tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway, which are important during the transient hypoxemia and hypoperfusion that occur in the placenta during uterine contractions. Interestingly, few of the genes exhibited simultaneous changes in all three compartments, indicating that different pathways and complex interactions may be involved in human labor. In conclusion, human labor and its associated pain elicit unique gene regulatory changes in MB, placenta, and CB.
... 106- 200 (2002), established a new eligibility criterion for receipt of trade benefits under the... of benefits under CBTPA and AGOA, respectively. In addition, the Andean Trade Preference Act, as... Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of International Labor Affairs, United States Department of Labor. ACTION...
..., manufacturing facilities, airports, power plants, transit systems, stadiums, and a prison. Project labor..., including for manufacturing plants, power plants, parking structures, and stadiums. For example, project... agencies to analyze whether a project labor agreement may be beneficial. The factors set forth in the rule...
Bergström, Malin; Kieler, Helle; Waldenström, Ulla
To study whether use of psychoprophylaxis during labor affects course of labor and experience of childbirth in nulliparous women. Cohort study. Women were recruited from 15 antenatal clinics in Sweden between October 2005 and January 2007. A total of 857 nulliparous women with a planned vaginal delivery. Using data from a randomized controlled trial of antenatal education where the allocated groups were merged, we compared course of labor and experience of childbirth between women who used psychoprophylaxis during labor and those who did not. Data were collected by questionnaires in mid-pregnancy and three months after birth, and from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Logistic regression was used to assess associations. Mode of delivery, augmentation of labor, length of labor, Apgar score, pain relief and experience of childbirth as measured by the Wijma Delivery Experience Questionnaire. Use of psychoprophylaxis during labor was associated with a lower risk of emergency cesarean section (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37-0.88), but an increased risk of augmentation of labor (adjusted OR 1.68; 95% CI 1.23-2.28). No statistical differences were found in length of labor (adjusted OR 1.32; 95% CI 0.95-1.83), Apgar score Psychoprophylaxis may reduce the rate of emergency cesarean section but may not affect the experience of childbirth.
Hu, Jiangfeng; Wang, Zhao; Lian, Yuehan; Huang, Qinghua
This study examines the spillover effects of foreign direct investment (FDI) on green technology progress rate (as measured by the green total factor productivity). The analysis utilizes two measures of FDI, labor-based FDI and capital-based FDI, and separately investigates four sets of industry classifications—high/low discharge regulation and high/low emission standard regulation. The results indicate that in the low discharge regulation and low emission standard regulation industry, labor-based FDI has a significant negative spillover effect, and capital-based FDI has a significant positive spillover effect. However, in the high-intensity environmental regulation industry, the negative influence of labor-based FDI is completely restrained, and capital-based FDI continues to play a significant positive green technological spillover effects. These findings have clear policy implications: the government should be gradually reducing the labor-based FDI inflow or increasing stringency of environmental regulation in order to reduce or eliminate the negative spillover effect of the labor-based FDI. PMID:29382112
Full Text Available This study examines the spillover effects of foreign direct investment (FDI on green technology progress rate (as measured by the green total factor productivity. The analysis utilizes two measures of FDI, labor-based FDI and capital-based FDI, and separately investigates four sets of industry classifications—high/low discharge regulation and high/low emission standard regulation. The results indicate that in the low discharge regulation and low emission standard regulation industry, labor-based FDI has a significant negative spillover effect, and capital-based FDI has a significant positive spillover effect. However, in the high-intensity environmental regulation industry, the negative influence of labor-based FDI is completely restrained, and capital-based FDI continues to play a significant positive green technological spillover effects. These findings have clear policy implications: the government should be gradually reducing the labor-based FDI inflow or increasing stringency of environmental regulation in order to reduce or eliminate the negative spillover effect of the labor-based FDI.
Hu, Jiangfeng; Wang, Zhao; Lian, Yuehan; Huang, Qinghua
This study examines the spillover effects of foreign direct investment (FDI) on green technology progress rate (as measured by the green total factor productivity). The analysis utilizes two measures of FDI, labor-based FDI and capital-based FDI, and separately investigates four sets of industry classifications-high/low discharge regulation and high/low emission standard regulation. The results indicate that in the low discharge regulation and low emission standard regulation industry, labor-based FDI has a significant negative spillover effect, and capital-based FDI has a significant positive spillover effect. However, in the high-intensity environmental regulation industry, the negative influence of labor-based FDI is completely restrained, and capital-based FDI continues to play a significant positive green technological spillover effects. These findings have clear policy implications: the government should be gradually reducing the labor-based FDI inflow or increasing stringency of environmental regulation in order to reduce or eliminate the negative spillover effect of the labor-based FDI.
Autor, David; Salomons, A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338041575
Is automation a labor-displacing force? This possibility is both an age-old concern and at the heart of a new theoretical literature considering how labor immiseration may result from a wave of “brilliant machines,” which is in part motivated by declining labor shares in many developed countries.
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Practice of law or medicine. 541.304 Section 541.304 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS DEFINING AND DELIMITING THE EXEMPTIONS FOR EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, PROFESSIONAL, COMPUTER AND OUTSIDE SALES EMPLOYEES Professional Employees §...
Full Text Available Labor market is affected by ecologization processes in economy both nationally and globally. Positive and negative effects of this process are analyzed in this article. We defined 5 main areas where labor market is affected by "greening" processes: 1 еcologization create new workplaces for producing "green" goods; for implementation and support of ecology-friendly technical processes; in traditional business areas, connected to "greens"; 2 іt provide changes of overall employment rate; 3 labor market structure transform due to new ecology tendencies; 4 current workplaces become "greener", especially positions, connected to ecology; 5 it causes widespread social integration. We made a conclusion that the total effect of this process on labor market will depend on many economic and political factors. Number and quality of created workplaces will highly depend on level of demand for such specialists and on elasticity of employment. It will correlate with the number of workplaces, lost in traditional industries. Sum of gross benefits and damages will be equal to number of employees, who "green" their work conditions or will be forced to change their jobs at all.
... model funding notices. Much of the guidance in FAB 2009-01 has been incorporated into the proposed... Annual Funding Notice for Defined Benefit Plans AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Labor... implement the annual funding notice requirement in the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974...
Napasintuwong, Orachos; Emerson, Robert D.
The Morishima elasticity of substitution (MES) is estimated to address factor substitutability in Florida agriculture during 1960-1999. By adopting a profit maximization model of induced innovation theory, the MES's between hired and self-employed labor and the MES's between labor and capital provide implications for future immigration policies.
Full Text Available The present article focused on the perception of sexual exploitation as a job, using a single case study design. The aim of the study was to investigate the case of a 14 year-old girl, involved in commercial sexual exploitation, who considered this situation as her labor activity. A content analysis showed protective and risk factors as categories, especially related to her labor activities. The girl perceived the sexual exploitation activity as a job that provided autonomy, subsistence, and survival. The study revealed that the negative effects of working during adolescence may bring consequences to health and development. Youth work may be defined as a risk factor, especially when the labour conditions are not adequate and protected.
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Cross-references to employee ethical conduct standards, financial disclosure regulations and other ethics regulations. 0.735-1 Section 0.735-1 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor ETHICS AND CONDUCT OF DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EMPLOYEES Standards of Conduct for Current...
The present study aims to investigate job stressors and stress relievers for Korean emotional laborers, specifically focusing on the effects of work conditions and emotional labor properties. Emotional laborers are asked to hide or distort their real emotions in their interaction with clients. They are exposed to high levels of stress in the emotional labor process, which leads to serious mental health risks including burnout, depression, and even suicide impulse. Exploring job stressors and relieving factors would be the first step in seeking alternatives to protect emotional laborers from those mental health risks. Using the third wave data of Korean Working Conditions Survey, logistic regression analysis was conducted for two purposes: to examine the relations of emotional labor and stress, and to find out job stressors and relievers for emotional laborers. The chances of stress arousal are 3.5 times higher for emotional laborers; emotional laborers experience double risk-burden for stress arousal. In addition to general job stressors, emotional laborers need to bear burdens related to emotional labor properties. The effect of social support at the workplace is not significant for stress relief, unlike common assumptions, whereas subjective satisfaction (wage satisfaction and work-life balance) is proven to have relieving effects on emotional laborers' job stress. From the results, the importance of a balanced understanding of emotional labor for establishing effective policies for emotional laborer protection is stressed.
Martin, P L
"A recent conference sponsored by the United Nations Center for Regional Development (UNCRD) in Nagoya, Japan examined the growing importance of labor migration for four major Asian labor importers (Japan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Singapore) and five major labor exporters (Bangladesh, Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, and Thailand).... The conference concluded that international labor migration would increase within Asia because the tight labor markets and rising wages which have stimulated Japanese investment in other Asian nations, for example, have not been sufficient to eliminate migration push and pull forces...." excerpt
Castillo-Cagigal, Manuel; Matallanas, Eduardo; Navarro, Iñaki; Caamaño-Martín, Estefanía; Monasterio-Huelin, Félix; Gutiérrez, Álvaro
Division of labor is a widely studied aspect of colony behavior of social insects. Division of labor models indicate how individuals distribute themselves in order to perform different tasks simultaneously. However, models that study division of labor from a dynamical system point of view cannot be found in the literature. In this paper, we define a division of labor model as a discrete-time dynamical system, in order to study the equilibrium points and their properties related to convergence and stability. By making use of this analytical model, an adaptive algorithm based on division of labor can be designed to satisfy dynamic criteria. In this way, we have designed and tested an algorithm that varies the response thresholds in order to modify the dynamic behavior of the system. This behavior modification allows the system to adapt to specific environmental and collective situations, making the algorithm a good candidate for distributed control applications. The variable threshold algorithm is based on specialization mechanisms. It is able to achieve an asymptotically stable behavior of the system in different environments and independently of the number of individuals. The algorithm has been successfully tested under several initial conditions and number of individuals.
D. G. Shchipanova
Full Text Available The international movement of labor, including temporary impacts on the socio-economic development of the donor and recipient countries the labor force. In this regard, it is relevant and legitimate problems of the evolution of the global labor market, the need to examine the issues of labor mobility, the problems of international labor migration and its impact on the national markets of skilled labor in the context of globalization. Distribution and use of human resources becomes cross-border nature, and so an international study of the labor market.
... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Preterm Labor and Birth In general, a normal human pregnancy lasts about ... is called preterm labor (or premature labor). A birth that occurs before 37 weeks is considered a ...
As Labor bank is seemed as business partner of labor union, it contributes each community activities. For example, Labor bank helps retired employee, laborer and inhabitants. In addition, after the amendment of Money Lending Business Act of 2010, labor bank became clearly community based bank by consulting for heavily-indebted people and their education. This paper analyzes the new role of labor bank such as community contribution and enhancing financing service by collecting of the opinion o...
... include both occupational safety and occupational health, the latter on a developmental basis. The plan defines the covered occupational safety and health issues as defined by the Secretary of Labor in 29 CFR... Section 1952.160 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...
Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk
of contemporary capitalism – the discredited Anglo-Saxon finance-driven model versus the export-driven production model of growth, with weak safety nets, adopted by East Asian countries in contrast to the export-oriented Nordic social welfare model. The third section documents the impact of the crisis...... are the weaknesses? What are the human costs and collateral damage in the context of new types of regulation of labor markets and social welfare in the broadest sense and what are the differences and similarities between the models in general specifically with regard to crisis management? The approach guiding...... on the economies, and discusses core examples of state intervention in the socio-economic sectors such as labor markets and social welfare in the Nordic as well as Korean contexts. The final section discusses some tentative conclusions about the resilience of the Nordic and ROK models and their potential...
...' productivity is enhanced when workers are well informed of their rights under Federal labor laws, including the... collective bargaining agreements as defined in 5 U.S.C. 7103(a)(8) and purchases under the simplified... will take such action with respect to any such subcontract as may be directed by the Secretary of Labor...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Department of Labor Form WH-347, Payroll (For Contractor's Optional Use). 53.303-WH-347 Section 53.303-WH-347 Federal... Illustrations of Forms 53.303-WH-347 Department of Labor Form WH-347, Payroll (For Contractor's Optional Use...
Full Text Available Corrupt behaviour is a common practice with negative effects on the whole of society. For instance, if a company wins a public procurement contract in an unfair way, it enriches itself not only at the expense of competition, but also at the expense of the whole of society, as the best applicant has not necessarily been selected within such a procurement. The same applies in the case of a supplier launching an unsafe product onto the market, threatening the health of everyone who buys it. In order to prevent such malpractice and eliminate their negative effects, the cooperation of persons aware of such behaviours is necessary. In order to ensure such cooperation, however, the existence of instruments protecting whistle-blowers against various sanctions (especially by employers is necessary. As Slovak legislation did not include a regulation of procedures for reporting malpractice and protecting whistle-blowers, a new law aimed at solving such issues was enacted in October, 2014. The given legal regulation took effect on January 1, 2015. This paper endeavours to provide basic knowledge of the environment that the given regulation entered, as well as information on the possibilities of individuals to protect social interests on its grounds.
Full Text Available El escrito se enmarca en el proyecto UBACyT P433 El acoso laboral en la administración pública. Aportes de la psicología jurídica, de la Programación Científica 2008-2010, bajo la dirección del Profesor Osvaldo Varela. La temática abordaba en la actualidad constituye un área científica de vacancia a pesar de la importancia que día a día adquiere en el ámbito laboral y judicial. En esta ocasión se trabajará en la relación y articulación entre la noción de acoso laboral y la de daño psíquico, estimando que el acoso laboral provocaría en las personas que lo padecen un daño psíquico.This document is inserted in the UBACyT P433 project: The laboral abuse in the public administration. Juridic - psychology contribution, of 2008-2010 scientific program, under Professor Osvaldo Varela direction. The thematic approached in present days establish a scientific area of vacancy in front of the day by day importance in the laboral and judicial ambit. In this occasion the work will be done in the relation and articulation between the laboral abuse notion and the psychological damage, estimating that the laboral abuse will provoke in people that suffer it a psychological damage.
... Section 1952.370 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... designated as responsible for occupational health matters. The plan defines the covered occupational safety and health issues as defined by the Secretary of Labor in 29 CFR 1902.2(c)(1) and all safety and...
... of Labor. (2) The plan defines the covered occupational safety and health issues as defined by the... Section 1952.320 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... existing enabling legislation and the Indiana Occupational Safety and Health Act (IC 1971, 22-8-1.1 et seq...
... Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS LABOR ORGANIZATIONS AS DEFINED IN THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 § 451... the Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959 1 (hereinafter referred to as the Act...
Krispin, Eyal; Hiersch, Liran; Wilk Goldsher, Yulia; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Yogev, Yariv; Ashwal, Eran
To estimate the effect of prior successful vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) on the rate of uterine rupture and delivery outcome in women undergoing labor after cesarean. A retrospective cohort study of all women attempting labor after cesarean delivery in a university-affiliated tertiary-hospital (2007-2014) was conducted. Study group included women attempting vaginal delivery with a history of cesarean delivery and at least one prior VBAC. Control group included women attempting first vaginal delivery following cesarean delivery. Primary outcome was defined as the rate of uterine rupture. Secondary outcomes were delivery and maternal outcomes. Of 62,463 deliveries during the study period, 3256 met inclusion criteria. One thousand two hundred and eleven women had VBAC prior to the index labor and 2045 underwent their first labor after cesarean. Women in the study group had a significantly lower rate of uterine rupture 9 (0.7%) in respect to control 33 (1.6%), p = .036, and had a higher rate of successful vaginal birth (96 vs. 84.9%, p cesarean, prior VBAC appears to be associated with lower rate of uterine rupture and higher rate of successful vaginal birth.
Martins, Maria Inês Carsalade; Molinaro, Alex
The restructuring of productive systems and economic globalization are directly impacting the basic social rights of workers. In the semi-peripheral countries such as Brazil, where the wage-based society and the consolidation of social rights are not completely implemented, this process of change in the world of labor contributes to aggravate the inequality in the capital-labor relationship and hampers access to employment. By means of a critical review of the scientific literature regarding changes in the world of labor and its impact on the organization and production of health services in Brazil, this article pinpoints the weakness of regulation of the labor market in Brazil, especially in the health sector. It also stresses the need to increase the debate on new forms of institutionalization of the labor relationship in order to ensure equity in the workplace and protect the rights to work and in the workplace.
Katarina Pažur Aničić
Full Text Available The development of information and communication technologies (ICT has led to the significant changes in many areas of human lives. One of the aspects becoming much more challenging is the education of ICT professionals. Latest statistics show that the labor market demand for ICT practitioners exceeds the number of higher education graduates in the field of ICT. This paper provides a brief overview of the past and current situation on the labor market regarding the demand for ICT professionals, as well as forecasts by 2020. Paper also provides a research of demanded competencies in ICT jobs advertisements, and their comparison with competencies defined within the e-Competence framework 3.0 and generic competencies defined by Tuning project.
Mikkelsen, Eva; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders; Petersen, Olav Bjørn
Background: Better methods are needed for preterm labor diagnostication. We hypothesize 1) that depolarization of the myometrium propagates from fundus to isthmus, 2) that the propagation velocity (PV) is faster in labor than in non-labor, and 3) that PV can be determined by electromyography (EMG......). PV may be the best EMG-predictor of preterm labor. Knowledge on how to determine PV is insufficient though. Objective: To investigate EMG-signals from laboring myometrium and to develop a method for determining PV. Method: We included 10 women in active labor. EMG-signals were obtained via three...... of the vertical electrode order. Conclusion: Depolarization of the laboring myometrium may therefore not occur in the direction from fundus to isthmus. Further investigation is needed for PV determination....
Diefendorff, James M; Erickson, Rebecca J; Grandey, Alicia A; Dahling, Jason J
Emotional labor theory has conceptualized emotional display rules as shared norms governing the expression of emotions at work. Using a sample of registered nurses working in different units of a hospital system, we provided the first empirical evidence that display rules can be represented as shared, unit-level beliefs. Additionally, controlling for the influence of dispositional affectivity, individual-level display rule perceptions, and emotion regulation, we found that unit-level display rules are associated with individual-level job satisfaction. We also showed that unit-level display rules relate to burnout indirectly through individual-level display rule perceptions and emotion regulation strategies. Finally, unit-level display rules also interacted with individual-level dispositional affectivity to predict employee use of emotion regulation strategies. We discuss how future research on emotional labor and display rules, particularly in the health care setting, can build on these findings.
Fernando García Benavides
Full Text Available En España coexisten dos sistemas públicos de salud: el universal, gestionado por las comunidades autónomas y financiado con impuestos, y el laboral, gestionado por las Mutuas y financiado por cuotas a la Seguridad Social, los cuales se reparten la responsabilidad de gestión de la incapacidad laboral. Esta doble dependencia dificulta la gestión de esta importante prestación sanitaria y social. Una gestión que es diferente en función de la etiología (común o profesional y su pronóstico (temporal o permanente. Para poder comprender mejor la naturaleza de la incapacidad laboral, y que su investigación sea útil para mejorar su gestión médica y social, conviene adoptar una perspectiva longitudinal (life course research, analizando trayectorias de incapacidad en los individuos, y no solo episodios aislados. Una trayectoria de incapacidad que debemos analizar junto a la trayectoria laboral de esa misma persona. Para analizar conjuntamente las trayectorias laboral y de incapacidad disponemos de la Muestra Continua de Vidas Laborales de la Seguridad Social desde 2004. Una muestra de 873.008 afiliados (un 4%, aproximadamente en 2009 entre los que se produjeron 163.136 episodios de incapacidad temporal (IT iniciados en 2009, las cuales evolucionaron entre 2009 y 2012 a 4.738 casos de incapacidad permanente (IP. Un 2,9% en total, que fue del 12,6% en caso de tumores malignos (282 IP de 2.234 IT y del 9,2% en el caso de enfermedades cardiovasculares (344 IP de 3.532 IT. En un contexto de incremento de la esperanza de vida y la prevalencia de enfermedades crónicas (vivimos más pero con más incapacidad necesitamos analizar longitudinalmente las trayectorias de incapacidad para poder prevenir los años de vida laboral perdidos por IP, los cuales, como sabemos, están relacionados con la trayectoria laboral (1.
Full Text Available In this article, the author defines Puerto Rico as a nation, an imagined community with its own territory, history, language, and culture. Nevertheless, the Island lacks a sovereign state, an independent government that represents the population of that territory. This unsovereign state has long sponsored population displacements from Puerto Rico to the United States. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, colonial officials embraced migration as a safety valve for the Island’s overpopulation. During the 1950s and 1960s, the Commonwealth government spurred the "Great Migration" to the U.S. mainland. The Farm Labor Program, overseen by the Migration Division of Puerto Rico’s Department of Labor, illustrates the complicated negotiations required by a transnational colonial state.
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defining electronic information technology requirements. 311.7000 Section 311.7000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH... Accessibility Standards 311.7000 Defining electronic information technology requirements. HHS staff that define...
... proposes to define the occupational safety and health issues covered by it as defined by the Secretary of Labor in 29 CFR 1902.2(c)(1). All occupational safety and health standards promulgated by the U.S... Section 1952.310 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...
Kim, Il-Ho; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo; Benach, Joan
The authors selected nine case studies, one country from each cluster of their labor market inequalities typology, to outline the macro-political and economic roots of employment relations and their impacts on health. These countries illustrate variations in labor markets and health, categorized into a global empirical typology. The case studies illustrated that workers' health is significantly connected with labor market characteristics and the welfare system. For a core country, the labor market is characterized by a formal sector. The labor institutions of Sweden traditionally have high union density and collective bargaining coverage and a universal health care system, which correlate closely with positive health, in comparison with Spain and the United States. For a semi-periphery country, the labor market is delineated by a growing informal economy. Although South Korea, Venezuela, and El Salvador provide some social welfare benefits, a high proportion of irregular and informal workers are excluded from these benefits and experience hazardous working conditions that adversely affect their health. Lastly, several countries in the global periphery--China, Nigeria, and Haiti--represent informal work and severe labor market insecurity. In the absence of labor market regulations, the majority of their workers toil in the informal sector in unsafe conditions with inadequate health care.
Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk
experienced social pressures for restricting the workings of globalization: The first is the fear of job losses through the mechanisms of outsourcing and imports of cheapers industrial products. The second is the anxiety of ethnic and cultural dilution due to the emergence of new patters of labor migration...... and workers negotiate for the promotion of national development and the creation of a civil society which might minimize the adverse effects of globalization! This paper explores the impact of neo-liberal globalization on labor markets and social welfare in East and Southeast Asia. It draws upon recent...... debates in the framework of comparative political economy over the impact of neo-liberal globalization on labor market regulation and social welfare adjustment. The focus is on the radical change of work arrangements with an accompanying loss of the social relevance of the work place and of labour...
I V Trotsuk
Full Text Available In recent years, the problems of the Russian labor market, especially the scale and characteristics of youth unemployment, get very emotional and negative coverage in the scientific and journalistic discourses. The authors seek to show without any emotional evaluations what are the objective macroeconomic causes of the current situation with unemployment, especially youth unemployment. First, the authors identify the main challenges the labor market faces today in terms of the interaction of its key actors (workers, owners of the means of production, educational institutions and various intermediaries, including the state regulating the features of labor recruitment. Second, the article shows the main trends of the last decade that change the structure of employment of the economically active population. Third, the authors name the basic structural imbalances in the Russian labor market, primarily structural and professional imbalance between the demand for labor, the demand for vocational training and offer of educational services, which is quite evident, albeit in different ways, in all spheres of the economy. Fourth, the article describes the specific features of the youth labor market as both affected and contributing to the structural imbalances. Finally, the authors propose a methodology of macroeconomic forecasting that may reduce the problems the Russian society faces in the field of employment.
... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...
... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...
Horton, John J; Tambe, Prasanna
This article describes how the fine-grained data being collected by Internet labor market intermediaries, such as employment websites, online labor markets, and knowledge discussion boards, are providing new research opportunities and directions for the empirical analysis of labor market activity. After discussing these data sources, we examine some of the research opportunities they have created, highlight some examples of existing work that already use these new data sources, and enumerate the challenges associated with the use of these corporate data sources.
SALTER, RICHARD H.
THE ORGANIZATION OF THE FARM PLACEMENT PROGRAM IS DESCRIBED. INCLUDED ARE THE ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATIONS, THE LOCAL LEVELS, THE STATE FARM LABOR ADVISORY COMMITTEE, AND THE PLANNING AND OPERATING METHODS USED BY FARM PLACEMENT PERSONNEL IN MEETING FARM LABOR NEEDS. MAJOR CROP ACTIVITIES ARE RELATED TO COTTON AND VEGETABLES. THE LABOR FORCE IS…
Full Text Available The reform of the labor process in Uruguay. The return to the autonomous labor processThe reform of the Uruguayan labor process and the return to an autonomous legal regime represent a radical and fundamental change in the national legislation. The simplicity of new procedural structures governed by principles and owns norms of labor discipline give the new regime a dogmatic autonomous space lost for many years. The procedural labor reform is built on the adjectival character of its nature prioritizing the substantive law and adjusting the procedural rule to its characteristics. The principles of Labor Law (substantive and procedural are the foundation of the new regime
Ruiz Ortiz, E; Villalobos Román, M; Flores Murrieta, G; Sotomayor Alvarado, L
Eighty three primigravidae patients at the end of latency labor, erased cervix, 3 cm dilation, vertex presentation and adequate pelvis, were studied. Two groups were formed: 53 patients in the study group, who received active management of labor, and 30 patients in the control group, treated in the traditional way. In all the patients a graphic recording of labor, was carried out; it included all the events, and as labor advanced, a signoidal curve of cervical dilatation, was registered, as well as the hyperbolic one for presentation descent. The study group received the method in a systematized manner, as follows: 1. Peridular block. 2. Amniotomy. 3. IV oxytocin one hour after amniotomy. 4. FCR monitoring. 5. Detection of dystocia origin. Materno-fetal morbidity was registered in both groups, as well as cesarean section rate, instrumental delivery and its indications, labor duration, and time of stay in labor room. Diminution of above intems and opportune detection of dystocia, were determined. It was concluded that a constructive action plan, starting at hospital admission in most healthy women, allows a normal delivery of brief duration.
V. I. Mukomel
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to analyze the extent of the presence of migrants and their behavior in the Russian labor market on the basis of largescale sociological surveys of migrants. This is especially important in the absence of reliable statistics on migrants in the labor market. The main attention is paid to the employment profiles of representatives of various socio-demographic and ethnic groups, illegal and informal employment, the intensity and wages of migrants from countries with a visa-free regime with Russia. Particular attention is paid to labor mobility of migrants. The main empirical basis for analysis was the results of sociological polls conducted by the Center for Ethnopolitical and Regional Studies for the Higher School of Economics in 2011. (8,5 thousand respondents and in 2017 (8,6 thousand migrants in 19 regions of Russia. The study showed that education, qualifications, professional knowledge of migrants are not in demand on the Russian market, the typical path of migrants in the labor market is downward labor mobility – occupying a job that is worse than previously occupied in the homeland. At the same time, migrants are adapted to changes in the labor market, which is largely facilitated by the differentiation of migrant employment and the vertical mobility of some of them. Innovations in Russian legislation which came into force in 2015, as well as the integration process within the framework of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEA, which greatly facilitated access to jobs in Russia for citizens of the countries of the EEA, had a positive impact on the Russian labor market. The share of illegally employed migrants has significantly decreased in comparison with previous years. At the same time, the problem of informal employment of foreign citizens, excessive exploitation of migrant labor remains. The problems of combating forced labor of migrants and ensuring their decent labor come to the fore. Civilized conditions should
Why did services become the dominant sector in industrialized economies? While abundant literature exists on the transition from agriculture to industry (i.e., the industrial revolution), there is no consensual explanation for the second wave of structural change. I argue that sectoral differences in regulation affecting the degree of competition in labor and goods markets explain: (a) the rise in the services sector share of output and employment, (b) international differences in cross-secto...
Johnson, R J; Herring, C
This study models culture of poverty explanations, earlier experiences that tend to restrict opportunities, demographic effects representing differential rates of participation by social groups, and health and marijuana use variables indicating the influence of individual life- style differences as predictors of the rate of labor market entry, promotion, and dismissal among subjects from early adolescence to young adulthood. The data are drawn from the 1st and 4th waves of a 4-wave panel of half the 1971 Houston, Texas, Independent School District 7th grade born in 1958. The findings indicate that those who believe most in the efficacy of alternatives to conventional social and economic institutions and those who expect to benefit least are most likely to have higher rates of participation. This higher rate of participation is significantly greater for earlier years and contradicts predictions of a culture of poverty theory. 1 opportunity-structure variable, poor grades, significantly increases the rate of entry into the labor market primarily because it represents the inability of individuals to pursue advanced education prior to labor market entry. Education reduces overall rates of labor market entry for a young adult cohort by delaying labor market entry. The strong relationship between drug use and unemployment may be due to motivation, impaired ability, probability of failure, or increased time to use drugs. The findings also indicate that females are more capable overall of performing their jobs and getting along with co-workers but are less likely to be promoted. Finally, those who have been sanctioned or disadvantaged within the institutions that define and enforce the norms of the economic opportunity structure are significantly more likely to enter the labor market earlier and continue to have higher rates of negative experiences, such as dismissal, within those institutions.
Full Text Available Following the introduction of epidural for labor analgesia, debate has centered on the issue of its effect on outcome of labor; in terms of length of labor and increase in the rate of instrumental vaginal delivery and cesarean section (CS. There is no ideal study on the effect of epidural analgesia (EA on the outcome of labor due to logistic problems in randomization, blinding and getting a control group; as a result these queries are partly answered. Despite these problems, it has been established that labor epidural has minimal effect on progress of established labor and maternal request should be a sufficient indication to start an epidural. Although instrumental vaginal delivery is probably increased with epidural but obstetrician practice, pain free patient and teaching opportunity are likely factors increasing the incidence. Maternal-fetal factors and obstetric management and not the use of EA are the most important determinants of the CS rate. The purpose of this review is to summarize data from controlled trials addressing the question of whether neuraxial labor analgesia causes an increased risk of CS or rate of instrumental delivery. In addition, the review discusses whether the timing of initiation of analgesia infl uences the mode of delivery.
Raúl Ponce Rodríguez
Full Text Available In this paper it is developed a theoretical model to study the incentives that a labor tax might induce in terms of the optimal wage setting for an export oriented firm. In particular, we analyze the interaction of a labor tax that tends to reduce the wage due the firm is induced to shift backwards the tax burden to its employees minimizing the possible increase in the payroll costs and a fall of profits. However a lower wage might not be an optimal response to the establishment of a labor tax because it increases the labor turnover and as a result the firm faces both: an outputs opportunity cost and a labors turnover cost. The firm thus optimally decides to respond to the qualification and labor taxes by increasing the after tax wage.
Vasak, Blanka; Graatsma, Elisabeth M; Hekman-Drost, Elske; Eijkemans, Marinus J; Schagen van Leeuwen, Jules H; Visser, Gerard H A; Jacod, Benoit C
Worldwide induction and cesarean delivery rates have increased rapidly, with consequences for subsequent pregnancies. The majority of intrapartum cesarean deliveries are performed for failure to progress, typically in nulliparous women at term. Current uterine registration techniques fail to identify inefficient contractions leading to first-stage labor arrest. An alternative technique, uterine electromyography has been shown to identify inefficient contractions leading to first-stage arrest of labor in nulliparous women with spontaneous onset of labor at term. The objective of this study was to determine whether this finding can be reproduced in induction of labor. Uterine activity was measured in 141 nulliparous women with singleton term pregnancies and a fetus in cephalic position during induced labor. Electrical activity of the myometrium during contractions was characterized by its power density spectrum. No significant differences were found in contraction characteristics between women with induced labor delivering vaginally with or without oxytocin and women with arrested labor with subsequent cesarean delivery. Uterine electromyography shows no correlation with progression of labor in induced labor, which is in contrast to spontaneous labor. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Sergey Vladimirovich Tasakov
Full Text Available Objective to review and analyse the Russian criminal law in the aspect of forced labor taking into account theexisting historical practice to assess the implementation of this type of punishment to identify the existing problems and to propose certain measures to overcome them. Methods dialectical historicallegal comparative legal systemic. Results the research discloses the issues of increasing the efficiency of forced labor in the Russian criminal law defines and discusses thedisputable issues that may arise during the use of this type of punishment proposes specific ways and recommendations for their solution. Scientific novelty the article analyzes criminal punishment in the form of forced labor and discusses issues of increasing the efficiency of this punishment and its enforcement. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific educational and practical activities when considering sentencing in the form of forced labor. nbsp
Eric V. Edmonds; Nina Pavcnik
Few issues in developing countries draw as much popular attention as child labor. This paper begins by quantifying the extent and main characteristics of child labor. It then considers the evidence on a range of issues about child labor. Fundamentally, child labor is a symptom of poverty. Low income and poor institutions are driving forces behind the prevalence of child labor worldwide. This study concludes by assessing the policy options to reduce worldwide child labor.
Lattorff, H Michael G; Moritz, Robin F A
Honeybees have been studied for centuries, starting with Aristotle, who wrote the first book about bee breeding. More than 2000 years later, the honeybee entered the genomic era as the first social insect whose genome was sequenced, leading to significant insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying social behavior. In addition, gene expression studies and knockdown using RNAi have extended the understanding of social interactions. Much of the work has focused on caste determination - the mechanism that results in reproductive division of labor, division of labor within the worker caste, and worker reproduction - an essential process underlying eusociality. Here we review the molecular factors involved in caste determination and the differential regulation of caste-specific genes. Recent findings suggest that division of labor is influenced by a small number of loci showing high levels of pleiotropy, suggesting that changes in a small number of genes lead to large changes in the phenotype. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Labor reform and counter-reform in Argentina, simple chronic of a pendulum processAfter placing it in the context of the processes of labor reforms produced in Latin America in the early 90’s (its inspiration, its dynamics, its actors, the article considers in particular the case of Argentina. Inthat assignment, it examines the labor reforms that took place there from dominant perspectives - external flexibility, internal flexibility, reduction and variation of costs, collective labor relations - confirming a strong deregulated activism in the field of individual relations, while it was verified a high administrative interventionism of decentralized bias with a limited institutional transformation in collective relations.At the end of that decade, it had already been clear that those strategies haven’t had a virtuous effect on the social labor situation or the labor market. In this context, a new government that comes into power in 2003, leaves without effect a good part of those reforms and instead it undertakes a process of institutional reconfiguration of the legal system of labor protection: a systematic increase of the Living Wage, strengthening of the collective wage bargaining - with the consequent tendential improvement of wages of workers in the formal sector - and, by virtue of parliamentary initiatives, a sequence of introduction of micro-reforms always oriented to increase the protection of workers, which as a whole would have to involve a remarkable recovery of the tutelary bias of labor regulations.
Ye. M. Shifman
Full Text Available Objective: to study the incidence of labor fever under epidural analgesia (EA and to evaluate its impact on the courses of puerperium and early neonatality. Subjects and methods. The paper presents the data of a prospective study of the course of labor, puerperium, and early neonatality in 397 women in whom labors occurred at the Republican Peritoneal Center in 2006. A study group included 324 parturients in whom labor pain was relieved by EA. A comparison group comprised 55 parturients in whom no analgesics were used at labor. Results. There were no significant statistical differences between the groups in the incidence of labor fever and complicated puerperium and in that of neonatal pyoseptic diseases. Key words: labor hyperthermia, epidural analgesia, labor pain relief.
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: May 14...
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: June 28...
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: January...
The phenomenon of child labor is widespread in developing countries and emotionally discussed in the media and public. At present there is a well-developed and fast growing economic literature on child labor which covers the various aspects of child labor. In the first part of the thesis we give a survey about the facts, the institutions and the economic literature dealing with child labor. The economic theory of child labor can be roughly subdivided into the economic theory of child labor i...
Thamm, Markus; Scheiner, Ricarda
Division of labor is a hallmark of social insects. In honey bees, division of labor involves transition of female workers from one task to the next. The most distinct tasks are nursing (providing food for the brood) and foraging (collecting pollen and nectar). The brain mechanisms regulating this form of behavioral plasticity have largely remained elusive. Recently, it was suggested that division of labor is based on nutrition-associated signaling pathways. One highly conserved gene associated with food-related behavior across species is the foraging gene, which encodes a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG). Our analysis of this gene reveals the presence of alternative splicing in the honey bee. One isoform is expressed in the brain. Expression of this isoform is most pronounced in the mushroom bodies, the subesophageal ganglion, and the corpora allata. Division of labor and sucrose responsiveness in honey bees correlate significantly with foraging gene expression in distinct brain regions. Activating PKG selectively increases sucrose responsiveness in nurse bees to the level of foragers, whereas the same treatment does not affect responsiveness to light. These findings demonstrate a direct link between PKG signaling in distinct brain areas and division of labor. Furthermore, they demonstrate that the difference in sensory responsiveness between nurse bees and foragers can be compensated for by activating PKG. Our findings on the function of PKG in regulating specific sensory responsiveness and social organization offer valuable indications for the function of the cGMP/PKG pathway in many other insects and vertebrates. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
NEAL, Jeremy L.; LAMP, Jane M.; BUCK, Jacalyn S.; LOWE, Nancy K.; GILLESPIE, Shannon L.; RYAN, Sharon L.
Introduction The timing of when a woman is admitted to the hospital for labor care following spontaneous contraction onset may be among the most important decisions that labor attendants make as it can influence care patterns and birth outcomes. The aims of this study were to estimate the percentage of low-risk, nulliparous women at term who are admitted to labor units prior to active labor and to evaluate the effects of the timing of admission (i.e., pre-active versus active labor) on labor interventions and mode of birth. Methods Obstetrics data from low-risk, nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset at term gestation (N = 216) were merged from two prospective studies conducted at three large, Midwestern hospitals. Baseline characteristics, labor interventions, and outcomes were compared between groups using Fisher’s exact and Mann-Whitney U tests, as appropriate. Likelihoods for oxytocin augmentation, amniotomy, and cesarean delivery were assessed by logistic regression. Results Of the sample of 216 low-risk nulliparous women, 114 (52.8%) were admitted in pre-active labor and 102 (47.2%) were admitted in active labor. Women admitted in pre-active labor were more likely to undergo oxytocin augmentation (84.2% and 45.1%, respectively; odds ratio (OR) 6.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.43–12.27) but not amniotomy (55.3% and 61.8%, respectively; OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.44–1.32) when compared to women admitted in active labor. The likelihood of cesarean delivery was higher for women admitted before active labor onset (15.8% and 6.9%, respectively; OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.02–6.37). Discussion Many low-risk nulliparous women with regular, spontaneous uterine contractions are admitted to labor units before active labor onset, which increases their likelihood of receiving oxytocin and being delivered via cesarean section. An evidence-based, standardized approach for labor admission decision-making is recommended to decrease inadvertent admissions of women in pre
Frey, Heather A; Tuuli, Methodius G; Cortez, Sarah; Odibo, Anthony O; Roehl, Kimberly A; Shanks, Anthony L; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G
To estimate maternal, neonatal, and labor outcomes associated with delayed pushing. A retrospective cohort study of all consecutive women admitted to a single institution in labor at term who reached the second stage of labor. Pregnancies with multiple fetuses or major anomalies were excluded. Delayed pushing was defined as initiation of pushing ≥60 minutes after complete dilatation. Primary outcome was mode of delivery. Multivariable logistic regression was used to control for confounding. Of the 5290 women who met inclusion criteria, 471 (8.9%) employed delayed pushing, and 4819 (91.1%) pushed immediately. Delayed pushing was associated with increased rates of cesarean, operative vaginal delivery, maternal fever, and lower arterial cord pH. Duration of the second stage and length of time spent pushing were significantly longer with delayed pushing. Delayed pushing is associated with lower rates of spontaneous vaginal delivery and increased adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Selection power is taken as the fundamental value for information retrieval systems. Selection power is regarded as produced by selection labor, which itself separates historically into description and search labor. As forms of mental labor, description and search labor participate in the conditions for labor and for mental labor. Concepts and distinctions applicable to physical and mental labor are indicated, introducing the necessity of labor for survival, the idea of technology as a human ...
share with you some results from GAO’s analysis of child labor and sweatshop working conditions in the United States. In particular, I will comment on the...primary federal law regulating wages and working conditions of American workers, including children. To protect children from oppressive working ... conditions , the Act limits the hours that children under age 16 can work , sets minimum age standards for work in specified occupations, and restricts
Maassen-van den Brink, te Henriet
To gain insight on factors that impede economic independence of women, this book concentrates on female labor supply in relation to child care, male-female wage differentials, the division of unpaid labor, and marital conflicts between women and men. It may very well be that restrictions on the
Lesner, Rune Vammen
This paper finds that labor market history plays an important role in the Danish labor market both by directly affecting the transitions between labor market states and indirectly through the wage. When comparing the relative importance of different types of state dependence, it is found that occ......This paper finds that labor market history plays an important role in the Danish labor market both by directly affecting the transitions between labor market states and indirectly through the wage. When comparing the relative importance of different types of state dependence, it is found...... that occurrence dependence from non-employment states seems to have the strongest effect on the employment rate, while employment history is the main driver of state dependence in the wage. Predictions based on the estimated model reveal potential negative long-term effects from external employment shocks...
Carvajal, Manuel J; Deziel, Lisa; Armayor, Graciela M
Previous research has shown that U.S. pharmacists experience negative elasticities along a backward-bending labor supply function. The presence of a backward bend in the labor supply curve may cause a decrease in the amount of work at a time of labor shortage. Therefore, the determinants of pharmacists' labor supply functions should be explored to assess the impact of this backward bend. To determine whether female and male pharmacist work inputs are influenced by the same factors and estimate where the backward bend occurs, if at all, in their labor supply functions. Data were collected using a survey questionnaire mailed to registered pharmacists in South Florida. Labor supply functions were formulated and tested separately for 558 men and 498 women. The wage rate, other household income, human capital stock, job-related preferences, and opinion variables were hypothesized to explain labor supply differentials. Human capital stock variables included professional experience, holding a specialty board certification, and number of children; job-related preference variables included urban-rural location of work site and main role as a practitioner; and opinion variables included stress, autonomy, fairness in the workplace, flexibility, and job security. Men and women responded differently to identical stimuli, and their supply functions were influenced in different ways by the explanatory variables. Both genders exhibited positive labor supply elasticities greater than those reported in other studies. Both genders' backward bend in their labor supply functions occurred several standard deviations to the right of the mean. The backward bend in the labor supply functions of male and female pharmacists is not likely to affect in the near future the labor market's ability to regulate shortages of practitioners via increases in the wage rate. A more thorough understanding of pharmacists' labor supply functions must address gender issues and differences in response to
Kanngiesser, Patricia; Hood, Bruce
People often assign ownership to the person who has invested labor into making an object (labor rule). However, labor usually improves objects and increases their value, and it has not been investigated whether these considerations underlie people's use of the labor rule. We presented participants with third-party ownership conflicts between…
Full Text Available Labour Market Policy of the Republic of Albania in terms of design (preparation, case identification, formulation, and approval, programming and budgeting, implementation, monitoring and evaluation has a short experience (1995-ongoing. The influence and presence of hierarchy model is very high beside the support of different programs and projects through bilateral and EU programs. Still there are a lot of key issues to be addressed. The most important issues to be addressed in this paper are evidence based related to: • The Availability of Labor Market Information and its structure on national, regional and local level in Albania and how much this information is used for -policy making and –monitoring/evaluation in terms of input, output, outcome and impact. • Mode of the governance of the labor market in Albania and challenges to pass from the hierarchy to market and network governance. The main aim of this paper/article is to do a complete and deep analysis of the actual situation of labor market information system and labor market governance in Albania, and to propose conclusions and recommendations that will improve both labor market information system and the labor market governance from hierarchy to market and network governance, because good and standardized labor information system can help towards right policy decisions and good governance of LM policy means more employment, more stability, more social inclusion in the society.
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child labor provisions. 552.108 Section 552.108 Labor... OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.108 Child labor provisions. Congress made no change in section 12 as regards domestic service employees. Accordingly, the child labor...
The paper explores the effects of the social security system over retirement and labor supply decision of individuals aged 55 to 65 in Chile. We use the 1998 CASEN survey elaborated by the Chilean government. Due to regulations established by the current social security law, two social security systems coexist on 1998: the .Pay-as-you-go. and the individual account system. This property of the dataset, allows us to disentangle the effects of those two systems over retirement and labor supply....
Background: The present study aims to investigate job stressors and stress relievers for Korean emotional laborers, specifically focusing on the effects of work conditions and emotional labor properties. Emotional laborers are asked to hide or distort their real emotions in their interaction with clients. They are exposed to high levels of stress in the emotional labor process, which leads to serious mental health risks including burnout, depression, and even suicide impulse. Exploring job st...
In exploring the impact of tax policy on labor-market performance, the paper first investigates how tax reform impacts labor supply and equilibrium unemployment in representative agent models.The impact of tax policy on labor market performance depends importantly on various other labor-market
Garcia-Simon, Raquel; Montañes, Antonio; Clemente, Jesús; Del Pino, María D; Romero, Manuel A; Fabre, Ernesto; Oros, Daniel
To assess health service costs associated with labor induction according to different clinical situations in a tertiary-level hospital. In a prospective study, individual patient cost data were assessed for women admitted for induction of labor at a tertiary hospital in Spain between November 1, 2012, and August 31, 2013. The costs of labor induction were estimated according to maternal and neonatal outcomes, method of delivery, cervical condition at admission, and obstetric indication. Direct costs including professional fees, epidural, maternal stay, consumables, and drugs were calculated. Overall, 412 women were included in the final cost analysis. The mean total cost of labor induction was €3589.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3475.13-3704.61). Cesarean delivery after labor induction (€4830.45, 95% CI 4623.13-5037.58) was significantly more expensive than spontaneous delivery (€3037.45, 95% CI 2966.91-3179.99) and instrumental vaginal delivery (€3344.31, 95%CI 3151.69-3536.93). The total cost for patients with a very unfavorable cervix (Bishop score Labor induction for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy was the most expensive obstetric indication for induction of labor (€4347.32, 95% CI 3890.45-4804.18). Following the induction of labor, a number of patient- and treatment-related factors influence costs associated with delivery. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
For many years, Germany has been regarded in international comparisons as an example of a generous early retirement culture, resulting in a low labor market participation of older employees. Recently, however, employment rates of older employees have increased remarkably. Reasons are the demographic structure of older persons in Germany, a long-term trend of increasing female labor market participation, and reforms in labor-market policies and pension policies during the last 10 years. Despite an increasing labor market participation of older employees, traditional labor market risks for older persons partly remained, but some new risks evolved as well. Therefore, social differentiation among older employees increased.Although detailed macro descriptions exist, the causes of labor market developments cannot be fully understood with cross-sectional data alone. An important stimulus is to be expected from individual longitudinal data which reflect employment histories and labor market transitions such as employment exit and retirement.
Gnatenko Irina A.
Full Text Available The article is aimed at implementing an implication of the theory of wave-like (cyclical evolutionary development of the economic system with regard to the regional labor market and determining the time for the most effective introduction of innovation influence according to development cycle of the labor markets in the Donetsk and Lugansk regions. The article schematically depicts the dissipative system of the cyclical evolutionary development of the regional labor market. The status of the regional labor market in each of the phases of the development cycle has been characterized. An evaluation of the efficiency of introducing innovations in the regional labor market, depending on the development cycle of this market, has been provided. The phase of the development cycle in which the labor markets of the Donetsk and Lugansk regions are effective has been defined, and the causal relationships that show these markets being in the «crisis» phase, have been described. It has been concluded that it would be useful to modify the existing policy of innovation impact on the regional labor markets of the Donetsk and Lugansk regions in line with the development phase of the markets indicated.
Viral V. Acharya; Ramin P. Baghai; Krishnamurthy V. Subramanian
Can stringent labor laws be efficient? Possibly, if they provide firms with a commitment device to not punish short-run failures and thereby incentivize the pursuit of value-maximizing innovative activities. In this paper, we provide empirical evidence that strong labor laws indeed appear to have an ex ante positive incentive effect by encouraging the innovative pursuits of firms and their employees. Using patents and citations as proxies for innovation and a time-varying index of labor laws,...
Carol Ann Rogers; Kenneth A. Swinnerton
Child labor laws should aim to protect children who work, instead of trying to remove children from work. In this paper, we identify an instance when the risk of exploitation lowers the expected bene…t of child labor to the child,and therefore suppresses child labor force participation. Targeted legal intervention that lowers or removes the risk of exploitation raises child participation in the labor market, child welfare, and overall societal welfare. Targeting on child labor more broadly ma...
Full Text Available This article discusses some alternative or critical theoretical contributions regarding globalization and labor. The main question in this discussion is if there are changes in direction of a possible revitalization of labor movements and if international solidarity can increase due to globalization. This question also relates to discussions of changes in division of work, the concept of work, working class, commodification, decommodification, and new centers of global production—all related to different paradigms or new concepts. The reason or need for reconceptualizing comes from the great transformation of capitalism in forms of neoliberal globalization, in a different direction than predicted by Polanyi. That is, instead of increased public sector decommodification (not profit- or market-oriented production and national regulation, embedding capitalist markets, as seen after 1945, the last three decades have witnessed a countertransformation and large-scale recommodification by privatizing, disembedding, and deregulating global markets. As a consequence, inequality in income and working life conditions has increased in most countries and been used to press trade unions. Western industrial unions have been declining as many industries and labor-intensive, low-paid jobs moved to developing countries. Most blue-collar jobs are now in Asia, especially China, with about one-third of its employment blue collars. Is the center of global capital-labor contradictions and dynamics moving to the South, with a possibility of a new revitalization of labor and international solidarity? We discuss different optimistic and pessimistic views on a possible international revitalization of labor.
Carlson, Kenneth D.
Labor education reflects the pragmaticism of American culture and supports the system. It emphasizes leadership training, loyalty building, and political education. The control of labor education is centralized in union headquarters. (VW)
Gizzo, Salvatore; Di Gangi, Stefania; Saccardi, Carlo; Patrelli, Tito Silvio; Paccagnella, Gianluca; Sansone, Laura; Barbara, Favaron; D'Antona, Donato; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista
The effect of epidural analgesia on labor and effective breastfeeding is still being debated. The aim of this study is to define its impact on the trend of labor, the newborns' well-being, and early breastfeeding. We considered first-term physiologic pregnant women who delivered by the vaginal route. We divided them into two groups: group A received epidural analgesia during labor, whereas group B received no analgesia. We recorded maternal age, gestational age, modality of delivery, length of labor, and length of active labor. All newborns received skin-to-skin contact; early breastfeeding was encouraged. We recorded data on birth weight and length, Apgar score at minutes 1 and 5, type of crying, neonatal reactivity, and time between birth and exposure to the breast. Statistical significance was considered for panalgesia, and 245 patients agreed to participate in our study. Only 128 patients met inclusion criteria. We randomized them in 64 women in group A and 64 women in group B. Data on maternal age, gestational age, type of delivery, neonatal birth weight and length, and Apgar score showed no significant differences. Total length of labor was 363.58±62.20 minutes in Group A versus 292.30±64.75 minutes in group B (pneonatal parameters we found a statistically significant difference only for length of first breastfeeding, with a mean duration of analgesia has little effect on trend of labor and duration of first breastfeed and none on neonatal outcome. A new protocol of epidural analgesia may solve these side effects.
-, 05/2008 (2008), s. 1-33 ISSN N Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : labor market * international trade * competition Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.deg.uac.pt/~ceeapla/pt/pdf/papers/Paper05-2008.pdf
van Roijen, L.; Essink-Bot, M. L.; Koopmanschap, M. A.; Bonsel, G.; Rutten, F. F.
A health care program may influence both costs and health effects. We developed the Health and Labor Questionnaire (HLQ), which consists of four modules, to collect data on absence from work, reduced productivity, unpaid labor production, and labor-related problems. We applied the HLQ in several
... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labor. 440.19 Section 440.19 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.19 Labor. Payments for labor... supplement wages paid to training participants, public service employment workers, or other Federal or State...
Gielen, A. C.
One important finding concerns the fact that job separations for older workers constitute mostly a one-way exit out of the labor force, despite the fact that an ageing society calls for an active labor market participation from us all. Also, the allocation of labor for younger workers has shown to
Koedel, Cory; Grissom, Jason A.; Ni, Shawn; Podgursky, Michael
Educators in public schools in the United States are typically enrolled in defined-benefit pension plans, which penalize across-plan mobility. We use administrative data from Missouri to examine how the mobility penalties affect the labor market for school leaders, and show that pension borders greatly reduce leadership flows across schools. Our…
Poterba, James; Rauh, Joshua; Venti, Steven; Wise, David
The private pension structure in the United States, once dominated by defined benefit (DB) plans, is currently divided between defined contribution (DC) and DB plans. Wealth accumulation in DC plans depends on the participant's contribution behavior and on financial market returns, while accumulation in DB plans is sensitive to a participant's labor market experience and to plan parameters. This paper simulates the distribution of retirement wealth under representative DB and DC plans. It uses data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to explore how asset returns, earnings histories, and retirement plan characteristics contribute to the variation in retirement wealth outcomes. We simulate DC plan accumulation by randomly assigning individuals a share of wages that they and their employer contribute to the plan. We consider several possible asset allocation strategies, with asset returns drawn from the historical return distribution. Our DB plan simulations draw earnings histories from the HRS, and randomly assign each individual a pension plan drawn from a sample of large private and public defined benefit plans. The simulations yield distributions of both DC and DB wealth at retirement. Average retirement wealth accruals under current DC plans exceed average accruals under private sector DB plans, although DC plans are also more likely to generate very low retirement wealth outcomes. The comparison of current DC plans with more generous public sector DB plans is less definitive, because public sector DB plans are more generous on average than their private sector counterparts. PMID:21057597
In this historical materialist analysis of health and medical care, health is defined as a component of labor-power (capacity to work). Investment in health, including provision of medical services, represents part of the cost of maintaining the labor force. The primary determined of the level of health and medical care under capitalism is the tendency toward maximization of the rate of exploitation. The absolute level of health and medical care tends to decline as unemployment rises and individual workers become more "replaceable." Health differentials by socioeconomic status are similarly explained by the easier replacement of lesser-skilled workers. Medical care services in the context of the capitalist system constitute a drain on surplus-value. In periods of economic decline, attempts are made to conserve surplus-value through reductions in medical services ("social wages"). Institutional and ideological racism yields additional surplus-value savings and weakness public resistance to medical care retrenchment. The profits of health-related industries are shown to be merely partially recouped surplus-value losses. The social epidemiology of capitalism has been characterized as social murder. "Public health" measures appropriate to this systemic pathology are suggested.
City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This thematic map presents the labor force participation rate of working-age people in the United States in 2010. The 2010 Labor Force Participation Rate shows the...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labor. 92.354 Section 92.354... INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Other Federal Requirements § 92.354 Labor. (a) General. (1) Every contract... prevailing in the locality, as predetermined by the Secretary of Labor pursuant to the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U...
Ebrahimzadeh Zagami, Samira; Golmakani, Nahid; Saadatjoo, Seyyed Ali-Reza; Ghomian, Nayyereh; Baghbani, Behjat
Dystocia is the most common indication of primary cesarean section. The most common cause of dystocia is uterine dysfunction. In prolonged labor, more attention is usually paid to the fetus and pelvis rather than to the role of uterine contractions in a delivery. Therefore, we decided to determine the relationship between the labor progress and uterine contractions shapes. In this cross-sectional study, 200 primiparous women participated having a single pregnancy and cephalic presentation. Uterus contractions were recorded using electronic fetal monitoring at the beginning of the active phase of labor (dilatation 3-5 cm) for 30 min. Fall to rise (F:R) ratio was calculated by determining the duration of returning from a contraction peak to its baseline (fall) and the duration of the rise time from baseline to peak (rise) in two groups. The data were analyzed using t-test and Chi-square test. In this study, 162 women had a normal delivery and 38 women had a cesarean (CS) delivery due to the lack of labor progress. The average F:R ratio was 1.13±0.193 seconds in the vaginal delivery group and 1.64±0.301 seconds in the CS group. This difference was statistically significant (PR ratio was higher in the group that lacked labor progress. Therefore, contraction shapes can be used to predict the labor progress.
Schmidt, Torben Dall; Jensen, Peter Sandholt
non-negative effects on the job opportunities for Danish workers in regional labor markets, whereas the evidence of a regional wage growth effect is mixed. We also present disaggregated results focusing on regional heterogeneity of business structures, skill levels and backgrounds of foreign labor....... The results are interpreted within a specific Danish labor market context and the associated regional outcomes. This adds to previous findings and emphasizes the importance of labor market institutions for the effect of foreign labor on regional employment growth....
Full Text Available Active labor market policies (ALMPs are an important instrument for governments in dealing with the new challenges of globalization, flexibilization, and individualization of labor markets. Politics and research has focused on the supply-side of the labor market, that is, regulating the rights and obligations of the target groups of ALMPs (mainly unemployed and inactive persons. The role and behavior of employers is under-researched and under-theorized in the vast literature on ALMPs and industrial relations. In this article, we analyze ALMPs from the employers’ perspective by examining the determinants of firms’ participation in providing wage subsidy jobs for the unemployed. First, we examine the historical background to the introduction and development of wage subsidy schemes as an important ALMP instrument in Denmark. Second, we derive theoretical arguments and hypotheses about employers’ participation in ALMPs from selected theories. Third, we use data from a survey of Danish firms conducted in 2013 to characterize the firms that are engaged in implementing wage subsidy jobs and hypotheses are tested using a binary logistical regression to establish why firms voluntarily engage in reintegrating unemployed back into the labor market. We find that the firms which are most likely to participate in the wage subsidy scheme are characterized by many unskilled workers, a higher coverage of collective agreements, a deteriorating economic situation, a Danish ownership structure, and are especially found in the public sector. This shows that the preference formation of firms is more complex than scholars often assume.
... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...
Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio
In recent years, a number of governments and consumer groups in rich countries have tried to discourage the use of child labor in poor countries through measures such as product boycotts and the imposition of international labor standards. The purported objective of such measures is to reduce the incidence of child labor in developing countries and thereby improve childrenï¿½s welfare. In this paper, we examine the effects of such policies from a political-economy perspective. We show that th...
... Number ``1215-0209''. PART 2--DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS 0 3. Amend section 2.101 in paragraph (b)(2... text of the poster. The link to the Department's Web site, as referenced in (b)(3) of this section...) Reproduced and used as exact duplicate copies of the Department of Labor's official poster. (c) The required...
Francisco Alvarez-Cuadrado; Markus Poschke
The process of economic development is characterized by substantial rural-urban migrations and a decreasing share of agriculture in output and employment. The literature highlights two main engines behind this process of structural change: (i) improvements in agricultural technology combined with the effect of Engel's law of demand push resources out of the agricultural sector (the "labor push" hypothesis), and (ii) improvements in industrial technology attract labor into this sector (the "la...
Bossavie, Laurent; Denisova, Anastasiya
This descriptive study investigates internal and external labor migration by Nepalese youth. External labor migration is separated into the flow to India, which is unregulated, and the flow to other countries, which typically takes the form of temporary contract migration to countries with bilateral labor agreements with Nepal (referred to in Nepal as foreign employment). The study finds t...
In Africa, approximately 80 million children are working. Africa's 41% child labor rate is nearly twice as high as that in Asia. This study examined whether child labor is a direct result of poverty or of reading and math problems in school. The study analyzed reading and math scores of 62 child laborers and 62 non-child laborers from a farming…
American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.
This annotated bibliography of 90 books on labor issues presents selections in the following areas: labor history, biographies, contemporary issues, labor economics and labor relations, labor law, labor unions, women and work, and reference books. (DB)
... Retail Enterprises Child Labor Provisions § 779.502 Statutory provisions; regulations in part 1500 of this title. (a) The Act's prohibitions in relation to employment of child labor, which may have... therefrom any oppressive child labor has been employed: Provided, That any such shipment or delivery for...
This report is designed as a guide for those involved in labor relations in the transit industry. It begins with a history of transit labor relations. The economic, political, and legal environment of transit relations is then discussed. A section fo...
Ellison, Scott; Allen, Ben
A defining characteristic of contemporary trends in global education policy is the promotion of STEM learning in the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors of education as a means to generate innovation and prosperity in the economy. Intertwined with common sensical assumptions about future labor markets and the transformative potential of…
Jørgensen, Jan Stener; Weile, Louise Katrine Kjær; Lamont, Ronald Francis
While tocolytic therapy may not be indicated in all cases of spontaneous preterm labor (SPTL), the evidence that they are superior to placebo is robust. The perfect tocolytic that is 100% efficacious and 100% safe does not exist and efforts should continue to develop and introduce safer and more...... and arrange in utero transfer to a center with neonatal intensive care facilities, both of which reduce neonatal mortality and morbidity. Few tocolytics (β₂-agonists and atosiban) are licensed for use as tocolytics and only one was developed specifically to treat preterm labor (atosiban). Accordingly, most...
... under revised Alternate I. (b) Completion Voucher. The Allowable Cost and Payment, FAR clause 52.216-7.... * * * * * Payments Under Time-and-Material and Labor-Hour Contracts (Date) * * * * * (a) * * * (5) Vouchers may be... final payment under this contract, the Contracting Officer may request audit of the vouchers and...
Neal, Jeremy L.; Lowe, Nancy K.
Oxytocin augmentation and cesarean rates among low-risk, term, nulliparous women with a spontaneous onset of labor in the United States approximate 50% and 26.5%, respectively. This indicates that the quality of obstetrical care is much less than optimal in this nation. Exorbitant oxytocin use, the intervention most commonly associated with preventable adverse perinatal outcomes, jeopardizes birth safety while the high cesarean rate in this high-volume group compromises population health and increases health care costs. Dystocia, characterized by the slow, abnormal progression of labor, is the most commonly reported indication for primary cesareans, accounting directly for approximately 50% of all nulliparous cesareans and indirectly for most repeat cesareans. Diagnoses of dystocia are most often based on ambiguously defined delays in cervical dilation beyond which labor augmentation is deemed justified. Dystocia is known to be over-diagnosed which undoubtedly contributes to contemporary oxytocin augmentation and primary cesarean rates. Labor attendants would benefit from an evidence-based framework for homogenous labor assessment. To this end, we present a physiologically-based partograph for `in-hospital' use in assessing the labors of low-risk, term, nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset. This tool incorporates several evidence-based labor principles that combine to give needed clinical meaning to `dystocia' as a diagnosis. It is hypothesized that our partograph will safely limit diagnoses of dystocia to only the slowest 10% of low-risk, nulliparous women. This should, in turn, safe-guard against unnecessary, injudicious, and potentially harmful use of oxytocin when labor is already adequately progressing while also indicating when its use may be justified. We further hypothesize that cesareans performed for dystocia in this population will decrease by ≥ 50%. No significant influence on other labor process or labor outcome variables is expected with
Full Text Available This research explains the effects of gender, parents’ education, parent’s income, the number of siblings, childbirth order, the presence of parents and patriarchal kinship system on the probability of child labor in Palembang. This study, especially, investigates the probability of children age 7-15 years old to be a worker. It is found that factors that significantly affect child labor are gender, the number of siblings, childbirth order, the presence of parents and patriarchal system. However, parents’ education and income are found to be insignificant in affecting the probability of child labor in Palembang.
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). 42.9 Section 42.9 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.9 Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). (a) The Assistant Secretary for ESA shall designate ESA Compliance Officers as Farm Labor Specialists (Specialists...
Full Text Available The study presents current state of the national labor market and highlights its main trends. We have substantiated the necessity for building institutional support to the labor market in order to meet the needs of Ukrainian economy for innovative development in integrated environment. Measures for promotion of labor market in Ukraine should be: systematization of indicators evaluating its effectiveness; involvement in the assessment of both domestic and foreign experts; permanently identify weaknesses in the institutional support labor market; improving the infrastructure of the labor market. Of particular interest in promoting the efficient functioning of the labor market include the adoption of the concept that would provide incentives for innovative development of institutional support for the labor market. Important for rebirth of man's relation to labor should belong to such institutions as education, culture, family and church. Strategy for the development of effective national labor market should be based on the innovation focus of its institutions, to increase the competitiveness of the workforce and increasing the efficiency of its use in the region.
Federico Nahuel Dalponte Roibás
Full Text Available An analysis of Argentina’s legislation regarding the regulation, control and sanction of business activity related to unregistered labor, concerning the laws 26.940 and 26.941. A consideration of the results since the year 2003 and the alternative proposals in the light of union representation within the company and the improper stability of the private worker..
... certificates of student-learners at wages lower than the minimum wage applicable under section 6 of the Act... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... service establishments. (b) Definitions. The regulations in § 520.2 of this chapter define “student...
Rockwell, Kimberly Lovett; Gilroy, Alexis
Telemedicine is a growing and important platform for medical delivery in the emergency department. Emergency telemedicine outlays often confront and conflict with important federal healthcare regulations. Because of this, academic medical centers, critical access hospitals, and other providers interested in implementing emergency telemedicine have often delayed or forgone such services due to reasonable fears of falling out of compliance with regulatory restrictions imposed by the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act ("EMTALA"). This article offers insights into methods for implementing emergency telemedicine services while maintaining EMTALA compliance. Critical analysis of EMTALA and its attendant regulations. The primary means of ensuring EMTALA compliance while implementing emergency telemedicine programs include incorporating critical clinical details into the services contracts and implementing robust written policies that anticipate division of labor issues, the need for backup coverage, triaging, patient transfer protocols, and credentialing issues. With adequate up-front due diligence and meaningful contracting, hospitals and telemedicine providers can avoid common EMTALA liability pitfalls.
This study attempts to bring together two lines of enquiry into teacher emotion, emotional labor and emotion regulation, arguing that the process of teachers' emotional labor is their regulation of feelings and expressions to achieve professional goals. Through the analysis of qualitative data collected from two projects concerning teacher emotion…
A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)
textabstractIn exploring the impact of tax policy on labor-market performance, the paper first investigates how tax reform impacts labor supply and equilibrium unemployment in representative agent models. The impact of tax policy on labor market performance depends importantly on various other
Radcliffe, S A
To cover subsistence requirements, peasant women from the Peruvian Andes increasingly are being forced to engage in income-generating activities, including domestic service, marketing, manufacturing, and herding. In many cases, recruitment into waged labor involves migration from rural communities. Case studies of the placement of peasant women in external labor markets illustrate the complex micro- and macro-level factors that determine the mix of productive and reproductive labor. The sexual division of labor in the domestic economy and community is the critical in regulating the length of absence of peasant women from the home, the types of jobs taken, and the migratory destination. In 1 such case study, 56 women from the village of Kallarayan (all of whom had migrated at some point) were interviewed during 13 months of fieldwork in 1984-85. There is no paid employment in Kallarayan, so 14% of the village's population is involved in migration to urban areas or commercial agricultural areas in jungle valleys at any point. Male migration is high in the 11-40-year age group, but becomes seasonal once men marry. Female migrants tend to remain away from the village for longer periods, but are almost exclusively single. Recruitment of peasant women into paid labor is achieved by 5 types of agents: family, godparents and friends, authority figures, recruiting agents, and employers. Peasant girls under 15 years of age tend to be allocated to external labor markets (largely domestic services) by parents and godparents; after 15 years, however, when children are considered to reach adulthood, there is a shift toward self-motivated migration or recruitment by employers and agents. The eldest daughter typically enters migration at age 14 years and sacrifices her education, while younger siblings remain in the home longer. In all but the poorest families, female migration for waged labor ends with marriage.
Dyah Maya Nihayah
Full Text Available The wage have impacts on poverty, living standards and the incentive to improve labor productivity (human capital, in particular, for economic growth. Regional decentralization has implications, which, they must be developed regional endowment to get the efficiency in production process. So it is interesting to examine the importance of regional characteristics in the observed variability of regional wage in Indonesia. Based on this idea, the objective of this study is to examine the contribution of regional characteristics to the regional wage differential in Indonesia. Data supplied by the Indonesian Central Bureau of Statistics during 2003 – 2007. In this study used 3 model; Ordinary Least Square (OLS, Co-Varian Model and Generalized Least Squared (GLS. Then, the most effective model based on the smallest standard error was chosen to estimate regional characteristics in the observed variability of regional wage inIndonesia. The result showed that the regional characteristics, particularly skilled or unskilled labor, play an important role in determining the wage differentials in region. The empirical evidence presented that regional economic growth and the existing of high skilled labor in labor market have positive impact toward spatial wage. Then, skilled labor and unskilled will give negative influence in regional wage. The points out is laboring existence with level education or skilled level, despite not works or was working have influence toward the regional wage. Therefore, labor's policy is expected gets focused on given specialization corresponds to that region characteristics.
Smart, J E; Casco, R R
This paper provides a general overview on foreign contract labor. The growth in the use of foreign contract labor is described with reference to other types of international labor movements such as 1) illegal, undocumented, or irregular migration; 2) free migration; and 3) permanent settlement migration. Within this general context, the various national advantages and disadvantages of contract labor are outlined. Particular issues like the role of trade unions and the likely future international labor circulation are noted. The 1984 World Labour Report estimates a global stock of almost 22 million foreign workers. Despite lack of reliable data, the size of irregular labor flows is considerable. More than 4 million undocumented workers, primarily Mexicans, can be found in the US alone. Other major flows of illegal labor go from China to Hong Kong, Malaysia to Singapore, Columbia to Venezuela, and poor Arab countries to oil-exporting countries in the Middle East. Laws are often poorly enforced and contradictory. Employers often actively recruit illegal migrants. While permanent migration was formerly the primary source of foreign workers, the numbers migrating in this manner are decreasing significantly. In absolute terms, host countries gain considerably more through the use of contract labor than sending countries. The pervasive commitment of national governments to economic growth is a prime consideration in the decision to import foreign labor. In general, trade unions have created an environment wherein the use of foreign labor in the formal as opposed to the informal labor market is more difficult. The disadvantages of labor export include the costs of family separation, worker exploitation, and cultural alienation. Remittances constitute the most tangible return of labor export. In many countries they have made a very considerable impact on the balance of payments deficit.
Office of Personnel Management — The Labor Agreement Information Retrieval System (LAIRS) is a database containing historical information on labor-management relations in the Federal Government. It...
Full Text Available This paper presents a report on child labor in the U.S. that reviewed the positive and negative aspects of work for youth. Working was found to provide young people with valuable lessons about responsibility, punctuality, interacting with people and learning about money management, increasing self-esteem and helping them become independent and skilled. Research findings suggested that working during high school may contribute to increased rates of employment and better wages up to a decade after high school completion. Research concerning the hazards associated with work indicated that, each year, tens of thousands of young people are seen in hospital emergency departments for work-related injuries, hundreds require hospitalization, and more than 70 die of work-related injuries. Long work hours during the school year were associated with problem behaviors. The report points out some important questions: updating regulations on allowable work hours, eliminating less stringent regulation of agricultural work, revising outdated rules against hazardous work, developing and implementing a comprehensive plan for monitoring the injuries, illnesses, and hazards, building workplace health and safety information into school-based programs, and developing criteria for designating "commendable workplaces for youth."
Full Text Available Korea and the United States declared the start of negotiations for the establishment of a free trade agreement. The FTA will include investment chapter. That means the Korea-US BIT (Bilateral Investment Treaty talk, which has been deadlocked since 1998, resumes as a part of FTA negotiations. The FTA investment chapter will be based on the US model BIT, which has been updated in 2004. The updated BIT version includes labor clause which provides that parties should not weaken labor standards in an effort to attract foreign investment. This clause is grounded on the criticism raised by labor groups which asserts that competition among countries to attract foreign investment leads to bidding wars in labor standards. No solid evidence is found in support of the hypothesis that foreign investors favor countries with lower labor standards. Nonetheless, some countries have offered special incentives to investors that limit labor rights in the belief that doing so would help attract foreign investment, especially in export processing or special economic zones. In this regard, the Korea's Act on free economic zones which provides exceptional labor standards to foreign invested enterprise in those zones may become an issue in reaching the FTA. This article contemplates the "not lowering labor standards" provision in the US BIT model and its implications on the FTA talks with the US.
van Klaveren, C.; van Praag, B.; Maassen van den Brink, H.
Back to overview Collective Labor Supply and Housework with Non-Participation of Women in Paid Labor (with B. van Praag and H. Maassen van den Brink) We estimate a collective time allocation model, where two-earner households behave as if the spouses maximize a household utility function, and where
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labor organization. 901.19 Section 901.19 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD GENERAL Meanings of Terms As Used in This Chapter § 901.19 Labor organization. Labor organization means any employee organization accorded recognition as the...
Dolores Virgen de la Cruz Lozada
Full Text Available Through this study the analysis of a pertinent situation in the organization will be undertaken, by means of the application of a new structure from February of the current year, where the functions of each charge are not defined yet in each of the cases. It also serves as a training way for each directive in the confrontation of the suitability evaluation, in the respectfulness regarding the objective of their job, and in the accomplishment of the mission; what constitutes the main objective of this work, and also assessing the consequences that will originate the lack of knowledge of the labor competitions and its relation with the abilities of every individual who occuppies the job in question. In this work it is used as a method the observation, related with the analysis - synthesis, action - participation and observation - participant and also techniques such as: interview and surveys. The results are in the inexperience of those involved in their functions: labor competition, which gives the difficulty to face the DNA (determination of the learning necessities of the human resources and as a consequence the Training Plan doesn't solve all the workers expectations.
Psilopanagioti, Aristea; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Mourtou, Efstratia; Niakas, Dimitris
There is increasing evidence that psychological constructs, such as emotional intelligence and emotional labor, play an important role in various organizational outcomes in service sector. Recently, in the "emotionally charged" healthcare field, emotional intelligence and emotional labor have both emerged as research tools, rather than just as theoretical concepts, influencing various organizational parameters including job satisfaction. The present study aimed at investigating the relationships, direct and/or indirect, between emotional intelligence, the surface acting component of emotional labor, and job satisfaction in medical staff working in tertiary healthcare. Data were collected from 130 physicians in Greece, who completed a series of self-report questionnaires including: a) the Wong Law Emotional Intelligence Scale, which assessed the four dimensions of emotional intelligence, i.e. Self-Emotion Appraisal, Others' Emotion Appraisal, Use of Emotion, and Regulation of Emotion, b) the General Index of Job Satisfaction, and c) the Dutch Questionnaire on Emotional Labor (surface acting component). Emotional intelligence (Use of Emotion dimension) was significantly and positively correlated with job satisfaction (r=.42, peffect was moderated by gender. Apart from its mediating role, surface acting was also a moderator of the emotional intelligence-job satisfaction relationship. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that surface acting could predict job satisfaction over and above emotional intelligence dimensions. The results of the present study may contribute to the better understanding of emotion-related parameters that affect the work process with a view to increasing the quality of service in the health sector.
Child Labor: Labor Can Strengthen Its Efforts To Protect Children Who Work. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, Committee on Appropriations, U.S. Senate.
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.
Occupational safety and health data and labor statistics were evaluated in order to update a 1991 report on child labor. Data were from the Bureau of Labor Statistics; Department of Health and Human Services; National Institutes for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH); the Department of Labor's (DOL's) investigations database and individual…
A. V. Vasilyeva
Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to define labor losses of the Amur region because of the competition of regions. Each region, directly or indirectly, seeks to attract and keep in its territory highly skilled labor force. Shortage of labor force slows down development of the economy of the region. Thus, because of the depopulation, the demand for the produced and consumed goods and services in the region is decreasing. The decrease in demand influences tax reduction and non-tax revenues in budgets of various levels, reduction of employment of labor resources, increase in unemployment, increase in cost of products and rendered services, reduction of the gross regional product, growth of social tension in the society.Under conditions of the competition between regions for labor resources, other things being equal, the outflow of labor resources occurs from regions with a rather low level of compensation to regions with a rather high level of the salary. At the same time, the population leaves, as a rule, the provincial and less developed regions and concentrates in the largest metropolitan areas. In the competition for labor resources some regions win and get essential advantages in social and economic development, others sustain considerable losses. Statistical methods of analyzing social and economic phenomena and processes were used as tools for carrying out the research: indexes of dynamics, structure, and tabular and graphic methods of visualization of quantitative data.As a result of the conducted statistical research, it was found out that the population of the Amur region decreases annually, at the same time the decline in the population of the region is long-term and steady in nature. Over 25 years the Amur region lost population amounting to the population of the whole city. The present work shows that the tendency of demographic aging of the population characteristic of many regions of the country is observed in the Amur region. Decrease
Razvan Catalin Dobrea
Full Text Available The employability of of graduates is today one of the major problems both of universities and economical environment. Also, employability, inserting optimum professional and social life is a problem of each graduate. It finds today, that a large part of are young drop out of school and thus possibility of qualify at a high level or have difficulty entering the labor market. European Commission recommends for member states reforming education, especially of the university so as to ensure the professionalization of the young people, developing their professional skills and transversal, harnessing their potential, enhance the relevance of education for youth and the labor market. Bologna Declaration shows that employability (ability to engage, to maintain the service and mobility in the labor market is defining higher education, whose role is to familiarize students with the skills and competencies that individuals need to place on the job. (Bologna, 1999 This paper addresses the issue of employability of higher economic studies graduates, and analyzes a positive experience resulting from the provision of complex information, guidance, advice and orientation to students in POSDRU "Practice today to become manager of tomorrow". The paper presents the results of a complex study conducted on the impact that these services have had on the students involved, from three perspectives: students, employers, who guided activity students at the university level. The results show that there is a direct relationship between the increase in the number of students who have benefited from guidance, counseling and professional development appropriate to their needs and the number who have developed personal skills to substantiate decisions regarding their career paths and educational because of of information, advice, guidance provided in the project. These services have helped students to develop, to know better, know their own skills and abilities and to focus
Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov
The issue of gender inequality in the labor market affects all world countries to some extent. As salary is the basis of population’s sources of income in Russia, unequal pay to men and women for equal work can trigger gender discrimination in the labor market and beyond. The article focusses on the gender analysis of the Russian labor market. It focuses on conjunctural conditions of the labor market in a gender aspect, socio-economic characteristics of men and women as subjects of the labor ...
Cost accounting typically allocates indirect labor cost to cost object based on direct labor hours. The allocation process implicitly assumes that indirect labor costs vary proportionally with direct labor hours. The assumption of a linear relationship between indirect and direct labor is particularly suspicious at low production volume levels because there tends to be a fixed component in indirect labor. The linearity assumption is also challenged by recent increasing complexity of indirect ...
... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labor costs. 140.906 Section 140.906 Highways FEDERAL... Railroad Work § 140.906 Labor costs. (a) General. (1) Salaries and wages, at actual or average rates, and... reimbursable when supported by adequate records. This shall include labor costs associated with preliminary...
..., or (iii) A particular employee welfare benefit plan, as defined in section 3(1) of the Act, meets the..., officers or employees of the Internal Revenue Service may disclose the following returns and return information (as defined by section 6103(b)) to officers and employees of the Department of Labor or the...
Cohen, Wayne R; Friedman, Emanuel A
In the 1930s, investigators in the US, Germany and Switzerland made the first attempts to quantify the course of labor in a clinically meaningful way. They emphasized the rupture of membranes as a pivotal event governing labor progress. Attention was also placed on the total number of contractions as a guide to normality. Beginning in the 1950s, Friedman determined that changes in cervical dilatation and fetal station over time were the most useful parameters for the assessment of labor progress. He showed all normal labors had similar patterns of dilatation and descent, differing only in the durations and slopes of their component parts. These observations led to the formulation of criteria that elevated the assessment of labor from a rather arbitrary exercise to one guided by scientific objectivity. Researchers worldwide confirmed the basic nature of labor curves and validated their functionality. This system allows us to quantify the effects of parity, analgesia, maternal obesity, prior cesarean, maternal age, and fetal presentation and position on labor. It permits analysis of outcomes associated with labor aberrations, quantifies the effectiveness of treatments and assesses the need for cesarean delivery. Also, dysfunctional labor patterns serve as indicators of short- and long-term risks to offspring. We still lack the necessary translational research to link the physiologic manifestations of uterine contractility with changes in dilatation and descent. Recent efforts to interpret electrohysterographic patterns hold promise in this regard, as does preliminary exploration into the molecular basis of dysfunctional labor. For now, the clinician is best served by a system of labor assessment proposed more than 60 years ago and embellished upon in considerable detail since.
... the covered occupational safety and health issues as defined by the Secretary of Labor in 29 CFR 1902... Section 1952.110 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... requirements of part 1902. Under this legislation all occupational safety and health standards and amendments...
... is an employee welfare benefit plan as defined at section 3(1) of ERISA (29 U.S.C. 1002(1)) and 29... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974...
Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean
Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…
García-Pozo, A; Moro-Tejedor, M N; Medina-Torres, M
To describe the dimensions with the greatest impact on the job satisfaction and work environment in the nursing staff in a tertiary hospital. Cross-sectional analytical and observational study, carried out in nurses with a full-time job. The instrument used was a questionnaire adapted from the satisfaction survey of the Basque Country (Spain) Outcome variables: global evaluation of work environment and job satisfaction. characteristics of individuals and organizations. An overall and by professional categories analysis has been made by a multivariate regression. 1676 questionnaires were received. Average age: 40.8 years (9.7) Seniority: Median: 12 years (IR: 4-20). The average overall evaluation of work environment was 5.9 (2) and of the job satisfaction 6.7 (2). The variables that explain the work environment are: physical conditions, training, satisfaction, promotion, organization, relationships with colleagues, knowledge of the directive objectives, adequacy of management decisions. Job satisfaction is defined by: use of the professional capacity, recognition, organization, satisfaction, information, knowledge of the directive objectives and receptiveness of nursing directive. The overall evaluation of work environment and job satisfaction is good/high overall and by categories, although the dimensions that determine the evaluation are different depending on each category. It is noted that the dimensions that define the work environment are more related to work environment and those which define job satisfaction are more related to individual factors. Copyright 2009 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
... for Listed End Products. As prescribed in 22.1505(a), insert the following provision: Certification... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification Regarding Knowledge of Child Labor for Listed End Products. 52.222-18 Section 52.222-18 Federal Acquisition...
Full Text Available The mobility of labor, defined as responsiveness and adaptation of persons or groups of persons on the challenges of the social and economic environment is therefore a social phenomenon depending on time and space. A high mobility increases opportunities for workers to find a job and employers to find persons with an adequate level of skills, thus boosting employment and economic growth. In recent years, in Romania there has been an accentuation of existing gaps, compared with the European Union countries, as regards the occupational structure of employment. In this context, the paper proposes an analysis of the evolution of labor mobility in the main sectors of the Romanian economy. Also, it was pursued the Markovian modeling of employees’ mobility on the labor market and its forecast in Romania, under the impact of rapid and profound social and economic changes, and the correlation between them as well, with a view to make forecasts of the Romanian economy evolution in the short term.
Full Text Available Low-wage immigrants in the United States, particularly the 8 million unauthorized workers, suffer from widespread labor standards violations. Their protection represents a singular challenge for modestly-resourced federal and state regulators, particularly in an era of record immigration enforcement. Many employers hire the unauthorized, knowingly or unknowingly, because they cannot attract sufficient numbers of authorized workers. An enduring minority, however, prefer to employ unauthorized workers in order to suppress wages and working conditions and to gain an advantage over their competitors. Their business model depends on the exploitation of workers who are less likely to complain, organize or pursue other remedies for mistreatment. Exacerbating matters, the unauthorized work disproportionately in jobs to which certain labor standards do not apply, and they belong to labor unions at lower rates than the US workforce as a whole (Schmitt 2010. Employers, in turn, face intense competition and pressure to cut costs. In addition, intensive immigration enforcement can make employees more vulnerable to retaliation for exercising their rights and less likely to challenge abuses (Cho and Smith 2013. This paper analyzes labor standards enforcement in light of the challenges posed by bad-faith employers, the historically high population of low-wage immigrant laborers (particularly the unauthorized, and record spending on immigration enforcement. It draws from a comprehensive report titled Labor Standards Enforcement and Low-Wage Immigrants: Creating an Effective Enforcement System (Kerwin and McCabe 2011. The paper identifies gaps in protection in the legal and regulatory labor standards framework, with a particular focus on the US Department of Labor’s (DOL’s Wage and Hour Division (WHD which enforces the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA. It argues that labor standards should be strengthened and enforcement resources bolstered. However
Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Coe, Neil
This article examines the circumstances under which CSR initiatives facilitate and/or constrain labor agency in GPNs. Using a case study of Nike’s CSR approach in the football manufacturing industry of Pakistan, we explore how the CSR measures advocated in a new, emerging policy paradigm on CSR...... in GPNs affect labor agency at Nike’s main football supplier factory in Pakistan. We argue that international companies may undermine labor agency in GPNs through their sourcing policies, but that their CSR policies could have a potential, albeit limited, positive impact on labor agency in GPNs which...
Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy; StLouis, Derek; Lehr, Marcus A; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Elly N; Arenas-Hernandez, Marcia
Labor resembles an inflammatory response that includes secretion of cytokines/chemokines by resident and infiltrating immune cells into reproductive tissues and the maternal/fetal interface. Untimely activation of these inflammatory pathways leads to preterm labor, which can result in preterm birth. Preterm birth is a major determinant of neonatal mortality and morbidity; therefore, the elucidation of the process of labor at a cellular and molecular level is essential for understanding the pathophysiology of preterm labor. Here, we summarize the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the physiological or pathological activation of labor. We review published literature regarding the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the cervix, myometrium, fetal membranes, decidua and the fetus in late pregnancy and labor at term and preterm. Accumulating evidence suggests that innate immune cells (neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells) mediate the process of labor by releasing pro-inflammatory factors such as cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases. Adaptive immune cells (T-cell subsets and B cells) participate in the maintenance of fetomaternal tolerance during pregnancy, and an alteration in their function or abundance may lead to labor at term or preterm. Also, immune cells that bridge the innate and adaptive immune systems (natural killer T (NKT) cells and dendritic cells (DCs)) seem to participate in the pathophysiology of preterm labor. In conclusion, a balance between innate and adaptive immune cells is required in order to sustain pregnancy; an alteration of this balance will lead to labor at term or preterm. PMID:24954221
Yazdkhasti, Mansoreh; Pirak, Arezoo
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Lavender essence inhalation on severity of labor pain and duration of labor. This single-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 pregnant women in two groups. The experimental group received 2 drops of Lavender essence inhaled at three stages (4-5, 6-7, 8-9 cm cervical dilation) and severity of the labor pain and duration of labor was measured before and after intervention. The control group was treated with distilled water as a placebo in the similar ways, too. The results showed that difference in the labor pain before and after intervention in two groups was significant (P = 0/001). But there was no difference in mean duration of the active phase and the second stage of labor between the two groups. Lavender essence aromatherapy may be an effective therapeutic option for pain management for women in labor. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
This report develops quantitative labor productivity adjustment factors for the performance of regulatory impact analyses (RIAs). These factors will allow analysts to modify ''new construction'' labor costs to account for changes in labor productivity due to differing work environments at operating reactors and at reactors with construction in progress. The technique developed in this paper relies on the Energy Economic Data Base (EEDB) for baseline estimates of the direct labor hours and/or labor costs required to perform specific tasks in a new construction environment. The labor productivity cost factors adjust for constraining conditions such as working in a radiation environment, poor access, congestion and interference, etc., which typically occur on construction tasks at operating reactors and can occur under certain circumstances at reactors under construction. While the results do not portray all aspects of labor productivity, they encompass the major work place conditions generally discernible by the NRC analysts and assign values that appear to be reasonable within the context of industry experience. 18 refs
A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)
... employee welfare benefit plan as defined in section 3(1) of the Act and § 2510.3-1; (b) A plan which is... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR MINIMUM STANDARDS FOR EMPLOYEE PENSION BENEFIT PLANS UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY...
César Eloy Díaz Salazar
Full Text Available Numerosos agentes intervienen en la gestión de la incapacidad laboral, tanto temporal como permanente, y se hace necesario una actuación sinérgica entre todos ellos; del mismo modo, se considera que existen posibles actuaciones o cambios que pueden ayudar a disminuir el gasto y duración de los procesos, y proceder a la reincorporación laboral lo antes posible y de la forma más beneficiosa para el paciente, y, por ende, para la sociedad.
Norwood, J L
In the decades ahead, the US labor force will reflect changes in the industrial structure, with declines in some manufacturing industries and expansion in service industries. The services sector is so diverse that the jobs within it cannot be categorized as either high wage or low wage. The service-producing sector employs 85% of professional specialty workers in the US. In general, information on compensation trends indicates that greater increases in compensation have occurred for workers in service-producing as opposed to goods-producing industries. The increase in service sector jobs has created opportunities for women to enter the labor force and, at present, 5 out of 6 women work in this sector compared to fewer than 2 out of 3 men. Productivity growth rates in the service-producing industries vary substantially and are strongly affected by the business cycle. Central to employment opportunities in the years ahead will be the effect of new technology. To date, the aggregate effect of new technology has been increased employment and higher living standards. Although retraining programs should be in place, the scenario of a huge technology-created labor surplus seems unlikely. In fact, a more likely problem is a shortage of labor resulting from earlier labor force withdrawal and demographic aging of the population. Those in the 25-54-year age group will represent a larger share of the labor force in the years ahead. In addition, blacks are expected to account for 20% of the labor force growth in the next decade. Finally, given increasing labor force participation rates among mothers, employers may have to provide more flexible work schedules, assistance with day care, and more attractive benefits packages.
Bellussi, F; Alcamisi, L; Guizzardi, G; Parma, D; Pilu, G
To investigate the usefulness of visual biofeedback using transperineal ultrasound to improve coached pushing during the active second stage of labor in nulliparous women. This was a randomized controlled trial of low-risk nulliparous women in the active second stage of labor. Patients were allocated to either coached pushing aided by visual demonstration on transperineal ultrasound of the progress of the fetal head (sonographic coaching) or traditional coaching. Patients in both groups were coached by an obstetrician for the first 20 min of the active second stage of labor and, subsequently, the labor was supervised by a midwife. Primary outcomes were duration of the active second stage and increase in the angle of progression at the end of the coaching process. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of operative delivery and complications of labor. Forty women were recruited into the study. Those who received sonographic coaching had a shorter active phase of the second stage (30 min (interquartile range (IQR), 24-42 min) vs 45 min (IQR, 39-55 min); P = 0.01) and a greater increase in the angle of progression (13.5° (IQR, 9-20°) vs 5° (IQR, 3-9.5°); P = 0.01) in the first 20 min of the active second stage of labor than did those who had traditional coaching. No differences were found in the secondary outcomes between the two groups. Our preliminary data suggest that transperineal ultrasound may be a useful adjunct to coached pushing during the active second stage of labor. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and better define the benefits of this approach. Copyright © 2018 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2018 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Johnson, Brian R
State, county, and local governments are currently facing a myriad of economic issues, based on shrinking tax revenues combined with increased expenditures. Of these, the costs related to defined benefit pension plans are one of the most serious issues facing many public employers. Through a comprehensive review of the existing literature, this article examines how the shift from the defined benefit (DB) to defined contribution (DC) pension plan has the potential to enhance levels of labor unrest due to changes in union militancy, bargaining skills deficits, intra-organizational conflict, and issues related to economic trade-offs. Besides the capacity for immediate and deleterious ramifications in the collective bargaining process, the transition to the DC pension also presents some potentially negative consequences related to human resource management, including changes in the psychological contract, recruitment strategies, employee turnover, and changes in retirement patterns. Recommendations to improve labor relations and human resource management practices in the DC pension environment are also explored.
Full Text Available One of the most severe pains experienced by a woman is that of childbirth. Providing analgesia for labor has always been a challenge more so because of the myths and controversies surrounding labor. It is imperative to understand the pain transmission during various stages of labor in order to select a proper technique for providing labor analgesia. The adverse effects of labor pain are numerous and affect both the mother as well as the fetus. Currently lumbar epidural is considered to be the gold standard technique for labor analgesia. Local anaesthetics like bupivacaine and ropivacaine are commonly used and adjuvants like clonidine, fentanyl and neostigmine have been extensively studied. However, despite being so popular, epidural analgesia is not without complications, with hypotension being the most common. Other complications include accidental dural puncture, infection, intravascular placement, high block and epidural hematoma. Other neuraxial techniques include continuous caudal analgesia, and combined spinal epidural analgesia. The numerous studies investigating the various aspects of this method have also served to dispel various myths surrounding epidural analgesia like increased incidence of cesarean section and instrumental delivery, prolongation of labor and future back pain. The future of labor analgesia lies in the incorporation of ultrasound in identifying the epidural space helping in proper catheter placement. The keywords "labor epidural" in the PUBMED revealed a total of 5018 articles with 574 review articles and 969 clinical trials. The relevant articles along with their references were extensively studied.
Full Text Available The globalization of the world economy has opened up new possibilities for cross-border labor organizing. In fact, several U.S. unions are working together with unions from Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, Japan, South Korea, and many European nations. For example, over the last several years, UNITE (Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees, the AFL-CIO, and the international garment workers trade secretariat have worked directly with maquiladora workers in Honduras and the Dominican Republic. These efforts led to the formation of several labor unions and the first contracts ever negotiated in the maquiladoras in the Dominican Republic. In addition, labor rights and solidarity organizations, like the Campaign for Labor Rights, Witness for Peace, and the US/Guatemala Labor Education Project (US/GLEP, along with many other groups, have also played key roles in the formation of maquiladora unions in Nicaragua and Guatemala.
.... Department of Labor, which is the point of contact for the NAALC and the Labor Chapters of U.S. FTAs. The... of the U.S. Department of Labor serves as the U.S. point of contact under the FTAs listed above. The... for travel expenses. Authority: The authority for this notice is granted by the FACA (5 U.S.C. App. 2...
Alan B. Krueger
This paper reviews the theoretical arguments for and against linking international labor standards to trade. Based on theory alone it is difficult to generalize about the effect of labor standards on efficiency and equity. Some economists have argued that international labor standards are merely disguised protectionism. An evaluation of determinants of support for legislation that would ban imports to the United States of goods made with child labor provides little support for the prevailing ...
Gal-Ezer, Miri; Tidhar, Chava
This study focuses on "Independence Day", an episode of "Arab Labor" (first season, 2008), a pioneer bilingual Hebrew-Arabic satirical Israeli TV series, written by Sayed Kashua, an Arab-Israeli author and journalist. "Arab Labor" was a breakthrough in the Israeli popular TV scape, where, as a rule, Arab-Israeli…
This theme issue of the "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at labor issues. The first article examines the unionization efforts of the Wobblies in the United States at the beginning of the 20th century. The second article explores the protests of the Luddites during Britain's Industrial Revolution. The final article looks at whether…
Agénor, Pierre-Richard; Nabli, Mustapha K.; Yousef, Tarik
A general equilibrium model is used to study the impact of labor market policies on growth, employment, urban inequality, and rural welfare in labor-exporting countries in the Middle East and North Africa. Various experiments are conducted, such as a reduction in payroll taxation, cuts in public......-enhancing job creation in the region, labor market reforms must take account of general equilibrium effects, including crowding-in effects on private investment and variations in income remittances and international migration patterns. Finally, we argue that labor market reforms should be viewed as a component...... of a more comprehensive program of structural reforms aimed at spurring growth and employment...
... and Service Contract Act-Price Adjustment. 52.222-44 Section 52.222-44 Federal Acquisition Regulations... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-44 Fair Labor Standards Act and Service Contract Act—Price... Contract Act—Price Adjustment (SEP 2009) (a) This clause applies to both contracts subject to area...
This study investigates the effects of early smoking on educational attainment and labor market performance. The results show that early smoking adversely affects educational attainment and initial labor market performance, but only for males. The effect of early smoking on initial labor market
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radiofrequency device defined. 2.801 Section 2... MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Marketing of Radio-frequency Devices § 2.801 Radiofrequency device defined. As used in this part, a radiofrequency device is any device which in its operation is capable of...
Charles, Lenore A; Korejwa, Elise; Kent, Donna Curtis; Raniero, Debbie
To discover evidence for defining the registered nurse's (RN's) role in the management of epidural analgesia in the labor and delivery setting. The Labor Epidural Nurse Safety (LENS) study consisted of two parts. The first part was a 10-year retrospective review of the outcomes of 2,568 laboring women for whom epidural catheters had been placed and verified by an anesthesiologist or certified registered nurse anesthetist, then continuous epidural infusion initiated, and basal rate or patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) dose increased, if needed, within specified parameters by specially trained labor and delivery RNs. The second part compared the outcomes of the neonates born to the 2,568 women in the first part of the study with neonates born to mothers who received PCEA with a continuous infusion initiated and managed exclusively by anesthesiologists and/or certified registered nurse anesthetists at two control sites. Maternal outcomes were quantified by incidences of clinically significant hypotension and sentinel events, such as respiratory distress, cardio/respiratory distress, loss of consciousness, and seizures. Evidence of neonatal outcomes was collected by comparing Apgar scores. No sentinel events occurred, and there was no increase in maternal hypotensive events in the RN-managed group. There were no statistically significant differences in Apgar scores between the experimental and control groups. Specially trained RNs can safely initiate continuous infusions and increase the basal rate of epidural analgesia infusions or PCEA doses administered to laboring women, after insertion and confirmation of correct catheter placement by a qualified anesthesia provider, without adversely affecting maternal and fetal/neonatal outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Boeri, T.; van Ours, J.C.
Most labor economics textbooks pay little attention to actual labor markets, taking as reference a perfectly competitive market in which losing a job is not a big deal.The Economics of Imperfect Labor Markets is the only textbook to focus on imperfect labor markets and to provide a systematic
Meng, Marie-Louise; Smiley, Richard
The availability of safe, effective analgesia during labor has become an expectation for women in most of the developed world over the past two or three decades. More than 60% of women in the United States now receive some kind of neuraxial procedure during labor. This article is a brief review of the advantages and techniques of neuraxial labor analgesia along with the recent advances and controversies in the field of labor analgesia. For the most part, we have aimed the discussion at the non-anesthesiologist to give other practitioners a sense of the state of the art and science of labor analgesia in the second decade of the 21st century.
Peltier Morgan R
Full Text Available Abstract During pregnancy there is an alteration in maternal immunity within the uterus where innate, proinflammatory immune responses are tightly regulated to prevent immunological rejection of the fetal allograft. Disruption of the delicate balance of cytokines by bacteria or other factors increases the production of proinflammatory cytokines at the maternal-fetal interface and activates the parturition mechanism prematurely. Despite years of searching, there is still no broadly effective strategy for preventing preterm labor and most therapies are directed at inhibiting myometrial contractions and improving neonatal outcome. Recent studies with progestins and interleukin-10 (IL-10, however, are showing promise in randomized clinical trials and animal studies. Furthermore, the identification of the Toll-like receptors as upstream mediators of inflammation may offer alternative therapeutic targets for preventing this common pregnancy complication.
Owusu, V.; Yerfi Fosu, K.; Burger, C.P.J.
This paper quantifies the effects of the determinants of intersectoral labor mobility and the effect of intersectoral labor mobility on deforestation in Ghana over the period 1970–2008. A cointegration and error correction modeling approach is employed. The empirical results show that labor mobility
Full Text Available Background: Research has examined how the gendered household division of labor may deter the transition to second birth. However, little research has investigated how workplace norms influence men's household work. Objective: This paper takes into account labor market structure, workplace norms, and the legal environment governing working conditions to contextualize men's contribution to household labor and its effect on transition to second birth. Methods: Using data from the Japanese Longitudinal Survey of Adults in the 21st Century (2002 Cohort, we employ fixed-effects models to estimate the effect of workplace norms on men's contribution to household work and the effect of men's household work hours on transition to second birth. Results: Japanese male university graduates in large firms do a smaller share of household labor than other men. These men are subject to workplace norms prevalent in firm-internal labor markets, which have been supported by Japanese Supreme Court rulings. These norms influence men's allocation of time between the workplace and the home. Moreover, analysis of the transition to second birth indicates that husband's share of household work is an important predictor of second birth, especially for dual-earner couples. Conclusions: Our empirical results suggest that unless changes are made in Japanese employment law and workplace norms, dual-earner couples in particular will continue to face difficulties proceeding to a second birth. Contribution: This paper demonstrates how the economic and cultural context can create disincentives for men to contribute to household labor, which in turn lowers the probability of transition to second birth.
Lee, Wonki; Kim, DaeEun
Dynamic task allocation is a necessity in a group of robots. Each member should decide its own task such that it is most commensurate with its current state in the overall system. In this work, the response threshold model is applied to a dynamic foraging task. Each robot employs a task switching function based on the local task demand obtained from the surrounding environment, and no communication occurs between the robots. Each individual member has a constant-sized task demand history that reflects the global demand. In addition, it has response threshold values for all of the tasks and manages the task switching process depending on the stimuli of the task demands. The robot then determines the task to be executed to regulate the overall division of labor. This task selection induces a specialized tendency for performing a specific task and regulates the division of labor. In particular, maintaining a history of the task demands is very effective for the dynamic foraging task. Various experiments are performed using a simulation with multiple robots, and the results show that the proposed algorithm is more effective as compared to the conventional model. PMID:28555031
This article examines the opportunities and challenges that private social standards pose for labor organizations. It explores different labor responses to private social standards in East African cut flower industries. The analysis incorporates the concept of labor agency in global value chain a...... at production sites. However, labor organizations' ability to seriously challenge the prevailing governance structure of the cut flower value chain appears extremely limited.......This article examines the opportunities and challenges that private social standards pose for labor organizations. It explores different labor responses to private social standards in East African cut flower industries. The analysis incorporates the concept of labor agency in global value chain...... analysis and reveals how retailer-driven chains offer more room for labor organizations to exercise their agency than the traditional cut flower value chains. Labor organizations have been able to influence social standard setting and implementation, and to use standards to further labor representation...
The different forms and geographic locations in which the expanded incorporation of Third World women into wage labor occur may be closely interrelated. 2 such instances examined in this article are: 1) the recruitment of young women, without previous labor force experience, into the new manufacturing and service jobs generated by export-led manufacturing in several Caribbean and Asian countries; and 2) the employment of immigrant women in large cities of highly industrialized countries which have undergone basic economic restructuring. While many of these women may have become domestic or international migrants as a function of their husbands' or family's migration, the more fundamental processes of this restructuring are the ones promoting the formation of a supply of women migrants and a demand for this type of labor. Examples are the shift of plants and offices to Third World countries, and the demand for immigrant women labor in large cities within the US. The latter is a manifestation of the general shift to a service economy, the downgrading of manufacturing, partly to keep it competitive with overseas plants, and the direct and indirect demand for low-wage labor generated by the expansion of management and control functions centered in these large cities, and necessary for the regulation of the global economy. The feminization of job supply and the need to secure a politically adequate labor supply, which combine to create a demand for the type of labor represented by migrant women, suggest that gender has to be considered in conjunction with the structural arrangements and that gender by itself cannot adequately describe the nature of migrant labor.
El estrés laboral se define como las nocivas reacciones físicas y emocionales que ocurren cuando las exigencias del trabajo no igualan las capacidades, los recursos o necesidades del anestesiólogo. Cuando éste se torna excesivo superando la tolerancia del organismo puede derivar en graves consecuencias como desgaste en la salud, actuación profesionalmente pobre, repercusión en la seguridad del paciente y en la vida familiar. Sobre la salud pueden derivar en enfermedades físicas entre las que ...
Full Text Available La cárcel es un ambiente laboral con especificidad propia. Se analizan lascondiciones laborales de los agentes penitenciarios y las relaciones internas con losdemás protagonistas con relación a la potencial o real peligrosidad que define esteambiente de trabajo. Se analizan tres temas claves: las requisas, la arbitrariedad delos reglamentos y la actitud frente a los conflictos internos. Se trata de aportarconocimiento alrededor de un lugar vacío de conocimiento y de políticas públicasrelativas.
Wehrle, Edmund F.
Presents a concise and interesting overview of the rise and extension of labor activity during the New Deal. Labor took advantage of Roosevelt's pro-union policies to consolidate their power and forever transform the lives of working men and women. Discusses improvements in working conditions, wages, and benefits. (MJP)
S N Lebedev
Full Text Available The article deals with important economic and sociological problems taking into account their relevance to economics and sociology of labor as two independent sciences. The author suggests some demarcation boundaries of the concepts relevant to contemporary life within these two disciplines.
Alok Kumar; Emma Underhill
Empirical evidence suggests that girls work more than boys as child labor. In this paper, we develop a model to analyze the causes and consequences of the gender differentials in child labor. In particular, we analyze the effects of gender bias on child labor. We find that when parents can give strictly positive bequests to both boys and girls, son preference on its own does not lead to gender differential in child labor. Only when parents cannot give bequests, girls work more than boys as ch...
Pedersen, Peder J.; Larsen, Mona
of reference. Main emphasis is given to the development in two distint age groups, i.e. people in the first half of the 60s of which many are eligible for early retirement programs and people older than 65 mostly eligible for social security retirement programs. For these two age groups the actual development...... in labor force participation is described based on register data and on labor force surveys along with indicators of cohort relevant changes in education and health. Focus in the paper includes also the gender aspect to accommodate stronger cohort effects for women than for men. The impact on labor force...
Globalization transforms workforces of transnational corporation from predominantly home countrydominated workforces into foreign-dominated, multinational workforces. Thus, the national grounding of trade unions as the key form of labor organizing is challenged by new multinational compositions...... and cross-border relocations of corporate employment affecting working conditions of employees and trade unions in local places. We assume that economic globalization is characterized by expanding global corporate network of vertically and horizontally integrated (equity-based) and disintegrated (nonequity......-based) value chains. We also assume that globalization can both impede and enable labor empowerment. Based on these premises the key question is, how can labor leverage effective power against management in global corporate networks? This question is split into two subquestions: a) How can labor theoretically...
Dr. Adiqa Kausar Kiani
Full Text Available There are many factors related to female entering the labor market. For example, household income, household expenditure, education and status of the head of the household (male/ female. The degree of correlation between each variable and female labor force participation rate varies throughout the country. This study focused on the factors due to which women enter in labor market. Tobit model is used for this analysis. It is concluded that education and household expenditures have positive but insignificant impact on the female LF, whereas household income and head of the household has negative impact on FLF. It is suggested that in order to improve the working condition of female labor force government should take necessary action, for example women education etc.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railway labor organizations. 202.15 Section... EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.15 Railway labor organizations. Railway labor organizations, national in scope... bylaws of such organizations, shall be employers within the meaning of the act. (a) An organization doing...
Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov
Full Text Available The issue of gender inequality in the labor market affects all world countries to some extent. As salary is the basis of population’s sources of income in Russia, unequal pay to men and women for equal work can trigger gender discrimination in the labor market and beyond. The article focusses on the gender analysis of the Russian labor market. It focuses on conjunctural conditions of the labor market in a gender aspect, socio-economic characteristics of men and women as subjects of the labor market and the institutional features of the Russian labor market. The study reveals that, despite lower wages, women, judging by their socio-economic characteristics, possess competitive advantages over men, having higher level of education and better state of health. In addition to horizontal segregation, traditional partition of industries to “male” and “female”, the main causes of gender wage gaps are discriminatory social attitudes and social role of women. The issue to address gender discrimination in the modern Russian society becomes more critical due to contradiction between normative-legal acts, stipulating the gender equality in all spheres of life, and discriminatory social attitudes. The article gives a brief overview of research and practice publications on the problem of gender disparities in labor remuneration and methods to address them in the developed world. The state statistical monitoring of labor productivity in terms of gender is considered as a tool for in-depth study of discrimination
This article presents an interview with Wilma B. Liebman, the new chair of the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB). In this interview, Liebman talks about labor law, academics, and reversing ossification.
Hazard, Cambria Jones; Callister, Lynn Clark; Birkhead, Ana; Nichols, Lisa
To evaluate the qualitative aspects of the Hispanic Labor Friends Initiative. "Hispanic Labor Friends," bilingual Hispanic community women who were themselves mothers, were recruited by clinic and hospital personnel. Women who agreed were educated, received translation certification, and were oriented to the initiative. Pregnant Hispanic immigrant women seen in the health center who met criteria set by the multidisciplinary health care team were assigned a Hispanic Labor Friend by 32 weeks' gestation. Hispanic Labor Friends assisted women with communication with healthcare providers and provided social support. Qualitative evaluation of the program consisted of interviews with several groups: (1) Hispanic immigrant women who had a Hispanic Labor Friend, (2) Hispanic immigrant women who were not in the Hispanic Labor Friends program, (3) Hispanic Labor Friends, (4) healthcare providers for Hispanic women. Data saturation was reached, and data were analyzed by the research team using descriptive qualitative inquiry. The Hispanic immigrant women described positive outcomes from being involved in the Hispanic Labor Friends program, including feeling supported and comforted. "I felt as though my family were at my side." One woman who had standard care said, "It is hard for me to communicate. When I gave birth, the nurses asked me things, and I didn't understand anything. I stayed quiet." One of the nurses who was interviewed said: "I think they [the HLF patients] get better care. Sometimes we think we can communicate with them with their little bit of English and our little bit of Spanish. But you get an HLF and it's a totally different story. We can more adequately tell what's going on with them...They end up getting better care." One Hispanic Labor Friend said, "The women are very appreciative that I was there to help them through a critical time." Women who participated in the study identified the need to have a continuing association with Hispanic Labor Friends in
... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Housing Service Notice of Funds Availability for Section 514 Farm Labor Housing Loans and Section 516 Farm Labor Housing Grants for Off-Farm Housing for Fiscal Year (FY... the timeframe to submit pre-applications for section 514 Farm Labor Housing (FLH) loans and section...
Maswoswe, J J; Stewart, K R; Enigbokan, M; Egbunike, I; Jackson, D M
Several solutions, ranging from increased technician duties to salary raises, automation, and increasing job satisfaction, have been presented in the literature as methods of assuaging the pharmacist shortage. Although a significant portion of pharmacy graduates from American pharmacy colleges are foreign nationals, no marketing strategies have been elucidated in the retention and recruitment of foreign nationals through labor certification. Labor certifications are generally approved by the Secretary of Labor if the following factors have been verified: 1) there are not sufficient United States workers who are able, willing, qualified, and available for employment; and 2) the employment of the foreign national will not adversely affect the wages and working conditions of U.S. workers similarly employed. When properly understood, the labor certification process is a test of the job market where foreigners, by virtue of their skills and qualifications, attain certification which subsequently leads to permanent residency (green card). The objective of this report is to elucidate the tedious yet effective method of retaining American-educated foreign nationals through labor certification.
Full Text Available The article aims to study theoretical foundations of providing innovative work in modern conditions based on systematizing categorical tools. As a result of the study we found out the innovative work features and singled it out among other related to it categories such as “creative work”, “intellectual work”, “labor management”; summarized theoretical propositions about the nature of innovation work and clarified its definition. Classification of innovative work was grounded. The features of the innovative work were defined. Innovative work was singled out among other related to it types of work. Keywords: innovative work, the types of innovative work, creative work.
John R. Commons has contributed in one way or another to pratically every piece of social and labor legislation that has been enacted in the twentieth century. He has made his mark on such diverse aspects of American labor as apprenticeship, vocational education, workers' compensation, and the administration of labor law. (Author/JOW)
S N Lebedev
Full Text Available The article is based on the detailed analysis of the intellectual labor and takes into account theoretical and practical aspects of the intellectual labor economics in the transition to the information society. The author describes the nature, specific features, content, structure and the bases for classification of the intellectual labor.
Health care organizations are highly labor-intensive; policies designed to stimulate organizational change are likely to have labor impacts. This paper examines the labor effects of policy change in home health care. Major federal home care policy trends since 1980 have spurred the evolution of the typical home care provider toward greater organizational and market rationality. Greater managerial sophistication has introduced changes in management/labor relations. Survey data from the 1986 DRG Impact Study are used to show how the pressure of cost-containment policies has pushed agencies to cut labor costs by increasing workloads, managerial supervision, and control of the work process. Research on the effects of recent policy change in health care has to date focused primarily on potential client effects. Labor impacts are rarely examined and are poorly understood at the time that policy is made. Findings in this article suggest that these issues deserve greater, more systematic attention, because unanticipated labor impacts may prove to be significant impediments to the realization of intended policy goals.
Zelnick, Jennifer; Campbell, Richard; Levenstein, Charles; Balbach, Edith
As efforts to make U.S. worksites smoke-free took shape in the 1980s, the tobacco industry sought to defeat them by forming alliances with organized labor. The alliance between the tobacco industry and organized labor was based on framing the regulation of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) as a threat to jobs, an example of management unilateralism, and an issue that divided smoking and nonsmoking union members. The dynamics of organized labor and tobacco control began to change in the late 1980s with attempts to ban smoking on airlines and in the hospitality industry. Flight attendants, bar and restaurant workers, and casino dealers-all subject to ETS in their work environments-confronted ETS as an occupational health issue. Against the backdrop of increasing awareness of the hazards of ETS, and the acceptance of tobacco control policy, this framing changed the basis of organized labor's role in tobacco control. Because service workers share the workplace with the general public, their occupational health issues are also public health issues. This fact presents new opportunities for coalition building to protect the health of service workers and the public alike.
Arneberg, Marie W.; Dagsvik, John K.; Jia, Zhiyang
Abstract: This paper analyzes labor market behavior of urban Eritrean women with particular reference to the impact of education, earnings and labor market opportunities. Unlike traditional models of labor supply, which assume that work can be supplied freely in the labor market, we develop a framework that explicitly takes into account the notion of job opportunities and observable sets of feasible jobs. The framework is formulated within a random utility setting in which unob...
Rose, William N; Dayton, Paula J; Raife, Thomas J
Labor efficiency is desirable in mobile blood collection. There are few published data on labor efficiency. The variability in the labor efficiency of mobile whole blood collections was analyzed. We determined to improve our labor efficiency using lean manufacturing principles. Workflow changes in mobile collections were implemented with the goal of minimizing labor expenditures. To measure success, data on labor efficiency measured by units/hour/full-time equivalent (FTE) were collected. The labor efficiency in a 6-month period before the implementation of changes, and in months 1 to 6 and 7 to 12 after implementation was analyzed and compared. Labor efficiency in the 6-month period preceding implementation was 1.06 ± 0.4 units collected/hour/FTE. In months 1 to 6, labor efficiency declined slightly to 0.92 ± 0.4 units collected/hour/FTE (p = 0.016 vs. preimplementation). In months 7 to 12, the mean labor efficiency returned to preimplementation levels of 1.09 ±0.4 units collected/hour/FTE. Regression analysis correlating labor efficiency with total units collected per drive revealed a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.48 for the aggregate data from all three periods), indicating that nearly half of labor efficiency was associated with drive size. The lean-based changes in workflow were subjectively favored by employees and donors. The labor efficiency of our mobile whole blood drives is strongly influenced by size. Larger drives are more efficient, with diminishing returns above 40 units collected. Lean-based workflow changes were positively received by employees and donors. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.
Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of child labor in the world and estimates show that it continues to grow. This paper examines the causes and magnitude of child labor in Kenya. Unlike previous studies that examined child labor as only an economic activity, this paper includes household chores. Including household chores is important…
... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What goods are considered as âproduced for commerce.â 1620.5 Section 1620.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.5 What goods are considered as “produced for commerce.” Goods (as defined...
... FAQ086 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Medications for Pain Relief During Labor and Delivery • What types of medications for pain relief are used during labor and delivery? • What are ...
In this paper I shall be using three different units of laborsupply; labor supply in man units, in hourly units, and in man-hour units.The first category, labor supply in man units, indicates the quantity oflabor supplied as measured by the number of persons who are willing to work.Labor supply in hourly units refers to the quantity of percapita labor supplymeasured in hourly units. Finally, labor supply in man-hour units indicatesthe quantity of labor supplied by a group of persons measured ...
Milland, Maria; Christoffersen, Jens; Hedegaard, Morten
To assess possible associations between the size of labor units and the frequency of approved obstetric claims.......To assess possible associations between the size of labor units and the frequency of approved obstetric claims....
Full Text Available Generally, an activity is considered to be efficient if the production implies low costs or if the revenues from selling the products on the market outweigh the expenditures that were made to achieve them. Labor productivity as an efficiency indicator of a production process represents an expression of the relationship between effect (products, services and effort (work means, labor force, work items. Through the labor productivity conversion in rates of return (economic and commercial is determined an evolution and an influence on these rates, driving the company’s own efforts to innovate, produce and harness goods, works and services with maximum utility, efficiency and competitiveness services. The aim of this paper is to highlight the work efficiency, respectively the labor productivity detached from the factorial context in the trade and economic rates of return. The introduction presents some general aspects referring to labor productivity, then it will be presented and discussed the analytical methods used in the process of reflecting the labor productivity in the rates of return, the results analysis, and at the end of this paper it will be presented some conclusions based on the study case. The expected results consist in identifying the mechanisms by which labor efficiency is converted into the company’s economic and financial performance.
Orlando Díaz Tabares
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio longitudinal, descriptivo y retrospectivo con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de la incapacidad permanente para el trabajo en el municipio "San Cristóbal" durante el decenio 1982-1991, y se aplicó el método de encuesta por el que se recogieron datos que fueron extraídos del modelo oficial de peritaje médico laboral y de la entrevista con el peritado. Los resultados fueron plasmados en tablas de contingencias donde se relacionan las variables por cada año estudiado, y se aplicó la prueba estadística de chi cuadrado. El número de individuos dictaminados con incapacidad laboral total fue de 693; predominó en reportes el año 1988 con 114 casos y muy discretamente el sexo femenino sobre el masculino, el grupo etáreo de 45 a 54 años con 360 casos y la artrosis como entidad valorada por ortopedia, con análisis estadísticos significativos. No resultó estadísticamente significativo, el predominio de la hipertensión arterial sistémica entre las entidades valoradas por la especialidad de medicina interna como causas de incapacidad laboral. Fue muy significativa la variación del número de dictaminados por la comisión en cada uno de los años estudiados y que el porcentaje de ellos que se encontraban realizando trabajos que demandan esfuerzo físico de moderado a intenso al momento de aplicar la encuesta, ascendió al 64,9.A longitudinal, descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in order to know the behavior of permanent labor disability at the municipality of San Cristóbal during 1982-1991. A survey was done to collect data taken from the official model of medical inspections and from the interview with the disabled worker. The results were shown in contingency tables where the variables are related by every year studied. The chi square statistical test was applied. The number of individuals with labor disability was 693. As for reports, the year 1988 predominated with 114. There was a discreet
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the behavior of the working conditions of the rural labor force of Mexico in the context of trade liberalization (1990-2010. Therefore, trends in agricultural and non-agricultural occupations are reviewed; salaried and non-salaried activities; labor income; and the main demographic characteristic of labor as age and schooling. The empirical analysis shows processing micro-data samples from the Census of Population and Housing 1990, 2000 and 2010. Among the major results in low growth of wage employment in rural contexts, both agricultural and non-agricultural activities is found. The female agricultural wage labor grew to early twenty-first century and later had a contraction at the end of the decade two thousand. Males still predominantly in farming, but it has increased its participation in the agricultural wage labor. Non-agricultural occupations increased in rural contexts. However, at the last moment of the study became more precarious, as the increased work on their own, with low levels of remuneration, this situation reflects the limited labor demand of labor. Therefore, in the context of trade liberalization, not salaried occupations increased steadily and continues with low levels of remuneration. The geographic region of residence enabled to distinguish differences in the working conditions of the rural population and occupied in time regional wage gap it is slightly shortened. The Northwest, North region were showing the highest levels of labor remuneration, in contrast, the South and Gulf regions were those that had the lowest wages.
Gielen, A. C.; Kerkhofs, M.J.M.; van Ours, J.C.
This paper uses information from a panel of Dutch firms to investigate the labor productivity effects of performance related pay (PRP).We find that PRP increases labor productivity at the firm level with about 9%.
Everaldo Gaspar Lopes de Andrade
Full Text Available The theme effectiveness of labor standard in space even though it appears from those that make up the foundations of the Labour Law or his General Theory, classical scholars do not give them due attention. Still, when he refers, but included in that dimension of importance, they do to portray which standard to apply to the hired worker to provide services outside the country; or those who were transferred provisionally or permanently, and ultimately to resolve conflicts involving specific professional categories. This study aims to give an analytical and categorical treatment to the effectiveness of labor standards in space, to the extent that out as a theme linked to the philosophical discourse of modernity, the universal / legitimation of free / paid employment and receipt of this in advance by calling organizations and international cooperation, as well as the regulations dictated by the European Union and Mercosur. The study aims to establish a different narrative: put face to face the normative regulation / enforcement and universal absolute arising from modern legal-labor system and social movements of libertarian roots that will be triggered by the new labor internationalism. Aims to unravel the apparent harmony between capital and labor and demonstrate the intrinsic and inherent class antagonism. Social movements and theories of social movements form the basis of this theoretical-dogmatic reconfiguration, in order to privilege the Solidarity Economy in Iberoamerica.
Grootaert, Christiaan; Kanbur, Ravi
On September 30, 1990, the first World Summit for Children promised to reduce child mortality and malnutrition. It set targets to be reached by the year 2000. Although it established no explicit goals on child labor, the targets included basic education for all children and the completion of primary education by at least 80 percent of children. Meeting these goals will reduce child labor, say the authors. The evidence they review shows that education intervention play a key role in reducing c...
... agricultural productivity; wage rates are used in the administration of the H-2A Program and for setting... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Suspend the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION...
... agricultural productivity; wage rates are used in the administration of the H-2A Program and for setting... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Resume the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports. AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA...
Hansenne, Michel; And Others
This special issue contains eight articles that examine the following: social justice, global employment issues, International Labor Organization (ILO) standards, social security, training, tripartism, the 1994 ILO conference, and labor standards--all from a global perspective. (JOW)
... address, telephone number, e-mail addresses and medical data in the submission, the Department urges... working youth that are healthy, safe, and not detrimental to their education. (76 FR 54836). As mentioned... regulation for 14- and 15-year-olds to work in suitable occupations other than manufacturing or mining, and...
... occupational safety and health issues as defined by the Secretary of Labor in § 1902.2(c)(1) of this chapter... Section 1952.240 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... provisions of section 4(b)(1) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. (84 Stat. 1592, 29 U.S.C...
Wang, X.; Herzfeld, T.; Glauben, T.
Empirical models are developed in this paper to quantitatively analyze households' participation in decisions on hiring labor and supplying labor off the farm, hired labor demand and off-farm labor supply of rural Chinese households. Econometric estimates use micro-level data from Zhejiang province
Active labor market programs continue to receive high priority in wealthy countries despite the fact that the benefits appear small relative to the costs. This apparent discrepancy suggests that the programs may have a broader purpose than simply increasing employment—for instance, preventing anti......-social behavior such as crime. Indeed, recent evidence shows that participation in active labor market programs reduces crime among unemployed young men. The existence of such effects could explain why it is the income-redistributing countries with greater income equality that spend the most on active labor...... market programs....
Ravenda, Diego; Argilés Bosch, Josep M.; Valencia Silva, Maika
This paper develops two new measures of labor tax avoidance (LTAV) based on social contribution expenses reported in financial statements and tests them and their determinants within a sample of 224 Italian firms defined as legally registered Mafia firms (LMFs) due to having been confiscated at some point by judicial authorities, in relation to alleged connections with Italian organized crime. Overall, our results reveal that before confiscation LMFs engage more in LTAV than lawful firms do, ...
Huaita Acha, Delsi Mariela
La investigación titulada “El clima laboral y la satisfacción laboral en el desempeño docente de instituciones educativas públicas”, tuvo como objetivo general determinar la influencia del clima laboral y la satisfacción laboral en el desempeño docente de instituciones educativas públicas. El tipo de investigación fue básica, explicativa y descriptiva, el diseño fue no experimental y transversal. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 81 docentes de instituciones educativas del niv...
Full Text Available The existence of national labor law system guarantees fair is one of legal reform to achieve access to justice. This study aims to analyze whether the system of labor law has given capacity to achieve access to justice as the basis for implementing international labor relations in Asia. The method of this study is a normative legal research with statute approach. The findings support that there was an inconsistency on the substance of the legal structures that affect the low legal culture. The substance of the national labor law systems have not adapted the comprehensive International Labor Organization (ILO conventions. Less robust system of national labor laws affect access to justice in the weak field of labor in the region. How To Cite: Wijayanti, A. (2016. Access to Justice and Labor Law Reform in Asia. Rechtsidee, 3(1, 17-26. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v3i1.144
Full Text Available This regional case study is focused on employment, remuneration and labor productivity, with a particular emphasis on the interplay between labor productivity and other labor-related indicators and macroeconomic conditions in Italy, Egypt, Lebanon and Greece. Its value lies in the high degree of consistency and comparability of the data, owing to a shared data collection methodology. This has allowed for the compilation of both national and regional comparisons. The data is treated in two groups—the first group consists of national data that considers all the active vessels in a country; the second group focuses on the trawl segments of Italy and Egypt. These two countries present an interesting case study because they are so different in terms of labor productivity and remuneration performance. For instance, in Italy labor shortages have caused a shift in fishing strategies towards less labor-intensive operations to maintain the socioeconomic sustainability of the fisheries, while in Egypt macroeconomic conditions have resulted in a larger labor pool and strong incentives to work in the fisheries sector. The regional study demonstrates that labor-related indicators are interconnected and there is an inversely proportional relationship between labor productivity and remuneration and employment levels. This relationship necessitates a combined analysis. The results across and between the countries were compared, with particular attention given to labor productivity and remuneration in the respective countries with a discussion centred around the potential drivers of labor productivity.
Full Text Available Background. Accurate timing of antenatal corticosteroids (ACS has resulted in improved neonatal outcomes. Objectives. Our primary objective was to determine predictors for optimal timing of ACS in women presenting with spontaneous preterm labor. Study Design. A retrospective cohort study of women receiving ACS for spontaneous preterm birth was conducted. Women were included if they presented with preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes. Accurate timing of ACS was defined as administration within 7 days of delivery. Maternal demographic and obstetrics characteristics were compared between the groups receiving ACS ≤7 days and >7 days from delivery. Statistical analyses were performed using parametric and nonparametric tests. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results. The study included 215 subjects. Median latency from ACS administration to delivery was 6 days (IQR 32. Accurate timing of ACS occurred in 113 (53% women and was associated with rupture of membranes (OR 13.8, 95% CI 5.9–32.6, cervical change (OR 7.1, 95% CI 3.0–17.1, and cervical dilation ≥ 2 cm (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.5–10.3. Conclusions. Rupture of membranes, cervical change, and cervical dilation ≥ 2 cm were strong predictors of optimal timing. 53% of women with preterm labor received ACS optimally.
... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA 2011-0083] Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA/ Department of Labor (DOL))--Match Number 1015 AGENCY: Social Security... regarding protections for such persons. The Privacy Act, as amended, regulates the use of computer matching...
R. Chisik (Richard); J.E. Namini (Julian Emami)
textabstractWe embed a competitive search model with labor market discrimination, or nepotism, into a two-sector, two-country framework in order to analyze how labor market discrimination impacts the pattern of international trade and also how trade trade affects discrimination. Discrimination, or
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal and State labor laws... State labor laws. A concessioner shall comply with all standards established pursuant to Federal or State labor laws, such as those concerning minimum wages, child labor, hours of work, and safety, that...
This paper examines the research on child labor, and places the phenomenon in a broader development agenda. It explains the demand for, and supply of child labor, linking these factors to others, such as the supply of education. Then it looks into the private, and social costs of, and benefits from child labor. Against this background, strategies fore reducing child labor are debated.
Pura de la Caridad Rey Rivas
Full Text Available Due to the importance of autonomy and professional self-management as key factors in Blended Process of Formation, an integrative perspective of socio-labor-professional formation which permits to reinforce the leading role of students starting from emergent contents from the labor context and from the correct application of personal and professional resources, is needed. This will allow the students a critical contextualized interpretation of their formation process. From this perspective, the need to propose a Model of socio-labor-professional dynamics of blended process as well as a Didactic Strategy of socio-labor blended formation in Higher Education, is recognized. This permits to reveal didactic aspects that, in an integrative process, condition the logic formation of blended process from its socio-professional character as a dynamic point of the professional praxis in contexts of labor performance. This view allows students to develop a socio-labor-professional performance culture during their labor practice as well as a successful acting as a graduate. RESUMEN Por la importancia de la autonomía en el aprendizaje y de la autogestión profesional, como elementos esenciales del proceso de formación semipresencial, se precisa de una perspectiva integradora de la formación socio-laboral-profesional que permita potenciar el rol protagónico del estudiante partiendo de contenidos emergentes del contexto laboral desde la aplicación adecuada de recursos personales y profesionales que le posibilitarán una interpretación crítica contextualizada de su proceso formativo. Desde esta visión, se reconoce la necesidad de proponer un modelo de la dinámica socio-laboral-profesional de la semipresencialidad en la Educación Superior, así como una estrategia didáctica de formación socio-laboral de la semipresencialidad en la Educación Superior. Lo anterior permite la revelación de las particularidades didácticas que, en un proceso integrador
... raising the ceiling price or otherwise changing the scope of work for a time-and-materials (T&M) or labor... flexibility. The Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) has deemed that this is not a significant.... IV. Regulatory Flexibility Act DoD, GSA, and NASA have prepared a Final Regulatory Flexibility...
Talati, Asha N; Hackney, David N; Mesiano, Sam
Preterm labor with intact membranes is a major cause of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). To prevent sPTB a clear understanding is needed of the hormonal interactions that initiate labor. The steroid hormone progesterone acting via its nuclear progesterone receptors (PRs) in uterine cells is essential for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy and disruption of PR signaling (i.e., functional progesterone/PR withdrawal) is key trigger for labor. The process of parturition is also associated with inflammation within the uterine tissues and it is now generally accepted that inflammatory stimuli from multiple extrinsic and intrinsic sources induce labor. Recent studies suggest inflammatory stimuli induce labor by affecting PR transcriptional activity in uterine cells to cause functional progesterone/PR withdrawal. Advances in understanding the functional interaction of inflammatory load on the pregnancy uterus and progesterone/PR signaling is opening novel areas of research and may lead to rational therapeutic strategies to effectively prevent sPTB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bratsberg, Bernt; Raaum, Oddbjørn; Røed, Knut
Using longitudinal data from the date of arrival, we study long- term labor market and social insurance outcomes for all major immigrant cohorts to Norway since 1970. Immigrants from highincome countries performed as natives, while labor migrants from low- income source countries had declining employment rates and increasing disability program participation over the lifecycle. Refugees and family migrants assimilated during the initial period upon arrival, but labor market convergence halted ...
James Heintz; Fabian Slonimczyk
Using estimates of earnings functions in Ghana, this paper examines patterns of labor market segmentation with regard to formal and informal employment. Persistent earnings differentials are used as indicators of limited mobility across segments of the employed labor force. We find evidence of labor market segmentation between formal and informal employment and between different categories of informal employment which cannot be fully explained by human capital, physical asset, or credit marke...
Ophir, Ella; Bornstein, Jacob; Odeh, Marwan; Kaminsky, Svetlana; Shnaider, Oleg; Megel, Yuri; Barnea, Ofer
To obtain and study new data on the dynamics of the labor process and to develop a contraction-based index of labor progress. This study was carried out at the Delivery Room, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Western Galilee Hospital, Nahariya, Israel, using a new device (Birth Track). We continuously monitored cervical dilatation (CD) and head descent (HD) in 30 nulliparaous women during active labor with (augmented group) and without (study group) oxytocin augmentation. This led to the development and validation of progress indices based on features extracted from continuous monitoring. There were no significant differences between the average of each parameter in the study and augmented groups, except for HD velocity. Average HD velocity was faster in the study group. Linear regression analyses demonstrated that head station (HS) amplitude and Toco amplitude were the best parameters for predicting HD velocity in both groups. In the study group, average HD velocity was also significantly related to Toco rate and contraction efficiency. In the augmented group, only a weak correlation with Toco rate was seen, and no correlation with contraction efficiency. With the assistance of the Birth Track device, we can obtain continuous data on the labor process and indices to estimate the labor progress process without the use of vaginal (manual) examination. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
... LABOR DEPARTMENT Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1926 Safety and Health Regulations for Construction CFR Correction In Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1926, revised as of July 1, 2012, on page 225, in Sec. 1926.152, paragraph (c)(16) is added to read as follows: Sec...
Full Text Available Considerable research attention has focused on the labor market impacts of immigration, the operation and competitiveness of the European Union (EU labor market, and the expenditures and advantages of labor circulation for sending and receiving economies. The aim of the present study is to examine and evaluate the negative social consequences arising from the mobility of workers, the social and economic drivers of migration, and the effect of immigration on natives’ labor market results such as wages and employment.
Wong, Edwin S; Liu, Chuan-Fen
In the U.S., economic conditions are intertwined with labor market decisions, access to health care, health care utilization and health outcomes. The Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system has served as a safety net provider by supplying free or reduced cost care to qualifying veterans. This study examines whether local area labor market conditions, measured using county-level unemployment rates, influence whether veterans obtain health care from the VA. We used survey data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in years 2000, 2003 and 2004 to construct a random sample of 73,964 respondents self-identified as veterans. VA health service utilization was defined as whether veterans received all, some or no care from the VA. Hierarchical ordered logistic regression was used to address unobserved state and county random effects while adjusting for individual characteristics. Local area labor market conditions were defined as the average 12-month unemployment rate in veterans' county of residence. The mean unemployment rate for veterans receiving all, some and no care was 5.56%, 5.37% and 5.24%, respectively. After covariate adjustment, a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate in a veteran's county of residence was associated with an increase in the probability of receiving all care (0.34%, p-value = 0.056) or some care (0.29%, p-value = 0.023) from the VA. Our findings suggest that the important role of the VA in providing health care services to veterans is magnified in locations with high unemployment.
... failing to fulfill its obligations and commitments under the International Labour Organization Declaration... were inconsistent with its commitments under the Labor Chapter. The objectives of the review of the... commitments or obligations arising under a labor chapter * * *.'' The Procedural Guidelines specify that OTLA...
The increasing costs and schedule delays being experienced in construction projects have led companies to look for alternatives to their present methods of expansion. One of the facets being evaluated is the construction labor posture. As a result, more companies are employing open shop contractors. Certain benefits can be realized by open shop construction. Productivity, in terms of the time required and overall costs, is definitely improved at no sacrifice in quality. Before an owner decides to build a project open shop, however, he must be fully aware of the pro's and con's of both types of labor posture. He must know to select a capable open shop contractor and he must realize his obligations for a successful open shop program
Mostafa E. Shehata
Full Text Available Proper management of resources in construction projects can yield substantial savings in time and cost. As construction is a labor-intensive industry, this paper focuses on labor productivity in the construction industry. This study considers the current state-of-the-art issues relevant to this subject. It covers the construction labor productivity definitions, aspects, measurements, factors affecting it, different techniques used for measuring it and modeling techniques. The main outcome from the literature is that there is no standard definition of productivity. This study provides a guide for necessary steps required to improve construction labor productivity and consequently, the project performance. It can help improve the overall performance of construction projects through the implementation of the concept of benchmarks. Also, it gives an up to date concept of loss of productivity measurement for construction productivity claims. Two major case studies, from the literature, are presented to show construction labor productivity rates, factors affecting construction labor productivity and how to improve it.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that psychological constructs, such as emotional intelligence and emotional labor, play an important role in various organizational outcomes in service sector. Recently, in the “emotionally charged” healthcare field, emotional intelligence and emotional labor have both emerged as research tools, rather than just as theoretical concepts, influencing various organizational parameters including job satisfaction. The present study aimed at investigating the relationships, direct and/or indirect, between emotional intelligence, the surface acting component of emotional labor, and job satisfaction in medical staff working in tertiary healthcare. Methods Data were collected from 130 physicians in Greece, who completed a series of self-report questionnaires including: a the Wong Law Emotional Intelligence Scale, which assessed the four dimensions of emotional intelligence, i.e. Self-Emotion Appraisal, Others’ Emotion Appraisal, Use of Emotion, and Regulation of Emotion, b the General Index of Job Satisfaction, and c the Dutch Questionnaire on Emotional Labor (surface acting component. Results Emotional intelligence (Use of Emotion dimension was significantly and positively correlated with job satisfaction (r=.42, p, whereas a significant negative correlation between surface acting and job satisfaction was observed (r=−.39, p. Furthermore, Self-Emotion Appraisal was negatively correlated with surface acting (r=−.20, p. Self-Emotion Appraisal was found to influence job satisfaction both directly and indirectly through surface acting, while this indirect effect was moderated by gender. Apart from its mediating role, surface acting was also a moderator of the emotional intelligence-job satisfaction relationship. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that surface acting could predict job satisfaction over and above emotional intelligence dimensions. Conclusions The results of the present
Fluctuations in economic activity, business cycles, are a fact of life. An important factor shaping the character of economic fluctuations is the labor market. However, the labor market does not operate smoothly. Neither workers, nor firms are all the same. Therefore, it often requires a substantial
Full Text Available This article assesses whether two integration policy measures (labor market training and counseling reach the immigrants who need them and whether these policies improve immigrants' labor market situations. We first examine the comprehensiveness of integration policies by linking Migration Integration Policy Index scores of immigrants' labor market mobility with levels of immigrant participation in labor market training and counseling in 15 European countries. We find that provision with labor market training does not entirely correspond to policy intentions, whereas labor market counseling more closely achieves policies' proclaimed aims. Second, we carry out propensity score matching analysis to estimate the effectiveness of immigrants' integration policies. We find that labor market training and counseling do not improve immigrants' employability or job status in three of the four analyzed countries, which lends weak support to the productivity skills argument, emphasizing instead the validity of the signaling and selection perspectives.
You probably have mixed feelings about going into labor. On one hand, bringing a new life into the world is really exciting. On the other, it can be really scary to have a baby, especially if this is your first child. Unfortunately, it can be even scarier if you smoke. Research shows that smoking during pregnancy can lead to serious complications for you and your baby during labor and delivery.
Bunner, W.R. [Training Associates, Columbus, OH (United States)
In the US, safety and hygiene began to be enforced broadly with the formation of the US Department of Labor`s, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in 1970. In Mexico, the 1917 Constitution required companies to protect their workers against safety and hygiene hazards in the workplace. Additional requirements were added with the Federal Labor Law of 1931. General safety and hygiene regulations were added in 1934. Modern-day federal labor law in Mexico requires the creation of mixed safety and hygiene commissions in all industries. However, only about 114,000 workplaces have registered mixed commissions. In a similar vein, the most favored OSHA reform bill in the US proposes to require safety and health committees in all work places. At this time such committees are common in larger companies but not in smaller ones.
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Talent fees excludable under regulations. 778.225 Section... Payments That May Be Excluded From the âRegular Rateâ Talent Fees in the Radio and Television Industry § 778.225 Talent fees excludable under regulations. Section 7(e)(3) provides for the exclusion from the...
Rouse, Dwight J
To evaluate maternal and perinatal outcomes in women undergoing labor induction with an unfavorable cervix according to duration of oxytocin administration in the latent phase of labor after ruptured membranes.
... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Fiber and Processing Tests Definitions § 28.950 Terms defined. As used... Agricultural Marketing Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. (c) Administrator. The Administrator of...
Stark, Mary Ann
: Therapeutic showering is a holistic nursing intervention that is often available and supports physiologic labor. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of therapeutic showering with usual care during active labor. Research questions were as follows: Are there significant differences between women who showered 30 minutes during active labor and those who received usual labor care in anxiety, tension, relaxation, pain, discomfort, and coping? Is there a difference in use of obstetric interventions between groups? A convenience sample of healthy low-risk women in active labor was recruited (N = 32). A pretest posttest control group repeated-measures design was used. Participants were randomized to treatment group (n = 17), who showered for 30 minutes, or to control group (n = 14) who received usual labor care. Women evaluated pain, discomfort, anxiety, tension, coping, and relaxation at enrollment, again 15 minutes after entering the shower or receiving usual care, then again 30 minutes after entering the shower or receiving usual care. Chart reviews after delivery recorded obstetric interventions. The showering group had statistically significant decreases in pain, discomfort, anxiety and tension, and significant increase in relaxation. There were no differences in use of obstetric interventions. Therapeutic showering was effective in reducing pain, discomfort, anxiety, and tension while improving relaxation and supporting labor in this sample.
The contemporary conflict between blacks and selected white ethnic groups (Catholic immigrants, Jews) is the product of competition for jobs in the secondary labor market. Radical economists have described the existence of a dual labor market within the American economy. The idea of this segmented labor market provides a useful way to integrate…
Gold mining brought a forced labor system to Witwatersrand, South Africa, in the 1880s as African laborers were rounded up from the hinterland and delivered to the mines. The system produced low wages, high mortality, and the loss of chances for upward mobility. Forced labor persists today in South African mines. (VM)
Healthy Lifestyle Labor and delivery, postpartum care Water breaking worries? Prepare yourself for childbirth by getting the facts about this important sign of labor. By Mayo Clinic Staff If you're ...
Shimamura , Takeshi; Takenaka , Takeshi; Ohura , Syuichi
Part III: Sustainable Services; International audience; This study examined improvement of labor productivity and elasticity of labor hour on sales of a multiproduct Japanese cuisine restaurant. Conventionally, multiproduct restaurant operations include a line production system in the kitchen. Japanese chefs are assumed to be low-skilled workers with staff members supported by someone. A cell production system is introduced into a Japanese Cuisine restaurant to improve it. Results show that t...
... CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.203 Products offered for... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Products offered for entry; charges for storage, cartage, and labor with respect to products which are refused entry. 381.203 Section 381...
Thaysen, Jens Damgaard
This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....
Full Text Available Population growth has already begun to fall in most of the countries. In the wider European area, therefore, population decline is likely to occur several years earlier. Regions with declining population demographic trends are affected by social and economic developments. Migration flows, in particular, are related to regional differences in labor market conditions, people moving from areas of low job growth to ones with more employment opportunities, and, over the longer-term, such differences can also affect birth and death rates. Declining regions in the EU are, therefore, characterized by low income levels, high unemployment and a large proportion of the work force employed in agriculture and industry. In addition, they tend to have a relatively small number of young people, reflecting their migration to other areas as well as low fertility rates, and a low density of population, reflecting the rural nature of many of them. The aim of this paper is to present the important consequences these trends will have regarding Albanian reality. We will see this for social welfare and taxation systems. We are also going to present here the policies to discourage illegal immigration, engaged in facilitating the entry, installment into the labor market, legal regulation, and social integration of Albanian emigrants in receiving countries. Finally, we will promote the impact of voluntary return of emigrants in the country development.
... immeasurable contributions of working men and women today and throughout our history. As we recognize the... and that of organized labor in our national life. Workers have not always possessed the same rights... aisles of today's superstores, organized labor has provided millions of hard-working men and women with a...
This paper, by a teacher of migrants, summarizes various farm labor laws and child labor laws pertaining to migrant and seasonal workers. The Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act of 1983 provides workers with assurances about pay, hours, and working conditions, including safety and health. This legislation permits anyone…
Yelena Leonidovna Andreyeva
Full Text Available The methodology of labor life quality estimation based on research of the social and labor sphere of Russia regions over the last 10 years is described in the article. The most significant components of the labor life quality, allowing to estimate the central problem places of the social and labor sphere (employment and unemployment, salary and income, qualification and labor productivity, safety and work organization, business and investment activity are allocated and proved. On the basis of an author’s calculation method of an integrated index of labor life quality of the population in regions of Russia are calculated and analyzed in dynamics. Regularities of formation of an integrated index of labor life quality in regions of Russia are revealed, ways of an assessment of efficiency of realized state programs in the social and labor sphere are planned.
Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical framework which demonstrates how the structures of corporate internal labor markets are formed within the broader labor and capital market context in the U.S. and Japan. This framework is then used to evaluate labor markets within Korean companies and to identify points of change which might promote greater efficiency. Prior to the Asian economic crisis, Korean conglomerates had large, closed internal labor markets. However, in the aftermath of the crisis, they have pursued structural downsizing and moved to open their labor markets. The empirical evidence introduced in this paper affirms the argument that the first step toward creating a flexible labor market in Korea should begin with establishing an efficient corporate governance structure. This implies that a simple switch from the Japanese paradigm for human resource management to an Anglo-American model or vice-versa may not improve internal labor market performance unless the change is accompanied by a solution to the problems posed by the minority controlling structure of Korean companies. The implications of this study for guiding policy in developing countries having labor market rigidities and underdeveloped corporate governance is clear. Capital market structure and corporate governance systems may provide an appropriate starting point for the development of any policies aimed at building an efficient human resource management system and a flexible labor market.
Levesque, J P; Hatzfeld, A; Domart, I; Hatzfeld, J
Normal human hemopoietic cells such as early bone marrow progenitors, or lymphoma-derived cell lines such as Raji or JM cells, possess a low-affinity receptor specific for fibrinogen. This receptor triggers a mitogenic effect. It differs from the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa which is involved in fibrinogen-induced platelet aggregation. We demonstrate here that this mitogenic fibrinogen receptor (MFR) can be internalized or reexpressed, depending on culture conditions. Internalization was temperature-dependent. At 37 degrees C in the presence of cycloheximide or actinomycin D, the half-life of cell surface MFRs was 2 h, independent of receptor occupancy. Binding of fibrinogen to the MFR resulted in a down-regulation which was fibrinogen dose-dependent. This occurred in serum-supplemented medium but not in defined medium supplemented with fatty acids. Reexpression of MFRs could be induced in 28 to 42 h by serum removal. The down-regulation of mitogenic receptors in plasma or serum could explain why normal cells do not proliferate in the peripheral blood.
Lars Ljungqvist; Thomas J. Sargent
A dispute about the size of the aggregate labor supply elasticity has been fortified by a contentious aggregation theory used by real business cycle theorists. The replacement of that aggregation theory with one more congenial to microeconomic observations opens possibilities for an accord about the aggregate labor supply elasticity. The new aggregation theory drops features to which empirical microeconomists objected and replaces them with life-cycle choices. Whether the new aggregation theo...
Peter Schaeffer; Tesfa Gebremedhin
When job prospects are uncertain, labor market size matters even when labor and jobs, respectively, are homogenous. The expected unemployment duration and its standard deviation may then differ systematically with labor market size.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payments for agricultural labor. 404.1055... Payments for agricultural labor. (a) When cash payments are not wages. We do not include as wages your cash payments in a calendar year after 1987 from an employer for agricultural labor (see § 404.1056) if your...
Erickson, Elise N; Lee, Christopher S; Emeis, Cathy L
Maternity care providers administer oxytocin prophylactically to prevent postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). Prophylactic oxytocin is generally considered effective and safe and is promoted by national organizations for standardized use. In this article, the evidence supporting prophylactic oxytocin administration for women undergoing spontaneous labor and birth compared with women whose labors included administration of exogenous oxytocin for induction or augmentation is explored. Using data from randomized controlled trials included in 2 recent Cochrane meta-analyses papers, only studies with women in spontaneous labor were selected for inclusion (N = 4 studies). Outcomes of immediate postpartum bleeding volumes (≥ 500 mL or 1000 mL), risk for blood transfusion, and risk for administration of more uterotonic medication were pooled from these 4 studies. Focused random effects meta-analytics were used. Compared to women without prophylactic oxytocin, women who received prophylactic oxytocin had a lower risk of having a 500 mL or higher blood loss. However, prophylactic oxytocin did not lower risk of PPH (≥ 1000 mL), blood transfusion, or need for additional uterotonic treatment. Prophylactic oxytocin may not confer the same benefits to women undergoing spontaneous labor and birth compared to women laboring with oxytocin infusion. Reasons for this difference are explored from a pharmacologic perspective. In addition, the value of prophylactic oxytocin given recent changes in the definition of PPH from greater than or equal to 500 mL to 1000 mL or more after birth is discussed. Finally, gaps in research on adverse effects of prophylactic oxytocin are presented. More research is needed on reducing risk of PPH for women in spontaneous labor. © 2017 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Full Text Available Towards a new labor model in SpainThe article starts with confirming the acceleration process in reforms of labor regulations-intensive and extensive-which is faced bySpain that has considered even the reform of constitutional framework. It should be noted that measures taken in the Spanish reform are aimed at increasing the employability of workers and with regard to promotion of employment stability; we find the incorporation of a new contractual modality, literally called “employment contract for indefinite time to support entrepreneurs”.Meanwhile, as the most important novelties are located the following: elimination with general character of administrative authorization for collective dismissals, the expansion of the proper reasons of economic dismissals, with the corresponding reduction effect of the judicial control as justification for business measure and the possible reduction in the practice of dismissal cost, the generalization of compensatory amount for unfair dismissal after 33 days of salary per year of seniority with limit of the 24 monthly salary, the complete suppression of processing salaries when the employer chooses indemnified extinction in case of unfair dismissal, among others. All this range of regulatory changes is analyzed critically by the author who, starting from the Spanish legislation, studies the most relevant legal concepts.
Samaraweera, Leleesha; Grandinetti, Kathryn B; Huang, Ruojun; Spengler, Barbara A; Ross, Robert A
Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children. NB tumors and derived cell lines are phenotypically heterogeneous. Cell lines are classified by phenotype, each having distinct differentiation and tumorigenic properties. The neuroblastic phenotype is tumorigenic, has neuronal features and includes stem cells (I-cells) and neuronal cells (N-cells). The non-neuronal phenotype (S-cell) comprises cells that are non-tumorigenic with features of glial/smooth muscle precursor cells. This study identified miRNAs associated with each distinct cell phenotypes and investigated their role in regulating associated differentiation and tumorigenic properties. A miRNA microarray was performed on the three cell phenotypes and expression verified by qRT-PCR. miRNAs specific for certain cell phenotypes were modulated using miRNA inhibitors or stable transfection. Neuronal differentiation was induced by RA; non-neuronal differentiation by BrdU. Changes in tumorigenicity were assayed by soft agar colony forming ability. N-myc binding to miR-375 promoter was assayed by chromatin-immunoprecipitation. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of miRNA microarray data segregated neuroblastic and non-neuronal cell lines and showed that specific miRNAs define each phenotype. qRT-PCR validation confirmed that increased levels of miR-21, miR-221 and miR-335 are associated with the non-neuronal phenotype, whereas increased levels of miR-124 and miR-375 are exclusive to neuroblastic cells. Downregulation of miR-335 in non-neuronal cells modulates expression levels of HAND1 and JAG1, known modulators of neuronal differentiation. Overexpression of miR-124 in stem cells induces terminal neuronal differentiation with reduced malignancy. Expression of miR-375 is exclusive for N-myc-expressing neuroblastic cells and is regulated by N-myc. Moreover, miR-375 downregulates expression of the neuronal-specific RNA binding protein HuD. Thus, miRNAs define distinct NB cell phenotypes
Sarmiento, Anthony R.
Most major workplace literacy programs involve unions. Organized labor's current leadership in worker education and training is not a continuation of earlier activities but an expansion of union interest and activity that is unprecedented in the history of organized labor. These efforts do not rely on public funding, because many unions have…
Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.
This article looks at the phenomenon of mal-employment among college graduates in the United States, beginning with an overview of labor-market trends and the effects of the Great Recession on the job-market experiences of young people, including recent college graduates. It then defines "mal-employment" and examines its incidence over…
Labor Management Services Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Div. of Public Employee Labor Relations.
This chart represents a state-by-state compilation of the numerous statutes, executive orders, attorney general opinions, and court decisions which govern state and local government labor relations. Where available, information on each authority includes: (1) administrative body, (2) bargaining rights, (3) recognition rights and procedure, (4)…
Søgaard, Jakob Egholt
In this paper I investigate the nature of optimization frictions by studying the labor market of Danish students. This particular labor market is an interesting case study as it features a range of special institutional settings that affect students’ incentive to earn income and comparing outcomes...... theory. More concretely I find the dominate optimization friction to be individuals’ inattention about their earnings during the year, while real adjustment cost and gradual learning appears to be of less importance....
Hoffman, Saul D.
The third Marshall-Hicks-Allen rule of elasticity of derived demand purports to show that labor demand is less elastic when labor is a smaller share of total costs. As Hicks, Allen, and then Bronfenbrenner showed, this rule is not quite correct, and actually is complicated by an unexpected negative relationship involving labor's share of total…
José Manuel da Silva Vilelas
Full Text Available Healthcare work is, by nature, an activity full of intense emotions and therefore, is opportune ground for exploring emotions in the workplace in different contexts of nursing care. It is a very fertile terrain if care is focused on the emotions of the client, nurses, healthcare teams, and on the interaction of all actors involved. This article presents a theoretical reflection exploring the concept of emotional labor in the context of nursing care. Theoretical references from several fields of knowledge, namely sociology and nursing, have been adopted to conceptualize the theme. Studies on emotional labor have contributed toward the understanding of the key issue of emotional management in healthcare institutions and both its positive and negative impact on clients and professionals. The development of the theme of emotional labor in nursing has given rise to numerous theoretical approaches and perspectives explaining this concept.
Yelena Leonidovna Andreyeva; Tatyana Vladimirovna Polkova
The methodology of labor life quality estimation based on research of the social and labor sphere of Russia regions over the last 10 years is described in the article. The most significant components of the labor life quality, allowing to estimate the central problem places of the social and labor sphere (employment and unemployment, salary and income, qualification and labor productivity, safety and work organization, business and investment activity) are allocated and proved. On...
Andersen, Torben M.; Bhattacharya, Joydeep
A classic result in dynamic public economics, dating back to Aaron (1966) and Samuelson (1975), states that there is no welfare rationale for PAYG pensions in a dynamically-efficient neoclassical economy with exogenous labor supply. This paper argues that this result, under the fairly-mild restri......A classic result in dynamic public economics, dating back to Aaron (1966) and Samuelson (1975), states that there is no welfare rationale for PAYG pensions in a dynamically-efficient neoclassical economy with exogenous labor supply. This paper argues that this result, under the fairly......-mild restriction that the old be no less risk-averse than the young, extends to a neoclassical economy with endogenous labor supply....
... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Housing Service Funds Availability for Section 514 Farm Labor Housing Loans and Section 516 Farm Labor Housing Grants for Off-Farm Housing for Fiscal Year 2011 AGENCY: Rural Housing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: This notice corrects the scoring...
The relevance of labor supply research for long-term labor market policy is rather low. This article is an attempt to improve on this situation in the case of female labor force participation. It focuses on labor supply decisions under fundamental uncertainty, that is, imperfect ability to cope with
The rules of the global market were established to protect the interests of investors at the expense of workers and they shift benefits to investors, costs to workers. Globalization is measured by the interests of investors. But 20 years of investor protectionism show that growth has slowed and equality has gotten worse. The purpose of neo-liberal policies has been to discipline labor to free capital from having to bargain with workers over gains from rising productivity. But such bargaining is the essence of a democratic market. Uncontrolled globalization puts government's domestic policies on the side of capital. In an economy whose growth depends on foreign markets, rising domestic wages make it harder to compete internationally. There has been a general deterioration of labor's position relative to capital's. A global marketplace implies a global politics, and the real work happens when representatives of multi-national business privately negotiate the rules. Labor must change the framework in which the investor class pursues its interest across borders, while workers are constricted by borders. Labor unions are critical; they can deny the human resource necessary for profits. The strike is the ultimate threat to investors. One solution: a "grand bargain" linking development with broadly increased living standards connected to planning for sustainable development to create a global social contract. Workers have advantages: they are the majority and they are indispensable.
Oke, Muse; Zaher, Manal S.; Hamdan, Samir
The first assignment of DNA polymerases at the eukaryotic replication fork was possible after the in vitro reconstitution of the simian virus 40 (SV40) replication system. In this system, DNA polymerase α (Pol α) provides both leading and lagging strands with RNA-DNA primers that are extended by DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ). Extrapolating the architecture of the replication fork from the SV40 model system to an actual eukaryotic cell has been challenged by the discovery of a third DNA polymerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε). A division of labor has been proposed for the eukaryotic replication fork whereby Pol ε replicates the leading strand and Pol δ replicates the lagging strand. However, an alternative model of unequal division of labor in which Pol δ can still participate in leading-strand synthesis is plausible.
The first assignment of DNA polymerases at the eukaryotic replication fork was possible after the in vitro reconstitution of the simian virus 40 (SV40) replication system. In this system, DNA polymerase α (Pol α) provides both leading and lagging strands with RNA-DNA primers that are extended by DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ). Extrapolating the architecture of the replication fork from the SV40 model system to an actual eukaryotic cell has been challenged by the discovery of a third DNA polymerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε). A division of labor has been proposed for the eukaryotic replication fork whereby Pol ε replicates the leading strand and Pol δ replicates the lagging strand. However, an alternative model of unequal division of labor in which Pol δ can still participate in leading-strand synthesis is plausible.
Full Text Available We use the Labor Office data for the regions of the Czech Republic to investigate some of the structural features of the respective labor markets. We build our approach on the matching function of the search model of the labor market. In the paper we show how the regional labor markets differ with respect to vacancies, unemployment, matches between unemployed and vacancies, probability of finding a job and labor market tightness. We also demonstrate how these characteristics evolved over time. We show that the labor markets were really hit the hardest several years after the great recession began to affect the Czech Republic. We go on to estimate the matching function for the respective regional labor markets and show that the sensitivity of the probability of finding a job to the labor market tightness generally increased over time, which we interpret as a positive sign. We set our results in the framework of some of the earlier work which has been done. With all the data and estimates used we are able to pinpoint the most troubled regions as far as the structural features of the labor market are concerned.
Guerrero, Omar A; Axtell, Robert L
It is conventional in labor economics to treat all workers who are seeking new jobs as belonging to a labor pool, and all firms that have job vacancies as an employer pool, and then match workers to jobs. Here we develop a new approach to study labor and firm dynamics. By combining the emerging science of networks with newly available employment micro-data, comprehensive at the level of whole countries, we are able to broadly characterize the process through which workers move between firms. Specifically, for each firm in an economy as a node in a graph, we draw edges between firms if a worker has migrated between them, possibly with a spell of unemployment in between. An economy's overall graph of firm-worker interactions is an object we call the labor flow network (LFN). This is the first study that characterizes a LFN for an entire economy. We explore the properties of this network, including its topology, its community structure, and its relationship to economic variables. It is shown that LFNs can be useful in identifying firms with high growth potential. We relate LFNs to other notions of high performance firms. Specifically, it is shown that fewer than 10% of firms account for nearly 90% of all employment growth. We conclude with a model in which empirically-salient LFNs emerge from the interaction of heterogeneous adaptive agents in a decentralized labor market.
Omar A Guerrero
Full Text Available It is conventional in labor economics to treat all workers who are seeking new jobs as belonging to a labor pool, and all firms that have job vacancies as an employer pool, and then match workers to jobs. Here we develop a new approach to study labor and firm dynamics. By combining the emerging science of networks with newly available employment micro-data, comprehensive at the level of whole countries, we are able to broadly characterize the process through which workers move between firms. Specifically, for each firm in an economy as a node in a graph, we draw edges between firms if a worker has migrated between them, possibly with a spell of unemployment in between. An economy's overall graph of firm-worker interactions is an object we call the labor flow network (LFN. This is the first study that characterizes a LFN for an entire economy. We explore the properties of this network, including its topology, its community structure, and its relationship to economic variables. It is shown that LFNs can be useful in identifying firms with high growth potential. We relate LFNs to other notions of high performance firms. Specifically, it is shown that fewer than 10% of firms account for nearly 90% of all employment growth. We conclude with a model in which empirically-salient LFNs emerge from the interaction of heterogeneous adaptive agents in a decentralized labor market.
... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 General § 1977.4 Persons prohibited from discriminating. Section 11....4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... employee” because the employee has exercised rights under the Act. Section 3(4) of the Act defines “person...
... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 General § 1977.5 Persons protected by section 11(c). (a) All employees are afforded the full protection of section 11(c). For purposes of the Act, an employee is defined... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...
Berkhout, E.; Heyma, A.; Prins, J.
There is no clear evidence that the strong growth in the share of flexible labor relations between 2002 and 2007 points at a worldwide trend towards a larger share of flexible labor at the expense of traditional open-ended labor contracts. The growth in flexible labor varies too much between
Full Text Available Labor history in the United States is well‑chartered territory. It is the object of countless scholarly books, appears in many college and university curricula and it is the subject of on‑going revisions and debates. Although labor history has always implied a form of at least implicit social commitment, it has been commented upon and written about as abundantly as other aspects of social history and often with more stamina or vindication. Nineteenth and early twentieth‑century working class ...
Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Nielsen, Helena Skyt
This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...
Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Canagarajah, Sudharshan
This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...
Nguyen, Tina Tu-Thu Ngoc; Shynlova, Oksana; Lye, Stephen J.
Pregnancy, spontaneous term labor (TL), and postpartum (PP) involution are associated with changes in the cellular and extracellular matrix composition of the uterus. Both the uterine smooth muscle (myometrium) and the infiltrating peripheral blood leukocytes involved in the activation of labor secrete extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes (matrix metalloproteinases, MMPs) that can modulate cellular behavior and barrier function. MMP expression is induced by mechanical stretch in several tissues. We hypothesized that the expression and activity of myometrial MMPs and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) are modulated in preparation for TL and PP involution and are regulated by mechanical stretch of uterine walls imposed by the growing fetus. Myometrial tissues were collected from bilaterally and unilaterally pregnant rats across gestation, TL, and PP. Total RNA and proteins were subjected to real-time PCR and immunoblotting, respectively, and tissue localization and activity was examined by immunohistochemistry and in situ zymography. We found that Mmp7, Mmp11, and Mmp12 mRNA levels were upregulated during TL and PP, while Mmp2, Mmp3, Mmp8, Mmp9, Mmp10, and Mmp13 mRNAs were only upregulated during PP. Timp1–Timp4 were stably expressed throughout gestation with some fluctuations PP. Active MMP2 was induced in the empty uterine horn during gestation and in the gravid PP uterus, suggesting negative regulation by biological mechanical stretch. We conclude that specific subsets of uterine MMPs are differentially regulated in the rat myometrium in preparation for two major events: TL and PP uterine involution. PMID:27251092
Schultz, T. Paul
This paper describes how the composition of the labor force changes with economic development. It considers recent trends in women's labor force participation and the type of jobs held in various sectors as national per capita income increases. The paper notes that women are more likely to work in the family or informal labor market if the labor costs to firms exceed the opportunity costs of female labor to family enterprises. Firms are at a relative disadvantage compared with families in the...
Direitos trabalhistas e organização dos trabalhadores num contexto de mudanças no mundo do trabalho: efeitos sobre os trabalhadores da saúde Labor rights and the organization of workers in a context of change in labor relations: effects on health workers
Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta as principais mudanças institucionais do mundo do trabalho no Brasil, apontando seus impactos para a organização dos trabalhadores. Uma mudança central, mais recente, é a regulação da terceirização pelo Judiciário Trabalhista. Pesquisas de demandas no Tribunal Superior do Trabalho, de orientações do Ministério Público do Trabalho e de ações sindicais mostram que terceirização e jornada de trabalho são temas que têm afetado diretamente os trabalhadores da saúde. Por meio de uma abordagem sobre as bases institucionais da justiça nos contratos, concluímos que a reforma trabalhista deve tratar da desigualdade de direitos que tem marcado o mercado de trabalho brasileiro.This paper presents the main institutional changes in labor relations in Brazil, highlighting their impact on the organization of workers. A more recent central change is the regulation of outsourcing by the Labor Judiciary. Research into claims in the Superior Labor Court, guidelines from the Labor Prosecution Office, and trade union lawsuits, show that outsourcing and working hours are subjects which have directly affected health workers. By addressing the institutional principles of justice in contracts, it was concluded that labor reform should deal with the inequality of rights that have characterized the Brazilian labor market.
... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining data on labor-management disputes. 1403.3 Section... FUNCTIONS AND DUTIES § 1403.3 Obtaining data on labor-management disputes. When the existence of a labor-management dispute comes to the attention of the Federal Service upon a request for mediation service from...
James Heintz; Fabián Slonimczy
Using estimates of earnings functions in Ghana, this paper examines patterns of labor market segmentation with regard to formal and informal employment. Persistent earnings differentials are used as indicators of limited mobility across segments of the employed labor force. We find evidence of labor market segmentation between formal and informal employment and between different categories of informal employment which cannot be fully explained by human capital, physical asset, or credit marke...
Mostafa E. Shehata; Khaled M. El-Gohary
Proper management of resources in construction projects can yield substantial savings in time and cost. As construction is a labor-intensive industry, this paper focuses on labor productivity in the construction industry. This study considers the current state-of-the-art issues relevant to this subject. It covers the construction labor productivity definitions, aspects, measurements, factors affecting it, different techniques used for measuring it and modeling techniques. The main outcome fro...
"Illegal migration to Taiwan is a recent phenomenon but with a rapid rate of increase. Most illegal foreign workers enter on visitor's visas and overstay. This paper's detailed analysis of official data reveals that Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia and Thailand are the major sources, providing a stock of mostly male workers numbering around 40,000. Sociodemographic and attitudinal changes among Taiwanese workers coupled with labor shortages in low-skilled jobs are pressuring the Taiwanese government to formulate plans for a systematic importation of foreign labor." excerpt
The mythology surrounding Hercules has been a part of human culture for over 2,500 years. In ancient Greek mythology, Eurystheus assigns various labors to Hercules, who has to perform them in order to cleanse his soul. This article treats one of the more famous labors, the fifth labor: The Augean Stables. The labor is provided verbatim from…
McCullough, Ellen B
Drawing on a new set of nationally representative, internationally comparable household surveys, this paper provides an overview of key features of structural transformation - labor allocation and labor productivity - in four African economies. New, micro-based measures of sector labor allocation and cross-sector productivity differentials describe the incentives households face when allocating their labor. These measures are similar to national accounts-based measures that are typically used to characterize structural change. However, because agricultural workers supply far fewer hours of labor per year than do workers in other sectors in all of the countries analyzed, productivity gaps shrink by half, on average, when expressed on a per-hour basis. Underlying the productivity gaps that are prominently reflected in national accounts data are large employment gaps, which call into question the productivity gains that laborers can achieve through structural transformation. Furthermore, agriculture's continued relevance to structural change in Sub-Saharan Africa is highlighted by the strong linkages observed between rural non-farm activities and primary agricultural production.
This paper discusses the three different types of productivity programs used at the Wm. H. Zimmer Nuclear Power Station construction site. The Standard Cost Estimate as Productivity Measurement compares actual units installed to estimated units. The Manpower and Equipment Utilization Study measures the present utilization level of the construction work force, identifies opportunities for productivity improvement, and establishes a data base against which future improvements could be made. The special productivity program is a specialized and detailed study of first line supervision. Productivity is defined as the degree of efficiency attained in the use of labor, professional and management skills and knowledge, materials and equipment, and time and money to produce an end result. It is concluded that a more consistent system of productivity measurements needs to be developed and promoted for general use in the construction industry
Full Text Available Key problems in transitions in Serbia can be analyzed through the processes happening at the labor market. Labor market in Serbia is divided on the formal and informal one ("gray". The basic problem is mass unemployment. The unemployment in Serbia is not frictional unemployment resulting from decisions of workers to change their jobs. This kind of unemployment is considered normal at all labor markets. Since it is not frictional, unemployment in Serbia is not short-term one. This unemployment is by its nature structural and therefore long-term. Structural unemployment always arises as a result of the illadapted structure of labor supply and demand. There is a particularly high level of long-term unemployment among young people who practically do not have any work experience. The only realistic solution for mass unemployment and low wages in the Serbian economy is increasing of productivity and overall economic efficiency. Stimulating entrepreneurship and opening of new companies to absorb an enormous number of unemployed is the central issue of the economic reform. Instead of short-term passive measures, the state should adopt active measures aimed at stimulating of entrepreneurship and creating of new jobs.
This final rule removes regulations on the Black Lung program from the Social Security Administration's (SSA) chapter of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). The Black Lung Consolidation of Administrative Responsibility Act transferred the responsibility for administering Part B of the Black Lung benefits program from SSA to the Department of Labor (DOL), and we are removing the regulations in recognition of the fact that we are no longer responsible for administering any aspect of the Part B Black Lung program. DOL concurs with this final rule removing the regulations.
Domingo Alarcón Ortiz
Full Text Available The labor behavior and the performance of the people within the organizations they have an impact in the results waited for within any organization.This proposal settles down in defining a series of conductuales factors that pronounce as indicating of the conduct of the person and these are related to the defined competitions to occupy a position within the organizations. The intention of this work he is the one to define a set of conductuales factors and as they are related to the competitions, considering the model of self-knowledge proposed by the author (1, in where the challenge is to educate (to form the character.
Shafiq, M. Najeeb
Using empirical methods, this paper examines household schooling and child labor decisions in rural Bangladesh. The results suggest the following: poverty and low parental education are associated with lower schooling and greater child labor; asset-owning households are more likely to have children combine child labor with schooling; households…
Grusho, Alexander A.; Abaev, Pavel O.; Shorgin, Sergey Ya.; Timonina, Elena E.
Information security control in software defined networks (SDN) is connected with execution of the security policy rules regulating information accesses and protection against distribution of the malicious code and harmful influences. The paper offers a representation of a security policy in the form of hierarchical structure which in case of distribution of resources for the solution of tasks defines graphs of admissible interactions in a networks. These graphs define commutation tables of switches via the SDN controller.
Cohen, Wayne R; Friedman, Emanuel A
In a recent review we expressed concerns about new guidelines for the assessment and management of labor recommended jointly by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM). These guidelines are based heavily on a new concept of how cervical dilatation and fetal descent progress, derived from the work of Zhang et al. In their Viewpoint article they have addressed, but not allayed, the concerns we described in our review. We assert that the dilatation curve promulgated by Zhang et al cannot be reconciled with direct clinical observation. Even if they were correct, however, it still does not follow that the ACOG/SMFM guidelines should recommend replacing the coherent system of identifying and managing labor aberrations described by Friedman. That system is grounded in well-established clinical principles based on decades of use and the objectively documented association of some labor abnormalities with poor fetal and maternal outcomes. Recommendations for new clinical management protocols should require the demonstration of superior outcomes through extensive, preferably prospective, assessment. Using untested guidelines for the management of labor may adversely affect women and children. Even if those guidelines were to reduce the currently excessive cesarean delivery rate, the price of that benefit is likely to be a trade-off in harm to parturients and their offspring. The nature and degree of that harm needs to be documented before considering adoption of the guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Flexisecurity, right to work and labor stabilityThis article deals with one of the most recent and innovative proposals of related flexibilization, basically, to the extinction of labor relation and that areknown as «flexisecurity» or «flexicurity». For this, the author comments the model of Denmark – country in which it’s originated «flexisecurity» – emphasizing the configuration of a «golden triangle», composed of: i flexibility in the labor relation, aimed at facilitating the dismissal ii a generous system of unemployment benefits, funded primarily by the State and iii a new policy of «activation» of the labor market, which seeks to keep large sectors of the population permanently trained to meet new labor challenges. The author emphasizes the difference between our country and Denmark, since it is a Welfare State with a high level of social protection funded by a fiscal pressure and high tax rates. Finally, the article notes that for the study of «flexisecurity» it shouldn’t ignore the legal framework derived from workers’ fundamental rights established in the Constitution and international treaties which imply: right to work, dignity and citizenship of the worker and Trade Union Freedom and Collective Rights
To describe the use of hydrotherapy for pain management in labor. This was a retrospective cohort study. Hospital labor and delivery unit in the Northwestern United States, 2006 through 2013. Women in a nurse-midwifery-managed practice who were eligible to use hydrotherapy during labor. Descriptive statistics were used to report the proportion of participants who initiated and discontinued hydrotherapy and duration of hydrotherapy use. Logistic regression was used to provide adjusted odds ratios for characteristics associated with hydrotherapy use. Of the 327 participants included, 268 (82%) initiated hydrotherapy. Of those, 80 (29.9%) were removed from the water because they met medical exclusion criteria, and 24 (9%) progressed to pharmacologic pain management. The mean duration of tub use was 156.3 minutes (standard deviation = 122.7). Induction of labor was associated with declining the offer of hydrotherapy, and nulliparity was associated with medical removal from hydrotherapy. In a hospital that promoted hydrotherapy for pain management in labor, most women who were eligible initiated hydrotherapy. Hospital staff can estimate demand for hydrotherapy by being aware that hydrotherapy use is associated with nulliparity. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
.... Despite this, we find that the wages of the elderly are low both relative to younger populations and relative to the wages they earned when they themselves were young. Among individuals over the age of 70, we find that changes in health status dominate labor market transitions. Overall. our findings suggest that non- pecuniary considerations play an important role in determining elderly labor supply decisions.
Sharma, Shiv K; Rogers, Beverly B; Alexander, James M; McIntire, Donald D; Leveno, Kenneth J
It has been suggested that the development of maternal fever during epidural analgesia could be due to intrapartum infection. We investigated whether antibiotic prophylaxis before epidural placement decreases the rate of epidural-related fever. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 400 healthy nulliparous women requesting epidural analgesia were randomly assigned to receive either cefoxitin 2 g or placebo immediately preceding initiation of epidural labor analgesia. Maternal tympanic temperature was measured hourly, and intrapartum fever was defined as a maternal temperature of ≥38°C. Neonates born to women with fever were evaluated for possible sepsis, and available placentas were evaluated for the presence of neutrophilic inflammation. The primary outcome was maternal fever during epidural analgesia. Thirty-eight percent of women in the cefoxitin group and 40% of women in the placebo group developed fever (P = 0.68). The risk difference (95% confidence interval) for fever ≥38°C during labor (antibiotic versus placebo) was -2.0% (-11.5 to 7.5), and for fever >39°C during labor was -1.5% (-4.7 to 1.7). Approximately half of each study group had placental neutrophilic inflammation, but administration of cefoxitin had no significant effect on any grade of neutrophilic inflammation. Fever developed significantly more often in the women with placental neutrophilic inflammation compared with those without such inflammation (73/158 vs 33/144, P labor epidural analgesia is associated with placental inflammation, but fever and placental inflammation were not reduced with antibiotic prophylaxis. This finding suggests that infection is unlikely to be the cause in its development.
Añez Hernández, Carmen
Este trabajo tiene como propósito explorar el movimiento sindical venezolano y la flexibilización laboral, identificando su aplicación, las acciones del movimiento sindical y la alianza surgida entre el Estado-sindicato-trabajadores para superar la precarización laboral. Los resultados reflejan que la flexibilización laboral en Venezuela generó consecuencias negativas a los trabajadores, porque perdieron su estabilidad en el empleo y los beneficios contractuales. Dicha situa...
Alves, Everton Fernando
Current research synthesizes epidemiological data on morbo- mortality by labor accidents in the Brazilian population and gives a cross- section of these accidents in Brazil between 2004 and 2007. Current descrip- tive and exploratory analysis uses databases of thePublic Health Ministry on labor accidents. In fact, 465.700 and 653.090 labor accidents were notified respectively in 2004 and 2007, with a trend towardsan increase in number. The state of Santa Catarina was t...
María Nieves Remo Díez
Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se realiza, en primer lugar, un análisis descriptivo de la siniestralidad laboral en España durante los años 2000 a 2007, considerando su evolución en función de distintasvariables. Para posteriormente y, dada la importante repercusión económica que los accidentes de trabajo y enfermedades profesionales suponen para la sociedad y para las empresas, cuantificar el coste social derivado de la siniestralidad laboral y desarrollar un modelo capaz de explicar las variables que influyen en el mismo y que ayude a la definición de medidas preventivas. Los resultados muestran que a pesar de los esfuerzos legislativos en materia de prevención deriesgos laborales en los últimos años, los costes sociales derivados de los accidentes de trabajo y las enfermedades profesionales alcanzaron en 2007 el 2% del PIB.In the present paper, it is being carried out a descriptive analysis of industrial accidents in Spain during the years 2000 to 2007, considering its evolution in terms of different variables. Moreover,and given the significant economic impact of occupational accidents and diseases mean to society and business, it is being quantified the social costs of workplace accidents in order to develop a model able to explain this variables and its influences. Furthermore, this model will help to define preventive measures. Finally and despite the legislative efforts in the prevention of occupational hazards in recent years, the results show that social costs of occupational accidents and occupational diseases in 2007 has reached 2% of GDP.
Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the pattern of sound labor relations in Thailand in order to reduce conflicts between employers and workers and create cooperation. The research was based on a qualitative approach, using in-depth interview with 10 stakeholder groups of Thai industrial relations system. They were employees of non unionized companies at the shop floor level, employees of non unionized companies at the supervisor level, trade union leaders at the company level, trade union leaders at the national level, employers of non-unionized companies, employers’ organization leaders, and human resource managers, members of tripartite bodies, government officials and labor academics. The findings were presented in a model identifying 5 characteristics that enhance sound relations in Thailand, i.e. recognition between employer and workers, good communication, trust, data revealing and workers’ participation. It was suggested that all parties, employers, workers and the government should take part in the promotion of sound labor relations. The employer have to acknowledge labor union with a positive attitude, have good communication with workers , create trust with workers, disclose information, create culture of mutual benefits as well as accept sincerely the system that include workers’ participation. Workers need a strong labor union, good and sincere representatives for clear communication, trust, mutual benefits and seek conflict solutions with employer by win-win strategy. The government has a supporting role in adjusting the existing laws in the appropriate way, by creating policy for sound labor relations, and putting the idea of sound labor relations into practice.
Jaime de Pablo Valenciano
Full Text Available Este artículo aborda el estudio de la situación laboral de las mujeres rurales en los países latinoamericanos. Las mujeres rurales son uno de los grupos sociales más vulnerables en el ámbito laboral latinoamericano, debido a su baja participación laboral, a la categorización ocupacional mayoritaria como trabajadoras por cuenta propia y familiar no remunerado y a índices de feminización positivos. Pero sus posibilidades de mejorar su condición de vulnerabilidad social laboral se centra principalmente en el Empleo Rural No Agrario (ERNA, con gran potencial en el desarrollo rural, y al apoyo legislativo en cuanto al acceso a los bienes de tierra. Frente al proceso de urbanización es necesario implementar políticas públicas que tengan en cuenta la existencia de las mujeres rurales como trabajadoras en el ámbito rural y diseñar medidas de ayuda especialmente dirigidas a este colectivo.
Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.
The authors examine how the American economy has experienced sharp contractions in overall levels of output, income, and wealth resulting from the recent financial crisis, and how these losses have had an impact on the nation's labor market. The significance of these trends to American higher education is summarized in these terms: "Large labor…
Aniolczyk, H.; Zmyslony, M.
In Poland, electromagnetic fields (EMF), one of potentially hazardous physical factors occurring in the work environment, are subjected to compulsory surveillance. In 2001, the Directive issued by the Minister of Labor and Social Policy substantially changed the approach towards the protection of workers against EMF. The Directive regulates the whole range of EMF frequencies and electromagnetic radiation, namely from 0 Hz to 300 GHz, which means the possibility of assessing workers EMF exposure, determined by exposure index, along with the hygiene assessment of EMF sources, defined by protection zones. In 2003 - 2005, a number of amended executive and supplementary regulations were issued. However, it should be emphasized that in the process of their elaboration, striving after perfection, numerous incoherent and ambiguous provisions were adopted, which finally created difficulties in the interpretation of individual regulations. This is also linked with doubts and discussions on their practical application by services responsible for control, measurements and monitoring of working conditions under the exposure to EMF. In this work an attempt was made to clarify all issues and arrange them according to the faced problems. The authors also present proposals how to solve all these problems. (author)
Herrera, Christina A; Stoerker, Jay; Carlquist, John; Stoddard, Gregory J; Jackson, Marc; Esplin, Sean; Rose, Nancy C
Hypomethylated cell-free DNA from senescent placental trophoblasts may be involved in the activation of the inflammatory cascade to initiate labor. To determine the changes in cell-free DNA concentrations, the methylation ratio, and inflammatory markers between women in labor at term vs women without labor. In this prospective cohort study, eligible participants carried a nonanomalous singleton fetus. Women with major medical comorbidity, preterm labor, progesterone use, aneuploidy, infectious disease, vaginal bleeding, abdominal trauma, or invasive procedures during the pregnancy were excluded. Maternal blood samples were collected at 28 weeks, 36 weeks, and at admission for delivery. Total cell-free DNA concentration, methylation ratio, and interleukin-6 were analyzed. The primary outcome was the difference in methylation ratio in women with labor vs without labor. Secondary outcomes included the longitudinal changes in these biomarkers corresponding to labor status. A total of 55 women were included; 20 presented in labor on admission and 35 presented without labor. Women in labor had significantly greater methylation ratio (P = .001) and interleukin-6 (P < .001) on admission for delivery than women without labor. After we controlled for body mass index and maternal age, methylation ratio (adjusted relative risk, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.13 to 1.68) and interleukin-6 (adjusted relative risk, 1.12, 95% confidence interval, 1.07 to 1.17) remained greater in women presenting in labor. Total cell-free DNA was not significantly different in women with labor compared with women without. Longitudinally, total cell-free DNA (P < .001 in labor, P = .002 without labor) and interleukin-6 (P < .001 in labor, P = .01 without labor) increased significantly across gestation in both groups. The methylation ratio increased significantly in women with labor from 36 weeks to delivery (P = .02). Spontaneous labor at term is associated with a greater cell-free DNA
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of Labor-Management Standards OLMS Listens: Office of Labor-Management Standards Stakeholder Meeting AGENCY: Office of Labor-Management Standards, Department of Labor. ACTION... stakeholders and other interested parties to provide individual comments and suggestions. All interested...
Dorte Boesby Dahl
Full Text Available Research on aesthetic labor has been confined to service encounters in private sector industries. Aesthetic labor theory is critical of the commercialism that drives management of service labor and points to the discrimination of employees on the grounds of their “looks” that this entails. Considering the common conception today of the public sector as a service provider, application of the theory of aesthetic labor is relevant to public sector service work. But the public sector has many other purposes and mechanisms than those pertaining to increased revenues that may influence the use of aesthetic labor. This paper analyzes the aesthetic labor of Danish parking attendants in an organizational ethnography. A change management process in this organization has applied the principles of aesthetic labor actively for the purposes of diversity and health and safety. The paper shows how managers apply aesthetic labor principles to promote health and safety and workforce diversity, but also that the use of aesthetics has ambivalent purposes. Aesthetic labor is not as unequivocally applied for commercial purposes as hitherto assumed.
Ueda, Kayo; Ohtera, Shosuke; Kaso, Misato; Nakayama, Takeo
In childbirth, most deliveries are low-risk, defined as spontaneous labor at full term without special high-risk facts or complications, especially in high-resource countries where maternal and perinatal mortality rates are very low. Indeed, the majority of mothers and infants have no serious conditions during labor. However, the quality of care provided is not assured, and performance may vary by birthing facility and provider. The overuse of technology in childbirth in some parts of the world is almost certainly based on assumptions like, "something can go wrong at any minute." There is a need to assess the quality of care provided for mothers and infants in low-risk labor. We aimed to develop specific quality indicators for low-risk labor care provided primarily by midwives in Japan. We used a RAND-modified Delphi method, which integrates evidence review with expert consensus development. The procedure comprises five steps: (1) literature review, including clinical practice guidelines, to extract and develop quality indicator candidates; (2) formation of a multidisciplinary panel; (3) independent panel ratings (Round 1); (4) panel meeting and independent panel ratings (Round 2); and (5) independent panel ratings (Round 3). The three independent panel ratings (Rounds 1-3) were held between July and December 2012. The assembled multidisciplinary panel comprised eight clinicians (two pediatricians, three obstetricians, and three midwives) and three mothers who were nonclinicians. Evidentiary review extracted 166 key recommendations from 32 clinical practice guidelines, and 31 existing quality indicators were added. After excluding duplicate recommendations and quality indicators, the panel discussed 25 candidate indicators. Of these, 18 were adopted, one was modified, six were not adopted, and four were added during the meeting, respectively. We established 23 quality indicators for low-risk labor care provided by midwives in labor units in Japan.
This paper proposes that India’s caste system and involuntary labor were joint responses by a nonworking landowning class to a low labor/land ratio in which the rules of the caste system supported the institution of involuntary labor. The hypothesis is tested in two ways: longitudinally, with data from ancient religious texts, and cross-sectionally, with twentieth-century statistics on regional population/land ratios linked to anthropological measures of caste-system rigidity. Both the longit...
Baldwin, Stephen E.
Discusses the contention that the resentment some men feel toward working women is based on sympathy toward unemployed male breadwinners. Argues that this rationalization ignores the gross discrepancy in the size of the two labor force groups and the real issues in labor market discrimination against women. (Author/IRT)
Hobijn, B.; Elsby, M.W.L.; Sahin, A.
From the perspective of a wide range of labor market outcomes, the recession that began in 2007 represents the deepest downturn in the postwar era. Early on, the nature of labor market adjustment displayed a notable resemblance to that observed in past severe downturns. During the latter half of
Kelly, Mary; Johnson, Eileen; Lee, Vickie; Massey, Liz; Purser, Debbie; Ring, Karen; Sanderson, Stephanye; Styles, Juanita; Wood, Deb
Comparison of two different methods for management of second stage of labor: immediate pushing at complete cervical dilation of 10 cm and delayed pushing 90 minutes after complete cervical dilation. This study was a randomized clinical trial in a labor and delivery unit of a not-for-profit community hospital. A sample of 44 nulliparous mothers with continuous epidural anesthesia were studied after random assignment to treatment groups. Subjects were managed with either immediate or delayed pushing during the second stage of labor at the time cervical dilation was complete. The primary outcome measure was the length of pushing during second stage of labor. Secondary outcomes included length of second stage of labor, maternal fatigue and perineal injuries, and fetal heart rate decelerations. Two-tailed, unpaired Student's t-tests and Chi-square analysis were used for data analysis. Level of significance was set at p pushing; N = 16 delayed pushing). The delayed pushing group had significantly shorter amount of time spent in pushing compared with the immediate pushing group (38.9 +/- 6.9 vs. 78.7 +/- 7.9 minutes, respectively, p = .002). Maternal fatigue scores, perineal injuries, and fetal heart rate decelerations were similar for both groups. Delaying pushing for up to 90 minutes after complete cervical dilation resulted in a significant decrease in the time mothers spent pushing without a significant increase in total time in second stage of labor.In clinical practice, healthcare providers sometimes resist delaying the onset of pushing after second stage of labor has begun because of a belief it will increase labor time. This study's finding of a 51% reduction in pushing time when mothers delay pushing for up to 90 minutes, with no significant increase in overall time for second stage of labor, disputes that concern.
Contreras Horna, Azucena Magdalena
El trabajo de investigación que a continuación se presenta es titulado: Condiciones de Salud, satisfacción laboral según el régimen laboral de los enfermeros del Policlínico Pablo Bermúdez, tuvo como objetivo general: determinar la relación que existe entre las condiciones de salud, la satisfacción laboral según el régimen laboral de los enfermeros del Policlínico Pablo Bermúdez. El método utilizado fue descriptivo, explicativo, transversal y correlacional. La población estuvo ...
... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of a labor organization. 269.1... RESERVE SYSTEM POLICY ON LABOR RELATIONS FOR THE FEDERAL RESERVE BANKS § 269.1 Definition of a labor... to the terms or conditions of membership because of race, color, sex, creed, age or national origin. ...
This paper investigates the effect of various idiosyncratic shocks against child labor, child labor hour and school attendance. Also, the role of the assets held by households as one of the coping strategies to mitigate the effects of shocks. The results show that various idiosyncratic shocks that encourage child labor is generally caused by crop…
Gilboa, Yinon; Frenkel, Tahl I; Schlesinger, Yael; Rousseau, Sofie; Hamiel, Daniel; Achiron, Reuven; Perlman, Sharon
to assess the obstetrical and psychological effect of visual biofeedback using trans-perineal ultrasound (TPU) during the second stage of labor. Visual biofeedback using TPU was performed prospectively during the second stage of labor in twenty-six low risk nulliparous women. Pushing efficacy was assessed by the angle of progression at rest and during pushing efforts before and after observing the ultrasound screen. Obstetrical outcomes included level of perineal tearing, mode of delivery and length of the second stage. Psychological outcomes were assessed via self-report measures during the postnatal hospital stay. These included measures of perceived control and maternal satisfaction with childbirth as well as level of maternal feelings of connectedness toward her newborn. Obstetrical and psychological results were compared to a control group (n=69) who received standard obstetrical coaching by midwifes. Pushing efficacy significantly increased following visual biofeedback by TPU (p = 0.01). A significant association was found between the visual biofeedback and an intact perineum following delivery (p = 0.03). No significant differences were found in regard to mode of delivery or the length of the second stage. Feelings of maternal connectedness towards the newborn were significantly higher in the visual biofeedback group relative to non-biofeedback controls (p = 0.003). The results of this pilot study implicate that TPU may serve as a complementary tool to coached maternal pushing during the second stage of labor with obstetrical as well as psychological benefits. Further studies are required to confirm our findings and define the exact timing for optimal results. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... labor contractors' recruitment, contractual and general obligations. The Act imposes certain specific recruitment, contractual and general obligations on farm labor contractors and farm labor contractor employees... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Farm labor contractors' recruitment, contractual and...
Social ambivalence toward women's roles, sexuality, appearance, and aging combine with social standards of attractiveness to create both age and sex discrimination in the workplace. The life expectancy of presentability is shorter among women than men, thus creating an accelerated aging process termed labor market progeria. (SK)
Filges, Trine; Kennes, John; Larsen, Birthe
We find that the main featues of labor policy across OECD countries can be explained by a simple general equilibrium search model with risk neutral agents and a government that chooses policy to maximize a social welfare function. In equilibrum, policies are chosen to optimal redistribute income....... The model also explains why countries that appear to pursue equity spend more on both active and passive labor market programs....
Full Text Available Pinterest is a site primarily used for sharing online content particularly images; as such, it is a unique platform through which to explore curatorial practices. Professional designers are a unique community of interest because their expertise in the offline curation of visual images is central to their professional work. Drawing on digital curation, convergence culture, and creative professionals, this study examined the curatorial labor practices of design professionals on Pinterest. Through a series of in-depth qualitative interviews and online observation of design professionals, we identify three aspects of curatorial labor on Pinterest: (1 performance, (2 process, and (3 product. The strategic and creative selection and arrangement of digital images by these designers becomes an ongoing authorial act of creative labor. This community demonstrates how the public digital curation of visual images is an important part of the ongoing venture labor of design professionals. The study concludes with implications for our collective understandings of online curation, creative professional labor, and the role of social media within commercial and organizational contexts.
Balsa, Ana I; French, Michael T
This paper is one of only a few studies to examine potential labor market consequences of heavy or abusive drinking in Latin America and the first to focus on Uruguay. We analyzed data from a Uruguayan household survey conducted in 2006 using propensity score matching methods and controlling for a number of socio-demographic, family, regional, behavioral health, and labor market characteristics. As expected, we found a positive association between heavy drinking and absenteeism, particularly for female employees. Counter to the findings for developed countries, our results revealed a positive relationship between heavy drinking and labor force participation or employment. This result was mostly driven by men and weakened when considering more severe measures of abusive drinking. Possible explanations for these findings are that employment leads to greater alcohol use through an income effect, that the Uruguayan labor market rewards heavy drinking, or that labor market characteristics typical of less developed countries, such as elevated safety risks or job instability, lead to problem drinking. Future research with panel data should explore these possible mechanisms. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Fringe benefits. 36.525 Section 36.525 Labor Office of the... Activities Prohibited § 36.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit...
... agricultural labor: (i) The cultivation of the soil; (ii) The raising, shearing, feeding, caring for, training... mushrooms, or in connection with the hatching of poultry constitute agricultural labor only if such services...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332... 13(a)(6) Statutory Provisions § 780.332 Exchange of labor between farmers. (a) Occasionally a farmer may help his neighbor with the harvest of his crop. For instance, Farmer B helps his neighbor Farmer A...
Casoria Fortuna; Riedl Arno
This survey focuses on experimental labor markets investigating two aspects that deem us important for a better understanding of labor market relations and the consequences for labor market policies. The first part of the survey is dedicated to papers that assess the prevalence of reciprocal considerations in incomplete labor contracts. The second part summarizes the relatively small but growing experimental literature exploring labor issues in a macroeconomics and public finance setting and ...
Nakamura, Alice; Nakamura, Masao
Surveys theories in labor economics about how the female labor supply is affected by the wage offers that women receive. Summarizes the implications concerning expected effects of comparable worth wage adjustments on female labor supply. Examines empirical evidence pertaining to the theory of female labor supply. (JS)
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Format of the Job Training Partnership Act regulations. 626.2 Section 626.2 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INTRODUCTION TO THE REGULATIONS UNDER THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT § 626.2 Format of the Job...
Alcira Isabel Muñoz Osorio
Full Text Available Resumen:Este artículo, producto de un proyecto de investigación institucional y un proyecto de aula de la cátedra dederecho laboral individual, realiza un análisis de las situaciones que surgen en el ámbito del ambiente laboral,que de una u otra forma perjudican y desestabilizan al trabajador, sujeto pasivo del acoso. El artículo pretendedar a conocer que todo ultraje y/o maltrato que se presenta en el ambiente laboral de manera repetitiva, públicay que atenta contra la dignidad humana, hoy día es objeto de sanciones. Se revisan además los antecedentes yel marco jurídico de esta conducta.Palabras claves:Acoso laboral, mobbing, agresivo, persistente, demostrable, atropello.Abstract:This article, the product of an institutional research project and a draft class of the class of individual employmentlaw, an analysis of the situations that arise in the context of the workplace, which in one way or another harmand destabilize the worker, taxpayer harassment. The article aims to show that every outrage and / or abuse thatoccurs in the workplace so repetitive, public and undermines human dignity, is now subject to sanctions. It alsolooks into the background and legal framework for this behavior.Keywords:Harassment, bullying, aggressive, persistent, demonstrable killing.
This paper sets the groundwork for analysis of the effect of selection into labor force on gender unemployment gaps. We derive the Manski bounds for gender unemployment gaps in 21 EU countries and show that in addition to the positive selection documented in the gender wage gap research, there is also evidence of negative selection into the labor force among women after childbirth. While positive selection of women into the labor force leads to downward bias in gender unemployment gaps, negat...
Matthew J. Baker; Joyce P. Jacobsen
A customary gender division of labor is one in which women and men are directed towards certain tasks and/or explicitly prohibited from performing others. We offer an explanation as to why the gender division of labor is so often enforced by custom, and why customary gender divisions of labor generally involve both direction and prohibition. Our model builds on the literature on the marital hold-up problem, and considers both problems in choice of specialty and human capital acquisition in a ...
Venta, E.R.; Wolsky, A.M.
This report presents a detailed estimate of the labor and energy, by fuel type, required by the U.S. economy to remanufacture gasoline-fueled automobile and truck engines. Th estimate was obtained by combining data provided by several remanufacturers with the results of input--output analysis. A rough estimate of the labor and energy required to manufacture new engines is also given. These estimates suggest that remanufactured engines require 50% of the energy and 67% of the labor that new engines require.
... LABOR REGULATIONS DEFINING AND DELIMITING THE EXEMPTIONS FOR EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, PROFESSIONAL, COMPUTER AND OUTSIDE SALES EMPLOYEES Computer Employees § 541.402 Executive and administrative computer...
Achdut, Leah; Tur-Sinai, Aviad; Troitsky, Rita
The study examines the labor-force behavior of Israelis at older ages, focusing on the determinants of the transitions between states of labor-force participation between 2005 and 2010. The study uses panel data from the first two waves of the SHARE-Israel longitudinal survey. A multinomial logit model is used to examine the impact of sociodemographic characteristics, health state, and economic resources on labor-force transitions of people aged 50-67. The results emphasize the role of age and poor health in "pushing" older people out of the labor force or "keeping" them there. Spouse's participation is found to encourage individuals to leave the labor force or to refrain from joining it. However, living with a participating spouse is negatively associated with staying out of the labor force, consistent with the dominance of the complementarity of leisure effect found in the literature. Wealth as an economic resource available to individuals for retirement is also found to encourage individuals to leave the labor force or to refrain from joining it.
Full Text Available This paper examines the endogenous interaction between labor costs and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI in the OECD countries via the Panel VAR approach under system GMM estimates for the period 1995–2009. The available data allows identifying the relevance of the components of labor costs, and allows a detailed analysis across different sectors. Empirical findings have revealed that sectoral composition of FDI and the decomposition of labor costs play a significant role in investigating the dynamic association between labor costs and FDI. Further, results suggest that labor market policies should focus on productivity-enhancing tools in addition to price hindering tools.
Katia Isabelli Melo de Souza
Full Text Available Investigating the visibility of archivists implies analyzing the employment’s landscape. In our analysis we considered the behavior of three key variables, training, professional groups and the labor market, in relation to the archivists with formal training. In this way, the research addressed the following aspects: as the archivist sees training, as an archivist sees the professional groups and as an archivist sees the profession. The results suggest new directions to the graduates and the practice archive has extrapolated the limits of the Law n º 6,546 of 1978, which regulates the profession, considering that the archivist has been creating new workspaces and adapting themselves to the research’s environment.
... certification applications. (2) If the labor certification presents a special or unique problem, the Director of... opportunity as a college or university teacher, the U.S. worker must be at least as qualified as the alien. (3... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labor certification determinations. 656.24...
Jackson, Rebecca; McKinney, Jackie Grutsch; Caswell, Nicole I.
Scholars have offered research and theory about emotional labor and the feeling of emotion in rhetoric and composition, but we have little if any such research on writing center work specifically. Drawing on data from a year-long qualitative study of writing center directors' labor, this article examines writing center directors' emotional labor…
Fosgerau, Mogens; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Sørensen, Anders
This paper investigates the magnitude of the mismeasurement that occurs when only a few education categories are used in the construction of a constant quality index for labor input. By employing a very comprehensive data set it is found that the error resulting from the omission of information...... on education is relatively small. The empirical results are thus supportive of the current state of practice of constructing indices of constant quality labor input....
thanks to Marjorie McElroy for encouraging my efforts to adapt the theory and techniques of Western labor economics to the case of the Soviet Union. All...34 Journal of Labor Economics 3:1, pt. 2 (January 1985): S328-S354. SCHULTZ, T. Paul. "Testing the Neoclassical Model of Family Labor Supply and...FemaJe Labor Force Participation and Wage Determination in a Developing Country." Paper presented at the Duke University Labor Economics Workshop
Beebe, Kathleen R
Hypnotherapy is an integrative mind-body technique with therapeutic potential in various health care applications, including labor and birth. Evaluating the efficacy of this modality in controlled studies can be difficult, because of methodologic challenges, such as obtaining adequate sample sizes and standardizing experimental conditions. Women using hypnosis techniques for childbirth in hospital settings may face barriers related to caregiver resistance or institutional policies. The potential anxiolytic and analgesic effects of clinical hypnosis for childbirth merit further study. Nurses caring for women during labor and birth can increase their knowledge and skills with strategies for supporting hypnotherapeutic techniques. © 2014 AWHONN.
Levon M. Seropov
Internal and external factors, which inﬂuence labor productivity in IT companies, are considered. Internal factors are considered as fundamental factors, directlyinﬂuencing labor productivity. The analysismethod PESTL is adapted for ﬁ nding out of external factors of labor productivity.
Belghiti, J; Coulm, B; Kayem, G; Blondel, B; Deneux-Tharaux, C
To estimate the frequency of oxytocin administration during labor, in all women in labor, in low-risk women, and in women with a previous cesarean delivery. Our objectives were also to identify characteristics of women and of maternity units associated with this practice in France. Analysis of the 2010 French Perinatal Survey data (n=14,681 women who delivered in continental France). The frequency of oxytocin administration during labor was estimated in all women in labor (n=12,845) and in low-risk women (n=9798). The independent associations between oxytocin administration during labor and characteristics of women and units were quantified with multivariate logistic regression modeling. Sixty-four percent of laboring women received oxytocin during labor, and 58% of women with a spontaneous onset of labor. In the population of low-risk women with spontaneous labor and epidural, nulliparity and over-weight, as well as the private status and small size of the maternity unit, were independently associated with a more frequent administration of oxytocin during labor. Oxytocin administration during labor is very frequent in France, probably beyond classical indications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Tuncay, Semra; Kaplan, Sena; Moraloglu Tekin, Ozlem
This study was conducted to assess the effect on labor process and parenting behavior of hydrotherapy applied during the active phase of labor. This quasi-experimental study was conducted by using an equivalent comparison group ( n = 40). The participants in the experimental group whose cervical dilation was 5 cm were taken to the hydrotherapy tub. This application continued until cervical dilation reached 10 cm. The Participants Questionnaire, The Birth Follow-up Questionnaire, The Postpartum ]collection tools. The duration of the active phase and second stage of labor was extremely short in the experimental group in comparison with the equivalent comparison group ( p = .001). The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores of the experimental group were lower than those of the equivalent comparison group when cervical dilation was 6 cm and 10 cm ( p = .001). The experimental group also displayed more positive parenting behavior and positive labor feeling ( p = .001).
Rodríguez Murciego, Estela
El estrés laboral es uno de los principales riesgos identificados en el mundo laboral de la sociedad actual. Varios puestos de trabajo llevan consigo asociadas una serie de responsabilidades y de un número elevado de tareas en proporción a la jornada laboral, las interacciones entre distintas personas no siempre son sencillas y otros factores hacen que los trabajadores no siempre puedan sentirse a gusto en su lugar de trabajo habitual. Por este motivo y dado el incremento de casos en los ú...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commerce. 779.12 Section 779.12 Labor Regulations Relating... OR SERVICES General Some Basic Definitions § 779.12 Commerce. Commerce as used in the Act includes interstate and foreign commerce. It is defined in section 3(b) of the Act to mean “trade, commerce...
... § 1949.2 Definitions. Any term not defined herein shall have the same meaning as given it in the Act. As used in this subpart: Private sector students means those students attending the Institute who are not... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 1949.2 Section 1949.2 Labor Regulations...
Regional History Project, UCSC Library; Dick, Charles; Jarrell, Randall
This is the oral history of the late county agricultural commissioner, who traces the history of California's unique system of agricultural regulation and inspection, which dates from the 1880s. Dick's overview of county agriculture includes the increasing importance of pesticide regulation (which is currently a very debated issue in the strawberry industry); mechanization, changes in local crops and acreages, farm labor and unionization, and the demise of the family farm.